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Sample records for baculovirus triggers uptake

  1. Baculovirus Genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Baculovirus genomes are covalently closed circles of double stranded-DNA varying in size between 80 and 180 kilobase-pair. The genomes of more than fourty-one baculoviruses have been sequenced to date. The majority of these (37) are pathogenic to lepidopteran hosts; three infect sawflies

  2. Baculovirus DNA replication

    OpenAIRE

    Kool, M.

    1994-01-01

    Baculoviruses are attractive biological agents for the control of insect pests. They are highly specific for insects and cause a fatal disease (Granados and Federici, 1986). in addition, baculoviruses are successfully exploited as expression vectors for the production of heterologous proteins for various applications (Luckow and Summers, 1988; Luckow, 1991). In both cases large-scale systems for the production of baculoviruses are important. Production in insect larvae is difficult t...

  3. Baculovirus DNA replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.

    1994-01-01

    Baculoviruses are attractive biological agents for the control of insect pests. They are highly specific for insects and cause a fatal disease (Granados and Federici, 1986). in addition, baculoviruses are successfully exploited as expression vectors for the production of heterologous

  4. Baculoviruses and nucleosome management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkman, Loy E.

    2015-01-01

    Negatively-supercoiled-ds DNA molecules, including the genomes of baculoviruses, spontaneously wrap around cores of histones to form nucleosomes when present within eukaryotic nuclei. Hence, nucleosome management should be essential for baculovirus genome replication and temporal regulation of transcription, but this has not been documented. Nucleosome mobilization is the dominion of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes. SWI/SNF and INO80, two of the best-studied complexes, as well as chromatin modifier TIP60, all contain actin as a subunit. Retrospective analysis of results of AcMNPV time course experiments wherein actin polymerization was blocked by cytochalasin D drug treatment implicate actin-containing chromatin modifying complexes in decatenating baculovirus genomes, shutting down host transcription, and regulating late and very late phases of viral transcription. Moreover, virus-mediated nuclear localization of actin early during infection may contribute to nucleosome management. - Highlights: • Baculoviruses have negatively-supercoiled, circular ds DNA. • Negatively-supercoiled DNA spontaneously forms nucleosomes in the nucleus. • Nucleosomes must be mobilized for replication and transcription to proceed. • Actin-containing chromatin modifiers participate in baculovirus replication

  5. Baculoviruses and nucleosome management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkman, Loy E., E-mail: lvolkman@berkeley.edu

    2015-02-15

    Negatively-supercoiled-ds DNA molecules, including the genomes of baculoviruses, spontaneously wrap around cores of histones to form nucleosomes when present within eukaryotic nuclei. Hence, nucleosome management should be essential for baculovirus genome replication and temporal regulation of transcription, but this has not been documented. Nucleosome mobilization is the dominion of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes. SWI/SNF and INO80, two of the best-studied complexes, as well as chromatin modifier TIP60, all contain actin as a subunit. Retrospective analysis of results of AcMNPV time course experiments wherein actin polymerization was blocked by cytochalasin D drug treatment implicate actin-containing chromatin modifying complexes in decatenating baculovirus genomes, shutting down host transcription, and regulating late and very late phases of viral transcription. Moreover, virus-mediated nuclear localization of actin early during infection may contribute to nucleosome management. - Highlights: • Baculoviruses have negatively-supercoiled, circular ds DNA. • Negatively-supercoiled DNA spontaneously forms nucleosomes in the nucleus. • Nucleosomes must be mobilized for replication and transcription to proceed. • Actin-containing chromatin modifiers participate in baculovirus replication.

  6. Cadmium triggers Elodea canadensis to change the surrounding water pH and thereby Cd uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, M Tariq; Greger, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the influence of Elodea canadensis shoots on surrounding water pH in the presence of cadmium and the effect of plant-induced pH on cadmium uptake. The pH change in the surrounding nutrient solution and Cd uptake by Elodea shoots were investigated after cultivation of various plant densities (1, 3, 6 plants per 500 ml) in hydroponics at a starting pH of 4.0 and in the presence of different concentrations of cadmium (0, 0.1, 0.5 microM). Cadmium uptake was also investigated at different constant pH (4.0, 4.5, 5.5 and 6.5). To investigate if the pH change arose from photosynthetic activities, plants were grown under light, darkness or in the presence of a photosynthetic inhibitor, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), and 0.5 microM cadmium in the solution. Elodea had an ability to increase the surrounding water pH, when the initial pH was low, which resulted in increased accumulation of Cd. The higher the plant density, the more pronounced was the pH change. The pH increase was not due to the photosynthetic activity since the pH rise was more pronounced under darkness and in the presence of DCMU. The pH increase by Elodea was triggered by cadmium.

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The hardware of the trigger components has been mostly finished. The ECAL Endcap Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC) are in production while Barrel TCC firmware has been upgraded, and the Trigger Primitives can now be stored by the Data Concentrator Card for readout by the DAQ. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) system is complete, and the timing is being finalized. All 502 HCAL trigger links to RCT run without error. The HCAL muon trigger timing has been equalized with DT, RPC, CSC and ECAL. The hardware and firmware for the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) jet triggers are being commissioned and data from these triggers is available for readout. The GCT energy sums from rings of trigger towers around the beam pipe beam have been changed to include two rings from both sides. The firmware for Drift Tube Track Finder, Barrel Sorter and Wedge Sorter has been upgraded, and the synchronization of the DT trigger is satisfactory. The CSC local trigger has operated flawlessly u...

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberta Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Studies Group (TSG) The Trigger Studies Group has just concluded its third 2013 workshop, where all POGs presented the improvements to the physics object reconstruction, and all PAGs have shown their plans for Trigger development aimed at the 2015 High Level Trigger (HLT) menu. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger menu development, path timing, Trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – this last task in collaboration with PdmV (Physics Data and Monte Carlo Validation group). In the last months the group has delivered several HLT rate estimates and comparisons, using the available data and Monte Carlo samples. The studies were presented at the Trigger workshops in September and December, and STEAM has contacted POGs and PAGs to understand the origin of the discrepancies observed between 8 TeV data and Monte Carlo simulations. The most recent results show what the...

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger synchronization procedures for running with cosmic muons and operating with the LHC were reviewed during the May electronics week. Firmware maintenance issues were also reviewed. Link tests between the new ECAL endcap trigger concentrator cards (TCC48) and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger have been performed. Firmware for the energy sum triggers and an upgraded tau trigger of the Global Calorimeter Triggers has been developed and is under test. The optical fiber receiver boards for the Track-Finder trigger theta links of the DT chambers are now all installed. The RPC trigger is being made more robust by additional chamber and cable shielding and also by firmware upgrades. For the CSC’s the front-end and trigger motherboard firmware have been updated. New RPC patterns and DT/CSC lookup tables taking into account phi asymmetries in the magnetic field configuration are under study. The motherboard for the new pipeline synchronizer of the Global Trigg...

  10. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2012-01-01

      Level-1 Trigger The Level-1 Trigger group is ready to deploy improvements to the L1 Trigger algorithms for 2012. These include new high-PT patterns for the RPC endcap, an improved CSC PT assignment, a new PT-matching algorithm for the Global Muon Trigger, and new calibrations for ECAL, HCAL, and the Regional Calorimeter Trigger. These should improve the efficiency, rate, and stability of the L1 Trigger. The L1 Trigger group also is migrating the online systems to SLC5. To make the data transfer from the Global Calorimeter Trigger to the Global Trigger more reliable and also to allow checking the data integrity online, a new optical link system has been developed by the GCT and GT groups and successfully tested at the CMS electronics integration facility in building 904. This new system is now undergoing further tests at Point 5 before being deployed for data-taking this year. New L1 trigger menus have recently been studied and proposed by Emmanuelle Perez and the L1 Detector Performance Group...

  11. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the March meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, the program of trigger pattern tests and vertical slice tests and planning for the Global Runs starting this summer. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and integration testing is in full swing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. After full checkout, trigger subsystems will be then operated in the CMS Global Runs. Continuous...

  12. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The production of the trigger hardware is now basically finished, and in time for the turn-on of the LHC. The last boards produced are the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcaps (TCC-EE). After the recent installation of the four EE Dees, the TCC-EE prototypes were used for their commissioning. Production boards are arriving and are being tested continuously, with the last ones expected in November. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger hardware is fully integrated after installation of the last EE cables. Pattern tests from the HCAL up to the GCT have been performed successfully. The HCAL triggers are fully operational, including the connection of the HCAL-outer and forward-HCAL (HO/HF) technical triggers to the Global Trigger. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) board firmware has been updated to permit recording of the tower “feature bit” in the data. The Global Calorimeter Trigger hardware is installed, but some firmware developments are still n...

  13. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The overall status of the L1 trigger has been excellent and the running efficiency has been high during physics fills. The timing is good to about 1%. The fine-tuning of the time synchronization of muon triggers is ongoing and will be completed after more than 10 nb-1 of data have been recorded. The CSC trigger primitive and RPC trigger timing have been refined. A new configuration for the CSC Track Finder featured modified beam halo cuts and improved ghost cancellation logic. More direct control was provided for the DT opto-receivers. New RPC Cosmic Trigger (RBC/TTU) trigger algorithms were enabled for collision runs. There is further work planned during the next technical stop to investigate a few of the links from the ECAL to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT). New firmware and a new configuration to handle trigger rate spikes in the ECAL barrel are also being tested. A board newly developed by the tracker group (ReTRI) has been installed and activated to block re...

  14. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The Level-1 Trigger hardware has performed well during both the recent proton-proton and heavy ion running. Efforts were made to improve the visibility and handling of alarms and warnings. The tracker ReTRI boards that prevent fixed frequencies of Level-1 Triggers are now configured through the Trigger Supervisor. The Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) team has introduced a buffer cleanup procedure at stops and a reset of the QPLL during configuring to ensure recalibration in case of a switch from the LHC clock to the local clock. A device to test the cables between the Regional Calorimeter Trigger and the GCT has been manufactured. A wrong charge bit was fixed in the CSC Trigger. The ECAL group is improving crystal masking and spike suppression in the trigger primitives. New firmware for the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF) sorters was developed to improve fake track tagging and sorting. Zero suppression was implemented in the DT Sector Collector readout. The track finder b...

  15. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Trigger Hardware The status of the trigger components was presented during the September CMS Week and Annual Review and at the monthly trigger meetings in October and November. Procedures for cold and warm starts (e.g. refreshing of trigger parameters stored in registers) of the trigger subsystems have been studied. Reviews of parts of the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) and the Global Trigger (GT) have taken place in October and November. The CERN group summarized the status of the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) system. All TTC crates and boards are installed in the underground counting room, USC55. The central clock system will be upgraded in December (after the Global Run at the end of November GREN) to the new RF2TTC LHC machine interface timing module. Migration of subsystem's TTC PCs to SLC4/ XDAQ 3.12 is being prepared. Work is on going to unify the access to Local Timing Control (LTC) and TTC CMS interface module (TTCci) via SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol, a lightweight XML-based messaging ...

  16. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos

    2010-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Since nearly all of the Level-1 (L1) Trigger hardware at Point 5 has been commissioned, activities during the past months focused on the fine-tuning of synchronization, particularly for the ECAL and the CSC systems, on firmware upgrades and on improving trigger operation and monitoring. Periodic resynchronizations or hard resets and a shortened luminosity section interval of 23 seconds were implemented. For the DT sector collectors, an automatic power-off was installed in case of high temperatures, and the monitoring capabilities of the opto-receivers and the mini-crates were enhanced. The DTTF and the CSCTF now have improved memory lookup tables. The HCAL trigger primitive logic implemented a new algorithm providing better stability of the energy measurement in the presence of any phase misalignment. For the Global Calorimeter Trigger, additional Source Cards have been manufactured and tested. Testing of the new tau, missing ET and missing HT algorithms is underw...

  17. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The final parts of the Level-1 trigger hardware are now being put in place. For the ECAL endcaps, more than half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are now available at CERN, such that one complete endcap can be covered. The Global Trigger now correctly handles ECAL calibration sequences, without being influenced by backpressure. The Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) hardware is complete and working in USC55. Intra-crate tests of all 18 RCT crates and the Global Calorimeter Trigger (GCT) are regularly taking place. Pattern tests have successfully captured data from HCAL through RCT to the GCT Source Cards. HB/HE trigger data are being compared with emulator results to track down the very few remaining hardware problems. The treatment of hot and dead cells, including their recording in the database, has been defined. For the GCT, excellent agreement between the emulator and data has been achieved for jets and HF ET sums. There is still som...

  18. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The trigger system has been constantly in use in cosmic and commissioning data taking periods. During CRAFT running it delivered 300 million muon and calorimeter triggers to CMS. It has performed stably and reliably. During the abort gaps it has also provided laser and other calibration triggers. Timing issues, namely synchronization and latency issues, have been solved. About half of the Trigger Concentrator Cards for the ECAL Endcap (TCC-EE) are installed, and the firmware is being worked on. The production of the other half has started. The HCAL Trigger and Readout (HTR) card firmware has been updated, and new features such as fast parallel zero-suppression have been included. Repairs of drift tube (DT) trigger mini-crates, optical links and receivers of sector collectors are under way and have been completed on YB0. New firmware for the optical receivers of the theta links to the drift tube track finder is being installed. In parallel, tests with new eta track finde...

  19. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Carlin with contributions from D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Data-taking continues at cruising speed, with high availability of all components of the Level-1 trigger. We have operated the trigger up to a luminosity of 7.6E33, where we approached 100 kHz using the 7E33 prescale column.  Recently, the pause without triggers in case of an automatic "RESYNC" signal (the "settle" and "recover" time) was reduced in order to minimise the overall dead-time. This may become very important when the LHC comes back with higher energy and luminosity after LS1. We are also preparing for data-taking in the proton-lead run in early 2013. The CASTOR detector will make its comeback into CMS and triggering capabilities are being prepared for this. Steps to be taken include improved cooperation with the TOTEM trigger system and using the LHC clock during the injection and ramp phases of LHC. Studies are being finalised that will have a bearing on the Trigger Technical Design Report (TDR), which is to be rea...

  20. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    At the December meeting, the CMS trigger group reported on progress in production, tests in the Electronics Integration Center (EIC) in Prevessin 904, progress on trigger installation in the underground counting room at point 5, USC55, and results from the Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) phase II. The trigger group is engaged in the final stages of production testing, systems integration, and software and firmware development. Most systems are delivering final tested electronics to CERN. The installation in USC55 is underway and moving towards integration testing. A program of orderly connection and checkout with subsystems and central systems has been developed. This program includes a series of vertical subsystem slice tests providing validation of a portion of each subsystem from front-end electronics through the trigger and DAQ to data captured and stored. This is combined with operations and testing without beam that will continue until startup. The plans for start-up, pilot and early running tri...

  1. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software New Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) for rapidity gap measurements have been installed and integrated into the Trigger recently. For the Global Muon Trigger, tuning of quality criteria has led to improvements in muon trigger efficiencies. Several subsystems have started campaigns to increase spares by recovering boards or producing new ones. The barrel muon sector collector test system has been reactivated, new η track finder boards are in production, and φ track finder boards are under revision. In the CSC track finder, an η asymmetry problem has been corrected. New pT look-up tables have also improved efficiency. RPC patterns were changed from four out of six coincident layers to three out of six in the barrel, which led to a significant increase in efficiency. A new PAC firmware to trigger on heavy stable charged particles allows looking for chamber hit coincidences in two consecutive bunch-crossings. The redesign of the L1 Trigger Emulator...

  2. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith, from contributions of D. Acosta

    2012-01-01

      The L1 Trigger group deployed several major improvements this year. Compared to 2011, the single-muon trigger rate has been reduced by a factor of 2 and the η coverage has been restored to 2.4, with high efficiency. During the current technical stop, a higher jet seed threshold will be applied in the Global Calorimeter Trigger in order to significantly reduce the strong pile-up dependence of the HT and multi-jet triggers. The currently deployed L1 menu, with the “6E33” prescales, has a total rate of less than 100 kHz and operates with detector readout dead time of less than 3% for luminosities up to 6.5 × 1033 cm–2s–1. Further prescale sets have been created for 7 and 8 × 1033 cm–2s–1 luminosities. The L1 DPG is evaluating the performance of the Trigger for upcoming conferences and publication. Progress on the Trigger upgrade was reviewed during the May Upgrade Week. We are investigating scenarios for stagin...

  3. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith from contributions of C. Leonidopoulos, I. Mikulec, J. Varela and C. Wulz.

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Over the past few months, the Level-1 trigger has successfully recorded data with cosmic rays over long continuous stretches as well as LHC splash events, beam halo, and collision events. The L1 trigger hardware, firmware, synchronization, performance and readiness for beam operation were reviewed in October. All L1 trigger hardware is now installed at Point 5, and most of it is completely commissioned. While the barrel ECAL Trigger Concentrator Cards are fully operational, the recently delivered endcap ECAL TCC system is still being commissioned. For most systems there is a sufficient number of spares available, but for a few systems additional reserve modules are needed. It was decided to increase the overall L1 latency by three bunch crossings to increase the safety margin for trigger timing adjustments. In order for CMS to continue data taking during LHC frequency ramps, the clock distribution tree needs to be reset. The procedures for this have been tested. A repl...

  4. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    R. Arcidiacono

    2013-01-01

      In 2013 the Trigger Studies Group (TSG) has been restructured in three sub-groups: STEAM, for the development of new HLT menus and monitoring their performance; STORM, for the development of HLT tools, code and actual configurations; and FOG, responsible for the online operations of the High Level Trigger. The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for Trigger Menu development, path timing, trigger performance studies coordination, HLT offline DQM as well as HLT release, menu and conditions validation – in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Since the end of proton-proton data taking, the group has started preparing for 2015 data taking, with collisions at 13 TeV and 25 ns bunch spacing. The reliability of the extrapolation to higher energy is being evaluated comparing the trigger rates on 7 and 8 TeV Monte Carlo samples with the data taken in the past two years. The effect of 25 ns bunch spacing is being studied on the d...

  5. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software The road map for the final commissioning of the level-1 trigger system has been set. The software for the trigger subsystems is being upgraded to run under CERN Scientific Linux 4 (SLC4). There is also a new release for the Trigger Supervisor (TS 1.4), which implies upgrade work by the subsystems. As reported by the CERN group, a campaign to tidy the Trigger Timing and Control (TTC) racks has begun. The machine interface was upgraded by installing the new RF2TTC module, which receives RF signals from LHC Point 4. Two Beam Synchronous Timing (BST) signals, one for each beam, can now be received in CMS. The machine group will define the exact format of the information content shortly. The margin on the locking range of the CMS QPLL is planned for study for different subsystems in the next Global Runs, using a function generator. The TTC software has been successfully tested on SLC4. Some TTC subsystems have already been upgraded to SLC4. The TTCci Trigger Supervisor ...

  6. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    by Wesley Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software After the winter shutdown minor hardware problems in several subsystems appeared and were corrected. A reassessment of the overall latency has been made. In the TTC system shorter cables between TTCci and TTCex have been installed, which saved one bunch crossing, but which may have required an adjustment of the RPC timing. In order to tackle Pixel out-of-syncs without influencing other subsystems, a special hardware/firmware re-sync protocol has been introduced in the Global Trigger. The link between the Global Calorimeter Trigger and the Global Trigger with the new optical Global Trigger Interface and optical receiver daughterboards has been successfully tested in the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. New firmware in the GCT now allows a setting to remove the HF towers from energy sums. The HF sleeves have been replaced, which should lead to reduced rates of anomalous signals, which may allow their inclusion after this is validated. For ECAL, improvements i...

  7. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware and Software Overall the L1 trigger hardware has been running very smoothly during the last months of proton running. Modifications for the heavy-ion run have been made where necessary. The maximal design rate of 100 kHz can be sustained without problems. All L1 latencies have been rechecked. The recently installed Forward Scintillating Counters (FSC) are being used in the heavy ion run. The ZDC scintillators have been dismantled, but the calorimeter itself remains. We now send the L1 accept signal and other control signals to TOTEM. Trigger cables from TOTEM to CMS will be installed during the Christmas shutdown, so that the TOTEM data can be fully integrated within the CMS readout. New beam gas triggers have been developed, since the BSC-based trigger is no longer usable at high luminosities. In particular, a special BPTX signal is used after a quiet period with no collisions. There is an ongoing campaign to provide enough spare modules for the different subsystems. For example...

  8. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    J. Alimena

    2013-01-01

    Trigger Strategy Group The Strategy for Trigger Evolution And Monitoring (STEAM) group is responsible for the development of future High-Level Trigger menus, as well as of its DQM and validation, in collaboration and with the technical support of the PdmV group. Taking into account the beam energy and luminosity expected in 2015, a rough estimate of the trigger rates indicates a factor four increase with respect to 2012 conditions. Assuming that a factor two can be tolerated thanks to the increase in offline storage and processing capabilities, a toy menu has been developed using the new OpenHLT workflow to estimate the transverse energy/momentum thresholds that would halve the current trigger rates. The CPU time needed to run the HLT has been compared between data taken with 25 ns and 50 ns bunch spacing, for equivalent pile-up: no significant difference was observed on the global time per event distribution at the only available data point, corresponding to a pile-up of about 10 interactions. Using th...

  9. TRIGGER

    CERN Multimedia

    W. Smith

    Level-1 Trigger Hardware The CERN group is working on the TTC system. Seven out of nine sub-detector TTC VME crates with all fibers cabled are installed in USC55. 17 Local Trigger Controller (LTC) boards have been received from production and are in the process of being tested. The RF2TTC module replacing the TTCmi machine interface has been delivered and will replace the TTCci module used to mimic the LHC clock. 11 out of 12 crates housing the barrel ECAL off-detector electronics have been installed in USC55 after commissioning at the Electronics Integration Centre in building 904. The cabling to the Regional Calorimeter Trigger (RCT) is terminated. The Lisbon group has completed the Synchronization and Link mezzanine board (SLB) production. The Palaiseau group has fully tested and installed 33 out of 40 Trigger Concentrator Cards (TCC). The seven remaining boards are being remade. The barrel TCC boards have been tested at the H4 test beam, and good agreement with emulator predictions were found. The cons...

  10. Budded baculovirus particle structure revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qiushi; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Vlak, Just M; van Oers, Monique M; Rottier, Peter J; van Lent, Jan W M

    2015-01-01

    Baculoviruses are a group of enveloped, double-stranded DNA insect viruses with budded (BV) and occlusion-derived (ODV) virions produced during their infection cycle. BVs are commonly described as rod shaped particles with a high apical density of protein extensions (spikes) on the lipid envelope

  11. Budded baculovirus particle structure revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qiushi; Bosch, Berend Jan; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.; Rottier, P.J.; Lent, van J.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Baculoviruses are a group of enveloped, double-stranded DNA insect viruses with budded (BV) and occlusion-derived (ODV) virions produced during their infection cycle. BVs are commonly described as rod shaped particles with a high apical density of protein extensions (spikes) on the lipid envelope

  12. Carbon availability for the fungus triggers nitrogen uptake and transport in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is characterized by a transfer of nutrients in exchange for carbon. We tested the effect of the carbon availability for the AM fungus Glomus intraradices on nitrogen (N) uptake and transport in the symbiosis. We followed the uptake and transport of 15N and ...

  13. Spring photosynthetic onset and net CO2 uptake in Alaska triggered by landscape thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazoo, Nicholas C; Arneth, Almut; Pugh, Thomas A M; Smith, Ben; Steiner, Nicholas; Luus, Kristina; Commane, Roisin; Benmergui, Josh; Stofferahn, Eric; Liu, Junjie; Rödenbeck, Christian; Kawa, Randy; Euskirchen, Eugenie; Zona, Donatella; Arndt, Kyle; Oechel, Walt; Miller, Charles

    2018-04-24

    The springtime transition to regional-scale onset of photosynthesis and net ecosystem carbon uptake in boreal and tundra ecosystems are linked to the soil freeze-thaw state. We present evidence from diagnostic and inversion models constrained by satellite fluorescence and airborne CO 2 from 2012 to 2014 indicating the timing and magnitude of spring carbon uptake in Alaska correlates with landscape thaw and ecoregion. Landscape thaw in boreal forests typically occurs in late April (DOY 111 ± 7) with a 29 ± 6 day lag until photosynthetic onset. North Slope tundra thaws 3 weeks later (DOY 133 ± 5) but experiences only a 20 ± 5 day lag until photosynthetic onset. These time lag differences reflect efficient cold season adaptation in tundra shrub and the longer dehardening period for boreal evergreens. Despite the short transition from thaw to photosynthetic onset in tundra, synchrony of tundra respiration with snow melt and landscape thaw delays the transition from net carbon loss (at photosynthetic onset) to net uptake by 13 ± 7 days, thus reducing the tundra net carbon uptake period. Two global CO 2 inversions using a CASA-GFED model prior estimate earlier northern high latitude net carbon uptake compared to our regional inversion, which we attribute to (i) early photosynthetic-onset model prior bias, (ii) inverse method (scaling factor + optimization window), and (iii) sparsity of available Alaskan CO 2 observations. Another global inversion with zero prior estimates the same timing for net carbon uptake as the regional model but smaller seasonal amplitude. The analysis of Alaskan eddy covariance observations confirms regional scale findings for tundra, but indicates that photosynthesis and net carbon uptake occur up to 1 month earlier in evergreens than captured by models or CO 2 inversions, with better correlation to above-freezing air temperature than date of primary thaw. Further collection and analysis of boreal evergreen species over

  14. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  15. Properties of Oryctes Baculovirus Isolated in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Kobayashi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available An Indonesian isolate of Oryctes baculovirus was purified from infected midguts of the rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros by centrifugation on a 10–40% (w/v sucroese gradient. Morphological features of  nucleocapsid including a tail-like projection were very same as those previously reported. Both protein components of purified particles and restriction fragment electrophoresis profiles of viral DNA were similar to those of their isolates of Oryctes baculovirus, although there were some differences. Key words: Baculovirus oryctes, electrophoresis

  16. Propagation and Purification of Baculovirus oryctes Huger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susamto Somowiyarjo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available An isolate of Baculovirus oryctes, a possible biological control agent for coconut beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Huger from East Java was propagated and purified. The virus could be transmitted by feeding the imago with 10% sucrose containing virus from homogenate of infected beetles. Effectivity of virus to 9 healthy females by sexual copulation. Virus be succesfully purified by a method of Payne. Key words: Baculovirus oryctes, transmission, purification

  17. Feasibility of baculovirus-mediated reporter gene delivery for efficient monitoring of islet transplantation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Shuai; Pan, Yu; Lv, Jing; Wu, Haifei; Tian, Jingyan; Zhang, Yifan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of baculovirus vector-mediated sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene delivery to monitor islet transplantation. Methods: Baculovirus vectors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) or NIS (Bac-GFP and Bac-NIS) were established using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The GFP expression of Bac-GFP-infected rat islets was observed in vitro by fluorescence microscopy. Iodine uptake and inhibition of iodine uptake by NaClO 4 in Bac-NIS-infected islets were dynamically monitored in vitro. Bac-GFP- or Bac-NIS-infected islets were implanted into the left axillary cavity of NOD-SCID mice, and fluorescence imaging and 125 I NanoSPECT/CT imaging were subsequently performed in vivo. Results: Bac-GFP efficiently infected rat islets (over 95% infected at MOI = 40), and the expression of GFP lasted approximately two weeks. NaClO 4 could inhibit iodine uptake by Bac-NIS-infected islets. In vivo imaging revealed that the fluorescence intensity of the transplant sites in Bac-GFP-infected groups was significantly higher than in the non-infected group. Grafts could be clearly observed by 125 I NanoSPECT/CT imaging for up to 8 h. Conclusion: Baculovirus vectors are powerful vehicles for studying rat islets in gene delivery. It is feasible to use a baculovirus vector to delivery an NIS gene for non-invasive monitoring transplanted islets in vivo by the expression of the target gene

  18. Probability to produce animal vaccines in insect baculovirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... The insect baculovirus expression system is a valuable tool for the production of vaccine. .... vaccine expression/delivery vehicle (Yu-Chen et al., ... baculoviruses are applied in cell-based assays for drug ... Intramuscular.

  19. Genomic support for speciation and specificity of baculoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubowska, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: baculovirus, insects, speciation, genomics, phylogeny, host specificity

    The Baculoviridae comprise a large family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting
    arthropods. In this thesis two baculoviruses, Leucoma salicis nucleopolyhedrovirus
    (LesaNPV) and Agrotis

  20. Experiment study with baculovirus-mediated transfer of the thyroid sodium/iodide symporter gene into thyroid cancer for a targeted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yifan; Li Biao; Zhao Long; You Bei; Yin Guizhi; Zhu Chengmo

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of thyroid cancers for radiotherapy by using baculoviral vector to deliver the NIS gene into the tumor cells. Method: Constructed a recombinant baculovirus encoding the human NIS gene under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter. Using a mouse monoclonal antibody and a FITC-labeled antimouse antibody to confirm expression of the NIS protein of infected tumor cells by immunofluorescence. In vitro iodide uptake experiments were carded out on BacNIS-infected tumor cells to further characterize the BacNIS virus, and cell killing with 131I and clonogenic assay were performed on BacNIS-infected cell to observe the selective killing effect of 1311 on NIS-expressing cells. Results: Infection of thyroidcancer cells (FTC-133, W3) with BacNIS resulted in perchlorate-sensitive 125I uptake by these cells to a higher level than that in noninfected cells. But 1251 uptake of 8505C is very low. Demonstrating that the BacNIS vector can function in tumor cells. In addition, AdNIS-infected tumor cells were selectively killed by exposure to 1311, as revealed by clonogenicassays, higher than that in nontreated tumors. Conclusions: AdNIS is very efficient in triggering iodide uptake by infected tumor cell, outlining the potential of this novel cancer gene therapy approach for a targeted radiotherapy. (authors)

  1. Baculovirus enhancins and their role in viral pathogenicity. Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Slavicek

    2012-01-01

    Baculoviruses are a large group of viruses pathogenic to arthropods, primarily insects from the order Lepidoptera and also insects in the orders Hymenoptera and Diptera. Baculoviruses have been used to control insect pests on agricultural crops and forests around the world. Efforts have been ongoing for the last two decades to develop strains of baculoviruses with...

  2. Pathogenesis induced by (recombinant) baculoviruses in insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flipsen, H.

    1995-01-01

    Infection of insect larvae by a baculovirus leads to cessation of feeding and finally to the death of the larva. Under optimal conditions this process may take as little as five days during which the virus multiplies approximately a billion times and transforms 30% of the larval weight into

  3. Radioimmunoassay analysis of baculovirus granulins and polyhedrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, M.D.; Hoops, P.

    1980-01-01

    Granulin and polyhedrin proteins were purified by preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis from the baculoviruses Autographa californica, Rachiplusia ou, Heliothis zea, Heliothis armigera. Trichoplusia ni, and Spodoptera frugiperda. Antisera were raised against Autographa californica (Ac) polyhedrin and Trichoplusia ni (Tn) granulin and analyzed for homologous and heterologous immunoreactivity by immunodiffusion and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Ac polyhedrin and Tn granulin antisera recognized antigenic determinants on several baculovirus polyhedrin and granulin proteins even though the heterologous proteins had different immunoreactivities when compared by competition radioimmunoassay. Antigenic differences among granulin and polyhedrin proteins were also detected by altered slopes of the competition reaction curves. Antiserum raised against Ac polyhedrin which was purified in the presence of SDS was tested by competition RIA for its ability to detect and react with native polyhedrin produced in the infected TN-368 cells. Ac polyhedrin antiserum had similar if not identical ability to bind to native polyhedrin and to polyhedrin purified in the presence of SDS

  4. Baculovirus IE2 Stimulates the Expression of Heat Shock Proteins in Insect and Mammalian Cells to Facilitate Its Proper Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Hsuan; Wei, Sung-Chan; Lo, Huei-Ru; Chao, Yu-Chan

    2016-01-01

    Baculoviruses have gained popularity as pest control agents and for protein production in insect systems. These viruses are also becoming popular for gene expression, tissue engineering and gene therapy in mammalian systems. Baculovirus infection triggers a heat shock response, and this response is crucial for its successful infection of host insect cells. However, the viral protein(s) or factor(s) that trigger this response are not yet clear. Previously, we revealed that IE2-an early gene product of the baculovirus-could form unique nuclear bodies for the strong trans-activation of various promoters in mammalian cells. Here, we purified IE2 nuclear bodies from Vero E6 cells and investigated the associated proteins by using mass spectrometry. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) were found to be one of the major IE2-associated proteins. Our experiments show that HSPs are greatly induced by IE2 and are crucial for the trans-activation function of IE2. Interestingly, blocking both heat shock protein expression and the proteasome pathway preserved the IE2 protein and its nuclear body structure, and revived its function. These observations reveal that HSPs do not function directly to assist the formation of the nuclear body structure, but may rather protect IE2 from proteasome degradation. Aside from functional studies in mammalian cells, we also show that HSPs were stimulated and required to determine IE2 protein levels, in insect cells infected with baculovirus. Upon inhibiting the expression of heat shock proteins, baculovirus IE2 was substantially suppressed, resulting in a significantly suppressed viral titer. Thus, we demonstrate a unique feature in that IE2 can function in both insect and non-host mammalian cells to stimulate HSPs, which may be associated with IE2 stabilization and lead to the protection of the its strong gene activation function in mammalian cells. On the other hand, during viral infection in insect cells, IE2 could also strongly stimulate HSPs and

  5. Baculovirus expression vector system: An efficient tool for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baculovirus expression vector system is considered one of the most successful and widely acceptable means for the production of recombinant proteins in extremely large quantities. Proper posttranslational modifications of the expressed proteins in insect cells, the usual host of baculoviruses, get them soluble, correctly ...

  6. Initiative to manufacture and characterize Baculovirus Reference Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamen, A.; Aucoin, M.; Merten, O.W.; Alves, P.C.M.; Hashimoto, Y.; Airenne, K.; Hu, Y.C.; Mezzina, M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This letter to the editor brings to the attention of researchers an initiative to develop a baculovirus reference material repository. To be successful this initiative needs the support of a broad panel of researchers working with baculovirus vectors for recombinant protein production and gene

  7. The feasibility of using a baculovirus vector to deliver the sodium-iodide symporter gene as a reporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Xiang; Li Biao; Wang Jun; Yin Hongyan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025 (China); Zhang Yifan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ruijin Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200025 (China)], E-mail: zhangyifan1992@yahoo.com.cn

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of baculovirus vectors in transducing FTC-133 cells and to examine the feasibility of using baculovirus vectors for the delivery of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) gene as a reporter through co-transduction to monitor the expression of the target gene. Method: Two recombinant baculoviruses were constructed to express NIS and green fluorescent protein (GFP) respectively. FTC-133, 8050C, SW1116, A549 cells, were infected with Bac-GFP. The infection efficiency of Bac-GFP and the intensity of fluorescence, in either the presence or absence of sodium butyrate, were monitored by flow cytometry. The iodine uptake by FTC-133 cells infected with Bac-NIS was measured using a {gamma} counter. FTC-133 cells were infected with a mixture of equal amounts of Bac-NIS and Bac-GFP at different setting of multiplicity of infection (MOI). The changes of GFP fluorescence intensity and iodine uptake were monitored 24 h after infection in the coinfected cells. Results: We have successfully constructed recombinant baculoviruses carrying NIS and GFP under the control of the cytomegalovirus IE-1 promoter. We found that transduced efficiency of baculovirus in 8505C, SW1116, A549 cells are low in absence of sodium butyrate. Yet Bac-GFP infects FTC-133 cells at a high efficiency, 77.67%, 85.57% and 93.23% with MOI of 100, 200 and 400, respectively. The fluorescence intensity of the Bac-GFP infected tumor cells correlated positively with the MOI of the virus. Sodium butyrate induction increased both the infection efficiency and the fluorescence intensity, but increase of infection efficiency was insignificant in FTC-133 cells. Reporter gene (GFP) expression in FTC-133 is stable within 7 days after infection. The radioactivity incorporated by the tumor cells infected with Bac-NIS correlated positively with the MOI of Bac-NIS as well. In tumor cells co-infected with Bac-NIS and Bac-GFP, the amount of radioactivity incorporated significantly correlated with

  8. The role of baculovirus apoptotic suppressors in AcMNPV-mediated translation arrest in Ld652Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiem, Suzanne M.; Chejanovsky, Nor

    2004-01-01

    Infecting the insect cell line IPLB-Ld652Y with the baculovirus Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) results in global translation arrest, which correlates with the presence of the AcMNPV apoptotic suppressor, p35. In this study, we investigated the role of apoptotic suppression on AcMNPV-induced translation arrest. Infecting cells with AcMNPV bearing nonfunctional mutant p35 did not result in global translation arrest. In contrast, global translation arrest was observed in cells infected with AcMNPV in which p35 was replaced with Opiap, Cpiap, or p49, baculovirus apoptotic suppressors that block apoptosis by different mechanisms than p35. These results indicated that suppressing apoptosis triggered translation arrest in AcMNPV-infected Ld652Y cells. Experiments using the DNA synthesis inhibitor aphidicolin and temperature shift experiments, using the AcMNPV replication mutants ts8 and ts8Δp35, indicated that translation arrest initiated during the early phase of infection, but events during the late phase were required for global translation arrest. Peptide caspase inhibitors could not substitute for baculovirus apoptotic suppressors to induce translation arrest in Ld652Y cells infected with a p35-null virus. However, if the p35-null-AcMNPV also carried hrf-1, a novel baculovirus host range gene, progeny virus was produced and treatment with peptide caspase inhibitors enhanced translation of a late viral gene transcript. Together, these results indicate that translation arrest in AcMNPV-infected Ld652Y cells is due to the anti-apoptotic function of p35, but suggests that rather than simply preventing caspase activation, its activity enhances signaling to a separate translation arrest pathway, possibly by stimulating the late stages of the baculovirus infection cycle

  9. Baculovirus PTP2 functions as a pro-apoptotic protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Yue; Houte, van Stineke; Oers, van Monique M.; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2018-01-01

    The family Baculoviridae encompasses a large number of invertebrate viruses, mainly infecting caterpillars of the order Lepidoptera. The baculovirus Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) induces physiological and behavioral changes in its host Spodoptera exigua, as well as

  10. Gene Acquisition Convergence between Entomopoxviruses and Baculoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Thézé

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisms from diverse phylogenetic origins can thrive within the same ecological niches. They might be induced to evolve convergent adaptations in response to a similar landscape of selective pressures. Their genomes should bear the signature of this process. The study of unrelated virus lineages infecting the same host panels guarantees a clear identification of phyletically independent convergent adaptation. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of genes in the accessory genome shared by unrelated insect large dsDNA viruses: the entomopoxviruses (EPVs, Poxviridae and the baculoviruses (BVs. EPVs and BVs have overlapping ecological niches and have independently evolved similar infection processes. They are, in theory, subjected to the same selective pressures from their host’s immune responses. Their accessory genomes might, therefore, bear analogous genomic signatures of convergent adaption and could point out key genomic mechanisms of adaptation hitherto undetected in viruses. We uncovered 32 homologous, yet independent acquisitions of genes originating from insect hosts, different eukaryotes, bacteria and viruses. We showed different evolutionary levels of gene acquisition convergence in these viruses, underlining a continuous evolutionary process. We found both recent and ancient gene acquisitions possibly involved to the adaptation to both specific and distantly related hosts. Multidirectional and multipartite gene exchange networks appear to constantly drive exogenous gene assimilations, bringing key adaptive innovations and shaping the life histories of large DNA viruses. This evolutionary process might lead to genome level adaptive convergence.

  11. The Middle Fragment of Helicobacter pylori CagA Induces Actin Rearrangement and Triggers Its Own Uptake into Gastric Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Tohidpour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxin-associated gene product A (CagA is a major virulence factor secreted by Helicobacter pylori. CagA activity in the gastric epithelium is associated with higher risk of gastric cancer development. Bacterial type IV secretion system (T4SS-mediated translocation of CagA into the cytosol of human epithelial cells occurs via a poorly understood mechanism that requires CagA interaction with the host membrane lipid phosphatidylserine (PS and host cell receptor integrin α5β1. Here we have characterized the isolated recombinant middle fragment of CagA (CagA-M that contains the positively-charged PS-binding region (aa 613–636 and a putative β1 integrin binding site, but lacks the EPIYA region, secretion signal peptide and the CagA multimerization motif. We show that CagA-M, when immobilized on latex beads, is capable of binding to, and triggering its own uptake into, gastric epithelial cells in the absence of infection with cagA-positive H. pylori. Using site-directed mutagenesis, fluorescent and electron microscopy, and highly-specific inhibitors, we demonstrate that the cell-binding and endocytosis-like internalization of CagA-M are dependent on (1 binding to PS; (2 β1 integrin activity; and (3 actin dynamics. Interaction of CagA-M with the host cells is accompanied by the development of long filopodia-like protrusions (macrospikes. This novel morphology is different from the hummingbird phenotype induced by the translocation of full-length CagA. The determinants within CagA-M and within the host that are important for endocytosis-like internalization into host cells are very similar to those observed for T4SS-mediated internalization of full-length CagA, suggesting that the latter may involve an endocytic pathway.

  12. Elektron Mikroskopi dan Imunogenisitas Baculovirus oryctes Isolat Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YB Sumardiyono

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros was infected per os with Yogyakarta isolate of Baculovirus oryctes in laboratory condition. Midguts of infected beetle obtained were then extracted for further nucleoprotein purification by centrifugation method. Electron microscopy studies on purified nucleoprotein revealed rod-shape viruses with rounded end measured 190×94 nm in average. One end of the particle showed tail-like structure. Antibodies against the virus were obtained by immunization to rabbit, and reacted against either purified virus or extract of infected beetle, but not against extract of healthy beetle. Key words: Baculovirus oryctes, polyclonal antibody

  13. Genetically-engineered baculovirus pesticides and their environmental safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Alan Wood; Yu Zailin

    1991-01-01

    Baculoviruses such as the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdMNPV) are ecologically attractive alternatives to chemical insect pesticides but have a slow rate of control. To overcome this we have developed and are field testing an environmentally acceptable strategy which can be used for the introduction and expression of pesticide-...

  14. Vaccines for viral and parasitic diseases produced with baculovirus vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The baculovirus¿insect cell expression system is an approved system for the production of viral antigens with vaccine potential for humans and animals and has been used for production of subunit vaccines against parasitic diseases as well. Many candidate subunit vaccines have been expressed in this

  15. BACULOVIRUS REPLICATION ALTERS HORMONE-REGULATED HOST DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The baculovirus Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus interferes with insect larval development by altering the host's hormonal system. The level of haemolymph ecdysteroids, the insect moulting hormone, was found to be higher in virus-infected larvae than in uninfected cont...

  16. Probability to produce animal vaccines in insect baculovirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The insect baculovirus expression system is a valuable tool for the production of vaccine. Many subunit vaccines have been expressed in this system. The first vaccine produced in insect cells for animal use is now in the market. In this study, we reviewed recent progress of animal's vaccine production for different expression ...

  17. Review of Vaccinia Virus and Baculovirus Viability Versus Virucides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    25 6.4 Lignin ......................................................................................... 25 6.5...a lower pH (4.83 - 5.22), the virus rapidly inactivated over a month (Tomas et al., 1973). 16 The effects of alkalis on baculoviruses are important...of antioxidant and oxidative enzymes on UV inactivation by inhibiting the generation of highly reactive free radicals within HzSNPV. Water suspensions

  18. Error assessment in recombinant baculovirus titration: evaluation of different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldão, António; Oliveira, Rui; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

    2009-07-01

    The success of baculovirus/insect cells system in heterologous protein expression depends on the robustness and efficiency of the production workflow. It is essential that process parameters are controlled and include as little variability as possible. The multiplicity of infection (MOI) is the most critical factor since irreproducible MOIs caused by inaccurate estimation of viral titers hinder batch consistency and process optimization. This lack of accuracy is related to intrinsic characteristics of the method such as the inability to distinguish between infectious and non-infectious baculovirus. In this study, several methods for baculovirus titration were compared. The most critical issues identified were the incubation time and cell concentration at the time of infection. These variables influence strongly the accuracy of titers and must be defined for optimal performance of the titration method. Although the standard errors of the methods varied significantly (7-36%), titers were within the same order of magnitude; thus, viral titers can be considered independent of the method of titration. A cost analysis of the baculovirus titration methods used in this study showed that the alamarblue, real time Q-PCR and plaque assays were the most expensive techniques. The remaining methods cost on average 75% less than the former methods. Based on the cost, time and error analysis undertaken in this study, the end-point dilution assay, microculture tetrazolium assay and flow cytometric assay were found to be the techniques that combine all these three main factors better. Nevertheless, it is always recommended to confirm the accuracy of the titration either by comparison with a well characterized baculovirus reference stock or by titration using two different methods and verification of the variability of results.

  19. The Current Status of Baculovirus and Their Implication for Insect Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Wijonarko

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Baculovirus have been promoted as the promising bioinsecticides for their pest control potential for more than half a century. But only a few have been successful as biological control agent, and almost none has been proven as commercial success, or widely used for large-scale insect pest control. The bioinsecticides currently represent only a small fraction of the world pesticide market. The successful of the Bt crop marked a special achievement in the bioinsecticide market growth. How about the baculoviruses? The main hurdle for baculovirus to be developed as bioinsecticide is its poor performance compare to synthetic chemical ones, include the speed of kill, and host range. It is important to understand the nature of baculovirus, and explore the possibilities to develop new way in applying the baculovirus as bioinsecticides. Key words: current status, baculovirus, insect control

  20. On the role of baculovirus photolyases in DNA repair upon UV damage of occlusion bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biernat, M.A.; Caballero, P.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2013-01-01

    The use of baculoviruses in insect biocontrol is hampered by their sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) light. This irradiation induces cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in DNA. CPD-photolyases repair CPDs using visible light. Plusiine baculoviruses encode photolyases, which could potentially repair

  1. Effect of spray drying processing parameters on the insecticidal activity of two encapsulated formulations of baculovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of spray dryer processing parameters on the process yield and insecticidal activity of baculovirus to support the development of this beneficial group of microbes as biopesticides. For each of two baculoviruses [granulovirus (GV) from Pieris rapae (L....

  2. Baculovirus potential for agricultural pests management in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Ayala Sifontes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cuba has an international reputation for implementing widespread biological control of pests, and microbial biocontrol is an integral component of most pest management programs. One class of microbial pesticides however, has not been developed in Cuba, bio-insecticides based on the Baculoviridae. This class of safe and environmentally protective microbial pesticides is used ever more commonly worldwide as an alternative to chemical pesticides. The characteristics of the viruses of this family, particularly their high host specificity, safety to non-target organisms, capacity to persist in nature and create epizootics, and the economy with which they can be produced "in vivo", all make them attractive for incorporation into pest management programs along with other pesticides developed in Cuba. The mass production technology is well understood in Cuba and biofactories already exist for a number of microbial biocontrol products. In the province of Sancti Spíritus, the Plant Protection Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, with the cooperation of the Institute for Sustainable Horticulture, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, are resuming the work which began in the 90´s to develop baculovirus products in support of sustainable agriculture in Cuba. This work is being carried out with the participation of young Canadian and Cuban students and professionals. The program includes research with the multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis viruses of Spodoptera frugiperda (SfMNPV and S. exigua (SeMNPV and the search for native isolates of Baculovirus in Plutella xylostella, three priority pests in Cuba. In other jurisdictions they are well controlled by baculoviruses, and the expectation is that this same result is possible in Cuba.

  3. Evolution in Oryctes baculovirus: rate and types of genomic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, A M; Zelazny, B

    1990-01-01

    Three cloned strains of Oryctes baculovirus were released into a previously unexposed population of the host insect, the coconut palm rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros. The experiment was conducted on Meemu Atoll in the Maldive Islands. Viruses were isolated from the beetle population at 1 year, 1.75 years, and 4 years after release. No changes in genotype were observed in viruses isolated after 1 and 1.75 years. After 4 years, however, three types of genomic change had occurred. A recombinant derived from two of the released strains, an isolate containing a 100-bp insert, and one example of a point mutation were found in the 22 isolates examined.

  4. Pemanfaatan Antibodi Monoklonal dalam Immunoassay untuk Deteksi Baculovirus oryctes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susamto Somowiyarjo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of non-precoated Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA and Dot Immunobinding Assay (DIBA employing monoclonal antibodies (MCA against Yogyakarta isolate of Baculovirus oryctes Huger. was described. The MCA-Bv-4 having subclass of IgG2a and titer in vitro of 10^4 - 10^5 proved to be useful antibody for virus detection. The great potential of I-ELISA using MCA-Bv-4 has been it's specificity being able to discriminate between healthy an virus-infected coconut beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros L.. The assay could also differentiate between B. oryctes and Monodon baculovirus, the pathogen of shrimp disease. The best tissue for preparing virus antigen from crude extract was found to be the midgut of the beetle. Head, thorax, abdomen and tibia were not suitable for preparing the test antigen. The crude extract of beetle showed high endogenous enzyme activity to the substrate of DIBA, which precluded the detection of B. oryctes using DIBA. The MCA-Bv-4 could be used to improve the monitoring of the virus to support the program of biological control of coconut beetle using B. oryctes.

  5. A novel insulin receptor-binding protein from Momordica charantia enhances glucose uptake and glucose clearance in vitro and in vivo through triggering insulin receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hsin-Yi; Ho, Tin-Yun; Li, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Jaw-Chyun; Liu, Jau-Jin; Hsiang, Chien-Yun

    2014-09-10

    Diabetes, a common metabolic disorder, is characterized by hyperglycemia. Insulin is the principal mediator of glucose homeostasis. In a previous study, we identified a trypsin inhibitor, named Momordica charantia insulin receptor (IR)-binding protein (mcIRBP) in this study, that might interact with IR. The physical and functional interactions between mcIRBP and IR were clearly analyzed in the present study. Photo-cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry showed that three regions (17-21, 34-40, and 59-66 residues) located on mcIRBP physically interacted with leucine-rich repeat domain and cysteine-rich region of IR. IR-binding assay showed that the binding behavior of mcIRBP and insulin displayed a cooperative manner. After binding to IR, mcIRBP activated the kinase activity of IR by (5.87 ± 0.45)-fold, increased the amount of phospho-IR protein by (1.31 ± 0.03)-fold, affected phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathways, and consequently stimulated the uptake of glucose in 3T3-L1 cells by (1.36 ± 0.12)-fold. Intraperitoneal injection of 2.5 nmol/kg mcIRBP significantly decreased the blood glucose levels by 20.9 ± 3.2% and 10.8 ± 3.6% in normal and diabetic mice, respectively. Microarray analysis showed that mcIRBP affected genes involved in insulin signaling transduction pathway in mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mcIRBP is a novel IRBP that binds to sites different from the insulin-binding sites on IR and stimulates both the glucose uptake in cells and the glucose clearance in mice.

  6. Evaluation of the Insecticidal Efficacy of Wild Type and Recombinant Baculoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popham, Holly J R; Ellersieck, Mark R; Li, Huarong; Bonning, Bryony C

    2016-01-01

    A considerable amount of work has been undertaken to genetically enhance the efficacy of baculovirus insecticides. Following construction of a genetically altered baculovirus, laboratory bioassays are used to quantify various parameters of insecticidal activity such as the median lethal concentration (or dose) required to kill 50 % of infected larvae (LC50 or LD50), median survival of larvae infected (ST50), and feeding damage incurred by infected larvae. In this chapter, protocols are described for a variety of bioassays and the corresponding data analyses for assessment of the insecticidal activity of baculovirus insecticides.

  7. Study on Fusion Protein and Its gene in Baculovirus Specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemr, W.A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Baculoviruses are subdivided into two groups depending on the type of budded virus envelop fusion protein; group I utilized gp64 which include the most of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs), group II utilized F protein which include the remnants of NPVs and all Granuloviruses (GVs). Recent studies reported the viral F protein coding gene as a host cellular sourced gene and may evolutionary acquired from the host genome referring to phylogeny analysis of fusion proteins. Thus, it was deduced that F protein coding gene is species- specific nucleotide sequence related to the type of the specific host and if virus could infect an unexpected host, the resulted virus may encode a vary F gene. In this regard, the present study utilized the mentioned properties of F gene in an attempt to produce a model of specific and more economic wider range granulovirus bio- pesticide able to infect both Spodoptera littoralis and Phthorimaea operculella larvae. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogeny analysis were performed on six members of group II baculovirus, novel universal PCR primers were manually designed from the conserved regions in the alignment graph, targeted to amplify species- specific sequence entire F gene open reading frame (ORF) which is useful in molecular identification of baculovirus in unknown samples. So, the PCR product of SpliGV used to prepare a specific probe for the F gene of this type of virus. Results reflected that it is possible to infect S. littoralis larvae by PhopGV if injected into larval haemocoel, the resulted virus of this infection showed by using DNA hybridization technique to be encode to F gene homologous with the F gene of Spli GV, which is revealed that the resulted virus acquired this F gene sequence from the host genome after infection. Consequently, these results may infer that if genetic aberrations occur in the host genome, this may affect in baculoviral infectivity. So, this study aimed to investigate the effect of gamma radiation at

  8. Characterization of viral proteins of Oryctes baculovirus and comparison between two geographical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, K S; Gopinathan, K P

    1989-01-01

    Bacilliform Oryctes baculovirus particles have been visualized in electron micrographs of midgut sections from virus infected Oryctes rhinoceros beetles. Morphologically the Indian isolate (Oryctes baculovirus, KI) resembled the previously reported Oryctes baculovirus, isolate PV505. The constituent proteins of baculovirus KI have been analysed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and by Western blots using polyclonal antibodies raised against the complete viral particles, as probes. A total of forty eight viral proteins have been identified. Fourteen viral proteins were located on the viral envelope. Among the proteins constituting the nucleocapsid, three were located internally within the capsid. A 23.5 kDa protein was tightly associated with viral DNA in the nucleocapsid core. Two envelope and seven capsid proteins of KI and PV505 revealed differences in SDS-PAGE profiles and glycosylation patterns. Immunoblotting of KI and PV505 proteins with anti KI antiserum demonstrated antigenic differences between the two viral isolates.

  9. Trigger finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digit; Trigger finger release; Locked finger; Digital flexor tenosynovitis ... cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  10. Feasibility of a novel positive feedback effect of 131I-promoted Bac-Egr1-hNIS expression in malignant glioma via baculovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Rui; Tian Lipeng; Han Bing; Xu Haoping; Zhang Miao; Li Biao

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: As intracellular iodine is released rapidly, increased expression of sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is required for effective radioiodine treatment of tumor. As Egr1 promoter is activated by 131 I and may promote human NIS (hNIS) expression, hNIS also induces 131 I uptake and activates Egr1, so the existence of a positive feedback effect of 131 I-promoted Egr1-hNIS expression is possible. Our purpose was to investigate the possible existence of this positive feedback effect through a series of in vitro pioneer studies. Method: Recombinant baculovirus (Bac-Egr1-hNIS) encoding the hNIS gene under the control of a radiation-inducible Egrl promoter was constructed. To test 131 I-promoted hNIS expression, human malignant glioma U87 cells were transfected with Bac-Egr1-hNIS, stimulated with or without 131 I; the expression of hNIS protein was detected by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry test. In addition, the uptake and efflux of 131 I were determined after the incubation of Bac-Egr1-hNIS-transfected U87 cells with or without 131 I. Results: Immunocytochemical staining and flow cytometry test showed a higher hNIS protein expression in Bac-Egr1-hNIS-transfected U87 cells with 131 I stimulation than in cells without stimulation. Bac-Egr1-hNIS-transfected U87 cells accumulated up to about 4.05 times of 131 I after 131 I stimulation. The amount of 131 I uptake in both groups showed a baculovirus dose-dependent manner. However, rapid efflux of radioactivity was observed in both groups, with 50% lost during the first 2 min after the 131 I-containing medium had been replaced by a nonradioactive medium. Conclusion: Our results indicated that an improved transgene expression of 131 I-stimulated hNIS in U87 cells using a baculovirus vector containing the Egr1 promoter is possible, and the increased expression of hNIS is responsible for a higher 131 I uptake. It might provide a reference for the existence of a positive feedback effect in 131 I-promoted Bac-Egr1-h

  11. Global Screening of Antiviral Genes that Suppress Baculovirus Transgene Expression in Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chia-Hung; Naik, Nenavath Gopal; Liao, Lin-Li; Wei, Sung-Chan; Chao, Yu-Chan

    2017-09-15

    Although baculovirus has been used as a safe and convenient gene delivery vector in mammalian cells, baculovirus-mediated transgene expression is less effective in various mammalian cell lines. Identification of the negative regulators in host cells is necessary to improve baculovirus-based expression systems. Here, we performed high-throughput shRNA library screening, targeting 176 antiviral innate immune genes, and identified 43 host restriction factor genes in a human A549 lung carcinoma cell line. Among them, suppression of receptor interaction protein kinase 1 (RIP1, also known as RIPK1) significantly increased baculoviral transgene expression without resulting in significant cell death. Silencing of RIP1 did not affect viral entry or cell viability, but it did inhibit nuclear translocation of the IRF3 and NF-κB transcription factors. Also, activation of downstream signaling mediators (such as TBK1 and IRF7) was affected, and subsequent interferon and cytokine gene expression levels were abolished. Further, Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1)-an inhibitor of RIP1 kinase activity-dramatically increased baculoviral transgene expression in RIP1-silenced cells. Using baculovirus as a model system, this study presents an initial investigation of large numbers of human cell antiviral innate immune response factors against a "nonadaptive virus." In addition, our study has made baculovirus a more efficient gene transfer vector for some of the most frequently used mammalian cell systems.

  12. Insecticidal activity of two proteases against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae infected with recombinant baculoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Baculovirus comprise the largest group of insect viruses most studied worldwide, mainly because they efficiently kill agricutural insect pests. In this study, two recombinant baculoviruses containing the ScathL gene from Sarcophaga peregrina (vSynScathL), and the Keratinase gene from the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus (vSynKerat), were constructed. and their insecticidal properties analysed against Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. Results Bioassays of third-instar and neonate S. frugiperda larvae with vSynScathL and vSynKerat showed a decrease in the time needed to kill the infected insects when compared to the wild type virus. We have also shown that both recombinants were able to increase phenoloxidase activity in the hemolymph of S. frugiperda larvae. The expression of proteases in infected larvae resulted in destruction of internal tissues late in infection, which could be the reason for the increased viral speed of kill. Conclusions Baculoviruses and their recombinant forms constitute viable alternatives to chemical insecticides. Recombinant baculoviruses containing protease genes can be added to the list of engineered baculoviruses with great potential to be used in integrated pest management programs. PMID:20587066

  13. Utilizing the virus-induced blocking of apoptosis in an easy baculovirus titration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niarchos, Athanasios; Lagoumintzis, George; Poulas, Konstantinos

    2015-10-22

    Baculovirus-mediated protein expression is a robust experimental technique for producing recombinant higher-eukaryotic proteins because it combines high yields with considerable post-translational modification capabilities. In this expression system, the determination of the titer of recombinant baculovirus stocks is important to achieve the correct multiplicity of infection for effective amplification of the virus and high expression of the target protein. To overcome the drawbacks of existing titration methods (e.g., plaque assay, real-time PCR), we present a simple and reliable assay that uses the ability of baculoviruses to block apoptosis in their host cells to accurately titrate virus samples. Briefly, after incubation with serial dilutions of baculovirus samples, Sf9 cells were UV irradiated and, after apoptosis induction, they were viewed via microscopy; the presence of cluster(s) of infected cells as islets indicated blocked apoptosis. Subsequently, baculovirus titers were calculated through the determination of the 50% endpoint dilution. The method is simple, inexpensive, and does not require unique laboratory equipment, consumables or expertise; moreover, it is versatile enough to be adapted for the titration of every virus species that can block apoptosis in any culturable host cells which undergo apoptosis under specific conditions.

  14. Expression, Delivery and Function of Insecticidal Proteins Expressed by Recombinant Baculoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroemer, Jeremy A.; Bonning, Bryony C.; Harrison, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Since the development of methods for inserting and expressing genes in baculoviruses, a line of research has focused on developing recombinant baculoviruses that express insecticidal peptides and proteins. These recombinant viruses have been engineered with the goal of improving their pesticidal potential by shortening the time required for infection to kill or incapacitate insect pests and reducing the quantity of crop damage as a consequence. A wide variety of neurotoxic peptides, proteins that regulate insect physiology, degradative enzymes, and other potentially insecticidal proteins have been evaluated for their capacity to reduce the survival time of baculovirus-infected lepidopteran host larvae. Researchers have investigated the factors involved in the efficient expression and delivery of baculovirus-encoded insecticidal peptides and proteins, with much effort dedicated to identifying ideal promoters for driving transcription and signal peptides that mediate secretion of the expressed target protein. Other factors, particularly translational efficiency of transcripts derived from recombinant insecticidal genes and post-translational folding and processing of insecticidal proteins, remain relatively unexplored. The discovery of RNA interference as a gene-specific regulation mechanism offers a new approach for improvement of baculovirus biopesticidal efficacy through genetic modification. PMID:25609310

  15. Characterization of canine herpesvirus glycoprotein C expressed by a recombinant baculovirus in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, X; Maeda, K; Mikami, T; Otsuka, H

    1996-12-01

    The gene encoding the canine herpesvirus (CHV) glycoprotein C (gC) homologue has been identified by sequence homology analyses with other well studied herpesviruses. Previously, we have identified three CHV glycoproteins, gp145/112, gp80 and gp47 using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). To determine which CHV glycoprotein corresponds to gC, a recombinant baculovirus which contains the putative CHV gC structural gene under the baculovirus polyhedrin promoter was constructed. The recombinant baculovirus expressed gC-related polypeptides (44-62 kDa), which reacted only with MAbs against CHV gp80, indicating that the previously identified CHV gp80 is the translation product of the gC gene. The baculovirus expressed gC was glycosylated and transported to the surface of infected cells. At least seven neutralizing epitopes were conserved on the gC produced in insect cells. It was found that the recombinant baculovirus infected cells adsorbed murine erythrocytes as is the case for CHV-infected cells. The hemadsorption activity was inhibited by heparin, indicating that the CHV gC binds to heparan sulfate on the surface of murine erythrocytes. Mice immunized with the recombinant gC produced strong neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that CHV gC produced in insect cells may be useful as a subunit vaccine to control CHV infections.

  16. Quantitative proteomics of Spodoptera frugiperda cells during growth and baculovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carinhas

    Full Text Available Baculovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells is a system of choice to produce a range of recombinant proteins, vaccines and, potentially, gene therapy vectors. While baculovirus genomes are well characterized, the genome of S. frugiperda is not sequenced and the virus-host molecular interplay is sparsely known. Herein, we describe the application of stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC to obtain the first comparative proteome quantitation of S. frugiperda cells during growth and early baculovirus infection. The proteome coverage was maximized by compiling a search database with protein annotations from insect species. Of interest were differentially proteins related to energy metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress, yet not investigated in the scope of baculovirus infection. Further, the reduced expression of key viral-encoded proteins early in the infection cycle is suggested to be related with decreased viral replication at high cell density culture. These findings have implications for virological research and improvement of baculovirus-based bioprocesses.

  17. Baculovirus LEF-11 nuclear localization signal is important for viral DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tingting; Dong, Zhanqi; Hu, Nan; Hu, Zhigang; Dong, Feifan; Jiang, Yaming; Li, Jun; Chen, Peng; Lu, Cheng; Pan, Minhui

    2017-06-15

    Baculovirus LEF-11 is a small nuclear protein that is involved in viral late gene transcription and DNA replication. However, the characteristics of its nuclear localization signal and its impact on viral DNA replication are unknown. In the present study, systemic bioinformatics analysis showed that the baculovirus LEF-11 contains monopartite and bipartite classical nuclear localization signal sequences (cNLSs), which were also detected in a few alphabaculovirus species. Localization of representative LEF-11 proteins of four baculovirus genera indicated that the nuclear localization characteristics of baculovirus LEF-11 coincided with the predicted results. Moreover, Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) LEF-11 could be transported into the nucleus during viral infection in the absence of a cNLSs. Further investigations demonstrated that the NLS of BmNPV LEF-11 is important for viral DNA replication. The findings of the present study indicate that the characteristics of the baculovirus LEF-11 protein and the NLS is essential to virus DNA replication and nuclear transport mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional role of the cytoplasmic tail domain of the major envelope fusion protein of group II baculoviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, G.; Pan, M.; Westenberg, M.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    F proteins from baculovirus nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) group II members are the major budded virus (BV) viral envelope fusion proteins. They undergo furin-like proteolysis processing in order to be functional. F proteins from different baculovirus species have a long cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD),

  19. Characterization of A Baculovirus of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae Isolated from Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Wijonarko

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A Baculovirus has been isolated from cadaver of larvae of Spodoptera litura, a Noctuidae of agricultural pest, importance due to its wide-range hosts and the damage to their respective host. Phase contrast light microscopy observation from infected larvae showed that the fat body, hemocyte cells, and cells surrounding the trachea or tracheolus were the most tissue invaded by polyhedra. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the occlusion body purified from diseased larva showed that the baculovirus envelope containing multiple nucleocapsid. Digestion of viral DNA with three restriction enzymes showed that the genome pattern of baculovirus isolated from Bantul were close to SpliNPV isolated from Japan and those of Spodoptera littoralis and quite distinct from those isolated from Southeast Asia region. Bioassay test performed on first to fifth instar larvae showed that the virus effectively control the young larvae, but showed some level of resistance against older larvae of Spodoptera litura.

  20. Trigger Finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a bent position. People whose work or hobbies require repetitive gripping actions are at higher risk ... developing trigger finger include: Repeated gripping. Occupations and hobbies that involve repetitive hand use and prolonged gripping ...

  1. In vivo study of immunogenicity and kinetic characteristics of a quantum dot-labelled baculovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Zhenhua; Meng, Jin; Wang, Han; He, Man; Zhang, Fuxian; Liu, Yan; Hu, Bin; He, Zike; Hu, Qinxue; Wang, Hanzhong

    2015-09-01

    Nanomaterials conjugated with biomacromolecules, including viruses, have great potential for in vivo applications. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the safety of nanoparticle-conjugated macromolecule biomaterials (Nano-mbio). Although a number of studies have assessed the risks of nanoparticles and macromolecule biomaterials in living bodies, only a few of them investigated Nano-mbios. Here we evaluated the in vivo safety profile of a quantum dot-conjugated baculovirus (Bq), a promising new Nano-mbio, in mice. Each animal was injected twice intraperitoneally with 50 μg virus protein labelled with around 3*10(-5)nmol conjugated qds. Control animals were injected with PBS, quantum dots, baculovirus, or a mixture of quantum dots and baculovirus. Blood, tissues and body weight were analysed at a series of time points following both the first and the second injections. It turned out that the appearance and behaviour of the mice injected with Bq were similar to those injected with baculovirus alone. However, combination of baculovirus and quantum dot (conjugated or simply mixed) significantly induced stronger adaptive immune responses, and lead to a faster accumulation and longer existence of Cd in the kidneys. Thus, despite the fact that both quantum dot and baculovirus have been claimed to be safe in vivo, applications of Bq in vivo should be cautious. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining the interaction between a nanoparticle-conjugated virus and a living body from a safety perspective, providing a basis for in vivo application of other Nano-mbios. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Baculovirus virions displaying Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite protein protect mice against malaria sporozoite infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shigeto; Kondoh, Daisuke; Arai, Eriko; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Seki, Chisato; Tanaka, Takao; Okada, Masaji; Ishii, Akira

    2003-01-01

    The display of foreign proteins on the surface of baculovirus virions has provided a tool for the analysis of protein-protein interactions and for cell-specific targeting in gene transfer applications. To evaluate the baculovirus display system as a vaccine vehicle, we have generated a recombinant baculovirus (AcNPV-CSPsurf) that displays rodent malaria Plasmodium berghei circumsporozoite protein (PbCSP) on the virion surface as a fusion protein with the major baculovirus envelope glycoprotein gp64. The PbCSP-gp64 fusion protein was incorporated and oligomerized on the virion surface and led to a 12-fold increase in the binding activity of AcNPV-CSPsurf virions to HepG2 cells. Immunization with adjuvant-free AcNPV-CSPsurf virions induced high levels of antibodies and gamma interferon-secreting cells against PbCSP and protected 60% of mice against sporozoite challenge. These data demonstrate that AcNPV-CSPsurf displays sporozoite-like PbCSP on the virion surface and possesses dual potentials as a malaria vaccine candidate and a liver-directed gene delivery vehicle

  3. Recombinant, catalytically inactive juvenile hormone esterase enhances efficacy of baculovirus insecticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van M.M.M.; Bonning, B.C.; Ward, V.K.; Vlak, J.M.; Hammock, B.D.

    2000-01-01

    The insecticidal efficacy of baculoviruses can be enhanced by engineering the viral genome to express proteins that disrupt the physiology of the host insect. Here we describe the development of a genetically engineered Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) which expresses

  4. Baculovirus Insecticides in Latin America: Historical Overview, Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Haase

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Baculoviruses are known to regulate many insect populations in nature. Their host-specificity is very high, usually restricted to a single or a few closely related insect species. They are amongst the safest pesticides, with no or negligible effects on non-target organisms, including beneficial insects, vertebrates and plants. Baculovirus-based pesticides are compatible with integrated pest management strategies and the expansion of their application will significantly reduce the risks associated with the use of synthetic chemical insecticides. Several successful baculovirus-based pest control programs have taken place in Latin American countries. Sustainable agriculture (a trend promoted by state authorities in most Latin American countries will benefit from the wider use of registered viral pesticides and new viral products that are in the process of registration and others in the applied research pipeline. The success of baculovirus-based control programs depends upon collaborative efforts among government and research institutions, growers associations, and private companies, which realize the importance of using strategies that protect human health and the environment at large. Initiatives to develop new regulations that promote the use of this type of ecological alternatives tailored to different local conditions and farming systems are underway.

  5. Arbovirus vaccines: opportunities for the baculovirus-insect cell expression system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.W.H.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    The baculovirus-insect cell expression system is a well-established technology for the production of heterologous viral (glyco)proteins in cultured cells, applicable for basic scientific research as well as for the development and production of vaccines and diagnostics. Arboviruses form an emerging

  6. Identification of genes involved in DNA replication of the Autographa californica baculovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.; Ahrens, C. H.; Goldbach, R. W.; Rohrmann, G. F.; Vlak, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    By use of a transient replication assay, nine genes involved in DNA replication were identified in the genome of the Autographa californica baculovirus. Six genes encoding helicase, DNA polymerase, IE-1, LEF-1, LEF-2, and LEF-3 are essential for DNA replication while three genes encoding P35, IE-2,

  7. Contributions of immune responses to developmental resistance in Lymantria dispar challenged with baculovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    James McNeil; Diana Cox-Foster; James Slavicek; Kelli. Hoover

    2010-01-01

    How the innate immune system functions to defend insects from viruses is an emerging field of study. We examined the impact of melanized encapsulation, a component of innate immunity that integrates both cellular and humoral immune responses, on the success of the baculovirus Lymantria dispar multiple nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) in its...

  8. Triggering Artefacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Holst; Robinson, Mike

    1995-01-01

    and adapting them to specific situations need not be ad hoc.Triggering artefacts are a way of systematically challenging both designers' preunderstandings and the conservatism of work practice. Experiences from the Great Belt tunnel and bridge project are used to illustrate howtriggering artefacts change...

  9. Sleeping Beauty-baculovirus hybrid vectors for long-term gene expression in the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Tytteli Anni Kaarina; Laakkonen, Johanna Päivikki; Alasaarela, Laura; Airenne, Kari Juhani; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2014-01-01

    A baculovirus vector is capable of efficiently transducing many nondiving and diving cell types. However, the potential of baculovirus is restricted for many gene delivery applications as a result of the transient gene expression that it mediates. The plasmid-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system integrates transgenes into target cell genome efficiently with a genomic integration pattern that is generally considered safer than the integration of many other integrating vectors; yet efficient delivery of therapeutic genes into cells of target tissues in vivo is a major challenge for nonviral gene therapy. In the present study, SB was introduced into baculovirus to obtain novel hybrid vectors that would combine the best features of the two vector systems (i.e. effective gene delivery and efficient integration into the genome), thus circumventing the major limitations of these vectors. We constructed and optimized SB-baculovirus hybrid vectors that bear either SB100x transposase or SB transposon in the forward or reverse orientations with respect to the viral backbone The functionality of the novel hybrid vectors was investigated in cell cultures and in a proof-of-concept study in the mouse eye. The hybrid vectors showed high and sustained transgene expression that remained stable and demonstrated no signs of decline during the 2 months follow-up in vitro. These results were verified in the mouse eye where persistent transgene expression was detected two months after intravitreal injection. Our results confirm that (i) SB-baculovirus hybrid vectors mediate long-term gene expression in vitro and in vivo, and (ii) the hybrid vectors are potential new tools for the treatment of ocular diseases. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Comparison of the Protective Efficacy of DNA and Baculovirus-Derived Protein Vaccines for EBOLA Virus in Guinea Pigs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mellquist-Riemenschneider, Jenny L; Garrison, Aura R; Geisbert, Joan B; Saikh, Kamal U; Heidebrink, Kelli D

    2003-01-01

    .... Previously, a priming dose of a DNA vaccine expressing the glycoprotein (GP) gene of MARV followed by boosting with recombinant baculovirus-derived GP protein was found to confer protective immunity to guinea pigs (Hevey et al., 2001...

  11. Cloning and baculovirus expression of a desiccation stress gene from the beetle, Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, L A; Bendena, W G; Walker, V K

    1996-02-01

    The cDNA sequence encoding a novel desiccation stress protein (dsp28) found in the hemolymph of the common yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, has been determined. The sequence encodes a 225 amino acid protein containing a 20 amino acid signal peptide. Dsp28 shows no significant similarity to any known nucleic acid or protein sequence. Levels of dsp28 mRNA were found to increase approx 5-fold following desiccation. Dsp28 cDNA has been cloned into a baculovirus expression vector and the expressed protein was compared to native dsp28. Both dsp28 expressed by recombinant baculovirus and native dsp28 are glycosylated and N-terminally processed. Although dsp28 is induced by cold in addition to desiccation stress, it does not contribute to the freezing point depression (thermal hysteresis) observed in Tenebrio hemolymph.

  12. Display of a Maize cDNA library on baculovirus infected insect cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Ian M

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maize is a good model system for cereal crop genetics and development because of its rich genetic heritage and well-characterized morphology. The sequencing of its genome is well advanced, and new technologies for efficient proteomic analysis are needed. Baculovirus expression systems have been used for the last twenty years to express in insect cells a wide variety of eukaryotic proteins that require complex folding or extensive posttranslational modification. More recently, baculovirus display technologies based on the expression of foreign sequences on the surface of Autographa californica (AcMNPV have been developed. We investigated the potential of a display methodology for a cDNA library of maize young seedlings. Results We constructed a full-length cDNA library of young maize etiolated seedlings in the transfer vector pAcTMVSVG. The library contained a total of 2.5 × 105 independent clones. Expression of two known maize proteins, calreticulin and auxin binding protein (ABP1, was shown by western blot analysis of protein extracts from insect cells infected with the cDNA library. Display of the two proteins in infected insect cells was shown by selective biopanning using magnetic cell sorting and demonstrated proof of concept that the baculovirus maize cDNA display library could be used to identify and isolate proteins. Conclusion The maize cDNA library constructed in this study relies on the novel technology of baculovirus display and is unique in currently published cDNA libraries. Produced to demonstrate proof of principle, it opens the way for the development of a eukaryotic in vivo display tool which would be ideally suited for rapid screening of the maize proteome for binding partners, such as proteins involved in hormone regulation or defence.

  13. New baculovirus recombinants expressing Pseudorabies virus (PRV) glycoproteins protect mice against lethal challenge infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowska, Agnieszka K; Lipińska, Andrea D; Rohde, Jörg; Szewczyk, Boguslaw; Bienkowska-Szewczyk, Krystyna; Rziha, Hanns-Joachim

    2009-06-02

    The present study demonstrates the protective potential of novel baculovirus recombinants, which express the glycoproteins gB, gC, or gD of Pseudorabies virus (PRV; Alphaherpesvirus of swine) and additionally contain the glycoprotein G of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV-G) in the virion (Bac-G-PRV). To evaluate the protective capacity, mixtures of equal amounts of the PRV gB-, gC-, and gD-expressing baculoviruses were used for immunization. Three intramuscular immunizations with that Bac-G-PRV mixture could protect mice against a lethal PRV challenge infection. To achieve complete protection high titers of Bac-G-PRV and three immunizations were necessary. This immunization with Bac-G-PRV resulted in the induction of high titers of PRV-specific serum antibodies of the IgG2a subclass and of interferon (IFN)-gamma, indicating a Th1-type immune response. Moreover, splenocytes of immunized mice exhibited natural killer cell activity accompanied by the production of IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma. Collectively, the presented data demonstrate for the first time that co-expression of VSV-G in baculovirus recombinant vaccines can improve the induction of a protective immune response against foreign antigens.

  14. Towards a molecular identification and classification system of lepidopteran-specific baculoviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Martin; Wang Hualin; Hu Zhihong; Jehle, Johannes A.

    2004-01-01

    Virus genomics provides novel approaches for virus identification and classification. Based on the comparative analyses of sequenced lepidopteran-specific baculovirus genomes, degenerate oligonucleotides were developed that allow the specific amplification of several regions of the genome using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA sequencing. The DNA sequences within the coding regions of three highly conserved genes, namely polyhedrin/granulin (polh/gran), late expression factor 8 (lef-8), and late expression factor 9 (lef-9), were targeted for amplification. The oligonucleotides were tested on viral DNAs isolated from historical field samples, and amplification products were generated from 12 isolated nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) and 8 granulovirus (GV) DNAs. The PCR products were cloned or directly sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were inferred from individual and combined data sets of these three genes and compared to a phylogeny, which includes 22 baculoviruses using a combined data set of 30 core genes. This method allows a fast and reliable detection and identification of lepidopteran-specific NPVs and GVs. Furthermore, a strong correlation of the base composition of these three genome areas with that of the complete virus genome was observed and used to predict the base composition of uncharacterized baculovirus genomes. These analyses suggested that GVs have a significantly higher AT content than NPVs

  15. Proteomics computational analyses suggest that baculovirus GP64 superfamily proteins are class III penetrenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Robert F

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Baculoviridae encode two types of proteins that mediate virus:cell membrane fusion and penetration into the host cell. Alignments of primary amino acid sequences indicate that baculovirus fusion proteins of group I nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV form the GP64 superfamily. The structure of these viral penetrenes has not been determined. The GP64 superfamily includes the glycoprotein (GP encoded by members of the Thogotovirus genus of the Orthomyxoviridae. The entry proteins of other baculoviruses, group II NPV and granuloviruses, are class I penetrenes. Results Class III penetrenes encoded by members of the Rhabdoviridae and Herpesviridae have an internal fusion domain comprised of beta sheets, other beta sheet domains, an extended alpha helical domain, a membrane proximal stem domain and a carboxyl terminal anchor. Similar sequences and structural/functional motifs that characterize class III penetrenes are located collinearly in GP64 of group I baculoviruses and related glycoproteins encoded by thogotoviruses. Structural models based on a prototypic class III penetrene, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G, were established for Thogoto virus (THOV GP and Autographa california multiple NPV (AcMNPV GP64 demonstrating feasible cysteine linkages. Glycosylation sites in THOV GP and AcMNPV GP64 appear in similar model locations to the two glycosylation sites of VSV G. Conclusion These results suggest that proteins in the GP64 superfamily are class III penetrenes.

  16. Ultra Deep Sequencing of a Baculovirus Population Reveals Widespread Genomic Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Chateigner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses rely on widespread genetic variation and large population size for adaptation. Large DNA virus populations are thought to harbor little variation though natural populations may be polymorphic. To measure the genetic variation present in a dsDNA virus population, we deep sequenced a natural strain of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. With 124,221X average genome coverage of our 133,926 bp long consensus, we could detect low frequency mutations (0.025%. K-means clustering was used to classify the mutations in four categories according to their frequency in the population. We found 60 high frequency non-synonymous mutations under balancing selection distributed in all functional classes. These mutants could alter viral adaptation dynamics, either through competitive or synergistic processes. Lastly, we developed a technique for the delimitation of large deletions in next generation sequencing data. We found that large deletions occur along the entire viral genome, with hotspots located in homologous repeat regions (hrs. Present in 25.4% of the genomes, these deletion mutants presumably require functional complementation to complete their infection cycle. They might thus have a large impact on the fitness of the baculovirus population. Altogether, we found a wide breadth of genomic variation in the baculovirus population, suggesting it has high adaptive potential.

  17. Trigger circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verity, P.R.; Chaplain, M.D.; Turner, G.D.J.

    1984-01-01

    A monostable trigger circuit comprises transistors TR2 and TR3 arranged with their collectors and bases interconnected. The collector of the transistor TR2 is connected to the base of transistor TR3 via a capacitor C2 the main current path of a grounded base transistor TR1 and resistive means R2,R3. The collector of transistor TR3 is connected to the base of transistor TR2 via resistive means R6, R7. In the stable state all the transistors are OFF, the capacitor C2 is charged, and the output is LOW. A positive pulse input to the base of TR2 switches it ON, which in turn lowers the voltage at points A and B and so switches TR1 ON so that C2 can discharge via R2, R3, which in turn switches TR3 ON making the output high. Thus all three transistors are latched ON. When C2 has discharged sufficiently TR1 switches OFF, followed by TR3 (making the output low again) and TR2. The components C1, C3 and R4 serve to reduce noise, and the diode D1 is optional. (author)

  18. Construction of a recombinant baculovirus expressing swine hepatitis E Virus ORF2 and preliminary research on its immune effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z; Hu, Y; Yuan, P; Yang, Y; Wang, K; Xie, L Y; Huang, S L; Liu, J; Ran, L; Song, Z H

    2018-03-01

    In the swine hepatitis E virus (HEV), open reading frame 2 (ORF2) is rich in antigenic determinants and neutralizing epitopes that could induce immune protection. We chose the Bac-to-Bac® Baculovirus Expression System to express fragments containing the critical neutralizing antigenic sites within the HEV ORF2 protein of pigs to obtain a recombinant baculovirus. The fragment of swine HEV ORF2 region (1198-1881bp) was cloned into vector pFastBacTM. A recombinant baculovirus, rBacmid-ORF2, was obtained after transposition and transfection. The molecular mass of the recombinant protein was 26 kDa. Mice were immunized by the intraperitoneal and oral routes with cell lysates of recombinant baculovirus rBacmid-ORF2. Serum and feces of the mice were collected separately at 0, 14, 28, and 42 d after immunization and the antibody levels of IgG and secretory IgA against swine HEV were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results suggested that rBacmid-ORF2 induced antibodies of the humoral and mucosal immune responses in mice and that the oral route was significantly superior to the intraperitoneal route. This is the first study to demonstrate that that recombinant baculovirus swine HEV ORF2 could induce humoral and mucosal immune responses in mice. Copyright© by the Polish Academy of Sciences.

  19. Localization of VP28 on the baculovirus envelope and its immunogenicity against white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus monodon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Musthaq, S.; Madhan, Selvaraj; Sahul Hameed, A.S.; Kwang, Jimmy

    2009-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large dsDNA virus responsible for white spot disease in shrimp and other crustaceans. VP28 is one of the major envelope proteins of WSSV and plays a crucial role in viral infection. In an effort to develop a vaccine against WSSV, we have constructed a recombinant baculovirus with an immediate early promoter 1 which expresses VP28 at an early stage of infection in insect cells. Baculovirus expressed rVP28 was able to maintain its structural and antigenic conformity as indicated by immunofluorescence assay and western blot analysis. Interestingly, our results with confocal microscopy revealed that rVP28 was able to localize on the plasma membrane of insect cells infected with recombinant baculovirus. In addition, we demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy that baculovirus successfully acquired rVP28 from the insect cell membrane via the budding process. Using this baculovirus displaying VP28 as a vaccine against WSSV, we observed a significantly higher survival rate of 86.3% and 73.5% of WSSV-infected shrimp at 3 and 15 days post vaccination respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR also indicated that the WSSV viral load in vaccinated shrimp was significantly reduced at 7 days post challenge. Furthermore, our RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus was able to express VP28 in vivo in shrimp tissues. This study will be of considerable significance in elucidating the morphogenesis of WSSV and will pave the way for new generation vaccines against WSSV.

  20. MicroRNAome of Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) and its alteration following baculovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Hussain, Mazhar; Asgari, Sassan

    2013-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) as small non-coding RNAs play important roles in many biological processes such as development, cell signalling and immune response. Studies also suggest that miRNAs are important in host-virus interactions where the host limits virus infection by differentially expressing miRNAs that target essential viral genes. Here, we identified conserved and new miRNAs from Spodoptera frugiperda cells (Sf9) using a combination of deep sequencing and bioinformatics as well as experimental approaches. S. frugiperda miRNAs share common features of miRNAs in other organisms, such as uracil (U) at the 5' end of miRNA. The 5' ends of the miRNAs were more conserved than the 3' ends, revealing evolutionary protection of the seed region in miRNAs. The predominant miRNAs were found to be conserved among arthropods. The majority of homologous miRNAs were found in Bombyx mori, with 76 of the 90 identified miRNAs. We found that seed shifting and arm switching have happened in this insect's miRNAs. Expression levels of the majority of miRNAs changed following baculovirus infection. Results revealed that baculovirus infection mainly led to an overall suppression of cellular miRNAs. We found four different genes being regulated by sfr-miR-184 at the post-transcriptional level. The data presented here further support conservation of miRNAs in insects and other organisms. In addition, the results reveal a differential expression of host miRNAs upon baculovirus infection, suggesting their potential roles in host-virus interactions. Seed shifting and arm switching happened during evolution of miRNAs in different insects and caused miRNA diversification, which led to changes in the target repository of miRNAs.

  1. Developing baculovirus-insect cell expression systems for humanized recombinant glycoprotein production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, Donald L.

    2003-01-01

    The baculovirus-insect cell expression system is widely used to produce recombinant glycoproteins for many different biomedical applications. However, due to the fundamental nature of insect glycoprotein processing pathways, this system is typically unable to produce recombinant mammalian glycoproteins with authentic oligosaccharide side chains. This minireview summarizes our current understanding of insect protein glycosylation pathways and our recent efforts to address this problem. These efforts have yielded new insect cell lines and baculoviral vectors that can produce recombinant glycoproteins with humanized oligosaccharide side chains

  2. High-yield production of canine parvovirus virus-like particles in a baculovirus expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongli; Xia, Xiaohong; Liu, Bing; Fu, Yu; Chen, Xianping; Wang, Huihui; Xia, Zhenqiang

    2016-03-01

    An optimized VP2 gene from the current prevalent CPV strain (new CPV-2a) in China was expressed in a baculovirus expression system. It was found that the VP2 proteins assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) with antigenic properties similar to those of natural CPV and with an especially high hemagglutination (HA) titer (1:2(20)). Dogs intramuscularly or orally immunized with VLPs produced antibodies against CPV with >1:80 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) units for at least 3 months. The CPV VLPs could be considered for use as a vaccine against CPV or as a platform for research on chimeric VLP vaccines against other diseases.

  3. Ultrastructural and pathogenesis of Monodon baculovirus in SPF shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei imported to Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bahari-Meimandi, S.A.; Afsharnasab, M.; Motallebi Moghanjoghi, A.A.; Azaritakami, G.; Sharifrohani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Viral pathogens are major causes of outbreaks in shrimp farms throughout the world. Monodon baculovirus has been known to be invasive in 85-100% of the shrimp hatcheries, in early or late stages of shrimp. Three-hundred and sixty juvenile of Litopenaeus vannamei with average (±SD) size of 7.99±0.54 g and 3600 post larvae 10-15 were prepared from Shrimp Research Station located in Helleh and 3 hatcheries from Bushehr Province, southern part of Iran, respectively. They were allocated to 9 glass...

  4. Antigenic evaluation of a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Sarcocystis neurona SAG1 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G D; Lakritz, J; Saville, W J; Livingston, R S; Dubey, J P; Middleton, J R; Marsh, A E

    2004-10-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is the primary parasite associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). This is a commonly diagnosed neurological disorder in the Americas that infects the central nervous system of horses. Current serologic assays utilize culture-derived parasites as antigen. This method requires large numbers of parasites to be grown in culture, which is labor intensive and time consuming. Also, a culture-derived whole-parasite preparation contains conserved antigens that could cross-react with antibodies against other Sarcocystis species and members of Sarcocystidae such as Neospora spp., Hammondia spp., and Toxoplasma gondii. Therefore, there is a need to develop an improved method for the detection of S. neurona-specific antibodies. The sera of infected horses react strongly to surface antigen 1 (SnSAG1), an approximately 29-kDa protein, in immunoblot analysis, suggesting that it is an immunodominant antigen. The SnSAG1 gene of S. neurona was cloned, and recombinant S. neurona SAG1 protein (rSnSAG1-Bac) was expressed with the use of a baculovirus system. By immunoblot analysis, the rSnSAG1-Bac antigen detected antibodies to S. neurona from naturally infected and experimentally inoculated equids, cats, rabbit, mice, and skunk. This is the first report of a baculovirus-expressed recombinant S. neurona antigen being used to detect anti-S. neurona antibodies in a variety of host species.

  5. How baculovirus polyhedra fit square pegs into round holes to robustly package viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoyun; Sutton, Geoff; Evans, Gwyndaf; Axford, Danny; Owen, Robin; Stuart, David I

    2010-01-20

    Natural protein crystals (polyhedra) armour certain viruses, allowing them to survive for years under hostile conditions. We have determined the structure of polyhedra of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), revealing a highly symmetrical covalently cross-braced robust lattice, the subunits of which possess a flexible adaptor enabling this supra-molecular assembly to specifically entrap massive baculoviruses. Inter-subunit chemical switches modulate the controlled release of virus particles in the unusual high pH environment of the target insect's gut. Surprisingly, the polyhedrin subunits are more similar to picornavirus coat proteins than to the polyhedrin of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV). It is, therefore, remarkable that both AcMNPV and CPV polyhedra possess identical crystal lattices and crystal symmetry. This crystalline arrangement must be particularly well suited to the functional requirements of the polyhedra and has been either preserved or re-selected during evolution. The use of flexible adaptors to generate a powerful system for packaging irregular particles is characteristic of the AcMNPV polyhedrin and may provide a vehicle to sequester a wide range of objects such as biological nano-particles.

  6. Sunlight stability and rain-fastness of formulations of Baculovirus heliothis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignoffo, C.M.; Garcia, C.; Saathoff, S.G.

    1997-01-01

    Sunlight-Ultraviolet, with an activity spectrum from 290 to 400 nm, is the most destructive factor affecting the persistence of baculoviruses. Benzopurpurin (a disazo dye) and carbon provided the best protection when polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) of Baculovirus heliothis were exposed to an artificial spectrum simulating sunlight-UV (UV). Greater than 75% of the original PIB activity was still present after 48 h of sunlight-UV. When sprayed on soybeans and exposed to natural sunlight, only formulations with carbon provided significant protection of PIB. The half-life of formulations were PIB-only 4.9 +/- 1.4 h (mean +/- SE), PIB + polymer (pyrrolidone-based sticker) 3.3 +/- 0.6 h, PIB + polymer + benzopurpurin 3.4 +/- 0.7 h, and PIB + polymer + carbon 27.7 +/- 5.2 h. PIB of B. heliothis tenaciously adhere to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, leaflets after spraying and drying. Less than 6% of the PIB activity of nonformulated PIB was lost after a drenching, simulated rainfall. More than 97% of the original PIB activity of carbon formulations was still present on soybean leaflets after 10 h of exposure to sunlight-UV. In contrast, 20% was present for formulations without carbon

  7. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the metalloglycoprotein esterase A4 using a baculovirus expression system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Toshiki [Protein Design Laboratory, Yokohama City University, 1-7-29 Suehiro, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Shibayama, Naoya [Department of Physiology, Division of Biophysics, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Yoon, Young-Ho [Protein Design Laboratory, Yokohama City University, 1-7-29 Suehiro, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Yun, Kyung-Mook [Department of Physiology, Division of Biophysics, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Hamamoto, Toshiro [Department of Biochemistry, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Tame, Jeremy R. H.; Park, Sam-Yong, E-mail: park@tsurumi.yokohama-cu.ac.jp [Protein Design Laboratory, Yokohama City University, 1-7-29 Suehiro, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan)

    2007-09-01

    Esterase A4 (EA4) is a timer protein found in diapause eggs of the silkworm Bombyx mori. The gene for this metalloglycoprotein was cloned from B. mori eggs and expressed using a baculovirus expression system in silkworm pupae. Crystals of the purified protein have been grown that diffract to beyond 2.1 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. Esterase A4 (EA4) is a timer protein found in diapause eggs of the silkworm Bombyx mori. The gene for this metalloglycoprotein was cloned from B. mori eggs and expressed using a baculovirus expression system in silkworm pupae. Crystals of the purified protein have been grown that diffract to beyond 2.1 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. The protein crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 47.1, b = 73.9, c = 47.4 Å, β = 104.1°. With one dimer per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (V{sub M}) is 2.3 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and the solvent content is 47%.

  8. Induction of antigen-specific immune responses in mice by recombinant baculovirus expressing premembrane and envelope proteins of West Nile virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Bibo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background West Nile Virus (WNV is an emerging arthropod-born flavivirus with increasing distribution worldwide that is responsible for a large proportion of viral encephalitis in humans and horses. Given that there are no effective antiviral drugs available for treatment of the disease, efforts have been directed to develop vaccines to prevent WNV infection. Recently baculovirus has emerged as a novel and attractive gene delivery vehicle for mammalian cells. Results In the present study, recombinant baculoviruses expressing WNV premembrane (prM and envelope (E proteins under the cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter with or without vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV/G were constructed. The recombinant baculoviruses designated Bac-G-prM/E and Bac-prM/E, efficiently express E protein in mammalian cells. Intramuscular injection of the two recombinant baculoviruses (at doses of 108 or 109 PFU/mouse induced the production of WNV-specific antibodies, neutralizing antibodies as well as gamma interferon (IFN-γ in a dose-dependent pattern. Interestingly, the recombinant baculovirus Bac-G-prM/E was found to be a more efficient immunogen than Bac-prM/E to elicit a robust immune response upon intramuscular injection. In addition, inoculation of baculovirus resulted in the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6. Conclusions These recombinant baculoviruses are capable of eliciting robust humoral and cellular immune responses in mice, and may be considered as novel vaccine candidates for West Nile Virus.

  9. The LHCb trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolko, I.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes progress in the development of the LHCb trigger system since the letter of intent. The trigger philosophy has significantly changed, resulting in an increase of trigger efficiency for signal B events. It is proposed to implement a level-1 vertex topology trigger in specialised hardware. (orig.)

  10. Behaviour of wild-type and genetically modified baculoviruses in the Helicoverpa armigera - cotton system: a simulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords:   Helicoverpa armigera , baculovirus, genetic modification, cotton,transmission

  11. Development of an influenza virus vaccine using the baculovirus-insect cell expression system : implications for pandemic preparedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, M.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Key word

    Influenza, rHA, vaccine, baculovirus, insect cells, production, pandemic preparedness

    Influenza (or flu) is a highly contagious, acute viral respiratory disease that occurs seasonally in most parts of the world and is caused by influenza viruses. Influenza

  12. Modelling biological control with wild-type and genetically modified baculoviruses in the Helicoverpa armigera-cotton system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, X.; Werf, van der W.; Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Hu, Z.; Vlak, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive model was developed to simulate virus epizootics in a stage structured insect population and analyse scenarios for the biological control of cotton bollworm (CBW), Helicoverpa armigera, in cotton, using wild-type or genetically modified baculoviruses. In simulations on dosage and

  13. ION-EXCHANGE IMMUNOAFFINITY PURIFICATION OF A RECOMBINANT BACULOVIRUS PLASMODIUM-FALCIPARUM APICAL MEMBRANE ANTIGEN, PF83/AMA-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NARUM, DL; WELLING, GW; THOMAS, AW

    1993-01-01

    A two-step purification regime has been developed for a quantitatively minor, putatively transmembrane, M(r) 83 000, apical membrane blood stage vaccine candidate antigen of Plasmodium falciparum (PF83/AMA-1), that has been expressed as a full-length baculovirus recombinant protein, PF83-FG8-1. The

  14. Expression of Na,K-ATPase and H,K-ATPase Isoforms with the Baculovirus Expression System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, J.B.; Swarts, H.G.

    2016-01-01

    P-type ATPases can be expressed in several cell systems. The baculovirus expressions system uses an insect virus to enter and express proteins in Sf9 insect cells. This expression system is a lytic system in which the cells will die a few days after viral infection. Subsequently, the expressed

  15. Vaccination with Recombinant Baculovirus Expressing Ranavirus Major Capsid Protein Induces Protective Immunity in Chinese Giant Salamander, Andrias davidianus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Zhou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese giant salamander iridovirus (CGSIV, belonging to the genus Ranavirus in the family Iridoviridae, is the causative agent of an emerging infectious disease causing high mortality of more than 90% and economic losses in Chinese giant salamanders in China. In this study, a recombinant baculovirus-based vaccine expressing the CGSIV major capsid protein (MCP was developed and its protective immunity in Chinese giant salamanders was evaluated. The recombinant Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrosis virus (AcNPV, expressing CGSIV MCP, designated as AcNPV-MCP, was generated with the highest titers of 1 × 108 plaque forming units/mL (PFU/mL and confirmed by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF assays. Western blot analysis revealed that the expressed MCP reacted with mouse anti-MCP monoclonal antibodies at the band of about 53 kDa. The results of IIF indicated that the MCP was expressed in the infected Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9 cells with the recombinant baculovirus, and the Chinese giant salamander muscle cells also transduced with the AcNPV-MCP. Immunization with the recombinant baculovirus of AcNPV-MCP elicited robust specific humoral immune responses detected by ELISA and neutralization assays and potent cellular immune responses in Chinese giant salamanders. Importantly, the effective immunization conferred highly protective immunity for Chinese giant salamanders against CGSIV challenge and produced a relative percent of survival rate of 84%. Thus, the recombinant baculovirus expressing CGSIV MCP can induce significant immune responses involving both humoral and cell-mediated immunity in Chinese giant salamanders and might represent a potential baculovirus based vaccine candidate for Chinese giant salamanders against CGSIV.

  16. A new theraphosid spider toxin causes early insect cell death by necrosis when expressed in vitro during recombinant baculovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mendes Pereira Ardisson-Araújo

    Full Text Available Baculoviruses are the most studied insect viruses in the world and are used for biological control of agricultural and forest insect pests. They are also used as versatile vectors for expression of heterologous proteins. One of the major problems of their use as biopesticides is their slow speed to kill insects. Thus, to address this shortcoming, insect-specific neurotoxins from arachnids have been introduced into the baculovirus genome solely aiming to improve its virulence. In this work, an insecticide-like toxin gene was obtained from a cDNA derived from the venom glands of the theraphosid spider Brachypelma albiceps. The mature form of the peptide toxin (called Ba3 has a high content of basic amino acid residues, potential for three possible disulfide bonds, and a predicted three-stranded β-sheetDifferent constructions of the gene were engineered for recombinant baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclepolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV expression. Five different forms of Ba3 were assessed; (1 the full-length sequence, (2 the pro-peptide and mature region, (3 only the mature region, and the mature region fused to an (4 insect or a (5 virus-derived signal peptide were inserted separately into the genome of the baculovirus. All the recombinant viruses induced cell death by necrosis earlier in infection relative to a control virus lacking the toxin gene. However, the recombinant virus containing the mature portion of the toxin gene induced a faster cell death than the other recombinants. We found that the toxin construct with the signal peptide and/or pro-peptide regions delayed the necrosis phenotype. When infected cells were subjected to ultrastructural analysis, the cells showed loss of plasma membrane integrity and structural changes in mitochondria before death. Our results suggest this use of baculovirus is a potential tool to help understand or to identify the effect of insect-specific toxic peptides when produced during infection of insect

  17. The Central Trigger Processor (CTP)

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) receives trigger information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors, as well as from other sources of trigger. It makes the Level-1 decision (L1A) based on a trigger menu.

  18. Immune responses to baculovirus-displayed enterovirus 71 VP1 antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiener, Tanja K; Premanand, Balraj; Kwang, Jimmy

    2013-04-01

    The increased distribution and neurovirulence of enterovirus 71 is an important health threat for young children in Asia Pacific. Vaccine design has concentrated on inactivated virus with the most advanced undergoing Phase III clinical trials. By using a subunit vaccine approach, production costs could be reduced by lowering the need for biocontainment. In addition, novel mutations could be rapidly incorporated to reflect the emergence of new enterovirus 71 subgenogroups. To circumvent the problems associated with conventional subunit vaccines, the antigen can be displayed on a viral vector that conveys stability and facilitates purification. Additional advantages of viral-vectored subunit vaccines are their ability to stimulate the innate immune system by transducing cells and the possibility of oral or nasal delivery, which dispenses with the need for syringes and medical personnel. Baculovirus-displayed VP1 combines all these benefits with protection that is as efficient as inactivated virus.

  19. The Influence of SV40 polyA on Gene Expression of Baculovirus Expression Vector Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Z Salem

    Full Text Available The simian virus 40 polyadenylation signal (SV40 polyA has been routinely inserted downstream of the polyhedrin promoter in many baculovirus expression vector systems (BEVS. In the baculovirus prototype Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV, the polyhedrin promoter (very late promoter transcribes its gene by a viral RNA polymerase therefore there is no supporting evidence that SV40 polyA is required for the proper gene expression under the polyhedrin promoter. Moreover, the effect of the SV40 polyA sequence on the polyhedrin promoter activity has not been tested either at its natural polyhedrin locus or in other loci in the viral genome. In order to test the significance of adding the SV40 polyA sequence on gene expression, the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp was evaluated with and without the presence of SV40 polyA under the control of the polyhedrin promoter at different genomic loci (polyherin, ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt, and gp37. In this study, spectrofluorometry and western blot showed reduction of EGFP protein for all recombinant viruses with SV40 polyA, whereas qPCR showed an increase in the egfp mRNA levels. Therefore, we conclude that SV40 polyA increases mRNA levels but decreases protein production in the BEVS when the polyhedrin promoter is used at different loci. This work suggests that SV40 polyA in BEVSs should be replaced by an AcMNPV late gene polyA for optimal protein production or left untouched for optimal RNA production (RNA interference applications.

  20. The Influence of SV40 polyA on Gene Expression of Baculovirus Expression Vector Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Tamer Z.; Seaborn, Craig P.; Turney, Colin M.; Xue, Jianli; Shang, Hui; Cheng, Xiao-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The simian virus 40 polyadenylation signal (SV40 polyA) has been routinely inserted downstream of the polyhedrin promoter in many baculovirus expression vector systems (BEVS). In the baculovirus prototype Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), the polyhedrin promoter (very late promoter) transcribes its gene by a viral RNA polymerase therefore there is no supporting evidence that SV40 polyA is required for the proper gene expression under the polyhedrin promoter. Moreover, the effect of the SV40 polyA sequence on the polyhedrin promoter activity has not been tested either at its natural polyhedrin locus or in other loci in the viral genome. In order to test the significance of adding the SV40 polyA sequence on gene expression, the expression of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) was evaluated with and without the presence of SV40 polyA under the control of the polyhedrin promoter at different genomic loci (polyherin, ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase (egt), and gp37). In this study, spectrofluorometry and western blot showed reduction of EGFP protein for all recombinant viruses with SV40 polyA, whereas qPCR showed an increase in the egfp mRNA levels. Therefore, we conclude that SV40 polyA increases mRNA levels but decreases protein production in the BEVS when the polyhedrin promoter is used at different loci. This work suggests that SV40 polyA in BEVSs should be replaced by an AcMNPV late gene polyA for optimal protein production or left untouched for optimal RNA production (RNA interference applications). PMID:26659470

  1. Baculovirus p35 gene is oppositely regulated by P53 and AP-1 like factors in Spodoptera frugiperda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohareer, Krishnaveni; Sahdev, Sudhir; Hasnain, Seyed E.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Baculovirus p35 is regulated by both viral and host factors. ► Baculovirus p35 is negatively regulated by SfP53-like factor. ► Baculovirus p35 is positively regulated by SfAP-1-like factor. -- Abstract: Baculovirus p35 belongs to the early class of genes of AcMNPV and requires viral factors like Immediate Early protein-1 for its transcription. To investigate the role of host factors in regulating p35 gene expression, the putative transcription factor binding sites were examined in silico and the role of these factors in influencing the transcription of p35 gene was assessed. We focused our studies on AP-1 and P53-like factors, which are activated under oxidative stress conditions. The AP-1 motif is located at −1401 while P53 motif is at −1912 relative to p35 translation start site. The predicted AP-1 and P53 elements formed specific complexes with Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear extracts. Both AP-1 and P53 motif binding proteins were down regulated as a function of AcMNPV infection in Spodoptera cells. To address the question whether during an oxidative outburst, the p35 transcription is enhanced; we investigated the role of these oxidative stress induced host transcription factors in influencing p35 gene transcription. Reporter assays revealed that AP-1 element enhances the transcription of p35 by a factor of two. Interestingly, P53 element appears to repress the transcription of p35 gene.

  2. Baculovirus p35 gene is oppositely regulated by P53 and AP-1 like factors in Spodoptera frugiperda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohareer, Krishnaveni [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology, Center for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad 500001 (India); Institute of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad Campus, Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Sahdev, Sudhir [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Biology, Center for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, Hyderabad 500001 (India); Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals, Gurgaon, New Delhi (India); Hasnain, Seyed E., E-mail: seh@bioschool.iitd.ac.in [Institute of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad Campus, Prof. C.R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046 (India); Kusuma School of Biological Sciences, IIT Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); ILBS, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi (India); King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is regulated by both viral and host factors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is negatively regulated by SfP53-like factor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baculovirus p35 is positively regulated by SfAP-1-like factor. -- Abstract: Baculovirus p35 belongs to the early class of genes of AcMNPV and requires viral factors like Immediate Early protein-1 for its transcription. To investigate the role of host factors in regulating p35 gene expression, the putative transcription factor binding sites were examined in silico and the role of these factors in influencing the transcription of p35 gene was assessed. We focused our studies on AP-1 and P53-like factors, which are activated under oxidative stress conditions. The AP-1 motif is located at -1401 while P53 motif is at -1912 relative to p35 translation start site. The predicted AP-1 and P53 elements formed specific complexes with Spodoptera frugiperda nuclear extracts. Both AP-1 and P53 motif binding proteins were down regulated as a function of AcMNPV infection in Spodoptera cells. To address the question whether during an oxidative outburst, the p35 transcription is enhanced; we investigated the role of these oxidative stress induced host transcription factors in influencing p35 gene transcription. Reporter assays revealed that AP-1 element enhances the transcription of p35 by a factor of two. Interestingly, P53 element appears to repress the transcription of p35 gene.

  3. BAT Triggering Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Kassandra M.; Fenimore, E. E.; Palmer, D. M.; BAT Team

    2006-09-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) onboard Swift has detected and located about 160 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in its first twenty months of operation. BAT employs two triggering systems to find GRBs: image triggering, which looks for a new point source in the field of view, and rate triggering, which looks for a significant increase in the observed counts. The image triggering system looks at 1 minute, 5 minute, and full pointing accumulations of counts in the detector plane in the energy range of 15-50 keV, with about 50 evaluations per pointing (about 40 minutes). The rate triggering system looks through 13 different time scales (from 4ms to 32s), 4 overlapping energy bins (covering 15-350 keV), 9 regions of the detector plane (from the full plane to individual quarters), and two background sampling models to search for GRBs. It evaluates 27000 trigger criteria in a second, for close to 1000 criteria. The image triggering system looks at 1, 5, and 40 minute accumulations of counts in the detector plane in the energy range of 15-50 keV. Both triggering systems are working very well with the settings from before launch and after we turned on BAT. However, we now have more than a year and a half of data to evaluate these triggering systems and tweak them for optimal performance, as well as lessons learned from these triggering systems.

  4. The conserved baculovirus protein p33 (Ac92) is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked sulfhydryl oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, C.M.; Rohrmann, G.F.; Merrill, G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Open reading frame 92 of the Autographa californica baculovirus (Ac92) is one of about 30 core genes present in all sequenced baculovirus genomes. Computer analyses predicted that the Ac92 encoded protein (called p33) and several of its baculovirus orthologs were related to a family of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-linked sulfhydryl oxidases. Alignment of these proteins indicated that, although they were highly diverse, a number of amino acids in common with the Erv1p/Alrp family of sulfhydryl oxidases are present. Some of these conserved amino acids are predicted to stack against the isoalloxazine and adenine components of FAD, whereas others are involved in electron transfer. To investigate this relationship, Ac92 was expressed in bacteria as a His-tagged fusion protein, purified, and characterized both spectrophotometrically and for its enzymatic activity. The purified protein was found to have the color (yellow) and absorption spectrum consistent with it being a FAD-containing protein. Furthermore, it was demonstrated to have sulfhydryl oxidase activity using dithiothreitol and thioredoxin as substrates.

  5. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... clothes. They should leave the coat outside or away from your child. Ask people who work at ...

  6. In vivo production of recombinant proteins using occluded recombinant AcMNPV-derived baculovirus vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guijarro-Pardo, Eva; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Escribano, José M

    2017-12-01

    Trichoplusia ni insect larvae infected with vectors derived from the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), are an excellent alternative to insect cells cultured in conventional bioreactors to produce recombinant proteins because productivity and cost-efficiency reasons. However, there is still a lot of work to do to reduce the manual procedures commonly required in this production platform that limit its scalability. To increase the scalability of this platform technology, a current bottleneck to be circumvented in the future is the need of injection for the inoculation of larvae with polyhedrin negative baculovirus vectors (Polh-) because of the lack of oral infectivity of these viruses, which are commonly used for production in insect cell cultures. In this work we have developed a straightforward alternative to obtain orally infective vectors derived from AcMNPV and expressing recombinant proteins that can be administered to the insect larvae (Trichoplusia ni) by feeding, formulated in the insect diet. The approach developed was based on the use of a recombinant polyhedrin protein expressed by a recombinant vector (Polh+), able to co-occlude any recombinant Polh- baculovirus vector expressing a recombinant protein. A second alternative was developed by the generation of a dual vector co-expressing the recombinant polyhedrin protein and the foreign gene of interest to obtain the occluded viruses. Additionally, by the incorporation of a reporter gene into the helper Polh+ vector, it was possible the follow-up visualization of the co-occluded viruses infection in insect larvae and will help to homogenize infection conditions. By using these methodologies, the production of recombinant proteins in per os infected larvae, without manual infection procedures, was very similar in yield to that obtained by manual injection of recombinant Polh- AcMNPV-based vectors expressing the same proteins. However, further analyses will be required for a

  7. A baculovirus (Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus) repeat element functions as a powerful constitutive enhancer in transfected insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, M; Farrell, P J; Johnson, R; Iatrou, K

    1997-12-05

    It has been previously reported that baculovirus homologous regions, the regions of baculovirus genomes that contain the origins of DNA replication, can augment the expression of a small number of baculovirus genes in vitro. We are now reporting that a region of the genome of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) containing the homologous region 3 (HR3) acts as an enhancer for the promoter of a nonviral gene, the cytoplasmic actin gene of the silkmoth B. mori. Incorporation of the HR3 sequences of BmNPV into an actin promoter-based expression cassette results in an augmentation of transgene expression in transfected cells by two orders of magnitude relative to the control recombinant expression cassette. This increase is due to a corresponding increase in the rate of transcription from the actin promoter and not to replication of the expression cassette and occurs only when the HR3 element is linked to the expression cassette in cis. A comparable degree of enhancement in the activity of the silkworm actin promoter occurs also in heterologous lepidopteran cells. Concomitant supplementation of transfected cells with the BmIE1 trans-activator, which was previously shown to be capable of functioning in vitro as a transcriptional co-activator of the cytoplasmic actin gene promoter, results in more than a 1,000-fold increase in the level of expression of recombinant proteins placed under the control of the actin gene promoter. These findings provide the foundation for the development of a nonlytic insect cell expression system for continuous high-level expression of recombinant proteins. Such a system should provide levels of expression of recombinant proteins comparable to those obtained from baculovirus expression systems and should also have the additional advantage of continuous production in a cellular environment that, in contrast to that generated by a baculovirus infection, supports continuously proper posttranslational modifications of recombinant

  8. Interplay between cost and benefits triggers nontrivial vaccination uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinegger, Benjamin; Cardillo, Alessio; Rios, Paolo De Los; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Arenas, Alex

    2018-03-01

    The containment of epidemic spreading is a major challenge in science. Vaccination, whenever available, is the best way to prevent the spreading, because it eventually immunizes individuals. However, vaccines are not perfect, and total immunization is not guaranteed. Imperfect immunization has driven the emergence of antivaccine movements that totally alter the predictions about the epidemic incidence. Here, we propose a mathematically solvable mean-field vaccination model to mimic the spontaneous adoption of vaccines against influenzalike diseases and the expected epidemic incidence. The results are in agreement with extensive Monte Carlo simulations of the epidemics and vaccination coevolutionary processes. Interestingly, the results reveal a nonmonotonic behavior on the vaccination coverage that increases with the imperfection of the vaccine and after decreases. This apparent counterintuitive behavior is analyzed and understood from stability principles of the proposed mathematical model.

  9. Lessons from (triggered) tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    I test a “clock-advance” model that implies triggered tremor is ambient tremor that occurs at a sped-up rate as a result of loading from passing seismic waves. This proposed model predicts that triggering probability is proportional to the product of the ambient tremor rate and a function describing the efficacy of the triggering wave to initiate a tremor event. Using data mostly from Cascadia, I have compared qualitatively a suite of teleseismic waves that did and did not trigger tremor with ambient tremor rates. Many of the observations are consistent with the model if the efficacy of the triggering wave depends on wave amplitude. One triggered tremor observation clearly violates the clock-advance model. The model prediction that larger triggering waves result in larger triggered tremor signals also appears inconsistent with the measurements. I conclude that the tremor source process is a more complex system than that described by the clock-advance model predictions tested. Results of this and previous studies also demonstrate that (1) conditions suitable for tremor generation exist in many tectonic environments, but, within each, only occur at particular spots whose locations change with time; (2) any fluid flow must be restricted to less than a meter; (3) the degree to which delayed failure and secondary triggering occurs is likely insignificant; and 4) both shear and dilatational deformations may trigger tremor. Triggered and ambient tremor rates correlate more strongly with stress than stressing rate, suggesting tremor sources result from time-dependent weakening processes rather than simple Coulomb failure.

  10. Triggering trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Stefano, Giulia; Maarbjerg, Stine; Nurmikko, Turo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Although it is widely accepted that facial pain paroxysms triggered by innocuous stimuli constitute a hallmark sign of trigeminal neuralgia, very few studies to date have systematically investigated the role of the triggers involved. In the recently published diagnostic classification...

  11. Triggering the GRANDE array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.L.; Bratton, C.B.; Gurr, J.; Kropp, W.; Nelson, M.; Sobel, H.; Svoboda, R.; Yodh, G.; Burnett, T.; Chaloupka, V.; Wilkes, R.J.; Cherry, M.; Ellison, S.B.; Guzik, T.G.; Wefel, J.; Gaidos, J.; Loeffler, F.; Sembroski, G.; Goodman, J.; Haines, T.J.; Kielczewska, D.; Lane, C.; Steinberg, R.; Lieber, M.; Nagle, D.; Potter, M.; Tripp, R.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description of the Gamma Ray And Neutrino Detector Experiment (GRANDE) is presented. The detector elements and electronics are described. The trigger logic for the array is then examined. The triggers for the Gamma Ray and the Neutrino portions of the array are treated separately. (orig.)

  12. Trigger Menu in 2017

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This document summarises the trigger menu deployed by the ATLAS experiment during 2017 data taking at proton-proton collision centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV and $\\sqrt{s}=5$ TeV at the LHC and describes the improvements with respect to the trigger system and menu used in 2016 data taking.

  13. Causality and headache triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  14. The LHCb trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Hernando Morata, Jose Angel

    2006-01-01

    The LHCb experiment relies on an efficient trigger to select a rate up to 2 kHz of events useful for physics analysis from an initial rate of 10 MHz of visible collisions. In this contribution, we describe the different LHCb trigger algorithms and present their expected performance.

  15. Characterization of Recombinant Thermococcus kodakaraensis (KOD) DNA Polymerases Produced Using Silkworm-Baculovirus Expression Vector System

    KAUST Repository

    Yamashita, Mami; Xu, Jian; Morokuma, Daisuke; Hirata, Kazuma; Hino, Masato; Mon, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Masateru; Hamdan, Samir; Sakashita, Kosuke; Iiyama, Kazuhiro; Banno, Yutaka; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Lee, Jae Man

    2017-01-01

    The KOD DNA polymerase from Thermococcus kodakarensis (Tkod-Pol) has been preferred for PCR due to its rapid elongation rate, extreme thermostability and outstanding fidelity. Here in this study, we utilized silkworm-baculovirus expression vector system (silkworm-BEVS) to express the recombinant Tkod-Pol (rKOD) with N-terminal (rKOD-N) or C-terminal (rKOD-C) tandem fusion tags. By using BEVS, we produced functional rKODs with satisfactory yields, about 1.1 mg/larva for rKOD-N and 0.25 mg/larva for rKOD-C, respectively. Interestingly, we found that rKOD-C shows higher thermostability at 95 °C than that of rKOD-N, while that rKOD-N is significantly unstable after exposing to long period of heat-shock. We also assessed the polymerase activity as well as the fidelity of purified rKODs under various conditions. Compared with commercially available rKOD, which is expressed in E. coli expression system, rKOD-C exhibited almost the same PCR performance as the commercial rKOD did, while rKOD-N did lower performance. Taken together, our results suggested that silkworm-BEVS can be used to express and purify efficient rKOD in a commercial way.

  16. N-glycan sialylation in a silkworm-baculovirus expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganuma, Masatoshi; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Higa, Yukiko; Kataoka, Yukiko; Funaguma, Shunsuke; Okazaki, Hironobu; Suzuki, Takeo; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Sezutsu, Hideki; Tatematsu, Ken-Ichiro; Tamura, Toshiki

    2018-02-09

    A silkworm-baculovirus system is particularly effective for producing recombinant proteins, including glycoproteins. However, N-glycan structures in silkworm differ from those in mammals. Glycoproteins in silkworm are secreted as pauci-mannose type N-glycans without sialic acid or galactose residues. Sialic acid on N-glycans plays important roles in protein functions. Therefore, we developed pathways for galactosylation and sialylation in silkworm. Sialylated N-glycans on proteins were successfully produced in silkworm by co-expressing galactosyltransferase and sialyltransferase and providing an external supply of a sialylation-related substrate. α2,3/α2,6 Sialylation to N-glycans was controlled by changing the type of sialyltransferase expressed in silkworm. Furthermore, the co-expression of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II facilitated the formation of additional di-sialylated N-glycan structures. Our results provide new information on the control of N-glycosylation in silkworm. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of Recombinant Thermococcus kodakaraensis (KOD) DNA Polymerases Produced Using Silkworm-Baculovirus Expression Vector System

    KAUST Repository

    Yamashita, Mami

    2017-05-08

    The KOD DNA polymerase from Thermococcus kodakarensis (Tkod-Pol) has been preferred for PCR due to its rapid elongation rate, extreme thermostability and outstanding fidelity. Here in this study, we utilized silkworm-baculovirus expression vector system (silkworm-BEVS) to express the recombinant Tkod-Pol (rKOD) with N-terminal (rKOD-N) or C-terminal (rKOD-C) tandem fusion tags. By using BEVS, we produced functional rKODs with satisfactory yields, about 1.1 mg/larva for rKOD-N and 0.25 mg/larva for rKOD-C, respectively. Interestingly, we found that rKOD-C shows higher thermostability at 95 °C than that of rKOD-N, while that rKOD-N is significantly unstable after exposing to long period of heat-shock. We also assessed the polymerase activity as well as the fidelity of purified rKODs under various conditions. Compared with commercially available rKOD, which is expressed in E. coli expression system, rKOD-C exhibited almost the same PCR performance as the commercial rKOD did, while rKOD-N did lower performance. Taken together, our results suggested that silkworm-BEVS can be used to express and purify efficient rKOD in a commercial way.

  18. Roles of silkworm endoplasmic reticulum chaperones in the secretion of recombinant proteins expressed by baculovirus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Saki; Kusakabe, Takahiro; Xu, Jian; Li, Zhiqing; Shirai, Shintaro; Mon, Hiroaki; Morokuma, Daisuke; Lee, Jae Man

    2015-11-01

    Baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is widely used for production of recombinant eukaryotic proteins in insect larvae or cultured cells. BEVS has advantages over bacterial expression system in producing post-translationally modified secreted proteins. However, for some unknown reason, it is very difficult for insects to secrete sufficiently for certain proteins of interest. To understand the reasons why insect cells fail to secrete some kinds of recombinant proteins, we here employed three mammalian proteins as targets, EPO, HGF, and Wnt3A, with different secretion levels in BEVS and investigated their mRNA transcriptions from the viral genome, subcellular localizations, and interactions with silkworm ER chaperones. Moreover, we observed that no significantly influence on the secretion amounts of all three proteins when depleting or overexpressing most endogenous ER chaperone genes in cultured silkworm cells. However, among all detected ER chaperones, the depletion of BiP severely decreased the recombinant protein secretion in BEVS, indicating the possible central role of Bip in silkworm secretion pathway.

  19. Future vital prospect of gene expression factors of lef-7 (baculovirus expression: Old body, young cherub

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Reyad-ul-ferdous

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Baculovirus; late expression factors (Lef-7 have potential roles for protein expression in insect and mammalian cells; Efficient expression of recombinant proteins to facilitate the practical and structural investigation. Aims Lef-7 might play crucial roles in transcription and translation reactions of insect cell lines. Methods Materials and Methods: All required information regards Lef-7 was generated by exploring the internet search engine like as (PubMed, Wiley, ScienceDirect, CNKI, ACS, Google Scholar, Web of Science, SciFinder, and Baidu Scholar and libraries. Results These properties issue crucial scope for DNA cloning and act as a vital vector for insect and mammalian cells. Left-7 could be the significant site in the development of the vaccine for a couple of chronic diseases. Further investigation needs to study on therapeutic vaccines with few immunologic advantages over proteins derived from mammalian sources, and animal sources. Lef-7 demonstrates the significant impact in the fields of DNA immunology research to insight into the mechanistic and utilitarian link between autoimmunity, infectious diseases, and cancer. Conclusion This review reveals Lef-7 gene function offers a workable strategy for the expression of whole viral protomers as the future prospect of Lef-7.

  20. Characterization of a baculovirus nuclear localization signal domain in the late expression factor 3 protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, Victoria; Yu Mei; Carstens, Eric B.

    2009-01-01

    The baculovirus Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) single-stranded DNA binding protein LEF-3 is a multi-functional protein that is required to transport the helicase protein P143 into the nucleus of infected cells where they function to replicate viral DNA. The N-terminal 56 amino acid region of LEF-3 is required for nuclear transport. In this report, we analyzed the effect of site-specific mutagenesis of LEF-3 on its intracellular distribution. Fluorescence microscopy of expression plasmid-transfected cells demonstrated that the residues 28 to 32 formed the core nuclear localization signal, but other adjacent positively-charged residues augmented these sequences. Comparison with other group I Alphabaculoviruses suggested that this core region functionally duplicated residues including 18 and 19. This was demonstrated by the loss of nuclear localization when the equivalent residues (18 to 20) in Choristoneura fumiferana nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfMNPV) LEF-3 were mutated. The AcMNPV LEF-3 nuclear localization domain was also shown to drive nuclear transport in mammalian cells indicating that the protein nuclear import systems in insect and mammalian cells are conserved. We also demonstrated by mutagenesis that two conserved cysteine residues located at 82 and 106 were not essential for nuclear localization or for interaction with P143. However, by using a modified construct of P143 that localized on its own to the nucleus, we demonstrated that a functional nuclear localization domain on LEF-3 was required for interaction between LEF-3 and P143

  1. Expression of the human multidrug transporter in insect cells by a recombinant baculovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germann, U.A.; Willingham, M.C.; Pastan, I.; Gottesman, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The plasma membrane associated human multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene product, known as the 170-kDa P-glycoprotein or the multidrug transporter, acts as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for various cytotoxic agents. The authors expressed recombinant human multidrug transporter in a baculovirus expression system to obtain large quantities and further investigate its structure and mechanism of action. MDR1 cDNA was inserted into the genome of the Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus under the control of the polyhedrin promoter. Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells synthesized high levels of recombinant multidrug transporter 2-3 days after infection. The transporter was localized by immunocytochemical methods on the external surface of the plasma membranes, in the Golgi apparatus, and within the nuclear envelope. The human multidrug transporter expressed in insect cells is not susceptible to endoglycosidase F treatment and has a lower apparent molecular weight of 140,000, corresponding to the nonglycosylated precursor of its authentic counterpart expressed in multidrug-resistant cells. Labeling experiments showed that the recombinant multidrug transporter is phosphorylated and can be photoaffinity labeled by [ 3 H]azidopine, presumably at the same two sites as the native protein. Various drugs and reversing agents compete with the [ 3 H]azidopine binding reaction when added in excess, indicating that the recombinant human multidrug transporter expressed in insect cells is functionally similar to its authentic counterpart

  2. The NA27 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzarri, R.; Di Capua, E.; Falciano, S.; Iori, M.; Marel, G.; Piredda, G.; Zanello, L.; Haupt, L.; Hellman, S.; Holmgren, S.O.; Johansson, K.E.

    1985-05-01

    We have designed and implemented a minimum bias trigger together with a fiducial volume trigger for the experiment NA27, performed at the CERN SPS. A total of more than 3 million bubble chamber pictures have been taken with a triggered cross section smaller than 75% of the total inelastic cross section. Events containing charm particles were triggered with an efficiency of 98 +2 sub(-3)%. With the fiducial volume trigger, the probability for a picture to contain an interaction in the visible hydrogen increased from 47.3% to 59.5%, reducing film cost and processing effort with about 20%. The improvement in data taking rate is shown to be negligible. (author)

  3. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Ilten, Philip; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays. (paper)

  4. NOMAD Trigger Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varvell, K.

    1995-01-01

    The author reports on the status of an offline study of the NOMAD triggers, which has several motivations. Of primary importance is to demonstrate, using offline information recorded by the individual subdetectors comprising NOMAD, that the online trigger system is functioning as expected. Such an investigation serves to complement the extensive monitoring which is already carried out online. More specific to the needs of the offline software and analysis, the reconstruction of tracks and vertices in the detector requires some knowledge of the time at which the trigger has occurred, in order to locate relevant hits in the drift chambers and muon chambers in particular. The fact that the different triggers allowed by the MIOTRINO board take varying times to form complicates this task. An offline trigger algorithm may serve as a tool to shed light on situations where the online trigger status bits have not been recorded correctly, as happens in a small number of cases, or as an aid to studies with the aim of further refinement of the online triggers themselves

  5. Baculovirus-mediated gene transfer in butterfly wings in vivo: an efficient expression system with an anti-gp64 antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, Bidur; Ohno, Yoshikazu; Matayoshi, Rie; Otaki, Joji M

    2013-03-25

    Candidate genes for color pattern formation in butterfly wings have been known based on gene expression patterns since the 1990s, but their functions remain elusive due to a lack of a functional assay. Several methods of transferring and expressing a foreign gene in butterfly wings have been reported, but they have suffered from low success rates or low expression levels. Here, we developed a simple, practical method to efficiently deliver and express a foreign gene using baculovirus-mediated gene transfer in butterfly wings in vivo. A recombinant baculovirus containing a gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP) was injected into pupae of the blue pansy butterfly Junonia orithya (Nymphalidae). GFP fluorescence was detected in the pupal wings and other body parts of the injected individuals three to five days post-injection at various degrees of fluorescence. We obtained a high GFP expression rate at relatively high virus titers, but it was associated with pupal death before color pattern formation in wings. To reduce the high mortality rate caused by the baculovirus treatment, we administered an anti-gp64 antibody, which was raised against baculovirus coat protein gp64, to infected pupae after the baculovirus injection. This treatment greatly reduced the mortality rate of the infected pupae. GFP fluorescence was observed in pupal and adult wings and other body parts of the antibody-treated individuals at various degrees of fluorescence. Importantly, we obtained completely developed wings with a normal color pattern, in which fluorescent signals originated directly from scales or the basal membrane after the removal of scales. GFP fluorescence in wing tissues spatially coincided with anti-GFP antibody staining, confirming that the fluorescent signals originated from the expressed GFP molecules. Our baculovirus-mediated gene transfer system with an anti-gp64 antibody is reasonably efficient, and it can be an invaluable tool to transfer, express, and functionally

  6. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  7. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Igonkina, O; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Alexandre, G; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bee, C; Behera, P; Bell, P; Bendel, M; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bogaerts, A; Bohm, C; Bold, T; Booth, J R A; Bosman, M; Boyd, J; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I, P; Brelier, B; Brooks, W; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Casadei, D; Casado, P; Cerri, A; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Conde Muino, P; Coura Torres, R; Cranmer, K; Curtis, C J; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Damazio, D; Davis, A O; De Santo, A; Degenhardt, J; Delsart, P A; Demers, S; Demirkoz, B; Di Mattia, A; Diaz, M; Djilkibaev, R; Dobson, E; Dova, M, T; Dufour, M A; Eckweiler, S; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eisenhandler, E; Ellis, N; Emeliyanov, D; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D; Faulkner, P J W; Ferland, J; Flacher, H; Fleckner, J E; Flowerdew, M; Fonseca-Martin, T; Fratina, S; Fhlisch, F; Gadomski, S; Gallacher, M P; Garitaonandia Elejabarrieta, H; Gee, C N P; George, S; Gillman, A R; Goncalo, R; Grabowska-Bold, I; Groll, M; Gringer, C; Hadley, D R; Haller, J; Hamilton, A; Hanke, P; Hauser, R; Hellman, S; Hidvgi, A; Hillier, S J; Hryn'ova, T; Idarraga, J; Johansen, M; Johns, K; Kalinowski, A; Khoriauli, G; Kirk, J; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Koeneke, K; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kwee, R; Landon, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit, F; Lei, X; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Losada, M; Maettig, S; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Maltrana, D; Marino, C; Masik, J; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Mincer, A; Moa, T; Monticelli, F; Moreno, D; Morris, J D; Mller, F; Navarro, G A; Negri, A; Nemethy, P; Neusiedl, A; Oltmann, B; Olvito, D; Osuna, C; Padilla, C; Panes, B; Parodi, F; Perera, V J O; Perez, E; Perez Reale, V; Petersen, B; Pinzon, G; Potter, C; Prieur, D P F; Prokishin, F; Qian, W; Quinonez, F; Rajagopalan, S; Reinsch, A; Rieke, S; Riu, I; Robertson, S; Rodriguez, D; Rogriquez, Y; Rhr, F; Saavedra, A; Sankey, D P C; Santamarina, C; Santamarina Rios, C; Scannicchio, D; Schiavi, C; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Schfer, U; Segura, E; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S; Sivoklokov, S; Sjlin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stelzer, J; Stockton, M C; Straessner, A; Strom, D; Sushkov, S; Sutton, M; Tamsett, M; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Torrence, E; Tripiana, M; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Vachon, B; Vercesi, V; Vorwerk, V; Wang, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Weidberg, T; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wheeler-Ellis, S; Whiteson, D; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wildt, M; Winklmeier, F; Wu, X; Xella, S; Zhao, L; Zobernig, H; de Seixas, J M; dos Anjos, A; Asman, B; Özcan, E

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 105 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  8. BTeV Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Erik E.

    2006-01-01

    BTeV was designed to conduct precision studies of CP violation in BB-bar events using a forward-geometry detector in a hadron collider. The detector was optimized for high-rate detection of beauty and charm particles produced in collisions between protons and antiprotons. The trigger was designed to take advantage of the main difference between events with beauty and charm particles and more typical hadronic events-the presence of detached beauty and charm decay vertices. The first stage of the BTeV trigger was to receive data from a pixel vertex detector, reconstruct tracks and vertices for every beam crossing, reject at least 98% of beam crossings in which neither beauty nor charm particles were produced, and trigger on beauty events with high efficiency. An overview of the trigger design and its evolution to include commodity networking and computing components is presented

  9. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonkina, O; Achenbach, R; Andrei, V; Adragna, P; Aharrouche, M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Alexandre, G; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Backlund, S; Bogaerts, A; Baines, J; Barnett, B M; Bee, C; P, Behera; Bell, P; Benslama, K; Berry, T; Bohm, C

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 | 10 5 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  10. Calorimetry Triggering in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonkina, O.; Achenbach, R.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Alexandre, G.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Backlund, S.; Baines, J.; Barnett, B.M.; Bauss, B.; Bee, C.; Behera, P.; Bell, P.; Bendel, M.; Benslama, K.; Berry, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Bohm, C.; Bold, T.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bosman, M.; Boyd, J.; Bracinik, J.; Brawn, I.P.; Brelier, B.; Brooks, W.; Brunet, S.; Bucci, F.; Casadei, D.; Casado, P.; Cerri, A.; Charlton, D.G.; Childers, J.T.; Collins, N.J.; Conde Muino, P.; Coura Torres, R.; Cranmer, K.; Curtis, C.J.; Czyczula, Z.; Dam, M.; Damazio, D.; Davis, A.O.; De Santo, A.; Degenhardt, J.

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2/10 5 to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  11. Calorimetry triggering in ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igonkina, O [Nikhef National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Achenbach, R; Andrei, V [Kirchhoff Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Adragna, P [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London (United Kingdom); Aharrouche, M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M [Institut fr Physik, Universitt Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Alexandre, G [Section de Physique, Universite de Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Anduaga, X [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata (Argentina); Aracena, I [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Stanford (United States); Backlund, S; Bogaerts, A [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Baines, J; Barnett, B M [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Bee, C [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, IN2P3-CNRS, Marseille (France); P, Behera [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States); Bell, P [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Benslama, K [University of Regina, Regina (Canada); Berry, T [Department of Physics, Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham (United Kingdom); Bohm, C [Fysikum, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2 | 10{sup 5} to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  12. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00400931; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-23

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. ...

  13. Topological Trigger Developments

    CERN Multimedia

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so-called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected an almost 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%, and its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and uBoost. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all "interesting" decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. These inclu...

  14. Production of mink enteritis parvovirus empty capsids by expression in a baculovirus vector system: a recombinant vaccine for mink enteritis parvovirus in mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J; Alexandersen, Søren; Bloch, B.

    1994-01-01

    The VP-2 gene of mink enteritis parvovirus (MEV) was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction using MEV DNA isolated from the faeces of a naturally infected mink. Subsequently the VP-2 gene was cloned into a baculovirus expression vector. Recombinant baculo-viruses were isolated and the MEV VP-2...... protein was able to form parvovirus-like particles, which had haemagglutinating properties comparable with the wild-type MEV. The cloned VP-2 gene was sequenced and only five nucleotide differences were found after alignment with the known sequences of the MEV type 1 and type 2 isolates. Surprisingly...

  15. Aromatic/heterocyclic amino acids and the simulated sunlight-ultraviolet inactivation of the Heliothis/Helicoverpa baculovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignoffo, C.M.; Garcia, C.

    1995-01-01

    Tryptophan, of five aromatic/heterocyclic amino acids (tyrosine, phenylalanine, proline, histidine) provided significant protection of the Heliothis baculovirus (HzSNPV) from inactivation by simulated ultraviolet (SUV). Fifty percent of SUV protection of HzSNPV with tryptophan or tyrosine was obtained at 0.03 mg/ml and 0.5 mg/ml, respectively. Rates as high as 100.0 mg/ml of phenylalanine, histidine, or proline provided <50% protection. The extent of tryptophan protection was correlated with its absorption in the sunlight UV-B spectra. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  16. DNA microarrays of baculovirus genomes: differential expression of viral genes in two susceptible insect cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, J; Isobe, R; Takebuchi, T; Bando, H

    2003-03-01

    We describe, for the first time, the generation of a viral DNA chip for simultaneous expression measurements of nearly all known open reading frames (ORFs) in the best-studied members of the family Baculoviridae, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV). In this study, a viral DNA chip (Ac-BmNPV chip) was fabricated and used to characterize the viral gene expression profile for AcMNPV in different cell types. The viral chip is composed of microarrays of viral DNA prepared by robotic deposition of PCR-amplified viral DNA fragments on glass for ORFs in the NPV genome. Viral gene expression was monitored by hybridization to the DNA fragment microarrays with fluorescently labeled cDNAs prepared from infected Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9 cells and Trichoplusia ni, TnHigh-Five cells, the latter a major producer of baculovirus and recombinant proteins. A comparison of expression profiles of known ORFs in AcMNPV elucidated six genes (ORF150, p10, pk2, and three late gene expression factor genes lef-3, p35 and lef- 6) the expression of each of which was regulated differently in the two cell lines. Most of these genes are known to be closely involved in the viral life cycle such as in DNA replication, late gene expression and the release of polyhedra from infected cells. These results imply that the differential expression of these viral genes accounts for the differences in viral replication between these two cell lines. Thus, these fabricated microarrays of NPV DNA which allow a rapid analysis of gene expression at the viral genome level should greatly speed the functional analysis of large genomes of NPV.

  17. Baculovirus p35 increases pancreatic β-cell resistance to apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollander, Kenneth; Bar-Chen, Michal; Efrat, Shimon

    2005-01-01

    β-cells die by apoptosis in type 1 diabetes as a result of autoimmune attack mediated by cytokines, and in type 2 diabetes by various perpetrators including human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). The cascade of apoptotic events induced by cytokines and hIAPP is mediated through caspases and reactive oxygen species. The baculovirus p35 protein is a potent anti-apoptotic agent shown to be effective in a variety of species and able to inhibit a number of apoptotic pathways. Here, we aimed at determining the protective potential of p35 in β-cells exposed to cytokines and hIAPP, as well as the effects of p35 on β-cell function. The p35 gene was introduced into βTC-tet cells, a differentiated murine β-cell line capable of undergoing inducible growth-arrest. Both proliferating and growth-arrested cells expressing p35 manifested increased resistance to cytokines and hIAPP, compared with control cells, as judged by cell viability, DNA fragmentation, and caspase-3 activity assays. p35 was significantly more protective in growth-arrested, compared with proliferating, cells. No significant differences were observed in proliferation and insulin content between cells expressing p35 and control cells. In contrast, p35 manifested a perturbing effect on glucose-induced insulin secretion. These findings suggest that p35 could be incorporated as part of a multi-pronged approach of immunoprotective strategies to provide protection from recurring autoimmunity for transplanted β-cells, as well as in preventive gene therapy in type 1 diabetes. p35 may also be protective from β-cell damage caused by hIAPP in type 2 diabetes

  18. Analysis of expression and glycosylation of avian metapneumovirus attachment glycoprotein from recombinant baculoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lizhong; Nishi, Krista; MacLeod, Erin; Sabara, Marta I; Li, Yan

    2010-11-01

    Recently, we reported the expression and glycosylation of avian metapneumovirus attachment glycoprotein (AMPV/C G protein) in eukaryotic cell lines by a transient-expression method. In the present study, we investigated the biosynthesis and O-linked glycosylation of the AMPV/C G protein in a baculovirus expression system. The results showed that the insect cell-produced G protein migrated more rapidly in SDS-PAGE as compared to LLC-MK2 cell-derived G proteins owing to glycosylation differences. The fully processed, mature form of G protein migrated between 78 and 86 kDa, which is smaller than the 110 kDa mature form of G expressed in LLC-MK2 cells. In addition, several immature G gene products migrating at 40-48 and 60-70 kDa were also detected by SDS-PAGE and represented glycosylated intermediates. The addition of the antibiotic tunicamycin, which blocks early steps of glycosylation, to insect cell culture resulted in the disappearance of two glycosylated forms of the G protein and identified a 38 kDa unglycosylated precursor. The maturation of the G protein was completely blocked by monensin, suggesting that the O-linked glycosylation of G initiated in the trans-Golgi compartment. The presence of O-linked sugars on the mature protein was further confirmed by lectin Arachis hypogaea binding assay. Furthermore, antigenic features of the G protein expressed in insect cells were evaluated by ELISA. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CMS Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Donato, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    During its second run of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will deliver a peak instantaneous luminosity that may reach $2 \\cdot 10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realized by a two-level trigger system the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has been through a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT go through big improvements; in particular, new appr...

  20. MacoNPV baculovirus midgut-specific gene expression during infection of the bertha armyworm, Mamestra configurata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donly, B. Cameron, E-mail: Cam.Donly@agr.gc.ca [London Research and Development Centre, AAFC, London, ON (Canada); Kaplanoglu, Emine [London Research and Development Centre, AAFC, London, ON (Canada); Theilmann, David A. [Summerland Research and Development Centre, AAFC, Summerland, BC (Canada); Baldwin, Doug; Sieminska, Edyta; Hegedus, Dwayne D.; Erlandson, Martin A. [Saskatoon Research and Development Centre, AAFC, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Baculoviruses have two forms, occlusion derived virus (ODV) which is responsible for primary infection in host midgut tissue and budded virus (BV), which infects all other host tissues during secondary infection. This study examined the primary infection by ODV of midgut cells of bertha armyworm Mamestra configurata fourth instar larvae and measured the expression of viral genes over a time course of infection. Both digital PCR and RNA sequencing methods showed the profile of transcription to be different from those produced by AcMNPV BV infection of in vitro cell cultures. This included having unique collections of genes expressed early, as well as much greater late gene expression of p6.9 and much reduced expression of polh and p10. These differences likely reflect characteristics unique to the critical step of in vivo midgut cell infection, and provide insights into the processes that regulate viral gene expression in different host tissues. -- Highlights: •The transcriptome of MacoNPV ODV in larval midgut was measured by RNA-seq and digital PCR. •The earliest genes expressed included fusion protein, hoar, and me53. •p6.9 was highly expressed late but polH and p10 were less so. •These patterns are unique from BV of other baculoviruses in tissue culture cells.

  1. A Role for the Anti-Viral Host Defense Mechanism in the Phylogenetic Divergence in Baculovirus Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Nagamine

    Full Text Available Although phylogenic analysis often suggests co-evolutionary relationships between viruses and host organisms, few examples have been reported at the microevolutionary level. Here, we show a possible example in which a species-specific anti-viral response may drive phylogenic divergence in insect virus evolution. Two baculoviruses, Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV, have a high degree of DNA sequence similarity, but exhibit non-overlapping host specificity. In our study of their host-range determination, we found that BmNPV replication in B. mori cells was prevented by AcMNPV-P143 (AcP143, but not BmNPV-P143 (BmP143 or a hybrid P143 protein from a host-range expanded phenotype. This suggests that AcMNPV resistance in B. mori cells depends on AcP143 recognition and that BmNPV uses BmP143 to escapes this recognition. Based on these data, we propose an insect-baculovirus co-evolution scenario in which an ancestor of silkworms exploited an AcMNPV-resistant mechanism; AcMNPV counteracted this resistance via P143 mutations, resulting in the birth of BmNPV.

  2. Baculovirus proteins IE-1, LEF-3, and P143 interact with DNA in vivo: a formaldehyde cross-linking study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Emma; Sahri, Daniela; Knippers, Rolf; Carstens, Eric B.

    2004-01-01

    IE-1, LEF-3, and P143 are three of six proteins encoded by Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) essential for baculovirus DNA replication in transient replication assays. IE-1 is the major baculovirus immediate early transcription regulator. LEF-3 is a single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB) and P143 is a DNA helicase protein. To investigate their interactions in vivo, we treated AcMNPV-infected Spodoptera frugiperda cells with formaldehyde and separated soluble proteins from chromatin by cell fractionation and cesium chloride equilibrium centrifugation. Up to 70% of the total LEF-3 appeared in the fraction of soluble, probably nucleoplasmic proteins, while almost all P143 and IE-1 were associated with viral chromatin in the nucleus. This suggests that LEF-3 is produced in quantities that are higher than needed for the coverage of single stranded regions that arise during viral DNA replication and is consistent with the hypothesis that LEF-3 has other functions such as the localization of P143 to the nucleus. Using a chromatin immunoprecipitation procedure, we present the first direct evidence of LEF-3, P143, and IE-1 proteins binding to closely linked sites on viral chromatin in vivo, suggesting that they may form replication complexes on viral DNA in infected cells

  3. MacoNPV baculovirus midgut-specific gene expression during infection of the bertha armyworm, Mamestra configurata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donly, B. Cameron; Kaplanoglu, Emine; Theilmann, David A.; Baldwin, Doug; Sieminska, Edyta; Hegedus, Dwayne D.; Erlandson, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Baculoviruses have two forms, occlusion derived virus (ODV) which is responsible for primary infection in host midgut tissue and budded virus (BV), which infects all other host tissues during secondary infection. This study examined the primary infection by ODV of midgut cells of bertha armyworm Mamestra configurata fourth instar larvae and measured the expression of viral genes over a time course of infection. Both digital PCR and RNA sequencing methods showed the profile of transcription to be different from those produced by AcMNPV BV infection of in vitro cell cultures. This included having unique collections of genes expressed early, as well as much greater late gene expression of p6.9 and much reduced expression of polh and p10. These differences likely reflect characteristics unique to the critical step of in vivo midgut cell infection, and provide insights into the processes that regulate viral gene expression in different host tissues. -- Highlights: •The transcriptome of MacoNPV ODV in larval midgut was measured by RNA-seq and digital PCR. •The earliest genes expressed included fusion protein, hoar, and me53. •p6.9 was highly expressed late but polH and p10 were less so. •These patterns are unique from BV of other baculoviruses in tissue culture cells.

  4. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Dam, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at CERN’s LHC has implemented a dedicated tau trigger system to select hadronically decaying tau leptons from the enormous background of QCD jets. This promises a significant increase in the discovery potential to the Higgs boson and in searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. The three level trigger system has been optimised for effciency and good background rejection. The first level uses information from the calorimeters only, while the two higher levels include also information from the tracking detectors. Shower shape variables and the track multiplicity are important variables to distinguish taus from QCD jets. At the initial lumonosity of 10^31 cm^−2 s^−1, single tau triggers with a transverse energy threshold of 50 GeV or higher can be run standalone. Below this level, the tau signatures will be combined with other event signature

  5. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Rados, PK; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Physics processes involving tau leptons play a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the high energy frontier. The ability to efficiently trigger on events containing hadronic tau decays is therefore of particular importance to the ATLAS experiment. During the 2012 run, the Large Hadronic Collder (LHC) reached instantaneous luminosities of nearly $10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ with bunch crossings occurring every $50 ns$. This resulted in a huge event rate and a high probability of overlapping interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). With this in mind it was necessary to design an ATLAS tau trigger system that could reduce the event rate to a manageable level, while efficiently extracting the most interesting physics events in a pile-up robust manner. In this poster the ATLAS tau trigger is described, its performance during 2012 is presented, and the outlook for the LHC Run II is briefly summarized.

  6. ALICE High Level Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Alt, T

    2013-01-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is a computing farm designed and build for the real-time, online processing of the raw data produced by the ALICE detectors. Events are fully reconstructed from the raw data, analyzed and compressed. The analysis summary together with the compressed data and a trigger decision is sent to the DAQ. In addition the reconstruction of the events allows for on-line monitoring of physical observables and this information is provided to the Data Quality Monitor (DQM). The HLT can process event rates of up to 2 kHz for proton-proton and 200 Hz for Pb-Pb central collisions.

  7. Trigger and decision processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, G.

    1980-11-01

    In recent years there have been many attempts in high energy physics to make trigger and decision processes faster and more sophisticated. This became necessary due to a permanent increase of the number of sensitive detector elements in wire chambers and calorimeters, and in fact it was possible because of the fast developments in integrated circuits technique. In this paper the present situation will be reviewed. The discussion will be mainly focussed upon event filtering by pure software methods and - rather hardware related - microprogrammable processors as well as random access memory triggers. (orig.)

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine ( ... for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you may have uptake measurements at four to ... medicine procedures can be time consuming. It can take several hours to days for the radiotracer to ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of ... potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. ... eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry and other metallic accessories should be left ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin several hours to 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake ...

  15. The STAR trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieser, F.S.; Crawford, H.J.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Greiner, L.C.; Judd, E.G.; Klein, S.R.; Meissner, F.; Minor, R.; Milosevich, Z.; Mutchler, G.; Nelson, J.M.; Schambach, J.; VanderMolen, A.S.; Ward, H.; Yepes, P.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the trigger system that we designed and implemented for the STAR detector at RHIC. This is a 10 MHz pipelined system based on fast detector output that controls the event selection for the much slower tracking detectors. Results from the first run are presented and new detectors for the 2001 run are discussed

  16. Asthma Triggers: Gain Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harm people too. Try to use pest management methods that pose less of a risk. Keep counters, sinks, tables and floors clean and ... with pest challenges in your home and other environments. [EPA ... pests while reducing pesticide risks; roaches are often asthma triggers and shouldn’t ...

  17. Physics issues on triggering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The detectors at the ILC are planned to run without hardware trigger. The ... as not coming from the interaction point and not matching to the silicon detectors ... electrons so that additional dE/dx cuts can help, making also here a factor 10 or.

  18. AIDS radio triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, A M

    1991-07-01

    In April 1991, the Ethnic Communities' Council of NSW was granted funding under the Community AIDS Prevention and Education Program through the Department of Community Services and Health, to produce a series of 6x50 second AIDS radio triggers with a 10-second tag line for further information. The triggers are designed to disseminate culturally-sensitive information about HIV/AIDS in English, Italian, Greek, Spanish, Khmer, Turkish, Macedonian, Serbo-Croatian, Arabic, Cantonese, and Vietnamese, with the goal of increasing awareness and decreasing the degree of misinformation about HIV/AIDS among people of non-English-speaking backgrounds through radio and sound. The 6 triggers cover the denial that AIDS exists in the community, beliefs that words and feelings do not protect one from catching HIV, encouraging friends to be compassionate, compassion within the family, AIDS information for a young audience, and the provision of accurate and honest information on HIV/AIDS. The triggers are slated to be completed by the end of July 1991 and will be broadcast on all possible community, ethnic, and commercial radio networks across Australia. They will be available upon request in composite form with an information kit for use by health care professionals and community workers.

  19. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one trigger that you shouldn't avoid because exercise is important for your health. Your doctor will want you to be active, so talk with him or her about what to do before playing ... or 15 minutes before you exercise or play sports. And, of course, you'll ...

  20. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Trigger Finger Email to a friend * required fields ...

  1. A pseudotype baculovirus expressing the capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus and a T-Cell immunogen shows enhanced immunogenicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiangtao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious disease of livestock which causes severe economic loss in cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination is still a major strategy in developing countries to control FMD. Currently, inactivated vaccine of FMDV has been used in many countries with limited success and safety concerns. Development of a novel effective vaccine is must. Methods In the present study, two recombinant pseudotype baculoviruses, one expressing the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV under the control of a cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/promoter (CMV-IE, and the other the caspid plus a T-cell immunogen coding region under a CAG promoter were constructed, and their expression was characterized in mammalian cells. In addition, their immunogenicity in a mouse model was investigated. The humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced by pseudotype baculovirus were compared with those of inactivated vaccine. Results Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and indirect sandwich-ELISA (IS-ELISA showed both recombinant baculoviruses (with or without T-cell epitopes were transduced efficiently and expressed target proteins in BHK-21 cells. In mice, intramuscular inoculation of recombinants with 1 × 109 or 1 × 1010 PFU/mouse induced the production of FMDV-specific neutralizing antibodies and gamma interferon (IFN-γ. Furthermore, recombinant baculovirus with T-cell epitopes had better immunogenicity than the recombinant without T-cell epitopes as demonstrated by significantly enhanced IFN-γ production (P P Conclusions These results indicate that pseudotype baculovirus-mediated gene delivery could be a alternative strategy to develop a new generation of vaccines against FMDV infection.

  2. The ATLAS Tau Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rados, Petar Kevin

    2013-06-01

    The tau lepton plays a crucial role in understanding particle physics at the Tera scale. One of the most promising probes of the Higgs boson coupling to fermions is with detector signatures involving taus. In addition, many theories beyond the Standard Model, such as supersymmetry and exotic particles (W' and Z'), predict new physics with large couplings to taus. The ability to trigger on hadronic tau decays is therefore critical to achieving the physics goals of the ATLAS experiment. The higher instantaneous luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2012 resulted in a larger probability of overlap (pile-up) between bunch crossings, and so it was critical for ATLAS to have an effective tau trigger strategy. The details of this strategy are summarized in this paper, and the results of the latest performance measurements are presented. (authors)

  3. The LPS trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benotto, F.; Costa, M.; Staiano, A.; Zampieri, A.; Bollito, M.; Isoardi, P.; Pernigotti, E.; Sacchi, R.; Trapani, P.P.; Larsen, H.; Massam, T.; Nemoz, C.

    1996-03-01

    The Leading Proton Spectrometer (LPS) has been equipped with microstrip silicon detectors specially designed to trigger events with high values of x L vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke / vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke ≥0.95 where vertical stroke anti p' p vertical stroke and vertical stroke anti p p vertical stroke are respectively the momenta of outgoing and incoming protons. The LPS First Level Trigger can provide a clear tag for very high momentum protons in a kinematical region never explored before. In the following we discuss the physics motivation in tagging very forward protons and present a detailed description of the detector design, the front end electronics, the readout electronics, the Monte Carlo simulation and some preliminary results from 1995 data taking. (orig.)

  4. Minimum risk trigger indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, F.H.

    1979-01-01

    A viable safeguards system includes among other things the development and use of indices which trigger various courses of action. The usual limit of error calculation provides such an index. The classical approach is one of constructing tests which, under certain assumptions, make the likelihood of a false alarm small. Of concern also is the test's failure to indicate a loss (diversion) when in fact one has occurred. Since false alarms are usually costly and losses both costly and of extreme strategic sinificance, there remains the task of balancing the probability of false alarm and its consequences against the probability of undetected loss and its consequences. The application of other than classical hypothesis testing procedures are considered in this paper. Using various consequence models, trigger indices are derived which have certain optimum properties. Application of the techniques would enhance the material control function

  5. Essential C-Terminal region of the baculovirus minor capsid protein VP80 binds DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marek, M.; Merten, O.W.; Francis-Devaraj, F.; Oers, van M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The essential Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) minor capsid protein VP80 has been recently shown to interact with the virus-triggered, nuclear F-actin cytoskeleton. A role for VP80 in virus morphogenesis has been proposed in the maturation of progeny nucleocapsids and

  6. Neural networks for triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denby, B.; Campbell, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Chriss, N.; Bowers, C.; Nesti, F.

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  7. The ARGUS vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, N.; Kolander, M.; Kolanoski, H.; Siegmund, T.; Bergter, J.; Eckstein, P.; Schubert, K.R.; Waldi, R.; Imhof, M.; Ressing, D.; Weiss, U.; Weseler, S.

    1995-09-01

    A fast second level trigger has been developed for the ARGUS experiment which recognizes tracks originating from the interaction region. The processor compares the hits in the ARGUS Micro Vertex Drift Chamber to 245760 masks stored in random access memories. The masks which are fully defined in three dimensions are able to reject tracks originating in the wall of the narrow beampipe of 10.5 mm radius. (orig.)

  8. Incorporation of adenylate cyclase into membranes of giant liposomes using membrane fusion with recombinant baculovirus-budded virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takaaki; Kamiya, Koki; Tomita, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Tetsuro; Tsumoto, Kanta

    2014-06-01

    Recombinant transmembrane adenylate cyclase (AC) was incorporated into membranes of giant liposomes using membrane fusion between liposomes and baculovirus-budded virus (BV). AC genes were constructed into transfer vectors in a form fused with fluorescent protein or polyhistidine at the C-terminus. The recombinant BVs were collected by ultracentrifugation and AC expression was verified using western blotting. The BVs and giant liposomes generated using gentle hydration were fused under acidic conditions; the incorporation of AC into giant liposomes was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy through the emission of fluorescence from their membranes. The AC-expressing BVs were also fused with liposomes containing the substrate (ATP) with/without a specific inhibitor (SQ 22536). An enzyme immunoassay on extracts of the sample demonstrated that cAMP was produced inside the liposomes. This procedure facilitates direct introduction of large transmembrane proteins into artificial membranes without solubilization.

  9. Baculovirus display of single chain antibody (scFv using a novel signal peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Gaëlle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cells permissive to virus can become refractory to viral replication upon intracellular expression of single chain fragment variable (scFv antibodies directed towards viral structural or regulatory proteins, or virus-coded enzymes. For example, an intrabody derived from MH-SVM33, a monoclonal antibody against a conserved C-terminal epitope of the HIV-1 matrix protein (MAp17, was found to exert an inhibitory effect on HIV-1 replication. Results Two versions of MH-SVM33-derived scFv were constructed in recombinant baculoviruses (BVs and expressed in BV-infected Sf9 cells, N-myristoylation-competent scFvG2/p17 and N-myristoylation-incompetent scFvE2/p17 protein, both carrying a C-terminal HA tag. ScFvG2/p17 expression resulted in an insoluble, membrane-associated protein, whereas scFvE2/p17 was recovered in both soluble and membrane-incorporated forms. When coexpressed with the HIV-1 Pr55Gag precursor, scFvG2/p17 and scFvE2/p17 did not show any detectable negative effect on virus-like particle (VLP assembly and egress, and both failed to be encapsidated in VLP. However, soluble scFvE2/p17 isolated from Sf9 cell lysates was capable of binding to its specific antigen, in the form of a synthetic p17 peptide or as Gag polyprotein-embedded epitope. Significant amounts of scFvE2/p17 were released in the extracellular medium of BV-infected cells in high-molecular weight, pelletable form. This particulate form corresponded to BV particles displaying scFvE2/p17 molecules, inserted into the BV envelope via the scFv N-terminal region. The BV-displayed scFvE2/p17 molecules were found to be immunologically functional, as they reacted with the C-terminal epitope of MAp17. Fusion of the N-terminal 18 amino acid residues from the scFvE2/p17 sequence (N18E2 to another scFv recognizing CD147 (scFv-M6-1B9 conferred the property of BV-display to the resulting chimeric scFv-N18E2/M6. Conclusion Expression of scFvE2/p17 in insect cells using a BV

  10. A silencing suppressor protein (NSs) of a tospovirus enhances baculovirus replication in permissive and semipermissive insect cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Virgínia Carla; Bartasson, Lorrainy; de Castro, Maria Elita Batista; Corrêa, José Raimundo; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais; Resende, Renato Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    The nonstructural protein (NSs) of the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has been identified as an RNAi suppressor in plant cells. A recombinant Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) designated vAcNSs, containing the NSs gene under the control of the viral polyhedrin (polh) gene promoter, was constructed and the effects of NSs in permissive, semipermissive and nonpermissive insect cells to vAcNSs infection were evaluated. vAcNSs produced more budded virus when compared to wild type in semipermissive cells. Co-infection of vAcNSs with wild type baculoviruses clearly enhanced polyhedra production in all host cells. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that NSs accumulated in abundance in the cytoplasm of permissive and semipermissive cells. In contrast, high amounts of NSs were detected in the nuclei of nonpermissive cells. Co-infection of vAcNSs with a recombinant AcMNPV containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene, significantly increased EGFP expression in semipermissive cells and in Anticarsia gemmatalis-hemocytes. Absence of small RNA molecules of egfp transcripts in this cell line and in a permissive cell line indicates the suppression of gene silencing activity. On the other hand, vAcNSs was not able to suppress RNAi in a nonpermissive cell line. Our data showed that NSs protein of TSWV facilitates baculovirus replication in different lepidopteran cell lines, and these results indicate that NSs could play a similar role during TSWV-infection in its thrips vector. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thyroid uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid gland is altered by the iodine content of diet or drugs. American diet has a high iodine content because each slice of the white bread contains nearly 150μg of iodine due to the bleaching process employed in the production of the bread. This carrier content of iodine reduces the uptake so much, that the normal American uptakes are usually three to four times lower than the uptakes in the developing countries. The other drawback of the thyroid uptake test is that it is affected by the iodine containing drugs. Anti-diarrhoea medications are quire common in the developing countries and many of them contain iodine moiety. Without a reliable drug history, a low thyroid uptake value may lead to a misleading conclusion

  12. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  13. ATLAS Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belanger-Champagne, C; Bosman, M; Brenner, R; Casado, MP; Czyczula, Z; Dam, M; Demers, S; Farrington, S; Igonkina, O; Kalinowski, A; Kanaya, N; Osuna, C; Pérez, E; Ptacek, E; Reinsch, A; Saavedra, A; Sopczak, A; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Tsuno, S; Vorwerk, V; Watson, A; Xella, S

    2008-01-01

    Moving to the high energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons will become a necessary and very powerful tool, allowing a discovery of physics beyond Standard Model. Many models, among them light SM Higgs and various SUSY models, predict an abundant production of taus with respect to other leptons. The reconstruction of hadronic tau decays, although a very challenging task in hadronic enviroments, allows to increase a signal efficiency by at least of factor 2, and provides an independent control sample to disantangle lepton tau decays from prompt electrons and muons. Thanks to the advanced calorimetry and tracking, the ATLAS experiment has developed tools to efficiently identify hadronic taus at the trigger level. In this presentation we will review the characteristics of taus and the methods to suppress low-multiplicity, low-energy jets contributions as well as we will address the tau trigger chain which provide a rejection rate of 10^5. We will further present plans for commissioning the ATLA...

  14. The D0 calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, J.

    1992-12-01

    The D0 calorimeter trigger system consists of many levels to make physics motivated trigger decisions. The Level-1 trigger uses hardware techniques to reduce the trigger rate from ∼ 100kHz to 200Hz. It forms sums of electromagnetic and hadronic energy, globally and in towers, along with finding the missing transverse energy. A minimum energy is set on these energy sums to pass the event. The Level-2 trigger is a set of software filters, operating in a parallel-processing microvax farm which further reduces the trigger rate to a few Hertz. These filters will reject events which lack electron candidates, jet candidates, or missing transverse energy in the event. The performance of these triggers during the early running of the D0 detector will also be discussed

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  17. Surgery for trigger finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Haroldo Junior; Tamaoki, Marcel Jun; Lenza, Mário; Gomes Dos Santos, Joao Baptista; Faloppa, Flávio; Belloti, Joao Carlos

    2018-02-20

    Trigger finger is a common clinical disorder, characterised by pain and catching as the patient flexes and extends digits because of disproportion between the diameter of flexor tendons and the A1 pulley. The treatment approach may include non-surgical or surgical treatments. Currently there is no consensus about the best surgical treatment approach (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches). To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different methods of surgical treatment for trigger finger (open, percutaneous or endoscopic approaches) in adults at any stage of the disease. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS up to August 2017. We included randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that assessed adults with trigger finger and compared any type of surgical treatment with each other or with any other non-surgical intervention. The major outcomes were the resolution of trigger finger, pain, hand function, participant-reported treatment success or satisfaction, recurrence of triggering, adverse events and neurovascular injury. Two review authors independently selected the trial reports, extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Measures of treatment effect for dichotomous outcomes calculated risk ratios (RRs), and mean differences (MDs) or standardised mean differences (SMD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). When possible, the data were pooled into meta-analysis using the random-effects model. GRADE was used to assess the quality of evidence for each outcome. Fourteen trials were included, totalling 1260 participants, with 1361 trigger fingers. The age of participants included in the studies ranged from 16 to 88 years; and the majority of participants were women (approximately 70%). The average duration of symptoms ranged from three to 15 months, and the follow-up after the procedure ranged from eight weeks to 23 months.The studies reported nine types of comparisons: open surgery versus steroid injections (two

  18. The silencing suppressor (NSs) protein of the plant virus Tomato spotted wilt virus enhances heterologous protein expression and baculovirus pathogenicity in cells and lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Virgínia Carla; da Silva Morgado, Fabricio; Ardisson-Araújo, Daniel Mendes Pereira; Resende, Renato Oliveira; Ribeiro, Bergmann Morais

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we showed that cell death induced by a recombinant (vAcNSs) Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) expressing the silencing suppressor (NSs) protein of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was enhanced on permissive and semipermissive cell lines. The expression of a heterologous gene (firefly luciferase) during co-infection of insect cells with vAcNSs and a second recombinant baculovirus (vAgppolhfluc) was shown to increase when compared to single vAgppolhfluc infections. Furthermore, the vAcNSs mean time-to-death values were significantly lower than those for wild-type AcMNPV on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda and Anticarsia gemmatalis. These results showed that the TSWV-NSs protein could efficiently increase heterologous protein expression in insect cells as well as baculovirus pathogenicity and virulence, probably by suppressing the gene-silencing machinery in insects.

  19. Characterization of an Sf-rhabdovirus-negative Spodoptera frugiperda cell line as an alternative host for recombinant protein production in the baculovirus-insect cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghodia, Ajay B; Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-06-01

    Cell lines derived from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf), are widely used as hosts for recombinant protein production in the baculovirus-insect cell system (BICS). However, it was recently discovered that these cell lines are contaminated with a virus, now known as Sf-rhabdovirus [1]. The detection of this adventitious agent raised a potential safety issue that could adversely impact the BICS as a commercial recombinant protein production platform. Thus, we examined the properties of Sf-RVN, an Sf-rhabdovirus-negative Sf cell line, as a potential alternative host. Nested RT-PCR assays showed Sf-RVN cells had no detectable Sf-rhabdovirus over the course of 60 passages in continuous culture. The general properties of Sf-RVN cells, including their average growth rates, diameters, morphologies, and viabilities after baculovirus infection, were virtually identical to those of Sf9 cells. Baculovirus-infected Sf-RVN and Sf9 cells produced equivalent levels of three recombinant proteins, including an intracellular prokaryotic protein and two secreted eukaryotic glycoproteins, and provided similar N-glycosylation patterns. In fact, except for the absence of Sf-rhabdovirus, the only difference between Sf-RVN and Sf9 cells was SF-RVN produced higher levels of infectious baculovirus progeny. These results show Sf-RVN cells can be used as improved, alternative hosts to circumvent the potential safety hazard associated with the use of Sf-rhabdovirus-contaminated Sf cells for recombinant protein manufacturing with the BICS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of a fragment of glycoprotein G-2 produced in the baculovirus expression system for detecting herpes simplex virus type 2-specific antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikoma, M; Liljeqvist, JA; Glazenburg, KL; The, TH; Welling-Wester, S; Groen, J.

    Fragments of glycoprotein G (gG-2(281-594His)), comprising residues 281 to 594 of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), glycoprotein G of HSV-1 (gG-1(t26-189His)), and glycoprotein D of HSV-1 (gD-1(1-313)), were expressed in the baculovirus expression system to develop an assay for the detection of

  1. Triggering at high luminosity: fake triggers from pile-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.

    1983-01-01

    Triggers based on a cut in transverse momentum (p/sub t/) have proved to be useful in high energy physics both because they indicte that a hard constituent scattering has occurred and because they can be made quickly enough to gate electronics. These triggers will continue to be useful at high luminosities if overlapping events do not cause an excessive number of fake triggers. In this paper, I determine if this is indeed a problem at high luminosity machines

  2. Nostalgia: content, triggers, functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine; Arndt, Jamie; Routledge, Clay

    2006-11-01

    Seven methodologically diverse studies addressed 3 fundamental questions about nostalgia. Studies 1 and 2 examined the content of nostalgic experiences. Descriptions of nostalgic experiences typically featured the self as a protagonist in interactions with close others (e.g., friends) or in momentous events (e.g., weddings). Also, the descriptions contained more expressions of positive than negative affect and often depicted the redemption of negative life scenes by subsequent triumphs. Studies 3 and 4 examined triggers of nostalgia and revealed that nostalgia occurs in response to negative mood and the discrete affective state of loneliness. Studies 5, 6, and 7 investigated the functional utility of nostalgia and established that nostalgia bolsters social bonds, increases positive self-regard, and generates positive affect. These findings demarcate key landmarks in the hitherto uncharted research domain of nostalgia.

  3. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Black, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the high luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved at the LHC, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analysis. The naive inclusive single tau lepton triggers now suffer from severe rate limitations. To allow for a large program of physics analyses with taus, the development of topological triggers that combine tau signatures with other measured quantities in the event is required. These combined triggers open many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model and to search for the Standard Model Higgs. We present the status and performance of the hadronic tau trigger in ATLAS. We demonstrate that the ATLAS tau trigger ran remarkably well over 2011, and how the lessons learned from 2011 led to numerous improvements in the preparation of the 2012 run. These improvements include the introduction of tau selection criteria that are robust against varying pileup scenarios, and the implementation of multivariate selection techniques in the tau trig...

  4. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Black, C; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    With the high luminosities of proton-proton collisions achieved at the LHC, the strategies for triggering have become more important than ever for physics analysis. The naïve inclusive single tau lepton triggers now suffer from severe rate limitations. To allow for a large program of physics analyses with taus, the development of topological triggers that combine tau signatures with other measured quantities in the event is required. These combined triggers open many opportunities to study new physics beyond the Standard Model and to search for the Standard Model Higgs. We present the status and performance of the hadronic tau trigger in ATLAS. We demonstrate that the ATLAS tau trigger ran remarkably well over 2011, and how the lessons learned from 2011 led to numerous improvements in the preparation of the 2012 run. These improvements include the introduction of tau selection criteria that are robust against varying pileup scenarios, and the implementation of multivariate selection techniques in the tau tri...

  5. The ATLAS hadronic tau trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Mansoora

    2012-01-01

    The extensive tau physics programs of the ATLAS experiment relies heavily on trigger to select hadronic decays of tau lepton. Such a trigger is implemented in ATLAS to efficiently collect signal events, while keeping the rate of multi-jet background within the allowed bandwidth. This contribution summarizes the performance of the ATLAS hadronic tau trigger system during 2011 data taking period and improvements implemented for the 2012 data collection.

  6. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUSHITA, Takashi; CMS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41 fb-1 with a peak luminosity of 1.5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implementation of more algorithms at a time than previously possible, allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the available trigger bandwidth. Algorithms for a trigger menu, including topological requirements on multi-objects, can be realised in the Global Trigger using the newly developed trigger menu specification grammar. Analysis-like trigger algorithms can be represented in an intuitive manner and the algorithms are translated to corresponding VHDL code blocks to build a firmware. The grammar can be extended in future as the needs arise. The experience of implementing trigger menus on the upgraded Global Trigger system will be presented.

  7. Stable replication of the EBNA1/OriP-mediated baculovirus vector and its application to anti-HCV gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Myint OO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV is one of the main causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality. Although combined interferon-α-ribavirin therapy is effective for about 50% of the patients with HCV, better therapies are needed and preventative vaccines have yet to be developed. Short-hairpin RNAs (shRNAs inhibit gene expression by RNA interference. The application of transient shRNA expression is limited, however, due to the inability of the shRNA to replicate in mammalian cells and its inefficient transduction. The duration of transgene (shRNA expression in mammalian cells can be significantly extended using baculovirus-based shRNA-expressing vectors that contain the latent viral protein Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1 and the origin of latent viral DNA replication (OriP sequences. These recombinant vectors contain compatible promoters and are highly effective for infecting primary hepatocyte and hepatoma cell lines, making them very useful tools for studies of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses. Here, we report the use of these baculovirus-based vector-derived shRNAs to inhibit core-protein expression in full-length hepatitis C virus (HCV replicon cells. Results We constructed a long-term transgene shRNA expression vector that contains the EBV EBNA1 and OriP sequences. We also designed baculovirus vector-mediated shRNAs against the highly conserved core-protein region of HCV. HCV core protein expression was inhibited by the EBNA1/OriP baculovirus vector for at least 14 days, which was considerably longer than the 3 days of inhibition produced by the wild-type baculovirus vector. Conclusion These findings indicate that we successfully constructed a long-term transgene (shRNA expression vector (Ac-EP-shRNA452 using the EBNA1/OriP system, which was propagated in Escherichia coli and converted into mammalian cells. The potential anti-HCV activity of the long-term transgene (shRNA expression vector was evaluated with the view

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about your thyroid’s size, shape, position and function that is often unattainable using other imaging procedures. ... thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top ... Scan and Uptake Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When radiotracer is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up ... radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does ... they offer the potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry ... small hand-held device resembling a microphone that can detect and measure the amount of the radiotracer ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... its radioactivity over time. It may also pass out of your body through your urine or stool ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedures within the last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you ... a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a ...

  2. Trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Gaspar, C

    2001-01-01

    Past LEP experiments generate data at 0.5 MByte/s from particle detectors with over a quarter of a million readout channels. The process of reading out the electronic channels, treating them, and storing the date produced by each collision for further analysis by the physicists is called "Data Acquisition". Not all beam crossings produce interesting physics "events", picking the interesting ones is the task of the "Trigger" system. In order to make sure that the data is collected in good conditions the experiment's operation has to be constantly verified. In all, at LEP experiments over 100 000 parameters were monitored, controlled, and synchronized by the "Monotoring and control" system. In the future, LHC experiments will produce as much data in a single day as a LEP detector did in a full year's running with a raw data rate of 10 - 100 MBytes/s and will have to cope with some 800 million proton-proton collisions a second of these collisions only one in 100 million million is interesting for new particle se...

  3. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagliesi, M.G., E-mail: mg.bagliesi@pi.infn.i [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy); Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N. [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5{mu}s. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  4. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliesi, M.G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  5. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  6. Minimum Bias Trigger in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwee, Regina

    2010-01-01

    Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.2 < |η| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presented. We also highlight the advantage of these triggers for particle correlation analyses. (author)

  7. Conservation of a proteinase cleavage site between an insect retrovirus (gypsy) Env protein and a baculovirus envelope fusion protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, Margot N.; Rohrmann, George F.

    2004-01-01

    The predicted Env protein of insect retroviruses (errantiviruses) is related to the envelope fusion protein of a major division of the Baculoviridae. The highest degree of homology is found in a region that contains a furin cleavage site in the baculovirus proteins and an adjacent sequence that has the properties of a fusion peptide. In this investigation, the homologous region in the Env protein of the gypsy retrovirus of Drosophila melanogaster (DmegypV) was investigated. Alteration of the predicted DmegypV Env proteinase cleavage site from RIAR to AIAR significantly reduced cleavage of Env in both Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) and D. melanogaster (S2) cell lines. When the predicted DmegypV Env cleavage site RIAR was substituted for the cleavage sequence RRKR in the Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus fusion protein (LD130) sequence, cleavage of the hybrid LD130 molecules still occurred, although at a reduced level. The conserved 21-amino acid sequence just downstream of the cleavage site, which is thought to be the fusion peptide in LD130, was also characterized. When this sequence from DmegypV Env was substituted for the homologous sequence in LD130, cleavage still occurred, but no fusion was observed in either cell type. In addition, although a DmegypV-Env-green fluorescent protein construct localized to cell membranes, no cell fusion was observed

  8. Characterization of self-assembled virus-like particles of human polyomavirus BK generated by recombinant baculoviruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.-C.; Takeda, Naokazu; Kato, Kenzo; Nilsson, Josefina; Xing Li; Haag, Lars; Cheng, R. Holland; Miyamura, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    The major structural protein of the human polyomavirus BK (BKV), VP1, was expressed by using recombinant baculoviruses. A large amount of protein with a molecular mass of about 42 kDa was synthesized and identified by Western blotting. The protein was detected exclusively in the nuclei by immunofluorescent analysis and it was released into culture medium. The expressed BKV VP1 protein was self-assembled into virus-like particles (BK-VLPs) with two different sizes (50 and 26 nm in diameter), which migrated into four different bands in CsCl gradient with buoyant densities of 1.29, 1.30, 1.33, and 1.35 g/cm 3 . The immunological studies on the BK-VLPs suggested that they have similar antigenicity with those of authentic BKV particles. Cryoelectron microscopy and 3D image analysis further revealed that the larger BK-VLPs were composed of 72 capsomers which all were pentamers arranged in a T = 7 surface lattice. This system provides useful information for detailed studies of viral morphogenesis and the structural basis for the antigenicity of BKV

  9. DUMAND data acquisition with triggering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, A.E.; Theriot, D.; March, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    A data acquisition scheme for the standard DUMAND array that includes a simple triggering scheme as a fundamental part of the system is presented. Although there are a number of not yet fully understood parameters, it is assumed that thresholds can be set in such a manner as to give rise to a triggered signal that is not so dominated by randoms that it gives a substantial decrease in the data acquisition rate over that which would be required by a nontriggered system. It is also assumed that the triggering logic is relatively simple and does not need major computational capabilities for a trigger logic decision. With these assumptions, it is possible to generate the trigger at the array and restrict the data transfer to shore. However, with a not unreasonable delay of 200 microseconds, it is even possible to transmit the information for the trigger to shore and perform all that logic on the shore. The critical point is to send the minimum amount of information necessary to construct the trigger such that one need not send all the possible information in all detectors of the array continuously to shore. 1 figure

  10. Thyroid uptake software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Dolores; Arista, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    The DETEC-PC software was developed as a complement to a measurement system (hardware) able to perform Iodine Thyroid Uptake studies. The software was designed according to the principles of Object oriented programming using C++ language. The software automatically fixes spectrometric measurement parameters and besides patient measurement also performs statistical analysis of a batch of samples. It possesses a PARADOX database with all information of measured patients and a help system with the system options and medical concepts related to the thyroid uptake study

  11. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  12. The CDF level-3 trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devlin, T.

    1993-01-01

    The Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) has been operating at the Tevatron and collecting data on proton-antiproton interactions with collision rates above 250,000 Hz. Three levels of filtering select events for data logging at a rate of about 4 Hz. The Level 3 trigger provides most of the capabilities of the offline production programs for event reconstruction and physics analysis. The type of physics triggers, application of cuts, and combinations of logical requirements for event selection are controlled at run time by a trigger table using a syntax fully integrated with the Level 1 and Level 2 hardware triggers. The level 3 software operates in 48 RISC/UNIX processors (over 1000 mips) served by four 20-MByte/sec data buses for input, output and control. The system architecture, debugging, code validation, error reporting, analysis capabilities and performance will be described

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body ...

  15. Radioactive uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, O

    1986-01-01

    The fundamentals of radionuclide uptake by plants, both by leaves and roots are presented. Iodine, cesium, strontium and ruthenium are considered and a table of the measured concentrations in several agricultural plants shortly after the Chernobyl accident is presented. Another table gives the Cs and Sr transfer factors soil plants for some plants. By using them estimates of future burden can be obtained.

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  18. Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in baculovirus-infected insect cells: Implications for glycosylation and CD4 binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.I.; Lennick, M.; Lehar, S.M.; Beltz, G.A.; Young, E.

    1990-01-01

    Three different human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) envelope derived recombinant proteins and the full length human CD4 polypeptide were expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. DNA constructs encoding CD4, gp120, gp160, and gp160 delta were cloned into the baculovirus expression vector pVL941 or a derivative and used to generate recombinant viruses in a cotransfection with DNA from Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV). Western blotting of cell extracts of the recombinant HIV-1 proteins showed that for each construct two major bands specifically reacted with anti-HIV-1 envelope antiserum. These bands corresponded to glycosylated and nonglycosylated versions of the HIV proteins as determined by 3H-mannose labeling and tunicamycin treatment of infected cells. A time course of HIV envelope expression revealed that at early times post-infection (24 hours) the proteins were fully glycosylated and soluble in nonionic detergents. However, at later times postinfection (48 hours), expression levels of recombinant protein reached a maximum but most of the increase was due to a rise in the level of the nonglycosylated species, which was largely insoluble in nonionic detergents. Thus, it appears that Sf9 cells cannot process large amounts of glycosylated recombinant proteins efficiently. As a measure of biological activity, the CD4 binding ability of both glycosylated and nonglycosylated recombinant HIV envelope proteins was tested in a coimmunoprecipitation assay. The results showed that CD4 and the glycosylated versions of recombinant gp120 or gp160 delta specifically associated with one another in this analysis. Nonglycosylated gp120 or gp160 delta proteins from tunicamycin-treated cultures did immunoprecipitate with anti-HIV-1 antiserum but did not interact with CD4

  19. Characterization of self-assembled virus-like particles of dromedary camel hepatitis e virus generated by recombinant baculoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianfeng; Kataoka, Michiyo; Liu, Zheng; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakita, Takaji; Li, Tian-Cheng

    2015-12-02

    Dromedary camel hepatitis E virus (DcHEV), a novel hepatitis E virus, has been identified in dromedary camels in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. The antigenicity, pathogenicity and epidemiology of this virus have been unclear. Here we first used a recombinant baculovirus expression system to express the 13 and 111 N-terminus amino-acid-truncated DcHEV ORF2 protein in insect Tn5 cells, and we obtained two types of virus-like particles (VLPs) with densities of 1.300 g/cm(3) and 1.285 g/cm(3), respectively. The small VLPs (Dc4sVLPs) were estimated to be 24 nm in diameter, and were assembled by a protein with the molecular mass 53 kDa. The large VLPs (Dc3nVLPs and Dc4nVLPs) were 35 nm in diameter, and were assembled by a 64-kDa protein. An antigenic analysis demonstrated that DcHEV was cross-reactive with G1, G3-G6, ferret and rat HEVs, and DcHEV showed a stronger cross-reactivity to G1 G3-G6 HEV than it did to rat and ferret HEV. In addition, the antibody against DcHEV-LPs neutralized G1 and G3 HEV in a cell culture system, suggesting that the serotypes of these HEVs are identical. We also found that the amino acid residue Met-358 affects the small DcHEV-LPs assembly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Pacific White Shrimp β-actin Promoter: Functional Properties and the Potential Application for Transduction System Using Recombinant Baculovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yingli; Xiang, Jianhai; Zhou, Guangzhou; Ron, Tetsuzan Benny; Tong, Hsin-I; Kang, Wen; Sun, Si; Lu, Yuanan

    2016-06-01

    A newly isolated Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) beta-actin promoter SbaP and its derivative compact construct SbaP (ENX) have recently been demonstrated to promote ectopic gene expression in vitro and in vivo. To further explore the potential transduction application, this newly isolated shrimp promoter SbaP was comparatively tested with cytomegalovirus (CMV), simian virus 40 (SV40), polyhedrin (Polh), and white spot syndrome virus immediate early gene 1 (WSSV ie1) four constitutive promoters and a beta-actin promoter (TbaP) from tilapia fish to characterize its promoting function in eight different cell lines. Luciferase quantitation assays revealed that SbaP can drive luciferase gene expression in all eight cell lines including sf21 (insect), PAC2 (zebrafish), EPC (carp), CHSE-214 (chinook salmon), GSTEF (green sea turtle), MS-1 (monk seal), 293T (human), and HeLa (human), but at different levels. Comparative analysis revealed that the promoting activity of SbaP was lower (≤10-fold) than CMV but higher (2-20 folds) than Polh in most of these cell lines tested. Whereas, SbaP mediated luciferase expression in sf21 cells was over 20-fold higher than CMV, SV40, Polh, and TbaP promoter. Compared to the SbaP, SbaP (ENX), which was constructed on the basis of SbaP by deletion of two "negative" regulatory elements, exhibited no significant change of promoting activity in EPC and PAC2 cells, but a 5 and 16 % lower promoting effect in 293T and HeLa cells, respectively. Additionally, a recombinant baculovirus was constructed under the control of SbaP (ENX), and efficient promoter activity of newly generated baculoviral vector was detected both in vitro of infected sf21 cells and in vivo of injected indicator shrimp. These results warrant the potential application of SbaP, particularly SbaP (ENX) in ectopic gene expression in future.

  1. The baculovirus core gene ac83 is required for nucleocapsid assembly and per os infectivity of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shimao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Yuan, Meijin; Yang, Kai

    2013-10-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac83 is a baculovirus core gene whose function in the AcMNPV life cycle is unknown. In the present study, an ac83-knockout AcMNPV (vAc83KO) was constructed to investigate the function of ac83 through homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. No budded virions were produced in vAc83KO-transfected Sf9 cells, although viral DNA replication was unaffected. Electron microscopy revealed that nucleocapsid assembly was aborted due to the ac83 deletion. Domain-mapping studies revealed that the expression of Ac83 amino acid residues 451 to 600 partially rescued the ability of AcMNPV to produce infectious budded virions. Bioassays indicated that deletion of the chitin-binding domain of Ac83 resulted in the failure of oral infection of Trichoplusia ni larvae by AcMNPV, but AcMNPV remained infectious following intrahemocoelic injection, suggesting that the domain is involved in the binding of occlusion-derived virions to the peritrophic membrane and/or to other chitin-containing insect tissues. It has been demonstrated that Ac83 is the only component with a chitin-binding domain in the per os infectivity factor complex on the occlusion-derived virion envelope. Interestingly, a functional inner nuclear membrane sorting motif, which may facilitate the localization of Ac83 to the envelopes of occlusion-derived virions, was identified by immunofluorescence analysis. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Ac83 plays an important role in nucleocapsid assembly and the establishment of oral infection.

  2. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41~fb$^{-1}$ with a peak luminosity of 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS \\mbox{Level-1} trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implemen...

  3. Trigger processing using reconfigurable logic in the CMS calorimeter trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooke, J J; Cussans, D G; Heath, G P; Maddox, A J; Newbold, D M; Rabbetts, P D

    2001-04-01

    We present the design of the Global Calorimeter Trigger processor for the CMS detector at LHC. This is a fully pipelined processor system which collects data from all the CMS calorimeters and produces summary information used in forming the Level-1 trigger decision for each event. The design in based on the use of state-of-the-art reconfigurable logic devices (FPGAs) and fast data links. We present the results of device testing using a low-latency pipelined sort algorithm, which demonstrate that an FPGA can be used to perform processing previously foreseen to require custom ASICs. Our design approach results in a powerful, flexible and compact processor system.

  4. The DOe Silicon Track Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2003-01-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the DOe experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam

  5. Review Document: Full Software Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, J; Raven, G

    2014-01-01

    This document presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. This document serves as input for the internal review towards the "DAQ, online and trigger TDR". The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. In this document we show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic $pp$-collision rate, without prior event selections implemented in custom hardware and without relying upon a partial event reconstruction. A track nding eciency of 98.8 % relative to oine can be achieved for tracks with $p_T >$ 500 MeV/$c$. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is about 40 % of the available budget. Proof-of-principle selections are presented which demonstrate that excellent performance is achievable using an inclusive beauty trigger, in addition to exclusive beauty and charm triggers. Finally, it is shown that exclusive beauty and charm selections that do not intr...

  6. Expression of tomato yellow leaf curl virus coat protein using baculovirus expression system and evaluation of its utility as a viral antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgaied, Lamiaa; Salem, Reda; Elmenofy, Wael

    2017-08-01

    DNA encoding the coat protein (CP) of an Egyptian isolate of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) was inserted into the genome of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV) under the control of polyhedrin promoter. The generated recombinant baculovirus construct harboring the coat protein gene was characterized using PCR analysis. The recombinant coat protein expressed in infected insect cells was used as a coating antigen in an indirect Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and dot blot to test its utility for the detection of antibody generated against TYLCV virus particles. The results of ELISA and dot blot showed that the TYLCV-antibodies reacted positively with extracts of infected cells using the recombinant virus as a coating antigen with strong signals as well as the TYLCV infected tomato and beat plant extracts as positive samples. Scanning electron microscope examination showed that the expressed TYLCV coat protein was self-assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) similar in size and morphology to TYLCV virus particles. These results concluded that, the expressed coat protein of TYLCV using baculovirus vector system is a reliable candidate for generation of anti-CP antibody for inexpensive detection of TYLCV-infected plants using indirect CP-ELISA or dot blot with high specificity.

  7. Baculovirus-mediated expression and isolation of human ribosomal phosphoprotein P0 carrying a GST-tag in a functional state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo, Yohichi; Hagiya, Akiko; Naganuma, Takao; Tohkairin, Yukiko; Shiomi, Kunihiro; Kajiura, Zenta; Hachimori, Akira; Uchiumi, Toshio; Nakagaki, Masao

    2004-01-01

    We constructed an overexpression system for human ribosomal phosphoprotein P0, together with P1 and P2, which is crucially important for translation. Genes for these proteins, fused with the glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tag at the N-terminus, were inserted into baculovirus and introduced to insect cells. The fusion proteins, but not the proteins without the tag, were efficiently expressed into cells as soluble forms. The fusion protein GST.P0 as well as GST.P1/GST.P2 was phosphorylated in cells as detected by incorporation of 32 P and reactivity with monoclonal anti-phosphoserine antibody. GST.P0 expressed in insect cells, but not the protein obtained in Escherichia coli, had the ability to form a complex with P1 and P2 proteins and to bind to 28S rRNA. Moreover, the GST.P0-P1-P2 complex participated in high eEF-2-dependent GTPase activity. Baculovirus expression systems appear to provide recombinant human P0 samples that can be used for studies on the structure and function

  8. Protection against Amoebic Liver Abscess in Hamster by Intramuscular Immunization with an Autographa californica Baculovirus Driving the Expression of the Gal-Lectin LC3 Fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce María Meneses-Ruiz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, we demonstrated that oral immunization using Autographa californica baculovirus driving the expression of the Gal-lectin LC3 fragment (AcNPV-LC3 of Entamoeba histolytica conferred protection against ALA development in hamsters. In this study, we determined the ability of AcNPV-LC3 to protect against ALA by the intramuscular route as well as the liver immune response associated with protection. Results showed that 55% of hamsters IM immunized with AcNPV-LC3 showed sterile protection against ALA, whereas other 20% showed reduction in the size and extent of abscesses, resulting in some protection in 75% of animals compared to the sham control group. Levels of protection showed a linear correlation with the development and intensity of specific antiamoeba cellular and humoral responses, evaluated in serum and spleen of hamsters, respectively. Evaluation of the Th1/Th2 cytokine patterns expressed in the liver of hamsters showed that sterile protection was associated with the production of high levels of IFNγ and IL-4. These results suggest that the baculovirus system is equally efficient by the intramuscular as well as the oral routes for ALA protection and that the Gal-lectin LC3 fragment is a highly protective antigen against hepatic amoebiasis through the local induction of IFNγ and IL-4.

  9. ATLAS FTK Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Iizawa, T; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Fast TracKer (FTK) will perform global track reconstruction after each Level-1 trigger accept signal to enable the software-based higher level trigger to have early access to tracking information. FTK is a dedicated processor based on a mixture of advanced technologies. Modern, powerful Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) form an important part of the system architecture, and the large level of computing power required for pattern recognition is provided by incorporating standard-cell ASICs named Associative Memory (AM). Motivation and the architecture of the FTK system will be presented, and the status of hardware and simulation will be following.

  10. RPC Trigger Robustness: Status Report

    CERN Document Server

    Di Mattia, A; Nisati, A; Pastore, F; Vari, R; Veneziano, Stefano; Aielli, G; Camarri, P; Cardarelli, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Simone, A; Liberti, B; Santonico, R

    2002-01-01

    The present paper describes the Level-1 Barrel Muon Trigger performance as expected with the current configuration of the RPC detectors designed for the Barrel Muon Spectrometer of ATLAS. Results of a beam test performed at the X5-GIF facility at CERN are presented in order to show the trigger efficiency with different conditions of RPC detection efficiency and several background rates. Small (50$\\times$50 cm$^2$) RPC chambers with final Front-end electronics and splitter boards are used in the test, while the coincidence logic is applied off-line using a detailed simulation of the coincidence matrix.

  11. Fast processor for dilepton triggers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsanevas, S.; Kostarakis, P.; Baltrusaitis, R.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a fast trigger processor, developed for and used in Fermilab experiment E-537, for selecting high-mass dimuon events produced by negative pions and anti-protons. The processor finds candidate tracks by matching hit information received from drift chambers and scintillation counters, and determines their momenta. Invariant masses are calculated for all possible pairs of tracks and an event is accepted if any invariant mass is greater than some preselectable minimum mass. The whole process, accomplished within 5 to 10 microseconds, achieves up to a ten-fold reduction in trigger rate

  12. Introduction of the anti-apoptotic baculovirus p35 gene in passion fruit induces herbicide tolerance, reduced bacterial lesions, but does not inhibits passion fruit woodiness disease progress induced by cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freitas, D.S.; Coelho, M.C.F.; Souza, M.T.; Marques, A.; Ribeiro, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of anti-apoptotic genes into plants leads to resistance to environmental stress and broad-spectrum disease resistance. The anti-apoptotic gene (p35) from a baculovirus was introduced into the genome of passion fruit plants by biobalistics. Eleven regenerated plants showed the

  13. DT Local Trigger performance in 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Local Trigger system of the CMS Drift Tube chambers (DT) was checked applying similar methods as in the LHC Run 1 (2012). The main variables shown in this note are the trigger efficiency, the trigger quality and the fraction of trigger ghosts. The performance was found to be comparable or better than in Run 1.

  14. Expression of deleted, atoxic atypical recombinant beta2 toxin in a baculovirus system and production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serroni, Anna; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Pezzotti, Giovanni; Bano, Luca; Pellegrini, Martina; Severi, Giulio; Di Pancrazio, Chiara; Luciani, Mirella; Tittarelli, Manuela; Tofani, Silvia; De Giuseppe, Antonio

    2017-05-25

    Clostridium perfringens is an important animal and human pathogen that can produce more than 16 different major and minor toxins. The beta-2 minor toxin (CPB2), comprising atypical and consensus variants, appears to be involved in both human and animal enterotoxaemia syndrome. The exact role of CPB2 in pathogenesis is poorly investigated, and its mechanism of action at the molecular level is still unknown because of the lack of specific reagents such as monoclonal antibodies against the CPB2 protein and/or the availability of a highly purified antigen. Previous studies have reported that purified wild-type or recombinant CPB2 toxin, expressed in a heterologous system, presented cytotoxic effects on human intestinal cell lines. Undoubtedly, for this reason, to date, these purified proteins have not yet been used for the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Recently, monoclonal antibodies against CPB2 were generated using peptides designed on predicted antigenic epitopes of this toxin. In this paper we report, for the first time, the expression in a baculovirus system of a deleted recombinant C-terminal 6xHis-tagged atypical CPB2 toxin (rCPB2 Δ1-25 -His 6 ) lacking the 25 amino acids (aa) of the N-terminal putative signal sequence. A high level of purified recombinant rCPB2 Δ1-25 -His 6 was obtained after purification by Ni 2+ affinity chromatography. The purified product showed no in vitro and in vivo toxicity. Polyclonal antibodies and twenty hybridoma-secreting Mabs were generated using purified rCPB2 Δ1-25 -His 6 . Finally, the reactivity and specificity of the new antibodies were tested against both recombinant and wild-type CPB2 toxins. The high-throughput of purified atoxic recombinant CPB2 produced in insect cells, allowed to obtain monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. The availability of these molecules could contribute to develop immunoenzymatic methods and/or to perform studies about the biological activity of CPB2 toxin.

  15. The Trigger for Early Running

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system is based on three levels of event selection designed to capture the physics of interest with high efficiency from an initial bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz. The selections in the three trigger levels must provide sufficient rejection to reduce the rate to 200 Hz, compatible with offline computing power and storage capacity. The LHC is expected to begin its operation with a peak luminosity of 10^31 with a relatively small number of bunches, but quickly ramp up to higher luminosities by increasing the number of bunches, and thus the overall interaction rate. Decisions must be taken every 25 ns during normal LHC operations at the design luminosity of 10^34, where the average bunch crossing will contain more than 20 interactions. Hence, trigger selections must be deployed that can adapt to the changing beam conditions while preserving the interesting physics and satisfying varying detector requirements. In this paper, we provide a menu of trigger selections that can be...

  16. The CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dell'Orso, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    Motivations, design, performance and ongoing upgrade of the CDF Silicon Vertex Trigger are presented. The system provides CDF with a powerful tool for online tracking with offline quality in order to enhance the reach on B-physics and large P t -physics coupled to b quarks

  17. Germination of Aspergillus niger conidia is triggered by nitrogen compounds related to L-amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Kimran; Stratford, Malcolm; Archer, David B

    2014-10-01

    Conidial germination is fundamentally important to the growth and dissemination of most fungi. It has been previously shown (K. Hayer, M. Stratford, and D. B. Archer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 79:6924-6931, 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.02061-13), using sugar analogs, that germination is a 2-stage process involving triggering of germination and then nutrient uptake for hyphal outgrowth. In the present study, we tested this 2-stage germination process using a series of nitrogen-containing compounds for the ability to trigger the breaking of dormancy of Aspergillus niger conidia and then to support the formation of hyphae by acting as nitrogen sources. Triggering and germination were also compared between A. niger and Aspergillus nidulans using 2-deoxy-D-glucose (trigger), D-galactose (nontrigger in A. niger but trigger in A. nidulans), and an N source (required in A. niger but not in A. nidulans). Although most of the nitrogen compounds studied served as nitrogen sources for growth, only some nitrogen compounds could trigger germination of A. niger conidia, and all were related to L-amino acids. Using L-amino acid analogs without either the amine or the carboxylic acid group revealed that both the amine and carboxylic acid groups were essential for an L-amino acid to serve as a trigger molecule. Generally, conidia were able to sense and recognize nitrogen compounds that fitted into a specific size range. There was no evidence of uptake of either triggering or nontriggering compounds over the first 90 min of A. niger conidial germination, suggesting that the germination trigger sensors are not located within the spore. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Exosomes: Mechanisms of Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. McKelvey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–100 nm microvesicles which contain complex cellular signals of RNA, protein and lipids. Because of this, exosomes are implicated as having limitless therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer, pregnancy complications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. To date we know a considerable amount about exosome biogenesis and secretion, but there is a paucity of data regarding the uptake of exosomes by immune and non-immune cell types (e.g., cancer cells and the internal signalling pathways by which these exosomes elicit a cellular response. Answering these questions is of paramount importance.

  19. Exosomes: Mechanisms of Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. McKelvey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–100 nm microvesicles which contain complex cellular signals of RNA, protein and lipids. Because of this, exosomes are implicated as having limitless therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer, pregnancy complications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. To date we know a considerable amount about exosome biogenesis and secretion, but there is a paucity of data regarding the uptake of exosomes by immune and non- immune cell types (e.g., cancer cells and the internal signalling pathways by which these exosomes elicit a cellular response. Answering these questions is of para‐ mount importance.

  20. Thyroid Uptake Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Tuan; Nguyen Thi Bao My; Nguyen Van Sy

    2007-01-01

    The NED-UP.M7 is a complete thyroid uptake and analysis system specifically designed for nuclear medicine. Capable of performing a full range of studies this system provides fast, accurate results for Uptake Studies. The heart of the NED-UP.M7 is a microprocessor-controlled 2048 channel Compact Multi-Channel Analyzer, coupled to a 2 inch x 2 inch NaI(Tl) detector with a USB personal computer interface. The system offers simple, straight-forward operation using pre-programmed isotopes, and menudriven prompts to guide the user step by step through each procedure. The pre-programmed radionuclides include I-123, I-125, I-131, Tc-99m and Cs-137. The user-defined radionuclides also allow for isotope identification while the printer provides hard copy printouts for patient and department record keeping. The included software program running on PC (Windows XP-based) is a user friendly program with menudriven and graphic interface for easy controlling the system and managing measurement results of patient on Excel standard form. (author)

  1. Triggers in UA2 and UA1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorenbosch, J.

    1985-01-01

    The UA2 and UA1 trigger systems are described as they will be used after the upgrade of the CERN SPPS. The luminosity of the collider will increase to 3x10 30 . The bunch spacing is 4 microseconds, comparable to the time available for a second level trigger at the SSC. The first level triggers are very powerful and deliver trigger rates of about 100 Hz. The UA1 second level trigger operates on the final digitizings with a combination of special and general purpose processors. At the highest trigger levels a small farm of processors performs the final reduction. (orig.)

  2. Muon Trigger for Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisyak, M.; Usvyatsov, M.; Mulhearn, M.; Shimmin, C.; Ustyuzhanin, A.

    2017-10-01

    The CRAYFIS experiment proposes to use privately owned mobile phones as a ground detector array for Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays. Upon interacting with Earth’s atmosphere, these events produce extensive particle showers which can be detected by cameras on mobile phones. A typical shower contains minimally-ionizing particles such as muons. As these particles interact with CMOS image sensors, they may leave tracks of faintly-activated pixels that are sometimes hard to distinguish from random detector noise. Triggers that rely on the presence of very bright pixels within an image frame are not efficient in this case. We present a trigger algorithm based on Convolutional Neural Networks which selects images containing such tracks and are evaluated in a lazy manner: the response of each successive layer is computed only if activation of the current layer satisfies a continuation criterion. Usage of neural networks increases the sensitivity considerably comparable with image thresholding, while the lazy evaluation allows for execution of the trigger under the limited computational power of mobile phones.

  3. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  4. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The UA1 trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayer, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Experiment UA1 is a large multi-purpose spectrometer at the CERN proton-antiproton collider, scheduled for late 1981. The principal trigger is formed on the basis of the energy deposition in calorimeters. A trigger decision taken in under 2.4 microseconds can avoid dead time losses due to the bunched nature of the beam. To achieve this we have built fast 8-bit charge to digital converters followed by two identical digital processors tailored to the experiment. The outputs of groups of the 2440 photomultipliers in the calorimeters are summed to form a total of 288 input channels to the ADCs. A look-up table in RAM is used to convert the digitised photomultiplier signals to energy in one processor, combinations of input channels, and also counts the number of clusters with electromagnetic or hadronic energy above pre-determined levels. Up to twelve combinations of these conditions, together with external information, may be combined in coincidence or in veto to form the final trigger. Provision has been made for testing using simulated data in an off-line mode, and sampling real data when on-line. (orig.)

  6. ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Daniel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has introduced and recently commissioned a completely new hardware sub-system of its first-level trigger: the topological processor (L1Topo). L1Topo consist of two AdvancedTCA blades mounting state-of-the-art FPGA processors, providing high input bandwidth (up to 4 Gb/s) and low latency data processing (200 ns). L1Topo is able to select collision events by applying kinematic and topological requirements on candidate objects (energy clusters, jets, and muons) measured by calorimeters and muon sub-detectors. Results from data recorded using the L1Topo trigger will be presented. These results demonstrate a significantly improved background event rejection, thus allowing for a rate reduction without efficiency loss. This improvement has been shown for several physics processes leading to low-pT leptons, including H->tau tau and J/Psi->mu mu. In addition to describing the L1Topo trigger system, we will discuss the use of an accurate L1Topo simulation as a powerful tool to validate and optimize...

  7. ATLAS FTK: Fast Track Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Volpi, Guido; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    An overview of the ATLAS Fast Tracker processor is presented, reporting the design of the system, its expected performance, and the integration status. The next LHC runs, with a significant increase in instantaneous luminosity, will provide a big challenge to the trigger and data acquisition systems of all the experiments. An intensive use of the tracking information at the trigger level will be important to keep high efficiency in interesting events, despite the increase in multiple p-p collisions per bunch crossing (pile-up). In order to increase the use of tracks within the High Level Trigger (HLT), the ATLAS experiment planned the installation of an hardware processor dedicated to tracking: the Fast TracKer (FTK) processor. The FTK is designed to perform full scan track reconstruction at every Level-1 accept. To achieve this goal, the FTK uses a fully parallel architecture, with algorithms designed to exploit the computing power of custom VLSI chips, the Associative Memory, as well as modern FPGAs. The FT...

  8. Headache triggers in the US military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeler, Brett J; Kenney, Kimbra; Prokhorenko, Olga A; Fideli, Ulgen S; Campbell, William; Erickson, Jay C

    2010-05-01

    Headaches can be triggered by a variety of factors. Military service members have a high prevalence of headache but the factors triggering headaches in military troops have not been identified. The objective of this study is to determine headache triggers in soldiers and military beneficiaries seeking specialty care for headaches. A total of 172 consecutive US Army soldiers and military dependents (civilians) evaluated at the headache clinics of 2 US Army Medical Centers completed a standardized questionnaire about their headache triggers. A total of 150 (87%) patients were active-duty military members and 22 (13%) patients were civilians. In total, 77% of subjects had migraine; 89% of patients reported at least one headache trigger with a mean of 8.3 triggers per patient. A wide variety of headache triggers was seen with the most common categories being environmental factors (74%), stress (67%), consumption-related factors (60%), and fatigue-related factors (57%). The types of headache triggers identified in active-duty service members were similar to those seen in civilians. Stress-related triggers were significantly more common in soldiers. There were no significant differences in trigger types between soldiers with and without a history of head trauma. Headaches in military service members are triggered mostly by the same factors as in civilians with stress being the most common trigger. Knowledge of headache triggers may be useful for developing strategies that reduce headache occurrence in the military.

  9. Cloning of fusion protein gene of Newcastle disease virus into a baculovirus derived bacmid shuttle vector, in order to express it in insect cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemzadeh MS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Newcastle disease virus (NDV is one of the major pathogens in poultry and vaccination is intended to control the disease, as an effective solution, yet. Fusion protein (F on surface of NDV, has a fundamental role in virus pathogenicity and can induce protective immunity, alone. With this background, here our aim was to construct a baculovirus derived recombinant bacmid shuttle vector (encoding F-protein in order to express it in insect cell line. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, at first complete F gene from avirulent strain La Sota of NDV was amplified by RT-PCR to produce F cDNA. The amplicon was cloned into T/A cloning vector and afterwards into pFastBac Dual donor plasmid. After the verification of cloning process by two methods, PCR and enzymatic digestion analysis, the accuracy of F gene sequence was confirmed by sequencing. Finally, F-containing recombinant bacmid was subsequently generated in DH10Bac cell and the construct production was confirmed by a special PCR panel, using F specific primers and M13 universal primers. Results: Analysis of confirmatory tests showed that the recombinant bacmid, expressing of F-protein gene in correct sequence and framework, has been constructed successfully. Conclusion: The product of this F-containing recombinant bacmid, in addition to its independent application in the induction of protective immunity, can be used with the other individual recombinant baculoviruses, expressing HN and NP genes to produce NDV-VLPs in insect cell line.

  10. Goose parvovirus structural proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in goose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Huanyu; Wei, Na; Wang, Qian; Wang, Chunyuan; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Liu, Dapeng; Gao, Mingchun; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → All three capsid proteins can be expressed in insect cells in baculovirus expression system. → All three recombinant proteins were spontaneously self-assemble into virus-like particles whose size and appearance were similar to those of native purified GPV virions. → The immunogenicity of GPV-VLPs was better than commercial inactivated vaccine and attenuated vaccine. -- Abstract: Goose parvovirus (GPV), a small non-enveloped ssDNA virus, can cause Derzsy's disease, and three capsid proteins of VP1, VP2, and VP3 are encoded by an overlapping nucleotide sequence. However, little is known on whether recombinant viral proteins (VPs) could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells and whether these VLPs could retain their immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in susceptible geese. To address these issues, genes for these GPV VPs were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant VPs proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity. The rVP1, rVP2, and rVP3 expressed in Sf9 cells were detected by anti-GPV sera, anti-VP3 sera, and anti-His antibodies, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that these rVPs spontaneously assembled into VLPs in insect cells, similar to that of the purified wild-type GPV virions. In addition, vaccination with individual types of VLPs, particularly with the rVP2-VLPs, induced higher titers of antibodies and neutralized different strains of GPVs in primary goose and duck embryo fibroblast cells in vitro. These data indicated that these VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of Derzsy's disease and vehicles for the delivery of drugs.

  11. Construction of occluded recombinant baculoviruses containing the full-length cry1Ab and cry1Ac genes from Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Ribeiro

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The administration of baculoviruses to insects for bioassay purposes is carried out, in most cases, by contamination of food surfaces with a known amount of occlusion bodies (OBs. Since per os infection is the natural route of infection, occluded recombinant viruses containing crystal protein genes (cry1Ab and cry1Ac from Bacillus thuringiensis were constructed for comparison with the baculovirus prototype Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcNPV. The transfer vector pAcUW2B was used for construction of occluded recombinant viruses. The transfer vector containing the crystal protein genes was cotransfected with linearized DNA from a non-occluded recombinant virus. The isolation of recombinant viruses was greatly facilitated by the reduction of background "wild type" virus and the increased proportion of recombinant viruses. Since the recombinant viruses containing full-length and truncated forms of the crystal protein genes did not seem to improve the pathogenicity of the recombinant viruses when compared with the wild type AcNPV, and in order to compare expression levels of the full-length crystal proteins produced by non-occluded and occluded recombinant viruses the full-length cry1Ab and cry1Ac genes were chosen for construction of occluded recombinant viruses. The recombinant viruses containing full-length and truncated forms of the crystal protein genes did not seem to improve its pathogenicity but the size of the larvae infected with the recombinant viruses was significantly smaller than that of larvae infected with the wild type virus.

  12. Goose parvovirus structural proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in goose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Huanyu; Wei, Na; Wang, Qian; Wang, Chunyuan; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Liu, Dapeng; Gao, Mingchun; Ma, Bo [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China); Wang, Junwei, E-mail: jwwang@neau.edu.cn [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150030 (China)

    2011-05-27

    Highlights: {yields} All three capsid proteins can be expressed in insect cells in baculovirus expression system. {yields} All three recombinant proteins were spontaneously self-assemble into virus-like particles whose size and appearance were similar to those of native purified GPV virions. {yields} The immunogenicity of GPV-VLPs was better than commercial inactivated vaccine and attenuated vaccine. -- Abstract: Goose parvovirus (GPV), a small non-enveloped ssDNA virus, can cause Derzsy's disease, and three capsid proteins of VP1, VP2, and VP3 are encoded by an overlapping nucleotide sequence. However, little is known on whether recombinant viral proteins (VPs) could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells and whether these VLPs could retain their immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in susceptible geese. To address these issues, genes for these GPV VPs were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant VPs proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity. The rVP1, rVP2, and rVP3 expressed in Sf9 cells were detected by anti-GPV sera, anti-VP3 sera, and anti-His antibodies, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that these rVPs spontaneously assembled into VLPs in insect cells, similar to that of the purified wild-type GPV virions. In addition, vaccination with individual types of VLPs, particularly with the rVP2-VLPs, induced higher titers of antibodies and neutralized different strains of GPVs in primary goose and duck embryo fibroblast cells in vitro. These data indicated that these VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of Derzsy's disease and vehicles for the delivery of drugs.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle at rest and in response to exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Martins Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose uptake is an important phenomenon for cell homeostasis and for organism health. Under resting conditions, skeletal muscle is dependent on insulin to promote glucose uptake.Insulin, after binding to its membrane receptor, triggers a cascade of intracellular reactions culminating in activation of the glucose transporter 4, GLUT4, among other outcomes.This transporter migrates to the plasma membrane and assists in glucose internalization.However, under special conditions such as physical exercise, alterations in the levels of intracellular molecules such as ATP and calcium actto regulate GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, regardless of insulinlevels.Regular physical exercise, due to stimulating pathways related to glucose uptake, is an important non-pharmacological intervention for improving glycemic control in obese and diabetic patients. In this mini-review the main mechanisms involved in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle in response to muscle contraction will be investigated.

  14. The Jefferson Lab Trigger Supervisor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ed Jastrzembsi; David Abbott; Graham Heyes; R.W. MacLeod; Carl Timmer; Elliott Wolin

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the design and performance of a Trigger Supervisor System for use in nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab. We also discuss the enhanced features of a new Trigger Supervisor Module now under construction

  15. The Jefferson Lab Trigger Supervisor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jastrzembski, E.; Abbott, D.J.; Heyes, W.G.; MacLeod, R.W.; Timmer, C.; Wolin, E.

    1999-01-01

    The authors discuss the design and performance of a Trigger Supervisor System for use in nuclear physics experiments at Jefferson Lab. They also discuss the enhanced features of a new Trigger Supervisor Module now under construction

  16. Baculovirus-mediated gene transfer and recombinant protein expression do not interfere with insulin dependent phosphorylation of PKB/Akt in human SHSY-5Y and C3A cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selander Martin

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant adenovirus vectors and transfection agents comprising cationic lipids are widely used as gene delivery vehicles for functional expression in cultured cells. Consequently, these tools are utilized to investigate the effects of functional over-expression of proteins on insulin mediated events. However, we have previously reported that cationic lipid reagents cause a state of insulin unresponsiveness in cell cultures. In addition, we have found that cultured cells often do not respond to insulin stimulation following adenovirus treatment. Infection with adenovirus compromises vital functions of the host cell leading to the activation of protein kinases central to insulin signalling, such as protein kinase B/Akt. Therefore, we investigated the effect of adenovirus infection on insulin unresponsiveness by means of Akt activation in cultured cells. Moreover, we investigated the use of baculovirus as a heterologous viral gene delivery vehicle to circumvent these phenomena. Since the finding that baculovirus can efficiently transduce mammalian cells, the applications of this viral system in gene delivery has greatly expanded and one advantage is the virtual absence of cytotoxicity in mammalian cells. Results We show that infection of human neuroblastoma SHSY-5Y and liver C3A cells with recombinant adenovirus results in the activation of Akt in a dose dependent manner. In addition, this activation makes treated cells unresponsive to insulin stimulation as determined by an apparent lack of differential phosphorylation of Akt on serine-473. Our data further indicate that the use of recombinant baculovirus does not increase the phosphorylation of Akt in SHSY-5Y and C3A cells. Moreover, following infection with baculovirus, SHSY-5Y and C3A cells respond to insulin by means of phosphorylation of Akt on serine-473 in the same manner as uninfected cells. Conclusion Widely-used adenovirus vectors for gene delivery cause a state of

  17. The Trigger System of the CMS Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Felcini, Marta

    2008-01-01

    We give an overview of the main features of the CMS trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system. Then, we illustrate the strategies and trigger configurations (trigger tables) developed for the detector calibration and physics program of the CMS experiment, at start-up of LHC operations, as well as their possible evolution with increasing luminosity. Finally, we discuss the expected CPU time performance of the trigger algorithms and the CPU requirements for the event filter farm at start-up.

  18. Triggers for a high sensitivity charm experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, D.C.

    1994-07-01

    Any future charm experiment clearly should implement an E T trigger and a μ trigger. In order to reach the 10 8 reconstructed charm level for hadronic final states, a high quality vertex trigger will almost certainly also be necessary. The best hope for the development of an offline quality vertex trigger lies in further development of the ideas of data-driven processing pioneered by the Nevis/U. Mass. group

  19. Radioiodine uptake measurements in thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadireshn, A.; Kapur, S.C.; Samuel, J.R.; Mahajan, M.K.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluation of thyroid function can be carried out by measuring the uptake of orally administered radioactive iodine. The results of the thyroid uptake measurements for the period 1982-1987 in Christian Medical College, Ludhiana are presented here. About 3000 patients were screened during the analysis period. (author)

  20. Aquaporins and root water uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water is one of the most critical resources limiting plant growth and crop productivity, and root water uptake is an important aspect of plant physiology governing plant water use and stress tolerance. Pathways of root water uptake are complex and are affected by root structure and physiological res...

  1. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate

  2. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  3. First level trigger of the DIRAC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, L.G.; Karpukhin, V.V.; Kulikov, A.V.; Gallas, M.

    2001-01-01

    The logic of the first level trigger of the DIRAC experiment at CERN is described. A parallel running of different trigger modes with tagging of events and optional independent prescaling is realized. A CAMAC-based trigger system is completely computer controlled

  4. The D OE software trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, J.T.; Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI

    1992-10-01

    In the D OE experiment, the software filter operates in a processor farm with each node processing a single event. Processing is data-driven: the filter does local processing to verify the candidates from the hardware trigger. The filter code consists of independent pieces called ''tools''; processing for a given hardware bit is a ''script'' invoking one or more ''tools'' sequentially. An offline simulator drives the same code with the same configuration files, running on real or simulated data. Online tests use farm nodes parasiting on the data stream. We discuss the performance of the system and how we attempt to verify its correctness

  5. Calorimeter triggers for hard collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landshoff, P.V.; Polkinghorne, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    We discuss the use of a forward calorimeter to trigger on hard hadron-hadron collisions. We give a derivation in the covariant parton model of the Ochs-Stodolsky scaling law for single-hard-scattering processes, and investigate the conditions when instead a multiple- scattering mechanism might dominate. With a proton beam, this mechanism results in six transverse jets, with a total average multiplicity about twice that seen in ordinary events. We estimate that its cross section is likely to be experimentally accessible at avalues of the beam energy in the region of 100 GeV/c

  6. Cadmium uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghiri, F.

    1973-01-01

    Absorption of /sup 115m/Cd by soybean (Gylcine max l.) plants via foliar and root systems and translocation into the seed was determined. The uptake of /sup 115m/Cd by soybeans via the root system was more efficient than that of the foliar placement. Growth and Cd concentrations of soybean and wheat (Triticum aestivum l.) tops were influenced by soil-applied Cd. In both crops, the Cd concentration of plant tops increased while yield decreased with increasing levels of applied Cd. Cadmium toxicitiy began to occur in both crops at the lowest level of soil applied Cd (2.5 ppM). With soybean plants, Cd toxicity symptoms resembled fe chlorosis. For wheat plants there were no visual symptoms other than the studied growth. The relative concentration of Cd found in several vegetable crops varied depending on the plant species. The relative Cd concentration in descending order for various vegetables was lettuce (Lactuca sativa l.) > radish top (Raphanus sativus l.) > celery stalk (Apium graveolens l.) > celery leaves greater than or equal to green pepper (Capsicum frutescens l.) > radish roots.

  7. Triggering for charm, beauty, and truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    As the search for more and more rare processes accelerates, the need for more and more effective event triggers also accelerates. In the earliest experiments, a simple coincidence often sufficed not only as the event trigger, but as the complete record of an event of interest. In today's experiments, not only has the fast trigger become more sophisticated, but one or more additional level of trigger processing precedes writing event data to magnetic tape for later analysis. Further search experiments will certainly require further expansion in the number of trigger levels required to filter those rare events of particular interest

  8. The Database Driven ATLAS Trigger Configuration System

    CERN Document Server

    Martyniuk, Alex; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This contribution describes the trigger selection configuration system of the ATLAS low- and high-level trigger (HLT) and the upgrades it received in preparation for LHC Run 2. The ATLAS trigger configuration system is responsible for applying the physics selection parameters for the online data taking at both trigger levels and the proper connection of the trigger lines across those levels. Here the low-level trigger consists of the already existing central trigger (CT) and the new Level-1 Topological trigger (L1Topo), which has been added for Run 2. In detail the tasks of the configuration system during the online data taking are Application of the selection criteria, e.g. energy cuts, minimum multiplicities, trigger object correlation, at the three trigger components L1Topo, CT, and HLT On-the-fly, e.g. rate-dependent, generation and application of prescale factors to the CT and HLT to adjust the trigger rates to the data taking conditions, such as falling luminosity or rate spikes in the detector readout ...

  9. Hadronic Triggers and trigger-object level analysis at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic signatures are critical to the high energy physics analysis program, and are broadly used for both Standard Model measurements and searches for new physics. These signatures include generic quark and gluon jets, as well as jets originating from b-quarks or the decay of massive particles (such as electroweak bosons or top quarks). Additionally missing transverse momentum from non-interacting particles provides an interesting probe in the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Developing trigger selections that target these events is a huge challenge at the LHC due to the enormous rates associated with these signatures. This challenge is exacerbated by the amount of pile-up activity, which continues to grow. In order to address these challenges, several new techniques have been developed during the past year in order to significantly improve the potential of the 2017 dataset and overcome the limiting factors to more deeply probing for new physics, such as storage and computing requirements f...

  10. Hadronic triggers and trigger object-level analysis at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Zaripovas, Donatas Ramilas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Hadronic signatures are critical to the high energy physics analysis program at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and are broadly used for both Standard Model measurements and searches for new physics. These signatures include generic quark and gluon jets, as well as jets originating from b-quarks or the decay of massive particles (such as electroweak bosons or top quarks). Additionally missing transverse momentum from non-interacting particles provides an interesting probe in the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model. Developing trigger selections that target these events is a huge challenge at the LHC due to the enormous event rates associated with these signatures. This challenge is exacerbated by the amount of pile-up activity, which continues to grow. In order to address these challenges, several new techniques have been developed during the past year in order to significantly improve the potential of the 2017 dataset and overcome the limiting factors, such as storage and computing requirements...

  11. Wired and Wireless Camera Triggering with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauhanen, H.; Rönnholm, P.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronous triggering is an important task that allows simultaneous data capture from multiple cameras. Accurate synchronization enables 3D measurements of moving objects or from a moving platform. In this paper, we describe one wired and four wireless variations of Arduino-based low-cost remote trigger systems designed to provide a synchronous trigger signal for industrial cameras. Our wireless systems utilize 315 MHz or 434 MHz frequencies with noise filtering capacitors. In order to validate the synchronization accuracy, we developed a prototype of a rotating trigger detection system (named RoTriDeS). This system is suitable to detect the triggering accuracy of global shutter cameras. As a result, the wired system indicated an 8.91 μs mean triggering time difference between two cameras. Corresponding mean values for the four wireless triggering systems varied between 7.92 and 9.42 μs. Presented values include both camera-based and trigger-based desynchronization. Arduino-based triggering systems appeared to be feasible, and they have the potential to be extended to more complicated triggering systems.

  12. Technetium uptake by Sinapis Alba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.; Ter Meer-Bekk, Ch.

    1986-01-01

    Transfer factors for pertechnetate uptake was determined for Sinapis Alba cultured hydroponically. For the freshly harvested, undried plants transfer factors were found between 13 and 40 depending on the growth period. (author)

  13. Carbon availability triggers fungal nitrogen uptake and transport in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fellbaum, C.R.; Gachomo, E.W.; Beesetty, Y.; Choudhari, S.; Strahan, G.D.; Pfeffer, P.E.; Kiers, E.T.; Bücking, H.

    2012-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, formed between the majority of land plants and ubiquitous soil fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota, is responsible for massive nutrient transfer and global carbon sequestration. AM fungi take up nutrients from the soil and exchange them against

  14. Diselenolane-mediated cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuard, Nicolas; Poblador-Bahamonde, Amalia I; Zong, Lili; Bartolami, Eline; Hildebrandt, Jana; Weigand, Wolfgang; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2018-02-21

    The emerging power of thiol-mediated uptake with strained disulfides called for a move from sulfur to selenium. We report that according to results with fluorescent model substrates, cellular uptake with 1,2-diselenolanes exceeds uptake with 1,2-dithiolanes and epidithiodiketopiperazines with regard to efficiency as well as intracellular localization. The diselenide analog of lipoic acid performs best. This 1,2-diselenolane delivers fluorophores efficiently to the cytosol of HeLa Kyoto cells, without detectable endosomal capture as with 1,2-dithiolanes or dominant escape into the nucleus as with epidithiodiketopiperazines. Diselenolane-mediated cytosolic delivery is non-toxic (MTT assay), sensitive to temperature but insensitive to inhibitors of endocytosis (chlorpromazine, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, wortmannin, cytochalasin B) and conventional thiol-mediated uptake (Ellman's reagent), and to serum. Selenophilicity, the extreme CSeSeC dihedral angle of 0° and the high but different acidity of primary and secondary selenols might all contribute to uptake. Thiol-exchange affinity chromatography is introduced as operational mimic of thiol-mediated uptake that provides, in combination with rate enhancement of DTT oxidation, direct experimental evidence for existence and nature of the involved selenosulfides.

  15. Triggers of oral lichen planus flares and the potential role of trigger avoidance in disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hannah X; Blasiak, Rachel; Kim, Edwin; Padilla, Ricardo; Culton, Donna A

    2017-09-01

    Many patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) report triggers of flares, some of which overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, including oral allergy syndrome and oral contact dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of commonly reported triggers of OLP flares, their overlap with triggers of other oral diseases, and the potential role of trigger avoidance as a management strategy. Questionnaire-based survey of 51 patients with biopsy-proven lichen planus with oral involvement seen in an academic dermatology specialty clinic and/or oral pathology clinic between June 2014 and June 2015. Of the participants, 94% identified at least one trigger of their OLP flares. Approximately half of the participants (51%) reported at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral allergy syndrome, and 63% identified at least one trigger that overlapped with known triggers of oral contact dermatitis. Emotional stress was the most commonly reported trigger (77%). Regarding avoidance, 79% of the study participants reported avoiding their known triggers in daily life. Of those who actively avoided triggers, 89% reported an improvement in symptoms and 70% reported a decrease in the frequency of flares. Trigger identification and avoidance can play a potentially effective role in the management of OLP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Polymer Coated Echogenic Lipid Nanoparticles with Dual Release Triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahire, Rahul; Haldar, Manas K.; Paul, Shirshendu; Mergoum, Anaas; Ambre, Avinash H.; Katti, Kalpana S.; Gange, Kara N.; Srivastava, D. K.; Sarkar, Kausik; Mallik, Sanku

    2013-01-01

    Although lipid nanoparticles are promising drug delivery vehicles, passive release of encapsulated contents at the target site is often slow. Herein, we report contents release from targeted, polymer coated, echogenic lipid nanoparticles in the cell cytoplasm by redox trigger and simultaneously enhanced by diagnostic frequency ultrasound. The lipid nanoparticles were polymerized on the external leaflet using a disulfide cross-linker. In the presence of cytosolic concentrations of glutathione, the lipid nanoparticles released 76% of encapsulated contents. Plasma concentrations of glutathione failed to release the encapsulated contents. Application of 3 MHz ultrasound for 2 minutes simultaneously with the reducing agent enhanced the release to 96%. Folic acid conjugated, doxorubicin loaded nanoparticles showed enhanced uptake and higher cytotoxicity in cancer cells overexpressing the folate receptor (compared to the control). With further developments, these lipid nanoparticles have the potential to be used as multimodal nanocarriers for simultaneous targeted drug delivery and ultrasound imaging. PMID:23394107

  17. Nanosecond electric pulses trigger actin responses in plant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghoefer, Thomas; Eing, Christian; Flickinger, Bianca; Hohenberger, Petra; Wegner, Lars H.; Frey, Wolfgang; Nick, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We have analyzed the cellular effects of nanosecond pulsed electrical fields on plant cells using fluorescently tagged marker lines in the tobacco cell line BY-2 and confocal laser scanning microscopy. We observe a disintegration of the cytoskeleton in the cell cortex, followed by contraction of actin filaments towards the nucleus, and disintegration of the nuclear envelope. These responses are accompanied by irreversible permeabilization of the plasma membrane manifest as uptake of Trypan Blue. By pretreatment with the actin-stabilizing drug phalloidin, the detachment of transvacuolar actin from the cell periphery can be suppressed, and this treatment can also suppress the irreversible perforation of the plasma membrane. We discuss these findings in terms of a model, where nanosecond pulsed electric fields trigger actin responses that are key events in the plant-specific form of programmed cell death.

  18. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...... in this paper should be regarded as a further documentation of the technique. The key point in Random Decrement estimation is the formulation of a triggering condition. If the triggering condition is fulfilled a time segment from each measurement is picked out and averaged with previous time segments. The final...

  19. Application of Vector Triggering Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    1997-01-01

    result is a Random Decrement function from each measurement. In traditional Random Decrement estimation the triggering condition is a scalar condition, which should only be fulfilled in a single measurement. In vector triggering Random Decrement the triggering condition is a vector condition......This paper deals with applications of the vector triggering Random Decrement technique. This technique is new and developed with the aim of minimizing estimation time and identification errors. The theory behind the technique is discussed in an accompanying paper. The results presented...... in this paper should be regarded as a further documentation of the technique. The key point in Random Decrement estimation is the formulation of a triggering condition. If the triggering condition is fulfilled a time segment from each measurement is picked out and averaged with previous time segments. The final...

  20. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  1. The STAR Level-3 trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, C.; Berger, J.; Demello, M.; Dietel, T.; Flierl, D.; Landgraf, J.; Lange, J.S.; LeVine, M.J.; Ljubicic, A.; Nelson, J.; Roehrich, D.; Stock, R.; Struck, C.; Yepes, P.

    2003-01-01

    The STAR Level-3 trigger issues a trigger decision upon a complete online reconstruction of Au+Au collisions at relativistic heavy ion collider energies. Central interactions are processed up to a rate of 50 s -1 including a simple analysis of physics observables. The setup of the processor farm and the event reconstruction as well as experiences and the proposed trigger algorithms are described

  2. Upgrade trigger & reconstruction strategy: 2017 milestone

    CERN Document Server

    Albrecht, Johannes; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Cattaneo, Marco; Marco, Clemencic; Couturier, Ben; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Hill, Donal; Jones, Christopher Rob; Lemaitre, Florian; Lupton, Olli; Matev, Rosen; Pearce, Alex; Polci, Francesco; Promberger, Laura; Ponce, Sebastien; Quagliani, Renato; Raven, Gerhard; Sciascia, Barbara; Schiller, Manuel Tobias; Stahl, Sascha; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Chefdeville, Maximilien

    2018-01-01

    The LHCb collaboration is currently preparing an update of the experiment to take data in Run 3 of the LHC. The dominant feature of this upgrade is a trigger-less readout of the full detector followed by a full software trigger. To make optimal use of the collected data, the events are reconstructed at the inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz. This document presents the baseline trigger and reconstruction strategy as of the end of 2017.

  3. A muon trigger for the MACRO apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarito, E.; Bellotti, R.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; DeCataldo, G.; DeMarzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Liuzzi, R.; Spinelli, P.

    1991-01-01

    A trigger circuit based on EPROM components, able to manage up to 30 lines from independent counters, is described. The circuit has been designed and used in the MACRO apparatus at the Gran Sasso Laboratory for triggering on fast particles. The circuit works with standard TTL positive logic and is assembled in a double standard CAMAC module. It has a high triggering capacity and a high flexibility. (orig.)

  4. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achenbach, R; Andrei, V; Adragna, P; Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J P; Asman, B; Bohm, C; Ay, C; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Dahlhoff, A; Eckweiler, S; Booth, J R A; Thomas, P Bright; Charlton, D G; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger uses reduced-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters to search for high transverse-energy electrons, photons, τ leptons and jets, as well as high missing and total transverse energy. The calorimeter trigger electronics has a fixed latency of about 1 μs, using programmable custom-built digital electronics. This paper describes the Calorimeter Trigger hardware, as installed in the ATLAS electronics cavern

  5. The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achenbach, R; Andrei, V [Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Adragna, P [Physics Department, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Apostologlou, P; Barnett, B M; Brawn, I P; Davis, A O; Edwards, J P [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Asman, B; Bohm, C [Fysikum, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Ay, C; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Dahlhoff, A; Eckweiler, S [Institut fuer Physik, University of Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Booth, J R A; Thomas, P Bright; Charlton, D G; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: e.eisenhandler@qmul.ac.uk (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger uses reduced-granularity information from all the ATLAS calorimeters to search for high transverse-energy electrons, photons, {tau} leptons and jets, as well as high missing and total transverse energy. The calorimeter trigger electronics has a fixed latency of about 1 {mu}s, using programmable custom-built digital electronics. This paper describes the Calorimeter Trigger hardware, as installed in the ATLAS electronics cavern.

  6. State-of-the-Art Materials for Ultrasound-Triggered Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsi, Shashank; Borden, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is a unique and exciting theranostic modality that can be used to track drug carriers, trigger drug release and improve drug deposition with high spatial precision. In this review, we briefly describe the mechanisms of interaction between drug carriers and ultrasound waves, including cavitation, streaming and hyperthermia, and how those interactions can promote drug release and tissue uptake. We then discuss the rational design of some state-of-the-art materials for ultrasound-triggered drug delivery and review recent progress for each drug carrier, focusing on the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin. These materials include nanocarrier formulations, such as liposomes and micelles, designed specifically for ultrasound-triggered drug release, as well as microbubbles, microbubble-nanocarrier hybrids, microbubble-seeded hydrogels and phase-change agents. PMID:24389162

  7. The ATLAS Trigger System Commissioning and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, A

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully to collect collision data during 2009 and 2010 LHC running at centre of mass energies of 900 GeV, 2.36 TeV, and 7 TeV. This paper presents the ongoing work to commission the ATLAS trigger with proton collisions, including an overview of the performance of the trigger based on extensive online running. We describe how the trigger has evolved with increasing LHC luminosity and give a brief overview of plans for forthcoming LHC running.

  8. A Novel in situ Trigger Combination Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzatu, Adrian; Warburton, Andreas; Krumnack, Nils; Yao, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Searches for rare physics processes using particle detectors in high-luminosity colliding hadronic beam environments require the use of multi-level trigger systems to reject colossal background rates in real time. In analyses like the search for the Higgs boson, there is a need to maximize the signal acceptance by combining multiple different trigger chains when forming the offline data sample. In such statistically limited searches, datasets are often amassed over periods of several years, during which the trigger characteristics evolve and their performance can vary significantly. Reliable production cross-section measurements and upper limits must take into account a detailed understanding of the effective trigger inefficiency for every selected candidate event. We present as an example the complex situation of three trigger chains, based on missing energy and jet energy, to be combined in the context of the search for the Higgs (H) boson produced in association with a W boson at the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We briefly review the existing techniques for combining triggers, namely the inclusion, division, and exclusion methods. We introduce and describe a novel fourth in situ method whereby, for each candidate event, only the trigger chain with the highest a priori probability of selecting the event is considered. The in situ combination method has advantages of scalability to large numbers of differing trigger chains and of insensitivity to correlations between triggers. We compare the inclusion and in situ methods for signal event yields in the CDF WH search.

  9. The ATLAS Muon and Tau Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Asta, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    [Muon] The ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) deploys a three-levels processing scheme for the trigger system. The level-1 muon trigger system gets its input from fast muon trigger detectors. Fast sector logic boards select muon candidates, which are passed via an interface board to the central trigger processor and then to the High Level Trigger (HLT). The muon HLT is purely software based and encompasses a level-2 (L2) trigger followed by an event filter (EF) for a staged trigger approach. It has access to the data of the precision muon detectors and other detector elements to refine the muon hypothesis. Trigger-specific algorithms were developed and are used for the L2 to increase processing speed for instance by making use of look-up tables and simpler algorithms, while the EF muon triggers mostly benefit from offline reconstruction software to obtain most precise determination of the track parameters. There are two algorithms with different approaches, namely inside-out and outside-in...

  10. Data analysis at Level-1 Trigger level

    CERN Document Server

    Wittmann, Johannes; Aradi, Gregor; Bergauer, Herbert; Jeitler, Manfred; Wulz, Claudia; Apanasevich, Leonard; Winer, Brian; Puigh, Darren Michael

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing luminosity at the LHC, optimum online data selection is getting more and more important. While in the case of some experiments (LHCb and ALICE) this task is being completely transferred to computer farms, the others - ATLAS and CMS - will not be able to do this in the medium-term future for technological, detector-related reasons. Therefore, these experiments pursue the complementary approach of migrating more and more of the offline and High-Level Trigger intelligence into the trigger electronics. This paper illustrates how the Level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment and in particular its concluding stage, the Global Trigger, take up this challenge.

  11. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, A Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in up to five times higher rates of processes of interest. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event processing farm. A few examples will be shown, such as the impressive performance improvements in the HLT trigger algorithms used to identify leptons, hadrons and global event quantities like missing transverse energy. Finally, the status of the commissioning of the trigger system and its performance during the 2015 run will be presented. (paper)

  12. Geometrical Acceptance Analysis for RPC PAC Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, Eunsung

    2010-01-01

    The CMS(Compact Muon Solenoid) is one of the four experiments that will analyze the collision results of the protons accelerated by the Large Hardron Collider(LHC) at CERN(Conseil Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire). In case of the CMS experiment, the trigger system is divided into two stages : The Level-1 Trigger and High Level Trigger. The RPC(Resistive Plate Chamber) PAC(PAttern Comparator) Trigger system, which is a subject of this thesis, is a part of the Level-1 Muon Trigger System. Main task of the PAC Trigger is to identify muons, measures transverse momenta and select the best muon candidates for each proton bunch collision occurring every 25 ns. To calculate the value of PAC Trigger efficiency for triggerable muon, two terms of different efficiencies are needed ; acceptance efficiency and chamber efficiency. Main goal of the works described in this thesis is obtaining the acceptance efficiency of the PAC Trigger in each logical cone. Acceptance efficiency is a convolution of the chambers geometry an...

  13. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow

  14. Structural Features of Sugars That Trigger or Support Conidial Germination in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Kimran; Stratford, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    The asexual spores (conidia) of Aspergillus niger germinate to produce hyphae under appropriate conditions. Germination is initiated by conidial swelling and mobilization of internal carbon and energy stores, followed by polarization and emergence of a hyphal germ tube. The effects of different pyranose sugars, all analogues of d-glucose, on the germination of A. niger conidia were explored, and we define germination as the transition from a dormant conidium into a germling. Within germination, we distinguish two distinct stages, the initial swelling of the conidium and subsequent polarized growth. The stage of conidial swelling requires a germination trigger, which we define as a compound that is sensed by the conidium and which leads to catabolism of d-trehalose and isotropic growth. Sugars that triggered germination and outgrowth included d-glucose, d-mannose, and d-xylose. Sugars that triggered germination but did not support subsequent outgrowth included d-tagatose, d-lyxose, and 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Nontriggering sugars included d-galactose, l-glucose, and d-arabinose. Certain nontriggering sugars, including d-galactose, supported outgrowth if added in the presence of a complementary triggering sugar. This division of functions indicates that sugars are involved in two separate events in germination, triggering and subsequent outgrowth, and the structural features of sugars that support each, both, or none of these events are discussed. We also present data on the uptake of sugars during the germination process and discuss possible mechanisms of triggering in the absence of apparent sugar uptake during the initial swelling of conidia. PMID:23995938

  15. Structural features of sugars that trigger or support conidial germination in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayer, Kimran; Stratford, Malcolm; Archer, David B

    2013-11-01

    The asexual spores (conidia) of Aspergillus niger germinate to produce hyphae under appropriate conditions. Germination is initiated by conidial swelling and mobilization of internal carbon and energy stores, followed by polarization and emergence of a hyphal germ tube. The effects of different pyranose sugars, all analogues of d-glucose, on the germination of A. niger conidia were explored, and we define germination as the transition from a dormant conidium into a germling. Within germination, we distinguish two distinct stages, the initial swelling of the conidium and subsequent polarized growth. The stage of conidial swelling requires a germination trigger, which we define as a compound that is sensed by the conidium and which leads to catabolism of d-trehalose and isotropic growth. Sugars that triggered germination and outgrowth included d-glucose, d-mannose, and d-xylose. Sugars that triggered germination but did not support subsequent outgrowth included d-tagatose, d-lyxose, and 2-deoxy-d-glucose. Nontriggering sugars included d-galactose, l-glucose, and d-arabinose. Certain nontriggering sugars, including d-galactose, supported outgrowth if added in the presence of a complementary triggering sugar. This division of functions indicates that sugars are involved in two separate events in germination, triggering and subsequent outgrowth, and the structural features of sugars that support each, both, or none of these events are discussed. We also present data on the uptake of sugars during the germination process and discuss possible mechanisms of triggering in the absence of apparent sugar uptake during the initial swelling of conidia.

  16. Microbubbles-Assisted Ultrasound Triggers the Release of Extracellular Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuana Yuana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbubbles-assisted ultrasound (USMB has shown promise in improving local drug delivery. The formation of transient membrane pores and endocytosis are reported to be enhanced by USMB, and they contribute to cellular drug uptake. Exocytosis also seems to be linked to endocytosis upon USMB treatment. Based on this rationale, we investigated whether USMB triggers exocytosis resulting in the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs. USMB was performed on a monolayer of head-and-neck cancer cells (FaDu with clinically approved microbubbles and commonly used ultrasound parameters. At 2, 4, and 24 h, cells and EV-containing conditioned media from USMB and control conditions (untreated cells, cells treated with microbubbles and ultrasound only were harvested. EVs were measured using flow cytometric immuno-magnetic bead capture assay, immunogold electron microscopy, and western blotting. After USMB, levels of CD9 exposing-EVs significantly increased at 2 and 4 h, whereas levels of CD63 exposing-EVs increased at 2 h. At 24 h, EV levels were comparable to control levels. EVs released after USMB displayed a heterogeneous size distribution profile (30–1200 nm. Typical EV markers CD9, CD63, and alix were enriched in EVs released from USMB-treated FaDu cells. In conclusion, USMB treatment triggers exocytosis leading to the release of EVs from FaDu cells.

  17. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knuth, Matthew W [WISCONSIN; Kaproth, Bryan M [PENN STATE; Carpenter, Brett [PENN STATE; Guyer, Robert A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daub, Eric G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marone, Chris [PENN STATE

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  18. Root uptake of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake of elements by plant roots is one of the important pathways of entry of many elements into the food chain of man. Data are cited showing plutonium concentration ratios, plant/soil, ranging from 10 -10 to 10 -3 . Concentration ratios for americium range from 10 -7 to 10 +1 . Limited experiments with curium and neptunium indicate that root uptake of curium is similar to that of americium and that plant uptake of neptunium is substantially larger than that of curium and americium. The extreme ranges of concentration ratios cited for plutonium and americium are due to a number of causes. Experimental conditions such as very intensive cropping will lead to abnormally high concentration ratios. In some experiments, addition of chelating agents markedly increased plant root uptake of transuranic elements. Particle size and composition of the source material influenced uptake of the transuranics by plants. Translocation within the plant, and soil factors such as pH and organic matter content, all affect concentration ratios

  19. The trigger supervisor: Managing triggering conditions in a high energy physics experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadsworth, B.; Lanza, R.; LeVine, M.J.; Scheetz, R.A.; Videbaek, F.

    1987-01-01

    A trigger supervisor, implemented in VME-bus hardware, is described, which enables the host computer to dynamically control and monitor the trigger configuration for acquiring data from multiple detector partitions in a complex experiment

  20. Goose parvovirus structural proteins expressed by recombinant baculoviruses self-assemble into virus-like particles with strong immunogenicity in goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Huanyu; Wei, Na; Wang, Qian; Wang, Chunyuan; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Liu, Dapeng; Gao, Mingchun; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2011-05-27

    Goose parvovirus (GPV), a small non-enveloped ssDNA virus, can cause Derzsy's disease, and three capsid proteins of VP1, VP2, and VP3 are encoded by an overlapping nucleotide sequence. However, little is known on whether recombinant viral proteins (VPs) could spontaneously assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in insect cells and whether these VLPs could retain their immunoreactivity and immunogenicity in susceptible geese. To address these issues, genes for these GPV VPs were amplified by PCR, and the recombinant VPs proteins were expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus expression system for the characterization of their structures, immunoreactivity, and immunogenicity. The rVP1, rVP2, and rVP3 expressed in Sf9 cells were detected by anti-GPV sera, anti-VP3 sera, and anti-His antibodies, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that these rVPs spontaneously assembled into VLPs in insect cells, similar to that of the purified wild-type GPV virions. In addition, vaccination with individual types of VLPs, particularly with the rVP2-VLPs, induced higher titers of antibodies and neutralized different strains of GPVs in primary goose and duck embryo fibroblast cells in vitro. These data indicated that these VLPs retained immunoreactivity and had strong immunogenicity in susceptible geese. Therefore, our findings may provide a framework for development of new vaccines for the prevention of Derzsy's disease and vehicles for the delivery of drugs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. EFECTO DE LA DENSIDAD CELULAR Y LA MULTIPLICIDAD DE INFECCIÓN SOBRE LA PRODUCCIÓN DE BACULOVIRUS RECOMBINANTES EN CULTIVOS DE CÉLULAS DE INSECTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuitláhuac Chávez-Peña

    2010-01-01

    célula con CCI de 1 y 2 x106 cél/mL. Se siguieron las cinéticas de crecimiento de las células infectadas, la concentración de proteína total y de la proteína gp64 en el sobrenadante de los cultivos y los títulos virales al momento de la cosecha. Se encontró que una MDI de 0.1 ufp/cél y una concentración celular de 1x106 cél/mL resultaron en el mayor título viral, 3.8 ± 2 x108 ufp/mL. Los mayores títulos virales estuvieron acompañados por un menor crecimiento celular. Los resultados de este trabajo pueden ser utilizados para producir resguardos de baculovirus recombinantes con títulos virales altos y mejorar la eficiencia del proceso.

  2. [Use of the recombinant baculovirus BacVP6C for the construction of an internal positive control of rotavirus C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid-Ayadi, I; Guix, S; Pintó, R M; Bosch, A

    2011-06-01

    Unlike group A, a few studies have interested other groups of the rotavirus, especially in Tunisia. The role of rotavirus C (RVC) infection is underestimated because of its sporadic nature. The aim of our study was to develop rapid diagnostic procedures of RVC by using an internal positive control of reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The internal positive control (386pb) was designed from the recombinant baculovirus BacVP6C containing the full length cDNA of the Cowden strain gene 5 (1353pb). A fragment of 596pb was amplified by PCR using the BacVP6C DNA ds as template. Then, a central part of 210pb was deleted and the remaining fragment (386pb) was cloned into pGEM-3Zf(+) plasmid between SP6 and T7 RNA polymerase promoters. The obtained recombinant plasmid "pIAM1" was then used for the generation of the internal positive control by in vitro transcription. The sensibility of the RT-PCR was about 3.66×10(5) molecules of RNA/μl. The use of a shorter positive control, as compared to the wild type, allows increased specificity of the RT-PCR reaction, and could be used for efficient diagnostic and surveillance of RVC-caused diseases. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Kinetic comparison of tissue non-specific and placental human alkaline phosphatases expressed in baculovirus infected cells: application to screening for Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denier, Colette C; Brisson-Lougarre, Andrée A; Biasini, Ghislaine G; Grozdea, Jean J; Fournier, Didier D

    2002-01-01

    In humans, there are four alkaline phosphatases, and each form exhibits a characteristic pattern of tissue distribution. The availability of an easy method to reveal their activity has resulted in large amount of data reporting correlations between variations in activity and illnesses. For example, alkaline phosphatase from neutrophils of mothers pregnant with a trisomy 21 fetus (Down's syndrome) displays significant differences both in its biochemical and immunological properties, and in its affinity for some specific inhibitors. To analyse these differences, the biochemical characteristics of two isozymes (non specific and placental alkaline phosphatases) were expressed in baculovirus infected cells. Comparative analysis of the two proteins allowed us to estimate the kinetic constants of denaturation and sensitivity to two inhibitors (L-p-bromotetramisole and thiophosphate), allowing better discrimination between the two enzymes. These parameters were then used to estimate the ratio of the two isoenzymes in neutrophils of pregnant mothers with or without a trisomy 21 fetus. It appeared that the placental isozyme represented 13% of the total activity of neutrophils of non pregnant women. This proportion did not significantly increase with normal pregnancy. By contrast, in pregnancies with trisomy 21 fetus, the proportion reached 60-80% of activity. Over-expression of the placental isozyme compared with the tissue-nonspecific form in neutrophils of mother with a trisomy 21 fetus may explain why the characteristics of the alkaline phosphatase in these cells is different from normal. Application of this knowledge could improve the potential of using alkaline phosphatase measurements to screen for Down's syndrome.

  4. Expression of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins in silkworm-baculovirus expression system and its utilization as a subunit vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious disease of livestock that causes severe economic loss in susceptible cloven-hoofed animals. Although the traditional inactivated vaccine has been proved effective, it may lead to a new outbreak of FMD because of either incomplete inactivation of FMDV or the escape of live virus from vaccine production workshop. Thus, it is urgent to develop a novel FMDV vaccine that is safer, more effective and more economical than traditional vaccines. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A recombinant silkworm baculovirus Bm-P12A3C which contained the intact P1-2A and 3C protease coding regions of FMDV Asia 1/HNK/CHA/05 was developed. Indirect immunofluorescence test and sandwich-ELISA were used to verify that Bm-P12A3C could express the target cassette. Expression products from silkworm were diluted to 30 folds and used as antigen to immunize cattle. Specific antibody was induced in all vaccinated animals. After challenge with virulent homologous virus, four of the five animals were completely protected, and clinical symptoms were alleviated and delayed in the remaining one. Furthermore, a PD(50 (50% bovine protective dose test was performed to assess the bovine potency of the subunit vaccine. The result showed the subunit vaccine could achieve 6.34 PD(50 per dose. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that this strategy might be used to develop the new subunit FMDV vaccine.

  5. Development of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay using two baculovirus expressed recombinant antigens for diagnosis of Taenia solium taeniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Min Z; Lewis, Melissa M; Rodriquez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Khan, Azra; Lin, Sehching; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzales, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W

    2007-04-01

    Taeniasis diagnosis is an important step in the control and elimination of both cysticercosis and taeniasis. We report the development of 2 serological taeniasis diagnostic tests using recombinant antigens rES33 and rES38 expressed by baculovirus in insect cells in an EITB format. In laboratory testing with defined sera from nonendemic areas, rES33 has a sensitivity of 98% (n = 167) and a specificity of 99% (n = 310) (J index: 0.97); rES38 has a sensitivity of 99% (n = 146) and a specificity of 97% (n = 275) (J index: 0.96). Independent field testing in Peru showed 97% (n = 203) of the taeniasis sera were positive with rES33, and 100% of the nontaeniasis sera (n = 272) were negative with rES33; 98% (n = 198) of taeniasis sera were positive with rES38, and 91% (n = 274) of the nontaeniasis sera were negative with rES38. Among the Peruvian sera tested, 17 of 26 Peruvian Taenia saginata sera were false positive with rES38 test. Both tests were also examined with cysticercosis sera, with a positive rate ranging from 21% to 46%. rES33 and rES38 tests offer sensitive and specific diagnosis of taeniasis and easy sample collection through finger sticks that can be used in large-scale studies. They are currently being used in cysticercosis elimination programs in Peru.

  6. Tools for Trigger Aware Analyses in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Krasznahorkay, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Stelzer, J

    2010-01-01

    In order to search for rare processes, all four LHC experiments have to use advanced triggering methods for selecting and recording the events of interest. At the expected nominal LHC operating conditions only about 0.0005% of the collision events can be kept for physics analysis in ATLAS. Therefore the understanding and evaluation of the trigger performance is one of the most crucial parts of any physics analysis. ATLAS’s first level trigger is composed of custom-built hardware, while the second and third levels are implemented using regular PCs running reconstruction and selection algorithms. Because of this split, accessing the results of the trigger execution for the two stages is different. The complexity of the software trigger presents further difficulties in accessing the trigger data. To make the job of the physicists easier when evaluating the trigger performance, multiple general-use tools are provided by the ATLAS Trigger Analysis Tools group. The TrigDecisionTool, a general tool, is provided to...

  7. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been successfully collecting collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at a centre-of-mass energy between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 (L1) and a software based high-level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. We will briefly review the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented during the shutdown, allowing us to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving our efficiency to select relevant physics processes. This includes changes to the L1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new L1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. At hand of a few examples, we will show the ...

  8. The Run-2 ATLAS Trigger System

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00222798; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger successfully collected collision data during the first run of the LHC between 2009-2013 at different centre-of-mass energies between 900 GeV and 8 TeV. The trigger system consists of a hardware Level-1 and a software-based high level trigger (HLT) that reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of a few hundred Hz. In Run-2, the LHC will operate at centre-of-mass energies of 13 and 14 TeV and higher luminosity, resulting in roughly five times higher trigger rates. A brief review of the ATLAS trigger system upgrades that were implemented between Run-1 and Run-2, allowing to cope with the increased trigger rates while maintaining or even improving the efficiency to select physics processes of interest, will be given. This includes changes to the Level-1 calorimeter and muon trigger systems, the introduction of a new Level-1 topological trigger module and the merging of the previously two-level HLT system into a single event filter farm. A ...

  9. Intelligent trigger processor for the crystal box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, G.H.; Butler, H.S.; Cooper, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    A large solid angle modular NaI(Tl) detector with 432 phototubes and 88 trigger scintillators is being used to search simultaneously for three lepton flavor changing decays of muon. A beam of up to 10 6 muons stopping per second with a 6% duty factor would yield up to 1000 triggers per second from random triple coincidences. A reduction of the trigger rate to 10 Hz is required from a hardwired primary trigger processor described in this paper. Further reduction to < 1 Hz is achieved by a microprocessor based secondary trigger processor. The primary trigger hardware imposes voter coincidence logic, stringent timing requirements, and a non-adjacency requirement in the trigger scintillators defined by hardwired circuits. Sophisticated geometric requirements are imposed by a PROM-based matrix logic, and energy and vector-momentum cuts are imposed by a hardwired processor using LSI flash ADC's and digital arithmetic loci. The secondary trigger employs four satellite microprocessors to do a sparse data scan, multiplex the data acquisition channels and apply additional event filtering

  10. Trigger factors for familial hemiplegic migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Møller; Hauge, Anne Werner; Ashina, Messoud

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample.......The aim was to identify and describe migraine trigger factors in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) from a population-based sample....

  11. The ATLAS Level-1 Topological Trigger Performance

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00371751; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC will collide protons in the ATLAS detector with increasing luminosity through 2016, placing stringent operational and physical requirements to the ATLAS trigger system in order to reduce the 40 MHz collision rate to a manageable event storage rate of 1 kHz, while not rejecting interesting physics events. The Level-1 trigger is the first rate-reducing step in the ATLAS trigger system with an output rate of 100 kHz and decision latency smaller than 2.5 μs. It consists of a calorimeter trigger, muon trigger and a central trigger processor. During the LHC shutdown after the Run 1 finished in 2013, the Level-1 trigger system was upgraded including hardware, firmware and software updates. In particular, new electronics modules were introduced in the real-time data processing path: the Topological Processor System (L1Topo). It consists of a single AdvancedCTA shelf equipped with two Level-1 topological processor blades. They receive real-time information from the Level-1 calorimeter and muon triggers, which...

  12. Do episodes of anger trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, J; Hallqvist, J; Diderichsen, Finn

    1999-01-01

    Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility.......Our objectives were to study anger as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) and to explore potential effect modification by usual behavioral patterns related to hostility....

  13. Triggering soft bombs at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Simon; Griso, Simone Pagan; Papucci, Michele; Robinson, Dean J.

    2017-08-01

    Very high multiplicity, spherically-symmetric distributions of soft particles, with p T ˜ few×100 MeV, may be a signature of strongly-coupled hidden valleys that exhibit long, efficient showering windows. With traditional triggers, such `soft bomb' events closely resemble pile-up and are therefore only recorded with minimum bias triggers at a very low efficiency. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept for a high-level triggering strategy that efficiently separates soft bombs from pile-up by searching for a `belt of fire': a high density band of hits on the innermost layer of the tracker. Seeding our proposed high-level trigger with existing jet, missing transverse energy or lepton hardware-level triggers, we show that net trigger efficiencies of order 10% are possible for bombs of mass several × 100 GeV. We also consider the special case that soft bombs are the result of an exotic decay of the 125 GeV Higgs. The fiducial rate for `Higgs bombs' triggered in this manner is marginally higher than the rate achievable by triggering directly on a hard muon from associated Higgs production.

  14. The LVL2 trigger goes online

    CERN Multimedia

    David Berge

    On Friday, the 9th of February, the ATLAS TDAQ community reached an important milestone. In a successful integration test, cosmic-ray muons were recorded with parts of the muon spectrometer, the central-trigger system and a second-level trigger algorithm. This was actually the first time that a full trigger slice all the way from the first-level trigger muon chambers up to event building after event selection by the second-level trigger ran online with cosmic rays. The ATLAS trigger and data acquisition system has a three-tier structure that is designed to cope with the enormous demands of proton-proton collisions at a bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz, with a typical event size of 1-2 MB. The online event selection has to reduce the incoming rate by a factor of roughly 200,000 to 200 Hz, a rate digestible by the archival-storage and offline-processing facilities. ATLAS has a mixed system: the first-level trigger (LVL1) is in hardware, while the other two consecutive levels, the second-level trigger (LVL2)...

  15. Reliability model analysis and primary experimental evaluation of laser triggered pulse trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Debiao; Yang Xinglin; Li Yuan; Li Jin

    2012-01-01

    High performance pulse trigger can enhance performance and stability of the PPS. It is necessary to evaluate the reliability of the LTGS pulse trigger, so we establish the reliability analysis model of this pulse trigger based on CARMES software, the reliability evaluation is accord with the statistical results. (authors)

  16. A general-purpose trigger processor system and its application to fast vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazumi, M.; Banas, E.; Natkaniec, Z.; Ostrowicz, W.

    1997-12-01

    A general-purpose hardware trigger system has been developed. The system comprises programmable trigger processors and pattern generator/samplers. The hardware design of the system is described. An application as a prototype of the very fast vertex trigger in an asymmetric B-factory at KEK is also explained. (author)

  17. The ATLAS Level-1 Trigger Timing Setup

    CERN Document Server

    Spiwoks, R; Ellis, Nick; Farthouat, P; Gällnö, P; Haller, J; Krasznahorkay, A; Maeno, T; Pauly, T; Pessoa-Lima, H; Resurreccion-Arcas, I; Schuler, G; De Seixas, J M; Torga-Teixeira, R; Wengler, T

    2005-01-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC will be exposed to proton-proton collisions at a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. In order to reduce the data rate, a three-level trigger system selects potentially interesting physics. The first trigger level is implemented in electronics and firmware. It aims at reducing the output rate to less than 100 kHz. The Central Trigger Processor combines information from the calorimeter and muon trigger processors and makes the final Level-1-Accept decision. It is a central element in the timing setup of the experiment. Three aspects are considered in this article: the timing setup with respect to the Level-1 trigger, with respect to the expriment, and with respect to the world.

  18. MR imaging findings of trigger thumb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chen, Karen C.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California, San Diego Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Trigger finger (or trigger thumb), also known as sclerosing tenosynovitis, is a common clinical diagnosis that rarely presents for imaging. Because of this selection bias, many radiologists may not be familiar with the process. Furthermore, patients who do present for imaging frequently have misleading examination indications. To our knowledge, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of trigger thumb have not been previously reported in the literature. In this article, we review the entity of trigger thumb, the anatomy involved, and associated imaging findings, which include flexor pollicis longus tendinosis with a distinct nodule, A1 pulley thickening, and tenosynovitis. In addition, in some cases, an abnormal Av pulley is apparent. In the rare cases of trigger finger that present for MR imaging, accurate diagnosis by the radiologist can allow initiation of treatment and avoid further unnecessary workup. (orig.)

  19. MR imaging findings of trigger thumb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Eric Y.; Chen, Karen C.; Chung, Christine B.

    2015-01-01

    Trigger finger (or trigger thumb), also known as sclerosing tenosynovitis, is a common clinical diagnosis that rarely presents for imaging. Because of this selection bias, many radiologists may not be familiar with the process. Furthermore, patients who do present for imaging frequently have misleading examination indications. To our knowledge, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of trigger thumb have not been previously reported in the literature. In this article, we review the entity of trigger thumb, the anatomy involved, and associated imaging findings, which include flexor pollicis longus tendinosis with a distinct nodule, A1 pulley thickening, and tenosynovitis. In addition, in some cases, an abnormal Av pulley is apparent. In the rare cases of trigger finger that present for MR imaging, accurate diagnosis by the radiologist can allow initiation of treatment and avoid further unnecessary workup. (orig.)

  20. Pulse triggering mechanism of air proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, T.; Mori, T.; Watanabe, T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the pulse triggering mechanism of a cylindrical proportional counter filled with air at atmospheric pressure for the incidence of β-rays. Experimental results indicate that primary electrons created distantly from the anode wire by a β-ray are transformed into negative ions, which then detach electrons close to the anode wire and generate electron avalanches thus triggering pulses, while electrons created near the anode wire by a β-ray directly trigger a pulse. Since a negative ion pulse is triggered by a single electron detached from a negative ion, multiple pulses are generated by a large number of ions produced by the incidence of a single β-ray. It is therefore necessary not to count pulses triggered by negative ions but to count those by primary electrons alone when use is made of air proportional counters for the detection of β-rays. (orig.)

  1. Concept of the CMS Trigger Supervisor

    CERN Document Server

    Magrans de Abril, Ildefons; Varela, Joao

    2006-01-01

    The Trigger Supervisor is an online software system designed for the CMS experiment at CERN. Its purpose is to provide a framework to set up, test, operate and monitor the trigger components on one hand and to manage their interplay and the information exchange with the run control part of the data acquisition system on the other. The Trigger Supervisor is conceived to provide a simple and homogeneous client interface to the online software infrastructure of the trigger subsystems. This document specifies the functional and non-functional requirements, design and operational details, and the components that will be delivered in order to facilitate a smooth integration of the trigger software in the context of CMS.

  2. Lactate, Glucose and Oxygen Uptake in Human Brain During Recovery from Maximal Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kojiro, I.; Schmalbruch, I.K.; Quistorff, B.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake......Skeletal muscle, brain lactate uptake, brain oxygen uptake, energy metabolism, brain glucose uptake...

  3. Designing signal-enriched triggers for boosted jets.

    CERN Document Server

    Toumazou, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Triggers designed to favour the selection of hadronically decaying massive particles have been studied. Both triggers using solely ET and mass cuts (similar to new 2017 triggers) and triggers exploiting polarization information have been studied. The mass cut triggers show substantial gains in rate reduction, while the benefits of polarization triggers are less obvious. The final conclusion is that it is more useful to identify and trigger on generic boosted decays, irrespective of the polarization of the decaying particle

  4. Hg uptake in ureteral obstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgrez, J.P.; Bourguignon, M.; Raynaud, C.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1976-01-01

    In the presence of a total obstruction the results obtained with the Hg uptake test, as indeed with other functional tests, inform on the value of the kidney function at the time but have no prognostic value where repair possibilities are concerned. Some preliminary results seem to show however that very soon after the obstacle is removed, by the 10th or 15th day perhaps, quantitative functional tests may once more be used to evaluate the functional prognosis. This would mean that by waiting about two weeks after the disappearance of a total obstruction the Hg uptake test may again be used in all confidence. In order to check this deduction, which is based on slender evidence but which nevertheless has important practical implications, the measurement of the Hg uptake rate during the days following removal of the obstacle appears essential. In long-standing partial obstructions the Hg uptake rate gives an accurate assessment of the functional balance and helps considerably in the choice of therapy [fr

  5. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Mai Thanh Quynh; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN...

  6. Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Richards, P.; Meinken, G.E.; Larson, S.M.; Grunbaum, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate

  7. Octreotide Uptake in Parathyroid Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Karaçavuş

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The patient with a history of bone pain and muscle weakness, was thought to have oncogenic osteomalacia as a result of biochemical investigations and directed to Nuclear Medicine Department for a whole-body bone scintigraphy and 111In-octreotide scintigraphy. There was no focal pathologic tracer uptake, but generalized marked increase in skeletal uptake on bone scintigraphy. Octreotide scintigraphy showed accumulation of octreotide in the region of the left lobe of the thyroid gland in the neck. Thereafter, parathyroid scintigraphy was performed with technetium-99m labeled metroxy-isobutyl-isonitryl (99mTc-MIB and MIBI scan demonstrated radiotracer uptake at the same location with octreotide scintigraphy. The patient underwent left inferior parathyroidectomy and histopathology confirmed a parathyroid adenoma. Somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid adenoma may show octreotide uptake. Octreotide scintigraphy may be promising and indicate a possibility of using somatostatin analogues for the medical treatment of somatostatin receptor positive parathyroid tumors. (MIRT 2012;21:77-79

  8. The ATLAS Electron and Photon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Samuel David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model processes and to search for new phenomena. Final states including leptons and photons had, for example, an important role in the discovery and measurement of the Higgs boson. Dedicated triggers are also used to collect data for calibration, efficiency and fake rate measurements. The ATLAS trigger system is divided in a hardware-based Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger, both of which were upgraded during the LHC shutdown in preparation for Run-2 operation. To cope with the increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the trigger selections at each level are optimized to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. To achieve this goal multivariate analysis techniques are used. The ATLAS electron and photon triggers and their performance with Run 2 dat...

  9. The ATLAS Electron and Photon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Samuel David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential for signal selection in a wide variety of ATLAS physics analyses to study Standard Model processes and to search for new phenomena. Final states including leptons and photons had, for example, an important role in the discovery and measurement of the Higgs boson. Dedicated triggers are also used to collect data for calibration, efficiency and fake rate measurements. The ATLAS trigger system is divided in a hardware-based Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger, both of which were upgraded during the LHC shutdown in preparation for Run-2 operation. To cope with the increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the trigger selections at each level are optimized to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. To achieve this goal multivariate analysis techniques are used. The ATLAS electron and photon triggers and their performance with Run 2 dat...

  10. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jeitler, Manfred; Rabady, Dinyar; Sakulin, Hannes; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run-II of the Large Hadron Collider poses new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run-I, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new μTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (μGMT) which sorts and removes duplicates from boundaries of the muon trigger sub-systems. Furthermore, it determines how isolated the muon candidates are based on calorimetric energy deposits. The μGMT will be implemented using a processing board that features a larg...

  11. Upgrade of the CMS Global Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Lingemann, Joschka; Sakulin, Hannes; Jeitler, Manfred; Stahl, Achim

    2015-01-01

    The increase in center-of-mass energy and luminosity for Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider pose new challenges for the trigger systems of the experiments. To keep triggering with a similar performance as in Run 1, the CMS muon trigger is currently being upgraded. The new algorithms will provide higher resolution, especially for the muon transverse momentum and will make use of isolation criteria that combine calorimeter with muon information already in the level-1 trigger. The demands of the new algorithms can only be met by upgrading the level-1 trigger system to new powerful FPGAs with high bandwidth I/O. The processing boards will be based on the new microTCA standard. We report on the planned algorithms for the upgraded Global Muon Trigger (GMT) which combines information from the muon trigger sub-systems and assigns the isolation variable. The upgraded GMT will be implemented using a Master Processor 7 card, built by Imperial College, that features a large Xilinx Virtex 7 FPGA. Up to 72 optical links at...

  12. The ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, W.H.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Fordham, C.; Foudas, C.; Goussiou, A.; Jaworski, M.; Kinnel, T.; Lackey, J.; Robl, P.; Silverstein, S.; Dawson, J.W.; Krakauer, D.A.; Talaga, R.L.; Schlereth, J.L.

    1994-10-01

    The design of the ZEUS Calorimeter First Level Trigger (CFLT) is presented. The CFLT utilizes a pipelined architecture to provide trigger data for a global first leel trigger decision 5 μsec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The charges from 13K phototubes are summed into 1792 trigger tower pulseheights which are digitized by flash ADC's. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests. Summary data is forwarded to the Global First Level Trigger for each crossing 2 μsec after the crossing occurred. The CFLT determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the electromagnetic and hadronic energy deposited in various regions of the calorimeter. The CFLT has kept the experimental trigger rate below ∼200 Hz at the highest luminosity experienced at HERA. Performance studies suggest that the CFLT will keep the trigger rate below 1 kHZ against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions on the order of the 100 kHz expected at design luminosity. (orig.)

  13. The D0 run II trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Michigan State U.

    2004-01-01

    The D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron was upgraded for Run II. This upgrade included improvements to the trigger system in order to be able to handle the increased Tevatron luminosity and higher bunch crossing rates compared to Run I. The D0 Run II trigger is a highly exible system to select events to be written to tape from an initial interaction rate of about 2.5 MHz. This is done in a three-tier pipelined, buffered system. The first tier (level 1) processes fast detector pick-off signals in a hardware/firmware based system to reduce the event rate to about 1. 5kHz. The second tier (level 2) uses information from level 1 and forms simple Physics objects to reduce the rate to about 850 Hz. The third tier (level 3) uses full detector readout and event reconstruction on a filter farm to reduce the rate to 20-30 Hz. The D0 trigger menu contains a wide variety of triggers. While the emphasis is on triggering on generic lepton and jet final states, there are also trigger terms for specific final state signatures. In this document we describe the D0 trigger system as it was implemented and is currently operating in Run II

  14. Ocean carbon uptake and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilbrook, Bronte

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The ocean contains about 95% of the carbon in the atmosphere, ocean and land biosphere system, and is of fundamental importance in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In the 1990s an international research effort involving Australia was established to determine the uptake and storage of anthropogenic C02 for all major ocean basins. The research showed that about 118 of the 244 + 20 billion tons of the anthropogenic carbon emitted through fossil fuel burning and cement production has been stored in the ocean since preindustrial times, thus helping reduce the rate of increase in atmospheric C02. The research also showed the terrestrial biosphere has been a small net source of C02 (39 ± 28 billion tons carbon) to the atmosphere over the same period. About 60% of the total ocean inventory of the anthropogenic C02 was found in the Southern Hemisphere, with most in the 30 0 S to 50 0 S latitude band. This mid-latitude band is where surface waters are subducted as Mode and Intermediate waters, which is a major pathway controlling ocean C02 uptake. High storage (23% of the total) also occurs in the North Atlantic, associated with deep water formation in that basin. The ocean uptake and storage is expected to increase in the coming decades as atmospheric C02 concentrations rise. However, a number of feedback mechanisms associated with surface warming, changes in circulation, and biological effects are likely to impact on the uptake capacity. The accumulation or storage-of the C02 in the ocean is also the major driver of ocean acidification with potential to disrupt marine ecosystems. This talk will describe the current understanding of the ocean C02 uptake and storage and a new international research strategy to detect how the ocean uptake and storage will evolve on interannual through decadal scales. Understanding the ocean response to increasing atmospheric C02 will be a key element in managing future C02 increases and establishing

  15. ATLAS: triggers for B-physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Simon

    2000-01-01

    The LHC will produce bb-bar events at an unprecedented rate. The number of events recorded by ATLAS will be limited by the rate at which they can be stored offline and subsequently analysed. Despite the huge number of events, the small branching ratios mean that analysis of many of the most interesting channels for CP violation and other measurements will be limited by statistics. The challenge for the Trigger and Data Acquisition (DAQ) system is therefore to maximise the fraction of interesting B decays in the B-physics data stream. The ATLAS Trigger/DAQ system is split into three levels. The initial B-physics selection is made in the first-level trigger by an inclusive low-p T muon trigger (∼6 GeV). The second-level trigger strategy is based on identifying classes of final states by their partial reconstruction. The muon trigger is confirmed before proceeding to a track search. Electron/hadron separation is given by the transition radiation tracking detector and the Electromagnetic calorimeter. Muon identification is possible using the muon detectors and the hadronic calorimeter. From silicon strips, pixels and straw tracking, precise track reconstruction is used to make selections based on invariant mass, momentum and impact parameter. The ATLAS trigger group is currently engaged in algorithm development and performance optimisation for the B-physics trigger. This is closely coupled to the R and D programme for the higher-level triggers. Together the two programmes of work will optimise the hardware, architecture and algorithms to meet the challenging requirements. This paper describes the current status and progress of this work

  16. FDG uptake in the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, M. J.; Cho, H. J.; Cho, E. H.; Kim, T. S.; Kang, W. J.; Lee, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate histopathologic features of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) to predict FDG uptake on PET. 153 patients(102 men; mean age, 55 y) were diagnosed with AGC by surgery were included in this study. PET images were evaluated by visual and semi-quantitative analysis of FDG uptake in primary tumors. Primary tumors size were measured and divided according to Borrmann classification. Tumor histology was classified under WHO classification, depth of invasion and Iymphovascular invasion. The tumors were also grouped by high cellular(cellularity = 50%) and low cellular group (<50%). Microscopic growth type was based on Lauren classification. Stromal fibrosis degree and inflammatory cell infiltration amount was graded as low(none∼mild), or high(moderate∼severe). Lymph node metastases was assessed in all patients. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate differences in SUV as to histopathologic factors. Of the 153 patients, 21 patients(14%) had primary tumor invisible on initial whole body images. After water ingestion, the tumors became visible in 15 of the 21 patients due to disappearance of physiologic stomach uptake. Polypoid or ulcerofungating tumors, high cellularity, intestinal growth pattern, and larger tumors significantly predicted increased tumor SUVs. Well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma tended to show high cellularity and intestinal growth pattern. Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma had diverse spectrum of histopathology. Signet ring cell carcinomas were mostly ulceroinfiltrative or diffusely infiltrative in macroscopic type and diffuse in microscopic tumor growth. Mucinous adenocarcinomas were mostly low in cellularity. FDG uptake patterns are useful in representing histopathologic characteristics of the entire tumor in gastric cancers. The degree of FDG uptake depends on tumor size, macroscopic type, cellularity, and microscopic growth pattern and it shows no association with well known important prognostic

  17. Trigger tracking for the LHCb upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Dungs, K

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents a trigger system for the upgraded LHCb detector, scheduled to begin operation in 2020. The proposed trigger system is implemented entirely in software. We show that track reconstruction of a similar quality to that available in the offline algorithms can be performed on the full inelastic pp-collision rate. A track finding efficiency of 98.8% relative to offline can be achieved for good trigger tracks. The CPU time required for this reconstruction is less than 60% of the available budget.

  18. The CMS Barrel Muon trigger upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triossi, A.; Sphicas, P.; Bellato, M.; Montecassiano, F.; Ventura, S.; Ruiz, J.M. Cela; Bedoya, C. Fernandez; Tobar, A. Navarro; Fernandez, I. Redondo; Ferrero, D. Redondo; Sastre, J.; Ero, J.; Wulz, C.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Loukas, N.; Mallios, S.; Paradas, E.; Guiducci, L.; Masetti, G.

    2017-01-01

    The increase of luminosity expected by LHC during Phase1 will impose tighter constraints for rate reduction in order to maintain high efficiency in the CMS Level1 trigger system. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that concentrates the information from different subdetectors: Drift Tubes, Resistive Plate Chambers and Outer Hadron Calorimeter. It arranges the slow optical trigger links from the detector chambers into faster links (10 Gbps) that are sent in multiple copies to the track finders. Results from collision runs, that confirm the satisfactory operation of the trigger system up to the output of the barrel track finder, will be shown.

  19. Event-triggered attitude control of spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Baolin; Shen, Qiang; Cao, Xibin

    2018-02-01

    The problem of spacecraft attitude stabilization control system with limited communication and external disturbances is investigated based on an event-triggered control scheme. In the proposed scheme, information of attitude and control torque only need to be transmitted at some discrete triggered times when a defined measurement error exceeds a state-dependent threshold. The proposed control scheme not only guarantees that spacecraft attitude control errors converge toward a small invariant set containing the origin, but also ensures that there is no accumulation of triggering instants. The performance of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated through numerical simulation.

  20. Electronic trigger for the ASP experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Anomalous Single Photon (ASP) electronic trigger is described. The experiments is based on an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of arrays of lead glass blocks, read out with photo-multiplier tubes, surrounding the interaction point at the PEP storage ring. The primary requirement of the trigger system is to be sensitive to low energy (approx. =0.5 GeV and above) photons whilst discriminating against high backgrounds at PEP. Analogue summing of the PMT signals and a sequence of programmable digital look-up tables produces a ''dead-timeless'' trigger for the beam collision rate of 408 kHz. 6 refs., 6 figs

  1. The LHCb trigger in Run II

    CERN Document Server

    Michielin, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb trigger system has been upgraded to allow alignment, calibration and physics analysis to be performed in real time. An increased CPU capacity and improvements in the software have allowed lifetime unbiased selections of beauty and charm decays in the high level trigger. Thanks to offline quality event reconstruction already available online, physics analyses can be performed directly on this information and for the majority of charm physics selections a reduced event format can be written out. Beauty hadron decays are more efficiently triggered by re-optimised inclusive selections, and the HLT2 output event rate is increased by a factor of three.

  2. Sulfocerebrosides upregulate liposome uptake in human astrocytes without inducing a proinflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suesca, Elizabeth; Alejo, Jose Luis; Bolaños, Natalia I; Ocampo, Jackson; Leidy, Chad; González, John M

    2013-07-01

    Astrocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of demyelinating diseases, where they actively regulate the secretion of proinflammatory factors, and trigger the recruitment of immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS). Antigen presentation of myelin-derived proteins has been shown to trigger astrocyte response, suggesting that astrocytes can directly sense demyelination. However, the direct response of astrocytes to lipid-debris generated during demyelination has not been investigated. The lipid composition of the myelin sheath is distinct, presenting significant amounts of cerebrosides, sulfocerebrosides (SCB), and ceramides. Studies have shown that microglia are activated in the presence of myelin-derived lipids, pointing to the possibility of lipid-induced astrocyte activation. In this study, a human astrocyte cell line was exposed to liposomes enriched in each myelin lipid component. Although liposome uptake was observed for all compositions, astrocytes had augmented uptake for liposomes containing sulfocerebroside (SCB). This enhanced uptake did not modify their expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules or secretion of chemokines. This was in contrast to changes observed in astrocyte cells stimulated with IFNγ. Contrary to human monocytes, astrocytes did not internalize beads in the size-range of liposomes, indicating that liposome uptake is lipid specific. Epifluorescence microscopy corroborated that liposome uptake takes place through endocytosis. Soluble SCB were found to partially block uptake of liposomes containing this same lipid. Endocytosis was not decreased when cells were treated with cytochalasin D, but it was decreased by cold temperature incubation. The specific uptake of SCB in the absence of a proinflammatory response indicates that astrocytes may participate in the trafficking and regulation of sulfocerebroside metabolism and homeostasis in the CNS. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  3. The Trigger Processor and Trigger Processor Algorithms for the ATLAS New Small Wheel Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Lazovich, Tomo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS New Small Wheel (NSW) is an upgrade to the ATLAS muon endcap detectors that will be installed during the next long shutdown of the LHC. Comprising both MicroMegas (MMs) and small-strip Thin Gap Chambers (sTGCs), this system will drastically improve the performance of the muon system in a high cavern background environment. The NSW trigger, in particular, will significantly reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from track segments in the endcap not originating from the interaction point. We will present an overview of the trigger, the proposed sTGC and MM trigger algorithms, and the hardware implementation of the trigger. In particular, we will discuss both the heart of the trigger, an ATCA system with FPGA-based trigger processors (using the same hardware platform for both MM and sTGC triggers), as well as the full trigger electronics chain, including dedicated cards for transmission of data via GBT optical links. Finally, we will detail the challenges of ensuring that the trigger electronics can ...

  4. Triggered creep as a possible mechanism for delayed dynamic triggering of tremor and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, David R.; Peng, Zhigang; Hill, David P.; Aiken, Chastity

    2011-01-01

    The passage of radiating seismic waves generates transient stresses in the Earth's crust that can trigger slip on faults far away from the original earthquake source. The triggered fault slip is detectable in the form of earthquakes and seismic tremor. However, the significance of these triggered events remains controversial, in part because they often occur with some delay, long after the triggering stress has passed. Here we scrutinize the location and timing of tremor on the San Andreas fault between 2001 and 2010 in relation to distant earthquakes. We observe tremor on the San Andreas fault that is initiated by passing seismic waves, yet migrates along the fault at a much slower velocity than the radiating seismic waves. We suggest that the migrating tremor records triggered slow slip of the San Andreas fault as a propagating creep event. We find that the triggered tremor and fault creep can be initiated by distant earthquakes as small as magnitude 5.4 and can persist for several days after the seismic waves have passed. Our observations of prolonged tremor activity provide a clear example of the delayed dynamic triggering of seismic events. Fault creep has been shown to trigger earthquakes, and we therefore suggest that the dynamic triggering of prolonged fault creep could provide a mechanism for the delayed triggering of earthquakes. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. The second level trigger system of FAST

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez,G; Berdugo, J; Casaus, J; Casella, V; De Laere, D; Deiters, K; Dick, P; Kirkby, J; Malgeri, L; Mañá, C; Marín, J; Pohl, M; Petitjean, C; Sánchez, E; Willmott, C

    2009-01-01

    The Fibre Active Scintillator Target (FAST) experiment is a novel imaging particle detector currently operating in a high-intensity π+ beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. The detector is designed to perform a high precision measurement of the μ+ lifetime, in order to determine the Fermi constant, Gf, to 1 ppm precision. A dedicated second level (LV2) hardware trigger system has been developed for the experiment. It performs an online analysis of the π/μ decay chain by identifying the stopping position of each beam particle and detecting the subsequent appearance of the muon. The LV2 trigger then records the muon stop pixel and selectively triggers the Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) in the vicinity. A detailed description of the trigger system is presented in this paper.

  6. The second level trigger system of FAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: gustavo.martinez@ciemat.es; Barcyzk, A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Berdugo, J.; Casaus, J. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Casella, C.; De Laere, S. [Universite de Geneve, 30 quai Ernest-Anserment, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Deiters, K.; Dick, P. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kirkby, J.; Malgeri, L. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mana, C.; Marin, J. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pohl, M. [Universite de Geneve, 30 quai Ernest-Anserment, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Sanchez, E.; Willmott, C. [CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-11

    The Fibre Active Scintillator Target (FAST) experiment is a novel imaging particle detector currently operating in a high-intensity {pi}{sup +} beam at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland. The detector is designed to perform a high precision measurement of the {mu}{sup +} lifetime, in order to determine the Fermi constant, G{sub f}, to 1 ppm precision. A dedicated second level (LV2) hardware trigger system has been developed for the experiment. It performs an online analysis of the {pi}/{mu} decay chain by identifying the stopping position of each beam particle and detecting the subsequent appearance of the muon. The LV2 trigger then records the muon stop pixel and selectively triggers the Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs) in the vicinity. A detailed description of the trigger system is presented in this paper.

  7. SSC physics signatures and trigger requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Strategies are considered for triggering on new physics processes on the environment of the SSC, where interaction rates will be very high and most new physics processes quite rare. The quantities available for use in the trigger at various levels are related to the signatures of possible new physics. Two examples were investigated in some detail using the ISAJET Monte Carlo program: Higgs decays to W pairs and a missing energy trigger applied to gluino pair production. In both of the examples studied in detail, it was found that workable strategies for reducing the trigger rate were obtainable which also produced acceptable efficiency for the processes of interest. In future work, it will be necessary to carry out such a program for the full spectrum of suggested new physics

  8. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.

    2016-01-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  9. Pulling the trigger on LHC electronics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    The conditions at CERN's Large Hadron Collider pose severe challenges for the designers and builders of front-end, trigger and data acquisition electronics. A recent workshop reviewed the encouraging progress so far and discussed what remains to be done. The LHC experiments have addressed level one trigger systems with a variety of high-speed hardware. The CMS Calorimeter Level One Regional Trigger uses 160 MHz logic boards plugged into the front and back of a custom backplane, which provides point-to-point links between the cards. Much of the processing in this system is performed by five types of 160 MHz digital applications-specific integrated circuits designed using Vitesse submicron high-integration gallium arsenide gate array technology. The LHC experiments make extensive use of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These offer programmable reconfigurable logic, which has the flexibility that trigger designers need to be able to alter algorithms so that they can follow the physics and detector perform...

  10. Boredom and Passion: Triggers of Habitual Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle

    . The case based, the study identifies eight factors, which contribute to consecutive venture creation. The findings suggest that boredom and passion are necessary conditions triggering habitual entrepreneurship. Other important mechanisms included the joy of discovering and exploiting an opportunity...

  11. D0 triggering and data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbard, B.

    1992-10-01

    The trigger for D0 is a multi-tier system. Within the 3.5 μsec bunch crossing interval, custom electronics select interesting event candidates based on electromagnetic and hadronic energy deposits in the calorimeter and on indications of tracks in the muon system. Subsequent hardware decisions use refined calculations of electron and muon characteristics. The highest level trigger occurs in one element of a farm of microprocessors, where fully developed algorithms for electrons, muons, jets, or missing E t are executed. This highest level trigger also provides the assembly of the event into its final data structure. Performance of this trigger and data acquisition system in collider operation is described

  12. Triggering and data acquisition general considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Joel N.

    2003-01-01

    We provide a general introduction to trigger and data acquisition systems in High Energy Physics. We emphasize the new possibilities and new approaches that have been made possible by developments in computer technology and networking

  13. Session summary: Electronics, triggering and data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rescia, S.

    1991-12-01

    The session focused on the requirements for calorimetry at the SSC/LHC. Results on new readout techniques, calibration, radiation hard electronics and semiconductor devices, analog and digital front and electronics, and trigger strategies are presented

  14. Trigger factors in migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, A W; Kirchmann, M; Olesen, J

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify trigger factors in migraine with aura (MA). A total of 629 MA patients representative of the Danish population were sent a questionnaire listing 16 trigger factors thought to be relevant as well as space for free text. Distinction was made between...... attacks with or without aura within each patient. The questionnaire was returned by 522 patients of whom 347 had current MA attacks. In total 80% with current attacks (278/347) indicated that at least one factor triggered their migraine, and 67% (187/278) in this group indicated that they were aware...... of at least one factor often or always giving rise to an attack of MA. Forty-one per cent (113/278) had co-occurring attacks of migraine without aura (MO). Stress (following stress), bright light, intense emotional influences, stress (during stress) and sleeping too much or too little were the trigger factors...

  15. The Aurora accelerator's triggered oil switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenheimer, D.M.; Pereira, N.R.; Judy, D.C.; Stricklett, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    Achieving a radiation pulse with 15 ns risetime using all four of the Aurora accelerator's Blumlein pulse-forming lines demands synchronization of the Blumleins to within 10 ns (in addition to a 15 ns risetime for a single line). Timing of each Blumlein is controlled by a triggered 12 MV oil switch. A smaller-than-customary trigger electrode makes the switching time more reproducible. Time-resolved photography of the oil arcs suggests that triggering occurs simultaneously around the sharp edge of the trigger electrode, perhaps with small deviations that grow into the most prominent arcs characteristically seen in open-shutter photographs. However, many smaller arcs that are usually overlooked in open-shutter pictures may contribute to current conduction in a closed switch

  16. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R. [INFN Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Bauce, M. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Biagioni, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Fantechi, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Fiorini, M. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Giagu, S. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Gianoli, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Lamanna, G., E-mail: gianluca.lamanna@cern.ch [INFN Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Lonardo, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Messina, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma “La Sapienza”, P.le A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); University of Rome “La Sapienza”, P.lee A.Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); and others

    2016-07-11

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  17. Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, S.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Winterberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 microm Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system

  18. New Fast Interaction Trigger for ALICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk

    2017-02-11

    The LHC heavy-ion luminosity and collision rate from 2021 onwards will considerably exceed the design parameters of the present ALICE forward trigger detectors and the introduction of the Muon Forward Tracker (MFT) will significantly reduce the space available for the new trigger detectors. To comply with these conditions a new Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) will be built. FIT will be the main forward trigger, luminometer, and interaction-time detector. It will also determine multiplicity, centrality, and reaction plane of heavy-ion collisions. FIT will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov quartz radiators with MCP-PMT sensors and of a plastic scintillator ring. By increasing the overall acceptance of FIT, the scintillator will improve centrality and event plane resolution. It will also add sensitivity for the detection of beam-gas events and provide some degree of redundancy. FIT is currently undergoing an intense R&D and prototyping period. It is scheduled for installation in ALICE during 2020.

  19. Membrane fusion between baculovirus budded virus-enveloped particles and giant liposomes generated using a droplet-transfer method for the incorporation of recombinant membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigami, Misako; Mori, Takaaki; Tomita, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Kingo; Tsumoto, Kanta

    2017-07-01

    Giant proteoliposomes are generally useful as artificial cell membranes in biochemical and biophysical studies, and various procedures for their preparation have been reported. We present here a novel preparation technique that involves the combination of i) cell-sized lipid vesicles (giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs) that are generated using the droplet-transfer method, where lipid monolayer-coated water-in-oil microemulsion droplets interact with oil/water interfaces to form enclosed bilayer vesicles, and ii) budded viruses (BVs) of baculovirus (Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus) that express recombinant transmembrane proteins on their envelopes. GP64, a fusogenic glycoprotein on viral envelopes, is activated by weak acids and is thought to cause membrane fusion with liposomes. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we observed that the single giant liposomes fused with octadecyl rhodamine B chloride (R18)-labeled wild-type BV envelopes with moderate leakage of entrapped soluble compounds (calcein), and the fusion profile depended on the pH of the exterior solution: membrane fusion occurred at pH ∼4-5. We further demonstrated that recombinant transmembrane proteins, a red fluorescent protein (RFP)-tagged GPCR (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1, CRHR1) and envelope protein GP64 could be partly incorporated into membranes of the individual giant liposomes with a reduction of the pH value, though there were also some immobile fluorescent spots observed on their circumferences. This combination may be useful for preparing giant proteoliposomes containing the desired membranes and inner phases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. AcMNPV ac143 (odv-e18) is essential for mediating budded virus production and is the 30th baculovirus core gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, Christina B.; Theilmann, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) ac143 (odv-e18) is a late gene that encodes for a predicted 9.6 kDa structural protein that locates to the occlusion derived viral envelope and viral induced intranuclear microvesicles [Braunagel, S.C., He, H., Ramamurthy, P., and Summers, M.D. (1996). Transcription, translation, and cellular localization of three Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus structural proteins: ODV-E18, ODV-E35, and ODV-EC27. Virology 222, 100-114.]. In this study we demonstrate that ac143 is actually a previously unrecognized core gene and that it is essential for mediating budded virus production. To examine the role of ac143 in the baculovirus life cycle, we used the AcMNPV bacmid system to generate an ac143 knockout (KO) virus (AcBAC ac142REP-ac143KO ). Fluorescence and light microscopy showed that infection by AcBAC ac142REP-ac143KO is limited to a single cell and titration assays confirmed that AcBAC ac142REP-ac143KO was unable to produce budded virus (BV). Progression to very late phases of the viral infection was evidenced by the development of occlusion bodies in the nuclei of transfected cells. This correlated with the fact that viral DNA replication was unaffected in AcBAC ac142REP-ac143KO transfected cells. The entire ac143 promoter, which includes three late promoter motifs, is contained within the ac142 open reading frame. Different deletion mutants of this region showed that the integrity of the ac142-ac143 core gene cluster was required for the bacmids to display wild-type patterns of viral replication, BV production and RNA transcription

  1. Expression and Characterization of Human β-1, 4-Galactosyltransferase 1 (β4GalT1) Using Silkworm–Baculovirus Expression System

    KAUST Repository

    Morokuma, Daisuke

    2017-03-24

    Baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is widely known as a mass-production tool to produce functional recombinant glycoproteins except that it may not be always suitable for medical practice due to the differences in the structure of N-linked glycans between insects and mammalian. Currently, various approaches have been reported to alter N-linked glycan structures of glycoproteins derived from insects into terminally sialylated complex-type N-glycans. In the light of those studies, we also proposed in vitro maturation of N-glycan with mass-produced and purified glycosyltransferases by silkworm–BEVS. β-1,4-Galactosyltransferase 1 (β4GalT1) is known as one of type II transmembrane enzymes that transfer galactose in a β-1, 4 linkage to accepter sugars, and a key enzyme for further sialylation of N-glycans. In this study, we developed a large-scale production of recombinant human β4GalT1 (rhβ4GalT1) with N- or C-terminal tags in silkworm–BEVS. We demonstrated that rhβ4GalT1 is N-glycosylated and without mucin-type glycosylation. Interestingly, we found that purified rhβ4GalT1 from silkworm serum presented higher galactosyltransferase activity than that expressed from cultured mammalian cells. We also validated the UDP-galactose transferase activity of produced rhβ4GalT1 proteins by using protein subtracts from silkworm silk gland. Taken together, rhβ4GalT1 from silkworms can become a valuable tool for producing high-quality recombinant glycoproteins with mammalian-like N-glycans.

  2. Kinetic comparison of tissue non-specific and placental human alkaline phosphatases expressed in baculovirus infected cells: application to screening for Down's syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denier, Colette C; Brisson-Lougarre, Andrée A; Biasini, Ghislaine G; Grozdea, Jean J; Fournier, Didier D

    2002-01-01

    Background In humans, there are four alkaline phosphatases, and each form exibits a characteristic pattern of tissue distribution. The availability of an easy method to reveal their activity has resulted in large amount of data reporting correlations between variations in activity and illnesses. For example, alkaline phosphatase from neutrophils of mothers pregnent with a trisomy 21 fetus (Down's syndrome) displays significant differences both in its biochemical and immunological properties, and in its affinity for some specific inhibitors. Results To analyse these differences, the biochemical characteristics of two isozymes (non specific and placental alkaline phosphatases) were expressed in baculovirus infected cells. Comparative analysis of the two proteins allowed us to estimate the kinetic constants of denaturation and sensitivity to two inhibitors (L-p-bromotetramisole and thiophosphate), allowing better discrimination between the two enzymes. These parameters were then used to estimate the ratio of the two isoenzymes in neutrophils of pregnant mothers with or without a trisomy 21 fetus. It appeared that the placental isozyme represented 13% of the total activity of neutrophils of non pregnant women. This proportion did not significantly increase with normal pregnancy. By contrast, in pregnancies with trisomy 21 fetus, the proportion reached 60–80% of activity. Conclusion Over-expression of the placental isozyme compared with the tissue-nonspecific form in neutrophils of mother with a trisomy 21 fetus may explain why the characteristics of the alkaline phosphatase in these cells is different from normal. Application of this knowledge could improve the potential of using alkaline phosphatase measurements to screen for Down's syndrome. PMID:11818032

  3. Kinetic comparison of tissue non-specific and placental human alkaline phosphatases expressed in baculovirus infected cells: application to screening for Down's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grozdea Jean J

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, there are four alkaline phosphatases, and each form exibits a characteristic pattern of tissue distribution. The availability of an easy method to reveal their activity has resulted in large amount of data reporting correlations between variations in activity and illnesses. For example, alkaline phosphatase from neutrophils of mothers pregnent with a trisomy 21 fetus (Down's syndrome displays significant differences both in its biochemical and immunological properties, and in its affinity for some specific inhibitors. Results To analyse these differences, the biochemical characteristics of two isozymes (non specific and placental alkaline phosphatases were expressed in baculovirus infected cells. Comparative analysis of the two proteins allowed us to estimate the kinetic constants of denaturation and sensitivity to two inhibitors (L-p-bromotetramisole and thiophosphate, allowing better discrimination between the two enzymes. These parameters were then used to estimate the ratio of the two isoenzymes in neutrophils of pregnant mothers with or without a trisomy 21 fetus. It appeared that the placental isozyme represented 13% of the total activity of neutrophils of non pregnant women. This proportion did not significantly increase with normal pregnancy. By contrast, in pregnancies with trisomy 21 fetus, the proportion reached 60–80% of activity. Conclusion Over-expression of the placental isozyme compared with the tissue-nonspecific form in neutrophils of mother with a trisomy 21 fetus may explain why the characteristics of the alkaline phosphatase in these cells is different from normal. Application of this knowledge could improve the potential of using alkaline phosphatase measurements to screen for Down's syndrome.

  4. An eight-year epidemiologic study based on baculovirus-expressed type-specific spike proteins for the differentiation of type I and II feline coronavirus infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal disease caused by feline coronavirus (FCoV). FCoVs are divided into two serotypes with markedly different infection rates among cat populations around the world. A baculovirus-expressed type-specific domain of the spike proteins of FCoV was used to survey the infection of the two viruses over the past eight years in Taiwan. Results An immunofluorescence assay based on cells infected with the recombinant viruses that was capable of distinguishing between the two types of viral infection was established. A total of 833 cases from a teaching hospital was surveyed for prevalence of different FCoV infections. Infection of the type I FCoV was dominant, with a seropositive rate of 70.4%, whereas 3.5% of cats were infected with the type II FCoV. In most cases, results derived from serotyping and genotyping were highly agreeable. However, 16.7% (4/24) FIP cats and 9.8% (6/61) clinically healthy cats were found to possess antibodies against both viruses. Moreover, most of the cats (84.6%, 22/26) infected with a genotypic untypable virus bearing a type I FCoV antibody. Conclusion A relatively simple serotyping method to distinguish between two types of FCoV infection was developed. Based on this method, two types of FCoV infection in Taiwan was first carried out. Type I FCoV was found to be predominant compared with type II virus. Results derived from serotyping and genotyping support our current understanding of evolution of disease-related FCoV and transmission of FIP. PMID:25123112

  5. Proteolytic Processing and Assembly of gag and gag-pol Proteins of TED, a Baculovirus-Associated Retrotransposon of the Gypsy Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Kathryn L.; Friesen, Paul D.

    1998-01-01

    TED (transposable element D) is an env-containing member of the gypsy family of retrotransposons that represents a possible retrovirus of invertebrates. This lepidopteran (moth) retroelement contains gag and pol genes that encode proteins capable of forming viruslike particles (VLP) with reverse transcriptase. Since VLP are likely intermediates in TED transposition, we investigated the roles of gag and pol in TED capsid assembly and maturation. By using constructed baculovirus vectors and TED Gag-specific antiserum, we show that the principal translation product of gag (Pr55gag) is cleaved to produce a single VLP structural protein, p37gag. Replacement of Asp436 within the retrovirus-like active site of the pol-encoded protease (PR) abolished Pr55gag cleavage and demonstrated the requirement for PR in capsid processing. As shown by expression of an in-frame fusion of TED gag and pol, PR is derived from the Gag-Pol polyprotein Pr195gag-pol. The PR cleavage site within Pr55gag was mapped to a position near the junction of a basic, nucleocapsid-like domain and a C-terminal acidic domain. Once released by cleavage, the C-terminal fragment was not detected. This acidic fragment was dispensable for VLP assembly, as demonstrated by the formation of VLP by C-terminal Pr55gag truncation proteins and replacement of the acidic domain with a heterologous protein. In contrast, C-terminal deletions that extended into the adjacent nucleocapsid-like domain of Pr55gag abolished VLP recovery and demonstrated that this central region contributes to VLP assembly or stability, or both. Collectively, these data suggest that the single TED protein p37gag provides both capsid and nucleocapsid functions. TED may therefore use a simple processing strategy for VLP assembly and genome packaging. PMID:9765414

  6. The new UA1 calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhandler, E.

    1988-01-01

    The new UA1 first-level calorimeter trigger processor is described, with emphasis on the fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding that is its most novel feature. This processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. (author)

  7. The upgrade of the LHCb trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00259834; Fitzpatrick, C.; Gligorov, V.; Raven, G.

    2014-10-20

    The LHCb experiment will operate at a luminosity of $2\\times10^{33}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ during LHC Run 3. At this rate the present readout and hardware Level-0 trigger become a limitation, especially for fully hadronic final states. In order to maintain a high signal efficiency the upgraded LHCb detector will deploy two novel concepts: a triggerless readout and a full software trigger.

  8. EMIC triggered chorus emissions in Cluster data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, B.; SantolíK, O.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Masson, A.; Engebretson, M. J.; Pickett, J. S.; Omura, Y.; Robert, P.; Nomura, R.

    2013-03-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) triggered chorus emissions have recently been a subject of several experimental, theoretical and simulation case studies, noting their similarities with whistler-mode chorus. We perform a survey of 8 years of Cluster data in order to increase the database of EMIC triggered emissions. The results of this is that EMIC triggered emissions have been unambiguously observed for only three different days. These three events are studied in detail. All cases have been observed at the plasmapause between 22 and 24 magnetic local time (MLT) and between - 15° and 15° magnetic latitude (λm). Triggered emissions are also observed for the first time below the local He+ gyrofrequency (fHe+). The number of events is too low to produce statistical results, nevertheless we point out a variety of common properties of those waves. The rising tones have a high level of coherence and the waves propagate away from the equatorial region. The propagation angle and degree of polarization are related to the distance from the equator, whereas the slope and the frequency extent vary from one event to the other. From the various spacecraft separations, we determine that the triggering process is a localized phenomenon in space and time. However, we are unable to determine the occurrence rates of these waves. Small frequency extent rising tones are more common than large ones. The newly reported EMIC triggered events are generally observed during periods of large AE index values and in time periods close to solar maximum.

  9. Progress on the Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger

    CERN Multimedia

    Eric Eisenhandler

    The Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger (L1Calo) has recently passed a number of major hurdles. The various electronic modules that make up the trigger are either in full production or are about to be, and preparations in the ATLAS pit are well advanced. L1Calo has three main subsystems. The PreProcessor converts analogue calorimeter signals to digital, associates the rather broad trigger pulses with the correct proton-proton bunch crossing, and does a final calibration in transverse energy before sending digital data streams to the two algorithmic trigger processors. The Cluster Processor identifies and counts electrons, photons and taus, and the Jet/Energy-sum Processor looks for jets and also sums missing and total transverse energy. Readout drivers allow the performance of the trigger to be monitored online and offline, and also send region-of-interest information to the Level-2 Trigger. The PreProcessor (Heidelberg) is the L1Calo subsystem with the largest number of electronic modules (124), and most of its fu...

  10. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  11. Hierarchical trigger of the ALICE calorimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Muller, Hans; Novitzky, Norbert; Kral, Jiri; Rak, Jan; Schambach, Joachim; Wang, Ya-Ping; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Daicui

    2010-01-01

    The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high pT photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer ...

  12. Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger starts firing

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Hillier

    2007-01-01

    L1Calo is one of the major components of ATLAS First Level trigger, along with the Muon Trigger and Central Trigger Processor. It forms all of the first-level calorimeter-based triggers, including electron, jet, tau and missing ET. The final system consists of over 250 custom designed 9U VME boards, most containing a dense array of FPGAs or ASICs. It is subdivided into a PreProcessor, which digitises the incoming trigger signals from the Liquid Argon and Tile calorimeters, and two separate processor systems, which perform the physics algorithms. All of these are highly flexible, allowing the possibility to adapt to beam conditions and luminosity. All parts of the system are read out through Read-Out Drivers, which provide monitoring data and Region of Interest (RoI) information for the Level-2 trigger. Production of the modules is now essentially complete, and enough modules exist to populate the full scale system in USA15. Installation is proceeding rapidly - approximately 90% of the final modules are insta...

  13. The LHCb trigger and data acquisition system

    CERN Document Server

    Dufey, J P; Harris, F; Harvey, J; Jost, B; Mato, P; Müller, E

    2000-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is the most recently approved of the 4 experiments under construction at CERNs LHC accelerator. It is a special purpose experiment designed to precisely measure the CP violation parameters in the B-B system. Triggering poses special problems since the interesting events containing B-mesons are immersed in a large background of inelastic p-p reactions. We therefore decided to implement a 4 level triggering scheme. The LHCb Data Acquisition (DAQ) system will have to cope with an average trigger rate of ~40 kHz, after two levels of hardware triggers, and an average event size of ~100 kB. Thus an event-building network which can sustain an average bandwidth of 4 GB/s is required. A powerful software trigger farm will have to be installed to reduce the rate from the 40 kHz to ~100 Hz of events written to permanent storage. In this paper we outline the general architecture of the Trigger and DAQ system and the readout protocols we plan to implement. First results of simulations of the behavior o...

  14. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles (θ 12 , θ 23 , θ 13 ) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, θ 13 is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of ∝80% from the currently allowed θ 13 region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at ∝150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse β-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of them receiving signals from half of the photomultipliers. A third trigger board

  15. Design studies for the Double Chooz trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi Sebastian

    2009-07-24

    The main characteristic of the neutrino mixing effect is assumed to be the coupling between the flavor and the mass eigenstates. Three mixing angles ({theta}{sub 12}, {theta}{sub 23}, {theta}{sub 13}) are describing the magnitude of this effect. Still unknown, {theta}{sub 13} is considered very small, based on the measurement done by the CHOOZ experiment. A leading experiment will be Double Chooz, placed in the Ardennes region, on the same site as used by CHOOZ. The Double Chooz goal is the exploration of {proportional_to}80% from the currently allowed {theta}{sub 13} region, by searching the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. Double Chooz will use two similar detectors, located at different distances from the reactor cores: a near one at {proportional_to}150 m where no oscillations are expected and a far one at 1.05 km distance, close to the first minimum of the survival probability function. The measurement foresees a precise comparison of neutrino rates and spectra between both detectors. The detection mechanism is based on the inverse {beta}-decay. The Double Chooz detectors have been designed to minimize the rate of random background. In a simplified view, two optically separated regions are considered. The target, filled with Gd-doped liquid scintillator, is the main antineutrino interaction volume. Surrounding the target, the inner veto region aims to tag the cosmogenic muon background which hits the detector. Both regions are viewed by photomultipliers. The Double Chooz trigger system has to be highly efficient for antineutrino events as well as for several types of background. The trigger analyzes discriminated signals from the central region and the inner veto photomultipliers. The trigger logic is fully programmable and can combine the input signals. The trigger conditions are based on the total energy released in event and on the PMT groups multiplicity. For redundancy, two independent trigger boards will be used for the central region, each of

  16. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03 Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  17. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew G.; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Xray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  18. Plant uptake of dual-labeled organic N biased by inorganic C uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Sauheitl, Leopold; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    glycine or CO2-3 , but found no differences in uptake rates between these C-sources. The uptake of inorganic C to the shoot tissue was higher for maize grown in full light compared to shading, which indicates a passive uptake of inorganic C with water. We conclude that uptake of inorganic C produced...

  19. Elevated uptake of plasma macromolecules by regions of arterial wall predisposed to plaque instability in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mohri

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis may be triggered by an elevated net transport of lipid-carrying macromolecules from plasma into the arterial wall. We hypothesised that whether lesions are of the thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA type or are less fatty and more fibrous depends on the degree of elevation of transport, with greater uptake leading to the former. We further hypothesised that the degree of elevation can depend on haemodynamic wall shear stress characteristics and nitric oxide synthesis. Placing a tapered cuff around the carotid artery of apolipoprotein E -/- mice modifies patterns of shear stress and eNOS expression, and triggers lesion development at the upstream and downstream cuff margins; upstream but not downstream lesions resemble the TCFA. We measured wall uptake of a macromolecular tracer in the carotid artery of C57bl/6 mice after cuff placement. Uptake was elevated in the regions that develop lesions in hyperlipidaemic mice and was significantly more elevated where plaques of the TCFA type develop. Computational simulations and effects of reversing the cuff orientation indicated a role for solid as well as fluid mechanical stresses. Inhibiting NO synthesis abolished the difference in uptake between the upstream and downstream sites. The data support the hypothesis that excessively elevated wall uptake of plasma macromolecules initiates the development of the TCFA, suggest that such uptake can result from solid and fluid mechanical stresses, and are consistent with a role for NO synthesis. Modification of wall transport properties might form the basis of novel methods for reducing plaque rupture.

  20. Retrospective respiratory triggering renal perfusion MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attenberger, Ulrike I.; Michaely, Henrik J.; Schoenberg, Stefan O. (Dept. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Mannheim, Univ. of Heidelberg, Mannheim (Germany)), e-mail: ulrike.attenberger@medma.uni-heidelberg.de; Sourbron, Steven P. (Div. of Medical Physics, Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)); Reiser, Maximilian F. (Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospitals Munich, Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Munich (Germany))

    2010-12-15

    Background: Artifacts of respiratory motion are one of the well-known limitations of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) of the kidney. Purpose: To propose and evaluate a retrospective triggering approach to minimize the effect of respiratory motion in DCE-MRI of the kidney. Material and Methods: Nine consecutive patients underwent renal perfusion measurements. Data were acquired with a 2D saturation-recovery TurboFLASH sequence. In order to test the dependence of the results on size and location of the manually drawn triggering regions of interest (ROIs), three widely differing triggering regions were defined by one observer. Mean value, standard deviation, and variability of the renal function parameters plasma flow (FP), plasma volume (VP), plasma transit time (TP), tubular flow (FT), tubular volume (VT), and tubular transit time (TT) were calculated on a per-patient basis. Results: The results show that triggered data have adequate temporal resolution to measure blood flow. The overall average values of the function parameters were: 152.77 (FP), 15.18 (VP), 6,73 (TP), 18.50 (FT), 35.36 (VT), and 117.67 (TT). The variability (calculated in % SD from the mean value) for three different respiratory triggering regions defined on a per-patient basis was between 0.81% and 9.87% for FP, 1.45% and 8.19% for VP, 0% and 9.63% for TP, 2.15% and 12.23% for TF, 0.8% and 17.28% for VT, and 1.97% and 12.87% for TT. Conclusion: Triggering reduces the oscillations in the signal curves and produces sharper parametric maps. In contrast to numerically challenging approaches like registration and segmentation it can be applied in clinical routine, but a (semi)-automatic approach to select the triggering ROI is desirable to reduce user dependence.

  1. Aftershocks and triggering processes in rock fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, J.; Kwiatek, G.; Goebel, T.; Stanchits, S. A.; Dresen, G.

    2017-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of our understanding of seismicity in nature is the importance of triggering processes, which makes the forecasting of seismic activity feasible. These triggering processes by which one earthquake induces (dynamic or static) stress changes leading to potentially multiple other earthquakes are at the core relaxation processes. A specic example of triggering are aftershocks following a large earthquake, which have been observed to follow certain empirical relationships such as the Omori-Utsu relation. Such an empirical relation should arise from the underlying microscopic dynamics of the involved physical processes but the exact connection remains to be established. Simple explanations have been proposed but their general applicability is unclear. Many explanations involve the picture of an earthquake as a purely frictional sliding event. Here, we present experimental evidence that these empirical relationships are not limited to frictional processes but also arise in fracture zone formation and are mostly related to compaction-type events. Our analysis is based on tri-axial compression experiments under constant displacement rate on sandstone and granite samples using spatially located acoustic emission events and their focal mechanisms. More importantly, we show that event-event triggering plays an important role in the presence of large-scale or macrocopic imperfections while such triggering is basically absent if no signicant imperfections are present. We also show that spatial localization and an increase in activity rates close to failure do not necessarily imply triggering behavior associated with aftershocks. Only if a macroscopic crack is formed and its propagation remains subcritical do we observe significant triggering.

  2. Rate Predictions and Trigger/DAQ Resource Monitoring in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Schaefer, D M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Since starting in 2010, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has pro- duced collisions at an ever increasing rate. The ATLAS experiment successfully records the collision data with high eciency and excel- lent data quality. Events are selected using a three-level trigger system, where each level makes a more re ned selection. The level-1 trigger (L1) consists of a custom-designed hardware trigger which seeds two higher software based trigger levels. Over 300 triggers compose a trig- ger menu which selects physics signatures such as electrons, muons, particle jets, etc. Each trigger consumes computing resources of the ATLAS trigger system and oine storage. The LHC instantaneous luminosity conditions, desired physics goals of the collaboration, and the limits of the trigger infrastructure determine the composition of the ATLAS trigger menu. We describe a trigger monitoring frame- work for computing the costs of individual trigger algorithms such as data request rates and CPU consumption. This framework has been used...

  3. Upgrades of the ATLAS trigger system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00221618; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In coming years the LHC is expected to undergo upgrades to increase both the energy of proton-proton collisions and the instantaneous luminosity. In order to cope with these more challenging LHC conditions, upgrades of the ATLAS trigger system will be required. This talk will focus on some of the key aspects of these upgrades. Firstly, the upgrade period between 2019-2021 will see an increase in instantaneous luminosity to $3\\times10^{34} \\rm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$. Upgrades to the Level 1 trigger system during this time will include improvements for both the muon and calorimeter triggers. These include the upgrade of the first-level Endcap Muon trigger, the calorimeter trigger electronics and the addition of new calorimeter feature extractor hardware, such as the Global Feature Extractor (gFEX). An overview will be given on the design and development status the aforementioned systems, along with the latest testing and validation results. \\\\ By 2026, the High Luminosity LHC will be able to deliver 14 TeV collisions ...

  4. Graphical processors for HEP trigger systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Di Lorenzo, S.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Frezza, O.; Lamanna, G.; Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P.S.; Pastorelli, E.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rossetti, D.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.

    2017-01-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to employ GPUs as accelerators in offline computations. With the steady decrease of GPU latencies and the increase in link and memory throughputs, time is ripe for real-time applications using GPUs in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low level trigger systems, focusing on tests performed on the trigger of the CERN NA62 experiment. Latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Moreover, we discuss how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelised and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen LHC luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be crucial to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  5. CMS Triggers for the LHC Startup

    CERN Document Server

    Nhan Nguyen, Chi

    2009-01-01

    The LHC will collide proton beams at a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. At the design luminosity of $10^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ each crossing results in an average of about 20 inelastic pp events. The CMS trigger system is designed to reduce the input rate to about 100 Hz. This task is carried out in two steps, namely the Level-1 (L1) and the High-Level trigger (HLT). The L1 trigger is built of customized fast electronics and is designed to reduce the rate to 100 kHz. The HLT is implemented in a filter farm running on hundreds of CPUs and is designed to reduce the rate by another factor of ~1000. It combines the traditional L2 and L3 trigger components in a novel way and allows the coherent tuning of the HLT algorithms to accommodate multiple physics channels. We will discuss the strategies for optimizing triggers covering the experiment`s early physics program.

  6. The Fast Interaction Trigger Upgrade for ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Solis, Edmundo

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major detector upgrade for the second LHC long shutdown (2019–20). The LHC heavy-ion luminosity and collision rate from 2021 onwards will considerably exceed the design parameters of the present ALICE forward trigger detectors. Furthermore, the introduction of a new Muon Forward Tracker (MFT) will significantly reduce the space available for the upgraded trigger detectors. To comply with these conditions a Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) has been designed. FIT will be the primary forward trigger, luminosity, and collision time measurement detector. The FIT will be capable of triggering at an interaction rate of 50 kHz, with a time resolution better than 30 ps, with 99% efficiency. It will also determine multiplicity, centrality, and reaction plane. FIT will consist of two arrays of Cherenkov radiators with MCP-PMT sensors and of a single, large-size scintillator ring. The arrays will be placed on both sides of the interaction point (IP). Because of the presence of the h...

  7. Tools for Trigger Rate Monitoring at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Geoffrey; Wightman, Andrew Steven

    2017-01-01

    In 2017, we expect the LHC to deliver an instantaneous luminosity of roughly $2.0 \\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ to the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, with about 60 simultaneous proton-proton collisions (pileup) per event. In these challenging conditions, it is important to be able to intelligently monitor the rate at which data are being collected (the trigger rate). It is not enough to simply look at the trigger rate; it is equally important to compare the trigger rate with expectations. We present a set of software tools that have been developed to accomplish this. The tools include a real-time component - a script that monitors the rates of individual triggers during data-taking, and activates an alarm if rates deviate significantly from expectation. Fits are made to previously collected data and extrapolated to higher pileup. The behavior of triggers as a function of pileup is then monitored as data are collected - plots are automatically produced on an hourly basis and uploaded to a web area...

  8. Tracking at High Level Trigger in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2016-01-01

    The trigger systems of the LHC detectors play a crucial role in determining the physics capabili- ties of the experiments. A reduction of several orders of magnitude of the event rate is needed to reach values compatible with detector readout, offline storage and analysis capability. The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger (L1T), implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a stream- lined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a trade-off between the complexity of the algorithms, the sustainable out- put rate, and the selection efficiency. With the computing power available during the 2012 data taking the maximum reconstruction time at HLT was about 200 ms per event, at the nominal L1T rate of 100 kHz. Track reconstruction algorithms are widely used in the HLT, for the reconstruction of the physics objects as well as in the identification of b-jets and ...

  9. The D-Zero Run II Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazey, G. C.

    1997-01-01

    The general purpose D0 collider detector, located at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, requires significantly enhanced data acquisition and triggering to operate in the high luminosity (L = 2 x 10 32 cm -2 s -1 ), high rate environment (7 MHz or 132 ns beam crossings) of the upgraded TeVatron proton anti-proton accelerator. This article describes the three major levels and frameworks of the new trigger. Information from the first trigger stage (L1) which includes scintillating, tracking and calorimeter detectors will provide a deadtimeless, 4.2 (micro)s trigger decision with an accept rate of 10 kHz. The second stage (L2), comprised of hardware engines associated with specific detectors and a single global processor will test for correlations between L1 triggers. L2 will have an accept rate of 1 kHz at a maximum deadtime of 5% and require a 100 (micro)s decision time. The third and final stage (L3) will reconstruct events in a farm of processors for a final instantaneous accept rate of 50 Hz

  10. DZERO Level 3 DAQ/Trigger Closeout

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Tevatron Collider, located at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, delivered its last 1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions on September 30th, 2011. The DZERO experiment continues to take cosmic data for final alignment for several more months . Since Run 2 started, in March 2001, all DZERO data has been collected by the DZERO Level 3 Trigger/DAQ System. The system is a modern, networked, commodity hardware trigger and data acquisition system based around a large central switch with about 60 front ends and 200 trigger computers. DZERO front end crates are VME based. Single Board Computer interfaces between detector data on VME and the network transport for the DAQ system. Event flow is controlled by the Routing Master which can steer events to clusters of farm nodes based on the low level trigger bits that fired. The farm nodes are multi-core commodity computer boxes, without special hardware, that run isolated software to make the final Level 3 trigger decision. Passed events are transferred to th...

  11. Graphical processors for HEP trigger systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammendola, R. [INFN Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Biagioni, A. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Di Lorenzo, S. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Fantechi, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Fiorini, M. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat, 1, 44122 Ferrara (Italy); Università di Ferrara, Via Ludovico Ariosto 35, 44121 Ferrara (Italy); Frezza, O. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Lamanna, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Lo Cicero, F.; Lonardo, A.; Martinelli, M.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P.S.; Pastorelli, E. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Piandani, R. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Pontisso, L., E-mail: luca.pontisso@cern.ch [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Rossetti, D. [NVIDIA Corp., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Simula, F. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Sozzi, M. [INFN Sezione di Pisa, L. Bruno Pontecorvo, 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Università di Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy); and others

    2017-02-11

    General-purpose computing on GPUs is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to employ GPUs as accelerators in offline computations. With the steady decrease of GPU latencies and the increase in link and memory throughputs, time is ripe for real-time applications using GPUs in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPUs for synchronous low level trigger systems, focusing on tests performed on the trigger of the CERN NA62 experiment. Latencies of all components need analysing, networking being the most critical. To keep it under control, we envisioned NaNet, an FPGA-based PCIe Network Interface Card (NIC) enabling GPUDirect connection. Moreover, we discuss how specific trigger algorithms can be parallelised and thus benefit from a GPU implementation, in terms of increased execution speed. Such improvements are particularly relevant for the foreseen LHC luminosity upgrade where highly selective algorithms will be crucial to maintain sustainable trigger rates with very high pileup.

  12. Validation of ATLAS L1 Topological Triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Praderio, Marco

    2017-01-01

    The Topological trigger (L1Topo) is a new component of the ATLAS L1 (Level-1) trigger. Its purpose is that of reducing the otherwise too high rate of data collection from the LHC by rejecting those events considered “uninteresting” (meaning that they have already been studied). This event rate reduction is achieved by applying topological requirements to the physical objects present in each event. It is very important to make sure that this trigger does not reject any “interesting” event. Therefore we need to verify its correct functioning. The goal of this summer student project is to study the response of two L1Topo algorithms (concerning ∆R and invariant mass). To do so I will compare the trigger decisions produced by the L1Topo hardware with the ones produced by the “official” L1Topo simulation. This way I will be able to identify events that could be incorrectly rejected. Simultaneously I will produce an emulation of these triggers that will help me understand the cause of disagreements bet...

  13. Online software trigger at PANDA/FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Donghee; Kliemt, Ralf; Nerling, Frank [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Denig, Achim [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Goetzen, Klaus; Peters, Klaus [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2014-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at FAIR will employ a novel trigger-less read-out system. Since a conventional hardware trigger concept is not suitable for PANDA, a high level online event filter will be applied to perform fast event selection based on physics properties of the reconstructed events. A trigger-less data stream implies an event selection with track reconstruction and pattern recognition to be performed online, and thus analysing data under real time conditions at event rates of up to 40 MHz.The projected data rate reduction of about three orders of magnitude requires an effective background rejection, while retaining interesting signal events. Real time event selection in the environment of hadronic reactions is rather challenging and relies on sophisticated algorithms for the software trigger. The implementation and the performance of physics trigger algorithms presently studied with realistic Monte Carlo simulations is discussed. The impact of parameters such as momentum or mass resolution, PID probability, vertex reconstruction and a multivariate analysis using the TMVA package for event filtering is presented.

  14. The CMS trigger in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, Mia

    2018-01-01

    During its second period of operation (Run 2) which started in 2015, the LHC will reach a peak instantaneous luminosity of approximately 2$\\times 10^{34}$~cm$^{-2}s^{-1}$ with an average pile-up of about 55, far larger than the design value. Under these conditions, the online event selection is a very challenging task. In CMS, it is realised by a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 (L1) Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm.\\\\ In order to face this challenge, the L1 trigger has undergone a major upgrade compared to Run 1, whereby all electronic boards of the system have been replaced, allowing more sophisticated algorithms to be run online. Its last stage, the global trigger, is now able to perform complex selections and to compute high-level quantities, like invariant masses. Likewise, the algorithms that run in the HLT went through big improvements; in particular, new ap...

  15. The ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, S.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Foudas, C.; Fordham, C.; Goussiou, A.; Jaworski, M.; Lackey, J.; Reeder, D.; Robl, P.; Smith, W. H.; Vaiciulis, A.; Wodarczyk, M.; Dawson, J.; Krakauer, D.; Talaga, R.; Schlereth, J.; Zhang, H.

    1995-02-01

    An overview of the ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger is presented. The CFLT uses a pipelined architecture to accept and analyze calorimeter data for every 96 ns beam crossing interval. PMT signals are combined by analog electronics into electromagnetic and hadronic sums for 896 trigger towers. The analog sums are then digitized and analyzed. The CFLT determines the total, transverse, and missing transverse energy, identifies isolated electrons and muons, and sums energies in programmable subregions. Calculations are performed in 96 ns steps, and new data are accepted for every beam crossing. Trigger data are forwarded to the global first level trigger (GFLT) after 2 μs, allowing a GFLT accept to be issued 5 μs after the beam crossing which produced the event. Important features of the CFLT include a 12-bit effective dynamic range, extensive use of memory lookup tables for trigger calculations, fast pattern searches for isolated leptons, and low electronics noise. During the 1993 HERA run, the CFLT reduced a 50 kHz background rate to around 100 Hz.

  16. 寨卡病毒E蛋白在重组杆状病毒中的表达%Expression of envelope protein of Zika virus in baculovirus expression system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高寒春; 姚立红; 王超; 郑丽舒

    2017-01-01

    目的 在杆状病毒中表达寨卡病毒(Zika virus,ZIKV)包膜蛋白(Envelope protein,E蛋白).方法 人工合成ZIKV E基因全长序列(1 518 bp),并克隆到pFastBac1载体上,得到重组杆状病毒转移载体pFB1-E,转化含DH10Bac感受态细胞,获得骨架质粒rBacmid-E,转染sf9细胞,得到重组杆状病毒rBac-E.检测病毒滴度,PCR法检测E基因的插入,间接免疫荧光和Western blot法检测E蛋白的表达.结果 经PCR方法鉴定,重组杆状病毒骨架质粒构建成功,重组病毒rBac-E(第3代)病毒滴度为2.58×105pfu/ml.提取感染rBac-E的sf9细胞基因组,经PCR扩增得到3 830 bp的条带,间接免疫荧光检测出现特异性绿色荧光.Western blot鉴定可见感染重组杆状病毒rBac-E的细胞沉淀中在相对分子质量55×103处有特异性条带.结论 在杆状病毒表达系统中重组表达了ZIKV E蛋白,为ZIKV E蛋白功能研究及疫苗的开发奠定了基础.%Objective To express envelope protein of ZIKA virus in baculovirus expression system.Methods Full-length E gene of ZIKA virus was obtained by DNA synthesis and inserted into vector pFastBac1.The constructed recombinant baculovirus transfer vector pFB1-E was transformed to competent DH10Bac cells.The obtained skeleton plasmid rBacmid-E was transfected to sf9 cells,and the constructed recombinant baculovirus rBac-E was determined for titer,for insertion of E gene by PCR,and for expression of E protein by IFA and Western blotting.Results PCR proved that skeleton plasmid rBacmid-E was constructed correctly.The titer of rBac-E of passage 3 was 2.58 × 105 pfu/ ml.The genome of infected cells virus was extracted,the gene band at length of 3 830 bp was observed after PCR amplification.Indirect immunofluorescence of the infected cells showed the specific green fluorescence,55 × 103 specific band was determined by Western blotting identification in the cell pellet of the infected recombinant baculovirus rBacE.Conclusions The recombinant

  17. Towards RTOS support for mixed time-triggered and event-triggered task sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Isovic, D.; Sankar Ramachandran, G.

    2012-01-01

    Many embedded systems have complex timing constraints and, at the same time, have flexibility requirements which prohibit offline planning of the entire system. To support a mixture of time-triggered and event-triggered tasks, some industrial systems deploy a real-time operating system (RTOS) with a

  18. Limited preemptive scheduling of mixed time-triggered and event-triggered tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Zhang, X.; Abdullah, S.M.J.; Isovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    Many embedded systems have complex timing constraints and, at the same time, have flexibility requirements which prohibit offline planning of the entire system. To support a mixture of time-triggered and event-triggered tasks, some industrial systems deploy a table-driven dispatcher for

  19. Performance of the ATLAS Muon Trigger and Phase-1 Upgrade of Level-1 Endcap Muon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Mizukami, Atsushi; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment utilises a trigger system to efficiently record interesting events. It consists of first-level and high-level triggers. The first-level trigger is implemented with custom-built hardware to reduce the event rate from 40 MHz to100 kHz. Then the software-based high-level triggers refine the trigger decisions reducing the output rate down to 1 kHz. Events with muons in the final state are an important signature for many physics topics at the LHC. An efficient trigger on muons and a detailed understanding of its performance are required. Trigger efficiencies are, for example, obtained from the muon decay of Z boson, with a Tag&Probe method, using proton-proton collision data collected in 2016 at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The LHC is expected to increase its instantaneous luminosity to $3\\times10^{34} \\rm{cm^{-2}s^{-1}}$ after the phase-1 upgrade between 2018-2020. The upgrade of the ATLAS trigger system is mandatory to cope with this high-luminosity. In the phase-1 upgrade, new det...

  20. The BTeV trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    BTeV is a dedicated beauty and charm experiment proposed for the Fermilab Tevatron. The broad physics program envisaged for BTeV requires a trigger that is efficient for a wide variety of heavy-quark decays, including those to all-hadronic final states. To achieve this, we plan to trigger on evidence of detached vertices at the very first trigger level, taking advantage of fast-readout pixel detectors to facilitate fast pattern recognition. Simulations show that 100-to-1 rejection of light-quark background events can be achieved at Level 1 using specialized trackfinding hardware, and that an additional factor of 10-100 in data reduction can be achieved using general purpose processor farms at Levels 2 and 3. This is adequate to allow data taking at luminosities in excess of 2x10 32 cm -2 s -1

  1. Use of GPUs in Trigger Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Gianluca

    In recent years the interest for using graphics processor (GPU) in general purpose high performance computing is constantly rising. In this paper we discuss the possible use of GPUs to construct a fast and effective real time trigger system, both in software and hardware levels. In particular, we study the integration of such a system in the NA62 trigger. The first application of GPUs for rings pattern recognition in the RICH will be presented. The results obtained show that there are not showstoppers in trigger systems with relatively low latency. Thanks to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continous development for purposes related to video game and image processing market, the architecture described would be easily exported to other experiments, to build a versatile and fully customizable online selection.

  2. The ATLAS Electron and Photon Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Samuel David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    ATLAS electron and photon triggers covering transverse energies from 5 GeV to several TeV are essential to record signals for a wide variety of physics: from Standard Model processes to searches for new phenomena. To cope with ever-increasing luminosity and more challenging pile-up conditions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, the trigger selections need to be optimized to control the rates and keep efficiencies high. The ATLAS electron and photon trigger performance in Run 2 will be presented, including both the role of the ATLAS calorimeter in electron and photon identification and details of new techniques developed to maintain high performance even in high pile-up conditions.

  3. Combining triggers in HEP data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendermann, Victor; Herbst, Michael; Krueger, Katja; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Stamen, Rainer; Haller, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Modern high-energy physics experiments collect data using dedicated complex multi-level trigger systems which perform an online selection of potentially interesting events. In general, this selection suffers from inefficiencies. A further loss of statistics occurs when the rate of accepted events is artificially scaled down in order to meet bandwidth constraints. An offline analysis of the recorded data must correct for the resulting losses in order to determine the original statistics of the analysed data sample. This is particularly challenging when data samples recorded by several triggers are combined. In this paper we present methods for the calculation of the offline corrections and study their statistical performance. Implications on building and operating trigger systems are discussed. (orig.)

  4. Combining triggers in HEP data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lendermann, Victor; Herbst, Michael; Krueger, Katja; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Stamen, Rainer [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik; Haller, Johannes [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Experimentalphysik

    2009-01-15

    Modern high-energy physics experiments collect data using dedicated complex multi-level trigger systems which perform an online selection of potentially interesting events. In general, this selection suffers from inefficiencies. A further loss of statistics occurs when the rate of accepted events is artificially scaled down in order to meet bandwidth constraints. An offline analysis of the recorded data must correct for the resulting losses in order to determine the original statistics of the analysed data sample. This is particularly challenging when data samples recorded by several triggers are combined. In this paper we present methods for the calculation of the offline corrections and study their statistical performance. Implications on building and operating trigger systems are discussed. (orig.)

  5. A new fast and programmable trigger logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fucci, A.; Amendolia, S.R.; Bertolucci, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Foa, L.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.; Givoletti, M.; Lucardesi, P.; Menzione, A.; Passuello, D.; Quaglia, M.; Ristori, L.; Rolandi, L.; Salvadori, P.; Scribano, A.; Stanga, R.; Stefanini, A.; Vincelli, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The NA1 (FRAMM) experiment, under construction for the CERN-SPS North Area, deals with more than 1000 counter signals which have to be combined together in order to build sophisticated and highly selective triggers. These requirements have led to the development of a low cost, combinatorial, fast electronics which can replace, in an advantageous way the standard NIM electronics at the trigger level. The essential performances of the basic circuit are: 1) programmability of any desired logical expression; 2) trigger time independent of the chosen expression; 3) reduced cost and compactness due to the use of commercial RAMs, PROMs, and PLAs; 4) short delay, less than 20 ns, between input and output pulses. (Auth.)

  6. FTK: a Fast Track Trigger for ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J; Auerbach, B; Blair, R; Andreani, A; Andreazza, A; Citterio, M; Annovi, A; Beretta, M; Castegnaro, A; Atkinson, M; Cavaliere, V; Chang, P; Bevacqua, V; Crescioli, F; Blazey, G; Bogdan, M; Boveia, A; Canelli, F; Cheng, Y; Cervigni, F

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design and expected performance of a the Fast Tracker Trigger (FTK) system for the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The FTK is a highly parallel hardware system designed to operate at the Level 1 trigger output rate. It is designed to provide global tracks reconstructed in the inner detector with resolution comparable to the full offline reconstruction as input of the Level 2 trigger processing. The hardware system is based on associative memories for pattern recognition and fast FPGAs for track reconstruction. The FTK is expected to dramatically improve the performance of track based isolation and b-tagging with little to no dependencies of pile-up interactions.

  7. A self triggered intensified Ccd (Stic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charon, Y.; Laniece, P.; Bendali, M.

    1990-01-01

    We are developing a new device based on the results reported previously of the successfull coincidence detection of β- particles with a high spatial resolution [1]. The novelty of the device consists in triggering an intensified CCD, i.e. a CCD coupled to an image intensifier (II), by an electrical signal collected from the II itself. This is a suitable procedure for detecting with high efficiency and high resolution low light rare events. The trigger pulse is obtained from the secondary electrons produced by multiplication in a double microchannel plate (MCP) and collected on the aluminized layer protecting the phosphor screen in the II. Triggering efficiencies up to 80% has been already achieved

  8. The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, M.; Charleton, D.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Gregory, J.; Jimack, M.P.; Jovanovic, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagedera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.; Biddulph, P.; Eisenhandler, E.; Fensome, I.F.; Landon, M.; Robinson, D.; Oliver, J.; Sumorok, K.

    1990-01-01

    The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-level trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 μs, thus introducing no dead time. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider. (orig.)

  9. The UA1 upgrade calorimeter trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, N.; Baird, S.A.; Biddulph, P.

    1990-01-01

    The increased luminosity of the improved CERN Collider and the more subtle signals of second-generation collider physics demand increasingly sophisticated triggering. We have built a new first-level trigger processor designed to use the excellent granularity of the UA1 upgrade calorimeter. This device is entirely digital and handles events in 1.5 μs, thus introducing no deadtime. Its most novel feature is fast two-dimensional electromagnetic cluster-finding with the possibility of demanding an isolated shower of limited penetration. The processor allows multiple combinations of triggers on electromagnetic showers, hadronic jets and energy sums, including a total-energy veto of multiple interactions and a full vector sum of missing transverse energy. This hard-wired processor is about five times more powerful than its predecessor, and makes extensive use of pipelining techniques. It was used extensively in the 1988 and 1989 runs of the CERN Collider. (author)

  10. The double Chooz hardware trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucoanes, Andi; Beissel, Franz; Reinhold, Bernd; Roth, Stefan; Stahl, Achim; Wiebusch, Christopher [RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The double Chooz neutrino experiment aims to improve the present knowledge on {theta}{sub 13} mixing angle using two similar detectors placed at {proportional_to}280 m and respectively 1 km from the Chooz power plant reactor cores. The detectors measure the disappearance of reactor antineutrinos. The hardware trigger has to be very efficient for antineutrinos as well as for various types of background events. The triggering condition is based on discriminated PMT sum signals and the multiplicity of groups of PMTs. The talk gives an outlook to the double Chooz experiment and explains the requirements of the trigger system. The resulting concept and its performance is shown as well as first results from a prototype system.

  11. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xing [Albany, NY; Tekletsadik, Kasegn [Rexford, NY

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  12. Dendrite Injury Triggers DLK-Independent Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C. Stone

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Axon injury triggers regeneration through activation of a conserved kinase cascade, which includes the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK. Although dendrites are damaged during stroke, traumatic brain injury, and seizure, it is not known whether mature neurons monitor dendrite injury and initiate regeneration. We probed the response to dendrite damage using model Drosophila neurons. Two larval neuron types regrew dendrites in distinct ways after all dendrites were removed. Dendrite regeneration was also triggered by injury in adults. Next, we tested whether dendrite injury was initiated with the same machinery as axon injury. Surprisingly, DLK, JNK, and fos were dispensable for dendrite regeneration. Moreover, this MAP kinase pathway was not activated by injury to dendrites. Thus, neurons respond to dendrite damage and initiate regeneration without using the conserved DLK cascade that triggers axon regeneration.

  13. DNA Uptake by Transformable Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1999-03-31

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  14. DNA UPTAKE BY TRANSFORMABLE BACTERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    1999-09-07

    The various processes of DNA uptake by cells can be categorized as: viral DNA entry, conjugation, or transformation. Within each category, a variety of mechanisms have been found. However, considerable similarities occur among the different mechanisms of conjugation and, especially, transformation. All of these natural mechanisms of DNA transfer are quite elaborate and involve multiple protein components, as the case may be, of the virus, the donor cell, and the recipient cell. The mechanisms of viral infection and conjugation will be discussed mainly with respect to their relevance to transformation.

  15. The ZEUS second level calorimeter trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, S.J. de.

    1990-01-01

    ZEUS is a detector for the HERA ep collider, consisting of several large components. The most important being the inner tracking detectors, which are positioned nearest to the interaction point, the calorimeter surrounding the inner tracking detectors and the muon detectors on the outside of the experimental setup. Each component will deliver a vast amount of information. In order to keep this information manageable, data is preprocessed and condensed per component and then combined to obtain the final global trigger result. The main subject of this thesis is the second level calorimeter trigger processor of the ZEUS detector. In order to be able to reject the unwanted events passing the first level, the topological event signature will have to be used at the second level. The most demanding task of the second level is the recognition of local energy depositions corresponding to isolated electrons and hadron jets. Also part of the work performed by the first level will be repeated with a higher level of accuracy. Additional information not available to the first level trigger will be processed and will be made available to the global second level trigger decision module. For the second level calorimeter trigger processor a special VME module, containing two transputers, has been developed. The second level calorimeter trigger algorithm described in this thesis was tested with simulated events, that were tracked through a computer simulation of the ZEUS detector. A part of this thesis is therefore devoted to the description of the various Monte Carlo models and the justification of the way in which they were used. (author). 132 refs.; 76 figs.; 18 tabs

  16. The ATLAS trigger: high-level trigger commissioning and operation during early data taking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalo, R

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment is one of the two general-purpose experiments due to start operation soon at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC will collide protons at a centre of mass energy of 14 TeV, with a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. The ATLAS three-level trigger will reduce this input rate to match the foreseen offline storage capability of 100-200 Hz. This paper gives an overview of the ATLAS High Level Trigger focusing on the system design and its innovative features. We then present the ATLAS trigger strategy for the initial phase of LHC exploitation. Finally, we report on the valuable experience acquired through in-situ commissioning of the system where simulated events were used to exercise the trigger chain. In particular we show critical quantities such as event processing times, measured in a large-scale HLT farm using a complex trigger menu

  17. Self triggered single pulse beam position monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothman, J.L.; Blum, E.B.

    1993-01-01

    A self triggered beam position monitor (BPM) has been developed for the NSLS injection system to provide single pulse orbit measurements in the booster synchrotron, linac, and transport lines. The BPM integrates the negative going portion of 3 nS wide bipolar pickup electrode signals. The gated, self triggering feature confines critical timing components to the front end, relaxing external timing specifications. The system features a low noise high speed FET sampler, a fiber optic gate for bunch and turn selection, and an inexpensive interface to a standard PC data acquisition system

  18. Run 2 ATLAS Trigger and Detector Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Solovyanov, Oleg; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The 2nd LHC run has started in June 2015 with a proton-proton centre-of-mass collision energy of 13 TeV. During the years 2016 and 2017, LHC delivered an unprecedented amount of luminosity under the ever-increasing challenging conditions in terms of peak luminosity, pile-up and trigger rates. In this talk, the LHC running conditions and the improvements made to the ATLAS experiment in the course of Run 2 will be discussed, and the latest ATLAS detector and ATLAS trigger performance results from the Run 2 will be presented.

  19. Advances in tracking and trigger concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisel, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Increasing beam intensities and input data rates require to rethink the traditional approaches in trigger concepts. At the same time the advanced many-core computer architectures providing new dimensions in programming require to rework the standard methods or to develop new methods of track reconstruction in order to efficiently use parallelism of the computer hardware. As a results a new tendency appears to replace the standard (usually implemented in FPGA) hardware triggers by clusters of computers running software reconstruction and selection algorithms. In addition that makes possible unification of the offline and on-line data processing and analysis in one software package running on a heterogeneous computer farm

  20. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  1. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Covarelli, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, tau leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  2. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-01

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the "High-Level Trigger" (HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, τ leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  3. Popular sweetner sucralose as a migraine trigger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajendrakumar M; Sarma, Rakesh; Grimsley, Edwin

    2006-09-01

    Sucralose (trichlorogalactosucrose, or better known as Splenda) is an artificial sweetener from native sucrose that was approved by the FDA on April 1, 1998 (April Fool's Day). This observation of a potential causal relationship between sucralose and migraines may be important for physicians to remember this can be a possible trigger during dietary history taking. Identifying further triggers for migraine headaches, in this case sucralose, may help alleviate some of the cost burden (through expensive medical therapy or missed work opportunity) as well as provide relief to migraineurs.

  4. CMS Calorimeter Trigger Phase I upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klabbers, P; Gorski, T; Bachtis, M; Dasu, S; Fobes, R; Grothe, M; Ross, I; Smith, W H; Compton, K; Farmahini-Farahani, A; Gregerson, A; Seemuth, D; Schulte, M

    2012-01-01

    We present a design for the Phase-1 upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) calorimeter trigger system composed of FPGAs and Multi-GBit/sec links that adhere to the μTCA crate Telecom standard. The upgrade calorimeter trigger will implement algorithms that create collections of isolated and non-isolated electromagnetic objects, isolated and non-isolated tau objects and jet objects. The algorithms are organized in several steps with progressive data reduction. These include a particle cluster finder that reconstructs overlapping clusters of 2x2 calorimeter towers and applies electron identification, a cluster overlap filter, particle isolation determination, jet reconstruction, particle separation and sorting.

  5. Hardware trigger processor for the MDT system

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)757787; The ATLAS collaboration; Hazen, Eric; Butler, John; Black, Kevin; Gastler, Daniel Edward; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Taffard, Anyes; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Ishino, Masaya; Okumura, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    We are developing a low-latency hardware trigger processor for the Monitored Drift Tube system in the Muon spectrometer. The processor will fit candidate Muon tracks in the drift tubes in real time, improving significantly the momentum resolution provided by the dedicated trigger chambers. We present a novel pure-FPGA implementation of a Legendre transform segment finder, an associative-memory alternative implementation, an ARM (Zynq) processor-based track fitter, and compact ATCA carrier board architecture. The ATCA architecture is designed to allow a modular, staged approach to deployment of the system and exploration of alternative technologies.

  6. Initial preclinical safety of non-replicating human endogenous retrovirus envelope protein-coated baculovirus vector-based vaccines against human papillomavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su-Eun; Kim, Mi-Gyeong; Lee, Soondong; Cho, Hee-Jeong; Byun, Youngro; Kim, Sujeong; Kim, Young Bong; Choi, Yongseok; Oh, Yu-Kyoung

    2013-12-01

    Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) envelope protein-coated, baculovirus vector-based HPV 16 L1 (AcHERV-HPV16L1) is a non-replicating recombinant baculoviral vaccine. Here, we report an initial evaluation of the preclinical safety of AcHERV-HPV16L1 vaccine. In an acute toxicity study, a single administration of AcHERV-HPV16L1 DNA vaccine given intramuscularly (i.m.) to mice at a dose of 1 × 10(8) plaque-forming units (PFU) did not cause significant changes in body weight compared with vehicle-treated controls. It did cause a brief increase in the weights of some organs on day 15 post-treatment, but by day 30, all organ weights were not significantly different from those in the vehicle-treated control group. No hematological changes were observed on day 30 post-treatment. In a range-finding toxicity study with three doses of 1 × 10(7) , 2 × 10(7) and 5 × 10(7) PFU once daily for 5 days, the group treated with 5 × 10(7) PFU showed a transient decrease in the body weights from day 5 to day 15 post-treatment, but recovery to the levels similar to those in the vehicle-treated control group by post-treatment day 20. Organ weights were slightly higher for lymph nodes, spleen, thymus and liver after repeated dosing with 5 × 10(7) PFU on day 15, but had normalized by day 30. Moreover, repeated administration of AcHERV-HPV16L1 did not induce myosin-specific autoantibody in serum, and did not cause immune complex deposition or tissue damage at injection sites. Taken together, these results provide preliminary evidence of the preclinical safety of AcHERV-based HPV16L1 DNA vaccines in mice. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Intranasal immunization of baculovirus displayed hemagglutinin confers complete protection against mouse adapted highly pathogenic H7N7 reassortant influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subaschandrabose Rajesh Kumar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A H7N7 virus poses a pandemic threat to human health because of its ability for direct transmission from domestic poultry to humans and from human to human. The wide zoonotic potential of H7N7 combined with an antiviral immunity inhibition similar to pandemic 1918 H1N1 and 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses is disconcerting and increases the risk of a putative H7N7 pandemic in the future, underlining the urgent need for vaccine development against this virus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we developed a recombinant vaccine by expressing the H7N7-HA protein on the surface of baculovirus (Bac-HA. The protective efficacy of the live Bac-HA vaccine construct was evaluated in a mouse model by challenging mice immunized intranasally (i.n. or subcutaneously (s.c. with high pathogenic mouse adapted H7N7 reassorted strain. Although s.c. injection of live Bac-HA induced higher specific IgG than i.n. immunization, the later resulted in an elevated neutralization titer. Interestingly, 100% protection from the lethal viral challenge was only observed for the mice immunized intranasally with live Bac-HA, whereas no protection was achieved in any other s.c. or i.n. immunized mice groups. In addition, we also observed higher mucosal IgA as well as increased IFN-γ and IL-4 responses in the splenocytes of the surviving mice coupled with a reduced viral titer and diminished histopathological signs in the lungs. CONCLUSION: Our results indicated that protection from high pathogenic H7N7 (NL/219/03 virus requires both mucosal and systemic immune responses in mice. The balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokines is also required for the protection against the H7N7 pathogen. Intranasal administration of live Bac-HA induced all these immune responses and protected the mice from lethal viral challenge. Therefore, live Bac-HA is an effective vaccine candidate against H7N7 viral infections.

  8. Klebsiella pneumoniae triggers a cytotoxic effect on airway epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llobet-Brossa Enrique

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is a capsulated Gram negative bacterial pathogen and a frequent cause of nosocomial infections. Despite its clinical relevance, little is known about the features of the interaction between K. pneumoniae and lung epithelial cells on a cellular level, neither about the role of capsule polysaccharide, one of its best characterised virulence factors, in this interaction. Results The interaction between Klebsiella pneumoniae and cultured airway epithelial cells was analysed. K. pneumoniae infection triggered cytotoxicity, evident by cell rounding and detachment from the substrate. This effect required the presence of live bacteria and of capsule polysaccharide, since it was observed with isolates expressing different amounts of capsule and/or different serotypes but not with non-capsulated bacteria. Cytotoxicity was analysed by lactate dehydrogenase and formazan measurements, ethidium bromide uptake and analysis of DNA integrity, obtaining consistent and complementary results. Moreover, cytotoxicity of non-capsulated strains was restored by addition of purified capsule during infection. While a non-capsulated strain was avirulent in a mouse infection model, capsulated K. pneumoniae isolates displayed different degrees of virulence. Conclusion Our observations allocate a novel role to K. pneumoniae capsule in promotion of cytotoxicity. Although this effect is likely to be associated with virulence, strains expressing different capsule levels were not equally virulent. This fact suggests the existence of other bacterial requirements for virulence, together with capsule polysaccharide.

  9. Histones trigger sterile inflammation by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Darisipudi, Murthy Narayana; Tschopp, Jurg; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2013-12-01

    Sterile cell death mediated inflammation is linked to several pathological disorders and involves danger recognition of intracellular molecules released by necrotic cells that activate different groups of innate pattern recognition receptors. Toll-like receptors directly interact with their extrinsic or intrinsic agonists and induce multiple proinflammatory mediators. In contrast, the NLRP3 inflammasome is rather thought to represent a downstream element integrating various indirect stimuli into proteolytic cleavage of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Here, we report that histones released from necrotic cells induce IL-1β secretion in an NLRP3-ASC-caspase-1-dependent manner. Genetic deletion of NLRP3 in mice significantly attenuated histone-induced IL-1β production and neutrophil recruitment. Furthermore, necrotic cells induced neutrophil recruitment, which was significantly reduced by histone-neutralizing antibodies or depleting extracellular histones via enzymatic degradation. These results identify cytosolic uptake of necrotic cell-derived histones as a triggering mechanism of sterile inflammation, which involves NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion via oxidative stress. © 2013 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Tsung-Hung; Takahashi, Taro

    1993-01-01

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0 2 include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO 2 and total concentration of dissolved C0 2 , sea-air pCO 2 difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0 2 uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0 2 from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0 2 fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks

  11. A trigger simulation framework for the ALICE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antinori, F; Carminati, F; Gheata, A; Gheata, M

    2011-01-01

    A realistic simulation of the trigger system in a complex HEP experiment is essential for performing detailed trigger efficiency studies. The ALICE trigger simulation is evolving towards a framework capable of replaying the full trigger chain starting from the input to the individual trigger processors and ending with the decision mechanisms of the ALICE central trigger processor. This paper describes the new ALICE trigger simulation framework that is being tested and deployed. The framework handles details like trigger levels, signal delays and busy signals, implementing the trigger logic via customizable trigger device objects managed by a robust scheduling mechanism. A big advantage is the high flexibility of the framework, which is able to mix together components described with very different levels of detail. The framework is being gradually integrated within the ALICE simulation and reconstruction frameworks.

  12. Towards a Level-1 Tracking Trigger for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Santo, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In preparation for the high-luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider, ATLAS is planning a trigger upgrade that will enable the experiment to use tracking information already at the first trigger level. This will provide enhanced background rejection power at trigger level while preserving much needed flexibility for the trigger system. The status and current plans for the new ATLAS Level-1 tracking trigger are presented.

  13. UA1 upgrade first-level calorimeter trigger processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, N.; Charlton, D.; Ellis, N.; Garvey, J.; Gregory, J.; Jimack, M.P.; Jovanovic, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagedera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.; Eisenhandler, E.; Fensome, I.; Landon, M.

    1989-01-01

    A new first-level trigger processor has been built for the UA1 experiment on the Cern SppS Collider. The processor exploits the fine granularity of the new UA1 uranium-TMP calorimeter to improve the selectivity of the trigger. The new electron trigger has improved hadron jet rejection, achieved by requiring low energy deposition around the electromagnetic cluster. A missing transverse energy trigger and a total energy trigger have also been implemented. (orig.)

  14. Prostate cancer may trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jakob Kristian; Zakharia, Elias Raja; Boysen, Anders Kindberg Fossø

    2013-01-01

    -Hu antibody test the patient was diagnosed with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to prostate cancer. The patient died within 6 months. We review the literature on prostate cancer-related paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. High-risk prostate cancer can trigger paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis...

  15. Entity models for trigger-reaction documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; Makkes, M.X.

    2008-01-01

    We define the notion of an entity model for a special kind of document popular on the web: an article followed by a list of reactions on that article, usually by many authors, usually inverse chronologically ordered. We call these documents trigger-reactions pairs. The entity model describes which

  16. Hard scattering and a diffractive trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Collins, J.C.; Soper, D.E.; Sterman, G.

    1986-02-01

    Conclusions concerning the properties of hard scattering in diffractively produced systems are summarized. One motivation for studying diffractive hard scattering is to investigate the interface between Regge theory and perturbative QCD. Another is to see whether diffractive triggering can result in an improvement in the signal-to-background ratio of measurements of production of very heavy quarks. 5 refs

  17. 2017 B-Physics trigger efficiencies

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The performance of the trigger used to select B-Physics decay channels in CMS is presented for data collected in 2017, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $9.8\\,\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ at $13\\,\\mathrm{TeV}$.

  18. Self-triggered coordination with ternary controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Frasca, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper regards coordination of networked systems with ternary controllers. We develop a hybrid coordination system which implements a self-triggered communication policy, based on polling the neighbors upon need. We prove that the proposed scheme ensures finite-time convergence to a neighborhood

  19. BTeV trigger/DAQ innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Votava, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    The BTeV experiment was a collider based high energy physics (HEP) B-physics experiment proposed at Fermilab. It included a large-scale, high speed trigger/data acquisition (DAQ) system, reading data off the detector at 500 Gbytes/sec and writing to mass storage at 200 Mbytes/sec. The online design was considered to be highly credible in terms of technical feasibility, schedule and cost. This paper will give an overview of the overall trigger/DAQ architecture, highlight some of the challenges, and describe the BTeV approach to solving some of the technical challenges. At the time of termination in early 2005, the experiment had just passed its baseline review. Although not fully implemented, many of the architecture choices, design, and prototype work for the online system (both trigger and DAQ) were well on their way to completion. Other large, high-speed online systems may have interest in the some of the design choices and directions of BTeV, including (a) a commodity-based tracking trigger running asynchronously at full rate, (b) the hierarchical control and fault tolerance in a large real time environment, (c) a partitioning model that supports offline processing on the online farms during idle periods with plans for dynamic load balancing, and (d) an independent parallel highway architecture

  20. Event Reconstruction Algorithms for the ATLAS Trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca-Martin, T.; /CERN; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Adragna, P.; /Queen Mary, U. of London; Aleksandrov, E.; /Dubna, JINR; Aleksandrov, I.; /Dubna, JINR; Amorim, A.; /Lisbon, LIFEP; Anderson, K.; /Chicago U., EFI; Anduaga, X.; /La Plata U.; Aracena, I.; /SLAC; Asquith, L.; /University Coll. London; Avolio, G.; /CERN; Backlund, S.; /CERN; Badescu, E.; /Bucharest, IFIN-HH; Baines, J.; /Rutherford; Barria, P.; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome; Bartoldus, R.; /SLAC; Batreanu, S.; /Bucharest, IFIN-HH /CERN; Beck, H.P.; /Bern U.; Bee, C.; /Marseille, CPPM; Bell, P.; /Manchester U.; Bell, W.H.; /Glasgow U. /Pavia U. /INFN, Pavia /Regina U. /CERN /Annecy, LAPP /Paris, IN2P3 /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /Argonne /CERN /UC, Irvine /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /CERN /Montreal U. /CERN /Glasgow U. /Michigan State U. /Bucharest, IFIN-HH /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /New York U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, Autonoma U. /Salento U. /INFN, Lecce /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Bucharest, IFIN-HH /UC, Irvine /CERN /Glasgow U. /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Lisbon, LIFEP /Napoli Seconda U. /INFN, Naples /UC, Irvine /Valencia U. /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /University Coll. London /New York U.; /more authors..

    2011-11-09

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10{sup 9} interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  1. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  2. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved trac...

  3. ALICE Trigger and Event Selection QA

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    I will present the last nine weeks of work on building a class that efficiently produces trending physics selection of various trigger classes for the purposes of quality assurance. This class is easily generalizable and will be used for live monitoring via a webpage.

  4. Triggering on electrons and photons with CMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zabi Alexandre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the year 2011, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC has operated with an instantaneous luminosity that has risen continually to around 4 × 1033cm−2s−1. With this prodigious high-energy proton collisions rate, efficient triggering on electrons and photons has become a major challenge for the LHC experiments. The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS experiment implements a sophisticated two-level online selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 106. The first level (L1 is based on coarse information coming from the calorimeters and the muon detectors while the High-Level Trigger (HLT combines fine-grain information from all sub-detectors. In this intense hadronic environment, the L1 electron/photon trigger provides a powerful tool to select interesting events. It is based upon information from the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL, a high-resolution detector comprising 75848 lead tungstate (PbWO4 crystals in a “barrel” and two “endcaps”. The performance as well as the optimization of the electron/photon trigger are presented.

  5. Reflex epilepsy: triggers and management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okudan ZV

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Zeynep Vildan Okudan,1 Çiğdem Özkara2 1Department of Neurology, Bakirkoy Dr Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital, 2Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Cerrahpasa Faculty of Medicine, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: Reflex epilepsies (REs are identified as epileptic seizures that are consistently induced by identifiable and objective-specific triggers, which may be an afferent stimulus or by the patient’s own activity. RE may have different subtypes depending on the stimulus characteristic. There are significant clinical and electrophysiologic differences between different RE types. Visual stimuli-sensitive or photosensitive epilepsies constitute a large proportion of the RE and are mainly related to genetic causes. Reflex epilepsies may present with focal or generalized seizures due to specific triggers, and sometimes seizures may occur spontaneously. The stimuli can be external (light flashes, hot water, internal (emotion, thinking, or both and should be distinguished from triggering precipitants, which most epileptic patients could report such as emotional stress, sleep deprivation, alcohol, and menstrual cycle. Different genetic and acquired factors may play a role in etiology of RE. This review will provide a current overview of the triggering factors and management of reflex seizures. Keywords: seizure, reflex epilepsy, photosensitivity, hot water, reading, thinking

  6. Does heavy physical exertion trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Möller, J; Ahlbom, A

    2000-01-01

    To study possible triggering of first events of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion, the authors conducted a case-crossover analysis (1993-1994) within a population-based case-referent study in Stockholm County, Sweden (the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). Interviews were...

  7. The CMS Barrel Muon Trigger Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Triossi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The increase of luminosity expected by LHC during Phase 1 will impose several constrains for rate reduction while maintaining high efficiency in the CMS Level 1 trigger system. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that concentrates the information from different subdetectors DT, RPC and HO. It arranges and fan-out the slow optical trigger links from the detector chambers into faster links (10 Gbps) that are sent to the track finders. Results, from collision runs, that confirm the satisfactory operation of the trigger system up to the output of the barrel track finder, will be shown. SUMMARY: In view of the increase of luminosity during phase 1 upgrade of LHC, the muon trigger chain of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment underwent considerable improvements. The muon detector was designed for preserving the complementarity and redundancy of three separate muon detection systems, Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC), Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC), until ...

  8. Trigger factors and mechanisms in migraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonman, Geurt Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Migraine is a severe headache syndrome, affecting approximately 33% of females and 13% of males. Patients suffer from recurring headache episodes in combination with nausea, vomiting, phono and photophobia. It is a paroxysmal disorder for which several several trigger factors have been identified by

  9. BTeV detached vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    BTeV is a collider experiment that has been approved to run in the Tevatron at Fermilab. The experiment will conduct precision studies of CP violation using a forward-geometry detector. The detector will be optimized for high-rate detection of beauty and charm particles produced in collisions between protons and anti-protons. BTeV will trigger on beauty and charm events by taking advantage of the main difference between these heavy quark events and more typical hadronic events - the presence of detached beauty and charm decay vertices. The first stage of the BTeV trigger will receive data from a pixel vertex detector at a rate of 100 gb s -1 , reconstruct tracks and vertices for every beam crossing, reject 99% of beam crossings that do not produce beauty or charm particles, and trigger on beauty events with high efficiency. An overview of the trigger design and its influence on the design of the pixel vertex detector is presented

  10. Event reconstruction algorithms for the ATLAS trigger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F-Martin, T; Avolio, G; Backlund, S [European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Abolins, M [Michigan State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Adragna, P [Department of Physics, Queen Mary and Westfield College, University of London, London (United Kingdom); Aleksandrov, E; Aleksandrov, I [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Amorim, A [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental, Lisboa (Portugal); Anderson, K [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Anduaga, X [National University of La Plata, La Plata (United States); Aracena, I; Bartoldus, R [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Stanford (United States); Asquith, L [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Badescu, E [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Baines, J [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot (United Kingdom); Beck, H P [Laboratory for High Energy Physics, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Bee, C [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, IN2P3-CNRS, Marseille (France); Bell, P [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Barria, P; Batreanu, S [and others

    2008-07-01

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10{sup 9} interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  11. Event reconstruction algorithms for the ATLAS trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F-Martin, T; Avolio, G; Backlund, S; Abolins, M; Adragna, P; Aleksandrov, E; Aleksandrov, I; Amorim, A; Anderson, K; Anduaga, X; Aracena, I; Bartoldus, R; Asquith, L; Badescu, E; Baines, J; Beck, H P; Bee, C; Bell, P; Barria, P; Batreanu, S

    2008-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10 9 interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system

  12. Increased muscle glucose uptake during contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Thorkil; Galbo, Henrik; Richter, Erik

    1984-01-01

    We reinvestigated the prevailing concept that muscle contractions only elicit increased muscle glucose uptake in the presence of a so-called "permissive" concentration of insulin (Berger et al., Biochem. J. 146: 231-238, 1975; Vranic and Berger, Diabetes 28: 147-163, 1979). Hindquarters from rats...... in severe ketoacidosis were perfused with a perfusate containing insulin antiserum. After 60 min perfusion, electrical stimulation increased glucose uptake of the contracting muscles fivefold. Also, subsequent contractions increased glucose uptake in hindquarters from nondiabetic rats perfused for 1.5 h......-methylglucose uptake increased during contractions and glucose uptake was negative at rest and zero during contractions. An increase in muscle transport and uptake of glucose during contractions does not require the presence of insulin. Furthermore, glucose transport in contracting muscle may only increase if glycogen...

  13. Cell uptake survey of pegylated nanographene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, M; Portolés, M T; Marques, P A A P; Feito, M J; Matesanz, M C; Ramírez-Santillán, C; Gonçalves, G; Cruz, S M A; Nieto, A; Vallet-Regi, M

    2012-11-23

    Graphene and more specifically, nanographene oxide (GO) has been proposed as a highly efficient antitumoral therapy agent. Nevertheless, its cell uptake kinetics, its influence in different types of cells and the possibility of controlling cellular internalization timing, is still a field that remains unexplored. Herein, different cell types have been cultured in vitro for several incubation periods in the presence of 0.075 mg ml(-1) pegylated GO solutions. GO uptake kinetics revealed differences in the agent's uptake amount and speed as a function of the type of cell involved. Osteoblast-like cells GO uptake is higher and faster without resulting in greater cell membrane damage. Moreover, the dependence on the commonly used PEG nature (number of branches) also influences the viability and cell uptake speed. These facts play an important role in the future definition of timing parameters and selective cell uptake control in order to achieve an effective therapy.

  14. Cell uptake survey of pegylated nanographene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, M; Nieto, A; Vallet-Regi, M; Portolés, M T; Feito, M J; Matesanz, M C; Ramírez-Santillán, C; Marques, P A A P; Gonçalves, G; Cruz, S M A

    2012-01-01

    Graphene and more specifically, nanographene oxide (GO) has been proposed as a highly efficient antitumoral therapy agent. Nevertheless, its cell uptake kinetics, its influence in different types of cells and the possibility of controlling cellular internalization timing, is still a field that remains unexplored. Herein, different cell types have been cultured in vitro for several incubation periods in the presence of 0.075 mg ml −1 pegylated GO solutions. GO uptake kinetics revealed differences in the agent’s uptake amount and speed as a function of the type of cell involved. Osteoblast-like cells GO uptake is higher and faster without resulting in greater cell membrane damage. Moreover, the dependence on the commonly used PEG nature (number of branches) also influences the viability and cell uptake speed. These facts play an important role in the future definition of timing parameters and selective cell uptake control in order to achieve an effective therapy. (paper)

  15. Gastric gallium-67 uptake in gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, E.L.; Tisdale, P.L.; Zielonka, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Even though Ga-67 imaging has been used widely in the diagnosis of malignant as well as inflammatory lesions, its uptake in the stomach has been reported in the literature mainly in gastric lymphoma and carcinoma. As shown in this case, intense gastric uptake of the radionuclide may be seen in common gastritis without malignancy. Perhaps the benign gastric uptake of Ga-67 deserves more emphasis

  16. Radioiodine uptake by plants from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabova, T.

    1976-01-01

    The uptake and accumulation of radioiodine by wheat, maize and peas from various types of soil have been studied. The uptake depends on the type of soil, on its content of organic matter and on the amount of fertilizer. Radioiodine is mainly accumulated in the roots. Accumulation in above-ground plant parts decreases in the following order: wheat, maize, peas. Uptake was highest from humus and clay soils and lowest from black and meadow soils. Application of chloride fertilizer or carrier iodine lead to an increase of radioiodine uptake in the whole plant. (author)

  17. Physiological FDG uptake in the palatine tonsils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabe, Joji; Okamura, Terue; Shakudo, Miyuki

    2001-01-01

    In clinical F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) studies of the head and neck region, remarkable symmetric tonsillar FDG uptake is sometimes observed. We determined the incidence and degree of tonsillar FDG uptake and investigated the significance of tonsillar FDG uptake. Between June 1998 and August 1998, we obtained informed consent from 17 patients who were scheduled to undergo a FDG-PET study for their own disease (11 men and 6 women; aged 22 to 77 yr) and who did not have head and neck disease to perform FDG-PET scanning of the head and neck region in addition to their target organs. The incidence and degree of tonsillar FDG uptake were determined. Remarkable tonsillar FDG uptake was found in 9 patients. The SUVs of these FDG uptakes ranged from 2.48 to 6.75, with a mean of 4.29±1.20 (SD). Tonsillar FDG uptakes in the remaining 8 patients were not remarkable, and their SUVs ranged from 1.93 to 3.31, with a mean of 2.46±0.45. Head and neck disease does not appear to have been responsible for the increase in tonsillar FDG uptake. Differences among tonsillar FDG uptake in these 17 patients without head and neck disease appear to reflect differences in activity of ''physiological'' inflammation of the palatine tonsils. (author)

  18. Radioiodine uptake in inactive pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakheet, S.M.; Powe, J.; Al Suhaibani, H.; Hammami, M.M.; Bazarbashi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Radioiodine may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection. We have seen such accumulation in six thyroid cancer patients with a history of previously treated pulmonary tuberculosis. We also review the causes of false-positive radioiodine uptake in lung infection/inflammation. Eight foci of radioiodine uptake were seen on six iodine-123 diagnostic scans. In three foci, the uptake was focal and indistinguishable from thyroid cancer pulmonary metastases from thyroid cancer. In the remaining foci, the uptake appeared nonsegmental, linear or lobar, suggesting a false-positive finding. The uptake was unchanged, variable in appearance or non-persistent on follow-up scans and less extensive than the fibrocystic changes seen on chest radiographs. In the two patients studied, thyroid hormone level did not affect the radioiodine lung uptake and there was congruent gallium-67 uptake. None of the patients had any evidence of thyroid cancer recurrence or of reactivation of tuberculosis and only two patients had chronic intermittent chest symptoms. Severe bronchiectasis, active tuberculosis, acute bronchitis, respiratory bronchiolitis, rheumatoid arthritis-associated lung disease and fungal infection such as Allescheria boydii and aspergillosis can lead to different patterns of radioiodine chest uptake mimicking pulmonary metastases. Pulmonary scarring secondary to tuberculosis may predispose to localized radioiodine accumulation even in the absence of clinically evident active infection. False-positive radioiodine uptake due to pulmonary infection/inflammation should be considered in thyroid cancer patients prior to the diagnosis of pulmonary metastases. (orig.)

  19. Ursodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acids: Differential effects on intestinal Ca(2+) uptake, apoptosis and autophagy of rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Valeria A; Rivoira, María A; Pérez, Adriana del V; Marchionatti, Ana M; Tolosa de Talamoni, Nori G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of sodium deoxycholate (NaDOC) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on Ca(2+) uptake by enterocytes and the underlying mechanisms. Rats were divided into four groups: a) controls, b) treated with NaDOC, c) treated with UDCA d) treated with NaDOC and UDCA. Ca(2+) uptake was studied in enterocytes with different degrees of maturation. Apoptosis, autophagy and NO content and iNOS protein expression were evaluated. NaDOC decreased and UDCA increased Ca(2+) uptake only in mature enterocytes. The enhancement of protein expression of Fas, FasL, caspase-8 and caspase-3 activity by NaDOC indicates triggering of the apoptotic extrinsic pathway, which was blocked by UDCA. NO content and iNOS protein expression were enhanced by NaDOC, and avoided by UDCA. The increment of acidic vesicular organelles and LC3 II produced by NaDOC was also prevented by UDCA. In conclusion, the inhibitory effects of NaDOC on intestinal Ca(2+) absorption occur by decreasing the Ca(2+) uptake by mature enterocytes. NaDOC triggers apoptosis and autophagy, in part as a result of nitrosative stress. In contrast, UDCA increases the Ca(2+) uptake by mature enterocytes, and in combination with NaDOC acts as an antiapoptotic and antiautophagic agent normalizing the transcellular Ca(2+) pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The ATLAS online High Level Trigger framework experience reusing offline software components in the ATLAS trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Wiedenmann, W

    2009-01-01

    Event selection in the Atlas High Level Trigger is accomplished to a large extent by reusing software components and event selection algorithms developed and tested in an offline environment. Many of these offline software modules are not specifically designed to run in a heavily multi-threaded online data flow environment. The Atlas High Level Trigger (HLT) framework based on the Gaudi and Atlas Athena frameworks, forms the interface layer, which allows the execution of the HLT selection and monitoring code within the online run control and data flow software. While such an approach provides a unified environment for trigger event selection across all of Atlas, it also poses strict requirements on the reused software components in terms of performance, memory usage and stability. Experience of running the HLT selection software in the different environments and especially on large multi-node trigger farms has been gained in several commissioning periods using preloaded Monte Carlo events, in data taking peri...

  1. Gd(III)-DOTA-modified sonosensitive liposomes for ultrasound-triggered release and MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suk Hyun; Na, Kyunga; Lee, Seul A.; Cho, Sun Hang; Seong, Hasoo; Shin, Byung Cheol

    2012-08-01

    Ultrasound-sensitive (sonosensitive) liposomes for tumor targeting have been studied in order to increase the antitumor efficacy of drugs and decrease the associated severe side effects. Liposomal contrast agents having Gd(III) are known as a nano-contrast agent system for the efficient and selective delivery of contrast agents into pathological sites. The objective of this study was to prepare Gd(III)-DOTA-modified sonosensitive liposomes (GdSL), which could deliver a model drug, doxorubicin (DOX), to a specific site and, at the same time, be capable of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The GdSL was prepared using synthesized Gd(III)-DOTA-1,2-distearoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine lipid. Sonosensitivity of GdSL to 20-kHz ultrasound induced 33% to 40% of DOX release. The relaxivities ( r 1) of GdSL were 6.6 to 7.8 mM-1 s-1, which were higher than that of MR-bester®. Intracellular uptake properties of GdSL were evaluated according to the intensity of ultrasound. Intracellular uptake of DOX for ultrasound-triggered GdSL was higher than that for non-ultrasound-triggered GdSL. The results of our study suggest that the paramagnetic and sonosensitive liposomes, GdSL, may provide a versatile platform for molecular imaging and targeted drug delivery.

  2. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, Kevin; Howman-Giles, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV max , and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV max with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  3. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Disciplines of Imaging and Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV{sub max}, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV{sub max} with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  4. The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger 
Configuration System.

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez Cavalcanti, Tiago; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering Framework and the Trigger 
Configuration System.
 
The ATLAS detector system installed in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) 
at CERN is designed to study proton-proton and nucleus-nucleus 
collisions with a maximum center of mass energy of 14 TeV at a bunch 
collision rate of 40MHz.  In March 2010 the four LHC experiments saw 
the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV. Still within the year a 
collision rate of nearly 10 MHz is expected. At ATLAS, events of 
potential interest for ATLAS physics are selected by a three-level 
trigger system, with a final recording rate of about 200 Hz. The first 
level (L1) is implemented in custom hardware; the two levels of 
the high level trigger (HLT) are software triggers, running on large 
farms of standard computers and network devices. 

Within the ATLAS physics program more than 500 trigger signatures are 
defined. The HLT tests each signature on each L1-accepted event; the 
test outcome is recor...

  5. Machine learning techniques for razor triggers

    CERN Document Server

    Kolosova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    My project was focused on the development of a neural network which can predict if an event passes or not a razor trigger. Using synthetic data containing jets and missing transverse energy we built and trained a razor network by supervised learning. We accomplished a ∼ 91% agreement between the output of the neural network and the target while the other 10% was due to the noise of the neural network. We could apply such networks during the L1 trigger using neuromorhic hardware. Neuromorphic chips are electronic systems that function in a way similar to an actual brain, they are faster than GPUs or CPUs, but they can only be used with spiking neural networks.

  6. Exogenously triggered response inhibition in developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Kurt; De Nil, Luc F; Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine relations between children's exogenously triggered response inhibition and stuttering. Participants were 18 children who stutter (CWS; mean age = 9;01 years) and 18 children who not stutter (CWNS; mean age = 9;01 years). Participants were matched on age (±3 months) and gender. Response inhibition was assessed by a stop signal task (Verbruggen, Logan, & Stevens, 2008). Results suggest that CWS, compared to CWNS, perform comparable to CWNS in a task where response control is externally triggered. Our findings seem to indicate that previous questionnaire-based findings (Eggers, De Nil, & Van den Bergh, 2010) of a decreased efficiency of response inhibition cannot be generalized to all types of response inhibition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivda, M.; Alexandre, D.; Barnby, L.S.; Evans, D.; Jones, P.G.; Jusko, A.; Lietava, R.; Baillie, O. Villalobos; Pospíšil, J.

    2016-01-01

    The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) at the CERN LHC has been upgraded for LHC Run 2, to improve the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) data-taking efficiency and to improve the physics performance of ALICE. There is a new additional CTP interaction record sent using a new second Detector Data Link (DDL), a 2 GB DDR3 memory and an extension of functionality for classes. The CTP switch has been incorporated directly onto the new LM0 board. A design proposal for an ALICE CTP upgrade for LHC Run 3 is also presented. Part of the development is a low latency high bandwidth interface whose purpose is to minimize an overall trigger latency

  8. CDF tau triggers, analysis and other developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. R. Smith

    2003-01-01

    This note is a write-up of contribution made by the author to the HCP2002 conference. It has two principal subjects. The first subject concerns the CDF τ triggers, τ-cone algorithms and τ physics analysis. τ physics is going to be very important in Run II because τ's can extend SUSY searches at large tan β in particular, τ's will help in the searches for (tilde χ) 1 ± (tilde χ) 2 0 , MSSM Higgs and other non Standard Model (SM) processes. Also, τ events are important for various Standard Model processes including Precision Electroweak, t(bar t), and SM Higgs searches. τ triggers are installed and operating at CDF. The second subject of this contribution to the HCP2002 conference concerns the algorithms of backwards differentiation abstracted from their usual setting inside of Automatic Differentiation software packages. Backwards differentiation (reverse-mode differentiation) provides a useful means for optimizing many kinds of problems

  9. Particle combinations in the LHCb Upgrade trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Fanyi

    2017-01-01

    The LHCb experiment will be upgraded during long shutdown II (2018-2020) to process inelastic proton-proton collisions at 30MHz in a software application and run at a higher instantaneous luminosity of $2\\times 10^{33}cm^{−2}s^{−1}$. Each of these collisions will contain substantially more proton-proton interactions and charged particles. It is important to identify the decay vertices of heavy-flavour hadrons produced by the primary proton-proton interaction in an efficient, CPU-performant manner. In this project, I will learn about the LHCb trigger and experimental programme and investigate alternative models for reconstructing these vertices, which may scale more efficiently to the upgraded trigger conditions than the current model.

  10. The ATLAS Trigger Simulation with Legacy Software

    CERN Document Server

    Bernius, Catrin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Physics analyses at the LHC which search for rare physics processes or measure Standard Model parameters with high precision require accurate simulations of the detector response and the event selection processes. The accurate simulation of the trigger response is crucial for determination of overall selection efficiencies and signal sensitivities. For the generation and the reconstruction of simulated event data, generally the most recent software releases are used to ensure the best agreement between simulated data and real data. For the simulation of the trigger selection process, however, the same software release with which real data were taken should be ideally used. This requires potentially running with software dating many years back, the so-called legacy software. Therefore having a strategy for running legacy software in a modern environment becomes essential when data simulated for past years start to present a sizeable fraction of the total. The requirements and possibilities for such a simulatio...

  11. Software trigger for the TOPAZ detector at TRISTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, T.; Yamauchi, M.; Enomoto, R.

    1990-01-01

    A new software trigger system was developed and installed at the TOPAZ detector to the trigger system for the TRISTAN e + e - collider to take data efficiently in the scheduled high luminosity experiment. This software trigger requires two or more charged tracks originated at the interaction point by examining the timing of signals from the time projection chamber. To execute the vertex finding very quickly, four microprocessors are used in parallel. By this new trigger the rate of the track trigger was reduced down to 30-40% with very small inefficiency. The additional dead time by this trigger is negligible. (orig.)

  12. The CLEO-III Trigger: Decision and gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergfeld, T.J.; Gollin, G.D.; Haney, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The CLEO-III Trigger provides a trigger decision every 42ns, with a latency of approximately 2.5μs. This paper describes the free-running, pipelined trigger decision logic, the throttling mechanism whereby the data acquisition system can modulate the trigger rate to maximize throughput without buffer overrun, and the subsequent signal distribution mechanism for delivering the trigger decision to the front-end electronics. This paper also describes the multilevel simulation methods employed to allow detailed low-level models of trigger components to be co-simulated with more abstract system models, thus allowing full system modeling without incurring prohibitive computational overheads

  13. Uptake of organic nitrogen by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgny Nasholm; Knut Kielland; Ulrika. Ganeteg

    2009-01-01

    Languishing for many years in the shadow of plant inorganic nitrogen (N) nutrition research, studies of organic N uptake have attracted increased attention during the last decade. The capacity of plants to acquire organic N, demonstrated in laboratory and field settings, has thereby been well established. Even so, the ecological significance of organic N uptake for...

  14. Gallium 67 uptake in thymic rebound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, R.; Sabio, H.; Teates, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    We have reported a case of localized thymic enlargement and uptake of gallium 67 in a child who had received antineoplastic chemotherapy. The enlarged thymus showed normal histology, a picture consistent with thymic rebound after nonspecific stress. This case further demonstrates the need to consider thymic rebound as a cause of gallium 67 uptake in children with neoplastic diseases

  15. Uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jiemin; Chen Ziyuan; Tang Shirong; Guangzhou Univ., Guangzhou; Ding Bingyang

    2005-01-01

    The review covers results at home and abroad in terms of uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes, and suggests pteridophytes' significance in phytoremediation; the mechanisms related to uptake of inorganic contaminants by pteridophytes and some methods and means used for research on the mechanism are also introduced; the authors' viewpoints on future development trends are presented in this paper. (authors)

  16. Nitrogen uptake kinetics of freshly isolated zooxanthellae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Wafar, S.; Rajkumar, R.

    that for nitrate [2.8 nmol. ( mu chl-a)./1h/1] and urea [0.37 nmol. ( mu chl-a)./1h/1]. Half-saturation constants for uptake of the three nitrogen compounds were in the range of 10-15 mu mol.l/1. Generally, uptake of any one nitrogen substrate appears to be inhibit...

  17. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R. (Medical College and Hospital, Rohtak-124001 (India))

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author).

  18. Radio-active iodine uptake in vitiligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Shankar, V.; Chaudhary, S.; Bhatia, K.K.; Mehta, L.K.; Arora, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Vitiligo and thyroid disease are commonly associated disorders. Twenty-two clinically euthyroid vitiligo patients were studied for functional assessment of thyroid by radioactive iodine uptake assay. Half of them showed abnormal uptake values at 24 hours. Of these patients, 90% had lower values indicating a tendency towards developing hypothyroid state. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction in vitiligo appears to be an adaptive change. (author)

  19. A multiplicity jump trigger using silicon planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexopoulos, T.; Erwin, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Since silicon tracking planes are already present in a B decay experiment, it is an attractive idea to use these as part of a multiplicity jump detector. Two average B decays would produce a multiplicity jump of around 10 in the final state. Such a trigger has been tried for a fixed target Charm experiment with disappointing success. The failure was attributed to the difficulty in adequately controlling the gains of a large number of microstrip amplifies

  20. LHC detectors trigger/DAQ at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Sphicas, Paris

    1998-01-01

    At its design luminosity, the LHC will deliver hundreds of millions of proton-proton interactions per second. Storage and computing limitations limit the number of physics events that can be recorded to about 100 per second. The selection will be carried out by the Trigger and data acquisition systems of the experiments. This lecture will review the requirements, architectures and various designs currently considered.