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Sample records for bactrocera dorsalis complex

  1. Comparative sensitivity to methyl eugenol of four putative Bactrocera dorsalis complex sibling species – further evidence that they belong to one and the same species B. dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hee, Alvin K.W.; Ooi, Yue-Shin; Wee, Suk-Ling; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Males of certain species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to, and readily feed on methyl eugenol (ME), a plant secondary compound that is found in over 480 plant species worldwide. Amongst those species is one of the world’s most severe fruit pests the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former taxonomic species Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis. The latter species have been recently synonymised with Bactrocera dorsalis based on their very similar morphology, mating compatibility, molecular genetics and identical sex pheromones following consumption of ME. Previous studies have shown that male fruit fly responsiveness to lures is a unique phenomenon that is dose species-specific, besides showing a close correlation to sexual maturity attainment. This led us to use ME sensitivity as a behavioural parameter to test if Bactrocera dorsalis and the three former taxonomic species had similar sensitivity towards odours of ME. Using Probit analysis, we estimated the median dose of ME required to elicit species’ positive response in 50% of each population tested (ED50). ED50 values were compared between Bactrocera dorsalis and the former species. Our results showed no significant differences between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis in their response to ME. We consider that the Bactrocera males’ sensitivity to ME may be a useful behavioural parameter for species delimitation and, in addition to other integrative taxonomic tools used, provides further supportive evidence that the four taxa belong to one and the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis. PMID:26798265

  2. The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex: comparative cytogenetic analysis in support of Sterile Insect Technique applications

    OpenAIRE

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2014-01-01

    Background The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex currently harbors approximately 90 different members. The species complex has undergone many revisions in the past decades, and there is still an ongoing debate about the species limits. The availability of a variety of tools and approaches, such as molecular-genomic and cytogenetic analyses, are expected to shed light on the rather complicated issues of species complexes and incipient speciation. The clarification of genetic relationships am...

  3. Interspecific cross of the Bactrocera dorsalis Complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): How did it happen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, which taxonomically resembles the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel), comprises at least 52 species. Two closely related members of the complex, namely B. papayae Drew and Hancock and B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, were recently reclassified as new species (Drew and Hancock 1994). Under this taxonomic revision, B. papayae is now regarded as a distinct species from B. carambolae based on the differences of: 1) wing pattern of the costal band at apex R4+5, 2) the presence of a dark spot on the fore femora and, 3) the pattern of the transverse black band on terga III-V. Chemical examination of the volatile components produced by the males of both species also revealed pronounced differences in the chemistry of their rectal gland secretions (Perkins et al. 1990). In Malaysia, B. papayae has a wider distribution and a larger host range compared with B. carambolae. Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) and various species of wax apple (Syzygium spp.) are the preferred hosts of B. carambolae whilst B. papayae attacks over 150 species but preferentially 'attacks' banana (Musa spp.), starfruit, mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.) and guava (Psidium guajava L.) in decreasing order (Tan 1997). Recently, data from field trapping studies using methyl eugenol (ME) in Penang Island, Malaysia, showed the presence of male flies with intermediate morphological characteristics between B. papayae and B. carambolae. Laboratory testing showed that these two species are able to interbreed and produce viable offspring. The hybrids also possess a variety of intermediate characteristics between the two species (Wee and Tan, unpublished data). Therefore, the question arises as to whether B. papayae and B. carambolae should be categorised as different species, subspecies or even as different strains. And before a satisfactory conclusion can be achieved, there are some key issues that need to be addressed. Firstly, after ME

  4. Wing shape as a potential discriminator of morphologically similar pest taxa within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutze, M K; Jessup, A; Clarke, A R

    2012-02-01

    Four morphologically cryptic species of the Bactrocera dorsalis fruit fly complex (B. dorsalis s.s., B. papayae, B. carambolae and B. philippinensis) are serious agricultural pests. As they are difficult to diagnose using traditional taxonomic techniques, we examined the potential for geometric morphometric analysis of wing size and shape to discriminate between them. Fifteen wing landmarks generated size and shape data for 245 specimens for subsequent comparisons among three geographically distinct samples of each species. Intraspecific wing size was significantly different within samples of B. carambolae and B. dorsalis s.s. but not within samples of B. papayae or B. philippinensis. Although B. papayae had the smallest wings (average centroid size=6.002 mm±0.061 SE) and B. dorsalis s.s. the largest (6.349 mm±0.066 SE), interspecific wing size comparisons were generally non-informative and incapable of discriminating species. Contrary to the wing size data, canonical variate analysis based on wing shape data discriminated all species with a relatively high degree of accuracy; individuals were correctly reassigned to their respective species on average 93.27% of the time. A single sample group of B. carambolae from locality 'TN Malaysia' was the only sample to be considerably different from its conspecific groups with regards to both wing size and wing shape. This sample was subsequently deemed to have been originally misidentified and likely represents an undescribed species. We demonstrate that geometric morphometric techniques analysing wing shape represent a promising approach for discriminating between morphologically cryptic taxa of the B. dorsalis species complex. PMID:21867577

  5. Mating compatibility between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, W; Ahmad, S; Dammalage, T; Tomas, U Sto; Wornoayporn, V; Ul Haq, I; Cáceres, C; Vreysen, M J B; Schutze, M K

    2014-04-01

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24772542

  6. Recent trends on sterile insect technique and area-wide integrated pest management. Economic feasibility, control projects, farmer organization and Bactrocera dorsalis complex control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have invited professional papers from over the world, including Okinawa, for compilation of recent trends on Sterile Insect Techniques and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management to further pursue environment friendly pest insects control measures in agricultural production in the Asia-Pacific region. Pest insects such as the tephritid fruit flies have long been and are still today causing serious damage to agricultural products in the Asia-Pacific region and farmers in the region apply such insecticides that are no longer allowed or being subjected to strict usage control in Japan. This, in return, may endanger the health of the very farmers, food safety and the ecosystem itself. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to clarify keys for technology transfer of so called SIT/AWIPM to potential recipients engaged in agricultural production in the region. This report focused on several topics, which make up important parts for the effective Sterile Insect Technique and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management: economic feasibility; pest insects control projects; farmers' education; research progress in Bactrocera dorsalis complex issues specific to the Asia-Pacific region. The 12 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  7. Development of a genetic sexing strain in Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by introgression of sex sorting components from B. dorsalis, Salaya1 strain

    OpenAIRE

    Isasawin,Siriwan; Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2014-01-01

    Background The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock is a high profile key pest that is widely distributed in the southwestern ASEAN region. In addition, it has trans-continentally invaded Suriname, where it has been expanding east and southward since 1975. This fruit fly belongs to Bactrocera dorsalis species complex. The development and application of a genetic sexing strain (Salaya1) of B. dorsalis sensu stricto (s.s.) (Hendel) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) has...

  8. Synonymization of key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): taxonomic changes based on a review of 20 years of integrative morphological, molecular, cytogenetic, behavioural and chemoecological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White are four horticultural pest tephritid fruit fly species that are highly similar, morphologically and genetically, to the destructive pest, the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). This similarity has rendered the discovery of reliable diagnostic characters problematic, which, in view of the economic importance of these taxa and the international trade implications, has resulted in ongoing difficulties for many areas of plant protection and food security. Consequently, a major international collaborative and integrated multidisciplinary research effort was initiated in 2009 to build upon existing literature with the specific aim of resolving biological species limits among B. papayae, B. philippinensis, B. carambolae, B. invadens and B. dorsalis to overcome constraints to pest management and international trade. Bactrocera philippinensis has recently been synonymized with B. papayae as a result of this initiative and this review corroborates that finding; however, the other names remain in use. While consistent characters have been found to reliably distinguish B. carambolae from B. dorsalis, B. invadens and B. papayae, no such characters have been found to differentiate the latter three putative species. We conclude that B. carambolae is a valid species and that the remaining taxa, B. dorsalis, B. invadens and B. papayae, represent the same species. Thus, we consider B. dorsalis (Hendel) as the senior synonym of B. papayae Drew and Hancock syn.n. and B. invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White syn.n. A redescription of B. dorsalis is provided. Given the agricultural importance of B. dorsalis, this taxonomic decision will have significant global plant biosecurity implications, affecting pest management, quarantine, international trade, postharvest treatment and basic research

  9. Effects of Methyl Eugenol Feeding on Mating Compatibility of Asian Population of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) with African Population and with B. carambolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan Ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd

    2016-02-01

    Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis.

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    Guang-Mao Shen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, is one of the most economically important pests in the world, causing serious damage to fruit production. However, lack of genetic information on this organism is an obstacle to understanding the mechanisms behind its development and its ability to resist insecticides. Analysis of the B. dorsalis transcriptome and its expression profile data is essential to extending the genetic information resources on this species, providing a shortcut that will support studies on B. dorsalis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed de novo assembly of a transcriptome using short read sequencing technology (Illumina. The results generated 484,628 contigs, 70,640 scaffolds, and 49,804 unigenes. Of those unigenes, 27,455 (55.13% matched known proteins in the NCBI database, as determined by BLAST search. Clusters of orthologous groups (COG, gene orthology (GO, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG annotations were performed to better understand the functions of these unigenes. Genes related to insecticide resistance were analyzed in additional detail. Digital gene expression (DGE libraries showed differences in gene expression profiles at different developmental stages (eggs, third-instar larvae, pupae, and adults. To confirm the DGE results, the expression profiles of six randomly selected genes were analyzed. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This transcriptome greatly improves our genetic understanding of B. dorsalis and makes a huge number of gene sequences available for further study, including both genes of known importance and genes of unknown function. The DGE data provide comprehensive insight into gene expression profiles at different developmental stages. This facilitates the study of the role of each gene in the developmental process and in insecticide resistance.

  11. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    OpenAIRE

    McQuate, Grant T.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some c...

  12. Inlfuence of Host Shift on Genetic Differentiation of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Xuan-wu; LIU Ying-hong; LUO Lin-ming; FENG Chuan-hong; WANG Sheng; MA Li

    2014-01-01

    Invasion of the oriental fruit lfy, Bactrocera dorsalis, into new niches containing different food sources (a process referred to as host shift), may cause population genetic differentiation and sympatric speciation. To attempt to infer that experimentally, test populations were established by transferring a subset of the original populations, which had been grown on banana for many generations, onto navel orange, and then subculturing the navel orange population and banana population for at least 20 generations. Four pairs of SSR primers with high polymorphism on laboratory strains were used to detect population genetic differentiation. All six tested populations (the 5th, 10th and 15th generations of B. dorsalis fed on banana and navel orange, respectively) were found to have low genetic diversity. Furthermore, the genetic diversity of the navel orange populations was found to decline after being crossed for several generations. Populations initially were deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, however, equilibrium was achieved with increasing numbers of generations in both of the host populations. Limited gene lfows were found among the six populations. The Nei’s standard genetic distances between the two host populations of the same generation were initially low, but increased with generation number. Genetic distances between banana and navel orange populations of the same generation were lower than genetic distances between different generations grown on the same host plant. Analysis of molecular distance (AMOVA) results based on generation groups and host groups demonstrated that genetic variation among generations was greater than that between the two host populations. The results indicated that population genetic differentiation occurred after the host shift, albeit at low level. Biogeography and taxonomy of the B. dorsalis complex revealed that speciation of B. dorsalis might be tightly associated with host shift or host specialization of B. dorsalis

  13. Inter-regional mating compatibility among Bactrocera dorsalis populations in Thailand (Diptera,Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Srikachar, Sunyanee; Kumjing, Phatchara; Weera Kimjong; Sukamnouyporn, Weerawan; Polchaimat, Nongon

    2015-01-01

    Mating compatibility among recently colonized (wildish) populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) from different geographic origins in Thailand was assessed through inter-regional mating tests. Outdoor octagonal nylon screen field cages containing single potted mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) were used. Sexual compatibility was determined using the index of sexual isolation (ISI), the male relative performance index (MRPI), and the female relative performance index (FRPI). The ISI values indicated that the northern population of Bactrocera dorsalis from Chiang Mai province was sexually compatible with the southern population of Bactrocera dorsalis (previously Bactrocera papayae) from Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The MRPI values showed that the northern males had a slightly higher tendency to mate than southern males, while the FRPI data reflected that females of both origins participated equally in matings. In all combinations there were no differences between homotypic and heterotypic couples in mating latency. Southern males tended to mate first with southern females, followed by northern males mating with northern females, while the latest matings involved heterotypic couples, in particular northern males mating with southern females. Overall, more couples were collected from higher parts of the field cage and the upper tree canopy, while there were no differences between the origins of flies in terms of elevation of couples within the cage. Laboratory assessments of fecundity showed no differences in the average number of eggs resulting from inter-regional crosses. Development of immature stages was also equal in the two hybrid crosses, with no differences found in the number of pupae produced, percentage pupal recovery, and percent adult emergence. The practical implication of this study is that colony of Bactrocera dorsalis derived from any northern or southern region of Thailand can potentially be used in sterile insect technique programs against this

  14. Commensal Bacteria Aid Mate-selection in the Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

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    Damodaram, Kamala Jayanthi Pagadala; Ayyasamy, Arthikirubha; Kempraj, Vivek

    2016-10-01

    Commensal bacteria influence many aspects of an organism's behaviour. However, studies on the influence of commensal bacteria in insect mate-selection are scarce. Here, we present empirical evidence that commensal bacteria mediate mate-selection in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Male flies were attracted to female flies, but this attraction was abolished when female flies were fed with antibiotics, suggesting the role of the fly's microbiota in mediating mate-selection. We show that male flies were attracted to and ejaculated more sperm into females harbouring the microbiota. Using culturing and 16S rDNA sequencing, we isolated and identified different commensal bacteria, with Klebsiella oxytoca being the most abundant bacterial species. This preliminary study will enhance our understanding of the influence of commensal bacteria on mate-selection behaviour of B. dorsalis and may find use in devising control operations against this devastating pest. PMID:27423980

  15. Functional characterization of an α-esterase gene involving malathion detoxification in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luo-Luo; Lu, Xue-Ping; Meng, Li-Wei; Huang, Yong; Wei, Dong; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Extensive use of insecticides in many orchards has prompted resistance development in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). In this study, a laboratory selected strain of B. dorsalis (MR) with a 21-fold higher resistance to malathion was used to examine the resistance mechanisms to this organophosphate insecticide. Carboxylesterase (CarE) was found to be involved in malathion resistance in B. dorsalis from the synergism bioassay by CarE-specific inhibitor triphenylphosphate (TPP). Molecular studies further identified a previously uncharacterized α-esterase gene, BdCarE2, that may function in the development of malathion resistance in B. dorsalis via gene upregulation. This gene is predominantly expressed in the Malpighian tubules, a key insect tissue for detoxification. The transcript levels of BdCarE2 were also compared between the MR and a malathion-susceptible (MS) strain of B. dorsalis, and it was significantly more abundant in the MR strain. No sequence mutation or gene copy changes were detected between the two strains. Functional studies using RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of BdCarE2 significantly increased the malathion susceptibility in the adult files. Furthermore, heterologous expression of BdCarE2 combined with cytotoxicity assay in Sf9 cells demonstrated that BdCarE2 could probably detoxify malathion. Taken together, the current study bring new molecular evidence supporting the involvement of CarE-mediated metabolism in resistance development against malathion in B. dorsalis and also provide bases on functional analysis of insect α-esterase associated with insecticide resistance. PMID:27155483

  16. Inducing and isolation of antibacterial peptides from oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG-LI DANG; JIN-HUAN TIAN; HUI-YU YI; WEN-XIAN WANG; MIN ZHENG; YI-FENG LI; YANG CAO; SHUO-YANG WEN

    2006-01-01

    One antibacterial activity fraction from an immunized dipteran insect, Bactrocera dorsalis, was isolated and purified by prepurification, ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The final purified fraction was checked on the Smart system HPLC and was judged as a pure fraction. The results of physical and biological analysis revealed that this fraction is heat stable and showed strong activities against Gram-positive bacterial growth. It possesses antibicrobial peptide properties and is worth further investigation.

  17. Identification and Characterization of Sex-Biased MicroRNAs in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

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    Peng, Wei; Tariq, Kaleem; Xie, Junfei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate various biological processes including sexual dimorphism. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. However, no miRNAs have been identified from the separate sex and gonads to elucidate sex gonad differentiation in B. dorsalis. In this study, we constructed four small RNA libraries from whole body of females, males (except ovaries and testes) and ovaries, testes of B. dorsalis for deep sequencing. The data analysis revealed 183 known and 120 novel miRNAs from these libraries. 18 female-biased and 16 male-biased miRNAs that may be involved in sexual differentiation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in the four libraries. Using a bioinformatic approach, we predicted doublesex (dsx) as a target gene of the female-biased miR-989-3p which is considered as the key switch gene in the sex determination of tephritid insects. This study reveals the first miRNA profile related to the sex differentiation and gives a first insight into sex differences in miRNA expression of B. dorsalis which could facilitate studies of the reproductive organ specific roles of miRNAs. PMID:27441641

  18. Identification and Characterization of Sex-Biased MicroRNAs in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Tariq, Kaleem; Xie, Junfei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate various biological processes including sexual dimorphism. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. However, no miRNAs have been identified from the separate sex and gonads to elucidate sex gonad differentiation in B. dorsalis. In this study, we constructed four small RNA libraries from whole body of females, males (except ovaries and testes) and ovaries, testes of B. dorsalis for deep sequencing. The data analysis revealed 183 known and 120 novel miRNAs from these libraries. 18 female-biased and 16 male-biased miRNAs that may be involved in sexual differentiation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in the four libraries. Using a bioinformatic approach, we predicted doublesex (dsx) as a target gene of the female-biased miR-989-3p which is considered as the key switch gene in the sex determination of tephritid insects. This study reveals the first miRNA profile related to the sex differentiation and gives a first insight into sex differences in miRNA expression of B. dorsalis which could facilitate studies of the reproductive organ specific roles of miRNAs. PMID:27441641

  19. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  20. Assessment of attractiveness of cassava as a roosting plant for melon fly, bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), populations, and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations. Establishment of preferred roostin...

  1. Larval x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in pupae of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Third instar larvae were exposed to X-ray treatment of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. Irradiated pupae were collected daily. Biological performance parameters of pupae and adults of larvae treated with X-ray irradiation were evaluated. Standard proteomics procedures such as densitometr...

  2. Bactrocera dorsalis male sterilization by targeted RNA interference of spermatogenesis: empowering sterile insect technique programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yong-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Chen, Zhen-Zhong; Clarke, Anthony R.; Niu, Chang-Ying

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a genetic technique which has novel application for sustainable pest control. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) uses releases of mass-produced, sterile male insects to out-compete wild males for mates to reduce pest populations. RNAi sterilization of SIT males would have several advantages over radiation sterilization, but to achieve this appropriate target genes must first be identified and then targeted with interference technology. With this goal, eight spermatogenesis related candidate genes were cloned and tested for potential activity in Bactrocera dorsalis. The knockdown of candidate genes by oral delivery of dsRNAs did not influence the mating of male flies, but significantly affected the daily average number of eggs laid by females, and reduced egg hatching rate by 16–60%. RNAi negatively affected spermatozoa quantitatively and qualitatively. Following the mating of lola-/topi-/rac-/rho-/upd-/magu-silenced males, we recorded a significant decrease in number and length of spermatozoa in female spermatheca compared to gfp-silenced control group. In a greenhouse trial, the number of damaged oranges and B. dorsalis larvae were significantly reduced in a dsrho-treated group compared with the dsgfp group. This study provides strong evidence for the use RNAi in pest management, especially for the improvement of SIT against B. dorsalis and other species. PMID:27767174

  3. Preliminary test of trap and kill to the adult of Bactrocera(Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel)%桔小实蝇成虫诱杀试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈景辉; 黄茂进; 林岳生; 方份; 林文才

    2003-01-01

    @@ 目前,国内外在监测和防治桔小实蝇Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel)方面,主要采用两类引诱剂,即化学合成引诱剂和食物诱饵.化学合成引诱剂如:性引诱剂甲基丁香酚(methyl eugenol);食物诱饵如:水解蛋白(又称蛋白诱饵),二者可混合有机磷杀虫剂马拉硫磷置于专用诱捕器(Steine和Mcphail)进行田间诱杀.

  4. Cytogenetic and symbiont analysis of five members of the B. dorsalis complex (Diptera, Tephritidae): no evidence of chromosomal or symbiont-based speciation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A; Drosopoulou, Elena; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Asimakis, Elias D; Cáceres, Carlos; Tsiamis, George; Bourtzis, Kostas; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2015-01-01

    The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, currently comprising about 90 entities has received much attention. During the last decades, considerable effort has been devoted to delimiting the species of the complex. This information is of great importance for agriculture and world trade, since the complex harbours several pest species of major economic importance and other species that could evolve into global threats. Speciation in Diptera is usually accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements, particularly inversions that are assumed to reduce/eliminate gene flow. Other candidates currently receiving much attention regarding their possible involvement in speciation are reproductive symbionts, such as Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, Arsenophonus, Rickettsia and Cardinium. Such symbionts tend to spread quickly through natural populations and can cause a variety of phenotypes that promote pre-mating and/or post-mating isolation and, in addition, can affect the biology, physiology, ecology and evolution of their insect hosts in various ways. Considering all these aspects, we present: (a) a summary of the recently gained knowledge on the cytogenetics of five members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, namely Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera carambolae, supplemented by additional data from a Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. colony from China, as well as by a cytogenetic comparison between the dorsalis complex and the genetically close species, Bactrocera tryoni, and, (b) a reproductive symbiont screening of 18 different colonized populations of these five taxa. Our analysis did not reveal any chromosomal rearrangements that could differentiate among them. Moreover, screening for reproductive symbionts was negative for all colonies derived from different geographic origins and/or hosts. There are many different factors that can lead to speciation, and our data do not support chromosomal and/or symbiotic

  5. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  6. Pre and post harvest IPM for the mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of mango in India. So, investigations were carried out to standardize an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for fruit fly-free and residue-free mango fruits. The study required orchard and laboratory studies, which were conducted on the commercial variety Banganapalli, at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore, India, during 2004 and 2005. Results showed that a pre harvest IPM combination of male annihilation technique (MAT) (using methyl eugenol as a lure) + sanitation brought down B. dorsalis infestation to 5.00% from an infestation ranging from 17 to 66% in control in both years. An additional cover spray of Decamethrin 2.8EC 0.5ml/l (which is half the recommended dose) + Azadirachtin (0.03 %) 2ml/l (neem based botanical) gave 100% control in both the years. Post harvest treatments with hot water at 48 degree C for 60 and 75 min resulted in 100% control at both the time regimes in 2004 and 2005. The untreated fruits, which were also exposed to gravid females (but not treated in hot water) showed 30% and 5.5% infestations, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. (author)

  7. Pre and post harvest IPM for the mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verghese, Abraham; Sreedevi, K.; Nagaraju, D.K., E-mail: avergis@iihr.ernet.i [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2006-07-01

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of mango in India. So, investigations were carried out to standardize an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for fruit fly-free and residue-free mango fruits. The study required orchard and laboratory studies, which were conducted on the commercial variety Banganapalli, at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore, India, during 2004 and 2005. Results showed that a pre harvest IPM combination of male annihilation technique (MAT) (using methyl eugenol as a lure) + sanitation brought down B. dorsalis infestation to 5.00% from an infestation ranging from 17 to 66% in control in both years. An additional cover spray of Decamethrin 2.8EC 0.5ml/l (which is half the recommended dose) + Azadirachtin (0.03 %) 2ml/l (neem based botanical) gave 100% control in both the years. Post harvest treatments with hot water at 48 degree C for 60 and 75 min resulted in 100% control at both the time regimes in 2004 and 2005. The untreated fruits, which were also exposed to gravid females (but not treated in hot water) showed 30% and 5.5% infestations, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. (author)

  8. Identification of a carboxylesterase associated with resistance to naled in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Po-Kai; Huang, Li-Hsin; Geib, Scott M; Hsu, Ju-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Compared to other organophosphate-resistant and -susceptible (S) lines of Bactrocera dorsalis, the carboxylesterase (CBE) BdE5 in the naled-resistant (nal-r) line has been found to possess remarkable quantitative elevation. Our study attempts to identify the role of BdE5 in naled resistance, and we discovered several points of interest. Firstly, activity staining on native PAGE revealed that the percentage of flies with intensive BdE5 bands in the nal-r line was substantially higher than in the S line, indicating that the BdE5 band correlates with naled susceptibility. Secondly, in vitro and in vivo inhibition assays showed that BdE5 was inhibited by naled in both lines; under diagnostic doses of naled, the overall extent of inhibition on CBEs was much greater in the S line than in the nal-r line. Thirdly, NanoLC-nanoESi-MS/MS analysis used the NCBI database to identify and annotate BdE5 as an esterase FE4-like (XP_011200445.1) in B. dorsalis. Fourthly, rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to obtain the 2012-bp full-length BdE5 cDNA, which contained an open reading frame of 1770bp and encoded a putative protein of 590 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BdE5 is a secreted β-esterase (E clade) closely related to CG6414 (NP_570089), a CBE in Drosophila melanogaster. Finally, our relative quantification real-time PCR data showed a significant elevation in transcript levels of the BdE5 gene in nal-r line. Our results confirmed that BdE5 is correlated with naled resistance and provides further understanding about the identification and molecular characteristics of BdE5 in B. dorsalis. PMID:27265823

  9. Captures of Wild Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Traps with Improved Multilure TMR Dispensers Weathered in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Morse, Joseph G; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Haviland, David R; Kabashima, John N; Faber, Ben A; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During 2012–2013, solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five California citrus-growing counties (Kern, Ventura, Orange, Tulare, and Riverside). In addition, TMR wafers without DDVP and with a Hercon Vaportape II insecticidal strip were compared with TMR dispensers with DDVP at Exeter and Riverside. Weathered treatments were shipped every week (overnight delivery) to Hawaii and frozen for a later bioassay in a 1,335-ha coffee plantation near Numila, Kauai Island, HI, where Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, were all present. We compared trap captures of the three species, C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae, for the five different weathering locations. Captures of C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae with Mallet TMR dispensers (with DDVP) were not significantly different for the five locations. Captures with the Mallet TMR dispenser without DDVP and Vaportape were similar to those for Mallet TMR with DDVP, although there were some slight location differences. In conclusion, based on these results, the Mallet TMR dispenser could potentially be used in California habitats where large numbers of detection traps are currently deployed. Use of Vaportape with dispensers would not require them to be registered with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dispensers for use as Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) devices will be tested further in Hawaii. PMID:26582906

  10. Endocytic pathway mediates refractoriness of insect Bactrocera dorsalis to RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxue; Dong, Xiaolong; Zou, Cong; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful and convenient tool for sequence-specific gene silencing, and it is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). RNAi can be easily achieved in many eukaryotes by either injecting or feeding dsRNAs. This mechanism has demonstrated its potential in fundamental research on genetics, medicine and agriculture. However, the possibility that insects might develop refractoriness to RNAi remains unexplored. In this study, we report that the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, became refractory to RNAi using orally administered dsRNA targeting endogenous genes. Furthermore, refractoriness to RNAi is not gene-specific, and its duration depends on the dsRNA concentration. RNAi blockage requires the endocytic pathway. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that in RNAi refractory flies, dsRNA uptake is blocked. Genes involved in the entry of dsRNAs into cells, including chc, cog3, light and others, are down-regulated in RNAi refractory flies. Increasing the endocytic capacity by improving F-actin polymerization disrupts RNAi refractoriness after both primary and secondary dsRNA exposures. Our results demonstrate that an insect can become refractory to RNAi by preventing the entry of dsRNA into its cells. PMID:25731667

  11. Resistance and synergistic effects of insecticides in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Feng, Hai-Tung; Wu, Wen-Jer

    2004-10-01

    Oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), were treated with 10 insecticides, including six organophosphates (naled, trichlorfon, fenitrothion, fenthion, formothion, and malathion), one carbamate (methomyl), and three pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and fenvalerate), by a topical application assay under laboratory conditions. Subparental lines of each generation treated with the same insecticide were selected for 30 generations and were designated as x-r lines (x, insecticide; r, resistant). The parent colony was maintained as the susceptible colony. The line treated with naled exhibited the lowest increase in resistance (4.7-fold), whereas the line treated with formothion exhibited the highest increase in resistance (up to 594-fold) compared with the susceptible colony. Synergism bioassays also were carried out. Based on this, S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate displayed a synergistic effect for naled, trichlorfon, and malathion resistance, whereas piperonyl butoxide displayed a synergistic effect for pyrethroid resistance. All 10 resistant lines also exhibited some cross-resistance to other insecticides, not only to the same chemical class of insecticides but also to other classes. However, none of the organophosphate-resistant or the methomyl-resistant lines exhibited cross-resistance to two of the pyrethroids (cypermethrin and fenvalerate). Overall, the laboratory resistance and cross-resistance data developed here should provide useful tools and information for designing an insecticide management strategy for controlling this fruit fly in the field. PMID:15568360

  12. Pre-Release Consumption of Methyl Eugenol Increases the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Large Field Enclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Todd E. Shelly; Edu, James; McInnis, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique may be implemented to control populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when environmental concerns preclude widespread use of chemical attractants or toxicants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the mating competitiveness of sterile B. dorsalis males could be increased via pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol. Males of the oriental fruit fly are strongly attracted to this plant-borne compound,...

  13. Identification, characterization and target gene analysis of testicular microRNAs in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, K; Peng, W; Saccone, G; Zhang, H

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate various diverse biological processes including insect spermatogenesis. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is one of the most destructive horticultural pests in East Asia and the Pacific region. Although developmental miRNA profiles of B. dorsalis have enriched our knowledge, specific testicular miRNAs in this dipteran species are unexplored. In this study, we identified miRNAs from B. dorsalis testes by deep sequencing, which provided an overview of miRNA expression during spermatogenesis. Small RNA libraries were constructed from the testes of fully mature (FM), immature (IM) and middle-aged (MA) adult flies of B. dorsalis. Small RNA sequencing and data analysis revealed 172 known and 78 novel miRNAs amongst these libraries. Pairwise comparisons of libraries led to the identification of 24, 15 and 14 differentially expressed miRNAs in FM vs. IM, FM vs. MA and IM vs. MA insects, respectively. Using a bioinformatic approach, we predicted 124 target genes against the 13 most differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, the expression patterns of six randomly selected miRNAs (from the 13 most differentially expressed miRNAs) and their putative target genes (from the 124 predicted target genes) were analysed in the testis of B. dorsalis by quantitative real-time PCR, which showed that out of six, four tested miRNAs-mRNAs had an inverse expression pattern and are probably co-regulated. This study is the first comparative profile of the miRNA transcriptome in three developmental stages of the testis, and provides a useful resource for further studies on the role of miRNAs in spermatogenesis in B. dorsalis. PMID:26486729

  14. Functional characterization of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Bactrocera dorsalis: Possible involvement in susceptibility to malathion

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Huang; Xue-Ping Lu; Luo-Luo Wang; Dong Wei; Zi-Jiao Feng; Qi Zhang; Lin-Fan Xiao; Wei Dou; Jin-Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is essential for cytochrome P450 catalysis, which is important in the detoxification and activation of xenobiotics. In this study, two transcripts of Bactrocera dorsalis CPR (BdCPR) were cloned, and the deduced amino-acid sequence had an N-terminus membrane anchor for BdCPR-X1 and three conserved binding domains (FMN, FAD, and NADP), as well as an FAD binding motif and catalytic residues for both BdCPR-X1 and BdCPR-X2. BdCPR-X1 was detected to have the hi...

  15. Area-wide integrated control of oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) and Guava Fruit Fly (Bactrocera correcta) in Thailand using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Two tephritid species, Bactrocera dorsalis and B. correcta are the major insect pests of fruit production in Thailand, causing yield loss and quality degradation. This leads to quarantine restrictions from importing countries. After one decade of effective cooperation between IAEA and Thailand, DOAE an area-wide integrated fruit fly management programme has been established with a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) component. This is underway in two distinctive pilot areas in Ratchaburi (western) and Pichit (northern) provinces, approximately 70 km2. The ongoing programme is aimed at controlling, Bactrocera dorsalis and B. correcta, the key pests of mango. Both species are mass-reared and sterilised at the facility located in the Pathumthani province following standard operational procedures. Currently sterilised pupae, 20 million B. dorsalis and 10 million B. correcta, are transported to the pilot areas, held until adult emergence and ground released. Quality control of the release is monitored through use of a trapping network to monitor the distribution and abundance of wild and sterile flies whilst success of the control is monitored using periodic fruit sampling to assess the percentage of fruit infested. The integrated approach has been effective in controlling fruit flies by reducing damage from over 80% to an average of less than 5% in Ratchaburi province in the past three years. Meanwhile in Pichit province, which has been under a control programme for 2 years, the percentage of infestation has been reduced from 43% to 16%. We also address the use of public relations, grower cooperation and integration of multidisciplinary research for the field operations. (author)

  16. Weathering and Chemical Degradation of Methyl Eugenol and Raspberry Ketone Solid Dispensers for Detection, Monitoring, and Male Annihilation of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Nkomo, Eddie; Cook, Peter J; Mackey, Bruce; Stark, John D

    2015-08-01

    Solid male lure dispensers containing methyl eugenol (ME) and raspberry ketone (RK), or mixtures of the lures (ME + RK), and dimethyl dichloro-vinyl phosphate (DDVP) were evaluated in area-wide pest management bucket or Jackson traps in commercial papaya (Carica papaya L.) orchards where both oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), are pests. Captures of B. dorsalis with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were significantly higher on the basis of ME concentration (Mallet ME [56%] > Mallet MR [31.2%] > Mallet MC [23.1%]). Captures of B. cucurbitae with fresh wafers in Jackson and bucket traps were not different regardless of concentration of RK (Mallet BR [20.1%] = Mallet MR [18.3%] = Mallet MC [15.9%]). Captures of B. dorsalis with fresh wafers, compared with weathered wafers, were significantly different after week 12; captures of B. cucurbitae were not significantly different after 16 wk. Chemical analyses revealed presence of RK in dispensers in constant amounts throughout the 16-wk trial. Degradation of both ME and DDVP over time was predicted with a high level of confidence by nonlinear asymptotic exponential decay curves. Results provide supportive data to deploy solid ME and RK wafers (with DDVP) in fruit fly traps for detection programs, as is the current practice with solid TML dispensers placed in Jackson traps. Wafers with ME and RK might be used in place of two separate traps for detection of both ME and RK responding fruit flies and could potentially reduce cost of materials and labor by 50%.

  17. Genetic structure and inferences on potential source areas for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) based on mitochondrial and microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Kerdelhué, Carole; Ye, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) is mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia and in the Pacific region. Despite its economic importance, very few studies have addressed the question of the wide genetic structure and potential source area of this species. This pilot study attempts to infer the native region of this pest and its colonization pathways in Asia. Combining mitochondrial and microsatellite markers, we evaluated the level of genetic diversity, genetic structure, and the gene flow among fly populations collected across Southeast Asia and China. A complex and significant genetic structure corresponding to the geographic pattern was found with both types of molecular markers. However, the genetic structure found was rather weak in both cases, and no pattern of isolation by distance was identified. Multiple long-distance dispersal events and miscellaneous host selection by this species may explain the results. These complex patterns may have been influenced by human-mediated transportation of the pest from one area to another and the complex topography of the study region. For both mitochondrial and microsatellite data, no signs of bottleneck or founder events could be identified. Nonetheless, maximal genetic diversity was observed in Myanmar, Vietnam and Guangdong (China) and asymmetric migration patterns were found. These results provide indirect evidence that the tropical regions of Southeast Asia and southern coast of China may be considered as the native range of the species and the population expansion is northward. Yunnan (China) is a contact zone that has been colonized from different sources. Regions along the southern coast of Vietnam and China probably served to colonize mainly the southern region of China. Southern coastal regions of China may also have colonized central parts of China and of central Yunnan. PMID:22615898

  18. Genetic structure and inferences on potential source areas for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel based on mitochondrial and microsatellite markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shi

    Full Text Available Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae is mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical Asia and in the Pacific region. Despite its economic importance, very few studies have addressed the question of the wide genetic structure and potential source area of this species. This pilot study attempts to infer the native region of this pest and its colonization pathways in Asia. Combining mitochondrial and microsatellite markers, we evaluated the level of genetic diversity, genetic structure, and the gene flow among fly populations collected across Southeast Asia and China. A complex and significant genetic structure corresponding to the geographic pattern was found with both types of molecular markers. However, the genetic structure found was rather weak in both cases, and no pattern of isolation by distance was identified. Multiple long-distance dispersal events and miscellaneous host selection by this species may explain the results. These complex patterns may have been influenced by human-mediated transportation of the pest from one area to another and the complex topography of the study region. For both mitochondrial and microsatellite data, no signs of bottleneck or founder events could be identified. Nonetheless, maximal genetic diversity was observed in Myanmar, Vietnam and Guangdong (China and asymmetric migration patterns were found. These results provide indirect evidence that the tropical regions of Southeast Asia and southern coast of China may be considered as the native range of the species and the population expansion is northward. Yunnan (China is a contact zone that has been colonized from different sources. Regions along the southern coast of Vietnam and China probably served to colonize mainly the southern region of China. Southern coastal regions of China may also have colonized central parts of China and of central Yunnan.

  19. Development of liquid larval diet with modified rearing system for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae) for the application of sterile insect technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    A liquid larval diet and its rearing system have been developed for mass rearing of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Hawaii. Rearing facility in Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, modified protein source from brewer's yeast to a combinat...

  20. Di- and Tri-flourinated analogs of methyl eugenol: attractiveness to and metabolism in the oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (hendel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), males are highly 1 attracted to the natural phenylpropanoid methyl eugenol (ME). They compulsively feed on ME and metabolize it to ring and side-chain hydroxylated compounds that have both pheromonal and allomonal properties. Previously, we demonstra...

  1. Insecticidal Activity of Basil Oil, trans-Anethole, Estragole, and Linalool to Adults of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pest tephritid fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and B. cucurbitae (Cocquillett) are among the species of economic significance. Their management has primarily relied on the use of food baits, male attractants and their combinations with insecticides. Basil o...

  2. RNA interference of four genes in adult Bactrocera dorsalis by feeding their dsRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi is a powerful method to inhibit gene expression in a sequence specific manner. Recently silencing the target gene through feeding has been successfully carried out in many insect species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Escherichia coli strain HT115 was genetically engineered to express dsRNA targeting genes that encode ribosomal protein Rpl19, V type ATPase D subunit, the fatty acid elongase Noa and a small GTPase Rab11. qRT-PCR showed that mRNA level of four target genes was reduced compared to ds-egfp control by feeding either engineered bacteria or dsRNAs. The maximum down-regulation of each gene varied from 35% to 100%. Tissue specific examination indicated that RNAi could be observed not only in midgut but also in other tissues like the ovary, nervous system and fat body. Silencing of rab11 through ingestion of dsRNA killed 20% of adult flies. Egg production was affected through feeding ds-noa and ds-rab11 compared to ds-egfp group. Adult flies were continuously fed with dsRNA and bacteria expressing dsRNA for 14 days and up-regulations of target genes were observed during this process. The transcripts of noa showed up-regulation compared to ds-egfp control group in four tissues on day 7 after continuous feeding either dsRNA or engineered bacteria. The maximum over-expression is 21 times compared to ds-egfp control group. Up-regulation of rab11 mRNA level could be observed in testes on day 7 after continuous bacteria treatment and in midgut on day 2 after ds-rab11 treatment. This phenomenon could also be observed in rpl19 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that it is feasible to silence genes by feeding dsRNA and bacteria expressing dsRNA in Bactrocera dorsalis. Additionally the over-expression of the target gene after continuously feeding dsRNA or bacteria was observed.

  3. Effects of laboratory colonization on Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera, Tephritidae) mating behaviour: 'what a difference a year makes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutze, Mark K; Dammalage, Thilak; Jessup, Andrew; Vreysen, Marc J B; Wornoayporn, Viwat; Clarke, Anthony R

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory-reared insects are widely known to have significantly reduced genetic diversity in comparison to wild populations; however, subtle behavioural changes between laboratory-adapted and wild or 'wildish' (i.e., within one or very few generations of field collected material) populations are less well understood. Quantifying alterations in behaviour, particularly sexual, in laboratory-adapted insects is important for mass-reared insects for use in pest management strategies, especially those that have a sterile insect technique component. We report subtle changes in sexual behaviour between 'wildish' Bactrocera dorsalis flies (F1 and F2) from central and southern Thailand and the same colonies 12 months later when at six generations from wild. Mating compatibility tests were undertaken under standardised semi-natural conditions, with number of homo/heterotypic couples and mating location in field cages analysed via compatibility indices. Central and southern populations of Bactrocera dorsalis displayed positive assortative mating in the 2010 trials but mated randomly in the 2011 trials. 'Wildish' southern Thailand males mated significantly earlier than central Thailand males in 2010; this difference was considerably reduced in 2011, yet homotypic couples from southern Thailand still formed significantly earlier than all other couple combinations. There was no significant difference in couple location in 2010; however, couple location significantly differed among pair types in 2011 with those involving southern Thailand females occurring significantly more often on the tree relative to those with central Thailand females. Relative participation also changed with time, with more southern Thailand females forming couples relative to central Thailand females in 2010; this difference was considerably decreased by 2011. These results reveal how subtle changes in sexual behaviour, as driven by laboratory rearing conditions, may significantly influence mating

  4. Field Estimates of Attraction of Ceratitis capitata to Trimedlure and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Methyl Eugenol in Varying Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoukis, Nicholas C; Siderhurst, Matthew; Jang, Eric B

    2015-06-01

    Measuring and modeling the attractiveness of semiochemical-baited traps is of significant importance to detection, delimitation, and control of invasive pests. Here, we describe the results of field mark-release-recapture experiments with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to estimate the relationship between distance from a trap baited with trimedlure and methyl eugenol, respectively, and probability of capture for a receptive male insect. Experiments were conducted using a grid of traps with a central release point at two sites on Hawaii Island, a Macadamia orchard on the East side of the island and a lava field on the West side. We found that for B. dorsalis and methyl eugenol there is a 65% probability of capture at ∼36 m from a single trap, regardless of habitat. For C. capitata, we found a 65% probability of capture at a distance of ∼14 m from a single trap in the orchard and 7 m in the lava field. We also present results on the spatial and temporal pattern of recaptures. The attraction data are analyzed via a hyperbolic secant-based capture probability model.

  5. The role of the transformer gene in sex determination and reproduction in the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Zheng, Wenping; Handler, Alfred M; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-12-01

    Transformer (tra) is a switch gene in the somatic sex-determination hierarchy that regulates sexual dimorphism based on RNA splicing in many insects. In tephritids, a Y-linked male determining gene (M) controls sex in the sex-determination pathway. Here, homologues of Drosophila tra and transformer-2 (tra-2) genes were isolated and characterized in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. Two male-specific and one female-specific isoforms of B. dorsalis transformer (Bdtra) were identified. The presence of multiple TRA/TRA-2 binding sites in Bdtra suggests that the TRA/TRA-2 proteins are splicing regulators promoting and maintaining, epigenetically, female sex determination by a tra positive feedback loop in XX individuals during development. The expression patterns of female-specific Bdtra transcripts during early embryogenesis shows that a peak appears at 15 h after egg laying. Using dsRNA to knock-down Bdtra expression in the embryo and adult stages, we showed that sexual formation is determined early in the embryo stage and that parental RNAi does not lead to the production of all male progeny as in Tribolium castaneum. RNAi results from adult abdominal dsRNA injections show that Bdtra has a positive influence on female yolk protein gene (Bdyp1) expression and fecundity. PMID:26481008

  6. The role of the transformer gene in sex determination and reproduction in the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Zheng, Wenping; Handler, Alfred M; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-12-01

    Transformer (tra) is a switch gene in the somatic sex-determination hierarchy that regulates sexual dimorphism based on RNA splicing in many insects. In tephritids, a Y-linked male determining gene (M) controls sex in the sex-determination pathway. Here, homologues of Drosophila tra and transformer-2 (tra-2) genes were isolated and characterized in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. Two male-specific and one female-specific isoforms of B. dorsalis transformer (Bdtra) were identified. The presence of multiple TRA/TRA-2 binding sites in Bdtra suggests that the TRA/TRA-2 proteins are splicing regulators promoting and maintaining, epigenetically, female sex determination by a tra positive feedback loop in XX individuals during development. The expression patterns of female-specific Bdtra transcripts during early embryogenesis shows that a peak appears at 15 h after egg laying. Using dsRNA to knock-down Bdtra expression in the embryo and adult stages, we showed that sexual formation is determined early in the embryo stage and that parental RNAi does not lead to the production of all male progeny as in Tribolium castaneum. RNAi results from adult abdominal dsRNA injections show that Bdtra has a positive influence on female yolk protein gene (Bdyp1) expression and fecundity.

  7. Discovery of genes related to insecticide resistance in Bactrocera dorsalis by functional genomic analysis of a de novo assembled transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance has recently become a critical concern for control of many insect pest species. Genome sequencing and global quantization of gene expression through analysis of the transcriptome can provide useful information relevant to this challenging problem. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is one of the world's most destructive agricultural pests, and recently it has been used as a target for studies of genetic mechanisms related to insecticide resistance. However, prior to this study, the molecular data available for this species was largely limited to genes identified through homology. To provide a broader pool of gene sequences of potential interest with regard to insecticide resistance, this study uses whole transcriptome analysis developed through de novo assembly of short reads generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS. The transcriptome of B. dorsalis was initially constructed using Illumina's Solexa sequencing technology. Qualified reads were assembled into contigs and potential splicing variants (isotigs. A total of 29,067 isotigs have putative homologues in the non-redundant (nr protein database from NCBI, and 11,073 of these correspond to distinct D. melanogaster proteins in the RefSeq database. Approximately 5,546 isotigs contain coding sequences that are at least 80% complete and appear to represent B. dorsalis genes. We observed a strong correlation between the completeness of the assembled sequences and the expression intensity of the transcripts. The assembled sequences were also used to identify large numbers of genes potentially belonging to families related to insecticide resistance. A total of 90 P450-, 42 GST-and 37 COE-related genes, representing three major enzyme families involved in insecticide metabolism and resistance, were identified. In addition, 36 isotigs were discovered to contain target site sequences related to four classes of resistance genes. Identified sequence motifs were also

  8. 基于物联网的桔小实蝇诱捕监测装备设计及试验%Design and test of remote monitoring equipment for bactrocera dorsalis trapping based on internet of things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖德琴; 傅俊谦; 邓晓晖; 冯健昭; 殷建军; 可欣荣

    2015-01-01

    For bactrocera dorsalis field monitoring, the current method had some disadvantages: a heavy workload, low efficiency, poor reliability, low accuracy, and it could not large-scale and fast monitor the orchard pest situation in real time. Agriculture experts eager to have a solution to automatically count the number of bactrocera dorsalis and remotely observe the trapping result in real time to reduce their labor so that they could focus more on the study of the characteristics of insects. Therefore, combining the image target detection technology and the target tracking technology to develop an automated counting system by using a video image sensor would be necessary. In order to realize the real-time monitoring, the bactrocera dorsalis trapping, and a rapid diagnosis, an IOT-Based remote monitoring equipment for bactrocera dorsalis trapping was provided in this paper. The equipment included a trap monitoring device, a solar power supply device, and the monitoring control device. The trap monitoring device was comprised of a top cover, a transparent funnel, a trap bottle, a LED, and a camera;the solar energy device was comprised of a solar panel, a storage battery, and a solar panel bracket;the bactrocera dorsalis monitoring control system device was comprised of a Fit-pc controller, a 3G communication module, and the independent software for counting bactrocera dorsalis’ numbers. This equipment combined machine vision technology and telecommunication technology with solar power technology. The purpose of the equipment was to achieve a whole function for bactrocera dorsalis trap monitoring with plant diseases and insect pests information collection, together with processing, transmission, and self-supply. It could monitor the trapping process and precise calculation of the number of bactrocera dorsalis anytime and anywhere, and also automatically transmit the results to the remote server or store it in a local storage card. For object extraction,this paper used

  9. Pupal X-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Villalun, MaryAnn; Geib, Scott M; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Stanley, David

    2015-05-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a pest of fruit in the Asia-Pacific region and also, due to quarantine restrictions, a threat to California fruit production. Area-wide suppression of B. dorsalis integrated several approaches including the sterile insect technique (SIT). SIT involves exposing juveniles to gamma radiation and releasing sterile males in substantial numbers, where they successfully compete for wild females. The resulting infertile eggs lead to reduction of the pest populations. Although these protocols are well documented, arising issues about the international transport and distribution of radioactive products is creating difficulties in use of radioactive sources for sterilizing radiation. This led to a shift toward use of X-ray irradiation, which also sterilizes male and female insects. However, use of X-ray technologies is in its infancy and there is virtually no information on the effects of irradiation, other than sterilization, at the physiological and molecular levels of fruit fly biology. We posed the hypothesis that sterilizing male oriental fruit flies via radiation treatment also influences protein expression in the flies. We found that exposing pupae to X-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 31 proteins in adult males. Seven proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, larval cuticle protein 2, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein alpha-B and A chains, general odorant-binding protein 99b, polyubiquitin, and protein disulfide-isomerase) were impacted in both sexes. Some of the proteins act in central energy-generating and in pheromone-signal processing pathways; we infer that males sterilized by X-ray irradiation may be enfeebled in their ability to compete with wild males for females in nature. PMID:25772096

  10. Evaluation of endogenous references for gene expression profiling in different tissues of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jin-Jun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR has been widely used for quantification of mRNA as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. For accurate gene quantification analysis, normalization of RT-qPCR data is absolutely essential. To date, normalization is most frequently achieved by the use of internal controls, often referred to as reference genes. However, several studies have shown that the reference genes used for the quantification of mRNA expression can be affected by the experimental set-up or cell type resulting in variation of the expression level of these key genes. Therefore, the evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of insects. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in three different tissues (midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel. Results Two different programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were used to analyze the data. According to geNorm, α-TUB + ACT5 are the most appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling across the three different tissues in the female flies, while ACT3 + α-TUB are considered as the best for males. Furthermore, we evaluated the stability of the candidate reference genes to determine the sexual differences in the same tissue. In the midgut and Malpighian tubules, ACT2 + α-TUB are the best choice for both males and females. However, α-TUB + ACT1 are the best pair for fat body. Meanwhile, the results calculated by Normfinder are quite the same as the results with geNorm; α-TUB is always one of the most stable genes in each sample validated by the two programs. Conclusions In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes for gene expression profiling in different tissues of B. dorsalis. Moreover, appropriate reference genes were selected out for gene

  11. Performance of methyl eugenol + matrix + toxicant combinations under field conditions in Hawaii and California for trapping Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eric B; Ramsey, Amanda; Carvalho, Lori A

    2013-04-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of many fruit crops worldwide. Current detection programs by federal and state agencies in the United States use a grid of traps consisting of liquid methyl eugenol (lure) and naled (toxicant) applied to cotton wicks and hung inside the trap. In recent years efforts have been made to incorporate these chemicals into various solid-type matrices that could be individually packaged to reduce human exposure to the chemicals and improve handling. New solid formulations containing methyl eugenol and either naled or dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate toxicants were compared with the standard formulations on cotton wicks in large scale field evaluation in Hawaii. Two reduced risk toxicants (spinosad and Rynaxypyr) were also evaluated. In one test the solid lure-toxicant-matrix combinations were sent to California to be weathered under California climate conditions and then sent back to Hawaii for evaluation. The polymer matrices with lure and toxicant were found to be as attractive as baited wicks and have the same longevity of attraction regardless of being weathered in Hawaii or in California. The new ingestible toxicants were also effective, although further testing of these ingestible lure + toxicant + matrix products is necessary. PMID:23786060

  12. The noa gene is functionally linked to the activation of the Toll/Imd signaling pathways in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaolong; Li, Qiujia; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-02-01

    The noa gene is an essential gene encoding a very long chain fatty acid elongase. In this study, we cloned the noa gene of Bactrocera dorsalis, which encodes a protein sharing 84.50% identity to the NOA in Drosophila melanogaster. The expression profiles indicated that the transcriptional level of noa was high at the egg stage and in the testis tissue. The results showed that noa expression was up-regulated after Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli infection. Silencing of noa would influence the expression of immune related genes, including MyD88 and defensin in the Toll pathway and relish and diptericin in the Imd pathway. Moreover, infection with L. monocytogenes and S. aureus after feeding ds-noa, the expression of MyD88 and defensin down-regulated significantly in ds-noa group compared with in ds-egfp group, indicating that noa interference influenced the activation of the Toll pathway. Meanwhile, infection with L. monocytogenes and E. coli, which activated the Imd pathway, do not cause increase of the mRNA levels of relish and diptericin in ds-noa group as severely as in ds-egfp treatment, indicating that the Imd pathway was also repressed after silences of noa. PMID:26404497

  13. Inferences on the population structure and colonization process of the invasive oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aketarawong, N; Bonizzoni, M; Thanaphum, S; Gomulski, L M; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R; Gugliemino, C R

    2007-09-01

    The phytophagous insects of the Tephritidae family offer different case histories of successful invasions. An example is Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto, the oriental fruit fly which has been recognized as a key pest of Asia and the Pacific. It is known to have the potential to establish adventive populations in various tropical and subtropical areas. Despite the economic risk associated with a putative stable presence of this fly, the genetic aspects of its invasion process have remained relatively unexplored. Using microsatellite markers we have investigated the population structure and genetic variability in 14 geographical populations across the four areas of the actual species range: Far East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Area. Results of clustering and admixture, associated with phylogenetic and migration analyses, were used to evaluate the changes in population genetic structure that this species underwent during its invasion process and establishment in the different areas. The colonization process of this fly is associated with a relatively stable population demographic structure, especially in an unfragmented habitat, rich in intensive cultivation such as in Southeast Asia. In this area, the results suggest a lively demographic history, characterized by evolutionary recent demographic expansions and no recent bottlenecks. Cases of genetic isolation attributable to geographical factors, fragmented habitats and/or fruit trade restrictions were observed in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Hawaii. Regarding the pattern of invasion, the overall genetic profile of the considered populations suggests a western orientated migration route from China to the West. PMID:17845427

  14. Intraspecific variation in the wild male population, and its potential value in the mass rearing program, of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept for improvement of quality of breeding stock used for mass-rearing of tephritid fruit flies for sterile release eradication programs is reported. According to this concept, high quality individuals are those that are numerically dominant in the wild population and hence, they would be selected for breeding purposes. To recognize dominant variants among the wild males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), intraspecific differences were determined. A total of nine intraspecific variants were recognized. Out of these one labelled GIIC. was dominant in the dry, wet, and fringe habitats of this fruit fly

  15. De novo cloning and annotation of genes associated with immunity, detoxification and energy metabolism from the fat body of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jia Yang

    Full Text Available The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive pest in tropical and subtropical areas. In this study, we performed transcriptome-wide analysis of the fat body of B. dorsalis and obtained more than 59 million sequencing reads, which were assembled into 27,787 unigenes with an average length of 591 bp. Among them, 17,442 (62.8% unigenes matched known proteins in the NCBI database. The assembled sequences were further annotated with gene ontology, cluster of orthologous group terms, and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes. In depth analysis was performed to identify genes putatively involved in immunity, detoxification, and energy metabolism. Many new genes were identified including serpins, peptidoglycan recognition proteins and defensins, which were potentially linked to immune defense. Many detoxification genes were identified, including cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferases and ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters. Many new transcripts possibly involved in energy metabolism, including fatty acid desaturases, lipases, alpha amylases, and trehalose-6-phosphate synthases, were identified. Moreover, we randomly selected some genes to examine their expression patterns in different tissues by quantitative real-time PCR, which indicated that some genes exhibited fat body-specific expression in B. dorsalis. The identification of a numerous transcripts in the fat body of B. dorsalis laid the foundation for future studies on the functions of these genes.

  16. LARVAL X-RAY IRRADIATION INFLUENCES PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN PUPAE OF THE ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, BACTROCERA DORSALIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Geib, Scott M; Stanley, David

    2016-07-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) was developed to eradicate the new world screwworm from the southern United States and Mexico, and became a component of many area-wide integrated pest management programs, particularly useful in managing tephritid fruit flies. SIT is based on the idea of rearing and sterilizing male pests, originally by ionizing radiation, and then releasing into field, where they compete for and mate with wild females. Mating with sterile males leads to reduced fecundity to lower pest populations. There are concerns with the use and distribution of radioisotopes for SIT programs, which have led to developing X-ray irradiation protocols to sterilize insects. We considered the possibility that X-ray irradiation exerts sublethal impacts aside form sterilizing insects. Such effects may not be directly observable, which led us to the hypothesis that X-ray irradiation in one life stage creates alterations in biological fitness and protein expression in the subsequent stage. We tested our hypothesis by irradiating larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis. There are two major points. One, exposing larvae to X-ray treatments led to reduced adult emergence, fecundity, fertility, and flight capacity from the corresponding pupae and emerged adults. Two, the X-ray treatments led to substantial expression changes in 27 pupal proteins. We assorted the 67 spots representing these proteins into three groups, metabolism, development, and structure. Our interpretation is these X-ray induced changes in biological performance and protein expression indicate their adult counterparts may be disabled in their abilities to successfully compete for and mate wild females in native habitats. PMID:27079560

  17. The effect of methyl eugenol exposure on subsequent mating performance of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of methyl eugenol (ME) on the total times of mating, consecutive mating, mating competitiveness, multiple mating, and the incidence of wild female remating were studied in sterile males from a genetic sexing strain of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Male pupae were irradiated at dose of 100 Gy by 137Cs at 2 d before emergence and the dose rate was 1.00 Gy/min. Sexually mature 10 day old sterile males were fed ME, while Non-ME-fed sterile males and normal wild males were used as control, and wild females as mating partners. The results showed that some ME-fed sterile males could mate continuously up to nine times, but the total times of consecutive mating and the mean value of continuous mating times were not significant (P> 0.05) compared with the control. The total mating times of ME-fed sterile males was 344.33±12.55 and the mean value was 6.88±0.25, but both have no significant difference compared with the control. The mating success rate of ME-fed and non- ME-fed sterile males mated with wild females were (44.67±2.40)% and (22.00±2.31)% separately. There were significant differences between them (t = -6.8, P = 0.002). The outcomes were that feeding on ME did not increase the frequency of multiple mating by sterile males, but significantly increased the mating competitiveness of sterile males against wild males. At the same time, sterile males fed ME did not significantly affect the remating of wild females 5 days after the initial mating, but increased the remating frequency of females 10 and 15 days after the initial mating. (authors)

  18. The effects of RNA interference targeting Bactrocera dorsalis ds-Bdrpl19 on the gene expression of rpl19 in non-target insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aie; Zheng, Weiwei; Zheng, Wenping; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-04-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) designed to target pest genes emerges as a promising strategy for improving pest control. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the effects of dsRNA on non-target insects, such as native enemies and beneficial insects, to determine the environmental safety of such treatments. In this paper, we investigated the effects of dsRNA targeting rpl19 from Bactrocera dorsalis on non-target insects in citrus ecological systems by feeding the dsRNA to Bactrocera minax, Apis mellifera and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata. The results showed that when B. dorsalis were fed rpl19 CDS dsRNA or 3'UTR dsRNA, the expression of rpl19 was dramatically decreased. Feeding the Bdrpl19 CDS dsRNA to adult B. minax and D. longicaudata caused their respective rpl19 genes to be knocked down over 50-70 and 40%, respectively, but it had no effect on the expression of the rpl19 gene in A. mellifera. The Bdrpl19 3'UTR dsRNA did not have any silencing effects on the expression levels of rpl19 in non-target insects. This study provides evidence that dsRNA can impact non-target organisms, but the 3'UTR dsRNA may not have effects in non-target organisms.

  19. BdorCSP2 is important for antifeed and oviposition-deterring activities induced by Rhodojaponin-III against Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yi

    Full Text Available Rhodojaponin-III is a nonvolatile botanical grayanoid diterpene compound, which has antifeedant and oviposition deterrence effects against many kinds of insects. However, the molecular mechanism of the chemoreception process remains unknown. In this study, the important role of BdorCSP2 in the recognition of Rhodojaponin-III was identified. The full length cDNA encoding BdorCSP2 was cloned from legs of Bactrocera dorsalis. The results of expression pattern revealed that BdorCSP2 was abundantly expressed in the legs of adult B. dorsalis. Moreover, the expression of BdorCSP2 could be up-regulated by Rhodojaponin-III. In order to gain comprehensive understanding of the recognition process, the binding affinity between BdorCSP2 and Rhodojaponin-III was measured by fluorescence binding assay. Silencing the expression of BdorCSP2 through the ingestion of dsRNA could weaken the effect of oviposition deterrence and antifeedant of Rhodojaponin-III. These results suggested that BdorCSP2 of B. dorsalis could be involved in chemoreception of Rhodojaponin-III and played a critical role in antifeedant and oviposition behaviors induced by Rhodojaponin-III.

  20. Dynamics of Bactrocera dorsalis in Jujube Orchards in Dry Hot Valley of Yuanmou%桔小实蝇在干热河谷区元谋枣园年发生动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨子祥; 沙毓沧; 王玖瑞; 刘海刚; 张德; 马开华; 杨建花; 段曰汤

    2013-01-01

    Bactrocera dors alls is one of the important insect pests harm Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. cv. Liuxiang and Ziziphus jujube, cv Jinsixiaozao in the dry hot valley. The text conduct a comprehensive analysis on the annual dynamics survey, climatic factors, food resources and host plants of Bactrocera dorsalis adult in the typical dry-hot valley of Yuanmou. The results show that the Bactrocera dorsalis in Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. cv. Liuxiang trap significantly higher than Ziziphus jujube, cv Jinsixiaozao; Bactrocera dorsalis adults in Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. cv. Liuxiang and Ziziphus jujube, cv Jinsixiaozao have one (August), two (February and August) peak, the peak period is basically consistent with fruit maturity; the monthly mean temperature, monthly rainfall and food source host plants are the main factors of population fluctuations. To master the changes in the population dynamics of Bactrocera dorsalis by two kinds of Zaoyuan monitoring, can timely provide a theoretical basis for Bactrocera dorsalis control period.%桔小实蝇[Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)]是危害干热河谷区台湾青枣(Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.cv.Liuxiang)和金丝小枣(Ziziphus Jujube.cv Jinsi-xiaozao)的重要害虫之一.对典型干热河谷气候区云南元谋台湾青枣和金丝小枣园桔小实蝇成虫的年发生动态进行调查,并就气候因子及食源寄主植物进行综合分析.结果表明:台湾青枣园桔小实蝇诱捕量明显高于金丝小枣园;桔小实蝇成虫在金丝小枣、台湾青枣上分别拥有1个(8月)、2个(2、8月)发生高峰期,高峰期与果实成熟期基本吻合;月均温、月降雨量和食源寄主植物是种群变动的主要因子.通过两种枣园桔小实蝇的监测,掌握种群动态的变化,可为适时制定桔小实蝇防治时期提供理论依据.

  1. Population dynamics of oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis(Diptera:Tephritidae)in Xishuangbanna,Yunnan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Hui; LIU Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    Annual monitoring of the population dynamics of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis(Hendel)(Diptera:Tephritidae)in Xishuangbanna,southern Yunnan,was conducted by using methyl eugenol-baited traps in 1997,2000,and 2003,and factors including temperature,rainfall,and host species with respect to the population fluctuation were analyzed systematically.The results showed that the fruit fly was present all year round in Xishuangbanna.Its population remained at a lower level from November to February,and increased from March until it reached a peak in June or July,depending on the rainfall that year.Afterward,the fly population declined remarkably until October.Temperature,rainfall,and host fruits were major factors comprehensively influencing the population fluctuation.The monthly mean temperature was in a range of temperatures suitable for development and reproduction of the fly.But the monthly mean minimum temperature from December to February was lower than the suitable temperature range,which was suggested a possible reason for the lower populations in winter months.Rainfall was another essential factor influencing the population fluctuations.The population was depressed when the monthly rainfall amount was lower than 50 mm,but increased when rainfall ranged from 100 mm to 200 mm.When the monthly rainfall amount was higher than 250 mm,the fruit fly population was reduced remarkably.The heavy rain in July and August explained the decreasing population.Mango,orange,pear,longan,and peach were found to be the main host species of the fly in Xishuangbanna.Among them,mango and longan were most preferred by the fly.Therefore,the planted areas,fruiting period,and production exerted essential effects on the fly population fluctuations,which were regarded as another major factor influencing the fly population in that area.Briefly,temperature,monthly rainfall,and the host species,through the way of their functions,the influence strength,as well as the period that they

  2. 橘小实蝇、瓜实蝇和南亚果实蝇人工饲料的优化%Optimization of artificial diets for mass rearing of Bactrocera dorsalis,Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera tau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林明光; 汪兴鉴; 张艳; 孙蕊芬; 曾玲

    2013-01-01

    在温度25 ~28℃、相对湿度70%~75%和光照周期L:D=14∶10条件下进行了人工大量饲养橘小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)和瓜实蝇B.cucurbitae (Coquillett)成虫人工饲料配方的筛选试验.结果显示,1∶2重量比例混合的蔗糖和啤酒酵母是饲养这2种果实蝇的最佳成虫人工饲料,用其饲养的单雌产卵量、产卵期和孵化率分别为424.16 ~ 445.75粒,30.90 ~31.87 d,74.60% ~ 75.40%.同时,对18种由不同配方配制成的幼虫人工饲料饲养橘小实蝇、瓜实蝇和南亚果实蝇B.tau (Walker)的效果进行了比较.结果表明,玉米和麦麸作为饲料的介质优于麦片和麦麸.橘小实蝇幼虫人工饲料的优化配方为:玉米+麦麸(125 g+25 g),蔗糖25 g,啤酒酵母25 g,对羟基苯甲酸甲酯0.9g,1 mol/L盐酸4 mL,纸巾4 g,自来水300 mL;用其幼虫人工饲料饲养该虫的生物学参数包括子代孵化率、化蛹率、羽化率和平均蛹重分别为81.17% ±0.05%,96.41% ±0.02%,94.85%±0.01%与(19.40±0.08) mg.而瓜实蝇和南亚果实蝇幼虫人工饲料的优化配方为:玉米+麦麸(100 g+50 g),蔗糖30 g,啤酒酵母25 g,以及一定量的其他组分(同上);用其饲料饲养这2种果实蝇的相关参数:子代孵化率、化蛹率、羽化率和平均蛹重分别为78.50%±0.04%与76.96%±0.12%,95.73% ±0.03%与94.69% ±0.02%,94.57%±0.02%与95.82%±0.03%,(18.62±0.23) mg与(22.83±1.38) mg.试验证实,优化后的成、幼虫人工饲料具有饲养效果好、方法简便,配方材料来源广泛和价格低廉等优点,可用于室内人工大量饲养上述3种果实蝇属害虫.%Artificial diets for adult Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and B.cucurbitae (Coquillett) were evaluated in the laboratory at 25-28℃,70%-75% RH and a L∶ D ratio of 14∶ 10.A mixture of 1 part sucrose to 2 parts beer yeast by weight was the optimum artificial diet for adults of these two species.The egg quantity

  3. 桔小实蝇的发生与诱杀防治研究进展%Study advance in incidence and trap control of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉玲

    2013-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a polyphagous pest of fruit and vegetable crops in South -East Asia and Hawaii. To control the population, understanding the occurrence of B. dorsalis has important significance. In this paper, the incidence, biological and ecological characteristics were summarized, and also trapping measures in recent years were discussed, in order to provide direction and references for future prevention and control work.%桔小实蝇是东南亚和夏威夷地区的杂食性果蔬作物害虫,认识其发生情况对有效防治具有重要意义.本文综述了桔小实蝇的发生近况以及生物学和生态学特性,并对桔小实蝇的生物诱杀防治措施进行了探讨,以期为今后的防治工作提供方向和参考.

  4. Transcriptome analysis to identify genes for peptides and proteins involved in immunity and reproduction from male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct of Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dong; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Liu, Shi-Huo; Wang, Tao; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    In the male reproductive system of insects, the male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct (MAG/ED) are important organs and their primary function is to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa. Proteins secreted by the MAG/ED are also known to induce post-mating changes and immunity responses in the female insect. To understand the gene expression profile in the MAG/ED of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), that is an important pest in fruits, we performed an Illumina-based deep sequencing of mRNA. This yielded 54,577,630 clean reads corresponding to 4.91Gb total nucleotides that were assembled and clustered to 30,669 unigenes (average 645bp). Among them, 20,419 unigenes were functionally annotated to known proteins/peptides in Gene Orthology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases. Typically, many genes were involved in immunity and these included microbial recognition proteins and antimicrobial peptides. Subsequently, the inducible expression of these immunity-related genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis when insects were challenged with immunity-inducible factors, suggesting their function in guaranteeing fertilization success. Besides, we identified some important reproductive genes such as juvenile hormone- and ecdysteroid-related genes in this de novo assembly. In conclusion, this transcriptomic sequencing of B. dorsalis MAG/ED provides insights to facilitate further functional research of reproduction, immunity and molecular evolution of reproductive proteins in this important agricultural pest.

  5. Population structure of Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., B. papayae and B. philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southeast Asia: evidence for a single species hypothesis using mitochondrial DNA and wing-shape data

    OpenAIRE

    Schutze Mark K; Krosch Matthew N; Armstrong Karen F; Chapman Toni A; Englezou Anna; Chomič Anastasija; Cameron Stephen L; Hailstones Deborah; Clarke Anthony R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. is a pestiferous tephritid fruit fly distributed from Pakistan to the Pacific, with the Thai/Malay peninsula its southern limit. Sister pest taxa, B. papayae and B. philippinensis, occur in the southeast Asian archipelago and the Philippines, respectively. The relationship among these species is unclear due to their high molecular and morphological similarity. This study analysed population structure of these three species within a southeast Asian ...

  6. Statistics and tracking of Bactrocera Dorsalis based on machine vision%基于机器视觉的橘小实蝇运动轨迹跟踪与数量检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文韬; 洪添胜; 李震; 罗文辉; 龙秀珍; 陈海彬

    2011-01-01

    The number of Bactrocera Dorsalis in occurring period is the important parameter which threats the growth situation for fruit trees and is the basis of implementing variable rate technology. In order to realize detecting the occurrence of Bactrocera Dorsalis real-time and fasting in large-scale orchard, machine vision technologies based on moving object trace tracking were employed to trace Bactrocera Dorsalis behavies around traps real-time, so as to achieve statistics of their number into the hole precisely. The fore 50 000 video image were selected as evaluation samples which collected in feed room of Resource and Environment College in South China Agricultural University using vision monitoring platform for Bactrocera Dorsalis. Through comparison of results with methods of artificial and machine vision detecting, the experiment indicated that the number of Bactrocera Dorsalis detected by artificial and machine vision were 85 heads and 78 heads, respectively. The loss rate of detecting using machine vision was 9.4%, which can meet the demands of pests' monitoring.%橘小实蝇发生期虫口数量是威胁果树生长状况的重要参数,是实施精准变量喷雾的基础.为实现果园大尺度、现场、实时和快速检测橘小实蝇虫害发生情况,该文提出了一种基于机器视觉技术在虫口区域跟踪橘小实蝇运动轨迹和数量检测的方法.试验采用橘小实蝇视觉检测平台,选取华南农业大学资源与环境学院橘小实蝇饲养室采集的视频图像作为评价样本,通过人工与机器视觉方式比较视频前50 000帧的检测效果,试验结果表明人工和机器视觉检测的橘小实蝇数量分别为85、78头;机器视觉漏检率为9.4%,达到虫害数量统计要求.

  7. Attraction and mortality of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to STATIC Spinosad ME weathered under operational conditions in California and Florida: a reduced-risk male annihilation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Hoffman, Kevin; Mercogliano, Juan; Smith, Trevor R; Hammond, Jack; Davis, Bobbie J; Brodie, Matt; Dripps, James E

    2014-08-01

    Studies were conducted in 2013-2014 to quantify attraction, feeding, and mortality of male oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to STATIC Spinosad ME a reduced-risk male annihilation treatment (MAT) formulation consisting of an amorphous polymer matrix in combination with methyl eugenol (ME) and spinosad compared with the standard treatment of Min-U-Gel mixed with ME and naled (Dibrom). Our approach used a behavioral methodology for evaluation of slow-acting reduced-risk insecticides. ME treatments were weathered for 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d under operational conditions in California and Florida and shipped to Hawaii for bioassays. In field tests using bucket traps to attract and capture wild males, and in toxicity studies conducted in 1-m(3) cages using released males of controlled ages, STATIC Spinosad ME performed equally as well to the standard formulation of Min-U-Gel ME with naled for material aged up to 28 d in both California and Florida. In laboratory feeding tests in which individual males were exposed for 5 min to the different ME treatments, mortality induced by STATIC Spinosad ME recorded at 24 h did not differ from mortality caused by Min-U-Gel ME with naled at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d in California and was equal to or higher for all weathered time periods in Florida during two trials. Spinosad has low contact toxicity, and when mixed with an attractant and slow release matrix, offers a reduced-risk alternative for eradication of B. dorsalis and related ME attracted species, without many of the potential negative effects to humans and nontargets associated with broad-spectrum contact insecticides such as naled. PMID:25195423

  8. Effects of Beauveria bassiana on experimental populations of Bactrocera dorsalis%球孢白僵菌对橘小实蝇实验种群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志萍; 翟欣

    2015-01-01

    研究了球孢白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana)B6菌株对橘小实蝇成虫(Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel)的影响.结果表明,在杨桃、番石榴与香蕉3种水果上喷施球孢白僵菌孢子悬浮液,橘小实蝇雌成虫平均产卵量分别为(188.3±11.4)粒、(156.7±13.1)粒、(165.3±9.1)粒,与对照差异不显著;孵化的老熟幼虫数量分别(156.3±11.5)头、(130.3±8.3)头、(147.7±10.6)头,与对照差异也不显著;成虫存活率分别为51.1%、52.2%、62.3%,与对照差异极显著.干扰作用控制指数IIPC为0.554 2、0.573 0、0.667 7,对橘小实蝇成虫控制效果明显.

  9. Study and application on sterile insect technique for oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis in the field to control the fly%桔小实蝇不育技术及应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁广勤; 梁帆; 赵菊鹏; 邹伟权; 周庆贤; 伍伟亮; 吴佳教; 胡学难

    2008-01-01

    以钴(60Co)的不同剂量,对桔小实蝇(Bactrocera dorsalis)蛹进行不育辐照对比测定,结果显示,桔小实蝇有效不育的剂量为95Gy.雄性不育成虫可导致野外处女雌性成虫终生不育以及在果园扩散的距离多集中在140 m的范围,为制定应用不育蝇防治野生蝇的策略提供科学依据.

  10. 诱蝇醚防治柑桔小实蝇适宜添加间隔期的试验%An experiment of suitable accession interval for controlling Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel by Methyl Eugenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄后琚

    2009-01-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel is one of the major insects endangering citrus, which can threaten severely citrus production. Methyl Eugenol has an obvious effect for controlling Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel. In order to find most suitable accession interval, the writer has conducted an experiment with different accession intervals. The experimental results show that in higher temperature, each accession of 2 ml and 30d interval will be best selection.%柑桔小实蝇是柑桔(包括橙、柚类)重要害虫之一,严重威胁着柑桔的生产.诱蝇醚对柑桔小实蝇的防效显著.为了找到添加诱蝇醚适宜的间隔期,笔者进行了诱蝇醚不同添加间隔期的试验.试验的结果表明:在气温较高的气候条件下,当每次添加诱蝇醚的量为2ml时,添加诱蝇醚的间隔期以30d为宜.

  11. Population structure of Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., B. papayae and B. philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae in southeast Asia: evidence for a single species hypothesis using mitochondrial DNA and wing-shape data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schutze Mark K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. is a pestiferous tephritid fruit fly distributed from Pakistan to the Pacific, with the Thai/Malay peninsula its southern limit. Sister pest taxa, B. papayae and B. philippinensis, occur in the southeast Asian archipelago and the Philippines, respectively. The relationship among these species is unclear due to their high molecular and morphological similarity. This study analysed population structure of these three species within a southeast Asian biogeographical context to assess potential dispersal patterns and the validity of their current taxonomic status. Results Geometric morphometric results generated from 15 landmarks for wings of 169 flies revealed significant differences in wing shape between almost all sites following canonical variate analysis. For the combined data set there was a greater isolation-by-distance (IBD effect under a ‘non-Euclidean’ scenario which used geographical distances within a biogeographical ‘Sundaland context’ (r2 = 0.772, P r2 = 0.217, P beast analysis provided a root age and location of 540kya in northern Thailand, with migration of B. dorsalis s.l. into Malaysia 470kya and Sumatra 270kya. Two migration events into the Philippines are inferred. Sequence data revealed a weak but significant IBD effect under the ‘non-Euclidean’ scenario (r2 = 0.110, P  Conclusions Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., B. papayae and B. philippinensis likely represent one species structured around the South China Sea, having migrated from northern Thailand into the southeast Asian archipelago and across into the Philippines. No migration is apparent between the Philippines and Taiwan. This information has implications for quarantine, trade and pest management.

  12. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, and evaluate the chemotaxis of B. dorsalis to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE, 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were assigned to the five bacterial classes Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Nine OTUs were assigned to Gammaproteobacteria, which was the most highly represented class. Enterobacteriaceae constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including Enterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter amnigenus. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by R. terrigena, K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae were attractive to the B. dorsalis adults, and in field studies, B. dorsalis adults were most attracted to K. oxytoca. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly.

  13. 啤酒废酵母酶解生产橘小实蝇引诱蛋白研究%Production of Protein Bait for Bactrocera dorsalis ( Diptera: Tephritidae) by Using Beer Waste Yeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜迎刚; 李云玲; 季清娥

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to optimize the production conditions of protein bait for Bactrocera dorsalis ( Diptera: Tephritidae) by u-sing beer waste yeast. [ Method] Production conditions of protein bait for Bactrocera dorsalis by using beer waste yeast like yeast concentration , enzyme amount, hydrolysis temperature, hydrolysis time, hydrolysis pH and hydrolysis product' pH were optimized with orthogonal design by outdoor small-cage bioassay. [Result] The best attractiveness to females and males could be attained with the processes that the third thickness mother beer waste yeast liquid was treated with 15.0 g/kg papain at 67. 5 ℃ and pH 6.5 for 27 and 24 hours, respectively. The bio-assays also showed that the protein hydrolysate with pH 8. 5 could reach its highest attractiveness. [ Conclusion] The research provides theoretical basis for the development of protein bait for Bactrocera dorsalis.%[目的]优化啤酒废酵母酶解生产橘小实蝇引诱蛋白的条件.[方法]采用室外小笼子生物测定法,通过正交试验设计对啤酒废酵母酶解生产橘小实蝇引诱蛋白的影响因素(酵母浓度、酶量、水解温度、水解时间、水解pH和水解产物pH)进行了优化.[结果]将酵母母液稀释3倍后加入15.0 g/kg木瓜蛋白酶,在pH 6.5、温度67.5℃条件下保温水解24 h得到的水解蛋白于pH 8.5时对橘小实蝇雄性的引诱活性最强,水解27 h对橘小实蝇雌性的引诱活性最强.[结论]为开发橘小实蝇蛋白诱剂提供了理论依据.

  14. The control effects of push - pull combination on oviposition of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)%拒避-诱杀组合技术对橘小实蝇产卵的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢慧林; 欧阳革成; 郭明昉

    2012-01-01

    Effects of the push - pull combination, which "Lieying" protein poison bait ( GF - 120) was as bait and mineral spray oil as repellent, on oviposition of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis were studied in this paper. The results showed that the average oviposition puncture number by B. dorsalis on the banana fruits in treatment by push - pull combination was 0. 000 ± 0. 000, and the percentage of perfect fruit reached 100% , but the average oviposition puncture number in treatment only by the protein bait was 27. 000 ± 1. 732, and the percentage of perfect fruit was only 5. 55% , which showed that push-pull combination had significantly better control effect on oviposition of B. dorsalis than using mineral oil or protein bait only. The control effect was increased with the concentration of mineral oil. Poison bait dosage and application area should be enhanced as pest population density increased.%本文研究了以矿物油(mineral spray oil)乳剂为保护剂、“猎蝇”蛋白质毒饵为诱杀剂组成的拒避-诱杀组合技术对橘小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)产卵的控制作用.结果显示:橘小实蝇在采用拒避-诱杀组合技术保护的供试香蕉上平均产卵孔数为0.000±0.000个,果实完好率达到100%,而单独使用“猎蝇”蛋白质毒饵的平均产卵孔数为27.000±1.732个,果实完好率仅为5.55%,表明该组合技术对橘小实蝇产卵的控制效果显著.在100倍~ 300倍浓度范围内,矿物油浓度越高,拒避-诱杀组合对橘小实蝇产卵的控制效果越好;随着虫口密度的增加,毒饵使用量和施用面积也须相应增加,才能取得更好的防治效果.

  15. The Scirtothrips dorsalis Species Complex: Endemism and Invasion in a Global Pest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Dickey

    Full Text Available Invasive arthropods pose unique management challenges in various environments, the first of which is correct identification. This apparently mundane task is particularly difficult if multiple species are morphologically indistinguishable but accurate identification can be determined with DNA barcoding provided an adequate reference set is available. Scirtothrips dorsalis is a highly polyphagous plant pest with a rapidly expanding global distribution and this species, as currently recognized, may be comprised of cryptic species. Here we report the development of a comprehensive DNA barcode library for S. dorsalis and seven nuclear markers via next-generation sequencing for identification use within the complex. We also report the delimitation of nine cryptic species and two morphologically distinguishable species comprising the S. dorsalis species complex using histogram analysis of DNA barcodes, Bayesian phylogenetics, and the multi-species coalescent. One member of the complex, here designated the South Asia 1 cryptic species, is highly invasive, polyphagous, and likely the species implicated in tospovirus transmission. Two other species, South Asia 2, and East Asia 1 are also highly polyphagous and appear to be at an earlier stage of global invasion. The remaining members of the complex are regionally endemic, varying in their pest status and degree of polyphagy. In addition to patterns of invasion and endemism, our results provide a framework both for identifying members of the complex based on their DNA barcode, and for future species delimiting efforts.

  16. 基于卡尔曼滤波的橘小实蝇成虫运动轨迹优化跟踪%Moving trace optimization tracking for adult of Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) based on Kalman filter algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文韬; 洪添胜; 李立君; 张南峰; 李震; 郭鑫

    2014-01-01

    Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) are invasive pests which occur frequently and are seriously harmful to the growth of fruit trees, and they have been ranked an important quarantine object in many countries and regions. The regular manual survey used as the routine predicting method for Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) has not accomplished the requirement of real-time and precise monitoring and warning by means of the adult trapping and monitoring device deployed in orchards. With the development of science and technologies, the method of the automatic machine monitoring for pests has been studied including detection of sound characteristics, radar monitoring and spectral monitoring. Considering the characteristic with randomness, migratory and hiding for Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel), there were some problems such as timing, processing and costs in monitoring pests with the aid of combining the above monitoring and the traditional method. In order to accomplish precise monitoring for Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel), machine vision technologies were used as an in-field automatic detecting method for the Hendel adults in this paper. Considering the problem with tracking Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) object disappearance in multi-objects with more closer condition by means of the mean shift algorithm in color space according to previous machine vision technology research results, the fusion algorithm based on mean shift and Kalman filter theories for moving objects was proposed for optimizing multi-objects moving trace tracking by means of colorful analysis for moving objects and background in monitoring zones. The recurrence relation of the adults moving trace was obtained, and position coordinate, X-component and Y-component of speed in the 2D plane were extracted by image processing and matching technologies in this algorithm. By analyzing the state sequence linear minimum variance estimate theory of dynamic system and recurrence relation of the adults moving trace, the model

  17. 不同诱捕处理在苦瓜地上对瓜实蝇和桔小实蝇的诱捕效果研究%Trapping Effects of Different Trapping Methods to Bactrocera Dorsalis and Bactrocera Cucurbitae in Bitter Gourd Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖永林; 张扬; 李燕芳; 肖汉祥; 张振飞; 符悦冠

    2013-01-01

    研究引诱剂的5种不同诱捕处理在苦瓜地上对瓜实蝇和桔小实蝇的诱捕效果.结果发现,好粘主要诱捕桔小实蝇雄虫,稳得主要诱捕瓜实蝇雄虫,2种诱剂均可同时引诱小量其它实蝇;在用量1 g的条件下,引诱剂的5种不同诱捕处理中瓶内喷涂对2种实蝇的诱捕效果均明显好于瓶外喷涂,且好粘与稳得对2种实蝇雄虫的诱捕效果随着瓶内水量的增加先增强后逐渐减弱,加水50 mL时达最大值.研究还探讨了好粘与稳得2种引诱剂对苦瓜地外围瓜实蝇和桔小实蝇雄虫的诱捕效果,结果好粘与稳得2种引诱剂在寄主植物外围不同位点上均可诱捕瓜实蝇和桔小实蝇雄虫,且某一位点上虫量发生越大其诱捕量越大.%A comparative study was conducted on the trapping effects of attractants under five different trapping methods to Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera dorsalis in bitter gourd field. The results showed that attractant Haonian mainly had trapping effect to male B. dorsalis, Wende mainly to male B. cucurbitae, besides, both of these two attractants were attractive to some other species fruit flies. With lg attractant, all five methods reflected that sprayed attractants to inside of bottles were more effective to B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis than sprayed on the surface of the bottles. When sprayed to the inside of the bottles, both Haonian and Wende's trapping effects were increased while adding water in the bottle, and the effects were decreased when keeping adding water after the strongest effects appeared when 50mL added. This study also discussed the trapping effects of attractants Haonian and Wende to B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis on the outside of the bitter gourd field. It was found that both of Haonian and Wende had trapping effects to B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis even when placed in different sites that had certain distance to host plant, and where there were more B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, there

  18. Analysis of volatiles from Chaenomeles sinensis fruits and their electroantennogram activity with Bactrocera dorsalis adults%木瓜挥发物的分析及其对桔小实蝇的触角电位反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂蓉; 季清蛾; 杨建全; 陈家骅

    2013-01-01

    木瓜是桔小实蝇的寄主植物,采用气质联用仪测定了木瓜果实挥发性物质组成,并测定了其对桔小实蝇的触角电位反应.结果表明,鉴定出的木瓜果实挥发性物质主要有7种,物质名称和含量如下:α-法呢烯(37.93%)、里那醇(30.08%)、朱栾倍半萜(18.04%)、氢-吡喃-2,6-(3氢)-二酮(8.48%)、反-2-癸烯醛(3.42%)、朱栾倍半萜1(1.03%)、大根香叶烯(1.02%).桔小实蝇雌雄成虫在交配前后均对反-2-癸烯醛产生较强的触角电位反应,而对α-法呢烯,朱栾倍半萜,大根香叶烯和里那醇的触角电位反应值则因成虫性别及交配前后而有所不同.%Chaenomeles sinensis is the host plant of Bactrocera dorsalis ( Hendel) . The volatiles from Chaenomeles sinensis fruits were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identified compounds from the volatiles were also subjected to electroantennogram detection ( EAD). The results showed that volatiles from Chaenomeles sinensis fruits mainly consisted of 7 compounds: Alpha-famesene, linalool, Valencene, 2H-Pyran-2, 6(3H)-dione 2, (E)-2-decenal, Valencenel and Gennacrene B, with relative quantities of 37.93% , 30.08%, 18.04%, 8.48%, 3.42%, 1.03% and 1.02%, respectively. (E) -2-decenal elicited significantly higher EAG responses of B. dorsalis than Alpha-farnesene, Linalool, Valencene and Gennacrene B. The differences among EAG responses elicited by Alpha-farnesene, Linalool, Valencene and Germacrene B varied by the sex and mating conditions of B. dorsalis adults.

  19. Characterization and evaluation of microsatellite markers in a strain of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), with a genetic sexing character used in sterile insect population control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a key economic insect pest reducing fruit yield and generating constraints in the international market. The application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) continues to reveal areas where new technologies can improve the effectiveness of fruit fly control. One such advancement concerns insect strains. In the present study, a mass-reared strain of the fly with a translocation-based genetic sexing character (Salaya1) based on a brown-white pupal colour dimorphism was genetically characterized using 11 microsatellite DNA markers. Subsequently, these markers were used to evaluate the maintenance of genetic variability in the strain under mass-rearing conditions. Mating competitiveness of this strain was also tested in field cages. Two of the newly characterized Y-pseudo-linked microsatellite markers were used for strain identification in field monitoring traps. The strain was also validated in a pilot integrated pest management programme using male-only SIT in a fruit orchard. The programme resulted in the suppression of the fruit fly population

  20. 橘小实蝇蛋白饵剂中氨基酸的HPLC分析及生物测定%HPLC Analysis and Biological Test of Amino Acids in Protein Bait for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英; 王波; 许晨; 许建中; 黄居昌; 季清娥; 杨建全; 陈家骅

    2014-01-01

    采用生物测定的方法比较Prima蛋白饵剂和自行研制蛋白饵剂的引诱效果。结果表明,两者对橘小实蝇(Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel))引诱效果相当,但水解后的同种蛋白饵剂引诱效果高于水解前。采用柱前衍生高效液相色谱法(AccQ·Tag法)测定以上两种蛋白饵剂中氨基酸的种类和含量,结果表明,这两种蛋白饵剂中均含有游离氨基酸17种,总氨基酸18种。其中Prima蛋白饵剂总氨基酸含量为52.8476 mg/mL,游离氨基酸含量为5.7364 mg/mL,多肽含量为4.71112 mg/mL;自行研制的橘小实蝇蛋白饵剂总氨基酸含量为65.6243 mg/mL,游离氨基酸含量为6.3010 mg/mL,多肽含量为59.3233 mg/mL。通过比较两者氨基酸的差别,为蛋白饵剂的工业化生产质量监控提供方法依据。%This article mainly compares the similarities and differences between Prima produced by Malaysia Pupuk Alam company and protein bait for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) developed by our research institute. The biological test was used to compare attractive effects, and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Precolumn Derivatization (AccQ · Tag) was used to analyse the kinds and contents of amino acids. The results showed the attractive effects of Prima and protein bait were similar, and the two protein baits all contained 17 kinds of free amino acids and 18 total amino acids. Prima contained 52.847 6 mg/mL of total amino acids, 5.736 4 mg/mL of free amino acid, and 47.111 2 mg/mL of peptides. The protein bait was consisted of 65.624 3 mg of total amino acids, 6.301 0 mg of free amino acid, 59.323 3 mg of peptides in one milliliter. Besides, the attractive effect of hydrolyzed protein was stronger than before. The results can provide a basis for monitoring protein bait quality on the industrial production.

  1. Taxonomic identity of the invasive fruit fly pest, Bactrocera invadens: concordance in morphometry and DNA barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathiya M Khamis

    Full Text Available In 2003, a new fruit fly pest species was recorded for the first time in Kenya and has subsequently been found in 28 countries across tropical Africa. The insect was described as Bactrocera invadens, due to its rapid invasion of the African continent. In this study, the morphometry and DNA Barcoding of different populations of B. invadens distributed across the species range of tropical Africa and a sample from the pest's putative aboriginal home of Sri Lanka was investigated. Morphometry using wing veins and tibia length was used to separate B. invadens populations from other closely related Bactrocera species. The Principal component analysis yielded 15 components which correspond to the 15 morphometric measurements. The first two principal axes contributed to 90.7% of the total variance and showed partial separation of these populations. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that only the first five canonical variates were statistically significant. The first two canonical variates contributed a total of 80.9% of the total variance clustering B. invadens with other members of the B. dorsalis complex while distinctly separating B. correcta, B. cucurbitae, B. oleae and B. zonata. The largest Mahalanobis squared distance (D(2 = 122.9 was found to be between B. cucurbitae and B. zonata, while the lowest was observed between B. invadens populations against B. kandiensis (8.1 and against B. dorsalis s.s (11.4. Evolutionary history inferred by the Neighbor-Joining method clustered the Bactrocera species populations into four clusters. First cluster consisted of the B. dorsalis complex (B. invadens, B. kandiensis and B. dorsalis s. s., branching from the same node while the second group was paraphyletic clades of B. correcta and B. zonata. The last two are monophyletic clades, consisting of B. cucurbitae and B. oleae, respectively. Principal component analysis using the genetic distances confirmed the clustering inferred by the NJ tree.

  2. Taxonomic identity of the invasive fruit fly pest, Bactrocera invadens: concordance in morphometry and DNA barcoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Fathiya M; Masiga, Daniel K; Mohamed, Samira A; Salifu, Daisy; de Meyer, Marc; Ekesi, Sunday

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, a new fruit fly pest species was recorded for the first time in Kenya and has subsequently been found in 28 countries across tropical Africa. The insect was described as Bactrocera invadens, due to its rapid invasion of the African continent. In this study, the morphometry and DNA Barcoding of different populations of B. invadens distributed across the species range of tropical Africa and a sample from the pest's putative aboriginal home of Sri Lanka was investigated. Morphometry using wing veins and tibia length was used to separate B. invadens populations from other closely related Bactrocera species. The Principal component analysis yielded 15 components which correspond to the 15 morphometric measurements. The first two principal axes contributed to 90.7% of the total variance and showed partial separation of these populations. Canonical discriminant analysis indicated that only the first five canonical variates were statistically significant. The first two canonical variates contributed a total of 80.9% of the total variance clustering B. invadens with other members of the B. dorsalis complex while distinctly separating B. correcta, B. cucurbitae, B. oleae and B. zonata. The largest Mahalanobis squared distance (D(2) = 122.9) was found to be between B. cucurbitae and B. zonata, while the lowest was observed between B. invadens populations against B. kandiensis (8.1) and against B. dorsalis s.s (11.4). Evolutionary history inferred by the Neighbor-Joining method clustered the Bactrocera species populations into four clusters. First cluster consisted of the B. dorsalis complex (B. invadens, B. kandiensis and B. dorsalis s. s.), branching from the same node while the second group was paraphyletic clades of B. correcta and B. zonata. The last two are monophyletic clades, consisting of B. cucurbitae and B. oleae, respectively. Principal component analysis using the genetic distances confirmed the clustering inferred by the NJ tree. PMID:23028649

  3. Optimization design and experiment of monitoring system forBactrocera dorsalis trapping under lighting variations%适应场景光照变化的桔小实蝇诱捕监测系统优化设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖德琴; 叶耀文; 冯健昭; 潘春华; 陆永跃

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera Dorsalis is a type of invasive pests and causes serious damage to many important economic crops. In order to monitor Bactrocera Dorsalisaccurately, and to reduce the misjudgment of light-induced problem, a remote monitoring system which combined a hardware equipment and a software system was designed. The hardware equipment was optimized based on our preliminary design forBactrocera Dorsalis trapping. By improving the shading system, solar devices and 4G communications devices, the hardware equipment now can be self-powered and integrate the insect pest information collection, processing and transmission as a whole functionality. In addition, this paper presents a good human-computer interaction software system, which includes theBactrocera Dorsalis monitoring programs, the server and the client-side. The monitoring program can monitor the trapping process, precisely calculate the number ofBactrocera Dorsalis, and automatically transmit the results to the remote server or store it in a local storage card. Users are convenient to obtain the monitoring information through the client-side. In order to improve the accuracy ofthe Bactrocera Dorsalis detection algorithm (BDDA) and achieve the requirements of real-time systems, an algorithm namedBactrocera Dorsalis detection algorithm under lighting variations (BDDA-LV) was proposed. The BDDA-LV began by selecting appropriate background model according to the light conditions. Then the background difference method was used to extractBactrocera Dorsalis target preliminarily. Median filtering and morphological filtering for the image was used to reduce white noise, and eliminate holes in the target area to improve the image quality. The image was then divided into blocks based on the adjacent pixels of the image and used these blocks for Geometric feature matching, so that theBactrocera Dorsalis area can be extracted. Both BDDA-LV algorithm and BDDA algorithm were tested by two sets of data. These data came from

  4. Bibliometric Analysis on Important Fruit and Vegetable Pests-Bactrocera dorsalis in the Chinese Journal Full Text Database%中国期刊全文数据库中果蔬重要害虫桔小实蝇文献计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新周; 韩群鑫

    2011-01-01

    以计量学为基础,以"CNKI"全文数据库为依据,对我国1980~2010年发表的关于果蔬重要害虫桔小实蝇的相关学术论文进行了统计和分析,包括研究文献的数量、年份分布、文献作者、载文期刊的分布、主要产出单位及区域等,从文献研究角度分析了桔小实绳的研究现状和发展趋势,以期为相关研究提供理论依据.%Bactrocera dorsalis is an important insect pest damaging the fruits and vegetables. Based on the bibliometrics and database of the literatures of Chinese Journal Full-text Database from 1980 to 2010 ,the bibliometric analysis was made on the research literatures of B. dorsalis with bibliometric method, including the literature number, distribution of publishing years, core authors, research groups and regional distribution, which revealed the study status of B. dorsalis (Hendel) in China over the past 30 years and research trend of this pest to provided theoretical foundation for correlation study.

  5. Toxicity of Pesticides in Protein Bait to Bactrocera dorsalis%橘小实蝇蛋白饵剂中添加农药的室内毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 杨莹; 黄居昌; 陈家骅

    2013-01-01

    蛋白饵剂中添加高效低毒农药已成为国内外防控实蝇类害虫的一项重要措施,为筛选高效低毒、与蛋白饵剂兼容性好的农药,在实验室条件下,采用药膜法和饵剂加毒法分别测定了多杀菌素、马拉硫磷、阿维菌素、虫螨腈和乙虫腈5种农药对橘小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalcs的触杀和胃毒作用.触杀试验结果表明,多杀菌素的触杀效果最好,LC50为72.33 mg· L-1,95%置信区间为52.84 ~ 101.48 mg·L-1.其他农药的触杀作用效果顺序为:阿维菌素>马拉硫磷>乙虫腈>虫螨腈.胃毒试验结果表明,阿维菌素和多杀菌素的胃毒作用效果较好,LC50分别为13.99和15.76 mg·L-1,95%置信区间范围分别为11.72 ~16.97和13.09~ 19.23 mg·L-1.其他农药的胃毒作用效果顺序为:虫螨腈>乙虫腈>马拉硫磷.生物测定结果表明,添加农药后,水解蛋白的引诱效果会不同程度地下降,添加多杀菌素后引诱效果最好,引诱率达到55.83%,与水解蛋白原液相比,引诱率仅下降了4.17%.%Application of protein bait adding high-efficiency and low-toxicity pesticides is an important approach controlling fruit flies in the world. Under laboratory conditions, the contact and stomach toxicity of several pesticides to Bactrocera dorsalis were tested for screening the pesticides of high-efficiency, low toxicity and good proten bait compatibility. The results of contact toxicity showed that spinosad was the best due to its lowest LC50 of 72. 33 mg · L-1. The contact toxicity of other four pesticides in order was avermectins, malathion, ethiprole and chlorfenapyr. The results of stomach toxicity showed that avermec-tins and spinosad were better than those of other three pesticides, of which the LC50 were 13. 99 and 15.76 mg · L-1 respectively, and 95% confidence interval range were 11.72 - 16.97 and 13.09 -19. 23 mg · L-1 respectively. The effect of other three pesticides in order was chlorfenapyr

  6. 橘小实蝇蛋白饵剂田间应用及效果评估%Field application and effect evaluation of protein baits to Bactrocera dorsalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王波; 陈志军; 谢先辉; 陈家骅

    2012-01-01

    Trap bottle and spot spray were two important means of protein bait applications. In order to improve the field application attractant effectiveness to Bactrocera dorsalis, some factors such as dilution times, amount and cycle of protein bait were studied. The results showed that the effect of two-fold dilution was the best. The optimal amounts of the two methods were 15 mL and 30 mL, respectively, even though the attractant effectiveness increased with the increase of the amount used. The life cycles of two means were both 5 d. The results of trap bottle application indicated that the attractant effectiveness could be increased by raising pH value properly, and the best value of pH was 6, with an attractant number of 6. 67, of which the numbers of females and males were 4.67 and 2.00, respectively. By comparing the application effects in different host orchards and different locations, we showed that the attractant effectiveness in star fruit orchards was better than orange and grapefruit orchards , and the attractant number was 5.00. The attractant numbers of park, orchard and campuses were 11.73, 7.00 and 5. 33, respectively. The results of spot spray showed that the effect was best when adding 0. 20% mala-thion, and the number of adult death was 7.67.%应用橘小实蝇蛋白饵剂主要有悬挂诱集瓶和点喷两种方式,为了提高田间应用效果,研究了稀释倍数、使用量和周期等对引诱效果的影响.结果表明,悬挂诱集瓶和点喷使用时,稀释2倍的效果最佳;对橘小实蝇的引诱效果均随着使用量的增加而增加,最佳使用量分别为15 mL和30 mL;使用周期均为5d.悬挂诱集瓶试验结果中发现,适当提高pH可提高引诱效果,pH为6时引诱效果最佳,引诱数量为6.67头,其中雌虫和雄虫分别为4.67头和2.00头;比较不同寄主果园和不同地点中应用效果时发现,杨桃果园里的引诱效果比柑橘和蜜柚果园好,引诱数量为5.00头;公园、果园和校

  7. The geometric approach to explore the Bactrocera tau complex (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kitthawee, S.; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Specimens of the genus Bactrocera were collected from several host plants in northern and western Thailand. They were morphologically recognized as Bactrocera tau and were subdivided into eleven samples according to host plant, geographic origin and time of collection. Twelve landmarks of the right wing were described in a total of 264 males and 276 females. An exploratory analysis using kernel density estimates was performed on the multivariate morphometric space. Non-parametric classificati...

  8. 桔小实蝇电压门控钠离子通道基因cDNA克隆及其生物信息学分析%Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Gene cDNA in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋玄赵; 魏丹丹; 申光茂; 豆威; 王进军

    2012-01-01

    [目的]克隆获得桔小实蝇(Bactrocera dorsalis)电压门控钠离子通道基因cDNA序列,明确其典型特征,为研究桔小实蝇抗性分子机理奠定基础.[方法]采用RT-PCR和PCR技术,克隆桔小实蝇钠离子通道基因cDNA序列,利用相关软件对其序列进行生物信息学分析.[结果]克隆得到1条长为6 446 bp的cDNA序列,包含1个6 405 bp的完整开放阅读框,共编码2 134个氨基酸.同源比对发现,桔小实蝇与果蝇(Drosophila melanogaster,NP_001188635)和家蝇(Musca domestica,AAB47604)钠离子通道基因相似度分别高达91.7%和86.9%,而与人的钠离子通道Nav1.2基因(Homo sapiens,NP_066287)相似度为42.3%.所克隆序列包含昆虫钠离子通道所有典型特征.[结论]成功地从桔小实蝇中克隆得到钠离子通道基因完整开放阅读框.该钠离子通道基因存在丰富的选择性剪接,发现了3个可能与抗性相关的碱基取代.钠离子通道基因有可能发展成为一种昆虫系统发育研究的分子标记.%[Objective] The objective of this study is to clone voltage-gated sodium channel gene (VGSC) from Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and to identify its typical hallmarks. It will provide basic molecular information for clarifying insecticide resistance mechanism of B. dorsalis. [Method] The cDNA sequence was isolated using RT-PCR and PCR methods. Based on the sequencing results, the bioinformatics analysis of nucleic acid and putative amino acid was conducted. [Result] An almost full-length cDNA sequence (6 446 bp) of VGSC was obtained, including a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 6 405 bp, which encoded 2 134 amino acids and included all the typical hallmarks of VGSC. The amino acid shared 91.7%, 86.9% and 42.3% identity with sodium channel genes of Drosophila melanogaster (NP_001188635), Musca domestica (AAB47604), and Homo sapiens Navl.2 (NP066287), respectively. [Conclusion] A complete ORF of VGSC was sequenced with clone strategy from oriental

  9. The mitochondrial genome of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Complete DNA sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic analysis with other tephritids using next generation DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Jaipal S; Naaz, Naiyar; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Rao, Mathukumalli Srinivasa; Das, Bikash

    2015-09-15

    Mitochondrial genome can provide information for genomic structure as well as for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary biology. The complete 15,935 bp mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae), is assembled from Illumina MiSeq read data. The mitogenome information for B. zonata was compared to the homologous sequences of other tephritids. Annotation indicated that the structure and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA sequences were typical of, and similar to, the ten closely related tephritid species. The nucleotide composition shows heavily biased toward As and Ts accounting 73.34% and exhibits a slightly positive AT skew, which is similar to other known tephritid species. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cox1 with TCG and atp8 with GTG. Nine PCGs use a common stop codon of TAA or TAG, whereas the remaining four use an incomplete termination codon T or TA likely to be completed by adenylation. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, with an exception for trnS((AGN)). Four short intergenic spacers showed high degree of conservation among B. zonata and other ten tephritids. A poly(T) stretch at the 5' end followed by [TA(A)]n-like stretch and a tandem repeats of 39 bp has been observed in CR. The analysis of gene evolutionary rate revealed that the cox1 and atp6 exhibits lowest and highest gene substitution rates, respectively than other genes. The phylogenetic relationships based on Maximum Likelihood method using all protein-coding genes and two ribosomal RNA genes confirmed that B. zonata is closely related to Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, and Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera dorsalis belonging to B. dorsalis species complex forms a monophyletic clade, which is in accordance with the traditional morphological classification and recent molecular works. PMID:26031235

  10. Experiment and development of monitoring system for Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) based on wireless sensors network%基于无线传感器网络的橘小实蝇成虫监测系统设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文韬; 洪添胜; 李立君; 李震; 叶智杰; 张彦晖

    2013-01-01

    Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) were invasive pests that were occurred frequently and were seriously harmful for fruit trees’ growth and have been ranked an important quarantine object in many countries and regions. So far, the main prevention method for Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) has been chemical pest control, which not only caused serious damages on the economic field but also brought on water and soil resources pollution, ecological system damages, damage to food security and its impact on human health, and a series of major problems. In order to detect the real-time number of Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) and monitor the corresponding environmental information accurately in a large-scale orchard, a wireless sensor network was employed. The dynamic monitoring system included ten pest-sensor nodes, one environmental-sensor node, and one WSN+GPRS node, all of which were deployed in the national citrus industry experimental orchards at South China Agricultural University. TinyOS and ZigBee were applied as the operating system and the communication protocol respectively for all monitoring nodes. Mean current consumption for all monitor nodes ranged from 39.52 to 42.72 mA in standby mode and from 92.21 to 95.32 mA under full operating mode. Mean current consumption of the router was kept steadily around 190mA in standby mode, and rose to stay around 250mA under communications condition. The results showed that the solar powering module sufficiently met the system power requirements. The results of the five-month communication experiments indicated that the PLR of all monitor nodes obtained a stable range from 11.9%to 20.8%, which can meet the requirements for long-time monitoring, and the statistics of the PDR had a parabola curve distribution. It meant that the stability of communication was more correlated to crop canopies and atmospheric conditions according to the short-range radio signal propagation theory. It was highly recommended that the antennas be mounted

  11. cDNA cloning, tissue expression and ligand binding characteristics of odorant-binding protein 2 from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)%桔小实蝇气味结合蛋白BdorOBP2的cDNA克隆、组织表达及配基结合特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲; 李红亮; 周宇翔; 赵磊; 张林雅; 倪翠侠; 商晗武

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the function and binding characteristics of the odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in the oriental fruit fly,Bactrocera dorsalis,we cloned an OBP cDNA from B.dorsalis,which was named BdorOBP2 (GenBank accession no.:KC773766),and then heterologously expressed its protein in prokaryotic cells.BdorOBP2 contains a 447-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 148-amino-acid residues.The mature protein of BdorOBP2 includes six conserved cysteine residues,which are the hallmark of insect OBPs.Real-time quantitative PCR results showed that BdorOBP2 was expressed in different tissues with the highest expression in the head and the lowest in the wings (63 % ± 6% of the expression level in the head).The recombinant protein BdorOBP2 was purified by affinity chromatography,and N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (1-NPN) was applied as a fluorescent probe to measure the binding capacity of BdorOBP2 with each of seven major host fruit odors.The results indicated that BdorOBP2 can evidently bind to most esters and aldehydes examined.BdorOBP2 showed the highest affinity to trans-2-hexenal and β-ionone with the dissociation constant KD of 9.96 and 15.37 μmol/L,respectively.The results of this study may help rational designs of specific and effective attractants to be used for managing B.dorsalis.%为了研究桔小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis气味结合蛋白(odorant-binding proteins,OBPs)参与其嗅觉识别过程中的功能及其与植物气味的结合特性,本研究克隆了桔小实蝇的一个气味结合蛋白基因,命名为BdorOBP2(GenBank登录号为KC773766),并对该基因进行了原核表达.BdorOBP2开放阅读框长447 bp,编码148个氨基酸,具有典型的6个半胱氨酸位点.定量PCR结果显示,桔小实蝇BdorOBP2在不同组织中均有表达,其中头部中的表达量最高,翅中表达量最低(为头部表达量的63%±6%).构建了BdorOBP2原核表达载体,诱导并获得了重组BdorOBP2并进行了亲和层析纯化.最后以N-苯基-1-

  12. Resolving cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M. Teresa; De Meyer, Marc; Clarke, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade” was conducted from 2010 to 2015. As captured in the CRP title, the objective was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. The scientific output was the accurate alignment of biological species with taxonomic names; which led to the applied outcome of assisting FAO and IAEA Member States in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and the facilitation of international agricultural trade. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, using coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, within an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. The following progress was made for the four complexes selected and studied: Anastrepha fraterculus complex – Eight morphotypes and their geographic and ecological distributions in Latin America were defined. The morphotypes can be considered as distinct biological species on the basis of differences in karyotype, sexual incompatibility, post-mating isolation, cuticular hydrocarbon, pheromone, and molecular analyses. Discriminative taxonomic tools using linear and geometric morphometrics of both adult and larval morphology were developed for this complex. Bactrocera dorsalis complex – Based on genetic, cytogenetic, pheromonal, morphometric, and behavioural data, which showed no or only minor variation between the Asian/African pest fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera invadens, the latter three species were synonymized with Bactrocera dorsalis. Of the five target pest taxa studied, only Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae remain as

  13. Resolving cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M Teresa; De Meyer, Marc; Clarke, Anthony R

    2015-01-01

    An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on "Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade" was conducted from 2010 to 2015. As captured in the CRP title, the objective was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. The scientific output was the accurate alignment of biological species with taxonomic names; which led to the applied outcome of assisting FAO and IAEA Member States in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and the facilitation of international agricultural trade. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, using coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, within an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. The following progress was made for the four complexes selected and studied: Anastrepha fraterculus complex - Eight morphotypes and their geographic and ecological distributions in Latin America were defined. The morphotypes can be considered as distinct biological species on the basis of differences in karyotype, sexual incompatibility, post-mating isolation, cuticular hydrocarbon, pheromone, and molecular analyses. Discriminative taxonomic tools using linear and geometric morphometrics of both adult and larval morphology were developed for this complex. Bactrocera dorsalis complex - Based on genetic, cytogenetic, pheromonal, morphometric, and behavioural data, which showed no or only minor variation between the Asian/African pest fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera invadens, the latter three species were synonymized with Bactrocera dorsalis. Of the five target pest taxa studied, only Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae remain as scientifically valid

  14. The parasitoid complex associated with the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, in Southern Portugal (Algarve)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Maria Albertina; Andrade, Laura,

    2014-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), is the most destructive pest of the olive trees in the Mediterranean Basin. Since 2004 several studies have been carried out in order to identify the beneficial insect species of the Hymenoptera order that usually inhabiting the olive ecosystem in Algarve. For that purpose samples of infested olive fruits were collected during the autumn season from several olive trees at Loulé and S. Brás de Alportel regions. The collected fruits were placed in labor...

  15. 橘小实蝇引诱蛋白——啤酒废酵母酶解液的挥发性成分分析%Analysis on Volatile Ingredients in Beer Waste Yeast Hydrolysate of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) Protein Bait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜迎刚; 刘贞民; 代惠洁

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to analyze volatile ingredients in beer waste yeast hydrolysate of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) protein bait. [ Method ] Volatile ingredients were collected from beer waste yeast hydrolysate by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and then analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). [ Result] Sixteen ingredients such as ethanol, acetone, 3-methyl-1-buta-nol, methoxy-phenyl-oxime, benzaldehyde, hexanoic acid, phenylethyl alcohol, benzene acetonitrile, octanoic acid, octanoic acid ethyl ester, acetic acid octyl ester, acetic acid 2-phenylethyl ester, nonanoic acid ethyl ester, ethyl 9-decenoate, decanoic acid ethyl ester and dode-canoic acid ethyl ester were identified, among them eight ingredients such as ethanol, acetone, 3-methyl-1-butanol, benzaldehyde, phenylethyl alcohol, hexanoic acid, octanoic acid and octanoic acid ethyl ester had been found from other food baits of fruit flies, furthermore ethanol and octanoic acid-ethyl ester had been proved to lure some fruit flies. The other eight ingredients had not been found from fruit fly food baits. [Conclusion] The research provides theoretical basis for further improvement of the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) protein bait.%[目的]分析橘小实蝇引诱蛋白——啤酒废酵母酶解液的挥发性成分.[方法]采用固相微萃取法( SPME)收集新鲜啤酒废酵母水解蛋白中的挥发性成分,并气质联用仪(GC-MS)对其进行了分析.[结果]鉴定出乙醇、丙酮、3-甲基-1-丁醇、甲氧基-苯基-肟、苯甲醛、己酸、苯乙醇、苯乙腈、辛酸、辛酸乙酯、乙酸辛酯、甲酸苯乙酯、壬酸乙酯、9-烯癸酸乙酯、癸酸乙酯和十二烷酸乙酯共16种物质,其中乙醇、丙酮、3-甲基-1-丁醇、苯甲醛、苯乙醇、己酸、辛酸和辛酸乙酯曾被不同学者在实蝇其他食物诱剂中发现,且乙醇和辛酸乙酯已被证实对一些实蝇种类具有引诱活性,未见其他8种物质在实蝇食

  16. Oviposition deterrents of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis to non-host plant extracts%非寄主植物提取物对橘小实蝇的产卵拒避作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海清; 刘少明; 欧阳革成; 杨悦屏; 黄灏维; 郭家骏; 熊锦君

    2008-01-01

    选取4种非寄主植物柠檬桉Eucalyptus citriodora、樟树Cinnamomum camphora、白千层Melaleuca leucadendron、夹竹桃Nerium indicum,初步研究了这4种植物叶子提取物对橘小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis的产卵拒避作用.以无水乙醇作溶剂,供试4种植物中的白千层提取物对橘小实蝇具有较强的产卵拒避作用.检测了橘小实蝇对4种植物的乙醇提取物的触角电位值,发现各生物测定值与雌虫触角电位值呈显著相关性,表明其中的挥发性组分是橘小实蝇对植物提取物产生拒避反应的重要原因之一.用无水乙醇、乙醚、石油醚、二氯甲烷作溶剂,分别提取白千层叶,仅乙醇提取物有显著拒避作用;用这4种溶剂分别提取樟树叶,则无水乙醇、乙醚、石油醚作溶剂的提取物都有较好效果.

  17. 不同季节与气象因素对橘小实蝇日飞翔活动节律的影响%The Effect of Different Seasons and Meteorological Factors on the Daily Flight Activity Rhythm of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄居昌; 郑思宁; 叶光禄; 陈家骅

    2011-01-01

    The daily flight activity rhythm of orient fruit fly [Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)] was continuously observed every hour for 10 days respectively in summer, autumn and winter in 2008 in Wushan Hill Orchard, Fuzhou. Their activity rhythm were analyzed and compared by the observations of 3 clear or cloudy days, together with meteorological data. The result showed that the adults only flied in daytime, and that the daily flight activity rhythm of the pest was not the same in different seasons; their flying peak in the sunny or cloudy weather conditions was at 7:00 am in summer, 9:00 am in autumn, and 15:00 pm in winter. The study found that temperature and relative humidity played an important role on the daily flight activity rhythm of orient fruit fly; the adults were the most active at temperature of 20 ~30 ℃ and the humidity up to 60%; the change of temperature and relative humidity due to rainfall had a significant impact on the activity of orient fruit fly.%笔者于2008年夏、秋、冬3个季节,每个季节在福州乌山果园对橘小实蝇进行10d的全天观测,然后各季节分别选择3d晴朗或多云的气候条件下所得数据,结合气象资料,分析比较该虫的日飞翔活动变化情况.结果表明,橘小实蝇在不同季节的飞翔活动节律不同,在晴到多云天气里,该虫夏季的活动高峰期为上午7:00,秋季为上午9:00,冬季则为下午15:00.橘小实蝇成虫仅在白天有光照情况下进行飞翔活动,气温、相对湿度对该虫活动有显著的影响.气温在20~30℃时,橘小实蝇飞翔活动最活跃,相对湿度大于60%时其飞翔活动最活跃.降水带来的气温与相对湿度的变化对橘小实蝇飞翔活动有显著的影响.

  18. Changes of the frequency of resistant individuals in populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae ), with resistant individual flow%桔小实蝇抗性个体流动对抗性个体频率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金涛; 曾玲; 陆永跃; 林玉英; 梁广文

    2011-01-01

    为了解害虫个体的迁移对害虫群体抗药性发展的影响,本研究利用实验室内建立的桔小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis对敌百虫和高效氯氰菊酯两种抗性品系以及相对敏感品系,设计5%~25%个体的迁移比例,研究桔小实蝇抗、感个体流动对原始种群抗性个体频率的影响.结果表明:桔小实蝇抗性个体迁入敏感种群,使得敏感种群抗性个体频率增加,在抗性个体迁移率为25%时,影响敏感种群敌百虫和高效氯氰菊酯抗性个体频率的变化值分别为20.04%和41.75%;同样随着敏感个体迁入比例的增加,抗性种群中抗性个体频率降低程度越大,在敏感个体迁移率为25%时,抗性种群敌百虫和高效氯氰菊酯抗性个体频率的变化值分别为56.20%和25.88%.利用抗性个体频率变化值与相应迁移率的比值来表示迁移的相对效率,在抗性个体迁移率为5%时,影响敏感种群抗性个体频率变化的相对效率最高;在敏感个体迁移率分别为5%和10%时,影响敌百虫抗性种群和高效氯氰菊酯抗性种群抗性个体频率变化的相对效率最高.以抗、感个体迁移引起的抗性个体频率变化值进行趋势拟合,发现抗敌百虫与抗高效氯氰菊酯桔小实蝇品系不同迁移比例下的抗性个体频率变化趋势分别符合密度模型(density model)和房屋模型(housing model),相关系数分别是0.9696和0.9647.研究结果表明通过合理地设计抗、感迁移比例能有效地延缓桔小实蝇抗性水平的上升,达到抗性治理的目的.%To investigate the effecis of immigration of individuals on evolution of insecticide resistance, l 'frequencies of resistant individuals of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, to trichlorphon and βcypermethrin were measured with different immigration rates of resistant or sensitive individuals in this study. The results showed that when resistant adults were immigrated into the susceptible population, the

  19. 橘小实蝇幼虫解毒酶系基因应对高效氯氰菊酯胁迫的组织特异性表达%Tissue Specific Expression of Genes Encoding Detoxification Enzymes in the Larvae ofBactrocera dorsalis Underβ-Cypermethrin Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申光茂; 王晓娜; 黄勇; 豆威; 王进军

    2015-01-01

    达量经高效氯氰菊酯胁迫后在脂肪体中也出现了显著的上调,而CYP317B1的表达量在药剂压力下并没有明显的变化。【结论】橘小实蝇幼虫在应对高效氯氰菊酯胁迫时,体内的解毒代谢酶系基因集中在中肠和脂肪体高水平表达,但存在整体保持平衡的现象,推测橘小实蝇在应对杀虫剂的持续胁迫时,存在趋于平衡的能量分配策略,即通过提高能量的利用效率,减少在抵御外源杀虫剂伤害时额外能量的消耗。这种可以避免出现适合度代价的策略可能是昆虫应对环境压力的一种重要适应机制。%Objective]Based on the transcriptome data ofBactrocera dorsalis, the aim of this study is to systematically analyze the expression of genes in larvae encoding detoxification enzymes underβ-cypermethrin exposure, identify important detoxification genes, and focus on the discussion of biological significance of tissue specific expression of these genes.[Method] The expressions of 30 detoxification genes in the whole body of larvae, midgut, and fat body were detected underβ-cypermethrin exposure by using qPCR.[Result]Under the stress ofβ-cypermethrin, the qPCR results of 8 GSTs genes showed that the mRNA levels of 4 Delta class genes significantly increased. The expressions of genes from Delta class were up-regulated to 5.6-32.5 folds in the midgut and fat body, but the expressions of other GST genes did not show very active reaction when exposed toβ-cypermethrin. Meanwhile, although the expressions of Delta class GSTs genes significantly increased in midgut and fat body, the expression changes of these genes were not so apparent in the whole body. As for the 6 CCEs genes, their expressions were up-regulated in some degree in the whole body, andα-E3 was up-regulated to 4.1 folds. However, in the midgut and fat body, the expressions of these genes did not increase significantly. The qPCR results of 16 P450s genes showed that the

  20. Nonhost status of mangosteen to Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera:Tephritidae) in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postharvest quarantine treatments (irradiation or vapor heat) are used to control fruit flies and other pests in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) exported to the United States and Japan from Thailand. No-choice tests were conducted in the laboratory to determine whether Thai mangosteen is a host f...

  1. Behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Semiochemicals are divided into ecomone and para-ecomone, the former is released naturally into the environment, the latter is not. An ecomone with intraspecies activity is known as a pheromone. One with interspecies activity is generally grouped under allelochemicals. It is specifically known as: 1) an allomone when it benefits the releaser with detrimental effect on the receiver, 2) a kairomone when it benefits the receiver with detrimental effect on the releaser, 3) a synomone when it benefits both the releaser and receiver, or 4) an apneumone when released from dead or decaying material caused by microbial action. A para-ecomone may be either a constituent of an organism or a synthetic chemical not released naturally. It should be emphasised that a chemical can be an ecomone and a para-ecomone and, as an ecomone, may act as a pheromone as well as an allomone or a kairomone. The study of an organism's ecomone in relation to the environment, interaction between individuals belonging to the same and/or different species, and how it affects behaviour constitutes the bulk of chemical ecology. Ecomones in applied entomology may be exploited as agents for 1) insect pest surveillance and monitoring, 2) trapping insect in population estimation or as an intervention technique such as the area-wide male annihilation technique, and 3) understanding and disrupting insect communication in a pest control or management programme. This paper presents an update of the behaviour within the context of chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies which is crucial in the understanding the flies' role in the complex communal interrelationships within Malaysian agro- and natural ecosystems as previously presented (Tan 1993)

  2. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more

  3. Evaluating mating compatibility within fruit fly cryptic species complexes and the potential role of sex pheromones in pre-mating isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, M. Laura; Devescovi, Francisco; Břízová, Radka; Bachmann, Guillermo; Segura, Diego F.; Kalinová, Blanka; Fernández, Patricia; Ruiz, M. Josefina; Yang, Jianquan; Teal, Peter E.A.; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J.B.; Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M. Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study of sexual behavior and the identification of the signals involved in mate recognition between con-specifics are key components that can shed some light, as part of an integrative taxonomic approach, in delimitating species within species complexes. In the Tephritidae family several species complexes have received particular attention as they include important agricultural pests such as the Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae (Graham) and Ceratitis rosa Karsch (FAR) complex, the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) complex and the Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) complex. Here the value and usefulness of a methodology that uses walk-in field cages with host trees to assess, under semi-natural conditions, mating compatibility within these complexes is reviewed, and the same methodology to study the role of chemical communication in pre-mating isolation among Anastrepha fraterculus populations is used. Results showed that under the same experimental conditions it was possible to distinguish an entire range of different outcomes: from full mating compatibility among some populations to complete assortative mating among others. The effectiveness of the methodology in contributing to defining species limits was shown in two species complexes: Anastrepha fraterculus and Bactrocera dorsalis, and in the case of the latter the synonymization of several established species was published. We conclude that walk-in field cages constitute a powerful tool to measure mating compatibility, which is also useful to determine the role of chemical signals in species recognition. Overall, this experimental approach provides a good source of information about reproductive boundaries to delimit species. However, it needs to be applied as part of an integrative taxonomic approach that simultaneously assesses cytogenetic, molecular, physiological and morphological traits in order to reach more robust species delimitations. PMID:26798257

  4. Chemical Stimulants and Genetic Sexing Boost the SIT: Evidence from Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera Dorsalis in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic and chemical means have been developed to significantly improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique against tephritid fruit flies in recent years. Beginning with the development of genetic sexing techniques some 25 years ago, all-male strains of several species of fruit flies h...

  5. Pupal x-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    We did protein analysis using 1-12-d-old adults from irradiated and non-irradiated oriental fruit fly pupae. We found that exposing pupae to x-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 30 proteins in adult males. There were 7 proteins (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehyd...

  6. KETERTARIKAN LALAT BUAH BACTROCERA PADA EKSTRAK OLAHAN LIMBAH KAKAO BERPENGAWET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rini Indriyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lalat buah Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae merupakan salah satu hama pen ting menyerang tanaman buah-buahan dan sayuran. B. carambolae di laboratorium tertarik pada olahan limbah kakao. Hasil uji coba di lapangan belum memuaskan karena olahan limbah kakao mudah rusak. Tujuan penelitian ini mengkaji respon lalat buah Bactrocera yang diberi umpan ekstrak olahan limbah kakao berpenga wet. Pengawet yang digunakan yakni: Natrium klorida (NaCl, Natrium benzoat (C7H5NaO2 dan Potasium sorbat (C6H7KO2. Konsentrasi yang dipakai masing-masing pengawet 0,1%; 0,2% dan 0,3%. Pengamatan dilakukan selama satu ming gu. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa daya tahan limbah yang diberi penga wet dan yang tidak dilihat secara secara fisik (warna dan tekstur tidak berbeda nyata, namun ada perbedaan bau. Limbah yang tidak diberi pengawet ada kecen derungan baunya tidak sedap dibanding yang diberi pengawet. Hal ini yang mempengaruhi ketertarikan lalat terhadap olahan limbah kakao. Respon ketertarikan lalat Bactrocera terhadap olahan limbah kakao yang diberi pengawet berbeda antara satu dengan yang lain. Respon ketertarikan tertinggi Bactrocera cenderung pada olahan limbah kakao yang diberi pengawet Natrium klorida 0,3%, Potasium sorbat 0,2% dan Natrium benzoat 0,1%.The fruit fly Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the important pests attacking crops of fruits and vegetables. In the laboratory, B. carambolae was attracted by the processed cocoa waste. The results of field trials have not been satisfactory yet, because the processed cocoa waste was easily damaged. The purpose of the study wast to examine the response of Bactrocera to the bait made of processed cocoa extract waste containing preservatives. The preservatives used were: Sodium chloride (NaCl, sodium benzoate (C7H5NaO2 and potassium sorbate (C6H7KO2. The concentration of each preservative was 0.1%; 0.2% and 0.3%. A one-week observation was made. The result showed that there was no

  7. Dorsalis pedis arterialized venous flap for hand and foot reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guang; LEI Hong-yu; GUO Shuang; HUANG Jian-hua; YU Hao

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To report the results of repair of skin defects in the extremities with arterialized venous flap harvested from the lateral aspect of the dorsum of the foot.Methods:Six cases of skin and soft tissue defects over the foot and hands were resurfaced by free arterialized venous flaps,including five patients with skin defects of the hands,and one with defects at the dorsum of the foot.The flaps were harvested from the lateral aspect of the dorsum of the foot with the sizes ranging from 2 cm×5.5 cm to 6 cm×11 cm.Two veins at the proximal margin of the flap were retained,one of which was anastomosed to a recipient bed artery to provide arterial inflow and the other was anastomosed to a recipient bed vein for venous outflow.Results:All flaps demonstrated mild edema and survived completely.Blisters appeared on four flaps.Using this technique,we achieved good functional and cosmetic results in this series.Conclusions:Dorsalis pedis arterialized venous flap with rich vascular communications could enhance peripheral perfusion and decrease congestion of venous flaps,thereby improves reliability and utility for extremity reconstruction.

  8. Assessment of Navel Oranges, Clementine Tangerines, and Rutaceous Fruits as Hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Follett, Peter A; Liquido, Nicanor J; Sylva, Charmaine D

    2015-01-01

    Export of Citrus spp. fruits may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. The host status of Citrus spp. fruits is unclear for two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have expanded in recent years: melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Cocquillett), and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel). In no choice cage infestation studies, B. latifrons oviposited into intact and punctured Washington navel oranges (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) and Clementine tangerines (C. reticulata L. var. Clementine), but eggs rarely developed to the adult stage. B. cucurbitae readily infested intact and punctured tangerines, and to a lesser extent punctured oranges, but did not infest intact oranges. Limited cage infestation and only a single literature report of field Citrus spp. infestation suggest that risk mitigation of Citrus spp. for B. latifrons is not needed. Risk mitigation options of Citrus spp. for B. cucurbitae, including heat and cold treatments and systems approaches, are discussed. PMID:26816484

  9. Site-specific temporal and spatial validation of a generic plant pest forecast system with observations of Bactrocera dorsalis (oriental fruit fly).

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study introduces a simple generic model, the Generic Pest Forecast System (GPFS), for simulatingthe relative populations of non-indigenousarthropod pests in space and time. The model was designed to calculate the population index or relative population using hourly weather dataas influenced by...

  10. Field trials of solid triple lure (trimedlure, methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone, and DDVP) dispensers for detection and male annihilation of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera cucurbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers and Mallet CMR (ceralure, ME, RK, benzyl acetate) wafers impregnated with DDVP insecticide were evaluated in traps as potential detection and male annihilation devices. Comparisons were made with 1) liquid lure a...

  11. The biogeography of the holarctic Nephrotoma dorsalis species-group (Diptera, Tipulidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangelder, Ida R.M.

    1988-01-01

    A biogeographic analysis is presented for the Holarctic Nephrotoma dorsalis-group in relation to the palaeogeographic, climatic and floristic history of the Holarctic region in the Cenozoic. Holarctic intercontinental connections across the Atlantic and by way of Beringia are discussed as well as th

  12. Superselective Urokinase Infusion Therapy for Dorsalis Pedis Artery Occlusion in Buerger's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occlusion of the proximal left dorsalis pedis artery (DPA) in a patient with Buerger's disease was treated by continuous urokinase intraarterial infusion using a microcatheter. Recanalization of the DPA and healing of a toe ulcer were achieved. The patient remains asymptomatic during a 4-year follow-up

  13. Haplotype analysis of global chili thrips (Schirtothrips dorsalis) populations using the metazoan barcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scirtothirps dorsalis is a globally invasive polyphagous crop pest infesting several major field and ornamental crops. Established in Florida since 2005, it had spread to Texas within one year. Establishing a putative source locality of the US population would help stakeholders target effective cont...

  14. Haplotype analysis of global chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis) populations using the metazoan barcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scirtothirps dorsalis is a globally invasive polyphagous crop pest infesting several major field and ornamental crops. Established in Florida since 2005, it had spread to Texas within one year. Establishing a putative source locality of the US population would help stakeholders target effective cont...

  15. Widespread distribution of the piggyBac transposon in various bactrocera species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The piggyBac transposable element from the Lepidopteran species Trichoplusia ni is currently the most widely used vector for insect transgenesis. Consequently, the presence of piggyBac-like sequences has been investigated, by PCR and Southern analysis, in different species of target genera such as Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha, along with Tirhitromina and Rhagoletis. PiggyBac-like sequences were detected in several Bactrocera species. The evolution of the piggyBac-like sequences is discussed with respect to the phylogenies of the hosts. (author)

  16. Artificial rearing of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) into the area-wide management of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is a promising althernative to the localized use of chemical control tactics. Implementation of the SIT requires adequate numbers of sterile male insects that are produ...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SBo1 Isolated from Bactrocera oleae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Frances; Vontas, John

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Stenotrophomonas are ubiquitous in the environment and are increasingly associated with insects. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SBo1 was cultured from the gut of Bactrocera oleae. The draft genome sequence presented here will inform future investigations into the nature of the interaction between insects and their microbiota. PMID:27660769

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bactrocera oleae Symbiont "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Frances; Gioti, Anastasia; Starns, David; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Vontas, John; Darby, Alistair C

    2016-01-01

    "Candidatus Erwinia dacicola" is a Gammaproteobacterium that forms a symbiotic association with the agricultural pest Bactrocera oleae Here, we present a 2.1-Mb draft hybrid genome assembly for "Ca. Erwinia dacicola" generated from single-cell and metagenomic data. PMID:27634990

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SBo1 Isolated from Bactrocera oleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Frances; Vontas, John; Darby, Alistair C

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Stenotrophomonas are ubiquitous in the environment and are increasingly associated with insects. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SBo1 was cultured from the gut of Bactrocera oleae The draft genome sequence presented here will inform future investigations into the nature of the interaction between insects and their microbiota. PMID:27660769

  20. Acetobacter tropicalis is a major symbiont of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kounatidis, Ilias; Crotti, Elena; Sapountzis, Panagiotis;

    2009-01-01

    Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial...

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of the Bactrocera oleae Symbiont “Candidatus Erwinia dacicola”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Frances; Gioti, Anastasia; Starns, David; Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Vontas, John

    2016-01-01

    “Candidatus Erwinia dacicola” is a Gammaproteobacterium that forms a symbiotic association with the agricultural pest Bactrocera oleae. Here, we present a 2.1-Mb draft hybrid genome assembly for “Ca. Erwinia dacicola” generated from single-cell and metagenomic data. PMID:27634990

  2. Male Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tau (Diptera; Tephritidae) attractants from Elsholtzia pubescens Bth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasyim, A.; Muryati,; Mizu Istianto,; Kogel, de W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the ability of different plant extracts to attract male fruit flies indicated that an extract of Elsholtzia pubescens attracted male Bactrocera tau fruit flies in Passion fruit orchards in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Analyses of the plant extract showed that the major compound present was Ca

  3. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  4. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern. PMID:26090853

  5. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae: Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi-Sen Yong

    Full Text Available Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia and southern hemisphere (Indonesia were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2 genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94% was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77% and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%. This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern.

  6. Capturing and toying with hyraxes (Dendrohyrax dorsalis) by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Bossou, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, S; Yamakoshi, G; Fujita, S; Ohashi, G; Matsuzawa, T

    2001-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) were observed capturing and toying with western tree hyraxes (Dendrohyrax dorsalis, Order Hyracoidea) at Bossou, Guinea. An adolescent female carried one hyrax for 15 hr, slept with it in her nest, and groomed it. The captive was not consumed. Nearby adults ignored the hyrax. In another case, two adolescent males timidly inspected a small hyrax. These observations indicate that the chimpanzees at Bossou do not regard the hyrax as a prey animal, supporting the idea that lack of opportunity does not seem to be the only reason that chimpanzees do not consume an individual of a potential prey species. PMID:11170171

  7. The complete mitochondrial genome of the pumpkin fruit fly, Bactrocera tau (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Meihua; Zhang, Rui; Xiang, Caiyu; Zhou, Xin

    2016-07-01

    The pumpkin fruit fly, Bactrocera tau, is an important quarantine pest in many countries because of its mass destructiveness to a variety of vegetable and fruit plants. In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of B. tau. Its complete mitogenome sequence is 15,687 bp in length, which contains a non-coding control region and all of the 37 genes of bilaterian animals (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes). A phylogenetic tree of the complete mitogenome of all available Tephritidae species was established to approve the accuracy. The base composition of mitogenome sequence and the gene arrangement including directions are rather conservative, compared to other published mitogenomes of Bactrocera species. This first complete mitogenome of B. tau will facilitate the development of new DNA markers for species diagnosis, therefore improving accurate detection of quarantine species. PMID:26024140

  8. Bionomics of Bactrocera (Bactrocera) philippinensis (Drew & Hancock) ( Diptera: Tephritidae)%菲律宾实蝇生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦懿; 陈枝楠; 陈志粦

    2011-01-01

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera (Bactrocera) philippinensis (Drew & Hancock ), is an important quarantine pest. It has been reported to damage many fruits seriously, such as mango Mangifera indica L., papaya Carica papaya L. and jackfruit Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. The bionomics of the fruit fly was systematically observed and studied in the laboratory. The results showed that their emergence percentage was 93.93% during 6- 18 h. Their adult activity, longevity, mating and oviposition were related significantly to temperature and light. The adult longevity was prolonged by supplementary nutrition. The suitable temperature of their development and fecundity was 25℃ -30℃. The fruit fly laid 627.35 and 652.57 eggs on average at 25℃ and 30℃, respectively. The thermal threshold temperature and the effective accumulated temperature for the development were 14. 31℃ and 450. 43 day-degree, respectively. The developmental duration was correlated negatively with temperature (r = -0.9005). This study provided the important basic information for the technique of quarantine treatment and field control of the fruit fly.%菲律宾实蝇 Bactrocera (Bactrocera)philippinensis(Drew & Hancock)是重要的检疫性有害生物,严重危害芒果Mangifera indica L.、木瓜 Carica papaya L.和菠萝蜜Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.等水果.本文在室内实验条件下对菲律宾实蝇生物学特性进行了较为系统的研究.结果表明:菲律宾实蝇在6~18 h羽化率达93.93%.成虫活动、寿命、交配和产卵与温度、光照密切相关.补充营养能显著延长成虫寿命.菲律宾实蝇生长、发育和繁殖的适宜温度为25~30℃.25℃和30℃时平均产卵量分别为627.35粒和652.57粒.发育起点温度和世代有效积温分别为14.31℃和450.43日·度.温度与发育历期呈显著的负相关(r=-0.9005).本研究为菲律宾实蝇的检疫处理和田间防治技术研究提供了重要的基础资料.

  9. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Teal, P. E. A.; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (i...

  10. Taxonomic Identity of the Invasive Fruit Fly Pest, Bactrocera invadens: Concordance in Morphometry and DNA Barcoding

    OpenAIRE

    Khamis, Fathiya M.; Masiga, Daniel K.; Samira A Mohamed; Daisy Salifu; Marc de Meyer; Sunday Ekesi

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, a new fruit fly pest species was recorded for the first time in Kenya and has subsequently been found in 28 countries across tropical Africa. The insect was described as Bactrocera invadens, due to its rapid invasion of the African continent. In this study, the morphometry and DNA Barcoding of different populations of B. invadens distributed across the species range of tropical Africa and a sample from the pest's putative aboriginal home of Sri Lanka was investigated. Morphometry usi...

  11. Tests on the effectiveness of kaolin and copper hydroxide in the control of Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)

    OpenAIRE

    Caleca, V; Rizzo, R.

    2007-01-01

    Repellent and antiovipositional products in the control of Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) find a great interest in organic farming, because of the lack of effective products able to kill the olive fly preimmaginal stages. In 2003 in Castelvetrano (Trapani province, Sicily), tests on the effectiveness of Surround WP, a product containing 95% of kaolin, were carried out on three table olive cultivars, Nocellara del Belice, Moresca and Tonda Iblea. In 2004, in the same field and on the same cultiv...

  12. Kaolin protects olive fruits from Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) infestations unaffecting olive oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Perri, Dr Enzo; Iannotta, dr. Nino; Muzzalupo, PhD Innocenzo; Russo, Dr Anna; Caravita, Dr Maria Anna; Pellegrino, Massimiliano; Parise, Mr Attilio; Tucci, Mr Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy of the processed kaolin “Surround WP” to control olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Gmelin, field infestations was investigated in east Calabria. The preliminary results showed that fruit infestation levels were significantly reduced on kaolin-treated trees compared with untreated trees. The promising results of these experiments points to the feasibility of using particle film technology composed of a non-toxic material, to avoid olive fly damage as an alternative to the applicat...

  13. Distinct Genetic Lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) Revealed by COI and 16S DNA Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Phaik-Eem Lim; Ji Tan; I WAYAN SUANA; Praphathip Eamsobhana; Hoi Sen Yong

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malays...

  14. On the taxonomical status of Arctodiaptomus dampfi Brehm (Crustacea: Copepoda: Diaptomidae with comments on A. dorsalis (Marsh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo SUÁREZ-MORALES

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Arctodiaptomus dampfi Brehm is a diaptomid copepod described from Lake Petén, in Guatemala. Due to the fact that the type material is lost and no additional material was available, the taxonomical status of this species remained unclear for more than 65 years. Arctodiaptomus dampfi has been advanced as a synonym of A. dorsalis and some authors followed this position; instead, others recognized this species in regional checklists. We collected zooplankton samples at Lake Petén, A. dampfi type locality, and compared this material with confirmed museum specimens and material from Louisiana, the type locality of A. dorsalis. Our observations with light microscopy and SEM allowed us to state that A. dampfi is in fact a synonym of A. dorsalis and should be excluded from regional lists. This was concluded after examination and comparison of the taxonomically relevant structures in both groups of specimens. Differences between both groups of specimens were slight. We found significative size differences between the Guatemalan population and the other neotropical and nearctic ones, the former being the smallest sized populations known throughout the known distributional range of A. dorsalis.

  15. A revision of the Crane Fly genus Nephrotoma Meigen, 1803, in North America (Diptera, Tipulidae). Part I: The Dorsalis speciesgroup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangelder, Ida R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In this study a taxonomic revision of the 20 nearctic species of the dorsalis-group is given. For each taxon the following data are presented: references, type material, material examined, diagnostic features, description, detailed drawings of male and female copulatory organs, biology and distribut

  16. History of Neurology and Psychiatry: Sewing Machine, Tabes Dorsalis, and Ovarian Hysteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlef Claus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hysteria was the Sphinx of nervous disorders. In ancient times the cause of hysteria was supposed to be sited in the womb. However the French Neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot favoured the ovaries as the site of the origin of hysteria, and he recommended the therapeutic compression of the ovaries in order to terminate hysterical fits. To this end, the treatment of hysteria in women was carried out by the surgical removal of one ovary. This surgical intervention was not without risk in the 19th century, but more to the point it did not help the patients. Most German Neurologists doubted this “hysteric ovary” theory, but it was not until after 1901 that Steinhausen was able to prove by statistical analysis, that the “hysteric” ovary did not exist at all. Statistical data analysis also helped to support the connection between Syphilis and Tabes dorsalis, which usually became clinically manifest several years after infection. In those days neither cerebrospinal fluid analysis nor serology were available. Apart from several nonspecific suspected causes of Tabes - it was the use of the newly invented sewing machine that came under suspicion as the trigger of Tabes dorsalis.

  17. The suspension therapy for tabes dorsalis. A case history of a therapeutic fad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, D J; Edmonson, J M

    1990-06-01

    The suspension therapy of tabes dorsalis was introduced by Motschutkovsky in 1883, popularized by Charcot and Gilles de la Tourette in 1889, and subsequently rapidly and widely disseminated on the basis of enthusiastic case series. Dissemination was facilitated by endorsements of eminent neurologists, widespread publicity in professional journals and lay press, and the apparent simplicity and safety of the procedure. However, increasingly critical reports appeared, indicating much lower success rates, frequent postprocedure deterioration, and occasional serious complications. The disparity between early and later studies resulted from a placebo effect, from disregard of the natural history of the condition, from misdiagnosis, and from biased observation and reporting. By the end of 1890, the procedure was largely abandoned, despite proponents' attempts to modify the technique or to identify a more responsive subgroup of patients.

  18. Competitiveness of irradiated methyl eugenol fed oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of methyl eugenol feeding in the sexual competitiveness of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis was studied. Addition of methyl eugenol concentration up to 0.5 ml per liter diet revealed no significant difference base on different quality control parameters used in the study. Results of mating tests showed high number of mated pairs were collected on flies fed with methyl eugenol both on the larvae and adult stage as compared with the untreated flies. Although no significant difference was observed between the larval and adult methyl eugenol-fed flies, the number of mated pairs slightly increased in the former than the latter in all mating tests conducted. (Author)

  19. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    OpenAIRE

    Hoi-Sen Yong; Phaik-Eem Lim; Ji Tan; Sze-Looi Song; I WAYAN SUANA; Praphathip Eamsobhana

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequenc...

  20. Benzyl acetates as attractants for the male oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis, and the male melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, Robert L.; Metcalf, Esther R.; Mitchell, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Fifty compounds related to benzyl acetate were evaluated quantitatively as attractants to the male oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) and the male melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae). Thienylmethyl acetate was nearly as attractive as benzyl acetate to both species, but cyclohexylmethyl acetate was completely unattractive, emphasizing the role of the planar aromatic ring in receptor interaction. Although benzyl acetate was equally attractive to both species, para substituents invariably reduced attr...

  1. The complete mtDNA genome of Triplophysa dorsalis (Cypriniformes, Balitoridae, Cobitoidea): genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dujuan; Conteh Kanu, Unisa; Zhao, Guang; Xie, Peng; Yuan, Hao; Li, Yu; Niu, Jiangong; Ma, Xufa

    2016-09-01

    Based upon the morphological characters, the genus Triplophysa (plateau Loach) is a highly diverse group in the family Balitoridae (or Cypriniformes, Cobitoidea) with 133 valid species. Therefore, the taxonomic relationship of this species at the genetic level remains ambiguous. In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Triplophysa dorsalis. In order to understand its position and genetic background at the gene level, the characteristics of mitochondrial DNA sequences and phylogenetic relationship were examined. The mitochondrial genome of T. dorsalis is similar to those of the typical vertebrates, 16 572 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region (D-loop). All genes were encoded on the heavy strand except for ND6 and 8 tRNA genes. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was 28.16%, 28.41%, 25.62% and 17.82% for A, T, C and G, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the seven Triplophysa species clustered together with T. dorsalis to form a sister group with Triplophysa strauchii, T. bleekeri, T. stoliczkai and T. bombifrons. The two genera Triplophysa and Barbatula formed a sister-group relationship, the species Homatula potanini located in the intermediate position, and the genus Leptobotia elongata was in the basal position in the subfamily Nemacheilidae. Further investigations with more Triplophysa species need to be performed for better understanding of the evolutionary history of this fascinating genus. PMID:26457606

  2. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements.

  3. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements. PMID:27392643

  4. A population analysis of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni using microsatellite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), the Queensland fruit fly or Q-fly, is the most economically important horticultural pest in Australia, infesting almost every commercial vegetable and fruit crop (Drew 1989). It is well established as a serious pest all along the east coast of Australia, as far south as the east Gippsland area of Victoria (Drew 1989). B. tryoni has the potential to spread across Australia to South Australia, Victoria and the tropical regions of the Northern Territory (Meats 1989) and flies classified as B. tryoni have been identified in the Northern Territory (Osborne et al. 1997). Winter breeding of B. tryoni is believed to occur only in the northern half of the range, although winged adults are usually sufficiently hardy to survive the southern winter without reproducing (Meats 1989). The number of generations per year is also a function of temperature, ranging from about eight in northern Queensland to about three in the Sydney region (Fletcher 1989). In recent years, there has been an increase in the frequency of outbreaks in horticulturally important areas, inland in the southeast of the continent, where irrigation systems have been in use (Bateman 1991). Small-scale outbreaks occur in Adelaide (Maelzer 1990), and a more substantial outbreak was eradicated from Perth (Fisher 1996). These outbreaks mean the suspension of fruit fly free status with severe financial implications for the regions affected. To assist with the control of outbreaks within the fly-free zones and to facilitate area-wide management programmes in the endemic areas, it would be useful to have molecular genetic markers capable of identifying population structure. Population analysis requires markers which are capable of easy and repeatable scoring and which are as polymorphic as possible. Microsatellites are now widely regarded as the most useful molecular markers available for genetic typing of individuals for kinship or larger-scale population studies (Bruford and Wayne 1993

  5. Novel toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis strains against the melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishir, Md Asaduzzaman; Akter, Asma; Bodiuzzaman, Md; Hossain, M Aftab; Alam, Md Musfiqul; Khan, Shakil Ahmed; Khan, Shakila Nargis; Hoq, M Mozammel

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera cucurbitae (melon fruit fly) is one of the most detrimental vegetable-damaging pests in Bangladesh. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been reported against a few genera of Bactrocera in addition to numerous other insect species. Bt strains, harbouring cry1A-type genes were, therefore, assayed in vivo against the 3(rd) instar larvae of B. cucurbitae in this study. The biotype-based prevalence of cry1 and cry1A genes was calculated to be 30.8% and 11.16%, respectively, of the test strains (n=224) while their prevalence was greatest in biotype kurstaki. Though three indigenous Bt strains from biotype kurstaki with close genetic relationship exhibited higher toxicity, maximum mortalities were recorded for Btk HD-73 (96%) and the indigenous Bt JSc1 (93%). LC50 and LC99 values were determined to be 6.81 and 8.32 for Bt JSc1, 7.30 and 7.92 for Bt SSc2, and 6.99 and 7.67 for Btk HD-73, respectively. The cause of toxicity and its variation among the strains was found to be correlated with the synergistic toxic effects of cry1, cry2, cry3 and cry9 gene products, i.e. relevant Cry proteins. The novel toxicity of the B. thuringiensis strains against B. cucurbitae revealed in the present study thus will help in developing efficient and eco-friendly control measures such as Bt biopesticides and transgenic Bt cucurbits.

  6. A clinical study of new cases of parenchymal neurosyphilis: has tabes dorsalis disappeared or been missed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Qing; Huang, Ming; Jia, Xiao-Yan; Zou, Ya-Fen; Chen, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Tabes dorsalis (TD) was documented as the most common parenchymal neurosyphilis, but its incidence dramatically declined in the antibiotic era. Syphilis has resurged on the China mainland since the 1980s. In recent years, physicians have been reporting parenchymal neurosyphilis, and the overwhelming majority was general paresis, but this was not the case in the authors' hospital. To make clear the real situation of parenchymal neurosyphilis in the authors' hospital, a retrospective review was carried out of the records of patients during 2009-2012. Overrepresented clinical new cases of tabetic and paretic parenchymal neurosyphilis were collected. Clinical characteristics, neuroimaging, laboratory data, and responses to penicillin were analyzed in two groups. The efficiency of two current criteria based on CSF antibodies tests was inspected. In the 43 cases with positive serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and TPPA tests, 18 patients met the criteria of this study: 11 presented with symptoms of general paresis, and seven had typical presentations of TD. There were statistical differences in serum RPR titers, CSF RPR, white blood cell count, and TP between the paretic and tabetic groups. The response to penicillin was relatively poor in TD. The efficiency of two current criteria was lower in the diagnosis of TD. TD was not uncommon in our area. Its clinical features remained typical, but underdiagnosis with CSF-based criteria and a decreased response to penicillin were prominent issues. PMID:25321411

  7. The Nearctic-Caribbean species Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius, 1801: Larval descriptions with a diagnosis of immature Ctenodactylini and natural history notes on the genus and tribe (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Erwin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adults and larvae of Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius, the Sugarcane Savior Beetle, live in association with grasses, the larvae in the appressed leaf axils. Both adult and larval L. dorsalis eat larvae of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, and perhaps other insects living in the confines of the leaf sheaths of that and other grass-like species. The geographic range of L. dorsalis extends from Kansas in the west to the Atlantic seaboard, north as far as Ontario, Canada and south to Cuba; it is an eastern species of North America and the Caribbean. Larval character attributes that are shared with a related ctenodactyline, Askalaphium depressum (Bates, provide a preliminary basis for characterization of the immatures of tribe Ctenodactylini.

  8. Influences of several insecticides on the luring and killing effect on Methyl eugenol of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hedel)%几种杀虫剂对桔小实蝇引诱剂诱杀效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴剑光; 李小健; 胡学难; 刘晓莹; 郑少波; 鄞杰平; 黄锦炎

    2015-01-01

    使用桔小实蝇引诱剂(甲基丁香酚Methyl eugenol,简称Me),按体积比10:1分别与四种杀虫剂混合,进行了桔小实蝇诱杀效果试验.试验结果表明:四种杀虫剂中,敌敌畏的诱杀效果最佳;马拉硫磷诱杀效果明显优于氯氰菊酯和功夫两种杀虫剂.试验提出了与桔小实蝇引诱剂混合的杀虫剂选择以及换药时间.

  9. 6种植物提取物对橘小实蝇生物活性的影响%Bioactivities of Extracts from Six Species Plants to the Bactrocera dorsalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁伊旻; 张宏宇

    2011-01-01

    Extracted from 6 species plants by supercritical fluid CO2, Piper nigrum, Acorus calamus, Acorus tatarinowii, Phellodendron amurense, Nelutnbo nucifera, Rhus chinensis, were evaluated as contact effect and stomach poisoning activity to the oriental fruit fly adults. The results indicated that Piper nigrum, Acorus calamus and Acorus tatarinowii had stronger contact effect to the adults, at 103.95 (xg/cm2 treatment after 2 hours, the corrected mortality rates were 100%, 96.67%, 96.67%. Farther studied contact toxicity of extracts of these three species plants, the result indicated Piper nigrum had the strongest effect, the LG50 was 0.25 mg/mL. The contact effects of Phellodendron amurense and Rhus chinensis were less strong, Nelumbo nucifera had no contact effect to the adults. On the study of stomach poisoning activity, Piper nigrum had the strongest effect, at 1.5 mg/mL treatment after 96 hours, the corrected mortality rate was 84.44%, Acorus calamus was 23.33%, Acorus tatarinowii was, 26.67%.%采用超临界CO2萃取方法提取胡椒(Piper nigrum),菖蒲(Acorus calamus),石菖蒲(Acorus tatarinowii),黄檗(Phellodendron amurense),莲(Nelumbo nucifera),盐肤木(Rhus chinensis) 等6种植物提取物,并测定提取物对橘小实蝇成虫的触杀和胃毒生物活性.结果表明,胡椒、菖蒲、石菖蒲提取物均对橘小实蝇成虫有很好的触杀作用,103.95 μg/cm2的浓度处理2h后,校正死亡率分别为100%、96.67%、96.67%.进一步测定这3种植物提取物对橘小实蝇的触杀毒力,表明胡椒提取物对橘小实蝇的毒力最高,LG50的值为0.25 mg/mL.黄檗、盐肤木提取物触杀效果中等,莲未表现出触杀活性.胃毒活性测定试验中,胡椒提取物的效果最好,1.50 mg/mL浓度处理96 h后,其校正死亡率为84.44%,菖蒲和石菖蒲提取物的试虫校正死亡率分别为23.33%、26.67%.

  10. Development of transport technique by chilling for melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptela: Dephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of chilling on mass-reared melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae COQ., groups of adult flies were exposed to 3, 0.5, -2.2 and -3.5°C for 6, 12, 24 and 48h. The recovery and longevity of adult chilled for less than 24h at about 0.5°C was not adversely affected. A special container for chilled flies, which was able to keep the temperature below 10°C for 4h, was designed for their long-distance transport. The longevities of flies using aerial distribution by helicopter and hand release on the ground using the chilled transport container were compared with direct release from an emergence box without chilling at Miyagi Island in Okinawa Prefecture. There were no significant differences in longevity between the three release methods

  11. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett. To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad.

  12. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:22615962

  13. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.

  14. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaik-Eem Lim

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%. Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.

  15. Electrophysiological study of supraspinal input and spinal output of cat's subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Velo

    Full Text Available This work addressed the study of subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD neurons in relation to their supraspinal input and the spinal terminating sites of their descending axons. SRD extracellular unitary recordings from anesthetized cats aimed to specifically test, 1 the rostrocaudal segmental level reached by axons of spinally projecting (SPr neurons collateralizing or not to or through the ipsilateral nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NRGc, 2 whether SPr fibers bifurcate to the thalamus, and 3 the effects exerted on SRD cells by electrically stimulating the locus coeruleus, the periaqueductal grey, the nucleus raphe magnus, and the mesencephalic locomotor region. From a total of 191 SPr fibers tested to cervical 2 (Ce2, thoracic 5 (Th5 and lumbar5 (Lu5 stimulation, 81 ended between Ce2 and Th5 with 39 of them branching to or through the NRGc; 21/49 terminating between Th5 and Lu5 collateralized to or through the same nucleus, as did 34/61 reaching Lu5. The mean antidromic conduction velocity of SPr fibers slowed in the more proximal segments and increased with terminating distance along the cord. None of the 110 axons tested sent collaterals to the thalamus; instead thalamic stimulation induced long-latency polysynaptic responses in most cells but also short-latency, presumed monosynaptic, in 7.9% of the tested neurons (18/227. Antidromic and orthodromic spikes were elicited from the locus coeruleus and nucleus raphe magnus, but exclusively orthodromic responses were observed following stimulation of the periaqueductal gray or mesencephalic locomotor region. The results suggest that information from pain-and-motor-related supraspinal structures converge on SRD cells that through SPr axons having conduction velocities tuned to their length may affect rostral and caudal spinal cord neurons at fixed delays, both directly and in parallel through different descending systems. The SRD will thus play a dual functional role by simultaneously

  16. Colgajo tendinocutáneo vascularizado de dorsalis pedis: caso clínico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martínez Martínez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Los grandes accidentes que afectan a la mano suelen cursar con daños en más de un tejido. Son frecuentes las exposiciones óseas, fracturas, lesiones tendinosas y pérdidas de cobertura cutánea, lo que supone un importante problema para la cirugía reconstructiva. Las técnicas quirúrgicas para afrontar estas lesiones múltiples pueden reunirse en tres grupos: A múltiples procedimientos escalonados, B procedimientos únicos parcialmente vascularizados, C procedimientos únicos totalmente vascularizados. Aquellas en las que en un primer tiempo se realiza cobertura cutánea y en un segundo tiempo se procede al injerto tendinoso, acarrean problemas relacionados con rigideces, dificultad en el cálculo de la longitud del injerto tendinoso debido a retracción muscular y adherencias tendinosas. Un colgajo muy utilizado para la reparación de este tipo de lesiones ha sido el del dorsalis pedis; muchos autores rechazan su uso como colgajo debido a varios inconvenientes: anatomía variable de la zona donante, disección tediosa y sobre todo, elevada morbilidad de la zona donante. Sin embargo, puede ser usado como colgajo tendinocutáneo ya que proporciona cuatro tendones vascularizados de adecuada longitud cubiertos por completo de epitenón y unidos de manera holgada a una piel que es muy similar a la del dorso de la mano. Además, el tendón vascularizado reduce el problema de adherencias que ocurre con los colgajos tendinosos simples. Presentamos un caso de traumatismo severo de la mano con afectación completa de los tendones extensores.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera arecae (Insecta: Tephritidae) by next-generation sequencing and molecular phylogeny of Dacini tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chow, Wan-Loo; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    The whole mitochondrial genome of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera arecae was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 15,900 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding region (A + T-rich control region). The control region (952 bp) was flanked by rrnS and trnI genes. The start codons included 6 ATG, 3 ATT and 1 each of ATA, ATC, GTG and TCG. Eight TAA, two TAG, one incomplete TA and two incomplete T stop codons were represented in the protein-coding genes. The cloverleaf structure for trnS1 lacked the D-loop, and that of trnN and trnF lacked the TΨC-loop. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 protein-coding genes was concordant with 37 mitochondrial genes, with B. arecae having closest genetic affinity to B. tryoni. The subgenus Bactrocera of Dacini tribe and the Dacinae subfamily (Dacini and Ceratitidini tribes) were monophyletic. The whole mitogenome of B. arecae will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26472633

  18. Effects of 4 mineral spray oils on oviposition behavior of Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis and Diaphorina citri%4种矿物油乳剂对柑橘小实蝇和柑橘木虱产卵行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳革成; 杨悦屏; 钟桂林; 熊锦君; 黄明度

    2007-01-01

    研究了4种矿物油乳剂对柑橘小实蝇和其中2种矿物油乳剂对柑橘木虱产卵行为影响的特性.结果显示:4种矿物油乳剂对柑橘小实蝇的产卵拒避作用差异明显,其中"加德士一路易"夏用油对柑橘小实蝇的产卵拒避作用与对照相比差异显著,其他3种矿物油乳剂则对柑橘小实蝇没有明显的产卵拒避作用."绿颖"农用喷淋油和"加德士一路易"夏用油对柑橘木虱均有显著的产卵拒避作用.

  19. Relative incidence of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus ciliatus Loew on cucurbitaceous vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.K. Krishna; Verghese, Abraham; Shivakumara, B.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.; Ranganath, H.R. [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore (India). Div. of Entomology and Nematology

    2006-07-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables and fruits in many parts of the world. Infestation of an another species, the lesser pumpkin fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew is reported on a few cucurbits in the Indian sub-continent and Africa. While extensive work on seasonality, infestation percent, host preference, attraction to para pheromone on B. cucurbitae has been reported, little is known of D. ciliatus. Field experiments were carried out at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore (12058'N; 77035'E) from June 2002- October 2003. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and pickling cucumbers [C. sativus L (variety. Ijax)] were raised at monthly interval. Cue lure baited bottle traps were hung to monitor B. cucurbitae and other related species. Bactrocera cucurbitae was present all through the year and maximum number of adults was trapped during August (14.14/trap/week). Dacus ciliatus was trapped only from May to October but in relatively less numbers ({approx} 1/week). Maximum fruit fly infestation was 77.03 % on bitter gourd (August 2003), 75.65 % on ridge gourd (Nov. 02), 73.83 % on cucumber (October, 02) and 63.31 % on pickling cucumber (October, 02). Trap catches of B. cucurbitae was significantly and positively correlated with relative humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature, RH (%), rainfall (mm), evaporation (mm) and wind speed (km/h) collectively determined 44 % of B. cucurbitae trap catches. Maximum fruit fly emergence of 494.64/ kg fruit was on bitter gourd (October, 2002) followed by cucumber (431.97, November, 2002), pickling cucumber (307.51, October 2002) and ridge gourd (210.74, October, 2003). Dacus ciliatus formed only 4.5% of the total number of fruit flies on bitter gourd and 0.2% on pickling cucumber. Its infestation was not observed on cucumber and ridge gourd. Parasitism by the larval

  20. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia L. Reynolds

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni.

  1. Longevity of Mass-Produced Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae) Held Without Food or Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Bernard C; Sundaralingam, Selliah; Jiang, Laura; Nicol, Helen I

    2014-12-01

    The sterile insect technique is used to manage or control fruit flies throughout the world. The technique relies on large scale production before delivery to release managers. As part of the mass production phase, there are many quality control tests to demonstrate and maintain high quality pupae and flies. One highly desirable characteristic is adults with a long life so that these adults can reach sexual maturity and sterile males mate with wild fertile flies in the field and thus produce no viable offspring. Originally longevity was assessed allowing adults to have unlimited access to food and water. As quality and longevity increased, this methodology added significantly to workload and space demands and many facilities moved to testing longevity under stress where no food or water was provided. Here we examined >27,000 Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) from 160 weekly production batches from July 2004 to October 2009 where flies were not provided food or water. The mean longevity was 54.4 ± SE hours. Longevity was significantly shorter from August to March, and the longevity was significantly longer in June. Longevity was not related to pupal weight, contrary to expectations. Weights were significantly lower in June and highest in summer. PMID:26470075

  2. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT.

  3. A chromogenic test for irradiated oriental fruitfly, Bactrocera philippinensis as quarantine diagnostic kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biochemical marker of irradiated Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis was isolated and identified in denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The biomarker, Gs-protein, is the biosynthetic product of a radiosensitive gene locus of B philippinensis. The gene seems to be sensitive to radiation even at a low dose of 25 Gy as demonstrated by the loss of the Gs-protein band from SDS-PAGE gel analysis of pupal homogenates and total soluble protein fractions of irradiated larvae. Isolated Gs-protein has a tyrosinase enzyme activity capable of converting tyrosine into an intermediate product, DOPA(Dihydroxilphenolaldanim). It also exhibits the copper-containing character of mushroom tyrosinase as shown in a preliminary TXRF analysis. An apparent molecular weight of 109 kDa was calculated from SDS-PAGE preparation of the Gs-protein with high molecular weight proteins as standards. In particular, a convenient chromogenic test for tyrosinase present in homogenates of fruit fly, B. philippinensis, at different stages of development starting from 2nd instar larva, has been devised to detect whether the fruit fly had been irradiated at a dose of at least 100 Gy. Starting with homogenate material from fruit fly to be tested, a simple such test based on the activity of the tyrosinase enzyme with its substrate produces a positive dark brown to black coloration on a test spot mounted on acetate film containing 2-methyl DOPA. (author)

  4. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. PMID:24995839

  5. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system.

  6. Genetic relationship of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Wu; Bruce A. McPheron; Jia-Jiao Wu; Zhi-Hong Li

    2012-01-01

    The melon fruit fly,Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae),has been the subject of worldwide quarantine and management efforts due to its widespread agricultural impact and potential for rapid range expansion.From its presumed native distribution in India,this species has spread throughout the hot-humid regions of the world.We provide information that reveals population structure,invasion history and population connectivity from 23 locations covering nine countries based on DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene.Forty-two polymorphic sites were described among 38 haplotypes.The most common haplotype,H1,was observed in 73% of the samples distributed among all populations.Highest genetic diversity was seen within populations,and no isolation-by-distance was detected.The western regions (Nepal,Bangladesh,Thailand,Burma and China-west) showed higher haplotype diversity than eastern regions (Chins-east).China-Yunnan showed highest levels of genetic diversity in China.Haplotype diversity decreased with longitude from west to east.Together,these analyses suggest that B.cucurbitae has expanded from west to east within a limited geographic scale and recently invaded China through Yunnan Province.

  7. Purification of Colocasia esculenta lectin and determination of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Kshema; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Satwinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Kamboj, Sukhdev Singh; Singh, Jatinder

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the purification of a lectin from Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott corms and evaluation of its anti-insect potential towards Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquilett). The lectin was found to be specific towards N-acetyl-D-lactosamine (LacNac), a disaccharide and asialofetuin, a desialylated serum glycoprotein in hemagglutination inhibition assay. Asialofetuin was used as a ligand to purify Colocasia esculenta agglutinin (CEA) by affinity chromatography. The purity of CEA was ascertained by the presence of a single band in reducing SDS-PAGE at pH 8.3. The affinity purified CEA was employed in artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae (64-72 hr old) of the B. cucurbitae at concentrations ranging between 10-160 microg ml(-1). The lectin significantly (p < 0.01) decreased the percent pupation and emergence with respect to control. Effect on various enzymes was studied by employing LC50 (51.6 microg ml(-1)) CEA in the artificial diet bioassay of second instar larvae. All the enzymes tested namely esterases, phosphatases (acid and alkaline), superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase showed a significant (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increase in their enzyme and specific activities. These results showed that CEA affected normal growth and development and presented stress to the larvae, activating their detoxification and anti-oxidant systems. Thus, the lectin seems to be a useful candidate for the control measures of B. cucurbitae under the integrated pest management (IPM) system. PMID:24006804

  8. Role of α-copaene in the susceptibility of olive fruits to Bactrocera oleae (Rossi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alfonso, Ignacio; Vacas, Sandra; Primo, Jaime

    2014-12-10

    The influence of α-copaene as a fruit volatile in the susceptibility of Olea europaea L. to the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) has been investigated. By studies on the relative area of volatile components from different cultivars, a positive correlation was found between the abundance of α-copaene in the samples and the corresponding degree of fruit infestation. SPME-GC-MS analysis of volatiles from uninfested fruits of O. europaea L. cv. Serrana were performed over two years to determine the variation of α-copaene throughout the different phenological stages. The results suggested that this sesquiterpene has a significant effect on cultivar susceptibility and may act as an oviposition promoter. Further analysis by chiral GC showed that olive fruits release both α-copaene enantiomers. Bioassays on each enantiomer revealed that fruits with increased amounts of (+)-α-copaene favor oviposition of B. oleae females, whereas the increase of (-)-α-copaene affords no statistically significant differences in host preference.

  9. 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola', a coevolved symbiotic bacterium of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzo, Caterina; Firrao, Giuseppe; Mazzon, Luca; Squartini, Andrea; Girolami, Vincenzo

    2005-07-01

    The taxonomic identity of the hereditary prokaryotic symbiont of the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) was investigated. In order to avoid superficial microbial contaminants and loosely associated saprophytic biota, flies were surface-sterilized at the larval stage and reared under aseptic conditions until adult emergence. B. oleae flies originating from different geographical locations and collected at different times of the year were tested. Bacterial isolation was undertaken from the cephalic oesophageal bulb, which is known to be a specific site of accumulation for the hosted microsymbionts in the adult insect. Despite evidence of multiplication cycles taking place within the insect, attempts at cultivation of the isolated bacteria ex situ were not productive at any stage, leading to the choice of unculturable status definition. PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing of the entire 16S rRNA gene consistently yielded a single sequence that displayed marked similarity with enterobacterial lineages, with closest matches (97%) to Erwinia persicina and Erwinia rhapontici. The novel taxon differs from common intestinal bacterial species of fruit flies and from instances of culturable bacteria previously described in B. oleae raised without sterility precautions, which we also observed as minority occupants or occasional contaminants. The symbiont's identity is also distinct from Pseudomonas savastanoi. In all observations, the numerically dominant inhabitant of the olive fly oesophageal organ was the same unculturable organism, whose presence at later stages was also regularly observed in the midgut. A novel species is proposed, by virtue of its unique properties, under the designation 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola'.

  10. Acetobacter tropicalis is a major symbiont of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounatidis, Ilias; Crotti, Elena; Sapountzis, Panagiotis; Sacchi, Luciano; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Bandi, Claudio; Alma, Alberto; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2009-05-01

    Following cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques, we investigated the microbiota associated with Bactrocera oleae, one of the major agricultural pests in olive-producing countries. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene libraries and ultrastructural analyses revealed the presence of several bacterial taxa associated with this insect, among which Acetobacter tropicalis was predominant. The recent increased detection of acetic acid bacteria as symbionts of other insect model organisms, such as Anopheles stephensi (G. Favia et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:9047-9051, 2007) or Drosophila melanogaster (C. R. Cox and M. S. Gilmore, Infect. Immun. 75:1565-1576, 2007), prompted us to investigate the association established between A. tropicalis and B. oleae. Using an A. tropicalis-specific PCR assay, the symbiont was detected in all insects tested originating from laboratory stocks or field-collected from different locations in Greece. This acetic acid bacterium was successfully established in cell-free medium, and typing analyses, carried out on a collection of isolates, revealed that different A. tropicalis strains are present in fly populations. The capability to colonize and lodge in the digestive system of both larvae and adults and in Malpighian tubules of adults was demonstrated by using a strain labeled with a green fluorescent protein.

  11. Infestation of Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California and Taxonomy of its Host Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Athar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the trapping survey were analyzed to determine the taxonomy of various tree species infested by the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae in California. Since its first appearance in California in 1998, the olive fruit fly has spread from Los Angeles to 37 counties, including all of the state’s commercial olive growing areas. Olive fruit flies were trapped from 19 tree species belonging to nine genera distributed in seven families of angiosperms. Olives (Family Oleaceae were the preferred host of the olive fruit fly. Family Rosaceae had nine host tree species followed by Rutaceae (five host tree species. Other host tree species were distributed in Anacardiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae, Lythraceae and Malpigiaceae families. These hosts were mostly fruit trees with the exceptions of Brazilian pepper tree, carob, crape myrtle and ornamental plum. The host list reflects typical hosts and is not comprehensive. It is unknown if different olive cultivars are more attractive to the fly or more susceptible to fly damage. The pest directly attacks olive fruits and can devastate entire harvests. Adults feed on nectar, honeydew and other opportunistic sources of liquid or semi-liquid food. University of California scientists are now developing specific information about the olive fruit fly in California and have synthesized useful findings from Europe, where the pest has long been established.

  12. Cold tolerance and disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Hass' avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N; Mohamed, S A; Nderitu, P W; Ekasi, S

    2012-12-01

    Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) has spread rapidly across Africa and currently poses a phytosanitary threat to the fruit industry of South Africa. In reaction a cold mitigating treatment to provide phytosanitary security to importing countries was developed in Nairobi, Kenya. Using laboratory reared fruit flies, the rate of development in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller) was determined at 28 degrees C. Fruit ripeness or softness was found to be a factor improving larval fruit fly survival. Using this information the egg and larval developmental stages were subjected to 2 degrees C cold treatment and it was found that the third instars were the most cold tolerant life stage and that it was expected that between 16 and 17 d treatment would provide phytosanitary security. There were no survivors in the treatment of an estimated 153,001 individuals in four replicates at an average fruit pulp temperature of 2 degrees C satisfying the Probit 9 level of efficiency at a confidence of >95%. These data provide evidence that a continuous cold treatment of 1.5 degrees C or lower for 18 d would provide phytosanitary security in that any consignment entering an importing country poses no risk of accidental importation of B. invadens.

  13. Cold tolerance and disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Hass' avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N; Mohamed, S A; Nderitu, P W; Ekasi, S

    2012-12-01

    Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) has spread rapidly across Africa and currently poses a phytosanitary threat to the fruit industry of South Africa. In reaction a cold mitigating treatment to provide phytosanitary security to importing countries was developed in Nairobi, Kenya. Using laboratory reared fruit flies, the rate of development in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller) was determined at 28 degrees C. Fruit ripeness or softness was found to be a factor improving larval fruit fly survival. Using this information the egg and larval developmental stages were subjected to 2 degrees C cold treatment and it was found that the third instars were the most cold tolerant life stage and that it was expected that between 16 and 17 d treatment would provide phytosanitary security. There were no survivors in the treatment of an estimated 153,001 individuals in four replicates at an average fruit pulp temperature of 2 degrees C satisfying the Probit 9 level of efficiency at a confidence of >95%. These data provide evidence that a continuous cold treatment of 1.5 degrees C or lower for 18 d would provide phytosanitary security in that any consignment entering an importing country poses no risk of accidental importation of B. invadens. PMID:23356059

  14. Wind-powered wheel locomotion, initiated by leaping somersaults, in larvae of the southeastern beach tiger beetle (Cicindela dorsalis media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Harvey

    Full Text Available Rapid movement is challenging for elongate, soft-bodied animals with short or no legs. Leaping is known for only a few animals with this "worm-like" morphology. Wheel locomotion, in which the animal's entire body rolls forward along a central axis, has been reported for only a handful of animals worldwide. Here we present the first documented case of wind-powered wheel locomotion, in larvae of the coastal tiger beetle Cicindela dorsalis media. When removed from their shallow burrows, larvae easily can be induced to enter a behavioral sequence that starts with leaping; while airborne, larvae loop their body into a rotating wheel and usually either "hit the ground rolling" or leap again. The direction larvae wheel is closely related to the direction in which winds are blowing; thus, all our larvae wheeled up-slope, as winds at our study site consistently blew from sea to land. Stronger winds increased both the proportion of larvae wheeling, and the distance traveled, exceeding 60 m in some cases. In addition, the proportion of larvae that wheel and the distance traveled by wheeling larvae are significantly greater on smooth sandy beaches than on beach surfaces made rough and irregular by pedestrian, equestrian, and vehicular traffic. Like other coastal species of tiger beetles, C. dorsalis media has suffered major declines in recent years that are clearly correlated with increased human impacts. The present study suggests that the negative effects of beach traffic may be indirect, preventing larvae from escaping from predators using wheel locomotion by disrupting the flat, hard surface necessary for efficient wheeling.

  15. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  16. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author)

  17. Simultaneous reconstruction of the oral commissure, lip and buccal mucosa with microvascular transfer of combined first-second toe web and dorsalis pedis flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, Pedro; Maruccia, Michele; Sapountzis, Stamatis; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2016-10-01

    The reconstruction of oral commissure, lip and mucosa defects following tumour resection is a challenging task to the reconstructive surgeon owing to the increasing aesthetic and functional demands. The authors describe a case in which the use of combined first-second toe web with dorsalis pedis flap was transferred and an optimal result was achieved for the oral commissure, lip and buccal mucosa following resection of squamous cell carcinoma and local flap failure.

  18. Improving clinical examination in acute tibial fractures by enhancing visual cues: the case for always 'cutting back' a tibial back-slab and marking the dorsalis pedis pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alasdair; Kimber, Cheryl; Bramwell, Donald; Jaarsma, Ruurd

    2016-08-01

    Look, feel, move is a simple and widely taught sequence to be followed when undertaking a clinical examination in orthopaedics (Maher et al., 1994; McRae, 1999; Solomon et al., 2010). The splinting of an acute tibial fracture with a posterior back-slab is also common practice; with the most commonly taught design involving covering the dorsum of the foot with bandaging (Charnley, 1950; Maher et al., 1994; McRae, 1989). We investigated the effect of the visual cues provided by exposing the dorsum of the foot and marking the dorsalis pedis pulse. We used a clinical simulation in which we compared the quality of the recorded clinical examination undertaken by 30 nurses. The nurses were randomly assigned to assess a patient with either a traditional back-slab or one in which the dorsal bandaging had been cut back and the dorsalis pedis pulse marked. We found that the quality of the recorded clinical examination was significantly better in the cut-back group. Previous studies have shown that the cut-back would not alter the effectiveness of the back-slab as a splint (Zagorski et al., 1993). We conclude that all tibial back-slabs should have the bandaging on the dorsum of the foot cut back and the location of the dorsalis pedis pulse marked. This simple adaptation will improve the subsequent clinical examinations undertaken and recorded without reducing the back-slab's effectiveness as a splint. PMID:27236718

  19. Improving clinical examination in acute tibial fractures by enhancing visual cues: the case for always 'cutting back' a tibial back-slab and marking the dorsalis pedis pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alasdair; Kimber, Cheryl; Bramwell, Donald; Jaarsma, Ruurd

    2016-08-01

    Look, feel, move is a simple and widely taught sequence to be followed when undertaking a clinical examination in orthopaedics (Maher et al., 1994; McRae, 1999; Solomon et al., 2010). The splinting of an acute tibial fracture with a posterior back-slab is also common practice; with the most commonly taught design involving covering the dorsum of the foot with bandaging (Charnley, 1950; Maher et al., 1994; McRae, 1989). We investigated the effect of the visual cues provided by exposing the dorsum of the foot and marking the dorsalis pedis pulse. We used a clinical simulation in which we compared the quality of the recorded clinical examination undertaken by 30 nurses. The nurses were randomly assigned to assess a patient with either a traditional back-slab or one in which the dorsal bandaging had been cut back and the dorsalis pedis pulse marked. We found that the quality of the recorded clinical examination was significantly better in the cut-back group. Previous studies have shown that the cut-back would not alter the effectiveness of the back-slab as a splint (Zagorski et al., 1993). We conclude that all tibial back-slabs should have the bandaging on the dorsum of the foot cut back and the location of the dorsalis pedis pulse marked. This simple adaptation will improve the subsequent clinical examinations undertaken and recorded without reducing the back-slab's effectiveness as a splint.

  20. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (ii) no methoprene but fed on a protein diet; (iii) methoprene and sugar-fed only; and (iv) sugar-fed, 14-d-old males acted as controls. Treatments had no effect on a male's ability to depress the female remating receptivity in comparison to the control. Females mated with protein-deprived males showed higher remating receptivity than females first mated with protein-fed males. Methoprene and protein diet interaction had a positive effect on male mating success during the first and second mating of females. Significantly more females first mated with sugar-fed males remated with protein-fed males and females first mated with methoprene treated and protein-fed males were more likely to remate with similarly treated males. Females mating latency (time to start mating) was significantly shorter with protein-fed males, and mating duration was significantly longer with protein-fed males compared with protein-deprived males. These results are discussed in the context of methoprene and/or dietary protein as prerelease treatment of sterile males in area-wide control of melon fly integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT). PMID:24376160

  1. Including climate change in pest risk assessment: the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W L; Li, Z H; Chen, H J; Wan, F H; Qu, W W; Zhang, Z; Kriticos, D J

    2012-04-01

    Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is one of the most harmful species of Tephritidae. It causes extensive damage in Asia and threatens many countries located along or near the Mediterranean Sea. The climate mapping program, CLIMEX 3.0, and the GIS software, ArcGIS 9.3, were used to model the current and future potential geographical distribution of B. zonata. The model predicts that, under current climatic conditions, B. zonata will be able to establish itself throughout much of the tropics and subtropics, including some parts of the USA, southern China, southeastern Australia and northern New Zealand. Climate change scenarios for the 2070s indicate that the potential distribution of B. zonata will expand poleward into areas which are currently too cold. The main factors limiting the pest's range expansion are cold, hot and dry stress. The model's predictions of the numbers of generations produced annually by B. zonata were consistent with values previously recorded for the pest's occurrence in Egypt. The ROC curve and the AUC (an AUC of 0.912) were obtained to evaluate the performance of the CLIMEX model in this study. The analysis of this information indicated a high degree of accuracy for the CLIMEX model. The significant increases in the potential distribution of B. zonata projected under the climate change scenarios considered in this study suggest that biosecurity authorities should consider the effects of climate change when undertaking pest risk assessments. To prevent the introduction and spread of B. zonata, enhanced quarantine and monitoring measures should be implemented in areas that are projected to be suitable for the establishment of the pest under current and future climatic conditions.

  2. The Effect of Gamma Radiation on some Biological Aspects of Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma-irradiation on certain biological aspects of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata following gamma irradiation of 5 days old pupae were studied. Treatment led to a decrease in percentage adult emergence which was 3.66, 9.22, 14.77.18.55 and 22.66, following irradiation with 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 Gy, respectively. Some emerged flies exhibited malformation being 3.3, 5, 6.7, 8.3 and 11.7% in flies irradiated as pupae with the respective mentioned doses. Sex ratio of emerged flies were shifted towards females. When male flies, emerging from irradiated pupae with 10, 30, 50, 70 or 90 Gy were paired with untreated females the mean number of deposited eggs was reduced to 211.3, 197.3, 184, 173 and 161.3 eggs /female as compared to 220 eggs/ female in the control. Percentages of hatched eggs were 62.1, 40.2, 26.6, 7.9 and zero as compared to 81.8 in the control. The effect on reproductive potential was more evident when unirradiated males were paired with female flies emerging from irradiated 5 day old pupa. In females emerged of pupae irradiated with 10 and 30 Gy mated with unirradiated male; the mean number of eggs laid per female were 135.1 and 72.3 eggs comparing to 233.4 in control. The percentages of eggs hatch were 57.4 and 35.3% in at doses 10 and 30 Gy, respectively in comparing to 82.2% in control. No eggs laid by females emerged from pupae exposed to the higher considered doses of 50, 70 or 90 Gy

  3. Gamma Irradiation as a Phytosanitary Treatment of Bactrocera tau (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Pumpkin Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guoping, Zhan; Lili, Ren; Ying, Shao; Qiaoling, Wang; Daojian, Yu; Yuejin, Wang; Tianxiu, Li

    2015-02-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera tau (Walker) is an important quarantine pest that damages fruits and vegetables throughout Asian regions. Host commodities shipped from infested areas should undergo phytosanitary measures to reduce the risk of shipping viable flies. The dose-response tests with 1-d-old eggs and 3-, 5-, 7-, 8-d-old larvae were initiated to determine the most resistant stages in fruits, and the minimum dose for 99.9968% prevention of adult eclosion at 95% confidence level was validated in the confirmatory tests. The results showed that 1) the pupariation rate was not affected by gamma radiation except for eggs and first instars, while the percent of eclosion was reduced significantly in all instars at all radiation dose; 2) the tolerance to radiation increased with increasing age and developmental stage; 3) the estimated dose to 99.9968% preventing adult eclosion from late third instars was 70.9 Gy (95% CL: 65.6-78.2, probit model) and 71.8 Gy (95% CL: 63.0-87.3, logit model); and iv) in total, 107,135 late third instars cage infested in pumpkin fruits were irradiated at the target dose of 70 Gy (62.5-85.0, Gy measured), which resulted in no adult emergence in the two confirmatory tests. Therefore, a minimum dose of 85 and 72 Gy, which could prevent adult emergence at the efficacy of 99.9972 and 99.9938% at the 95% confidence level, respectively, can be recommended as a minimum dose for phytosanitary treatment of B. tau in any host fruits and vegetables under ambient atmospheres. PMID:26470107

  4. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (ii) no methoprene but fed on a protein diet; (iii) methoprene and sugar-fed only; and (iv) sugar-fed, 14-d-old males acted as controls. Treatments had no effect on a male's ability to depress the female remating receptivity in comparison to the control. Females mated with protein-deprived males showed higher remating receptivity than females first mated with protein-fed males. Methoprene and protein diet interaction had a positive effect on male mating success during the first and second mating of females. Significantly more females first mated with sugar-fed males remated with protein-fed males and females first mated with methoprene treated and protein-fed males were more likely to remate with similarly treated males. Females mating latency (time to start mating) was significantly shorter with protein-fed males, and mating duration was significantly longer with protein-fed males compared with protein-deprived males. These results are discussed in the context of methoprene and/or dietary protein as prerelease treatment of sterile males in area-wide control of melon fly integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT). PMID:24376160

  5. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  6. Bacterial communities in the gut and reproductive organs of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae based on 454 pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailin Wang

    Full Text Available The citrus fruit fly Bactrocera minax is associated with diverse bacterial communities. We used a 454 pyrosequencing technology to study in depth the microbial communities associated with gut and reproductive organs of Bactrocera minax. Our dataset consisted of 100,749 reads with an average length of 400 bp. The saturated rarefaction curves and species richness indices indicate that the sampling was comprehensive. We found highly diverse bacterial communities, with individual sample containing approximately 361 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs. A total of 17 bacterial phyla were obtained from the flies. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA revealed that Proteobacteria was dominant in all samples (75%-95%. Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were also commonly found in the total clones. Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Serratia were the major genera. However, bacterial diversity (Chao1, Shannon and Simpson indices and community structure (PCA analysis varied across samples. Female ovary has the most diverse bacteria, followed by male testis, and the bacteria diversity of reproductive organs is richer than that of the gut. The observed variation can be caused by sex and tissue, possibly to meet the host's physiological demands.

  7. Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Marchini, Daniela; Taylor, Phillip W

    2009-05-01

    Ultrastructure of male reproductive accessory glands and ejaculatory duct in the Queensland fruit fly (Q-fly), Bactrocera tryoni, were investigated and compared with those of other tephritid flies. Male accessory glands were found to comprise one pair of mesodermic glands and three pairs of ectodermic glands. The mesodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined, binucleate epithelial cells, which are highly microvillated and extrude electron-dense secretions by means of macroapocrine transport into a central lumen. The ectodermic accessory glands consist of muscle-lined epithelial cells which have wide subcuticular cavities, lined with microvilli. The electron-transparent secretions from these glands are first extruded into the cavities and then forced out through small pores of the cuticle into the gland lumen. Secretions from the two types of accessory glands then flow into the ejaculatory duct, which is highly muscular, with epithelial cells rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum and lined with a thick, deeply invaginated cuticle. While there are some notable differences, reproductive accessory glands of male Q-flies generally resemble those of the olive fruitfly, Bactrocera oleae, and to a lesser extent the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata. PMID:19026762

  8. Abundance of African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens drew, tsuruta and white (diptera: tephritidae) and influence of weather parameters on trap catches in mango in the Volta region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzim, Charles Amankwa; Billah, Maxwell Kelvin; Afreh-Nuamah, Kwame

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal abundance of African Invader fly, Bactrocera invadens and the influence of temperature and rainfall on fly catches was determined in two agro ecological zones; moist semi-deciduous forest area and the coastal grassland area of the Volta Region of Ghana for year of mango production. Traps containing methyl eugenol were used in monitoring the abundance of the Africa invader fly, Bactrocera invadens where data on both temperature and rainfall were collected from Meteorological Services of Ghana in Volta region. A total of 49,322 organisms captured, 45,829 were identified as Bactrocera invadens and 3493 were non-fruit fly. There were significant differences (p activities peaked differently during the study period due to favourable climatic conditions. The activities of Bactrocera invadens peaked during weeks 7 and 29 in the moist semi deciduous forest area while their activities peaked during weeks 3 and 24 for the coastal grassland areas. Both agro ecological zones recorded the presence of Bactrocera invadens, their number and proportion varied considerably with associated effects of the weather parameters on their abundance. The effect of weather parameters on the abundance of bactrocera invadens requires the development of degree day models to manage them. PMID:27429878

  9. Influence of gaze and directness of approach on the escape responses of the Indian rock lizard, Psammophilus dorsalis (Gray, 1831)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rachakonda Sreekar; Suhel Quader

    2013-12-01

    Animals often evaluate the degree of risk posed by a predator and respond accordingly. Since many predators orient their eyes towards prey while attacking, predator gaze and directness of approach could serve as conspicuous indicators of risk to prey. The ability to perceive these cues and discriminate between high and low predation risk should benefit prey species through both higher survival and decreased energy expenditure. We experimentally examined whether Indian rock lizards (Psammophilus dorsalis) can perceive these two indicators of predation risk by measuring the variation in their fleeing behaviour in response to type of gaze and approach by a human predator. Overall, we found that the gaze and approach of the predator influenced flight initiation distance, which also varied with attributes of the prey (i.e. size/sex and tail-raise behaviour). Flight initiation distance (FID) was 43% longer during direct approaches with direct gaze compared with tangential approaches with averted gaze. In further, exploratory, analyses, we found that FID was 23% shorter for adult male lizards than for female or young male (FYM) lizards. In addition, FYM lizards that showed a tail-raise display during approach had a 71% longer FID than those that did not. Our results suggest that multiple factors influence the decision to flee in animals. Further studies are needed to test the generality of these factors and to investigate the proximate mechanisms underlying flight decisions.

  10. Subdivisions of the auditory midbrain (n. mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis in zebra finches using calcium-binding protein immunocytochemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Logerot

    Full Text Available The midbrain nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd is thought to be the avian homologue of the central nucleus of the mammalian inferior colliculus. As such, it is a major relay in the ascending auditory pathway of all birds and in songbirds mediates the auditory feedback necessary for the learning and maintenance of song. To clarify the organization of MLd, we applied three calcium binding protein antibodies to tissue sections from the brains of adult male and female zebra finches. The staining patterns resulting from the application of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin antibodies differed from each other and in different parts of the nucleus. Parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity was distributed throughout the whole nucleus, as defined by the totality of the terminations of brainstem auditory afferents; in other words parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity defines the boundaries of MLd. Staining patterns of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin defined two regions of MLd: inner (MLd.I and outer (MLd.O. MLd.O largely surrounds MLd.I and is distinct from the surrounding intercollicular nucleus. Unlike the case in some non-songbirds, however, the two MLd regions do not correspond to the terminal zones of the projections of the brainstem auditory nuclei angularis and laminaris, which have been found to overlap substantially throughout the nucleus in zebra finches.

  11. The oviposition of the chili fruit fly (Bactrocera latifrons Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae with reference to reproductive capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anothai Wingsanoi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The chili fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons Hendel, is a serious pest of chili fruit production in Thailand. To determine theeffective control planning of the fly population, the oviposition related to reproductive capacity of the female were observed.The female ovary was daily dissected through the entire life span and the eggs inside the ovary were examined and counted.There were 44.84±19.60 eggs/ovary. The oviposition of female was simultaneously conducted. Eggs inside the ovarypresented on 8th day and the female oviposited on 10th day of the life span. The female laid 4.25±2.28 eggs, which was 12.45±9.56 fold less than the reproductive capacity. The female longevity was 31.1±8.40 days and the oviposition period was 40days.

  12. Evaluation of the efficacy of beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive fruit fly bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango production plays an important role in Africa’s economy. However, the African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens is causing high yield losses as an important quarantine pest. Suppression of fruit flies for increased mango production will increasingly rely on management methods which exert low negative environmental impact. Beauveria bassiana is an insect pathogenic fungus used as microbial insecticide because it leaves produce to their fresh state, flavor, colour and texture with no change in the chemical composition of the product and is environmentally friendly. Evaluation of the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephriitidae) was carried out. The fungus B. bassiana (Botanigard® ES) containing 11.3% Beauveria bassiana GHA strain was applied at concentrations of 106, 53.0, 26.5, 13.3 and 6.65(x 106 spores/ml). When three developmental stages of the fruit fly (larvae, puparia and adults) were treated with Beauveria bassiana, the severity of the damage caused by the fungus increased with increasing fungal concentration. The results show lethal time (LT50) that ranged from 2.8 to 3.6 days for a dose of 106 x 106 spores/ml. Comparing methods of fungal application in the field, the result indicated that applying the fungus in fruit fly traps in mango canopies is the better method for fruit flies control in the field as compared to the soil surface spray method. However, both methods could be employed for better results The study of gamma radiation on the virulence of the fungus showed that the combined effect of the fungus and gamma irradiation gave better result by increasing adult mortality to 100 % within three days at 106 x106 spores/ml irradiated at 150 Gy than applying fungal treatment only. (author)

  13. The effect of fly attack (Bactrocera oleae) on the quality and phenolic content of Chemlal olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mettouchi, Soraya; Angerosa, Franca; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Bellal, Mohand Mouloud

    2009-01-01

    The attack on olives by the pest Bactrocera oleae has been studied to determine its influence on the olive oil quality (free acidity, peroxide value, UV extinction, sensorial quality), the total polyphenol and the individual phenolic compounds. The Algerian chemlal olive variety was used in this work. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of phenolic compounds were performed using the colorimetric method and the GC coupled with mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that the attack modif...

  14. Pest risk assessment for regulatory control of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Musina area (Limpopo Province) / J.H. Venter.

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Jan Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Fruit flies (Tephritidae) can enter and establish in new territories due to the movement of fruit from one area to another through trade or tourism, which can negatively impact on fruit production and market access. An invader fruit fly species (Bactrocera invadens) has established on the African continent and has spread throughout sub-Saharan Africa. This newly described polyphagous fruit fly species is a successful invader species which continues to distribute and establish in new habitats....

  15. Insect growth regulators as potential insecticides to control olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae Rossi): insect toxicity bioassays and molecular docking approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bengochea Budia, Paloma; Christiaens, Olivier; Amor Parrilla, Fermín; Viñuela Sandoval, Elisa; Rougé, Pierre; Medina Velez, Maria Pilar; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a key pest in olive orchards, causing serious economic damage. To date, the pest has already developed resistance to the insecticides commonly applied to control it. Thus, in searching for new products for an accurate resistance management programme, targeting the ecdysone receptor (EcR)might provide alternative compounds for use in such programmes. RESULTS: Residual contact and oral exposure in the laboratory of B. oleae adults to the dibenzoy...

  16. A new species of Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from western Colombia and Ecuador, with emended diagnoses of P. aquilus, P. dorsalis, and P. umbratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2009-01-01

    The Neotropical bat genus Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) currently comprises 15 species. Our morphological and morphometric analysis of large and medium-sized Platyrrhinus revealed a distinctive Undescribed species from western South America. We also recognize P. aquilus (Handley & Ferris 1972) and P. umbratus (Lyon 1902) as valid species. We describe P. nitelinea sp. nov. from western Colombia and Ecuador and provide emended diagnoses along with descriptions of P. aquilus, P.. dorsalis, and P. umbratus. Phylogenetic analysis of Platyrrhinus based on morphological characters indicates that P. aquilus is closely related to P. aurarius and P. nigellus, P. umbratus to P. chocoensis, and P. nitelinea to P. vittatus.

  17. Cat's medullary reticulospinal and subnucleus reticularis dorsalis noxious neurons form a coupled neural circuit through collaterals of descending axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiras, Roberto; Martín-Cora, Francisco; Velo, Patricia; Liste, Tania; Canedo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Animals and human beings sense and react to real/potential dangerous stimuli. However, the supraspinal mechanisms relating noxious sensing and nocifensive behavior are mostly unknown. The collateralization and spatial organization of interrelated neurons are important determinants of coordinated network function. Here we electrophysiologically studied medial medullary reticulospinal neurons (mMRF-RSNs) antidromically identified from the cervical cord of anesthetized cats and found that 1) more than 40% (79/183) of the sampled mMRF-RSNs emitted bifurcating axons running within the dorsolateral (DLF) and ventromedial (VMF) ipsilateral fascicles; 2) more than 50% (78/151) of the tested mMRF-RSNs with axons running in the VMF collateralized to the subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD) that also sent ipsilateral descending fibers bifurcating within the DLF and the VMF. This percentage of mMRF collateralization to the SRD increased to more than 81% (53/65) when considering the subpopulation of mMRF-RSNs responsive to noxiously heating the skin; 3) reciprocal monosynaptic excitatory relationships were electrophysiologically demonstrated between noxious sensitive mMRF-RSNs and SRD cells; and 4) injection of the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin evidenced mMRF to SRD and SRD to mMRF projections contacting the soma and proximal dendrites. The data demonstrated a SRD-mMRF network interconnected mainly through collaterals of descending axons running within the VMF, with the subset of noxious sensitive cells forming a reverberating circuit probably amplifying mutual outputs simultaneously regulating motor activity and spinal noxious afferent input. The results provide evidence that noxious stimulation positively engages a reticular SRD-mMRF-SRD network involved in pain-sensory-to-motor transformation and modulation. PMID:26581870

  18. Impact of Introduction of Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Classical Biological Control Releases of the Natural Enemy, Fopius arisanus (Sonan) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), on Economically Important Fruit Flies in F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to determine attraction and feeding propensity of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet) to different protein bait mixtures with and without the insecticides spinosad and malathion. The type of protein (GF-120 Fruit ...

  19. Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

  20. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion.

  1. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion. PMID:24935641

  2. Dominance of an invasive fruit fly species, Bactrocera invadens, along an altitudinal transect in Morogoro, Eastern Central Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurts, K; Mwatawala, M W; De Meyer, M

    2014-06-01

    Bactrocera invadens, a fruit fly from Asia, is an invasive pest species across Africa. It appears to continue spreading, not only in latitude but also in altitude. To assess its capacity to infest a large variety of hosts and its competition with other fruit fly species, a study along an altitudinal gradient was conducted. At low altitudes, the high abundance in the field and high infestation of B. invadens in different fruit species make it a serious pest. At high altitudes, colonization has started and B. invadens occurs in low numbers by reproducing successfully in high altitude fruits. Overall the abundance and infestation of B. invadens is influenced by its direct competitor Ceratitis rosa and the presence of its preferred host species. C. rosa is still the dominant species in temperate fruits grown at high altitude. Ceratitis cosyra, however, is negatively affected by B. invadens, this species seems to have shifted hosts to avoid competition. The broad host range and competitive potential of B. invadens increase the risk for further spread not only to higher areas, but also to subtropical regions.

  3. Towards understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) infestations using decade-long agrometeorological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Susanna; Guidotti, Diego; Ricciolini, Massimo; Petacchi, Ruggero

    2016-04-01

    Insect dynamics depend on temperature patterns, and therefore, global warming may lead to increasing frequencies and intensities of insect outbreaks. The aim of this work was to analyze the dynamics of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in Tuscany (Italy). We profited from long-term records of insect infestation and weather data available from the regional database and agrometeorological network. We tested whether the analysis of 13 years of monitoring campaigns can be used as basis for prediction models of B. oleae infestation. We related the percentage of infestation observed in the first part of the host-pest interaction and throughout the whole year to agrometeorological indices formulated for different time periods. A two-step approach was adopted to inspect the effect of weather on infestation: generalized linear model with a binomial error distribution and principal component regression to reduce the number of the agrometeorological factors and remove their collinearity. We found a consistent relationship between the degree of infestation and the temperature-based indices calculated for the previous period. The relationship was stronger with the minimum temperature of winter season. Higher infestation was observed in years following warmer winters. The temperature of the previous winter and spring explained 66 % of variance of early-season infestation. The temperature of previous winter and spring, and current summer, explained 72 % of variance of total annual infestation. These results highlight the importance of multiannual monitoring activity to fully understand the dynamics of B. oleae populations at a regional scale.

  4. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo J; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L; Jamie, Joanne F; Jamie, Ian M; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated. PMID:27196605

  5. Genetic structure and colonization history of the fruit fly Bactrocera tau (Diptera: Tephritidae) in China and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W; Kerdelhué, C; Ye, H

    2014-06-01

    Bactrocera tau (Walker), a major invasive pest worldwide, was first described in Fujian (China) in 1849 and has dispersed to tropical and subtropical Asia and the South Pacific region. Few data are available on its colonization history and expansion processes. This pilot study attempted to reconstruct the colonization history and pathways of this pest in China and neighboring Southeast Asian countries based on mitochondrial DNA. Results of the study showed six genetic groups corresponding to geographical characteristics, although the pattern was relatively weak. Homogeneous genetic patterns were observed within southern and central China, and northern Vietnam. Continuous colonization from the coast of southern China to inland regions of China and northern Vietnam was suggested. Strong genetic structure was observed in western China, Thailand, and Laos. The isolation of four of the six groups was most probably attributable to major topographical barriers of western China. Yunnan acted as a contact zone of B. tau in China and neighboring Southeast Asia. The absence of isolation by distance and the overall low phylogeographic structure of B. tau suggested that long distance dispersal events and human activities could play a major role in the colonization and expansion patterns of B. tau. By analyzing the genetic diversity, gene flow, haplotype phylogeny, and demographic history of 23 fly populations, we hypothesized that B. tau could have been introduced long ago in southern China, from which it further expanded or that southern China could correspond to the native range of this species.

  6. Microsatellite markers reveal population structure and low gene flow among collections of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Li, Yunlong; Ruiz-Arce, Raul; McPheron, Bruce A; Wu, Jiajiao; Li, Zhihong

    2011-06-01

    The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is widespread agricultural pest, and it is known to have the potential to establish invasive populations in various tropical and subtropical areas. Despite the economic risk associated with a putative stable presence of this fly, the population genetics of this pest have remained relatively unexplored in Asia, the main area for distribution of this pest. The goals for this study were to employ nuclear markers to examine geographic collections for population genetic structure and quantify the extent of gene flow within these Southeast Asian and Chinese populations. To achieve these goals, we used 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers. A low level of genetic diversity was found among collections from China and higher levels were seen in Southeast Asia collections. Three genetically distinct groups, Southeast Asia, southwest China, and southeast China, were recovered by Bayesian model-based clustering methods, the phylogenetic reconstruction and the principal coordinate analysis. The Mantel test clearly shows geographical distance contributed in the genetic structuring of B. cucurbitae's populations. No recent bottlenecks for any of the populations examined. The results of clustering, migration analyses, and Mantel test, strongly suggest that the regional structure observed may be due to geographical factors such as mountains, rivers, and islands. We found a high rate of migration in some sites from the southwest China region (cluster 1) and the southeast China region (cluster 2), suggesting that China-Guangdong-Guangzhou (GZ) may be the center of melon fruit fly in the southeast China region. PMID:21735930

  7. Use of alpha-ionol + cade oil for detection and monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuate, Grant T.; Jang, Eric B., E-mail: grant.mcquate@ars.usda.go, E-mail: eric.jang@ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS), Hilo, HI (United States). Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center; Bokonon-Ganta, Aime H., E-mail: aimehbg@hawaii.ed [University of Hawaii (CTAHR/PEPS/UH), Honolulu, HI (United States). Coll. of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. Dept. of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences

    2006-07-01

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is a tephritid fruit fly that primarily infests solanaceous fruits. Although primarily of Asian distribution, it has invaded Hawaii and, more recently, the continent of Africa (Tanzania and Kenya). Male B. latifrons uniquely respond to alpha-ionol + cade oil, rather than to either methyl eugenol or cuelure, to which males of the majority of other Dacine fruit flies respond. Here we present research results detailing the age of male B. latifrons response to alpha-ionol + cade oil, the persistence of wick attractiveness, and the effectiveness of alpha-ionol + cade oil in detecting B. latifrons populations. Based on wind tunnel studies with wild flies, male response steadily increased from 5% at age 2 to 45% at age 28, with male response exceeding 50% of the peak response by Day 7 and exceeding 75% and 90% by days 14 and 21, respectively. The attractiveness of wicks treated with 2.0 ml alpha-ionol and 1.0 ml cade oil (on separate wicks) declined over time, with wick response reduced to about 50% of the fresh catch after 6 1/2 weeks. Based on concurrent alpha-ionol + cade oil based trapping and collections of turkey berry, Solanum torvum (Solanaceae), fruits, the presence of B. latifrons was detected at the time of fruit collection, 75.5 % of the time. (author)

  8. Use of alpha-ionol + cade oil for detection and monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is a tephritid fruit fly that primarily infests solanaceous fruits. Although primarily of Asian distribution, it has invaded Hawaii and, more recently, the continent of Africa (Tanzania and Kenya). Male B. latifrons uniquely respond to alpha-ionol + cade oil, rather than to either methyl eugenol or cuelure, to which males of the majority of other Dacine fruit flies respond. Here we present research results detailing the age of male B. latifrons response to alpha-ionol + cade oil, the persistence of wick attractiveness, and the effectiveness of alpha-ionol + cade oil in detecting B. latifrons populations. Based on wind tunnel studies with wild flies, male response steadily increased from 5% at age 2 to 45% at age 28, with male response exceeding 50% of the peak response by Day 7 and exceeding 75% and 90% by days 14 and 21, respectively. The attractiveness of wicks treated with 2.0 ml alpha-ionol and 1.0 ml cade oil (on separate wicks) declined over time, with wick response reduced to about 50% of the fresh catch after 6 1/2 weeks. Based on concurrent alpha-ionol + cade oil based trapping and collections of turkey berry, Solanum torvum (Solanaceae), fruits, the presence of B. latifrons was detected at the time of fruit collection, 75.5 % of the time. (author)

  9. The effect of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) on quality parameters, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjkouh, Lynda; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Keciri, Sonia; Santos, Joana; Nunes, M Antónia; Oliveira, M B P P

    2016-06-15

    The present study was performed on olives from two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Metidja) with different rates of attack by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real attacked %) and the corresponding olive oils. The aim was to verify the attack effect on quality parameters (free fatty acid, peroxide value, K232 and K270, oxidation stability), bioactive compounds (fatty acids and tocopherols, and total phenols and flavonoids), and on the antioxidant (reducing power, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching inhibition, ABTS and DPPH) and antibacterial (against 8 referenced human enteropathogenic bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method) capacities. Oils from infested olives were downgraded to the virgin olive oil category. Rougette de Metidja, the cultivar with a higher drupe size, was more attacked than Limli. The B. oleae attack causes an important decrease in the total phenolic contents (>30%) but to a lesser degree in the case of tocopherols. Among them, α-tocopherol is the most affected. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities were highly correlated with phenolic levels. The results of this study show the importance of controlling the fly attack because it causes a decrease in the beneficial health effects of olive oils. PMID:27220688

  10. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakani Evdoxia G

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis. The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique, albeit with limited success. This was mainly attributed to the lack of knowledge on the insect's behaviour, ecology and genetic structure of natural populations. The development of molecular markers could facilitate the access in the genome and contribute to the solution of the aforementioned problems. We chose to focus on microsatellite markers due to their abundance in the genome, high degree of polymorphism and easiness of isolation. Results Fifty-eight microsatellite-containing clones were isolated from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, bearing a total of sixty-two discrete microsatellite motifs. Forty-two primer pairs were designed on the unique sequences flanking the microsatellite motif and thirty-one of them amplified a PCR product of the expected size. The level of polymorphism was evaluated against wild and laboratory flies and the majority of the markers (93.5% proved highly polymorphic. Thirteen of them presented a unique position on the olive fly polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization, which can serve as anchors to correlate future genetic and cytological maps of the species, as well as entry points to the genome. Cross-species amplification of these markers to eleven Tephritidae species and sequencing of thirty-one of the amplified products revealed a varying degree of conservation that declines outside the Bactrocera genus. Conclusion Microsatellite markers are very powerful tools for genetic and population analyses, particularly in species deprived of any other means of genetic analysis. The

  11. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Chinese Citrus Fly, Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae), by High-Throughput Illumina Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Xiong, Ke-Cai; Liu, Ying-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlein), is one of the most devastating pests of citrus in the temperate areas of Asia. So far, studies involving molecular biology and physiology of B. minax are still scarce, partly because of the lack of genomic information and inability to rear this insect in laboratory. In this study, de novo assembly of a transcriptome was performed using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 20,928,907 clean reads were obtained and assembled into 33,324 unigenes, with an average length of 908.44 bp. Unigenes were annotated by alignment against NCBI non-redundant protein (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway (KEGG) database. Genes potentially involved in stress tolerance, including 20 heat shock protein (Hsps) genes, 26 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) genes, and 2 ferritin subunit genes, were identified. These genes may play roles in stress tolerance in B. minax diapause stage. It has previously been found that 20E application on B. minax pupae could avert diapause, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Thus, genes encoding enzymes in 20E biosynthesis pathway, including Neverland, Spook, Phantom, Disembodied, Shadow, Shade, and Cyp18a1, and genes encoding 20E receptor proteins, ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP), were identified. The expression patterns of 20E-related genes among developmental stages and between 20E-treated and untreated pupae demonstrated their roles in diapause program. In addition, 1,909 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected, which will contribute to molecular marker development. The findings in this study greatly improve our genetic understanding of B. minax, and lay the foundation for future studies on this species. PMID:27331903

  12. Design of a micro colorimetric enzyme assay for screening of radioprotectors using the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera Philippine's Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of function and expression of a 109kDa protein is observed in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis, upon exposure to a γ-radiation dose of 100 Gy. Found to possess tyrosinase activity, this marker enzyme is particularly important during quarantine treatment of export fruits. A semi-automated radioprotector screening assay for anti-cancer drug development at PNRI has been developed and optimized. Larvae of B.philippinensis are subjected to relatively high and low doses of standard radioprotectors (L-glutathione (GSH), tert-butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), garlic bulb extracts), temperature treatments (37 degrees centegrade and 42 degrees centegrade) and relatively high and low radiation doses (10 and 40 Gy) following a 2-factorial design. Using mushroom tyrosinase as standard and 605 nm as reference wavelength, optimum precision, sensitivity and curve linearity are achieved at the 405 nm window within 60-minute reaction time with 2-methyl DOPA yielding dopachrome. Significant radioprotection and tyrosinase activity are observed. Results showed that GSH exhibited the best radioprotection with an emergence rate of 100% (GSHη 42 degrees10). Consequently, GSHη exhibited a high dopachrome level next to garlicη. Garlic approximates the performance of GSH and BHA, but the fact that dopachrome levels or garlich are exceeding high could be correlated with the relatively lower emergence rates observed. Dopachrome level of 0.45-005μg/ml exhibits the optimal radioprotection.Other radioprotectors will be screened in the future using this assay in search of potent and less toxic radioprotectors that could decrease radiation-induced morbidities and improve therapeutic gains in patients undergoing therapy. (Author)

  13. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Pavlidi

    Full Text Available The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630 were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology.

  14. Morphological and histological damage on reproduction organ of radio-sterilized male fruit flies bactrocera carambolae (drew & hancock) (diptera; tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that gamma irradiation of 90 Gy on pupae of Bactrocera carambolae (Drew & Hancock) fruit fly induced sterility on the adults, however limited data on the cause of sterility is available. To obtain such information, morphological and histological damages on the reproduction organ of male adult flies emerged from irradiated pupae were observed. Pupae of 9 day-old were irradiated with 90 Gy gamma, and the male adults of 7 and 14 day-old emerged from the pupae were dissected to obtained the testis. Morphology and size of the testis of irradiated and unirradiated flies were observed under the microscopes, each in 10 replicates. Preparate of the testis were also made and observed under the microscopes of 400 magnification. The results showed that significant damages were found on testis of the irradiated B. carambolae flies due to irradiation, so that the growth of the organ disturbed as shown by the smallers size of the irradiated testis as compare to the normal one. On the irradiated 7 day-old flies, the length and width of testis were 25.9 and 30.2 % smaller, while on those of 14 day-old the testis were 39.20 and 44.42 % smaller, than the normal. Besides smaller in size, dead germinal cells on the testis preparate were also observed. It is concluded that sterility on the male flies was due to the damage on the germinal cells so that abnormal spermatogenesis process happened. The smaller in size of the testis, is also differentiate between of the irradiated from the normal flies of B. carambolae. (author)

  15. Management of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, infesting cucurbit growing areas of Bangladesh using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protocols for the application of SIT have been developed to suppress the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, the key pest of cucurbit growing areas in the country. Collaborations have been initiated to transfer the technology to the field through the Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI). They have the established network among the horticultural producers throughout the country. The Insect Biotechnology Division of the Institute of Food and Radiation Biology (IFRB) has developed mass-rearing of the fruit fly using artificial diet and protocols for SIT application i.e., sterility dose, mating competitiveness, quality control etc. Semi-field trials of SIT have been conducted successfully. The sterilising dose for the melon fly was determined by exposing 72 hrs old pupae to gamma rays at various doses: 5,10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 Gy. Mating competitiveness of the irradiated males and the virgin untreated females were conducted at ratios 1:1. A radiation dose of 50 Gy induced 100% sterility in the melon fly. Semi-field trials of the melon fly, B. cucurbitae were conducted on the premises of IFRB. A netted area of 3 x 1.5 x 2 meters (L x W x H) was used for the semi field trial experiments. The irradiated males (50 Gy) and unirradiated females were released at a ratio of 1:1 in the netted cages. The mating period was recorded between 5 p.m. and 9 p.m. Complete sterility was achieved at 50 Gy but percent mating of irradiated males with unirradiated females was recorded as 69.4 % ± 7.8. Further work on mating competitiveness, longevity of sterile males and preliminary field trials are in progress following the SIT model of Knipling. Extensive cucurbit growing areas of the southwestern parts (Jessore district) of Bangladesh have been selected for the preliminary field release programme of the melon fly. For the proper implementation of melon fly SIT programme, the following management structure has been formulated in

  16. STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE OF ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, Bactrocera dorsalis (HENDEL)—— OPTIMAL PUPAL AGE AND DOSE OF IRRADIATION TREATMENT FOR MALE PUPAE%橘小实蝇雄性不育技术——雄蛹辐照最佳时期和剂量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季清娥; 侯伟荣; 陈家骅

    2007-01-01

    羽化前1、2、3d的橘小实蝇雄蛹分别经过90、100、105Gy的60Co辐射,检测其羽化率、飞行能力和耐压存活率;羽化后再分别与普通雌虫杂交,在羽化后的第10天、第17天分别取卵200粒,计算卵孵化率.研究结果表明,对橘小实蝇雄蛹辐射的最佳时期为羽化前2d;最佳辐射照量为100Gy.

  17. 橘小实蝇雄性不育技术应用过程中混入雌虫活力的研究%VIABILITY OF THE MISS-SEXED FEMALE PUPAE IN THE PROCESS OF APPLICATION OF STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE OF MALE ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, Bactrocera dorsalis ( HENDEL )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季清娥; 杜迎刚; 侯伟荣; 陈家骅

    2008-01-01

    取羽化前1、2和3d(即-1d、-2d和-3d)来自橘小实蝇遗传性别品系的雌蛹,分别经过90、100和105Gy的60Co辐照后,检测成虫的羽化率、飞行能力和耐压存活率;辐照处理的雌蛹羽化后再分别与普通雄虫和来自遗传性别品系的不育雄虫杂交,在羽化后的第10天、第17天分别采卵,记录产卵量和卵孵化率.结果表明,雌虫羽化率、飞行能力和耐压存活率等变化与雄虫接受辐照后的质量监测结果相同;经过辐照的雌、雄虫相互交配不产卵;辐照处理过的雌虫与普通雄虫交配,成虫的产卵量明显减少,而且剂量越大,蛹龄越小,产卵量越少.

  18. Effects of acid hydrolysis on increasing the total free sugars in protein bait for Bactrocera dorsalis%酸水解对提高橘小实蝇蛋白饵剂中总游离糖含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩英; 许晨; 许建中; 陈家骅; 王波; 黄居昌

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to increase the total free sugars of protein baits. Acid hydrolysis was used to get free sugars from protein baits. The influences of acid concentration, the reaction temperature and the reaction time were analyzed using single factor experiment and orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimum conditions were 2.5 mol/L acid at 95 ℃ for 3 h. The hydrochloric acid concentration was the most important factor influencing the hydrolysis process, whereas the reaction time showed the slightest influence towards the hydrolysis process.%为了提高蛋白饵剂中总游离糖的含量,采用酸水解的方法,通过单因素试验和正交试验对糖类水解酸浓度、水解温度和水解时间3个影响因素进行分析.在本试验范围内,最佳水解条件为酸(盐酸)浓度2.5 mol/L,温度为95℃,时间为3h.水解酸(盐酸)浓度对糖类的水解影响最显著,其次是水解温度,水解时间影响最小.

  19. Model Study of Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel) Occurrence and Dynamic in Citrus Orchard%柑橘园柑橘小实蝇入侵扩散规律与危害动态模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李达林; 汪恩国

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore the pattern of oriental fruit fly invasion,dissemination and damage,and improve monitoring and control techniques,the data on annual population dynamics were collected by applying specific sex pheromone traps in 35 monitoring points in the citrus orchard all over 19 communities of Linhai County and 2 systemic monitoring points in Fulong citrus orchard of Gucheng,and Linhai fruit market during 2008-2010.It was found that the temporal and spatial population distribution of oriental fruit fly invasion and dissemination was tower-type in Linhai area,which meant the invasion from the center city spreading to the surrounding area.Population dynamics of oriental fruit fly might usually be described by a single peak curve.The first trap of adult insect appeared between mid-June and mid-July;with the growth inflection point forming in early-August,and the biggest amount of population appeared between September and October.The main factors affecting the population dynamics were population base,climate and habitat conditions.Oriental fruit fly population base (m 6 ) and the annual trapped population (M) might be described by relational model M=23.8339 m 6 +59.8003(n=6,r=0.9735 ** ).The relationship between 10 days average population density (m n ) and 10 days average temperature in the latest 3 months (t n-9 ) was m n =1.9248t n-9 -14.88063 (n=72,r=0.5123 ** ).The relationship models among trapped population of citrus fruiting period (M),infect rate of plant (R%),infect rate of fruit (P%),amount of larvae per fruit (N) were R=0.3667M-1.2746 (n=11,r=0.8901 ** ),P=0.0581R+0.3112 (n=11,r=0.9649 ** ),and N=0.6438P+0.9610 (n=11,r=0.7000 * ).These models of oriental fruit fly invasion and dissemination could reflect the dynamic changes of oriental fruit fly in citrus orchard and help to make the better forecast and control decision..%为了探索柑橘小实蝇入侵扩散与危害规律,提高其监测与防控水平,2008—2010年应用柑橘小实蝇专用性诱剂和诱捕器,在全市19个镇(街道)35个柑橘园建立监测点进行全市性入侵扩散分布普查;在古城伏龙柑橘园和市区水果市场,建立2个系统监测点开展全年种群数量消长监测,结果表明柑橘小实蝇种群入侵扩散与时空分布呈塔型趋势,即以城区为中心,并呈向周边区域扩散蔓延趋势;全年种群时序数量变化主要呈单峰型曲线变化,一般于6月中下旬至7月上中旬初见性诱成虫,8月上旬形成增长拐点,9—10月形成数量高峰,影响种群数量消长的主要因子有种群基数、气候和生境条件等,从而创建柑橘小实蝇基数(m6)与全年种群诱量(M)关系模型M=23.8339m6+59.8003(n=6,r=0.9735**)、当旬虫口密度(mn)与其前3个月的旬平均气温(tn-9)关系模型mn=1.9248tn-9-14.88063(n=72,r=0.5123**),以及柑橘挂果期成虫诱量(M)、有虫株率(R%)、有虫果率(P%)、每虫果幼虫量(N)等关系模型:R=0.3667M-1.2746(n=11,r=0.8901**);P=0.0581R+0.3112(n=11,r=0.9649**);N=0.6438P+0.9610(n=11,r=0.7000*)。应用柑橘小实蝇种群入侵扩散危害规律及其参数模型,可反映柑橘园柑橘小实蝇发生变化动态,可随旬作出预报和决策防治,这对提高其监测预警和持续控制具有重要指导意义。

  20. 黄皮种子甲醇提取物对茶黄蓟马的生物活性%Bioactivities of the methanol extract from Clausena lansium seeds against Scirtothrips dorsalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞明; 赵冬香; 万树青

    2011-01-01

    The repelling and contact actions of the methanol extract from Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels seeds against Scirtothrips dorsalis were investigated.The results showed that the methanol extract had an extremely strong repelling activity.The percentages of repellency of the extract against S.dorsalis at 20 g/L were 92.86%and 89.91% after 12 and 24 h, respectively.In addition, the extract displayed contact activity to some extent.The medium lethal concentrations (LC50) of the extracts to S.dorsalis were 16.60 g/L and 12.85 g/L after 12 h and 24 h, respectively.The bioactivity of petroleum ether phase of C.lansium seeds was the highest, with an adjusted mortality of 49.37% after 24 h.%研究了黄皮种子甲醇提取物对茶黄蓟马(Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood)的驱避和触杀作用.结果表明:黄皮种子甲醇提取物对茶黄蓟马有较强的驱避活性,在浓度为20g/L时,12h和24h对茶黄蓟马的驱避率分别为92.86%和89.91%;另外,提取物对茶黄蓟马有一定的触杀作用,处理后12h和24h对茶黄蓟马的致死中浓度(LC50)分别为16.60g/L和12.85g/L.各萃取相中石油醚相的活性最高,质量浓度为5g/L时,石油醚萃取物对茶黄蓟马24h后的校正死亡率为49.37%.

  1. The Study of Compound Quality of various Siam Weed (Eupatorium odoratum) Extracts and Toxicity Detoxification mechanisms Against 3rd Instar Larvae of Fruit Fly (Dacus dorsalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1H-NMR spectroscopy showed signals of DeltaH tild0.71.6 from hexane-leaf extracts from Siam weed (Eupatorium odoratum) These signals derive from protons of non-polar compounds which include fatty acid residues and terpinoids. In addition, the amplification of the signals indicated of some minor DeltaH tild6.2-7.7. This revealed protons from aromatic rings possibly involving in flavonoids from 1H-NMR spectrum. This is a believe that is a believe that these compounds could be varied from slightly polar compounds to moderately polar compounds. Furthermore, the Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of hexane, chloroform and methanol fractions showed the extracts composed of majority of less polar. It is and indication of the method of separation is quite food for separation of polarity basis from these extracts. Finally, the TLC of hexane fraction distinctively produced 7-8 compounds from the extracts. Toxicity testing using topical spray method showed that methnoloc extracts gave highest toxicity against 3rd instar larvae of fruit fly (Darcus dorsalis). The root extracts produced ca. 5 fold mohile GSH-S-transferase ws elevated 2-3 fold. The addition of dimethyl maleate into the extraccts increased their toxicity. The persistent experiment of eupathal from the extracts showed that the extracts can be stabilixed under aqueous solution upto 1 month with losing the compound. Finally, the Siam weed extracts prosuced non toxic to non-target organisms such as gabbies, bee, and mouse. The results of LC50 showed 15,000-26,000 mg/L 6,000-15,000 mg/L and 3,000-10,000 mg/L from hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts, respectively.

  2. Feasibility study of MR time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics sequence in evaluation of the dorsalis pedis artery and the first dorsal metatarsal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of MR angiography of the dorsalis pedis artery (DPA), the first dorsal metatarsal artery (FDMA) and the branches at the first toe web by three-dimensional time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) sequence. Methods: Forty three patients with suspected or known soft tissue diseases of the ankle and foot were examined retrospectively by MR TRICKS sequence. Two experienced radiologists independently evaluated the visualization performance of DPA, FDMA and its branches with maximum intensity projection. Kappa analysis was performed for the image evaluation of the two radiologists. Consensus scores were obtained if the two radiologists had different scores. Clinical classification of FDMA was carried out for patients with scores equal to, or more than 2 points after imaging evaluation. FDMA was categorized according to its location (superficial, intramuscular, infra-muscular, absent), diameter (large, medium and small) and branching pattern at the toe web (ramifying type, main trunk type and fine small branch). Results: The scoring results of the two radiologists indicated a high agreement (Kappa value =0.895, P<0.05). TRICKS images can clearly show the arterial filling of DPA, FDMA and its branches. The final consensus scores were as follows: 8 patients had 4 grade and 22 patients 3 grade, 8 patients 2 grade and 5 patients 1 grade. Clinical classification of FDMA for 38 patients (arterial scales ≥2 point): (1) Location: superficial (8 patients), intramuscular (23 patients), intramuscular (7 patients); (2) Diameter at the midpoint of FDMA: large (2 patients), medium (25 patients), and small (11 patients); (3) Branching pattern at the toe web: ramifying type (11 patients), main trunk type (5 patients), fine branch (14 patients). Conclusion: MR TRICKS sequences are valuable in the evaluation of the DPA and FDMA and its branches, which can provide useful anatomical information for classification of FDMA. (authors)

  3. Agonistic-like responses from the torus semicircularis dorsalis elicited by GABA A blockade in the weakly electric fish Gymnotus carapo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Duarte

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Findings by our group have shown that the dorsolateral telencephalon of Gymnotus carapo sends efferents to the mesencephalic torus semicircularis dorsalis (TSd and that presumably this connection is involved in the changes in electric organ discharge (EOD and in skeletomotor responses observed following microinjections of GABA A antagonist bicuculline into this telencephalic region. Other studies have implicated the TSd or its mammalian homologue, the inferior colliculus, in defensive responses. In the present study, we explore the possible involvement of the TSd and of the GABA-ergic system in the modulation of the electric and skeletomotor displays. For this purpose, different doses of bicuculline (0.98, 0.49, 0.245, and 0.015 mM and muscimol (15.35 mM were microinjected (0.1 µL in the TSd of the awake G. carapo. Microinjection of bicuculline induced dose-dependent interruptions of EOD and increased skeletomotor activity resembling defense displays. The effects of the two highest doses showed maximum values at 5 min (4.3 ± 2.7 and 3.8 ± 2.0 Hz, P < 0.05 and persisted until 10 min (11 ± 5.7 and 8.7 ± 5.2 Hz, P < 0.05. Microinjections of muscimol were ineffective. During the interruptions of EOD, the novelty response (increased frequency in response to sensory novelties induced by an electric stimulus delivered by a pair of electrodes placed in the water of the experimental cuvette was reduced or abolished. These data suggest that the GABA-ergic mechanisms of the TSd inhibit the neural substrate of the defense reaction at this midbrain level.

  4. The First Report of the Test on the Flight Ability of Oriental Fruit Fly%桔小实蝇飞行能力测定试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁帆; 吴佳教; 梁广勤

    2001-01-01

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel) is the pest of fruits and vegetables. It has very stong flight ability. According to the test with a flight-mill system in laboratory, the initial find showed that the maximum flight distance of the fly was 46.54304km.%桔小实蝇Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel)是为害水果和蔬菜的检疫性有害生物,此虫具有较强的飞行能力。应用飞行磨系统在实验室条件下的测试,初步发现最远可飞行46.54304km的距离。

  5. Co-Infestation and Spatial Distribution of Bactrocera carambolae and Anastrepha spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Common Guava in the Eastern Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deus, E G; Godoy, W A C; Sousa, M S M; Lopes, G N; Jesus-Barros, C R; Silva, J G; Adaime, R

    2016-01-01

    Field infestation and spatial distribution of introduced Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock and native species of Anastrepha in common guavas [Psidium guajava (L.)] were investigated in the eastern Amazon. Fruit sampling was carried out in the municipalities of Calçoene and Oiapoque in the state of Amapá, Brazil. The frequency distribution of larvae in fruit was fitted to the negative binomial distribution. Anastrepha striata was more abundant in both sampled areas in comparison to Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and B. carambolae The frequency distribution analysis of adults revealed an aggregated pattern for B. carambolae as well as for A. fraterculus and Anastrepha striata Schiner, described by the negative binomial distribution. Although the populations of Anastrepha spp. may have suffered some impact due to the presence of B. carambolae, the results are still not robust enough to indicate effective reduction in the abundance of Anastrepha spp. caused by B. carambolae in a general sense. The high degree of aggregation observed for both species suggests interspecific co-occurrence with the simultaneous presence of both species in the analysed fruit. Moreover, a significant fraction of uninfested guavas also indicated absence of competitive displacement. PMID:27638949

  6. Flightless mutants in the melon fly and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their possible role in the sterile insect release method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new mutants that affect adult wing morphology and render the flies incapable of flight.sbd.bubble wing (bw) in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and small wing (sw) in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).sbd.are described. Both mutants have variable expression and are caused by autosomal, recessive genes. We discuss the possible role of these alleles in constructing genetic sex sorting systems to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the sterile insect release method

  7. Host plant oviposition preference of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera : Tephritidae)%瓜实蝇对寄主植物的产卵选择性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭帅; 郑丽霞; 吴伟坚

    2013-01-01

    The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae ( Coquillett) has been reported to damage more than 100 host plants and is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables. Choice oviposition experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions to help assess host plant specificity of the fruit fly. Six host species: Momordica charantiap, Luffa cylindrical, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita moschata, Carica papaya and Cucurbita pepo were tested. Oviposition rates were highest on M. charantiap (56. 18% of eggs) and C. sativus (29. 00% ) , with low rates on C. papaya (1. 85% ) and C. moschata (0. 00% ) . In contrast, Oviposition rates were highest on C. sativus ( 34. 64% ) , C. pepo ( 30. 37% ) and C. moschata (18. 05% ) , with low rates on C. papaya (0. 60% ) when the fruit peel were pared. Oviposition rates of B. cucurbitae females on fruits with peel had a significant negative correlation with the hardness of peel, and the correlation coefficient was - 0. 8772. The results imply that in addition to the in - built chemical compounds, plants have physical barrier like hard fruit peel, which impact melon fruit fly oviposition.%瓜实蝇Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)可危害100多种寄主植物,是葫芦科蔬菜的重要害虫.为了探明瓜实蝇的寄主特异性,在实验室条件下研究了瓜实蝇对黄瓜Cucumis sativus、苦瓜Momordica charantiap、丝瓜Luffa cylindrica、南瓜Cucurbita moschata、番木瓜Carica papaya和西葫芦Cucurbita pepo的产卵选择性.瓜实蝇在苦瓜和黄瓜上的产卵比率较高,分别为56.18%和29.00%,在番木瓜和南瓜上产卵比率较低,分别为1.85%和0.00%,但是在去掉果皮后,黄瓜、西葫芦和南瓜的产卵比率较高,分别达到34.64%、30.37%和18.05%,在番木瓜上的产卵率较低仅为0.60%.瓜实蝇雌虫在带皮果实上的产卵比率与果皮硬度呈显著的负相关关系,相关系数为-0.8772结果表明除了自身的化合物之外,植物具有的物理屏障如坚硬的

  8. 瓜实蝇DNA甲基化的MSAP体系建立与优化%Establishment and optimization of MSAP Analysis System for DNA Methylation in Bactrocera cucurbitae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚治; 周世豪; 马华博; 张亚楠; 符悦冠

    2016-01-01

    The melon fly [Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] is one of the most important vegetables insect pest in China. However, the DNA methylation in melon fly has not been reported yet. Methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) is an important research tecnnique to analysis the DNA methylation. The MSAP can be established through the enzyme digestion reaction, ligation, PCR amplification system, and primer screening, such as 10 U restriction endonuclease is put in the 20 μL enzyme digestion system, and then react with 600 ng of genome DNA at 37℃ overnight; 1U of T4 ligase is put in the 20 μL ligation system, 50 pmol of HpaⅡ-MspⅠ-adapter and 5 pmol of EcoR I-adapter which react at 16℃ for 12 hours. Diluent ligation products were used in PCR to pre-amplification and selected amplification, the result is tested by silver staining and 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Six pairs of primers which suited for DNA methylation sensitive amplified polymorphism were selected out by this system. The MSAP system provides the technical support for the study of the epigenetics research of melon fly.%瓜实蝇[Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)]是中国重要的蔬菜害虫,但其DNA甲基化研究尚未见报道。甲基化敏感扩增多态性是研究DNA甲基化的重要技术之一。通过对酶切反应、连接、 PCR扩增和引物筛选等条件优化,建立瓜实蝇MSAP反应体系,即:①20μL酶切体系中加入10 U的限制性内切酶与600 ng基因组DNA,于37℃酶切反应过夜;②20μL连接体系中加入T4连接酶1 U, HpaⅡ-MspⅠ-adapter接头50 pmol, EcoR I-adapter接头5 pmol,并于16℃反应12 h;③连接产物稀释后进行PCR预扩增和选择性扩增,再经6%变性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳和银染检测结果。通过该体系筛选出适用于瓜实蝇基因组DNA甲基化多态性研究的6对引物;瓜实蝇MSAP体系为瓜实蝇的表观遗传学研究提供了技术支持。

  9. Cage study of spinosad-based bait efficacy on Bactrocera cucurbitae, Dacus ciliatus, and Dacus demmerezi (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguine, Jean-Philippe; Douraguia, Elisabeth; Atiama-Nurbel, Toulassi; Chiroleu, Fréderic; Quilici, Serge

    2012-08-01

    On Reunion Island, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), Dacus ciliatus (Loew), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi) cause severe damage to Cucurbit crops. The aim of the study was to test in field cages the effectiveness of Synéis-appât (Dow AgroSciences), a spinosad-based bait (0.02% of spinosad) on both attraction and mortality of young adults (6-9 d old) of these three species. The effects of gender were also evaluated for all species whereas the effects of protein deprivation were tested with B. cucurbitae only. For the first 15 min after application, significantly more B. cucurbitae adults (21.7 +/- 1.8%) were attracted to the bait than D. demmerezi (7.6 +/- 2.4%) and D. ciliatus (2.7 +/- 1.4%); the subsequent response (30-75 min after bait application) of D. demmerezi was statistically similar to that recorded for B. cucurbitae; whereas the response ofD. ciliatus to the bait was consistently significantly lower. Adult mortality was significantly higher for B. cucurbitae (94.6 +/- 0.7%) than for D. demmerezi (85.7 +/- 2.1%), and was significantly higher for the latter than for D. ciliatus (60.4 +/- 4.4%). Sex had no significant effect on the mortality rate for each species. The efficiency of the bait was the same for B. cucurbitae adults regardless whether or not the diet included proteins. Overall, Synéis-appât appears to be more effective against B. cucurbitae and B. demmerezi than against D. ciliatus. In Reunion Island, this bait could constitute a useful component in the framework of Integrated Pest Management.

  10. Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. PMID:25688089

  11. Characteristics of hot spots of melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sterile fly release areas on Okinawa island [Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of populations of the melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae COQUILLETT, in the southern part of Okinawa Island where an eradication program using sterile flies has been conducted, were analyzed in relation to the seasonal succession and abundance of wild and cultivated host fruits. The study areas were classified into four major zones according to the seasonal abundance of flies caught by cue-lure traps and the availability of host fruits including Diplocyclos palmatus, Melothria liukiuensis and Momordica charantia var. pevel. Zone-I is characterized by the continuous presence of host fruits and a relatively-high population density of the melon fly indicated by the cue-lure trap catch of more than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day throughout the year. Zone-II has a characteristic decline in both number of host fruits and fly density during the fall-winter period with an annual average of less than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day. Zone-III includes areas where host fruits and flies (about 1 fly/trap/day) were relatively abundant only during the winter-spring period. Zone-IV is characterized by constantly low availability of host fruits and low fly density throughout the year. Hot spots, which are defined as areas where the ratio of sterile to wild flies hardly increases despite frequent and intensive release of sterile flies, were found in the Zone-I areas. Therefore, the continuous presence and abundance of host fruits appears to hot spots. For effective control of this species, it is essential to locate such areas and release sterile flies

  12. Evidence of two lineages of the symbiont 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola' in Italian populations of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) based on 16S rRNA gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savio, Claudia; Mazzon, Luca; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Simonato, Mauro; Squartini, Andrea; Girolami, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    The close association between the olive fly Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and bacteria has been known for more than a century. Recently, the presence of a host-specific, hereditary, unculturable symbiotic bacterium, designated 'Candidatus Erwinia dacicola', has been described inside the cephalic organ of the fly, called the oesophageal bulb. In the present study, the 16S rRNA gene sequence variability of 'Ca. E. dacicola' was examined within and between 26 Italian olive fly populations sampled across areas where olive trees occur in the wild and areas where cultivated olive trees have been introduced through history. The bacterial contents of the oesophageal bulbs of 314 olive flies were analysed and a minimum of 781 bp of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. The corresponding host fly genotype was assessed by sequencing a 776 bp portion of the mitochondrial genome. Two 'Ca. E. dacicola' haplotypes were found (htA and htB), one being slightly more prevalent than the other (57%). The two haplotypes did not co-exist in the same individuals, as confirmed by cloning. Interestingly, the olive fly populations of the two main Italian islands, Sicily and Sardinia, appeared to be represented exclusively by the htB and htA haplotypes, respectively, while peninsular populations showed both bacterial haplotypes in different proportions. No significant correlation emerged between the two symbiont haplotypes and the 16 host fly haplotypes observed, suggesting evidence for a mixed model of vertical and horizontal transmission of the symbiont during the fly life cycle.

  13. Selective extraction of Bactrocera oleae sexual pheromone from olive oil by dispersive magnetic microsolid phase extraction using a molecularly imprinted nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen Alcudia-León, María; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-07-15

    Bactrocera oleae Gmelin, also known as olive fruit fly, is the main olive tree pest. It produces a severe effect not only on the productivity but also on the quality of the olive-related products. In fact, the oil obtained from infected olives has a lower antioxidant power. In addition, an increase of the oil acidity, peroxide index and UV-absorbance can also be observed. 1,7-dioxaspiro-[5,5]-undecane (DSU), is the main component of the sexual pheromone of this pest and may be used as marker of the pest incidence. In this context, the development of new methods able to detect the pheromones in several samples, including agri-food or environmental ones, is interesting. In this work, we synthesized a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPS) layer over magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP) for the selective recognition of DSU. They were prepared using DSU as template and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to associate the target analyte on the surface of the magnetic substrate and the later polymerization of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in presence of 2,2-azobisisobutyonnitrile (AIBN). The resulting Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP composite was characterized by different techniques. The maximum adsorption capacity of DSU on Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP in hexane was 32mg/g (5.3 times than that obtained for the non-imprinted composite). In addition, Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP showed a short equilibrium time (45min) and potential reusability. The combination of dispersive magnetic microsolid phase extraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection allows the determination of DSU in real samples at concentrations as low as 10μg/L with precision better than 7.5% (expressed as relative standard deviation). The relative recoveries are in the range between 95 and 99%, which indicates the potential of the methodology. Finally, it has been applied to real olive oil samples being the presence of the pest detected is some of them. PMID:27295964

  14. Repair of soft tissue defect on dorsum of the hand with free dorsalis pedis flap%游离足背皮瓣修复手背皮肤软组织缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐举玉; 黄雄杰; 谢松林; 刘鸣江; 吴攀峰; 黄新锋; 夏晓丹; 陶克奇

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨游离足背皮瓣修复手背皮肤软组织缺损的临床效果.方法 对10例手背软组织缺损的患者,切取带腓浅神经的游离足背皮瓣移植修复,其中1例携带第3、4趾趾长伸肌腱,1例同时切取第二足趾再造中指.皮瓣切取面积为5 cm×4 cm~21 cm x 12 cm.结果 10例皮瓣全部存活,术后1例皮瓣发生血管危象,经手术探查发现静脉血栓形成,重新吻合血管后皮瓣存活.术后随访6~24个月,其中9例皮瓣无臃肿,皮肤质地、色泽接近正常皮肤,痛、温、触觉部分恢复;1例皮瓣肤色较深,质地硬.3例供区植皮坏死、肌腱外露,其中1例经换药后瘢痕愈合,1例行小腿内侧筋膜皮瓣修复,1例行足内侧岛状皮瓣修复.结论 应用足背皮瓣复合组织修复手背皮肤、肌腱和神经的缺损,是一种较理想的方法.%Objective To evaluate the clinical outcomes of repairing soft tissue defect on dorsum of the hand by free dorsalis pedis flap transfer. Methods Ten cases of soft tissue defects on dorsum of the hand were treated. Dorsalis pedis flap including the superficial peroneal nerve was harvested and transferred to cover the defects. In one of the 10 cases, the 3rd and 4th toe extensor tendons were also included in the flap. In the other case, the second toe was transferred simultaneously to reconstruct the middle finger. The sizes of the harvested flaps ranged from 5 cm x 4 cm to 21 cm 12 cm. Results All 10 flaps survived. Postoperative vascular crisis occurred in 1 ease. Surgical exploration revealed venous thrombosis. The flap survived after resection of the thrombotic site and vascular re-anastomosis. Postoperative follow up period was 6 to 24 months. In 9 eases the flaps were not bulky. The texture and color of the skin were near normal. Partial recovery of pain, temperature and touch sensation was observed. In 1 ease the skin was dark and hard. Necrosis of skin grafts at the donor site with exposed tendons was seen in 3

  15. Repair of perforating skin and soft tissue defects of the palms with dorsalis pedis parallel flaps%足背并联皮瓣修复手掌贯穿性皮肤软组织缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯仕明; 王爱国; 高顺红

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of dorsalis pedis parallel flaps in repairing perforating skin and soft tissue defects of the palms.Methods Eighteen patients with perforating skin and soft tissue defects of the palms were hospitalized from July 2008 to November 2010.The area of skin defect ranged from 2.0 cm × 1.5 cm to 5.0 cm ×2.5 cm.The dorsalis pedis parallel flaps were used to repair these defects,with the area ranging from 2.0 cm × 2.0 cm to 5.5 cm × 3.0 cm.The donor sites were covered with autologous full-thickness skin from inner thigh.Results All the 18 flaps and skin grafts of donor sites survived completely.Seventeen patients were followed up for 6 to 23 months,with mean time of 10 months,and one patient was lost to follow-up.The texture,elasticity,and appearance of all the 17 flaps were satisfactory,with no obvious pigmentation or cicatricial contracture.At the last follow-up,the distance of two-point discrimination of flaps ranged from 6 to 9 mm,with mean distance of 7.4 mm,and the sensation of flaps reached S3 in 13 patients who had nerve anastomosis.Conclusions The dorsalis pedis parallel flap,with reliable blood supply and flexible design,is a good choice for repairing perforating skin and soft tissue defects of the palms.%目的 探讨采用足背并联皮瓣修复手掌贯穿性皮肤软组织缺损的疗效. 方法 2008年7月-2010年11月,笔者单位收治18例手掌贯穿性皮肤软组织缺损患者.单处皮肤软组织缺损面积为2.0 cm×l.5 cm~5.0 cm ×2.5 cm.应用足背并联皮瓣治疗,单处皮瓣切取面积为2.0 cm×2.0 cm~5.5 cm ×3.0 cm.供瓣区创面采用自体大腿内侧全厚皮片修复. 结果 术后18例患者皮瓣全部成活,所有足部供区植皮均成活.本组17例患者术后随访6~23个月,平均10个月;l例患者失访.17例皮瓣外观恢复较好,皮瓣质地柔软、弹性好,无臃肿,未见明显色素沉着以及瘢痕挛缩.行神经吻合的13例患者,末次随访时皮

  16. Evaluation of Cuelure and Methyl Eugenol solid lure and insecticide dispensers for fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) monitoring and control in Tahiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Performance of solid male lure (cuelure (C-L)/raspberry ketone (RK) - against Bactrocera tyroni (Froggatt), and methyl eugenol (ME) - against oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) and insecticide formulations, were evaluated in Tahiti Island (French Polynesia), as alternatives to current monitori...

  17. Resveratrol modifies tephritid fruit fly response to nutritional and radiation stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resveratrol is a recently discovered compound. Three concentrations (50, 100, 200 µM) of resveratrol were evaluated against Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae by incorporating resveratrol into fruit fly liquid larval diet under the following conditions: 1) with or without wheat germ oil (WGO) in ...

  18. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  19. The free femoral anterolateral flap combined with iliotibial band to repair dorsalis pedis composite tissue defects%带髂胫束的游离股前外侧皮瓣修复足背复合组织缺损

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙灵通; 陈瑜; 陈娟; 朱英箭; 王曦; 朱文龙

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect on free femoral anterolateral skin flap with the iliotibial band to repair the curative effect of dorsalis pedis composite tissue defects. Methods From September 2008 to June 2011, femoral anterolateral flap transplantation with the iliotibial band to repair and toe tendon concurrent instep area skin defect in 16 cases, skin flap ranged from 6.5 cm × 9.0 cm~6.5 cm × 10.5 cm, the length of the iliotibial band was cut 7.0~11.0 cm, 6.0~9.0 cm width. According to the Chinese medical association in to the upper extremity function evaluation standard to assess efficacy. Follow-up for 6 months to 2 years. Results All flaps survived after operation. Excellent in 9 cases, good in 5 cases, fair in 2 cases. Conclusion With femoral anterolateral flap transplantation iliotibial band is an effective method to repair dorsalis pedis composite tissue defect and rebuild toe tendon surgery method.%目的:探讨带髂胫束的游离股前外侧皮瓣修复足背复合组织缺损的疗效。方法对2008年9月—2011年6月收治的16例足背复合组织缺损,采用带髂胫束的股前外侧皮瓣游离移植修复,皮瓣切取范围6.5 cm×9.0 cm~12.0 cm×22.0 cm,髂胫束的切取长度7.0~25.0 cm,宽度6.0~9.0 cm。结果术后所有皮瓣均成活。优9例,良5例,可2例,优良率87.5%。结论带髂胫束的股前外侧皮瓣游离移植修复足背复合组织缺损并重建趾伸肌腱是一种有效的手术方法。

  20. 果蔬重要实蝇属的分布、危害与形态特征比较研究%Comparative Study on Distribution, Harm and Morphological Characteristics of Important Insects in Bactrocera in Fruits and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振; 黄可辉

    2012-01-01

    This paper expounded the geological distribution, host plant species and major morphological characteristics of the important quarantine pest insects in fruits and vegetables in the following five genera: Bactrocera Macquart, Dacus Fabricius, Ceratitis Macleay, Anastrepha Schiner and Rhagoletis Loew, compared the similarities and differences among the five genera, and put forward some measures for the control of the important pest insects in fruits and vegetables in these genera.%阐述了果实蝇属、寡鬃实蝇属、小条实蝇属、按实蝇属、绕实蝇属5个检疫性害虫果蔬实蝇属的地理分布、寄主及其主要形态特征,比较了各个属形态特征的异同,并提出了一些防治果蔬重要实蝇属的措施.

  1. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. PMID:26463186

  2. Virulence Determination of Beauveria bassiana Bb070817 against Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) in Laboratory%球孢白僵菌Bb070817菌株对番石榴实蝇的室内毒力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁盛勇; 孔琼; 李珣; 田学军; 陈斌

    2013-01-01

    为研究球孢白僵菌(Beauveria bassiana)Bb070817菌株对番石榴实蝇Bactrocera correcta(Bezzi)的毒力效果,采用喷雾法和浸渍法以不同密度球孢白偶菌(Beauveria bassiana)Bb070817菌株的分生孢子液处理番石榴实蝇Bactrocera correcta(Bezzi)的成虫、幼虫和蛹,并分别测定对成虫、幼虫和蛹的室内毒力.结果表明,成虫的累积校正死亡率最高,为86.12%,其致死中时间(LT50)为4.66d,致死中密度(LCT50)为2.948 5×105 mL-1.幼虫的累积校正死亡率为88.42%,其LT50为4.47 d,LCT50为2.769 5×105 mL-1.蛹的累积校正死亡率是83.91%,其LT50为5.16d,LCT50为3.155 7×105 mL-1,说明该菌株对番石榴实蝇具有较强的毒力.

  3. 瓜实蝇对虚拟波长下不同颜色的趋性%Preferences of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)to different colors: a quantitative investigation using virtual wavelength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛皇娃; 吴伟坚

    2013-01-01

    利用害虫对不同颜色的趋性进行害虫防治,如利用黄板对实蝇的监测和防治已有很长的历史,然而尚未见把颜色量化进行实蝇对颜色偏嗜性研究的报道.为探明对瓜实蝇Bactrocera Cucurbitue最具吸引力的颜色及其虚拟波长,本试验应用Dan Bruton的虚拟波长与RGB值的函数关系,把RGB值转换为虚拟波长;选择RGB值[(0,213,255),(0,255,146),(54,255,0),(129,255,0),(195,255,0),(255,255,0),(255,190,0)和(255,119,0)]的颜色进行打印,这些颜色对应的虚拟波长分别是480,500,520,540,560,580,560和600 nm;在八面体内进行瓜实蝇对8种颜色的偏嗜性试验.结果表明:波长在520 ~ 560 nm之间对应的颜色对瓜实蝇的吸引率高于其他虚拟波长对应的颜色,而540 nm(黄绿色,RGB值为129,255,0)对应的颜色纸对瓜实蝇的吸引率最大.此外田间颜色偏嗜性试验也证实了黄绿色对瓜实蝇有最强的引诱作用.结果说明,黄绿色(虚拟波长540nm)是吸引瓜实蝇的关键颜色,黄绿色粘虫板可作为监测与防治瓜实蝇的一种有效方法.%Various colors have been used as visual cues to trap insect pests.For example,yellow traps for monitoring and controlling of the fruit flies have been used for a very long time.However,the chromatic cue of using color traps has never been quantitatively investigated.To reveal which wavelengths are most attractive to the fly,experiments were conducted to evaluate the preferences of Bactrocera cucurbitae to different colors.In this study,RGB values and virtual wavelengths were converted each other based on Dan Bruton' s wavelength to RGB function.Eight color papers were printed by color printer based on RGB values [(0,213,255),(0,255,146),(54,255,0),(129,255,0),(195,255,0),(255,255,0),(255,190,0) and (255,119,0)] and were chosen to test the color preference of the melon fly,Bactrocera cucurbitae in an octagon maze,and their equivalent wavelengths were 480 nm,500 nm,520 nm,540 nm,560 nm,580

  4. 人工饲料对柑橘大实蝇成虫寿命和繁殖特性的影响%Effects of Artificial Diet on Longevity and Reproductive Characteristics of Bactrocera minax (Enderlein) Adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小姣; 王福莲; 张桂芬; 李传仁

    2012-01-01

    为了明确柑橘大实蝇[ Bactrocera minax (Enderlein)]成虫人工饲养的最适配方,室内条件下测定了蜂蜜水、糖醋液、啤酒酵母蔗糖水以及蛋白胨蔗糖水等4种人工饲料对柑橘大实蝇成虫寿命、交配次数及产卵量的影响.结果表明,4种人工饲料均能满足柑橘大实蝇成虫存活和繁殖的营养需求.以4种人工饲料饲喂的成虫可存活23~45 d,期间交配3~5次,且4种配方间没有显著差异;研究还显示,以蛋白胨蔗糖水喂食的成虫单雌产卵量最高,约为20粒,与其他3种配方间具有明显差异.研究结果可为柑橘大实蝇基础生物学特性和可持续治理技术提供参考.%In order to define a suitable artificial diet for Bactrocera minax (Enderlein), the effects of honey water, liquid sweet and sour mix, beer yeast sucrose water and peptone Bucrose water on longevity, mating and fecundity of B. Minax adult were evaluated under laboratory conditions. The results showed that all of the four kinds of artificial diets could enable B. Minax to complete their living history and lay eggs. Adults that fed on the four kinds of artificial diets could survival 23~ 45 d and mate 3~5 times during this period. There were no significant differences among the four kinds of artificial diets when the longevity and mating frequency of the adults were compared. However, the numbers of eggs laid by female adults reared on the peptone sucrose water (about 20 eggs/female) was much higher than those of adults reared on the other three kinds of artificial diets. The results are inportant for studying the basic biological characteristics of B. Minax and its sustainable management.

  5. Roles of semiochemicals in mating systems: A comparison between Oriental fruit fly and Medfly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Males of tephritid fruit fly species show strong affinity to specific chemicals produced by plants. Amongst the economically important species in the Asian Pacific area, methyl eugenol acts as a potent attractant for males of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and several other species within the dorsalis species complex (e.g., B. papayae Drew and Hancock, B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, etc.), cuelure [4-(4-acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone] and the naturally occurring deacetyl derivative (raspberry ketone) act as specific attractants for flies such as the melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the Queensland fruit fly, B. tryoni (Froggatt) (Metcalf 1990). These attractants have been successfully used as baits in mass trapping for monitoring populations during eradication programmes for these pests (Chambers 1977, Koyama et al. 1984). Likewise, trimedlure has been developed as a synthetic attractant for males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), while α-copaene has been known to be a naturally occurring attractant for the species. For most tephritids, however, the biological function of male attraction to these natural or artificial compounds remains unclear. Recent studies (Nishida et al. 1988 1997, Nishida and Fukami 1990, Tan 1993, Tan and Nishida 1996) have shown that males of B. dorsalis and related species ingest these compounds from natural sources, selectively incorporate them into the rectal glands, and use them to synthesise the sex pheromone and allomone. It appears that similar chemical compounds, when ingested, may provide pheromonal precursors in the melon fly as well (Nishida et al. 1993, Shelly and Villalobos 1995). In contrast, Medfly males do not feed on the source of chemical attractant. According to our observations, α-copaene strongly affected the courtship behaviour of the Medfly, which suggests that these natural compounds may possibly be involved in the formation of leks and the mating

  6. 16s rDNA文库法分析番石榴果实蝇共生菌组成%Composition of symbiotic bacteria associated with Bactrocera correcta analyzed by 16s rDNA libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴阳; 李志红; 柳丽君; 吴佳教; 邓裕亮

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The composition of symbiotic bacteria associated with Guava fruit fly, Bacirocera correcta (Bezzi), was investigated to provide the basis for further study on physiological function of the symbionts and co-evolution between bacteria and the host. [Method] 16s rDNA libraries of laboratory population for B. correcta were constructed, and BLAST analysis of bacterial composition and abundance was carried out in this study. [Result] The dominant symbionts in B. correcta male adults were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Lactococcus lactis, while symbiotic bacteria in female adults were Enterobacter bacteria. [Conclusion] Various bacteria are present in the Guava fruit fly, B. correcta.%[目的]探索分析番石榴果实蝇[ Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi)]的共生菌组成,为进一步探索共生菌的生理功能以及与宿主的协同进化关系奠定基础.[方法]构建番石榴果实蝇室内种群共生菌的16s rDNA文库,BLAST分析其共生菌的组成以及丰度.[结果]室内雄虫共生菌主要为Pseudomonas aeruginosa和Lactococcus lactis,雌虫共生菌主要为Enterobacter属的细菌.[结论]本研究结果证明番石榴果实蝇存在多种共生菌.

  7. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas.

  8. Age-stage, two-sex life tables of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) with a discussion on the problem of applying female age-specific life tables to insect populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bing Huang; Hsin Chi

    2012-01-01

    Age-stage,two-sex life tables of the melon fly,Bactrocera cucurbitae ( Coquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae),reared on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.),sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica Roem) and a carrot medium (mashed Daucus carota L.mixed with sucrose and yeast hydrolysate) were constructed under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1 ℃,65% ± 0.5%relative humidity,and a photoperiod 12 ∶ 12h (L ∶ D).The intrinsic rates of increase of B.cucurbitae were 0.144 6,0.141 2 and 0.068 8 days on cucumber,sponge gourd,and carrot medium,respectively.The highest net reproduction rate was 172 offspring per fly reared on sponge gourd.The mean generation times of B.cucurbitae ranged from 34 days reared on cucumber to 56 days reared on carrot medium.The life history raw data was analyzed using the traditional female age-specific life table and compared to results obtained using the age-stage,two-sex life table.When the age-specific female life table is applied to an age-stage-structured two-sex population,survival and fecundity curves will be improperly manipulated due to an inability to include variation in preadult development time.We discussed different interpretations of the relationship between the net reproductive rate and the intrinsic rate of increase to clarify possible misunderstanding in the literature.

  9. Complex Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschet, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Complex systems and their underlying convoluted networks are ubiquitous, all we need is an eye for them. They pose problems of organized complexity which cannot be approached with a reductionist method. Complexity science and its emergent sister network science both come to grips with the inherent complexity of complex systems with an holistic strategy. The relevance of complexity, however, transcends the sciences. Complex systems and networks are the focal point of a philosophical, cultural ...

  10. Bucolic Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Brešar, Bostjan; Chepoi, Victor; Gologranc, Tanja; Osajda, Damian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we introduce and investigate bucolic complexes, a common generalization of systolic complexes and of CAT(0) cubical complexes. This class of complexes is closed under Cartesian products and amalgamations over some convex subcomplexes. We study various approaches to bucolic complexes: from graph-theoretic and topological viewpoints, as well as from the point of view of geometric group theory. Bucolic complexes can be defined as locally-finite simply connected prism complexes satisfying some local combinatorial conditions. We show that bucolic complexes are contractible, and satisfy some nonpositive-curvature-like properties. In particular, we prove a version of the Cartan-Hadamard theorem, the fixed point theorem for finite group actions, and establish some results on groups acting geometrically on such complexes. We also characterize the 1-skeletons (which we call bucolic graphs) and the 2-skeletons of bucolic complexes. In particular, we prove that bucolic graphs are precisely retracts of Ca...

  11. Toxicity Determination of Several Insecticides and Their Mixtures to Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae ( Coquillett)%几种杀虫剂及其混配对瓜实蝇成虫的毒力测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奎; 付步礼; 邱海燕; 符悦冠

    2011-01-01

    采用微量点滴法,测定了毒死蜱、甲维盐、敌敌畏、顺式氯氰菊酯等4种杀虫剂对瓜实蝇成虫的毒力和二元混配的联合毒力.结果表明:80%敌敌畏乳油(EC)的LD50最小,为1.683 9μg·g-1;100g·L-1顺式氯氰菊酯EC的LD50最大,为8.877 0μ g·g-1.供试杀虫剂毒性大小依次为:80%敌敌畏EC>5%甲维盐微乳剂(ME) >480g·L-1毒死蜱EC> 100 g·L-1顺式氯氰菊酯EC.敌敌畏与甲维盐(1∶1)混配的增效作用最强,共毒系数为426.%Four insecticides toxicities to adult of Bactrocera (Zeugodacus ) cucurbitae ( Coquillett) and their co-efficient ratio were determined by micro drop method. The results showed that LD50 of 80 % dichlorvos EC was minimum for 1.683 9 μg ? G-1 and alpha-cypermethrin EC was the largest for 8.877 0 μg ? G-1. The toxicity order was 80 % dichlorvos EC>5 % emamectin-benzoate ME > 480 g ? L-1 chlorpyrifos EC> 100 g ? L-1 alpha-cypermethrin EC. The co-efficient ratio of the mixture of dichlorvos and emamectin-benzoate (1:1) was 426.

  12. Coverage of donor site defects on dorsum of the foot after dorsalis pedis flap transfer with pedicled lateral supramalleolar artery flaps%外踝上动脉皮瓣修复足背组织移植供区缺损的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 陈振兵; 翁雨雄; 丛晓斌; 艾方兴; 周攀; 洪光祥

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical application of pedicled for coverage of donor site defects resulted from dorsalis pedis flap transfer.Methods From October 2008 to September 2012,the flap pedicled on the lateral supramalleolar artery was reverse transferred to cover the defect on the dorsum of the foot resulted from dorsalis pedis flap harvest in 11 cases.Among these cases 6 had second toe combined with dorsalis pedis flap transfer and 5 had dorsalis pedis flap transfer.Postoperatively the appearance of the flaps,pain and touch sensation,temperature perception and two-point discrimination were evaluated.AOFAS assessment of donor foot function was performed.Results Flaps of the 11 cases all completely survived.Primary wound healing was achieved at the flap donor site.Nine cases were follow-up for 12 to 24 months while 2 were lost to follow-up.The flaps had good appearance.There were no excessive scar,pain or ulcer.The patients were satisfied with the aesthetic results.Perception of pain,temperature and touch was restored.At 12 months postoperatively,twopoint discrimination was (10.1 ± 2.2) mm on average.Sensory recovery was S3+,while the mean foot and ankle AOFAS score was 90.7.Conclusion Reverse transfer of pedicled lateral supramalleolar artery flap is a good option for coverage of dorsum foot soft tissue defect.It reduces donor site morbidity and restores good appearance and function of the donor foot.%目的 探讨外踝上动脉皮瓣带蒂逆行转移修复足背组织移植供区缺损的临床效果.方法 2008年10月至2012年9月,对11例手外伤其中6例行第二足趾加足背皮瓣游离移植,5例足背皮瓣移植的患者采用外踝上动脉皮瓣带蒂逆行转移,修复足背组织移植后供区缺损创面.术后对皮瓣外形满意度,痛触觉、温度觉、两点分辨觉及对患足功能行AOFAS评分.结果 术后11例皮瓣全部顺利存活,供区伤口均Ⅰ期愈合.9例获得12~ 24个月的随访,2例失访.皮瓣具有

  13. Leptotrachelus dorsalis: the prodigal son returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insecticides are well established as a production practice that can de-stabilize agricultural ecosystems. This occurs because insecticides frequently control not only the pest, but they also kill beneficial insects. These beneficial insects help to maintain the pests bellow economic levels and if th...

  14. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Effect Analysis About Suffocating the Larva of Bactrocera minax with No-insecticide Plastic Bags%塑料袋闷杀柑桔大实蝇虫果死亡率调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡光灿; 易继平; 张国平

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to select an efficient and non-pol-luting method to kil the larva of fruit fly in citrus. [Method] The larvae of Bactrocera minax in citrus fruits were suffocated using plastic bags with or without a certain concentration of pesticide. Then, the mortality of in different treatments was mea-sured 24, 48, 60, 240 and 480 h later. Final y, variance analysis was carried out. [Result] There was no significant difference in the mortality between the two treat-ments: suffocating the larvae with sealed plastic bags containing no or a certain concentration of pesticide 5 d. later. The former had high mortality, but also was e-conomic and without any pol ution. The orange maggots were more easier to be kil ed in sealed plastic bags. [Conclusion] Suffocating orange maggots with no-insec-ticide plastic bag is economic, efficient and has no pol ution to the environment.%[目的]探索经济、高效、无污染的杀死柑桔大实蝇幼虫的科学方法。[方法]选择塑料袋加某一浓度的杀虫剂和不加杀虫剂闷处柑桔大实蝇幼虫的方法,得出幼虫死亡数据,并进行方差分析。[结果]处理5d后,塑料袋封口不加药处理和塑料袋封口加药处理幼虫死亡率无明显差异;与加药不封闭处理相比,在隔绝空气的条件下更易杀死柑桔大实蝇幼虫。[结论]塑料袋封口不加药处理更经济有效,且不污染环境。

  16. Engaging complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gys M. Loubser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss studies in complexity and its epistemological implications for systematic and practical theology. I argue that engagement with complexity does not necessarily assurea non-reductionist approach. However, if complexity is engaged transversally, it becomes possible to transcend reductionist approaches. Moreover, systematic and practical the ologians can draw on complexity in developing new ways of understanding and, therefore, new ways of describing the focus, epistemic scope and heuristic structures of systematic and practical theology. Firstly, Edgar Morin draws a distinction between restricted and general complexity based on the epistemology drawn upon in studies in complexity. Moving away from foundationalist approaches to epistemology, Morin argues for a paradigm of systems. Secondly,I discuss Kees van Kooten Niekerk�s distinction between epistemology, methodology andontology in studies in complexity and offer an example of a theological argument that drawson complexity. Thirdly, I argue for the importance of transversality in engaging complexity by drawing on the work of Wentzel van Huyssteen and Paul Cilliers. In conclusion, I argue that theologians have to be conscious of the epistemic foundations of each study in complexity, and these studies illuminate the heart of Reformed theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, this article has both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications. When theologians engage studies incomplexity, the epistemological roots of these studies need to be considered seeing thatresearchers in complexity draw on different epistemologies. Drawing on transversality wouldenhance such considerations. Furthermore, Edgar Morin�s and Paul Cilliers� approach tocomplexity will inform practical and theoretical considerations in church polity and unity.

  17. Simplifying complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemput, van de I.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior

  18. Carney Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Carney complex are Cushing’s syndrome and multiple thyroid nodules (tumors). Cushing’s syndrome features a combination of weight gain, ... with Carney complex include adrenocortical carcinoma , pituitary gland tumors , thyroid , colorectal , liver and pancreatic cancers . Ovarian cancer in ...

  19. 柑橘大实蝇对不同柑橘品种的产卵偏好和幼虫取食选择%Adult oviposition and larval feeding preference for different citrus varieties in Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘路; 周琼; 宋傲群; 尤克西

    2014-01-01

    [Aim] This study aims to understand the preference of Bactrocera minax for several citrus varieties.[Methods] We investigated the diseased citrus ratio of different citrus varieties in citrus orchards under natural conditions by five-point sampling method,counted the numbers of egg-laying marks and eggs laid on the basal hemisphere and distal hemisphere of citrus fruit,and examined the larval feeding preference of B.minax to host odorants of citrus petals by the selection tests in the laboratory.[Results] The results showed that the rate of oviposition sites on citrus fruits facing the forest harborage was significantly higher than that at any other directions in citrus orchards,and the oviposition preference of B.minax found was Citrus sinensis cv.Navel and C.aurantium > C.sinensis cv.Bingtang,Amakusa,and C.reticulata cv.Satsuma > C.maxima cv.Shatian > C.reticulata cv.Ponkan.The numbers of egg-laying marks and eggs laid on oranges (C.sinensis cv.Navel,C.aurantium and C.sinensis cv.Bingtang) were higher than those on tangerines (Amakusa,C.reticulata cv.Satsuma,C.reticulata cv.Ponkan) and C.maxima cv.Shatian (P < 0.05).The number of egg-laying marks on the distal hemisphere of citrus fruit was significantly than that on the basal hemisphere (P < 0.05)(except C.reticulata cv.Satsuma).Larval feeding preference was closely correlated with adult oviposition preference.[Conclusion] Our results suggest that oviposition preference of B.minax is related to larval feeding preferences.%[目的]掌握柑橘大实蝇Bactrocera minax对不同品种柑橘的产卵偏好,以及与幼虫取食喜嗜性的关系.[方法]我们用五点取样法分别调查了自然条件下不同品种柑橘果园的虫果率,统计了各品种柑橘虫果基半部和端半部产卵痕量和卵量,并在实验室内采用培养皿桔瓣选择法研究了其幼虫对不同柑橘品种果实的取食选择.[结果]在未采取防控措施的情况下,果树面朝杂树林的方位虫果率

  20. 柑橘大实蝇成虫的时空分布与产卵规律%Spatial and temporal distribution and oviposition behaviour of adult Bactrocera ( Tetradacus ) minax (Enderlein)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杖黎; 李涛; 石章红; 陈政; 张宏宇

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese citrus fruit fly Bactrocera {Tetradacus) minax (Enderlein) is one of the most harmful pests for fruit crops. Few studies have been conducted to determine the ovipositing behavior of this species, and little is known about the movement rhythms of the adults after their emergence. In this study, the movement rhythms of B. Minax adults was revealed after their emergence and the ovi-position preference of females was observed through field investigations. The results indicated that the majority of B. Minax adults flied around the junction zone of mixed woods and orchard in the period of over twenty days after the emergence. And it reached a peak on June 11th, we trapped (24. 0 ± 5. 6) insects per pot in a 5 m zone of mixed woods in the peak period,while the date was (74. 7 ± 21. 9) insects per pot in the 5 m zone of orchard, which was significantly higher than that in other trapping zones. In the peak period of emergence, more than sixty percent of the adult B. Minax flied around the junction zone. After the emergence peak, the distribution of B. Minax in orchard tended to be uniform. Except that no B. Minax adults was trapped in the sampling zone designated as 100 m zone in mixed woods, the trapped numbers of B. Minax in other sampling zones showed no significant difference. Additionally, the greatest number of oviposition marks of B. Minax were found to be in the middle of an orange, which were significantly more than those in two other parts such as the stem end and the fruit navel. Furthermore, the number of oviposition marks in the dark side of orange was seven times higher than those in the sunny side. It suggested that B, minax females preferred to oviposit in the fruit right side. However, B. Minax females showed no preferences to the oranges from different locations.%通过实地调查,观察并分析了柑橘大实蝇Bactrocera(Tetradacus) minax (Enderlein)成虫在柑橘园及其附近杂树林的觅食产卵活动规律.结果表明:在柑橘

  1. 南亚果实蝇多酚氧化酶的性质研究%Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from the fruit fly Bactrocera tau (Walker) ( Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小珍; 刘映红

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为揭示南亚果实蝇Bactrocera tau (Walker)不同发育阶段体内多酚氧化酶的活性与性质.[方法]以邻苯二酚为底物,在415 nm波长下测定了南亚果实蝇l,2和3龄幼虫、蛹以及成虫多酚氧化酶的活性和动力学参数.[结果]南亚果实蝇在不同发育阶段,多酚氧化酶的活性存在明显差异,通常3龄幼虫中活性最高,为434.42 U/mg;蛹中最低,为231.05 U/mg.在pH 6.5时,南亚果实蝇不同发育阶段多酚氧化酶的活性分别为265.42,358.34,444.42,210.02和373.99 U/mg,但当pH值高于7.0或低于5.0时,多酚氧化酶的活性则明显下降.在温度为34℃和37℃时,南亚果实蝇各发育阶段多酚氧化酶的活性均较高,当温度高于40℃或低于27℃时,活性则明显下降.以邻苯二酚为底物,2龄幼虫中多酚氧化酶的Km值(3.10 mmol/min)和Vmax(476.19 mmol/L)较大,说明多酚氧化酶对底物邻苯二酚催化能力强;蛹中多酚氧化酶的Km(0.63 mmol/min)和Vmax(50.25 mmoL/L)较小,说明多酚氧化酶对底物的亲和力和催化能力弱.当以L-DOPA为底物时,3龄幼虫中多酚氧化酶的Km值和Vmax较大,分别为0.49mmol/min和188.68mmoL/L;蛹中多酚氧化酶的Km值和Vmax较小,分别为0.25 mmol/min和21.79 mmol/L.[结论]南亚果实蝇体内多酚氧化酶在不同温度和pH值下的活性和动力学参数与虫体发育阶段密切相关.%[Objective] This study aims to determine the activities of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) in the fruit fly Bactrocera tau (Walker) during various developmental stages.[ Methods] The PPO activity and kinetic properties in the 1st,2nd and 3rd instar larva,pupa and adult were determined with spectrophotomethrical method using catechol as the substrate.[ Results ] The PPO activities varied significantly during different developmental stages of B.tau.The enzyme activity in the 3rd instar larva was the highest (434.42 U/mg) and that in pupa was the lowest (231.05 U/mg).At pH 6.5,the enzyme activities in the

  2. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia;

    2013-01-01

    and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing.......This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  3. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  4. Complex Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Kleefeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.

  5. Simplifying complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Leemput, van de, J.C.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior leads to the emergence of properties that would not be expected from behavior or properties of the individual parts of the system. Although the full behavior of the systems I address will probably...

  6. Complex networks: Patterns of complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    The Turing mechanism provides a paradigm for the spontaneous generation of patterns in reaction-diffusion systems. A framework that describes Turing-pattern formation in the context of complex networks should provide a new basis for studying the phenomenon.

  7. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  8. Effect of temperature on the development and reproduction of Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)population%温度对瓜实蝇实验种群生长发育及生殖的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦淑丹; 黄树生; 王玉群; 曾东强; 凌炎

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究温度对广西瓜实蝇生长发育的影响,为瓜实蝇的综合防治提供理论依据.[方法]采用人工恒温饲养方法,分别设置15、20、25、30、35℃5个恒温条件,测定不同恒温条件下瓜实蝇的生长发育、存活和繁殖情况.[结果]瓜实蝇卵、幼虫、蛹、产卵前期和世代的发育起点温度分别为10.56、7.33、10.77、9.72和10.77℃,有效积温分别为12.68、117.91、107.15、364.43和602.17℃·d;在35℃时蛹不能存活,25℃时单雌产卵量最大,平均每头雌虫产卵1428.30粒,15℃时最低,平均240.30粒;在15~30C时,瓜实蝇实验种群趋势指数均大于1,在25、30℃时,种群趋势指数最大,分别为447.37和301.19.[结论]l5~30℃范围内瓜实蝇可正常发育,25~30℃为其最适生长发育及繁殖温度.%[Objective]The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of temperature on developmental and reproductive stages of Bactrocera cucurbitae population (Coquillett) in order to provide basic information for its integrated control. [Method]The B. Cueurbitae populations were artificially fed at five constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35℃) and the development, reproduction and their survival rates were determined by artificial feeding method during various developmental stages. [Result]The threshold temperatures for the development of eggs, larva, pupa, pre-oviposition period and generation of B. Cueurbitae were 10.56, 7.33, 10.77, 9.72 and 10.77℃ respectively, and the effective accumulated temperature of them were 12.68, 117.91, 107.15, 364.43 and 602.17 d·℃, respectively. The pupa could not survived at 35℃. The female adults were found to produced maximum eggs (1428.3 eggs per female) under the condition of 25℃, while minimum egg production (240.3 eggs per female) was recorded at 15℃. The population trend indices of B. Cueurbitae was recorded over 1, and it was recorded as maximum (447.37) at 25℃, followed by 301.19 at 30

  9. 南亚实蝇成虫肠道细菌的分离与鉴定%Isolation and identification of bacteria in the intestinal tract of adult Bactrocera tau (Walker) (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆米娟; 张贺贺; 陈家骅; 杜迎刚; 何龙艳; 季清娥

    2016-01-01

    采用传统的微生物培养和16S rDNA ( V6-V8)高变区测序相结合的方法,从室内人工饲养的性成熟南亚实蝇雌虫肠道中分离、鉴定出21株细菌,均属于γ-变形菌门,分别为肠杆菌属(7株)、拉乌尔菌属(3株)、沙雷氏菌属(2株)、普罗维登斯菌属(2株)、不动杆菌属(1株)、柠檬酸杆菌属(1株)、西地西菌属(1株)和不可培养的细菌(4株);从性成熟的南亚实蝇雄虫肠道内分离得到20株细菌,分别为细菌(7株)、克雷伯氏菌属(4株)、肠杆菌属(3株)、普罗维登斯菌属(2株)、沙雷氏菌属(1株)、摩根菌属(1株)、假单胞菌属(1株)和γ-变形杆菌(1株),也均属于γ-变形菌门。由上可知,性成熟的南亚实蝇雌、雄成虫肠道共有细菌为肠杆菌属、普罗维登斯菌属和沙雷氏菌属,均属于肠杆菌科,表明肠杆菌科是南亚雌、雄成虫肠道细菌的优势菌群。%21 strains of bacteria were isolated and identified from the intestinal tract of sexually matured female Bactrocera tau which were reared in the laboratory using traditional isolation and 16S rDNA ( V6-V8 hypervariable region) sequencing technique. All bacteria strains belonged to the Gamma-proteobacteria phylum, which included Enterobacter (7 strains), Raoultella (3 strains), Serratia ( 2 strains) , Providencia ( 2 strains) , Acinetobacter ( 1 strain) , Citrobacter ( 1 strain) , Cedecea ( 1 strain) and uncultured bacteria (4 strains). Similarly, 20 bacteria strains were isolated and identified from male B.tau and they also belonged to Gamma-proteobacteria phylum, which consisted of bacteria (7 strains), Klebsiella (4 strains), Enterobacter (3 strains), Providencia (2 strains), Serratia (1 strain ), Morganella (1 strain), Pseudomonas (1 strain ) and gamma Proteobacterium (1 strain). Bacteria genus which both females and males had in common were Enterobacter, Providencia and Serratia, which all belonged to Enterobacte-riaceae. To summarize

  10. Effects of temperature and light on take-off activity of Bactrocera cucurbitae%温度、光照强度对瓜实蝇成虫飞行行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔志富; 曹凤勤; 程立生; 符悦冠; 万方浩; 张桂芬

    2016-01-01

    [Background] Bactrocera cucurbitae is the important pest of Amphisarca in Sourthern China. The objective of this study was to examine the fly movement of B. cucurbitae to between control this fly. [Method] Based on the known biological characteris-tics, artificial climate chamber and some other equipment were used to study the effects of temperature and light changes on fly be-havior activity of B. cucurbitae. [Result] The results showed that the fly activities increased with temperature starting at 15℃ with an optimum temperature between 20 and 30 ℃. Flying activities were obviously the greatest at temperatures above 35 ℃ and the least when temperatures dropped under 10℃. The activity percent of B. cucurbitae is more than 50% at 25~40℃, but it is 0% at 10、15 and 45 ℃ respectively. Light intensity also affected fly behavior with fly activities increasing over 2400 lx and reaching a peak at 9600 lx. Extreme light intensity (12000 lx) inhibited flight behavior. The number of take-off activity of B. cucurbitae increased with the increase of light intensity.[Conclusion and significance] Extremes in temperature and light intensity may limit flight activity of B. cucurbitae. Moderate high temperature can encourage fly behavior.%【背景】瓜实蝇是我国南方瓜果的主要害虫。本试验分析了影响瓜实蝇成虫飞行行为及活跃度的原因,以便能更有效地控制瓜实蝇危害。【方法】在已知瓜实蝇的生物学特性及部分活动规律的基础上利用智能人工气候箱等设施,分别测定温度、光照对瓜实蝇的飞行行为的影响。【结果】瓜实蝇成虫在15℃下开始飞行,飞行活动的群体数量随着温度的升高而增加,最适飞行活动温度范围为20~30℃,低温10℃明显对其飞行行为有抑制作用,高温(35℃以上)明显对其有刺激作用,促进其飞行行为的发生。瓜实蝇成虫的活跃度在25~40℃下较高,均大于50%,在10、15和45℃下则为0

  11. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  12. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  13. PS complex

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A view of the present PS complex taken at the end of 1972. The earth embankment covering the Ring is clearly visible; in the foreground are the North and South Experimental Halls; to the right is the East Hall, and to the left the Booster surface buildings. The West Hall is too far to the left to seen, and also invisible is the SPS being constructed.

  14. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  15. Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum instanton (QI approximation is recently proposed for the evaluations of the chemical reaction rate constants with use of full dimensional potential energy surfaces. Its strategy is to use the instanton mechanism and to approximate time-dependent quantum dynamics to the imaginary time propagation of the quantities of partition function. It thus incorporates the properties of the instanton idea and the quantum effect of partition function and can be applied to chemical reactions of complex systems. In this paper, we present the QI approach and its applications to several complex systems mainly done by us. The concrete systems include, (1 the reaction of H+CH4→H2+CH3, (2 the reaction of H+SiH4→H2+SiH3, (3 H diffusion on Ni(100 surface; and (4 surface-subsurface transport and interior migration for H/Ni. Available experimental and other theoretical data are also presented for the purpose of comparison.

  16. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  17. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  18. Complex silumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study presents the results of investigations carried out on silumins with additions of Mg, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo and W. The silumins containing Mg, Cu and Ni are well-known and commonly used in construction of machines and equipment.Design/methodology/approach: Additions of Cr, Mo and W have not been thoroughly investigated yet. They are considered a new family of innovative cast aluminium alloys.Findings: In Al-Si systems they form silicides, like Cr3Si, Mo3Si, W3Si and intermetallic phases of Al13Cr4Si4, Al12Mo, Al12W and AlWSi. The silicides crystallise in cubic lattice of parameters similar to aluminium and silicon.Research limitations/implications: Therefore they can act as crystallisation substrates and occur as separate phases. The examinations under the microscope and X-ray microanalysis of the linear and point distribution of elements confirmed the presence of the above mentioned phases. A combination of two elements, e.g. Cr and Mo, or Cr and W, was observed to cause the formation of complex silicide layers of Mo3Si and (Cr, Mo3Si, or Cr3Si as well as (W, Cr3Si.Originality/value: The presence of the silicides has been indicated as a possible source of the refinement of α(Al and β(Si phases. The precipitations of these phases and of the intermetallic phases favour a high degree of the silumins hardening. A characteristic feature is the fact that nucleation and crystallisation of the successive phases takes place at the phase boundaries formed between the previously precipitated phase and solid solution α. The studies carried out so far have indicated that in complex silumins at high temperatures crystallise the silicides and peritectic phases of Al12W, AlWSi, Al12Mo and Al13Cr4Si4. Phases α or β are the next ones to crystallise, followed by complex eutectic α + β +Al(Si, Cr, Mo, W, Fe. Further crystallise the phases of Mg2Si, Al3Ni and Al2Cu. The silumins presented here are characterised by high mechanical properties: Rp0

  19. 踝间线足背动脉在全膝关节置换术髓外定位中的临床应用%Clinical application of the dorsalis pedis artery crossing the intermalleolar line for extramed-ullary location in total knee arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘张冰; 洪剑飞; 费军

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨踝关节力学中心体表标志点,为全膝关节置换术( TKA)下肢力线的准确定位提供依据。方法对64例膝骨关节炎( OA)终末期患者实施初次TKA治疗,股骨侧采用髓内定位,胫骨侧采用髓外定位,实验组(34例)踝关节力学中心位于踝间线足背动脉处,对照组(30例)定位则按传统方法进行。术后测量患者胫骨假体胫骨角及后倾角。结果患者均获得随访,时间4~6年。胫骨假体胫骨角平均度数:实验组为(2.1±0.2)°,对照组为(2.6±0.1)°,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);胫骨假体后倾角:实验组为(3.1±0.2)°,对照组为(3.3±0.1)°,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。实验组胫骨假体力线优于对照组。结论踝间线足背动脉定位可靠,其标示简单易行,能提高胫骨假体力线的精确度,不失为TKA术中踝关节力学中心定位的理想参考。%Objective To explore the body surface landmark about dynamics centre on ankle , and in order to provide a reasonable basis for clinical treatment for accurate positioning in lower limb alignment in total knee arthroplasty ( TKA) .Methods Sixty-four cases with end stage knee osteoarthritis were treated with primary TKA .The cases were treated with intramedullary location by distal femoral osteotomy .The way that extramedullary location was adopt-ed by proximal tibia osteotomy .Dynamics centre on ankle was positioned on the dorsalis pedis artery crossing the in-termalleolar line(were pre-operatively marked) in experimental group(34 cases), in control group(30 cases), was positioned on traditional method .Those tibial angles and posterior slope angles of components were measured .Re-sults All the patients were regularly followed up for 4~6 years after operation .The average degree of two groups:the experimental and control group for prosthesis tibial angle was (2.1 ±0.2)°and (2.6 ±0.1)°, respectively

  20. Measuring Tax Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    David Ulph

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines a number of issues relating to the measurement of tax complexity. It starts with an analysis of the concept of tax complexity, distinguishing tax design complexity and operational complexity. It considers the consequences/costs of complexity, and then examines the rationale for measuring complexity. Finally it applies the analysis to an examination of an index of complexity developed by the UK Office of Tax Simplification (OTS). Postprint

  1. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  2. Pricing complexity options

    OpenAIRE

    Malihe Alikhani; Bj{\\o}rn Kjos-Hanssen; Amirarsalan Pakravan; Babak Saadat

    2015-01-01

    We consider options that pay the complexity deficiency of a sequence of up and down ticks of a stock upon exercise. We study the price of European and American versions of this option numerically for automatic complexity, and theoretically for Kolmogorov complexity. We also consider run complexity, which is a restricted form of automatic complexity.

  3. Three promising fungal strains pathogenic to fruit flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiji, T.; Praveena, R.; Babu, Kavitha; Naseema, A.; Anitha, N. [College of Agriculture, Kerala (India)

    2006-07-01

    Pathogenicity of the fungi Paecilomyces lilacinus, isolated from Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Aspergillus candidus, isolated from B. dorsalis, was tested. Cross infectivity of P. lilacinus on B. dorsalis and A. candidus on B. cucurbitae and cross infectivity of a local isolate of B. bassiana from bhindi leaf roller (Sylepta derogata) on fruit flies (B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis ) were also studied. These fungi were new records in these hosts. P. lilacinus at 109 spores / ml caused 96.67% and 100 % cumulative mortality in fruit flies on the second and on the third days. LC50 values of P. lilacinus on B. cucurbitae were 5.0 x 106, 8.0 x 105, 7.0 x 105 spores/ ml on second, third and fourth day, respectively. The fungus was found to cross infect B. dorsalis. LC50 values of A. candidus on B. cucurbitae were 1.29 x 108, 1.22 x 107, 2.27 x 106 spores / ml on third, fourth and fifth day, respectively. The fungus was found to be cross infective to B. cucurbitae. B. bassiana at 109 spores/ ml on B. dorsalis was found to cause 70%, 80% and 90% mortality on fourth, fifth and sixth day. LC50 values of B. bassiana on B. dorsalis were 7.0 x 108, 2.0 x 107, 5.0 x 106 spores/ ml on third, fourth and fifth day ,respectively . Formulation of P. lilacinus as wettable powder and granules and B. bassiana as wettable powder, were also prepared and their efficacy was tested on hosts. (author)

  4. Complex Multiplicative Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Bashirov, Agamirza; Riza, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we extend the concepts of multiplicative de- rivative and integral to complex-valued functions of complex variable. Some drawbacks, arising with these concepts in the real case, are explained satis- factorily. Properties of complex multiplicative derivatives and integrals are studied. In particular, the fundamental theorem of complex multiplicative calculus, relating these concepts, is proved. It is shown that complex multi- plicative calculus is not just another realizat...

  5. Second Quantized Kolmogorov Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Caroline; Vedral, Vlatko; Nagarajan, Rajagopal

    2008-01-01

    The Kolmogorov complexity of a string is the length of its shortest description. We define a second quantised Kolmogorov complexity where the length of a description is defined to be the average length of its superposition. We discuss this complexity's basic properties. We define the corresponding prefix complexity and show that the inequalities obeyed by this prefix complexity are also obeyed by von Neumann entropy.

  6. Complex networks analysis of language complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, Diego R; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Costa, Luciano da F; 10.1209/0295-5075/100/58002

    2013-01-01

    Methods from statistical physics, such as those involving complex networks, have been increasingly used in quantitative analysis of linguistic phenomena. In this paper, we represented pieces of text with different levels of simplification in co-occurrence networks and found that topological regularity correlated negatively with textual complexity. Furthermore, in less complex texts the distance between concepts, represented as nodes, tended to decrease. The complex networks metrics were treated with multivariate pattern recognition techniques, which allowed us to distinguish between original texts and their simplified versions. For each original text, two simplified versions were generated manually with increasing number of simplification operations. As expected, distinction was easier for the strongly simplified versions, where the most relevant metrics were node strength, shortest paths and diversity. Also, the discrimination of complex texts was improved with higher hierarchical network metrics, thus point...

  7. 针刺"内关""中脘""足三里"对背侧网状亚核神经元放电的影响%Effects of Electroacupuncture of "Neiguan" (PC 6),"Zhongwan" (CV 12) and "Zusanli" (ST 36)on Electrical Activities of Neurons in Subnucleus Reticularis Dorsalis in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀来喜; 闫丽萍; 王海军; 李亮; 何伟; 贲卉; 朱兵

    2009-01-01

    目的:观察腧穴"胃病方"即"内关""中脘""足三里"的针刺信号在背侧网状亚核传导与整合的途径.方法:选用健康成年雄性SD大鼠,10%乌拉坦腹腔注射麻醉,人工呼吸.立体定位仪固定头部,暴露菱形窝,玻璃微电极记录延脑背侧网状亚核(SRD)神经元细胞放电.首先记录30 s的神经元背景活动,然后施以手法(捻转角度120°、频率80次/min)刺激"内关"30 s,同时记录SRD神经元的反应;刺激结束,待细胞放电恢复后,再用相同手法分别刺激"中脘"与"足三里"穴.结果:刺激"内关"穴后,放电频率从(1.67±0.35)个/s增加到(17.55±1.40)个/s;刺激"中脘"穴后,放电频率从(2.35±0.43)个/s增加到(16.96±1.83)个/s;刺激"足三里"后,放电频率从(1.83±0.37)个/s增加到(17.39±1.58)个/s.结论:SRD可能为腧穴"胃病方"3穴在中枢传入信息聚合的部位之一.%Objective To compare the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Gastric Problem Formula" ["Neiguan" (PC 6), "Zhongwan" (CV 12) and "Zusanli" (ST 36)] on electrical activities of neurons of medullary subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD) of the rat. Methods Experiments were performed on SD rats anesthetized by 10% urethane (1.0 -1. 5 g/kg). Under artificial ventilation and immobilization (2% gallamine triethiodide, 5 ml/kg), extracelluar discharges were recorded by glass micropipettes inserted into SRD of the medulla (Caudal to the Obex: - 1. 0-2. 0 mm, L/R: 0. 5- 1. 5 mm, H: 0. 6- 1. 5 mm below the medullary surface). Following getting stable recordings, the acupuncture needle inserted in "Neiguan" (PC 6) was manipulated moderately (twisting range: 120°, frequency: 80 times/min) for 30 s. The same manipulation was performed at "Zhongwan" (CV 12) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) separately. Results After moderate acupuncture stimulation, in the recorded 13 SRD neurons, the discharges were increased from (1. 67±0. 35) spikes/s to (17. 55± 1. 40) spikes/s for "Neiguan" (PC 6), from

  8. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other ... worsened after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications ...

  9. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma ( ...

  10. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer ... least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called ...

  11. Complexity An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Parwani, R R

    2002-01-01

    This article summarises a Web-book on "Complexity" that was developed to introduce undergraduate students to interesting complex systems in the biological, physical and social sciences, and the common tools, principles and concepts used for their study.

  12. Curve complexes are rigid

    OpenAIRE

    Rafi, Kasra; Schleimer, Saul

    2007-01-01

    Any quasi-isometry of the complex of curves is bounded distance from a simplicial automorphism. As a consequence, the quasi-isometry type of the curve complex determines the homeomorphism type of the surface.

  13. Quantum Communication Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Klauck, Hartmut

    2000-01-01

    This paper surveys the field of quantum communication complexity. Some interesting recent results are collected concerning relations to classical communication, lower bound methods, one-way communication, and applications of quantum communication complexity.

  14. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  15. Complexity and Dynamical Depth

    OpenAIRE

    Terrence Deacon; Spyridon Koutroufinis

    2014-01-01

    We argue that a critical difference distinguishing machines from organisms and computers from brains is not complexity in a structural sense, but a difference in dynamical organization that is not well accounted for by current complexity measures. We propose a measure of the complexity of a system that is largely orthogonal to computational, information theoretic, or thermodynamic conceptions of structural complexity. What we call a system’s dynamical depth is a separate dimension of system c...

  16. 柑橘大实蝇生物、生态学及辐照不育技术最新研究进展%Research progress on the biology, ecology and the application of sterile insect technique on Bactrocera minax (Enderlein)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂芬; 王福莲; 吕志创; 黄聪; 李咏军; 郭建英; 李传仁; 万方浩

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera minax ( Enderlein) , the Chinese citrus fruit fly, is one of the most important citrus pests in southern China. In recent years, the damage caused by this species on citrus plants has increased, causing the citrus industry suffer a great loss. In this paper, knowledge on the effects of environmental factors, including temperature, photoperiod, as well as adult nutrition ( hunger, thirst) and tolerance to flooding in mature larvae, and on adult behavior of B. minax are evaluated. The parameters of artificial diet for mass rearing of B. minax adults and larvae, as well as the diapausing mechanisms of B. minax pupa is now clarified. The key techniques for IST ( irradiation sterile technique) , including the optimal irradiation dose of the 60 Co-γray and the optimal develop-ment status of irradiated B. minax pupa were clarified, leading to the first successful attempt to use IST to control B. minax in an or-ange orchard in Hubei Province. Finally, a proposal for further research on the sustainable management of B. minax is proposed.%柑橘大实蝇是柑橘类果树的一种重要害虫,近几年在我国柑橘种植区的危害呈上升趋势,给柑橘产业造成了巨大损失。本文概述了环境因素包括温度、光周期、营养状况(饥渴)以及水淹对柑橘大实蝇生物学特性和成虫行为的影响,柑橘大实蝇成虫和幼虫人工饲养技术参数,柑橘大实蝇蛹滞育机制,辐照不育关键技术包括最佳辐照剂量和辐照时期,及其在湖北柑橘园柑橘大实蝇防控中的应用与示范情况等,并指出了尚需进一步开展的研究内容。

  17. Complexity Near Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, Edi

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the concept of complexity near horizons to all nondegenerate black holes. For Schwarzschild black holes, we show that Rindler observers see a complexity change of $S$ during proper time $1/\\kappa$ which corresponds to the creation of a causal patch with proper length $1/\\kappa$ inside the horizon. We attempt to describe complexity in the horizon CFT and the Euclidean picture.

  18. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  19. SYSTEMS WITH COMPLEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chenghong; ZHANG Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Science of Complexity is a newly emerging branch of natural scienceAlthoughwe still haven't a precise definition, there are some principles for justifying whether a systemis a complex systemThe purpose of this article is to reveal some of such principlesOnthe basis of them, the concept of a system with complexity is proposedThey may helpus to distinguish a real complex system from complicated objects in common senseThenwe propose some fundamental problems faced by the study of systems with complexity.

  20. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhtar Hussain; Akhil R Chakravarty

    2012-11-01

    Lanthanide complexes have recently received considerable attention in the field of therapeutic and diagnostic medicines. Among many applications of lanthanides, gadolinium complexes are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical radiology and luminescent lanthanides for bioanalysis, imaging and sensing. The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality of cancer using a photosensitizer drug and light. This review primarily focuses on different aspects of the chemistry of lanthanide complexes showing photoactivated DNA cleavage activity and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Macrocyclic texaphyrin-lanthanide complexes are known to show photocytotoxicity with the PDT effect in near-IR light. Very recently, non-macrocyclic lanthanide complexes are reported to show photocytotoxicity in cancer cells. Attempts have been made in this perspective article to review and highlight the photocytotoxic behaviour of various lanthanide complexes for their potential photochemotherapeutic applications.

  1. Complexity Through Nonextensivity

    CERN Document Server

    Bialek, W; Tishby, N; Bialek, William; Nemenman, Ilya; Tishby, Naftali

    2001-01-01

    The problem of defining and studying complexity of a time series has interested people for years. In the context of dynamical systems, Grassberger has suggested that a slow approach of the entropy to its extensive asymptotic limit is a sign of complexity. We investigate this idea further by information theoretic and statistical mechanics techniques and show that these arguments can be made precise, and that they generalize many previous approaches to complexity, in particular unifying ideas from the physics literature with ideas from learning and coding theory; there are even connections of this statistical approach to algorithmic or Kolmogorov complexity. Moreover, a set of simple axioms similar to those used by Shannon in his development of information theory allows us to prove that the divergent part of the subextensive component of the entropy is a unique complexity measure. We classify time series by their complexities and demonstrate that beyond the `logarithmic' complexity classes widely anticipated in...

  2. Quantum State Complexity Measure

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    The complexity measures role has become much clearer in recent years as they help to better understand complex systems dynamical behavior. Even though the large number of measures proposed to tackle this issue for classical systems, for quantum systems only Kolmogorov's algorithm complexity extensions have been proposed. Hence, the present approach makes use of a new and mathematically well-established complexity measure for classical systems and extends it to assess quantum states complexity as well. Then the proposed extension is applied to a mixed state constructed with a W-state together with controlled white noise, showing a convex behavior of quantum state complexity. Thus, this reinforces the differences from previous known quantum complexities.

  3. Measuring static complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Goertzel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “pattern” is introduced, formally defined, and used to analyze various measures of the complexity of finite binary sequences and other objects. The standard Kolmogoroff-Chaitin-Solomonoff complexity measure is considered, along with Bennett's ‘logical depth’, Koppel's ‘sophistication'’, and Chaitin's analysis of the complexity of geometric objects. The pattern-theoretic point of view illuminates the shortcomings of these measures and leads to specific improvements, it gives rise to two novel mathematical concepts--“orders” of complexity and “levels” of pattern, and it yields a new measure of complexity, the “structural complexity”, which measures the total amount of structure an entity possesses.

  4. Complex networks and computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuigeng ZHOU; Zhongzhi ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nowadays complex networks are pervasive in various areas of science and technology. Popular examples of complex networks include the Internet, social networks of collaboration, citations and co-authoring, as well as biological networks such as gene and protein interactions and others. Complex networks research spans across mathematics, computer science, engineering, biology and the social sciences. Even in computer science area, increasing problems are either found to be related to complex networks or studied from the perspective of complex networks, such as searching on Web and P2P networks, routing in sensor networks, language processing, software engineering etc. The interaction and mergence of complex networks and computing is inspiring new chances and challenges in computer science.

  5. Two giant stellar complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Yu. N.; Efremov, E. Yu.

    Common star complexes are huge (0.3-1 kpc in diameter) groups of relatively young stars, associations and clusters. The complexes usually form regular chains along spiral arms of grand design galaxies, being evidently formed and supported by magneto- gravitational instability developing along an arm. Special attention is given to a few large complexes which have signatures of gravitational boundness, such as round shape and high central density. Concentrations of stars and clusters in such a complex in M51 galaxy were found in this paper; we concluded it is possible to suggest that the complex is gravitationally bound. It is also stressed that some properties of the giant complex in NGC 6946 (such as its semicircular and sharp Western edge) are still enigmatic.

  6. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  7. On Complex Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Khurshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable  is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of  have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of  has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector  is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of  have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.

  8. How evolution guides complexity

    OpenAIRE

    LARRY S. YAEGER

    2009-01-01

    Long-standing debates about the role of natural selection in the growth of biological complexity over geological time scales are difficult to resolve from the paleobiological record. Using an evolutionary model—a computational ecosystem subjected to natural selection—we investigate evolutionary trends in an information-theoretic measure of the complexity of the neural dynamics of artificial agents inhabiting the model. Our results suggest that evolution always guides complexity change, just n...

  9. Quantum Computational Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Watrous, John

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys quantum computational complexity, with a focus on three fundamental notions: polynomial-time quantum computations, the efficient verification of quantum proofs, and quantum interactive proof systems. Properties of quantum complexity classes based on these notions, such as BQP, QMA, and QIP, are presented. Other topics in quantum complexity, including quantum advice, space-bounded quantum computation, and bounded-depth quantum circuits, are also discussed.

  10. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  11. Genetics of complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motulsky, Arno G

    2006-02-01

    Approaches to the study of the genetic basis of common complex diseases and their clinical applications are considered. Monogenic Mendelian inheritance in such conditions is infrequent but its elucidation may help to detect pathogenic mechanisms in the more common variety of complex diseases. Involvement by multiple genes in complex diseases usually occurs but the isolation and identification of specific genes so far has been exceptional. The role of common polymorphisms as indicators of disease risk in various studies is discussed.

  12. Engineering Complex Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Mikos, Antonios G.; Herring, Susan W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; Elisseeff, Jennifer; Lu, Helen H.; Kandel, Rita; Schoen, Frederick J.; Toner, Mehmet; Mooney, David; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; Kaplan, David; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and ...

  13. MULTISCALE COMPLEXITY/ENTROPY

    OpenAIRE

    Y. BAR-YAM

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the role of scale dependence of entropy/complexity and its relationship to component interdependence. The complexity as a function of scale of observation is expressed in terms of subsystem entropies for a system having a description in terms of variables that have the same a priori scale. The sum of the complexity over all scales is the same for any system with the same number of underlying degrees of freedom (variables), even though the complexity at specific scales differs due t...

  14. Berger Engineering Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Engineering laboratory The Berger Lab Complex is a multi-purpose building with professional office, 100 seat auditorium, general purpose labs,...

  15. Effect of Acupuncture Combined with Antidepressant on Behavioral Changes, and mRNA Expression of 5-Hydroxytryptamine Receptors in Nucleus Raphes Dorsalis of Sleep Deprivation Depression Rats%针药结合对抑郁症睡眠障碍大鼠行为学与中缝背核5-羟色胺受体mRNA表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞裕天; 袁青; 陈津岩; 谢津津; 郎建英; 麦嘉玲; 曾晓林; 汪满霞; 薛尔平

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of acupuncture combined with antidepressant on behavioral changes and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A and 2A receptor ( 5-HT1AR and 5-HT2AR) mRNA expression in nucleus raphes dorsalis (NRD) of sleep deprivation depression (SDD) rats. Methods Eight normal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were caged together without any stimulus or treatment, serving as the normal group. Thirty-two SD rats were given solitary raise for 21 days, together with chronic unpredictable mild stress ( CUMS) and rapid eye movement ( REM) sleep deprivation to establish the model. Twenty-eight rats completed the modeling successfully, and were divided into model group, acupuncture group, medicine group, and combination group, 7 rats in each group. Rats in the model group were given modeling treatment but without any intervention. Rats in the acupuncture group were given acupuncture on acupoint Yintang, Shenting and bilateral Taichong, acupuncture stimulation lasting 15 s every 10 min and acupuncture retention for 20 min in each day. Rats in the medicine group were given gastric gavage of Zoloft solution (0.83 mg·kg-1·d-1) and Alprazolam solution (0.067 mg· kg-1·d-1) , and rats in the combination group were given both acupuncture and medicine intervention. The intervention for the three intervention groups lasted for 7 days. Results Compared with the normal group, body weight, Open-field scores and sucrose preference of the model rats were significantly decreased on modeling day 7, 14, 21 (P<0.05). On modeling day 28, body weight and Open-field scores of each intervention group were significantly increased compared with those of the model group (P<0.05), and Open-field scores of combination group differed from those of acupuncture group and medicine group ( P<0.05). Only sucrose preference of combination group was improved significantly compared with the model group (P<0.05). Compared with the model group, NRD 5-HT1AR mRNA expression level was increased in the combination

  16. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, J C; Mau, R F L; Vargas, R I

    2011-08-01

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources, and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examined the behavioural response of wild female oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)), melon fly (B. cucurbitae (Coquillett)), and Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)) to spinosad-based GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait(©) formulated to contain either 0, 1 or 2% ammonium acetate. Use of visually-attractive yellow bait stations for bait application in the field allowed for proper comparisons among bait formulations. Field cage tests were also conducted to investigate, using a comparative behavioural approach, the effects of female age and protein starvation on the subsequent response of F1 generation B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis to the same three bait formulations that were evaluated in the field. Our field results indicate a significant positive effect of the presence, regardless of amount, of AA in GF-120 for B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae. For C. capitata, there was a significant positive linear relationship between the relative amounts of AA in bait and female response. GF-120 with no AA was significantly more attractive to female C. capitata, but not to female B. dorsalis or B. cucurbitae, than the control treatment. Our field cage results indicate that the effects of varying amounts of AA present in GF-120 can be modulated by the physiological stage of the female flies and that the response of female B. cucurbitae to GF-120 was consistently greater than that of B. dorsalis over the various ages and levels of protein starvation regimes evaluated. Results are discussed in light of their applications for effective fruit fly suppression.

  17. Complexity, Robustness, and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Visser (Bauke)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses the relationship between organizational complexity ( the degree of detail of information necessary to correctly assign agents to positions), robustness (the relative loss of performance due to mis-allocated agents), and performance. More complex structures are not nec

  18. Complexity dimensions and learnability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-H. Nienhuys-Cheng (Shan-Hwei); M. Polman

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA stochastic model of learning from examples has been introduced by Valiant [1984]. This PAC-learning model (PAC = probably approximately correct) reflects differences in complexity of concept classes, i.e. very complex classes are not efficiently PAC-learnable. Blumer et al. [1989] foun

  19. Introductory complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Richard A

    1984-01-01

    A shorter version of A. I. Markushevich's masterly three-volume Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, this edition is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in complex analysis. Numerous worked-out examples and more than 300 problems, some with hints and answers, make it suitable for independent study. 1967 edition.

  20. The complexity of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. (Hennie Lótter

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article an alternative philosophy of science based on ideas drawn from the study of complex adaptive systems is presented. As a result of the enormous expansion in scientific disciplines, and the number of scientists and scientific institutions in the twentieth century, I believe science can be characterised as a complex system. I want to interpret the processes of science through which scientists themselves determine what is regarded as good science. This characterisation of science as a complex system can supply an answer to the question why the sciences have been so successful in solving growing numbers of problems and correcting their own mistakes. I utilise components of complexity theory to explain and interpret science as a complex system. I first explain the concept of complexity in ordinary language. The explanation of science as a complex system starts with a definition of the basic rules guiding the behaviour of science as a complex system. Next, I indicate how various sciences have resulted through the implementation of these rules in the study of a specific aspect of reality. The explanation of the growth of science through evolutionary adaptation and learning forms the core o f the article.

  1. Tuberculosis in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coninx, Rudi

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes the key factors and remaining challenges for tuberculosis (TB) control programmes in complex emergencies. A complex emergency is "a humanitarian crisis in a country, region or society where there is total or considerable breakdown of authority resulting from internal or external conflict and which requires an international response that goes beyond the mandate or capacity of any single agency and/or the ongoing United Nations country programme." Some 200 million people are believed to live in countries affected by complex emergencies; almost all of these are developing countries that also bear the main burden of TB. The effects of complex emergencies impact on TB control programmes, interfering with the goals of identifying and curing TB patients and possibly leading to the emergence of MDR-TB. There are many detailed descriptions of aid interventions during complex emergencies; yet TB control programmes are absent from most of these reports. If TB is neglected, it may quickly result in increased morbidity and mortality, as was demonstrated in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Somalia. TB is a major disease in complex emergencies and requires an appropriate public health response. While there is no manual to cover complex emergencies, the interagency manual for TB control in refugee and displaced populations provides valuable guidance. These programmes contribute to the body of evidence needed to compile such a manual, and should ensure that the experiences of TB control in complex emergencies lead to the establishment of evidence-based programmes. PMID:17768523

  2. Complexity and Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jeanette Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    A central feature of complexity is that it is based on non-linear, recursive relations. However, in most current accounts of complexity such relations, while non-linear, are based on the reductive relations of a Newtonian onto-epistemological framework. This means that the systems that are emergent from the workings of such relations are a…

  3. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  4. Complexity in Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierschynski, Jarek; Louie, Belinda; Pughe, Bronwyn

    2015-01-01

    One of the key requirements of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts is that students are able to read and access complex texts across all grade levels. The CCSS authors emphasize both the limitations and lack of accuracy in the current CCSS model of text complexity, calling for the development of new frameworks. In response…

  5. Freestanding Complex Optical Scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbie, David A.

    A complex freestanding optical mark recognition (OMR) scanner is one which is not on-line to an external processor; it has intelligence stemming from an internal processor located within the unit or system. The advantages and disadvantages of a complex OMR can best be assessed after identifying the scanning needs and constraints of the potential…

  6. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.;

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  7. Leading healthcare in complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey

    2014-12-01

    Healthcare institutions and providers are in complexity. Networks of interconnections from relationships and technology create conditions in which interdependencies and non-linear dynamics lead to surprising, unpredictable outcomes. Previous effective approaches to leadership, focusing on top-down bureaucratic methods, are no longer effective. Leading in complexity requires leaders to accept the complexity, create an adaptive space in which innovation and creativity can flourish and then integrate the successful practices that emerge into the formal organizational structure. Several methods for doing adaptive space work will be discussed. Readers will be able to contrast traditional leadership approaches with leading in complexity. They will learn new behaviours that are required of complexity leaders, along with challenges they will face, often from other leaders within the organization.

  8. [Complexity: an introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Carlos Alberto Palacio; Jaramillo, Francisco Luis Ochoa

    2011-01-01

    Complexity appears in the twentieth century as a way to understand many phenomena that are perceived as chaotic and complex from classical thought, which still persist in our way of explaining the world. Its purpose is to study the complex and adaptive systems that are sensitive to initial conditions. Some of the characteristics of complex thought are systemic perspective, autopoiesis, self-organization, emergent properties, unpredictability of the systems, analogic thought, and the complementarity of the phenomena, among others. Living systems respond to a complex logic, and in that sense, our vision of human populations and patients, and how we try to solve problems and human diseases, should be open to the possibilities that arise from this form of understand the world. PMID:21503430

  9. Reset Complexity of Ideal Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Maslennikova, Marina

    2014-01-01

    We present a new characteristic of a regular ideal language called reset complexity. We find some bounds on the reset complexity in terms of the state complexity of a given language. We also compare the reset complexity and the state complexity for languages related to slowly synchronizing automata and study uniqueness question for automata yielding the minimum of reset complexity.

  10. Management of complex fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Andersen, Peder; Hoff, Ayoe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how fisheries economics management issues or problems can be analyzed by using a complex model based on conventional bioeconomic theory. Complex simulation models contain a number of details that make them suitable for practical management advice......, including taking into account the response of the fishermen to implemented management measures. To demonstrate the use of complex management models this paper assesses a number of second best management schemes against a first rank optimum (FRO), an ideal individual transferable quotas (ITQ) system...

  11. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  12. On scattered subword complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Kása, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Special scattered subwords, in which the gaps are of length from a given set, are defined. The scattered subword complexity, which is the number of such scattered subwords, is computed for rainbow words.

  13. Complex tunneling dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.-D. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: cdyang@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2007-04-15

    Tunneling dynamics and tunneling trajectories are modeled exactly by complex-extended Hamilton-Jacobi formulation in this paper. It is found that the wave-like properties of tunneling particles, such as reflection, refraction, and transmission resonance, can be identified and explained in terms of particle's motion in complex space with the tunneling time defined as the usual sense of classical time. Following the complex trajectories determined by the complex Hamilton equations of motion, we can connect classical trajectories smoothly with tunneling trajectories using position and velocity continuity at the interface of the media, locate the particle's position at any instant, and find the time spent by a particle within the potential. A microscopic tunneling model is also developed to explain the probabilistic nature why a particle with the same incident conditions sometimes transmits the potential and sometimes is reflected from the potential.

  14. Complex coacervate core micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Ilja K; de Keizer, Arie; Cohen Stuart, Martien A

    2009-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of the literature on the co-assembly of neutral-ionic block, graft, and random copolymers with oppositely charged species in aqueous solution. Oppositely charged species include synthetic (co)polymers of various architectures, biopolymers - such as proteins, enzymes and DNA - multivalent ions, metallic nanoparticles, low molecular weight surfactants, polyelectrolyte block copolymer micelles, metallo-supramolecular polymers, equilibrium polymers, etcetera. The resultant structures are termed complex coacervate core/polyion complex/block ionomer complex/interpolyelectrolyte complex micelles (or vesicles); i.e., in short C3Ms (or C3Vs) and PIC, BIC or IPEC micelles (and vesicles). Formation, structure, dynamics, properties, and function will be discussed. We focus on experimental work; theory and modelling will not be discussed. Recent developments in applications and micelles with heterogeneous coronas are emphasized.

  15. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  16. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  17. Management recommendations: Tewaukon Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Tewaukon Complex, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional comments are...

  18. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  19. Physical Sciences Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 88,000 square foot complex is used to investigate basic physical science in support of missile technology development. It incorporates office space, dedicated...

  20. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  1. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    , and recommendations, and supporting exploratory search to sensemaking and analytics, UI and UX design pose an overconstrained challenge. How do we know that our approach is any good? Supporting complex search task requires new collaborations across the whole field of IR, and the proposed workshop will bring together......There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, is fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...

  2. Complexity for Artificial Substrates (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Jachowski, N.R.; Bouma, T.J.; Ladle, R.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat complexity regulates the structure and function of biological communities, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Urbanisation, pollution, unsustainable resource exploitation and climate change have resulted in the widespread simplification (and loss) o

  3. Beyond complex Langevin equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wosiek, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    A simple integral relation between a complex weight and the corresponding positive distribution is derived by introducing a second complex variable. Together with the positivity and normalizability conditions, this sum rule allows to construct explicitly equivalent pairs of distributions in simple cases. In particular the well known solution for a complex gaussian distribution is generalized to an arbitrary complex slope. This opens a possibility of positive representation of Feynman path integrals directly in the Minkowski time. Such construction is then explicitly carried through in the second part of this presentation. The continuum limit of the new representation exists only if some of the additional couplings tend to infinity and are tuned in a specific way. The approach is then successfully applied to three quantum mechanical examples including a particle in a constant magnetic field -- a simplest prototype of a Wilson line. Further generalizations are shortly discussed and an amusing interpretation of ...

  4. Algorithmic Problem Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    People solve different problems and know that some of them are simple, some are complex and some insoluble. The main goal of this work is to develop a mathematical theory of algorithmic complexity for problems. This theory is aimed at determination of computer abilities in solving different problems and estimation of resources that computers need to do this. Here we build the part of this theory related to static measures of algorithms. At first, we consider problems for finite words and stud...

  5. Advances in network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.

  6. Urban geography and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary approach of complex systems raises common questions that could be handled by a transdisciplinary theory. We demonstrate how the main concepts of urban geography could be integrated in such a theory ofcomplexity. We illustrate the complexity approach by a short presentationof the SIMPOP model that uses a multi-agents formalism for the simulationof the evolutionary properties of systems of cities.

  7. NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX BIOGENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Rout, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are the sole mediators of transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. NPCs have a life cycle: they assemble, disassemble, turn over and age. The molecular mechanisms governing these different vital steps are beginning to emerge, suggesting key roles for the core structural scaffold of the NPC and auxiliary factors in the assembly of this large macromolecular complex, and connections between NPC maintenance, NPC turnover, and ageing of the cell.

  8. Modelling Complexity in Musical Rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    Liou, Cheng-Yuan; Wu, Tai-Hei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2007-01-01

    This paper constructs a tree structure for the music rhythm using the L-system. It models the structure as an automata and derives its complexity. It also solves the complexity for the L-system. This complexity can resolve the similarity between trees. This complexity serves as a measure of psychological complexity for rhythms. It resolves the music complexity of various compositions including the Mozart effect K488. Keyword: music perception, psychological complexity, rhythm, L-system, autom...

  9. Trap capture of three economically important fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae): evaluation of a solid formulation containing multiple male lures in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd; Nishimoto, Jon; Kurashima, Rick

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pose a global threat to agriculture through direct damage to food crops and the accompanying trade restrictions that often result. Early detection is vital to controlling fruit flies, because it increases the probability of limiting the growth and spread of the invasive population and thus may greatly reduce the monetary costs required for eradication or suppression. Male-specific lures are an important component of fruit fly detection, and three such lures are used widely: trimedlure (TML), cue lure (CL), and methyl eugenol (ME), attractive to Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), respectively. In California, Florida, and Texas, the two Bactrocera lures are applied to separate species-specific traps as liquids (with a small amount of the insecticide naled added), whereas TML is delivered as a solid plug in another set of traps. Thus, the detection protocol involves considerable handling time as well as potential contact with a pesticide. The purpose of this study was to compare trap capture between liquid male lures and "trilure" wafers that contain TML, ME, raspberry ketone (RK, the hydroxy equivalent of CL), and the toxicant DDVP embedded within a solid matrix. Field studies were conducted in a Hawaiian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field where the three aforementioned species co-occur, showed that the wafer captured at least as many flies as the liquid baits for all three species. This same result was obtained in comparisons using both fresh and aged (6-wk) baits. Moreover, the wafers performed as well as the single-lure traps in an ancillary experiment in which TML plugs were substituted for liquid TML. Additional experiments demonstrated explicitly that the presence of ME and RK had no effect on captures of C. capitata males and similarly that the presence of TML had no effect on the capture of B

  10. Weathering trials of Amulet cue-lure and Amulet methyl eugenol "attract-and-kill" stations with male melon flies and oriental fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Mackey, Bruce; Bull, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Amulet C-L (cue-lure) and Amulet ME (methyl eugenol) molded paper fiber "attract-and-kill" dispensers containing fipronil were tested under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (melon fly) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental fruit fly), respectively. In paired tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers were effective for at least 77 d, whereas ME dispensers were effective for at least 21 d. Thus, C-L dispensers exceeded, whereas ME dispensers did not meet the label interval replacement recommendation of 60 d. Addition of 4 ml of ME to 56-d-old ME dispensers restored attraction and kill for an additional 21 d. This result suggested the fipronil added at manufacture was still effective. By enclosing and weathering ME dispensers inside small plastic bucket traps, longevity of ME dispensers was extended up to 56 d. Fipronil ME and C-L dispensers also were compared, inside bucket traps, to other toxicants: spinosad, naled, DDVP, malathion, and permethrin. Against B. dorsalis, fipronil ME dispensers compared favorably only up to 3 wk. Against B. cucurbitae, fipronil C-L dispensers compared favorably for at least 15 wk. Our results suggest that fipronil C-L dispensers can potentially be used in Hawaii; however, fipronil ME dispensers need to be modified or protected from the effects of weathering to extend longevity and meet label specifications. Nonetheless, Amulet C-L and ME dispensers are novel prepackaged formulations containing C-L or ME and fipronil that are more convenient and safer to handle than current liquid insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii. PMID:16334323

  11. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes (64Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  12. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearling, J.L

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ({sup 64}Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective {sup 64}Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective {sup 64}Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential

  13. Complexity and Dynamical Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence Deacon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We argue that a critical difference distinguishing machines from organisms and computers from brains is not complexity in a structural sense, but a difference in dynamical organization that is not well accounted for by current complexity measures. We propose a measure of the complexity of a system that is largely orthogonal to computational, information theoretic, or thermodynamic conceptions of structural complexity. What we call a system’s dynamical depth is a separate dimension of system complexity that measures the degree to which it exhibits discrete levels of nonlinear dynamical organization in which successive levels are distinguished by local entropy reduction and constraint generation. A system with greater dynamical depth than another consists of a greater number of such nested dynamical levels. Thus, a mechanical or linear thermodynamic system has less dynamical depth than an inorganic self-organized system, which has less dynamical depth than a living system. Including an assessment of dynamical depth can provide a more precise and systematic account of the fundamental difference between inorganic systems (low dynamical depth and living systems (high dynamical depth, irrespective of the number of their parts and the causal relations between them.

  14. Complexity: The bigger picture

    CERN Document Server

    Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    If a concept is not well defined, there are grounds for its abuse. This is particularly true of complexity, an inherently interdisciplinary concept that has penetrated very different fields of intellectual activity from physics to linguistics, but with no underlying, unified theory. Complexity has become a popular buzzword used in the hope of gaining attention or funding -- institutes and research networks associated with complex systems grow like mushrooms. Why and how did it happen that this vague notion has become a central motif in modern science? Is it only a fashion, a kind of sociological phenomenon, or is it a sign of a changing paradigm of our perception of the laws of nature and of the approaches required to understand them? Because virtually every real system is inherently extremely complicated, to say that a system is complex is almost an empty statement - couldn't an Institute of Complex Systems just as well be called an Institute for Almost Everything? Despite these valid concerns, the world is ...

  15. Algorithmic Relative Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cerra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.

  16. Complexity of Economical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pavlos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study new theoretical concepts are described concerning the interpretation of economical complex dynamics. In addition a summary of an extended algorithm of nonlinear time series analysis is provided which is applied not only in economical time series but also in other physical complex systems (e.g. [22, 24]. In general, Economy is a vast and complicated set of arrangements and actions wherein agents—consumers, firms, banks, investors, government agencies—buy and sell, speculate, trade, oversee, bring products into being, offer services, invest in companies, strategize, explore, forecast, compete, learn, innovate, and adapt. As a result the economic and financial variables such as foreign exchange rates, gross domestic product, interest rates, production, stock market prices and unemployment exhibit large-amplitude and aperiodic fluctuations evident in complex systems. Thus, the Economics can be considered as spatially distributed non-equilibrium complex system, for which new theoretical concepts, such as Tsallis non extensive statistical mechanics and strange dynamics, percolation, nonGaussian, multifractal and multiscale dynamics related to fractional Langevin equations can be used for modeling and understanding of the economical complexity locally or globally.

  17. Thiosemicarbazone complexes of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One aproach to the design of new sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals consists in the preparation of bifunctional radio-pharmaceuticals [1]. In this approach, a bifunctional molecule is synthesized which possesses a chelating functional group (capable of forming a stable complex with sup(99m)Tc) attached to a second functional group which is expected to have a useful biological distribution. Thiosemicarbazones are compounds that possess great chelating capacity [2] and are easily obtainable by condensation of the theosemicarbazide (H2N-NH-CS-NH2) or substituted thiosemicarbazide with the carbonyl groups of aldehydes or ketones. Consequently transformation of molecules of biological interest that the carbonyl group possess in thiosemicarbazones is simple and these modified molecules could act a bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals. For this reason a series of thiosemicarbazone complexes of 99Tc was prepared. This is the first report on technetium complexes with thiosemicarbazones. (orig.)

  18. Thiosemicarbazone complexes of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grases, F.; Genestar, C.

    1985-01-01

    One aproach to the design of new sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals consists in the preparation of bifunctional radio-pharmaceuticals (1). In this approach, a bifunctional molecule is synthesized which possesses a chelating functional group (capable of forming a stable complex with sup(99m)Tc) attached to a second functional group which is expected to have a useful biological distribution. Thiosemicarbazones are compounds that possess great chelating capacity (2) and are easily obtainable by condensation of the theosemicarbazide (H/sub 2/N-NH-CS-NH/sub 2/) or substituted thiosemicarbazide with the carbonyl groups of aldehydes or ketones. Consequently transformation of molecules of biological interest that the carbonyl group possess in thiosemicarbazones is simple and these modified molecules could act as bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals. For this reason a series of thiosemicarbazone complexes of /sup 99/Tc was prepared. This is the first report on technetium complexes with thiosemicarbazones.

  19. Procuring complex performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, A.; Roehrich, J.; Frederiksen, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The paper analyses how public buyers transition from procuring single products and services to procuring complex performance (PCP). The aim is to examine the change in the interactions between buyer and supplier, the emergence of value co-creation and the capability development during......-creation, but is politically driven. Practical implications – The study proposes three generic transition stages towards increased performance and infrastructural complexity moderated by contract duration. These stages may help managers of public agencies to identify the current procurement level and the contractual...... and relational challenges they need to master when facing higher levels of performance and infrastructural complexity. Originality/value – The study adds to the limited empirical and conceptual understanding on the nature of long-term public-private interactions in PCP. It contributes through a rare focus...

  20. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....

  1. Philosophy of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of comple...

  2. Nonergodic complexity management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Nicola; Lambert, David; West, Bruce J.; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Linear response theory, the backbone of nonequilibrium statistical physics, has recently been extended to explain how and why nonergodic renewal processes are insensitive to simple perturbations, such as in habituation. It was established that a permanent correlation results between an external stimulus and the response of a complex system generating nonergodic renewal processes, when the stimulus is a similar nonergodic process. This is the principle of complexity management, whose proof relies on ensemble distribution functions. Herein we extend the proof to the nonergodic case using time averages and a single time series, hence making it usable in real life situations where ensemble averages cannot be performed because of the very nature of the complex systems being studied.

  3. Complex-Valued Autoencoders

    CERN Document Server

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2011-01-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits whose learning goal is to minimize a distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders can be defined over any field and only real-valued linear autoencoder have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the $L_2$ norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalizatio...

  4. Synchronization in complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  5. Modeling Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, Nino

    2010-01-01

    Modeling Complex Systems, 2nd Edition, explores the process of modeling complex systems, providing examples from such diverse fields as ecology, epidemiology, sociology, seismology, and economics. It illustrates how models of complex systems are built and provides indispensable mathematical tools for studying their dynamics. This vital introductory text is useful for advanced undergraduate students in various scientific disciplines, and serves as an important reference book for graduate students and young researchers. This enhanced second edition includes: . -recent research results and bibliographic references -extra footnotes which provide biographical information on cited scientists who have made significant contributions to the field -new and improved worked-out examples to aid a student’s comprehension of the content -exercises to challenge the reader and complement the material Nino Boccara is also the author of Essentials of Mathematica: With Applications to Mathematics and Physics (Springer, 2007).

  6. Complex Aperture Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Owladeghaffari, Hamed

    2009-01-01

    A complex network approach on a rough fracture is developed. In this manner, some hidden metric spaces (similarity measurements) between apertures profiles are set up and a general evolutionary network in two directions (in parallel and perpendicular to the shear direction) is constructed. Evaluation of the emerged network shows the connectivity degree (distribution) of network, after a transition step; fall in to the stable states which are coincided with the Gaussian distribution. Based on this event and real observations of the complex network changes, an algorithm (COmplex Networks on Apertures: CONA) is proposed in which evolving of a network is accomplished using preferential detachments and attachments of edges (based on a competition and game manner) while the number of nodes is fixed. Also, evolving of clustering coefficients and number of edges display similar patterns as well as are appeared in shear stress, hydraulic conductivity and dilation changes, which can be engaged to estimate shear strengt...

  7. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  8. Synchronization in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Alex; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Kurths, Jurgen; Moreno, Yamir; Zhou, Changsong

    2008-12-01

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understanding synchronization phenomena in natural systems now take advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also take an overview of the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying patterns of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  9. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhihao; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geo...

  10. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coherent and flexible approach named systemic planning. The inclusion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of systemic planning makes this book a key resource for researchers...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...

  11. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Corneillie, Todd M.; Xu, Jide

    2012-05-08

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  12. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP

    2005-10-28

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  13. Complex function theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sarason, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Complex Function Theory is a concise and rigorous introduction to the theory of functions of a complex variable. Written in a classical style, it is in the spirit of the books by Ahlfors and by Saks and Zygmund. Being designed for a one-semester course, it is much shorter than many of the standard texts. Sarason covers the basic material through Cauchy's theorem and applications, plus the Riemann mapping theorem. It is suitable for either an introductory graduate course or an undergraduate course for students with adequate preparation. The first edition was published with the title Notes on Co

  14. Thermodynamics of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Snoep, Jacky L.

    1998-01-01

    the thesis that the aforesaid holds a fortiori for the living cell: Much of the essence of the live state depends more on the manner in which the molecules are organised than on the properties of single molecules. This is due to the phenomenon of 'Complexity'. BioComplexity is defined here as the phenomenon...... that the behaviour of two functionally interacting biological components (molecules, protein domains, pathways, organelles) differs from the behaviour these components would exhibit in isolation from one another, where the difference should be essential for the maintenance and growth of the living state, For a true...

  15. Complexity, time and music

    OpenAIRE

    JEAN PIERRE BOON

    2009-01-01

    The concept of complexity as considered in terms of its algorithmic definition proposed by G.J. Chaitin and A.N. Kolmogorov is revisited for the dynamical complexity of music. When music pieces are cast in the form of time series of pitch variations, concepts of dynamical systems theory can be used to define new quantities such as the {\\em dimensionality} as a measure of the {\\em global temporal dynamics} of a music piece, and the Shanon {\\em entropy} as an evaluation of its {\\em local dynami...

  16. Introduction to complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Priestley, H A

    2003-01-01

    Complex analysis is a classic and central area of mathematics, which is studied and exploited in a range of important fields, from number theory to engineering. Introduction to Complex Analysis was first published in 1985, and for this much awaited second edition the text has been considerably expanded, while retaining the style of the original. More detailed presentation is given of elementary topics, to reflect the knowledge base of current students. Exercise sets have beensubstantially revised and enlarged, with carefully graded exercises at the end of each chapter.This is the latest additi

  17. Complex variables II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables II includes elementary mappings and Mobius transformation, mappings by general functions, conformal mappings and harmonic functions, applying complex functions to a

  18. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  19. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  20. Complex matrix model duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  1. Applied complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    1965-01-01

    Analytic function theory is a traditional subject going back to Cauchy and Riemann in the 19th century. Once the exclusive province of advanced mathematics students, its applications have proven vital to today's physicists and engineers. In this highly regarded work, Professor John W. Dettman offers a clear, well-organized overview of the subject and various applications - making the often-perplexing study of analytic functions of complex variables more accessible to a wider audience. The first half of Applied Complex Variables, designed for sequential study, is a step-by-step treatment of fun

  2. Fitness costs of an insecticide resistance and their population dynamical consequences in the oriental fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chi-Chun; Okuyama, Toshinori; Wu, Wen-Jer; Feng, Hai-Tung; Hsu, Ju-Chun

    2011-12-01

    Naled is a commonly used insecticide for controlling populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), in Taiwan and other countries. B. dorsalis has developed resistance to the insecticide, and the resistance management is an important issue. Ecological effects (e.g., fitness costs) of the resistance, when fully understood, can be used for the resistance management. This study examined the effects of the insecticide resistance on important life history traits (i.e., survival rates, stage durations, and fecundity) of the oriental fruit fly by comparing the traits of insecticide resistant individuals and susceptible individuals. Population dynamical properties were also examined using a stage-structured matrix model that was parameterized with the empirical data. The results revealed that susceptible individuals had shorter stage durations (e.g., grew faster) and reproduced more than resistant individuals. The average longevity of sexually mature susceptible adults was longer than that of sexually mature resistant adults. The matrix population model predicted that a population of the susceptible individuals would grow faster than a population of the resistant individuals in the absence of the insecticide. The sensitivity analysis of the model suggests that the sexually immature adult stage is a good candidate for controlling B. dorsalis populations. PMID:22299368

  3. Field trials of spinosad as a replacement for naled, DDVP, and malathion in methyl eugenol and cue-lure bucket traps to attract and kill male oriental fruit flies and melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Miller, Neil W; Stark, John D

    2003-12-01

    Spinosad was evaluated in Hawaii as a replacement for organophosphate insecticides (naled, dichlorvos [DDVP], and malathion) in methyl eugenol and cue-lure bucket traps to attract and kill oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett, respectively. In the first and second methyl eugenol trials with B. dorsalis, naled was in the highest rated group for all evaluation periods (at 5, 10, 15, and 20 wk). Spinosad was equal to naled at 5 and 10 wk during both trials 1 and 2, and compared favorably with malathion during trial 2. During the first cue-lure trial with B. cucurbitae, naled and malathion were in the top rated group at 5, 10, 15, and 20 wk. Spinosad was equal to naled at 5 wk. During the second cue-lure trial, spinosad and naled were both in the top rated group at 10, 15, and 20 wk. Use of male lure traps with methyl eugenol or cue-lure had no effect on attraction of females into test areas. Our results suggest that spinosad, although not as persistent as naled or malathion, is safer to handle and a more environmentally friendly substitute for organophosphate insecticides in methyl eugenol and cue-lure traps for use in B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae areawide integrated pest management programs in Hawaii. PMID:14977115

  4. Salen complexes with dianionic counterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Job, Gabriel E.; Farmer, Jay J.; Cherian, Anna E.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention describes metal salen complexes having dianionic counterions. Such complexes can be readily precipitated and provide an economical method for the purification and isolation of the complexes, and are useful to prepare novel polymer compositions.

  5. Symmetry in Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.

  6. Complexity in Managing Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2011-01-01

    In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective modulari...... have developed a framework to support the heuristic and iterative process of planning and realizing modularization benefits....

  7. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Haffner, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  8. Complexity driven photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Disorder and chaos are ubiquitous phenomena that are mostly unwanted in applications. On the contrary, they can be exploited to create a new technology. In this talk I will summarize my research in this field, discussing chaotic energy harvesting, nonlinear stochastic resonance and complex nanolasers.

  9. Debating complexity in modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    1999-01-01

    Complexity in modeling would seem to be an issue of universal importance throughout the geosciences, perhaps throughout all science, if the debate last year among groundwater modelers is any indication. During the discussion the following questions and observations made up the heart of the debate.

  10. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Christiane Lefèvre

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  11. The Complexity of Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾燕梅

    2007-01-01

    Being as one figurative form of language, metaphor plays the most complicated role to make language colorful and vivid.Demonstrating the types and the features of metaphor, this article will focus on the point that metaphor is a complex language phenomenon heavily loaded with the factor of culture.

  12. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    De Melis, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  13. Launching Complex Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  14. Aquaporins in complex tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, S; Zeuthen, T; La Cour, M;

    1998-01-01

    Multiple physiological fluid movements are involved in vision. Here we define the cellular and subcellular sites of aquaporin (AQP) water transport proteins in human and rat eyes by immunoblotting, high-resolution immunocytochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopy. AQP3 is abundant in bulbar conj......, predicting specific roles for each in the complex network through which water movements occur in the eye....

  15. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies...

  16. Complex Digital Visual Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This article identifies possibilities for data visualization as art educational research practice. The author presents an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabási, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994). Describing complex network…

  17. Macroevolution of complex retroviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzourakis, Aris; Gifford, Robert J; Tristem, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    Retroviruses can leave a "fossil record" in their hosts' genomes in the form of endogenous retroviruses. Foamy viruses, complex retroviruses that infect mammals, have been notably absent from this record. We have found an endogenous foamy virus within the genomes of sloths and show that foamy...

  18. Proteasomes: a complex story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Protein degradation in eukaryotic cells is important for regulation of metabolism, progression through the division cycle, in cell signalling pathways, and in mammals also for generation of antigen fragments for presentation on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Most cell proteins...

  19. Complex performance in construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bougrain, Frédéric; Forman, Marianne; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer;

    to the end users. This report summarises the results from work undertaken in the international collaborative project “Procuring and Operating Complex Products and Systems in Construction” (POCOPSC). POCOPSC was carried out in the period 2010-2014. The project was executed in collaboration between CSTB...

  20. Genetics of complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...

  1. Complex Interfaces Under Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    and mechanical processes that develop within this structure. Water-related processes at the interfaces between the compartments are complex, depending both on the interface itself, and on the characteristics of the interfaced compartments. Various aspects of global change directly or indirectly impact...

  2. Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased choic

  3. Power grid complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Shengwei; Cao, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces self-organized criticality (SOC) theory and complex network theory and applies them to power systems. It examines four blackout models based on SOC theory and studies the SOC of power systems at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels.

  4. Complex carbohydrates (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods such as peas, beans, whole grains, and vegetables. Both simple and complex carbohydrates are turned to glucose (blood sugar) in the body and are used as energy. Glucose is used in the cells of the body and in the brain. Any ...

  5. Tevatron's complex collider cousins

    CERN Multimedia

    Fischer, W

    2004-01-01

    Letter referring to Schwarzschild's story "Disappointing performance and tight budgets confront Fermilab with tough decisions" and contesting that the Tevatron is not the most complex accelerator operating. They use the examples of CERN's SPS collider, HERA at DESY and the RHIC at Brookhaven (1/4 page)

  6. Psychopathology and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Y. Álvarez R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of complexity states that reality conveys a chaotic dynamics, ambiguous, blurred, and paradoxical, and that it does not fulfill the values of order, harmony nor perfection. However, such a chaos represents a specific way of organization and order. Human behavior explained by this paradigm vindicates on this way the outstanding role of contradiction and irregularity aside of what is linear and predictable. The purpose of this review has the primary aim to describe some concepts and assumptions that give support to the approach to complexity in behavior, especially concerning the psychopathological behavior of an individual. Some comparisons with concepts associated to complexity in scientific approaches to psychology (contextual and paradigmatical behaviorism and interbehaviorism from its own persepctive are stablished. All these elements are developed underlining the concepts of reciprocal multicausality, complex and hierarchical learning, historical and contextual factors in the comprehension of behavior, and trying to make some extrapolations on the psychopathological behavior. This approach is hence considered appropriate and necessary to understand gnosiological entities and to intervene them in their role of clinical challenges.

  7. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract...

  8. Complex distal humerus trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Brouwer

    2012-01-01

    De ingewikkelde bot-anatomie van de distale humerus (einde van het opperarmbeen) maakt behandeling van fracturen uitdagend. Of de elleboog na genezing weer normaal kan worden gebruikt, hangt af van de mate waarin de anatomische verbanden worden hersteld. Het is belangrijk complexe fractuurtypes van

  9. Dynamic and topological complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turalska, Malgorzata; Geneston, Elvis; Grigolini, Paolo

    2010-03-01

    Cooperative phenomena in complex networks are expected to display unusual characteristics, associated with the peculiar topology of these systems. In this context we study networks of interacting stochastic two-state units as a model of cooperative decision making. Each unit in isolation generates a Poisson process with rate g. We show that when the cooperation is introduced, the decision-making process becomes intermittent. The decision-time distribution density characterized by inverse power-law behavior is defined as a dynamic complexity. Further, the onset of intermittency, expressed in terms of the coupling parameter K, is used as a measure of dynamic efficiency of investigated topologies. We find that the dynamic complexity emerges from regular and small-world topologies. In contrast, both random and scale-free networks correspond to fast transition into exponential decision-time distribution. This property is accompanied by high dynamic efficiency of the decision-making process. Our results indicate that complex dynamical processes occurring on networks could be related to relatively simple topologies.

  10. KAMPOR MEMORIAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Krušec

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kampor Memorial Complex, which was built in 1953 to a design by architect Edvard Ravnikar, is situated on the site of a former cemetery, where between 1942 and 1943 the Italians buried the prisoners who died in the concentration camp on the Island of Rab. Along with the description of the architectural design of the Kampor Memorial Complex on the Island of Rab, the purpose of the paper is to show the most significant models and motivations influencing this particular architectural creation by Ravnikar. The analysis of spatial sequences of the memorial complex served as a basis to study the architectural concept of the cemetery, as described in the paper. The layout of the cemetery is longitudinal. The transversal terraces formulating the lines of graves are longitudinally cut in the middle by a paved path representing the central communication axis of the memorial complex. The path is additionally defined by a sequence of three stone obelisks of different heights, situated along the path. Along the path, three major programmatic emphases can be identified: the entrance vestibule, the platform with the great obelisk and a water tank, and the area below the vaulted structure in stone, also called the Museum. The paper describes the models and influences underlying the creation of Ravnikar's architectural design of the Kampor Memorial Complex on the Island of Rab, particularly Le Corbusier's influence on Ravnikar in the 1940's and the 1950's. In many ways, Ravnikar's stay in Paris and work with Le Corbusier in 1938 round off his basic architectural education; nevertheless, he remained rooted in the classical architectural elements that he obtained in his studies, particularly in the seminar by Jože Plečnik.

  11. Amputation versus functional reconstruction in the management of complex hind foot injuries caused by land-mine explosions: a long-term retrospective comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Ege, Tolga; Kose, Ozkan; Yurttas, Yuksel; Basbozkurt, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the long-term clinical outcomes of patients who were treated with either hind foot reconstruction or amputation in complex hind foot injuries accompanied with bone and soft tissue loss due to land-mine explosions. Between 1994 and 2004, all patients with hind foot complex injuries due to land-mine explosion, who were operated in our clinic, were enrolled to the study. All patients were evaluated with Short-Form 36 (SF-36), Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) and Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI) after a mean of 15.1 ± 2.2 (range 9-19) years of follow-up. Demographic characteristics, number of operations, necessity of psychiatric treatment and all complications were compared between groups. There were a total of 42 patients [21 in reconstruction group (Gr I) and 21 in amputation group (Gr II)]. The mean age at the time of final follow-up was 38.4 ± 3.04 years in Gr I and 38.2 ± 4.24 years in Gr II (p = 0.732). The mean follow-up duration was 15.7 ± 2.07 years in Gr I and 14.57 ± 2.29 years in Gr II (p = 0.081). The number of operations was significantly higher in Gr I (8.66 ± 10.2 times vs. 4.42 ± 7.7 times, respectively, p = 0.001). The mean FADI score at the final follow-up was 64.3 ± 18.1 in Gr I. In amputation group, more patients needed psychotherapy due to major depression (12 patients vs. 4 patients, p = 0.012). Major complications in Gr I were musculocutaneous flap atrophy in calcaneal region (n = 8 patients), limited ankle motion (n = 11) and painful osteophytes on plantar region (n = 6). In Gr II, stump problems were dominating (pain and tenderness n = 10, ulcer n = 2, allergic skin lesions n = 7, painful neuroma n = 10, bony spur n = 5, paresthesia n = 1, excessive sweating n = 12). At the final visit, although SF-36 scores were similar between groups (p = 0.182), extremity reconstruction group had significantly higher BIQLI scores than the amputation group (p = 0.016). If the dorsalis pedis is

  12. Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Otto; Zelinka, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The book you hold in your hands is the outcome of the “2014 Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems” held in the historical city of Florence. The book consists of 37 chapters from 4 areas of Physical Modeling of Complex Systems, Evolutionary Computations, Complex Biological Systems and Complex Networks. All 4 parts contain contributions that give interesting point of view on complexity in different areas in science and technology. The book starts with a comprehensive overview and classification of complexity problems entitled Physics in the world of ideas: Complexity as Energy”  , followed by chapters about complexity measures and physical principles, its observation, modeling and its applications, to solving various problems including real-life applications. Further chapters contain recent research about evolution, randomness and complexity, as well as complexity in biological systems and complex networks. All selected papers represent innovative ideas, philosophical overviews and state-of-the-...

  13. Stable generalized complex structures

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalcanti, Gil R

    2015-01-01

    A stable generalized complex structure is one that is generically symplectic but degenerates along a real codimension two submanifold, where it defines a generalized Calabi-Yau structure. We introduce a Lie algebroid which allows us to view such structures as symplectic forms. This allows us to construct new examples of stable structures, and also to define period maps for their deformations in which the background three-form flux is either fixed or not, proving the unobstructedness of both deformation problems. We then use the same tools to establish local normal forms for the degeneracy locus and for Lagrangian branes. Applying our normal forms to the four-dimensional case, we prove that any compact stable generalized complex 4-manifold has a symplectic completion, in the sense that it can be modified near its degeneracy locus to produce a compact symplectic 4-manifold.

  14. Sensitivity of Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Angulo, Marco Tulio; Liu, Yang-Yu; Barabási, Albert-László

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity (i.e. dynamic response) of complex networked systems has not been well understood, making difficult to predict whether new macroscopic dynamic behavior will emerge even if we know exactly how individual nodes behave and how they are coupled. Here we build a framework to quantify the sensitivity of complex networked system of coupled dynamic units. We characterize necessary and sufficient conditions for the emergence of new macroscopic dynamic behavior in the thermodynamic limit. We prove that these conditions are satisfied only for architectures with power-law degree distributions. Surprisingly, we find that highly connected nodes (i.e. hubs) only dominate the sensitivity of the network up to certain critical frequency.

  15. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction......This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and......, finally, by presenting the Cynefin Framework for Sense-Making as a tool of explicatory potential that has already shown its usefulness in several contexts. I further emphasize linking the two concepts into a common and, hopefully, useful concept. Furthermore, I argue that a resilient system is not merely...

  16. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  17. The Complexity of Coverage

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Majumdar, Rupak

    2008-01-01

    We study the problem of generating a test sequence that achieves maximal coverage for a reactive system under test. We formulate the problem as a repeated game between the tester and the system, where the system state space is partitioned according to some coverage criterion and the objective of the tester is to maximize the set of partitions (or coverage goals) visited during the game. We show the complexity of the maximal coverage problem for non-deterministic systems is PSPACE-complete, but is NP-complete for deterministic systems. For the special case of non-deterministic systems with a re-initializing ``reset'' action, which represent running a new test input on a re-initialized system, we show that the complexity is again co-NP-complete. Our proof technique for reset games uses randomized testing strategies that circumvent the exponentially large memory requirement in the deterministic case.

  18. Minimum Complexity Pursuit

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, Shirin

    2011-01-01

    The fast growing field of compressed sensing is founded on the fact that if a signal is 'simple' and has some 'structure', then it can be reconstructed accurately with far fewer samples than its ambient dimension. Many different plausible structures have been explored in this field, ranging from sparsity to low-rankness and to finite rate of innovation. However, there are important abstract questions that are yet to be answered. For instance, what are the general abstract meanings of 'structure' and 'simplicity'? Do there exist universal algorithms for recovering such simple structured objects from fewer samples than their ambient dimension? In this paper, we aim to address these two questions. Using algorithmic information theory tools such as Kolmogorov complexity, we provide a unified method of describing 'simplicity' and 'structure'. We then explore the performance of an algorithm motivated by Ocam's Razor (called MCP for minimum complexity pursuit) and show that it requires $O(k\\log n)$ number of samples...

  19. Polystochastic Models for Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2010-01-01

    This book is devoted to complexity understanding and management, considered as the main source of efficiency and prosperity for the next decades. Divided into six chapters, the book begins with a presentation of basic concepts as complexity, emergence and closure. The second chapter looks to methods and introduces polystochastic models, the wave equation, possibilities and entropy. The third chapter focusing on physical and chemical systems analyzes flow-sheet synthesis, cyclic operations of separation, drug delivery systems and entropy production. Biomimetic systems represent the main objective of the fourth chapter. Case studies refer to bio-inspired calculation methods, to the role of artificial genetic codes, neural networks and neural codes for evolutionary calculus and for evolvable circuits as biomimetic devices. The fifth chapter, taking its inspiration from systems sciences and cognitive sciences looks to engineering design, case base reasoning methods, failure analysis, and multi-agent manufacturing...

  20. Gold Thione Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Caddeo; Vanesa Fernández-Moreira; Massimiliano Arca; Antonio Laguna; Vito Lippolis; M. Concepción Gimeno

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of the ligand Et4todit (4,5,6,7-Tetrathiocino-[1,2-b:3,4-b']-diimidazolyl-1,3,8,10-tetraethyl-2,9-dithione) with gold complexes leads to the dinuclear gold(I) complexes [{Au(C6F5)}2(Et4todit)] and [Au(Et4todit)]2(OTf)2, which do not contain any gold-gold interactions, or to the gold(III) derivative [{Au(C6F5)3}2(Et4todit)]. The crystal structures have been established by X-ray diffraction studies and show that the gold centers coordinate to the sulfur atoms of the imidazoline-2-t...

  1. Complexity in Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cristopher David

    The study of chaos has shown us that deterministic systems can have a kind of unpredictability, based on a limited knowledge of their initial conditions; after a finite time, the motion appears essentially random. This observation has inspired a general interest in the subject of unpredictability, and more generally, complexity; how can we characterize how "complex" a dynamical system is?. In this thesis, we attempt to answer this question with a paradigm of complexity that comes from computer science, we extract sets of symbol sequences, or languages, from a dynamical system using standard methods of symbolic dynamics; we then ask what kinds of grammars or automata are needed a generate these languages. This places them in the Chomsky heirarchy, which in turn tells us something about how subtle and complex the dynamical system's behavior is. This gives us insight into the question of unpredictability, since these automata can also be thought of as computers attempting to predict the system. In the culmination of the thesis, we find a class of smooth, two-dimensional maps which are equivalent to the highest class in the Chomsky heirarchy, the turning machine; they are capable of universal computation. Therefore, these systems possess a kind of unpredictability qualitatively different from the usual "chaos": even if the initial conditions are known exactly, questions about the system's long-term dynamics are undecidable. No algorithm exists to answer them. Although this kind of unpredictability has been discussed in the context of distributed, many-degree-of -freedom systems (for instance, cellular automata) we believe this is the first example of such phenomena in a smooth, finite-degree-of-freedom system.

  2. Homogeneous complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Leszek; Burda, Zdzisław; Wacław, Bartłomiej

    2006-07-01

    We discuss various ensembles of homogeneous complex networks and a Monte-Carlo method of generating graphs from these ensembles. The method is quite general and can be applied to simulate micro-canonical, canonical or grand-canonical ensembles for systems with various statistical weights. It can be used to construct homogeneous networks with desired properties, or to construct a non-trivial scoring function for problems of advanced motif searching.

  3. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  4. The Complex Information Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwina Taborsky

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the semiosic development of energy to information within a dyadic reality that operates within the contradictions of both classical and quantum physics. These two realities are examined within the three Peircean modal categories of Firstness, Secondness and Thirdness. The paper concludes that our world cannot operate within either of the two physical realities but instead filiates the two to permit a semiosis or information-generation of complex systems.

  5. Complexity Science for Simpletons

    OpenAIRE

    Feinstein C. A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we shall describe some of the most interesting topics in the subject of Complexity Science for a general audience. Anyone with a solid foundation in high school mathematics (with some calculus) and an elementary understanding of computer programming will be able to follow this article. First, we shall explain the significance of the P versus NP problem and solve it. Next, we shall describe two other famous mathematics problems, the Collatz 3n+ 1 Conjec...

  6. Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Talha Khan; Rose Amy Franco

    2014-01-01

    Complex sleep apnea is the term used to describe a form of sleep disordered breathing in which repeated central apneas (>5/hour) persist or emerge when obstructive events are extinguished with positive airway pressure (PAP) and for which there is not a clear cause for the central apneas such as narcotics or systolic heart failure. The driving forces in the pathophysiology are felt to be ventilator instability associated oscillation in PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide, continu...

  7. Complex wounds Feridas complexas

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Castro Ferreira; Paulo Tuma Júnior; Viviane Fernandes de Carvalho; Fábio Kamamoto

    2006-01-01

    Complex wound is the term used more recently to group those well-known difficult wounds, either chronic or acute, that challenge medical and nursing teams. They defy cure using conventional and simple "dressings" therapy and currently have a major socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this review is to bring these wounds to the attention of the health-care community, suggesting that they should be treated by multidisciplinary teams in specialized hospital centers. In most cases, surgical treat...

  8. Complexity, contingency, and criticality.

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, P; M. Paczuski

    1995-01-01

    Complexity originates from the tendency of large dynamical systems to organize themselves into a critical state, with avalanches or "punctuations" of all sizes. In the critical state, events which would otherwise be uncoupled become correlated. The apparent, historical contingency in many sciences, including geology, biology, and economics, finds a natural interpretation as a self-organized critical phenomenon. These ideas are discussed in the context of simple mathematical models of sandpile...

  9. Topics in complex systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Yee Jiun

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Fundamental laws of physics, although successful in explaining many phenomena observed in nature and society, cannot account for the behaviour of complex, non-Hamiltonian systems. Much effort has been devoted to better understanding the topological properties of these systems. Neither ordered nor disordered, these systems of high variability are found in many areas of science. Studies on sand...

  10. Arithmetic of Complex Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    It was the aim of the Erlangen meeting in May 1988 to bring together number theoretists and algebraic geometers to discuss problems of common interest, such as moduli problems, complex tori, integral points, rationality questions, automorphic forms. In recent years such problems, which are simultaneously of arithmetic and geometric interest, have become increasingly important. This proceedings volume contains 12 original research papers. Its main topics are theta functions, modular forms, abelian varieties and algebraic three-folds.

  11. The Tuberous Sclerosis complex

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, M.; Gomez, M.

    1993-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder that results from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes and is associated with hamartoma formation in multiple organ systems. The neurological manifestations of TSC are particularly challenging and include infantile spasms, intractable epilepsy, cognitive disabilities, and autism. Progress over the past 15 years has demonstrated that the TSC1 or TSC2 encoded proteins modulate cell function via the mTOR signaling cascade and serv...

  12. NDT for Complex Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Non-destructive testing of structures composed of various types of materials is performed using a variety of methods. Most commonly, electromagnetic and acoustic methods are used to perform this task. Advances in computer software and electro-mechanical hardware have resulted in semi-automated systems for performing simple low-cost in-situ concrete testing. These systems are designed to be operated by anyone who can read a manual and push the right buttons. Although useful in many circumstances, we ask: "What happens when concrete structures are not simple and are too complex to be analyzed by these semi-automated systems and, most importantly, by minimally trained operators?" Many infrastructure projects are boldly pushing the limit of traditional engineering design. As structures become more complex, the methods and techniques used to evaluate these structures must also evolve. A first step towards adapting geophysical methods to evaluate complex structures is to develop pre-investigation conceptual models of possible responses that structures will have to available geophysical methods. This approach is important for designing the geometry and data acquisition parameters necessary for achieving the desired results. Examples of case by case assessments of the application of GPR to concrete investigations are examined. These include complex concrete wall structures, soil tunnel structures, and airport runways. HGI's adaption of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic methods for assessing the substrate of a heavily reinforced concrete structure up to seven feet thick is reviewed. A range of GPR antenna frequencies were used to image the concrete and the underlying material. Time and frequency domain GPR analyses where used in the assessment. A multi-channel seismic survey using a roll-along data collection technique was used to assess the resonant frequency of the concrete structure, the nature of the underlying medium, and behavior of the structural system.

  13. Complex Game Design Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanasamy, Viknashvaran; Wong, Kok Wai; Rai, Shri; Chiou, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper looks at the game design and engineering approach to model the game design. The game modeling framework discussed in this paper could be a systematic alternative for implementing in the game engine architecture. The suggested game modeling framework incorporates structural game component, temporal game component and boundary game component frameworks. It is suitable to model most complex games and game engines.

  14. ECONOMICS AND COMPLEXITY

    OpenAIRE

    ALAN KIRMAN

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a view of the economy as a complex system with heterogeneous interacting agents who collectively organize themselves to generate aggregate phenomena which cannot be regarded as the behavior of some average or representative individual. There is an essential difference between the aggregate and the individual and such phenomena as bubbles and crashes, herd behavior, the transmission of information and the organization of trade are better modeled in the sort of framework sug...

  15. Complex distal humerus trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, van, G.; Jupiter, J.B.; Kloen, P.; Ring, D.C.; Brouwer, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    De ingewikkelde bot-anatomie van de distale humerus (einde van het opperarmbeen) maakt behandeling van fracturen uitdagend. Of de elleboog na genezing weer normaal kan worden gebruikt, hangt af van de mate waarin de anatomische verbanden worden hersteld. Het is belangrijk complexe fractuurtypes van elkaar te onderscheiden. Virtuele driedimensionale beeldvorming is belangrijk voor de herkenning van de breuk, de planning van de behandeling en het vergelijken van resultaten. Kim Brouwer constate...

  16. Nanoparticle complex fluids

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis concerns the study of complex nanofluids. The interaction of particles in dispersions under the influence of electric and magnetic fields has been studied. The main focus has been the investigation of the behavior of carbon particle dispersions. A novel type of carbon material, namely carbon cone (CC) material, has been characterized using atomic force microscope, scanning tunnelling microscope and scanning electron microscope. The CC material is a mixed powd...

  17. Complex Alternative Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung Woo; Graveley, Brenton R.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a powerful means of controlling gene expression and increasing protein diversity. Most genes express a limited number of mRNA isoforms, but there are several examples of genes that use alternative splicing to generate hundreds, thousands, and even tens of thousands of isoforms. Collectively such genes are considered to undergo complex alternative splicing. The best example is the Drosophila Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene, which can generate 38,016 is...

  18. Complexity in `simple' metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Bruno; Ashcroft, Neil W.

    2008-03-01

    In electronic and structural terms, the light alkalis have long been regarded as `simple systems', at least under ordinary conditions. However, when compressed they exhibit unforeseen complexity; the melting curve of sodium, for example, has a striking maximum, falling to near room temperature melting where a complex structure (CI16) is found, this being in the cubic class but with 16 atoms per unit cell [1,2]. The light alkalis have been extensively studied using ab initio methods with standard assumptions of transferability made for the key pseudopotential input information, largely atomic based. Lacking still, however, is a somewhat more intuitive and physical understanding of the developments in electronic structure with progressive increase in density. In the present work, the problem is treated with non-linear response theory and non-overlapping pseudopotentials, and the structural complexity traced to effective ion-ion interactions with features that both at short range and long display competing state dependence. [1] Gregoryanz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 185502 (2005) [2] McMahon et al., Chem. Soc. Rev. 35, 943 (2006)

  19. Control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es­ cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air­ planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi­ neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re­ search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu­ ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...

  20. [VGKC-complex antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-04-01

    Various antibodies are associated with voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs). Representative antibodies to VGKCs were first identified by radioimmunoassays using radioisotope-labeled alpha-dendrotoxin-VGKCs solubilized from rabbit brain. These antibodies were detected only in a proportion of patients with acquired neuromyotonia (Isaacs' syndrome). VGKC antibodies were also detected in patients with Morvan's syndrome and in those with a form of autoimmune limbic encephalitis. Recent studies indicated that the "VGKC" antibodies are mainly directed toward associated proteins (for example LGI-1 and CASPR-2) that complex with the VGKCs themselves. The "VGKC" antibodies are now commonly known as VGKC-complex antibodies. In general, LGI-1 antibodies are most commonly detected in patients with limbic encephalitis with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. CASPR-2 antibodies are present in the majority of patients with Morvan's syndrome. These patients develop combinations of CNS symptoms, autonomic dysfunction, and peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. Furthermore, VGKC-complex antibodies are tightly associated with chronic idiopathic pain. Hyperexcitability of nociceptive pathways has also been implicated. These antibodies may be detected in sera of some patients with neurodegenerative diseases (for example, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease).

  1. Keynes, Hayek and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Paul

    In the spirit of the overall topic of the conference, in this paper I consider the extent to which economic theory includes elements of the complex systems approach. I am setting to one side here the developments over the past decade in applying complex systems analysis to economic problems. This is not because this recent work is not important. It most certainly is. But I want to argue that there is a very distinct tradition of what we would now describe as a complex systems approach in the works of two of the greatest economists of the 20th century. There is of course a dominant intellectual paradigm within economics, that known as `neo-classical'economics. This paradigm is by no means an empty box, and is undoubtedly useful in helping to understand how some aspects of the social and economic worlds work. But even in its heyday, neo-classical economics never succeeded by its empirical success in driving out completely other theoretical approaches, for its success was simply not sufficient to do so. Much more importantly, economics over the past twenty or thirty years has become in an increasing state of flux.

  2. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Gao

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  3. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Gao; Kai Salomaa; Sheng Yu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  4. Nonlocality and communication complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrman, Harry; Cleve, Richard; Massar, Serge; de Wolf, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Quantum information processing is the emerging field that defines and realizes computing devices that make use of quantum mechanical principles such as the superposition principle, entanglement, and interference. Until recently the common notion of computing was based on classical mechanics and did not take into account all the possibilities that physically realizable computing devices offer in principle. The field gained momentum after Shor developed an efficient algorithm for factoring numbers, demonstrating the potential computing powers that quantum computing devices can unleash. In this review the information counterpart of computing is studied. It was realized early on by Holevo that quantum bits, the quantum mechanical counterpart of classical bits, cannot be used for efficient transformation of information in the sense that arbitrary k -bit messages cannot be compressed into messages of k-1 qubits. The abstract form of the distributed computing setting is called communication complexity. It studies the amount of information, in terms of bits or in our case qubits, that two spatially separated computing devices need to exchange in order to perform some computational task. Surprisingly, quantum mechanics can be used to obtain dramatic advantages for such tasks. The area of quantum communication complexity is reviewed and it is shown how it connects the foundational physics questions regarding nonlocality with those of communication complexity studied in theoretical computer science. The first examples exhibiting the advantage of the use of qubits in distributed information-processing tasks were based on nonlocality tests. However, by now the field has produced strong and interesting quantum protocols and algorithms of its own that demonstrate that entanglement, although it cannot be used to replace communication, can be used to reduce the communication exponentially. In turn, these new advances yield a new outlook on the foundations of physics and could even

  5. Complex-Valued Autoencoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-01-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L2 norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory. PMID:22622264

  6. Complex-valued autoencoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-09-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L(2) norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory.

  7. Sensemaking: a complexity perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Lynam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our intent was to provide a methodological overview of the primary data collection process in support of the other articles in this special issue. We documented and illustrated the use of a data collection and analysis suite, SenseMaker, that was designed to collect and work with narrative fragments. The approach presented adds a new and inherently mixed tool to the mixed methods toolbox. Despite its novelty and potential utility, little has been written in the academic literature on the application of SenseMaker to complex problems. To the best of our knowledge, the approach has not been used in relation to climate change or climate change adaptation and has not been presented in the mixed methods literature. We sought to contribute to filling this gap through describing the approach used to generate the data that underpin the articles in this special feature. Our purpose was to illustrate some of the potential and most notable challenges of using the SenseMaker data collection and analysis process in a complex domain through examining adaptation to climate change. Our overview was not exhaustive but rather sought to highlight capabilities and challenges through examining experiences of adaptation from a stages of change perspective. SenseMaker provides a remarkably powerful tool for the capture of micronarratives of complex phenomena such as climate change. The capacity to have respondents interpret, i.e., make sense of, their own narratives is an important innovation that provides one plausible solution to the problem of analysts coding narratives. Analytically, however, SenseMaker is relatively weak for those seeking strong statistical support for analyses and provides no capability for analyzing the narratives themselves.

  8. Complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep J Sebastin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature.

  9. Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof

    In this dissertation we present a novel method for deformable interface tracking in 2D and 3D|deformable simplicial complexes (DSC). Deformable interfaces are used in several applications, such as fluid simulation, image analysis, reconstruction or structural optimization. In the DSC method, the ....... One particular advantage of DSC is the fact that as an alternative to topology adaptivity, topology control is also possible. This is exploited in the construction of cut loci on tori where a front expands from a single point on a torus and stops when it self-intersects....

  10. Computability, complexity, logic

    CERN Document Server

    Börger, Egon

    1989-01-01

    The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an

  11. STUDYING COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Holland

    2006-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems (cas) - systems that involve many components that adapt or learn as they interact - are at the heart of important contemporary problems. The study of cas poses unique challenges: Some of our most powerful mathematical tools, particularly methods involving fixed points, attractors, and the like, are of limited help in understanding the development of cas. This paper suggests ways to modify research methods and tools, with an emphasis on the role of computer-based models, to increase our understanding of cas.

  12. Gold phosphide complexes

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of gold complexes with five group-element donor ligands contain tertiary phosphines, although compounds with amine, arsine or stibine ligands are also known. Although phosphide ligands, which are formed by deprotonation of non-tertiary phosphines, are closely related to the former, they have been employed to a lesser extent, mainly due to their lower stability. Thus, the chemistry of phosphido-bridged derivatives of the main group elements1-3 or transition metals4-6 has been...

  13. Fluorido complexes of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariappan Balasekaran, Samundeeswari

    2013-07-04

    Fluorine chemistry has received considerable interest during recent years due to its significant role in the life sciences, especially for drug development. Despite the great nuclear medicinal importance of the radioactive metal technetium in radiopharmaceuticals, its coordination chemistry with the fluorido ligand is by far less explored than that of other ligands. Up to now, only a few technetium fluorides are known. This thesis contains the synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization of novel technetium fluorides in the oxidation states ''+1'', ''+2'', ''+4'' and ''+6''. In the oxidation state ''+6'', the fluoridotechnetates were synthesized either from nitridotechnetic(VI) acid or from pertechnetate by using reducing agent and have been isolated as cesium or tetraethylammonium salts. The compounds were characterized spectroscopically and structurally. In the intermediate oxidation state ''+4'', hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) was known for long time and studied spectroscopically. This thesis reports novel and improved syntheses and solved the critical issues of early publications such as the color, some spectroscopic properties and the structure of this key compound. Single crystal analyses of alkali metal, ammonium and tetramethylammonium salts of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) are presented. In aqueous alkaline solutions, the ammonium salt of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) undergoes hydrolysis and forms an oxido-bridged dimeric complex. It is the first step hydrolysis product of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) and was characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Low-valent technetium fluorides with the metal in the oxidation states of ''+2'' or ''+1'' are almost unknown. A detailed description of the synthesis and characterization of pentafluoridonitrosyltechnetate(II) is presented. The

  14. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...

  15. Characterizing biomaterial complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Clifton

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials research will always require a range of techniques to examine structure and function on a range of length scales and in a range of settings. Neutron scattering provides a unique way of disentangling the molecular and structural complexity of biomaterials through study of the constituent components. We examine how the technique has been used to study surface immobilized proteins and lipid films, floating lipid bilayers as mimics of in vitro planar membranes, and formation of fibres from solution by insects and spiders.

  16. Ventricular premature complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockeria O.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular premature complexes are fairly common heart rhythm disturbances. They occur in patients of all age groups. Sometimes the registration of electrocardiogram is ample for the diagnosis.The difficulty lies in determining the causes of ventricular arrhythmia. The detailed examination is needed for verification of the diagnosis and risk stratification: a Holter monitoring, laboratory tests, a heart magnetic resonance imaging, an electrophysiological study. This results can significantly change further tactics of patient management.It is necessary to make a deliberate decision in favor of one or another treatment after revealing the causes.

  17. Complex and Unpredictable Cardano

    CERN Document Server

    Ekert, Artur

    2008-01-01

    This purely recreational paper is about one of the most colorful characters of the Italian Renaissance, Girolamo Cardano, and the discovery of two basic ingredients of quantum theory, probability and complex numbers. The paper is dedicated to Giuseppe Castagnoli on the occasion of his 65th birthday. Back in the early 1990s, Giuseppe instigated a series of meetings at Villa Gualino, in Torino, which brought together few scattered individuals interested in the physics of computation. By doing so he effectively created and consolidated a vibrant and friendly community of researchers devoted to quantum information science. Many thanks for that!

  18. Shapes of interacting RNA complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Benjamin Mingming; Reidys, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological ...... sampling algorithm for shapes of RNA complexes of fixed topological genus.......Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological...... genus there are only finitely many such shapes. Our main result is a new bijection that relates the shapes of RNA complexes with shapes of RNA structures. This allows to compute the shape polynomial of RNA complexes via the shape polynomial of RNA structures. We furthermore present a linear time uniform...

  19. Canonical metrics on complex manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAU Shing-Tung

    2008-01-01

    @@ Complex manifolds are topological spaces that are covered by coordinate charts where the Coordinate changes are given by holomorphic transformations. For example, Riemann surfaces are one dimensional complex manifolds. In order to understand complex manifolds, it is useful to introduce metrics that are compatible with the complex structure. In general, we should have a pair (M, ds2M) where ds2M is the metric. The metric is said to be canonical if any biholomorphisms of the complex manifolds are automatically isometries. Such metrics can naturally be used to describe invariants of the complex structures of the manifold.

  20. Canonical metrics on complex manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAU; Shing-Tung(Yau; S.-T.)

    2008-01-01

    Complex manifolds are topological spaces that are covered by coordinate charts where the coordinate changes are given by holomorphic transformations.For example,Riemann surfaces are one dimensional complex manifolds.In order to understand complex manifolds,it is useful to introduce metrics that are compatible with the complex structure.In general,we should have a pair(M,ds~2_M)where ds~2_M is the metric.The metric is said to be canonical if any biholomorphisms of the complex manifolds are automatically isometries.Such metrics can naturally be used to describe invariants of the complex structures of the manifold.

  1. Polyhydride complexes for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Polyhydride metal complexes are being developed for application in hydrogen storage. Efforts have focused on developing complexes with improved available hydrogen weight percentages. We have explored the possibility that complexes containing aromatic hydrocarbon ligands could store hydrogen at both the metal center and in the ligands. We have synthesized novel indenyl hydride complexes and explored their reactivity with hydrogen. The reversible hydrogenation of [IrH{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3})({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 10}H{sub 7})]{sup +} has been achieved. While attempting to prepare {eta}{sup 6}-tetrahydronaphthalene complexes, we discovered that certain polyhydride complexes catalyze both the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of tetrahydronaphthalene.

  2. The authority of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, N; Grundmann, R

    2001-06-01

    The assertion about the unique 'complexity' or the peculiarly intricate character of social phenomena has, at least within sociology, a long, venerable and virtually uncontested tradition. At the turn of the last century, classical social theorists, for example, Georg Simmel and Emile Durkheim, made prominent and repeated reference to this attribute of the subject matter of sociology and the degree to which it complicates, even inhibits the develop and application of social scientific knowledge. Our paper explores the origins, the basis and the consequences of this assertion and asks in particular whether the classic complexity assertion still deserves to be invoked in analyses that ask about the production and the utilization of social scientific knowledge in modern society. We present John Maynard Keynes' economic theory and its practical applications as an illustration. We conclude that the practical value of social scientific knowledge is not dependent on a faithful, in the sense of complete, representation of social reality. Instead, social scientific knowledge that wants to optimize its practicality has to attend and attach itself to elements of social situations that can be altered or are actionable.

  3. The Orpheus complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, T

    2000-04-01

    This paper examines the possible psychological implications of two adaptations of the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice, both of which were completed in 1997. The first is by a man: 'Deconstructing Harry', a film by Woody Allen. The second is by a woman: 'Eurydice in the Underworld', a short story written by Kathy Acker in the last year of her life. The paper argues that there are only four 'necessary events' in the myth of Orpheus and Eurydice. It defines the sequence of these events as a 'mythic pattern' that represents the experience of loss, unconscious yearning, depression, and psychological inflation. The film is examined as an expression of an 'Orpheus complex', the short story as an expression of an 'Eurydice complex'. The paper suggests a possible reason for the persistence of interest in the myth throughout the twentieth century. Although it notes that women appear to find it easier to free themselves from identification with the mythic pattern, it also provides reasons for thinking that men may be about to do the same.

  4. Complexity in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form.

  5. Organometallic Complexes of Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Santanu; Bekyarova, Elena; Haddon, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the organometallic hexahapto complexation of chromium with graphene, graphite and carbon nanotubes. All of these extended periodic pi-electron systems exhibit some degree of reactivity toward the reagents CrCO)6 and (eta6-benzene)Cr(CO)3, and we are able to demonstrate the formation of (eta6-rene)Cr(CO)3 or (eta6-arene)2Cr, where arene = single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), exfoliated graphene (XG), epitaxial graphene (EG) and highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). We find that the SWNTs are the least reactive presumably as a result of the effect of curvature on the formation of the hexahapto bond; in the case of HOPG, (eta6-HOPG)Cr(CO)3 was isolated while the exfoliated graphene samples were found to give both (eta6-graphene)2Cr, and (eta6-graphene)Cr(CO)3 structures. We report simple and efficient routes for the mild decomplexation of the graphene-chromium complexes which appears to restore the original pristine graphene state. This study represents the first example of the use of graph...

  6. The authority of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, N; Grundmann, R

    2001-06-01

    The assertion about the unique 'complexity' or the peculiarly intricate character of social phenomena has, at least within sociology, a long, venerable and virtually uncontested tradition. At the turn of the last century, classical social theorists, for example, Georg Simmel and Emile Durkheim, made prominent and repeated reference to this attribute of the subject matter of sociology and the degree to which it complicates, even inhibits the develop and application of social scientific knowledge. Our paper explores the origins, the basis and the consequences of this assertion and asks in particular whether the classic complexity assertion still deserves to be invoked in analyses that ask about the production and the utilization of social scientific knowledge in modern society. We present John Maynard Keynes' economic theory and its practical applications as an illustration. We conclude that the practical value of social scientific knowledge is not dependent on a faithful, in the sense of complete, representation of social reality. Instead, social scientific knowledge that wants to optimize its practicality has to attend and attach itself to elements of social situations that can be altered or are actionable. PMID:11440059

  7. Complex Semantic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, G. M.; Aguiar, M. S. F.; Carvalho, C. F.; Dantas, D. R.; Cunha, M. V.; Morais, J. H. M.; Pereira, H. B. B.; Miranda, J. G. V.

    Verbal language is a dynamic mental process. Ideas emerge by means of the selection of words from subjective and individual characteristics throughout the oral discourse. The goal of this work is to characterize the complex network of word associations that emerge from an oral discourse from a discourse topic. Because of that, concepts of associative incidence and fidelity have been elaborated and represented the probability of occurrence of pairs of words in the same sentence in the whole oral discourse. Semantic network of words associations were constructed, where the words are represented as nodes and the edges are created when the incidence-fidelity index between pairs of words exceeds a numerical limit (0.001). Twelve oral discourses were studied. The networks generated from these oral discourses present a typical behavior of complex networks and their indices were calculated and their topologies characterized. The indices of these networks obtained from each incidence-fidelity limit exhibit a critical value in which the semantic network has maximum conceptual information and minimum residual associations. Semantic networks generated by this incidence-fidelity limit depict a pattern of hierarchical classes that represent the different contexts used in the oral discourse.

  8. Theoretical research progress in complexity of complex dynamical networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jinqing

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the main progress in dynamical complexity of theoretical models for nonlinear complex networks proposed by our Joint Complex Network Research Group (JCNRG). The topological and dynamical properties of these theoretical models are numerically and analytically studied. Several findings are useful for understanding and deeply studying complex networks from macroscopic to microscopic levels and have a potential of applications in real-world networks.

  9. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J S Virdi; F Chand; C N Kumar; S C Mishra

    2012-08-01

    Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex potentials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by $x = x_{1} + ip_{3}. y = x_{2} + ip_{4}, p_{x} = p_{1} + ix_{3}, p_{y} = p_{2} + ix_{4}$. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator admit quadratic complex invariants. THe obtained invariants may be useful for studying non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems.

  10. Not so Complex: Iteration in the Complex Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Robin S.

    2014-01-01

    The simple process of iteration can produce complex and beautiful figures. In this article, Robin O'Dell presents a set of tasks requiring students to use the geometric interpretation of complex number multiplication to construct linear iteration rules. When the outputs are plotted in the complex plane, the graphs trace pleasing designs…

  11. Syntactic Complexity as an Aspect of Text Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Roger S.; Starr, Laura E.; Bailey, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Students' ability to read complex texts is emphasized in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts and Literacy. The standards propose a three-part model for measuring text complexity. Although the model presents a robust means for determining text complexity based on a variety of features inherent to a text as well as…

  12. From Complex Fractional Fourier Transform to Complex Fractional Radon Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANHong-Yi; JIANGNian-Quan

    2004-01-01

    We show that for n-dimensional complex fractional Fourier transform the corresponding complex fractional Radon transform can also be derived, however, it is different from the direct product of two n-dimensional real fractional Radon transforms. The complex fractional Radon transform of two-mode Wigner operator is calculated.

  13. Uranium nucleophilic carbene complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The only stable f-metal carbene complexes (excluding NHC) metals f present R2C2- groups having one or two phosphorus atoms in the central carbon in alpha position. The objective of this work was to develop the chemistry of carbenes for uranium (metal 5f) with the di-anion C{Ph2P(=S)}22- (SCS2-) to extend the organometallic chemistry of this element in its various oxidation states (+3-+6), and to reveal the influence of the 5f orbitals on the nature and reactivity of the double bond C=U. We first isolated the reactants M(SCHS) (M = Li and K) and demonstrated the role of the cation M+ on the evolution of the di-anion M2SCS (M = Li, K, Tl) which is transformed into LiSCHS in THF or into product of intramolecular cyclization K2[C(PhPS)2(C6H4)]. We have developed the necessary conditions mono-, bis- and tris-carbene directly from the di-anion SCS2- and UCl4, as the precursor used in uranium chemistry. The protonolysis reactions of amides compounds (U-NEt2) by the neutral ligand SCH2S were also studied. The compounds [Li(THF)]2[U(SCS)Cl3] and [U(SCS)Cl2(THF)2] were then used to prepare a variety of cyclopentadienyl and mono-cyclo-octa-tetra-enyliques uranium(IV) carbene compounds of the DFT analysis of compounds [M(SCS)Cl2(py)2] and [M(Cp)2(SCS)] (M = U, Zr) reveals the strong polarization of the M=C double bond, provides information on the nature of the σ and π interactions in this binding, and shows the important role of f orbitals. The influence of ancillary ligands on the M=C bond is revealed by examining the effects of replacing Cl- ligands and pyridine by C5H5- groups. Mulliken and NBO analyzes show that U=C bond, unlike the Zr=C bond, is not affected by the change in environment of the metal center. While the oxidation tests of carbene complexes of U(IV) were disappointing, the first carbene complex of uranium (VI), [UO2(SCS)(THF)2], was isolated with the uranyl ion UO22+. The reactions of compounds UO2X2 (X = I, OTf) with anions SCS2- and SCHS- provide the

  14. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CPRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Complex Regional Pain Syndrome - CRPS Email to a friend * ... DESCRIPTION Formerly Known as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a pain condition ...

  15. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond ... to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications ...

  16. Cadmium(2) complexes of cytosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexes of cadmium(2) with cytosine obtained from aqueous or physiological solutions at room temperature are reported. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic, conductometric, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR measurements and also by thermogravimetry. (Authors)

  17. Halonickel(I) complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Rubio, Manuel; Royo Gracia, Pascual; Sáez Sáez, Isabel María; Arcas, Aurelia

    1982-01-01

    The reduction of nickel(II) halides with NaBH4 in the presence of different ligands, L=PPh3, AsPh3, SbPh3, has been studied. With a molar ratio L/Ni=3, new complexes NiX(SbPh3)3, X=Cl, Br, I, were obtained. With a molar ratio L/Ni=2, dimeric species [NiXL2]2, X=Cl, Br, I; L=PPh3, AsPh3, SbPh3, were isolated. They are unstable and decompose easily in the solid and rapidly in solution, so that pure samples were only identified for X=Cl, L=PPh3, AsPh3, SbPh3; X=Br, L=PPh3 and X=I, L=PPh3. With a...

  18. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Perrenoud, Ben C.

    2007-12-25

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  19. Turbulence in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.

  20. Complexity Science for Simpletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinstein C. A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we shall describe some of the most interesting topics in the subject of Complexity Science for a general audience. Anyone with a solid foundation in high school mathematics (with some calculus and an elementary understanding of computer programming will be able to follow this article. First, we shall explain the significance of the P versus NP problem and solve it. Next, we shall describe two other famous mathematics problems, the Collatz 3n+ 1 Conjecture and the Riemann Hypothesis, and show how both Chaitin’s incompleteness theorem and Wolfram’s notion of “computational irreducibility” are important for understanding why no one has, as of yet, solved these two problems.

  1. Nasal palatal: segment complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Romera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the nature of a segment which is always problematical —the palatal nasal. Phonetic results found in the acoustic, perceptive and articulate spheres, showing the different features of this nasal with regards to others, are the point of departure for a brief reflection on the phonological nature of this segment, taking into account the feature geometry and the articulatory phonology. It concludes by considering the palatal nasal /?/ as a complex segment formed by /n+j/ and the imputation, to temporary effects, of a degree of major o minor assimilation and gestural overlapping during effective perception of /?/, of /n+j/ or of /n+i/.

  2. Complex Maxwell's equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.I.Arbab

    2013-01-01

    A unified complex model of Maxwell's equations is presented.The wave nature of the electromagnetic field vector is related to the temporal and spatial distributions and the circulation of charge and current densities.A new vacuum solution is obtained,and a new transformation under which Maxwell's equations are invariant is proposed.This transformation extends ordinary gauge transformation to include charge-current as well as scalar-vector potential.An electric dipole moment is found to be related to the magnetic charges,and Dirac's quantization is found to determine an uncertainty relation expressing the indeterminacy of electric and magnetic charges.We generalize Maxwell's equations to include longitudinal waves.A formal analogy between this formulation and Dirac's equation is also discussed.

  3. Complex Hamiltonian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bountis, Tassos

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces and explores modern developments in the well established field of Hamiltonian dynamical systems. It focuses on high degree-of-freedom systems and the transitional regimes between regular and chaotic motion. The role of nonlinear normal modes is highlighted and the importance of low-dimensional tori in the resolution of the famous FPU paradox is emphasized. Novel powerful numerical methods are used to study localization phenomena and distinguish order from strongly and weakly chaotic regimes. The emerging hierarchy of complex structures in such regimes gives rise to particularly long-lived patterns and phenomena called quasi-stationary states, which are explored in particular in the concrete setting of one-dimensional Hamiltonian lattices and physical applications in condensed matter systems.  The self-contained and pedagogical approach is blended with a unique balance between mathematical rigor, physics insights and concrete applications. End of chapter exercises and (more demanding) res...

  4. Complexity of Strong Implementability

    CERN Document Server

    Thielen, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    We consider the question of implementability of a social choice function in a classical setting where the preferences of finitely many selfish individuals with private information have to be aggregated towards a social choice. This is one of the central questions in mechanism design. If the concept of weak implementation is considered, the Revelation Principle states that one can restrict attention to truthful implementations and direct revelation mechanisms, which implies that implementability of a social choice function is easy to check. For the concept of strong implementation, however, the Revelation Principle becomes invalid, and the complexity of deciding whether a given social choice function is strongly implementable has been open so far. In this paper, we show by using methods from polyhedral theory that strong implementability of a social choice function can be decided in polynomial space and that each of the payments needed for strong implementation can always be chosen to be of polynomial encoding...

  5. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  6. Recent Advances in Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in the field of complex networks have been witnessed in the past few years. This paper reviews some important results in this direction of rapidly evolving research, with emphasis on the relationship between the dynamics and the topology of complex networks. Basic quantities and typical examples of various complex networks are described. Robustness of connectivity and epidemic dynamics in complex networks are evaluated.

  7. Holistic education and complexity thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Jörg, T.

    2007-01-01

    Paper proposal for the SIG Holistic Education at AERA 2007 Title: Holistic Education and Complexity Thinking Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands ABSTRACT In this paper I link complexity thinking with Holistic Education (HE). It is a challenge to show how HE may benefit of thinking in complexity. For me thinking in complexity is a way of humanizing our scientific thinking. It asks for a reform of our thinking. The rethinking of com...

  8. Complex wounds Feridas complexas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Castro Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex wound is the term used more recently to group those well-known difficult wounds, either chronic or acute, that challenge medical and nursing teams. They defy cure using conventional and simple "dressings" therapy and currently have a major socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this review is to bring these wounds to the attention of the health-care community, suggesting that they should be treated by multidisciplinary teams in specialized hospital centers. In most cases, surgical treatment is unavoidable, because the extent of skin and subcutaneous tissue loss requires reconstruction with grafts and flaps. New technologies, such as the negative pressure device, should be introduced. A brief review is provided of the major groups of complex wounds-diabetic wounds, pressure sores, chronic venous ulcers, post-infection soft-tissue gangrenes, and ulcers resulting from vasculitis.Ferida complexa é uma nova definição para identificar aquelas feridas crônicas e algumas agudas já bem conhecidas e que desafiam equipes médicas e de enfermagem. São difíceis de serem resolvidas usando tratamentos convencionais e simples curativos. Têm atualmente grande impacto sócio-econômico. Esta revisão procura atrair atenção da comunidade de profissionais de saúde para estas feridas, sugerindo que devam ser tratadas por equipe multidisciplinar em centro hospitalar especializado. Na maioria dos casos o tratamento cirúrgico deve ser indicado, uma vez que a perda de pele e tecido subcutâneo é extensa, necessitando de reconstrução com enxertos e retalhos. Nova tecnologia, como uso da terapia por pressão negativa foi introduzido. Breves comentários sobre os principais grupos de feridas complexas: pé diabético, úlceras por pressão, úlceras venosas, síndrome de Fournier e vasculites.

  9. Kolmogorov complexity as a language

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The notion of Kolmogorov complexity (=the minimal length of a program that generates some object) is often useful as a kind of language that allows us to reformulate some notions and therefore provide new intuition. In this survey we provide (with minimal comments) many different examples where notions and statements that involve Kolmogorov complexity are compared with their counterparts not involving complexity.

  10. Managing complexity of aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not

  11. Complexity, Information and Biological Organisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Grandpierre

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the widespread confusion about the concept and nature of complexity, information and biological organization, we look for some coordinated conceptual considerations corresponding to quantitative measures suitable to grasp the main characteristics of biological complexity. Quantitative measures of algorithmic complexity of supercomputers like Blue Gene/L are compared with the complexity of the brain. We show that both the computer and the brain have a more fundamental, dynamic complexity measure corresponding to the number of operations per second. Recent insights suggest that the origin of complexity may go back to simplicity at a deeper level, corresponding to algorithmic complexity. We point out that for physical systems Ashby’s Law, Kahre’s Law and causal closure of the physical exclude the generation of information, and since genetic information corresponds to instructions, we are faced with a controversy telling that the algorithmic complexity of physics is much lower than the instructions’ complexity of the human DNA: I_algorithmic(physics ~ 10^3 bit << I_instructions(DNA ~ 10^9 bit. Analyzing the genetic complexity we obtain that actually the genetic information corresponds to a deeper than algorithmic level of complexity, putting an even greater emphasis to the information paradox. We show that the resolution of the fundamental information paradox may lie either in the chemical evolution of inheritance in abiogenesis, or in the existence of an autonomous biological principle allowing the production of information beyond physics.

  12. Understanding complex chiral plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Yue, Song; Liu, Na

    2015-10-01

    Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing.Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant

  13. Complexity of Formation in Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, Shira; Myers, Robert C

    2016-01-01

    It was recently conjectured that the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state can be computed by evaluating the gravitational action on a bulk region known as the Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We apply this complexity=action duality to evaluate the `complexity of formation' (arXiv:1509.07876, arXiv:1512.04993), i.e., the additional complexity arising in preparing the entangled thermofield double state with two copies of the boundary CFT compared to preparing the individual vacuum states of the two copies. We find that for boundary dimensions $d>2$, the difference in the complexities grows linearly with the thermal entropy at high temperatures. For the special case $d=2$, the complexity of formation is a fixed constant, independent of the temperature. We compare these results to those found using the complexity=volume duality.

  14. Complexity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, John H

    2014-01-01

    The importance of complexity is well-captured by Hawking's comment: "Complexity is the science of the 21st century". From the movement of flocks of birds to the Internet, environmental sustainability, and market regulation, the study and understanding of complex non-linear systems has become highly influential over the last 30 years. In this Very Short Introduction, one of the leading figures in the field, John Holland, introduces the key elements and conceptual framework of complexity. From complex physical systems such as fluid flow and the difficulties of predicting weather, to complex adaptive systems such as the highly diverse and interdependent ecosystems of rainforests, he combines simple, well-known examples - Adam Smith's pin factory, Darwin's comet orchid, and Simon's 'watchmaker' - with an account of the approaches, involving agents and urn models, taken by complexity theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost eve...

  15. Complex emergencies in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, D A; Drummond, C M; Richman, M

    2001-01-01

    Recently, Indonesia has experienced six major provincial, civil, armed conflicts. Underlying causes include the transmigration policy, sectarian disputes, the Asian economic crisis, fall of authoritarian rule, and a backlash against civil and military abuses. The public health impact involves the displacement nationwide of > 1.2 million persons. Violence in the Malukus, Timor, and Kalimantan has sparked the greatest population movements such that five provinces in Indonesia each now harbor > 100,000 internally displaced persons. With a background of government instability, hyperinflation, macroeconomic collapse, and elusive political solutions, these civil armed conflicts are ripe for persistence as complex emergencies. Indonesia has made substantial progress in domestic disaster management with the establishment of central administrative authority, strategic planning, and training programs. Nevertheless, the Indonesian experience reveals recurrent issues in international humanitarian health assistance. Clinical care remains complicated by absences of treatment protocols, inappropriate drug use, high procedural complication rates, and variable referral practices. Epidemiological surveillance remains complicated by unsettled clinical case definitions, non-standardized case management of diseases with epidemic potential, variable outbreak management protocols, and inadequate epidemiological analytic capacity. International donor support has been semi-selective, insufficient, and late. The militia murders of three UN staff in West Timor prompted the withdrawal of UN international staff from West Timor for nearly a year to date. Re-establishing rules of engagement for humanitarian health workers must address security, public health, and clinical threats.

  16. Sociality influences cultural complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishna, Michael; Shulman, Ben W; Vasilescu, Vlad; Henrich, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological and ethnohistorical evidence suggests a link between a population's size and structure, and the diversity or sophistication of its toolkits or technologies. Addressing these patterns, several evolutionary models predict that both the size and social interconnectedness of populations can contribute to the complexity of its cultural repertoire. Some models also predict that a sudden loss of sociality or of population will result in subsequent losses of useful skills/technologies. Here, we test these predictions with two experiments that permit learners to access either one or five models (teachers). Experiment 1 demonstrates that naive participants who could observe five models, integrate this information and generate increasingly effective skills (using an image editing tool) over 10 laboratory generations, whereas those with access to only one model show no improvement. Experiment 2, which began with a generation of trained experts, shows how learners with access to only one model lose skills (in knot-tying) more rapidly than those with access to five models. In the final generation of both experiments, all participants with access to five models demonstrate superior skills to those with access to only one model. These results support theoretical predictions linking sociality to cumulative cultural evolution.

  17. Complexity of Strong Implementability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Thielen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the question of implementability of a social choice function in a classical setting where the preferences of finitely many selfish individuals with private information have to be aggregated towards a social choice. This is one of the central questions in mechanism design. If the concept of weak implementation is considered, the Revelation Principle states that one can restrict attention to truthful implementations and direct revelation mechanisms, which implies that implementability of a social choice function is easy to check. For the concept of strong implementation, however, the Revelation Principle becomes invalid, and the complexity of deciding whether a given social choice function is strongly implementable has been open so far. In this paper, we show by using methods from polyhedral theory that strong implementability of a social choice function can be decided in polynomial space and that each of the payments needed for strong implementation can always be chosen to be of polynomial encoding length. Moreover, we show that strong implementability of a social choice function involving only a single selfish individual can be decided in polynomial time via linear programming.

  18. Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Talha Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex sleep apnea is the term used to describe a form of sleep disordered breathing in which repeated central apneas (>5/hour persist or emerge when obstructive events are extinguished with positive airway pressure (PAP and for which there is not a clear cause for the central apneas such as narcotics or systolic heart failure. The driving forces in the pathophysiology are felt to be ventilator instability associated oscillation in PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide, continuous cositive airway pressure (CPAP related increased CO2 carbon dioxide elimination, and activation of airway and pulmonary stretch receptors triggering these central apneas. The prevalence ranges from 0.56% to 18% with no clear predictive characteristics as compared to simple obstructive sleep apnea. Prognosis is similar to obstructive sleep apnea. The central apnea component in most patients on followup using CPAP therap, has resolved. For those with continued central apneas on simple CPAP therapy, other treatment options include bilevel PAP, adaptive servoventilation, permissive flow limitation and/or drugs.

  19. Complexity measurement based on information theory and kolmogorov complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Leong Ting; Terrazas, Germán; Zenil, Hector; Alexander, Cameron; Krasnogor, Natalio

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades many definitions of complexity have been proposed. Most of these definitions are based either on Shannon's information theory or on Kolmogorov complexity; these two are often compared, but very few studies integrate the two ideas. In this article we introduce a new measure of complexity that builds on both of these theories. As a demonstration of the concept, the technique is applied to elementary cellular automata and simulations of the self-organization of porphyrin molecules.

  20. Carney complex (CNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertherat Jérôme

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Carney complex (CNC is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD. PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A, has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65 % of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80 % of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing