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Sample records for bactrocera dorsalis complex

  1. Bactrocera dorsalis complex and its problem in control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight species of fifty-two in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are serious pests in the Asia-Pacific region. Of these, all except one are attracted to methyl eugenol. Four of these pests B. carambolae, B. dorsalis, B. papayae and B. philippinesis are polyphagous species and infest 75, 117, 195 and 18 fruit host species respectively. Common names for B. carambalae and B. papayae (sympatric species) have caused confusion. Both species can interbreed and produce viable offspring; and their natural hybrids have been collected. Bactrocera dorsalis and B. papayae can interbreed readily and produce viable offspring in the laboratory as males produce identical booster sex and aggregation pheromonal components after consuming methyl eugenol. The DNA sequences of one of their respective allelic introns of the actin gene are also identical which suggests that they are not distinct genetic species. Protein bait application and male annihilation techniques have been successful in the management of fruit flies in many cases but they have to compete with natural sources of lures. SIT is amenable for non-methyl engenol species; but for methyl eugenol sensitive species, sterile makes should be allowed to consume methyl eugenol before release to have an equal mating competitiveness with wild males. (author)

  2. An Evaluation of the Species Status of Bactrocera Invadens and the Systematics of the Bactrocera Dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The genus Bactrocera (Tephritidae) contains 500 species, including many severe pests of fruits and vegetables. Although native to tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, India, Southeast Asia, and Australasia, a number of the pest species, largely members of the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) complex, have become wide- spread through accidental introduction associated with agricultural trade. The B. dorsalis complex includes several morphologically and ecologically similar pests, making species designations uncertain. One of these, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta, and White, endemic to Sri Lanka, has spread across Africa in the last decade and become a major agricultural pest. We sequenced one mitochondrial and two nuclear genes from 73 specimens, belonging to 19 species to construct phylogenies and examine species relationships and limits within the genus Bactrocera and several species of the B. dorsalis complex specifically addressing the placement of B. invadens. Results indicate the B. dorsalis complex is polyphyletic. B. invadens and several other species within the B. dorsalis complex (B. dorsalis, Bactrocera papaya Drew and Hancock, and Bactrocera philippinensis (Drew and Hancock) are also paraphyletic with respect to each other and probably represent a single genetically indistinguishable, phenotypically plastic, pest species that has spread throughout the world. (author)

  3. Comparative sensitivity to methyl eugenol of four putative Bactrocera dorsalis complex sibling species – further evidence that they belong to one and the same species B. dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hee, Alvin K.W.; Ooi, Yue-Shin; Wee, Suk-Ling; Tan, Keng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Males of certain species belonging to the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to, and readily feed on methyl eugenol (ME), a plant secondary compound that is found in over 480 plant species worldwide. Amongst those species is one of the world’s most severe fruit pests the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former taxonomic species Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis. The latter species have been recently synonymised with Bactrocera dorsalis based on their very similar morphology, mating compatibility, molecular genetics and identical sex pheromones following consumption of ME. Previous studies have shown that male fruit fly responsiveness to lures is a unique phenomenon that is dose species-specific, besides showing a close correlation to sexual maturity attainment. This led us to use ME sensitivity as a behavioural parameter to test if Bactrocera dorsalis and the three former taxonomic species had similar sensitivity towards odours of ME. Using Probit analysis, we estimated the median dose of ME required to elicit species’ positive response in 50% of each population tested (ED50). ED50 values were compared between Bactrocera dorsalis and the former species. Our results showed no significant differences between Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., and the former Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera philippinensis in their response to ME. We consider that the Bactrocera males’ sensitivity to ME may be a useful behavioural parameter for species delimitation and, in addition to other integrative taxonomic tools used, provides further supportive evidence that the four taxa belong to one and the same biological species, Bactrocera dorsalis. PMID:26798265

  4. The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex: comparative cytogenetic analysis in support of Sterile Insect Technique applications

    OpenAIRE

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2014-01-01

    Background The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex currently harbors approximately 90 different members. The species complex has undergone many revisions in the past decades, and there is still an ongoing debate about the species limits. The availability of a variety of tools and approaches, such as molecular-genomic and cytogenetic analyses, are expected to shed light on the rather complicated issues of species complexes and incipient speciation. The clarification of genetic relationships am...

  5. SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION PATTERN OF THE FRUIT FLY, Bactrocera dorsalis COMPLEX (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE IN MANGO ORCHARD

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    A. Soemargono

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of Bactrocera dorsalis complex in the mango orchard that was analyzed using various mathematical indices dispersion and regression models showed an aggregated distribution. Taylor’s power law and Iwao’s regression model fitted well to all data sets. However, Iwao’s regression model fitted the data better, yielding higher values of R2 than Taylor’s power law. As the regression of the reciprocal of k of negative binomial (1/k on [k = ( 2 – s2/n / (s2 – ] was not significant, the calculation of a common k was justified to be 1.30. This implies that the grade of aggregation of the fruit flies population was relatively constant throughout the time despite the variation in sample means. Since the clump size (λ value was more than 2, the aggregated distribution might be due to the behavior and environmental factors working together.

  6. Interspecific cross of the Bactrocera dorsalis Complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): How did it happen?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, which taxonomically resembles the Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel), comprises at least 52 species. Two closely related members of the complex, namely B. papayae Drew and Hancock and B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, were recently reclassified as new species (Drew and Hancock 1994). Under this taxonomic revision, B. papayae is now regarded as a distinct species from B. carambolae based on the differences of: 1) wing pattern of the costal band at apex R4+5, 2) the presence of a dark spot on the fore femora and, 3) the pattern of the transverse black band on terga III-V. Chemical examination of the volatile components produced by the males of both species also revealed pronounced differences in the chemistry of their rectal gland secretions (Perkins et al. 1990). In Malaysia, B. papayae has a wider distribution and a larger host range compared with B. carambolae. Starfruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) and various species of wax apple (Syzygium spp.) are the preferred hosts of B. carambolae whilst B. papayae attacks over 150 species but preferentially 'attacks' banana (Musa spp.), starfruit, mango (Mangifera indica L.), papaya (Carica papaya L.) and guava (Psidium guajava L.) in decreasing order (Tan 1997). Recently, data from field trapping studies using methyl eugenol (ME) in Penang Island, Malaysia, showed the presence of male flies with intermediate morphological characteristics between B. papayae and B. carambolae. Laboratory testing showed that these two species are able to interbreed and produce viable offspring. The hybrids also possess a variety of intermediate characteristics between the two species (Wee and Tan, unpublished data). Therefore, the question arises as to whether B. papayae and B. carambolae should be categorised as different species, subspecies or even as different strains. And before a satisfactory conclusion can be achieved, there are some key issues that need to be addressed. Firstly, after ME

  7. Wing shape as a potential discriminator of morphologically similar pest taxa within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae).

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    Schutze, M K; Jessup, A; Clarke, A R

    2012-02-01

    Four morphologically cryptic species of the Bactrocera dorsalis fruit fly complex (B. dorsalis s.s., B. papayae, B. carambolae and B. philippinensis) are serious agricultural pests. As they are difficult to diagnose using traditional taxonomic techniques, we examined the potential for geometric morphometric analysis of wing size and shape to discriminate between them. Fifteen wing landmarks generated size and shape data for 245 specimens for subsequent comparisons among three geographically distinct samples of each species. Intraspecific wing size was significantly different within samples of B. carambolae and B. dorsalis s.s. but not within samples of B. papayae or B. philippinensis. Although B. papayae had the smallest wings (average centroid size=6.002 mm±0.061 SE) and B. dorsalis s.s. the largest (6.349 mm±0.066 SE), interspecific wing size comparisons were generally non-informative and incapable of discriminating species. Contrary to the wing size data, canonical variate analysis based on wing shape data discriminated all species with a relatively high degree of accuracy; individuals were correctly reassigned to their respective species on average 93.27% of the time. A single sample group of B. carambolae from locality 'TN Malaysia' was the only sample to be considerably different from its conspecific groups with regards to both wing size and wing shape. This sample was subsequently deemed to have been originally misidentified and likely represents an undescribed species. We demonstrate that geometric morphometric techniques analysing wing shape represent a promising approach for discriminating between morphologically cryptic taxa of the B. dorsalis species complex. PMID:21867577

  8. Mating compatibility between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, W; Ahmad, S; Dammalage, T; Tomas, U Sto; Wornoayporn, V; Ul Haq, I; Cáceres, C; Vreysen, M J B; Schutze, M K

    2014-04-01

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24772542

  9. Area-wide integrated pest control operation in Thailand: Two interacting closely related species, Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto and Bactrocera correcta, with potential of species complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Since 1987, we have set up a pilot project initially for the control of the Oriental fruit fly (OFF), Bactrocera dorsalis (Handel), and recently also for control of the Guava fruit fly (GFF), Bactrocera correcta. In doing so, we integrated the SIT with other monitoring and control methods in the Rajburi province (south) as well as recently in Phichit province (north). These two area-wide control programmes are operated with different management schemes integrating various stakeholders such as crop growers, local field operators, producers of the sterile insects, politicians, activists, reporters, exporters, scientific experts, and researchers from academies and research institutes. Regular feed back information systems of the field monitoring have been set-up with geographical positioning system (GPS) with the support of IAEA. Thus, most trapping sites and infested fruits collection sites from both the control areas have been geo-referenced and have become valuable resources for the population dynamic studies regarding the effectiveness of the area-wide control programme. Recent research is investigating the impact of the presence of two different but conceivably interacting closely related species, B. dorsalis and B. correcta, which are sympatric polyphagous species with highly overlapping commodity host ranges. However, their degree of host preferences is somewhat different. Crop growers and area-wide control experts require that our effective area-wide control programme needs to be tailored so that population suppression for both species is achieved. Besides, there were several (unpublished) reports indirectly suggesting mating interactions between the two species. This presentation reports initial analysis of mating tests between these two fruit fly species, comparison of their natural history, and the demographic data from our area-wide control areas and from general agricultural areas. We also addressed the use of established molecular genetic

  10. Recent trends on sterile insect technique and area-wide integrated pest management. Economic feasibility, control projects, farmer organization and Bactrocera dorsalis complex control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have invited professional papers from over the world, including Okinawa, for compilation of recent trends on Sterile Insect Techniques and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management to further pursue environment friendly pest insects control measures in agricultural production in the Asia-Pacific region. Pest insects such as the tephritid fruit flies have long been and are still today causing serious damage to agricultural products in the Asia-Pacific region and farmers in the region apply such insecticides that are no longer allowed or being subjected to strict usage control in Japan. This, in return, may endanger the health of the very farmers, food safety and the ecosystem itself. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to clarify keys for technology transfer of so called SIT/AWIPM to potential recipients engaged in agricultural production in the region. This report focused on several topics, which make up important parts for the effective Sterile Insect Technique and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management: economic feasibility; pest insects control projects; farmers' education; research progress in Bactrocera dorsalis complex issues specific to the Asia-Pacific region. The 12 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Development of a genetic sexing strain in Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by introgression of sex sorting components from B. dorsalis, Salaya1 strain

    OpenAIRE

    Isasawin,Siriwan; Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2014-01-01

    Background The carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock is a high profile key pest that is widely distributed in the southwestern ASEAN region. In addition, it has trans-continentally invaded Suriname, where it has been expanding east and southward since 1975. This fruit fly belongs to Bactrocera dorsalis species complex. The development and application of a genetic sexing strain (Salaya1) of B. dorsalis sensu stricto (s.s.) (Hendel) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) has...

  12. Synonymization of key pest species within the Bactrocera dorsalis species complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): taxonomic changes based on a review of 20 years of integrative morphological, molecular, cytogenetic, behavioural and chemoecological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bactrocera papayae Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock, Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock, and Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White are four horticultural pest tephritid fruit fly species that are highly similar, morphologically and genetically, to the destructive pest, the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). This similarity has rendered the discovery of reliable diagnostic characters problematic, which, in view of the economic importance of these taxa and the international trade implications, has resulted in ongoing difficulties for many areas of plant protection and food security. Consequently, a major international collaborative and integrated multidisciplinary research effort was initiated in 2009 to build upon existing literature with the specific aim of resolving biological species limits among B. papayae, B. philippinensis, B. carambolae, B. invadens and B. dorsalis to overcome constraints to pest management and international trade. Bactrocera philippinensis has recently been synonymized with B. papayae as a result of this initiative and this review corroborates that finding; however, the other names remain in use. While consistent characters have been found to reliably distinguish B. carambolae from B. dorsalis, B. invadens and B. papayae, no such characters have been found to differentiate the latter three putative species. We conclude that B. carambolae is a valid species and that the remaining taxa, B. dorsalis, B. invadens and B. papayae, represent the same species. Thus, we consider B. dorsalis (Hendel) as the senior synonym of B. papayae Drew and Hancock syn.n. and B. invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White syn.n. A redescription of B. dorsalis is provided. Given the agricultural importance of B. dorsalis, this taxonomic decision will have significant global plant biosecurity implications, affecting pest management, quarantine, international trade, postharvest treatment and basic research

  13. Effects of Methyl Eugenol Feeding on Mating Compatibility of Asian Population of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) with African Population and with B. carambolae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan Ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Schutze, Mark; Hendrichs, Jorge; Shelly, Todd

    2016-02-01

    Males of some species included in the Bactrocera dorsalis complex are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl) benzene), a natural compound occurring in a variety of plant species. ME feeding of males of the B. dorsalis complex is known to enhance their mating competitiveness. Within B. dorsalis, recent studies show that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible, while populations of B. dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae are relatively incompatible. The objectives of this study were to examine whether ME feeding by males affects mating compatibility between Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis and ME feeding reduces male mating incompatibility between B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae. The data confirmed that Asian and African populations of B. dorsalis are sexually compatible for mating and showed that ME feeding only increased the number of matings. Though ME feeding also increased the number of matings of B. dorsalis (Asian population) and B. carambolae males but the sexual incompatibility between both species was not reduced by treatment with ME. These results conform to the efforts resolving the biological species limits among B. dorsalis complex and have implications for fruit fly control programs in fields and horticultural trade. PMID:26362991

  14. Assessment of Attractiveness of Plants as Roosting Sites for the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis

    OpenAIRE

    McQuate, Grant T.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter (“roost”). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some c...

  15. Inter-regional mating compatibility among Bactrocera dorsalis populations in Thailand (Diptera,Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Srikachar, Sunyanee; Kumjing, Phatchara; Weera Kimjong; Sukamnouyporn, Weerawan; Polchaimat, Nongon

    2015-01-01

    Mating compatibility among recently colonized (wildish) populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) from different geographic origins in Thailand was assessed through inter-regional mating tests. Outdoor octagonal nylon screen field cages containing single potted mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) were used. Sexual compatibility was determined using the index of sexual isolation (ISI), the male relative performance index (MRPI), and the female relative performance index (FRPI). The ISI values indicated that the northern population of Bactrocera dorsalis from Chiang Mai province was sexually compatible with the southern population of Bactrocera dorsalis (previously Bactrocera papayae) from Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The MRPI values showed that the northern males had a slightly higher tendency to mate than southern males, while the FRPI data reflected that females of both origins participated equally in matings. In all combinations there were no differences between homotypic and heterotypic couples in mating latency. Southern males tended to mate first with southern females, followed by northern males mating with northern females, while the latest matings involved heterotypic couples, in particular northern males mating with southern females. Overall, more couples were collected from higher parts of the field cage and the upper tree canopy, while there were no differences between the origins of flies in terms of elevation of couples within the cage. Laboratory assessments of fecundity showed no differences in the average number of eggs resulting from inter-regional crosses. Development of immature stages was also equal in the two hybrid crosses, with no differences found in the number of pupae produced, percentage pupal recovery, and percent adult emergence. The practical implication of this study is that colony of Bactrocera dorsalis derived from any northern or southern region of Thailand can potentially be used in sterile insect technique programs against this

  16. Functional characterization of an α-esterase gene involving malathion detoxification in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luo-Luo; Lu, Xue-Ping; Meng, Li-Wei; Huang, Yong; Wei, Dong; Jiang, Hong-Bo; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Extensive use of insecticides in many orchards has prompted resistance development in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). In this study, a laboratory selected strain of B. dorsalis (MR) with a 21-fold higher resistance to malathion was used to examine the resistance mechanisms to this organophosphate insecticide. Carboxylesterase (CarE) was found to be involved in malathion resistance in B. dorsalis from the synergism bioassay by CarE-specific inhibitor triphenylphosphate (TPP). Molecular studies further identified a previously uncharacterized α-esterase gene, BdCarE2, that may function in the development of malathion resistance in B. dorsalis via gene upregulation. This gene is predominantly expressed in the Malpighian tubules, a key insect tissue for detoxification. The transcript levels of BdCarE2 were also compared between the MR and a malathion-susceptible (MS) strain of B. dorsalis, and it was significantly more abundant in the MR strain. No sequence mutation or gene copy changes were detected between the two strains. Functional studies using RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of BdCarE2 significantly increased the malathion susceptibility in the adult files. Furthermore, heterologous expression of BdCarE2 combined with cytotoxicity assay in Sf9 cells demonstrated that BdCarE2 could probably detoxify malathion. Taken together, the current study bring new molecular evidence supporting the involvement of CarE-mediated metabolism in resistance development against malathion in B. dorsalis and also provide bases on functional analysis of insect α-esterase associated with insecticide resistance. PMID:27155483

  17. Identification and Characterization of Sex-Biased MicroRNAs in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

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    Peng, Wei; Tariq, Kaleem; Xie, Junfei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs that regulate various biological processes including sexual dimorphism. The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis is one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. However, no miRNAs have been identified from the separate sex and gonads to elucidate sex gonad differentiation in B. dorsalis. In this study, we constructed four small RNA libraries from whole body of females, males (except ovaries and testes) and ovaries, testes of B. dorsalis for deep sequencing. The data analysis revealed 183 known and 120 novel miRNAs from these libraries. 18 female-biased and 16 male-biased miRNAs that may be involved in sexual differentiation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in the four libraries. Using a bioinformatic approach, we predicted doublesex (dsx) as a target gene of the female-biased miR-989-3p which is considered as the key switch gene in the sex determination of tephritid insects. This study reveals the first miRNA profile related to the sex differentiation and gives a first insight into sex differences in miRNA expression of B. dorsalis which could facilitate studies of the reproductive organ specific roles of miRNAs. PMID:27441641

  18. Inducing and isolation of antibacterial peptides from oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG-LI DANG; JIN-HUAN TIAN; HUI-YU YI; WEN-XIAN WANG; MIN ZHENG; YI-FENG LI; YANG CAO; SHUO-YANG WEN

    2006-01-01

    One antibacterial activity fraction from an immunized dipteran insect, Bactrocera dorsalis, was isolated and purified by prepurification, ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The final purified fraction was checked on the Smart system HPLC and was judged as a pure fraction. The results of physical and biological analysis revealed that this fraction is heat stable and showed strong activities against Gram-positive bacterial growth. It possesses antibicrobial peptide properties and is worth further investigation.

  19. Interspecific Mating between Wild and Sterile Fruit Flies of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) with Guava Fruit Fly, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) in Cages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copulation and sperm transfer were observed between wild flies and sterile flies of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi) in cages. 8-day old pupae of B. dorsalis and B. correcta were irradiated with gamma rays at 90 and 80 gray respectively. Wild flies from infested fruits and sterile flies from artificial diet in the labolatory were used for testing. The experiments were conducted 3 treatments and 3 replications. The ratio of sterile male : wild male: wild female were 3:1:1 by using sterile male of B. dorsalis: wild male of B. correcta : wild female of B. correcta and sterile male of B. correcta: wild male of B. dorsalis: wild female of B. dorsalis as 60:20:20 flies respectively. The experiment found 69 pairs of copulation consisting of 3 mating pairs(4.3%) of wild male with wild female of B. dorsalis, 22 mating pairs (31.9%) of wild male with wild female of B. correcta, 2 mating pairs(2.9%) of sterile male of B dorsalis with wild female of B. correcta, 42 mating pairs(60.9%) of sterile male of B. correcta with wild female of B. dorsalis. The cages which ratio 1:1 consisted of wild B. dorsalis and wild B. correcta (male and female = 50:50 flies) were observed and found that 43 pairs of copulation such as 2 mating pairs (4.6%) of wild male with wild female of B. dorsalis, 26 mating pairs (60.5%) of wild male with wild female of B. correcta, 2 mating pairs(2.9%) of sterile male of B. dorsalis with wild female of B. correcta and 15 mating pairs(34.9%) of wild male of B. correcta with wild female of B. dorsalis. Mated female flies were separated from male flies. Egg hatch and sperm were checked. The hatchability of normal copulation of B. dorsalis and B. correcta were 81 and 90%. The average sperm level in spermathecae of normal copulation of B. dorsalis and B. correcta were 2.2 and 2.3 respectively but had no sperm in their spemathecae of females of interspecific copulations Mating behavior of both species began in the evening before sunset at

  20. Managing Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), Using Spinosad-Based Protein Bait Sprays in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of GF-120 Fruit Fly Bait was evaluated as a control of female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in papaya orchards in Hawaii. Two important components of this study were field sanitation and mass trapping using the male-specific lure methyl eugenol. Three different spray ...

  1. Assessment of attractiveness of cassava as a roosting plant for melon fly, bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of bait spray to crop borders is a standard approach for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), populations, and may also be of value for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations. Establishment of preferred roostin...

  2. Identification and Expression Profile Analysis of Odorant Binding Proteins in the Oriental Fruit Fly Bactrocera dorsalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction is crucial in many insects for critical behaviors, including those regulating survival and reproduction. Insect odorant-binding proteins (OBPs function in the first step of the olfactory system and play an essential role in the perception of odorants, such as pheromones and host chemicals. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a destructive fruit-eating pest, due to its wide host range of up to 250 different types of fruits and vegetables, and this fly causes severe economic damage to the fruit and vegetable industry. However, OBP genes have not been largely identified in B. dorsalis. Based on our previously constructed B. dorsalis cDNA library, ten OBP genes were identified in B. dorsalis for the first time. A phylogenetic tree was generated to show the relationships among the 10 OBPs of B. dorsalis to OBP sequences of two other Dipteran species, including Drosophila melanogaster and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae. The expression profiles of the ten OBPs in different tissues (heads, thoraxes, abdomens, legs, wings, male antennae and female antenna of the mated adults were analyzed by real-time PCR. The results showed that nine of them are highly expressed in the antenna of both sexes, except BdorOBP7. Four OBPs (BdorOBP1, BdorOBP4, BdorOBP8, and BdorOBP10 are also enriched in the abdomen, and BdorOBP7 is specifically expressed in leg, indicating that it may function in other biological processes. This work will provide insight into the roles of OBPs in chemoreception and help develop new pest-control strategies.

  3. Inheritance, Realized Heritability, and Biochemical Mechanisms of Malathion Resistance in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luo-Luo; Feng, Zi-Jiao; Li, Ting; Lu, Xue-Ping; Zhao, Jia-Jia; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Smagghe, Guy; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-02-01

    To better characterize the resistance development and therefore establish effective pest management strategies, this study was undertaken to investigate the inheritance mode and biochemical mechanisms of malathion resistance in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), which is one of the most notorious pests in the world. After 22 generations of selection with malathion, the malathion-resistant (MR) strain of B. dorsalis developed a 34-fold resistance compared with a laboratory susceptible strain [malathion-susceptible (MS)]. Bioassay results showed that there was no significant difference between the LD50 values of malathion against the progenies from both reciprocal crosses (F(1)-SR and F(1)-RS). The degree of dominance values (D) was calculated as 0.39 and 0.32 for F(1)-RS and F(1)-SR, respectively. The logarithm dosage-probit mortality lines of the F(2) generation and progeny from the backcross showed no clear plateaus of mortality across a range of doses. In addition, Chi-square analysis revealed significant differences between the mortality data and the theoretical expectations. The realized heritability (h(2)) value was 0.16 in the laboratory-selected resistant strain of B. dorsalis. Enzymatic activities identified significant changes of carboxylesterases, cytochrome P450 (general oxidases), and glutathione S-transferases in MR compared with the MS strain of B. dorsalis. Taken together, this study revealed for the first time that malathion resistance in B. dorsalis follows an autosomal, incompletely dominant, and polygenic mode of inheritance and is closely associated with significantly elevated activities of three major detoxification enzymes. PMID:26362988

  4. Preliminary test of trap and kill to the adult of Bactrocera(Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel)%桔小实蝇成虫诱杀试验初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈景辉; 黄茂进; 林岳生; 方份; 林文才

    2003-01-01

    @@ 目前,国内外在监测和防治桔小实蝇Bactrocera (Bactrocera) dorsalis (Hendel)方面,主要采用两类引诱剂,即化学合成引诱剂和食物诱饵.化学合成引诱剂如:性引诱剂甲基丁香酚(methyl eugenol);食物诱饵如:水解蛋白(又称蛋白诱饵),二者可混合有机磷杀虫剂马拉硫磷置于专用诱捕器(Steine和Mcphail)进行田间诱杀.

  5. Cytogenetic and symbiont analysis of five members of the B. dorsalis complex (Diptera, Tephritidae): no evidence of chromosomal or symbiont-based speciation events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustinos, Antonios A.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Asimakis, Elias D.; Cáceres, Carlos; Tsiamis, George; Bourtzis, Kostas; Penelope Mavragani-Tsipidou; Zacharopoulou, Antigone

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Bactrocera dorsalis species complex, currently comprising about 90 entities has received much attention. During the last decades, considerable effort has been devoted to delimiting the species of the complex. This information is of great importance for agriculture and world trade, since the complex harbours several pest species of major economic importance and other species that could evolve into global threats. Speciation in Diptera is usually accompanied by chromosomal rearrangements, particularly inversions that are assumed to reduce/eliminate gene flow. Other candidates currently receiving much attention regarding their possible involvement in speciation are reproductive symbionts, such as Wolbachia, Spiroplasma, Arsenophonus, Rickettsia and Cardinium. Such symbionts tend to spread quickly through natural populations and can cause a variety of phenotypes that promote pre-mating and/or post-mating isolation and, in addition, can affect the biology, physiology, ecology and evolution of their insect hosts in various ways. Considering all these aspects, we present: (a) a summary of the recently gained knowledge on the cytogenetics of five members of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex, namely Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., Bactrocera invadens, Bactrocera philippinensis, Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera carambolae, supplemented by additional data from a Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. colony from China, as well as by a cytogenetic comparison between the dorsalis complex and the genetically close species, Bactrocera tryoni, and, (b) a reproductive symbiont screening of 18 different colonized populations of these five taxa. Our analysis did not reveal any chromosomal rearrangements that could differentiate among them. Moreover, screening for reproductive symbionts was negative for all colonies derived from different geographic origins and/or hosts. There are many different factors that can lead to speciation, and our data do not support chromosomal and/or symbiotic

  6. Assessment of attractiveness of plants as roosting sites for the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-01-01

    The use of toxic protein bait sprays to suppress melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), populations typically involves application to vegetation bordering agricultural host areas where the adults seek shelter ("roost"). Although bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), populations have traditionally been applied to the host crop, rather than to crop borders, roosting by oriental fruit flies in borders of some crop species, such as papaya, Carica papaya L. (Brassicales: Caricaceae), suggests that bait spray applications to crop borders could also help in suppression of B. dorsalis populations. In order to develop improved recommendations for application of bait sprays to border plants for suppression of melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations, the relative attractiveness of a range of plant species, in a vegetative (non-flowering) stage, was tested to wild melon fly and oriental fruit fly populations established in a papaya orchard in Hawaii. A total of 20 plant species were evaluated, divided into four categories: 1) border plants, including corn, Zea mays L. (Poales: Poaceae), windbreaks and broad-leaved ornamentals, 7 species; 2) weed plants commonly found in agricultural fields in Hawaii, 6 species; 3) host crop plants, 1 species- zucchini, Cucurbita pepo L. (Violales: Curcurbitaceae), and 4) locally grown fruit trees, 6 species. Plants were established in pots and placed in an open field, in clusters encircling protein bait traps, 20 m away from the papaya orchard. Castor bean, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiales: Euphorbiaceae), panax, Polyscias guilfoylei (Bull) Bailey (Apiales: Araliaceae), tiger's claw, Erythnna variegata L. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae) were identified as preferred roosting hosts for the melon fly, and tiger's claw, panax, castor bean, Canada cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), Brazilian

  7. Studies on mating competitiveness of sterile oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An essential prerequisite for insect control by the sterile insect technique releasing method is mass rearing and sterilizing that do not have adverse effects on longevity and mating behavior of the released males. But many laboratory studies have shown that males irradiated at the completely sterility dose often could not compete with untreated males in mating. This paper studies the effects of gamma radiation at the sterile dose on mating, sexual and sperm competitiveness of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) under the laboratory condition. It is found that irradiation at the completely sterility dose (90 Gy) had reduced the mating and sperm competition ability of the males. Though the sexual competition was not

  8. The dual oxidase gene BdDuox regulates the intestinal bacterial community homeostasis of Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhichao; Wang, Ailin; Li, Yushan; Cai, Zhaohui; Lemaitre, Bruno; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-05-01

    The guts of metazoans are in permanent contact with the microbial realm that includes beneficial symbionts, nonsymbionts, food-borne microbes and life-threatening pathogens. However, little is known concerning how host immunity affects gut bacterial community. Here, we analyze the role of a dual oxidase gene (BdDuox) in regulating the intestinal bacterial community homeostasis of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis. The results showed that knockdown of BdDuox led to an increased bacterial load, and to a decrease in the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Leuconostocaceae bacterial symbionts in the gut. The resulting dysbiosis, in turn, stimulates an immune response by activating BdDuox and promoting reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that regulates the composition and structure of the gut bacterial community to normal status by repressing the overgrowth of minor pathobionts. Our results suggest that BdDuox plays a pivotal role in regulating the homeostasis of the gut bacterial community in B. dorsalis. PMID:26565723

  9. Pre and post harvest IPM for the mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verghese, Abraham; Sreedevi, K.; Nagaraju, D.K., E-mail: avergis@iihr.ernet.i [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2006-07-01

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of mango in India. So, investigations were carried out to standardize an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for fruit fly-free and residue-free mango fruits. The study required orchard and laboratory studies, which were conducted on the commercial variety Banganapalli, at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore, India, during 2004 and 2005. Results showed that a pre harvest IPM combination of male annihilation technique (MAT) (using methyl eugenol as a lure) + sanitation brought down B. dorsalis infestation to 5.00% from an infestation ranging from 17 to 66% in control in both years. An additional cover spray of Decamethrin 2.8EC 0.5ml/l (which is half the recommended dose) + Azadirachtin (0.03 %) 2ml/l (neem based botanical) gave 100% control in both the years. Post harvest treatments with hot water at 48 degree C for 60 and 75 min resulted in 100% control at both the time regimes in 2004 and 2005. The untreated fruits, which were also exposed to gravid females (but not treated in hot water) showed 30% and 5.5% infestations, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. (author)

  10. Pre and post harvest IPM for the mango fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of mango in India. So, investigations were carried out to standardize an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for fruit fly-free and residue-free mango fruits. The study required orchard and laboratory studies, which were conducted on the commercial variety Banganapalli, at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Hessaraghatta Lake P.O., Bangalore, India, during 2004 and 2005. Results showed that a pre harvest IPM combination of male annihilation technique (MAT) (using methyl eugenol as a lure) + sanitation brought down B. dorsalis infestation to 5.00% from an infestation ranging from 17 to 66% in control in both years. An additional cover spray of Decamethrin 2.8EC 0.5ml/l (which is half the recommended dose) + Azadirachtin (0.03 %) 2ml/l (neem based botanical) gave 100% control in both the years. Post harvest treatments with hot water at 48 degree C for 60 and 75 min resulted in 100% control at both the time regimes in 2004 and 2005. The untreated fruits, which were also exposed to gravid females (but not treated in hot water) showed 30% and 5.5% infestations, respectively, in 2004 and 2005. (author)

  11. Identification of a carboxylesterase associated with resistance to naled in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Po-Kai; Huang, Li-Hsin; Geib, Scott M; Hsu, Ju-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Compared to other organophosphate-resistant and -susceptible (S) lines of Bactrocera dorsalis, the carboxylesterase (CBE) BdE5 in the naled-resistant (nal-r) line has been found to possess remarkable quantitative elevation. Our study attempts to identify the role of BdE5 in naled resistance, and we discovered several points of interest. Firstly, activity staining on native PAGE revealed that the percentage of flies with intensive BdE5 bands in the nal-r line was substantially higher than in the S line, indicating that the BdE5 band correlates with naled susceptibility. Secondly, in vitro and in vivo inhibition assays showed that BdE5 was inhibited by naled in both lines; under diagnostic doses of naled, the overall extent of inhibition on CBEs was much greater in the S line than in the nal-r line. Thirdly, NanoLC-nanoESi-MS/MS analysis used the NCBI database to identify and annotate BdE5 as an esterase FE4-like (XP_011200445.1) in B. dorsalis. Fourthly, rapid amplification of cDNA ends was used to obtain the 2012-bp full-length BdE5 cDNA, which contained an open reading frame of 1770bp and encoded a putative protein of 590 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that BdE5 is a secreted β-esterase (E clade) closely related to CG6414 (NP_570089), a CBE in Drosophila melanogaster. Finally, our relative quantification real-time PCR data showed a significant elevation in transcript levels of the BdE5 gene in nal-r line. Our results confirmed that BdE5 is correlated with naled resistance and provides further understanding about the identification and molecular characteristics of BdE5 in B. dorsalis. PMID:27265823

  12. Captures of Wild Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Traps with Improved Multilure TMR Dispensers Weathered in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Morse, Joseph G; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Haviland, David R; Kabashima, John N; Faber, Ben A; Mackey, Bruce; Cook, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During 2012–2013, solid Mallet TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) wafers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five California citrus-growing counties (Kern, Ventura, Orange, Tulare, and Riverside). In addition, TMR wafers without DDVP and with a Hercon Vaportape II insecticidal strip were compared with TMR dispensers with DDVP at Exeter and Riverside. Weathered treatments were shipped every week (overnight delivery) to Hawaii and frozen for a later bioassay in a 1,335-ha coffee plantation near Numila, Kauai Island, HI, where Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, were all present. We compared trap captures of the three species, C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae, for the five different weathering locations. Captures of C. capitata, B. dorsalis, and B. cucurbitae with Mallet TMR dispensers (with DDVP) were not significantly different for the five locations. Captures with the Mallet TMR dispenser without DDVP and Vaportape were similar to those for Mallet TMR with DDVP, although there were some slight location differences. In conclusion, based on these results, the Mallet TMR dispenser could potentially be used in California habitats where large numbers of detection traps are currently deployed. Use of Vaportape with dispensers would not require them to be registered with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Dispensers for use as Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) devices will be tested further in Hawaii. PMID:26582906

  13. Resistance and synergistic effects of insecticides in Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ju-Chun; Feng, Hai-Tung; Wu, Wen-Jer

    2004-10-01

    Oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), were treated with 10 insecticides, including six organophosphates (naled, trichlorfon, fenitrothion, fenthion, formothion, and malathion), one carbamate (methomyl), and three pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, cypermethrin, and fenvalerate), by a topical application assay under laboratory conditions. Subparental lines of each generation treated with the same insecticide were selected for 30 generations and were designated as x-r lines (x, insecticide; r, resistant). The parent colony was maintained as the susceptible colony. The line treated with naled exhibited the lowest increase in resistance (4.7-fold), whereas the line treated with formothion exhibited the highest increase in resistance (up to 594-fold) compared with the susceptible colony. Synergism bioassays also were carried out. Based on this, S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate displayed a synergistic effect for naled, trichlorfon, and malathion resistance, whereas piperonyl butoxide displayed a synergistic effect for pyrethroid resistance. All 10 resistant lines also exhibited some cross-resistance to other insecticides, not only to the same chemical class of insecticides but also to other classes. However, none of the organophosphate-resistant or the methomyl-resistant lines exhibited cross-resistance to two of the pyrethroids (cypermethrin and fenvalerate). Overall, the laboratory resistance and cross-resistance data developed here should provide useful tools and information for designing an insecticide management strategy for controlling this fruit fly in the field. PMID:15568360

  14. Endocytic pathway mediates refractoriness of insect Bactrocera dorsalis to RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxue; Dong, Xiaolong; Zou, Cong; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful and convenient tool for sequence-specific gene silencing, and it is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). RNAi can be easily achieved in many eukaryotes by either injecting or feeding dsRNAs. This mechanism has demonstrated its potential in fundamental research on genetics, medicine and agriculture. However, the possibility that insects might develop refractoriness to RNAi remains unexplored. In this study, we report that the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, became refractory to RNAi using orally administered dsRNA targeting endogenous genes. Furthermore, refractoriness to RNAi is not gene-specific, and its duration depends on the dsRNA concentration. RNAi blockage requires the endocytic pathway. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that in RNAi refractory flies, dsRNA uptake is blocked. Genes involved in the entry of dsRNAs into cells, including chc, cog3, light and others, are down-regulated in RNAi refractory flies. Increasing the endocytic capacity by improving F-actin polymerization disrupts RNAi refractoriness after both primary and secondary dsRNA exposures. Our results demonstrate that an insect can become refractory to RNAi by preventing the entry of dsRNA into its cells. PMID:25731667

  15. Pre-Release Consumption of Methyl Eugenol Increases the Mating Competitiveness of Sterile Males of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Large Field Enclosures

    OpenAIRE

    Todd E. Shelly; Edu, James; McInnis, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique may be implemented to control populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), when environmental concerns preclude widespread use of chemical attractants or toxicants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate whether the mating competitiveness of sterile B. dorsalis males could be increased via pre-release feeding on methyl eugenol. Males of the oriental fruit fly are strongly attracted to this plant-borne compound,...

  16. Identification, characterization and target gene analysis of testicular microRNAs in the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, K; Peng, W; Saccone, G; Zhang, H

    2016-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate various diverse biological processes including insect spermatogenesis. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is one of the most destructive horticultural pests in East Asia and the Pacific region. Although developmental miRNA profiles of B. dorsalis have enriched our knowledge, specific testicular miRNAs in this dipteran species are unexplored. In this study, we identified miRNAs from B. dorsalis testes by deep sequencing, which provided an overview of miRNA expression during spermatogenesis. Small RNA libraries were constructed from the testes of fully mature (FM), immature (IM) and middle-aged (MA) adult flies of B. dorsalis. Small RNA sequencing and data analysis revealed 172 known and 78 novel miRNAs amongst these libraries. Pairwise comparisons of libraries led to the identification of 24, 15 and 14 differentially expressed miRNAs in FM vs. IM, FM vs. MA and IM vs. MA insects, respectively. Using a bioinformatic approach, we predicted 124 target genes against the 13 most differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, the expression patterns of six randomly selected miRNAs (from the 13 most differentially expressed miRNAs) and their putative target genes (from the 124 predicted target genes) were analysed in the testis of B. dorsalis by quantitative real-time PCR, which showed that out of six, four tested miRNAs-mRNAs had an inverse expression pattern and are probably co-regulated. This study is the first comparative profile of the miRNA transcriptome in three developmental stages of the testis, and provides a useful resource for further studies on the role of miRNAs in spermatogenesis in B. dorsalis. PMID:26486729

  17. Functional characterization of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Bactrocera dorsalis: Possible involvement in susceptibility to malathion

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Huang; Xue-Ping Lu; Luo-Luo Wang; Dong Wei; Zi-Jiao Feng; Qi Zhang; Lin-Fan Xiao; Wei Dou; Jin-Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) is essential for cytochrome P450 catalysis, which is important in the detoxification and activation of xenobiotics. In this study, two transcripts of Bactrocera dorsalis CPR (BdCPR) were cloned, and the deduced amino-acid sequence had an N-terminus membrane anchor for BdCPR-X1 and three conserved binding domains (FMN, FAD, and NADP), as well as an FAD binding motif and catalytic residues for both BdCPR-X1 and BdCPR-X2. BdCPR-X1 was detected to have the hi...

  18. Area-wide integrated control of oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) and Guava Fruit Fly (Bactrocera correcta) in Thailand using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Two tephritid species, Bactrocera dorsalis and B. correcta are the major insect pests of fruit production in Thailand, causing yield loss and quality degradation. This leads to quarantine restrictions from importing countries. After one decade of effective cooperation between IAEA and Thailand, DOAE an area-wide integrated fruit fly management programme has been established with a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) component. This is underway in two distinctive pilot areas in Ratchaburi (western) and Pichit (northern) provinces, approximately 70 km2. The ongoing programme is aimed at controlling, Bactrocera dorsalis and B. correcta, the key pests of mango. Both species are mass-reared and sterilised at the facility located in the Pathumthani province following standard operational procedures. Currently sterilised pupae, 20 million B. dorsalis and 10 million B. correcta, are transported to the pilot areas, held until adult emergence and ground released. Quality control of the release is monitored through use of a trapping network to monitor the distribution and abundance of wild and sterile flies whilst success of the control is monitored using periodic fruit sampling to assess the percentage of fruit infested. The integrated approach has been effective in controlling fruit flies by reducing damage from over 80% to an average of less than 5% in Ratchaburi province in the past three years. Meanwhile in Pichit province, which has been under a control programme for 2 years, the percentage of infestation has been reduced from 43% to 16%. We also address the use of public relations, grower cooperation and integration of multidisciplinary research for the field operations. (author)

  19. Development of liquid larval diet with modified rearing system for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera:Tephritidae) for the application of sterile insect technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    A liquid larval diet and its rearing system have been developed for mass rearing of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Hawaii. Rearing facility in Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Dhaka, Bangladesh, modified protein source from brewer's yeast to a combinat...

  20. Genetic Variation among the White-striped Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) in Comparison with a Trok Nong-derived Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A white-striped strain of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) had been developed for the fruit fly population control using the radiation-induced sterile insect technique (SIT). This report aimed at elucidating the inheritance of the white-striped phenotype and the genetic differences between the white-striped strain and the strain derived from Trok Nong sub district, Khlung district, Chantaburi. The white-striped phenotype appeared recessive to the wild type. Meanwhile, twelve ISSR primers yielded DNA bands with significantly different frequencies between the two populations. The analysis indicated four DNA bands which were absent from the white-striped population but apparent at frequencies 0.4 to 0.9 among the Trok Nong-derived population. Another four DNA bands were found absent from the Trok Nong-derived population but existed at frequencies 0.3 to 0.5 among the white-striped population. These data may benefit the monitoring of gene flow from the white-striped fruit flies to the natural population when released in a SIT program. Keywords: Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), SIT, genetic

  1. RNA interference of four genes in adult Bactrocera dorsalis by feeding their dsRNAs.

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    Xiaoxue Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: RNA interference (RNAi is a powerful method to inhibit gene expression in a sequence specific manner. Recently silencing the target gene through feeding has been successfully carried out in many insect species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Escherichia coli strain HT115 was genetically engineered to express dsRNA targeting genes that encode ribosomal protein Rpl19, V type ATPase D subunit, the fatty acid elongase Noa and a small GTPase Rab11. qRT-PCR showed that mRNA level of four target genes was reduced compared to ds-egfp control by feeding either engineered bacteria or dsRNAs. The maximum down-regulation of each gene varied from 35% to 100%. Tissue specific examination indicated that RNAi could be observed not only in midgut but also in other tissues like the ovary, nervous system and fat body. Silencing of rab11 through ingestion of dsRNA killed 20% of adult flies. Egg production was affected through feeding ds-noa and ds-rab11 compared to ds-egfp group. Adult flies were continuously fed with dsRNA and bacteria expressing dsRNA for 14 days and up-regulations of target genes were observed during this process. The transcripts of noa showed up-regulation compared to ds-egfp control group in four tissues on day 7 after continuous feeding either dsRNA or engineered bacteria. The maximum over-expression is 21 times compared to ds-egfp control group. Up-regulation of rab11 mRNA level could be observed in testes on day 7 after continuous bacteria treatment and in midgut on day 2 after ds-rab11 treatment. This phenomenon could also be observed in rpl19 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that it is feasible to silence genes by feeding dsRNA and bacteria expressing dsRNA in Bactrocera dorsalis. Additionally the over-expression of the target gene after continuously feeding dsRNA or bacteria was observed.

  2. Effects of laboratory colonization on Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera, Tephritidae) mating behaviour: 'what a difference a year makes'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutze, Mark K; Dammalage, Thilak; Jessup, Andrew; Vreysen, Marc J B; Wornoayporn, Viwat; Clarke, Anthony R

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory-reared insects are widely known to have significantly reduced genetic diversity in comparison to wild populations; however, subtle behavioural changes between laboratory-adapted and wild or 'wildish' (i.e., within one or very few generations of field collected material) populations are less well understood. Quantifying alterations in behaviour, particularly sexual, in laboratory-adapted insects is important for mass-reared insects for use in pest management strategies, especially those that have a sterile insect technique component. We report subtle changes in sexual behaviour between 'wildish' Bactrocera dorsalis flies (F1 and F2) from central and southern Thailand and the same colonies 12 months later when at six generations from wild. Mating compatibility tests were undertaken under standardised semi-natural conditions, with number of homo/heterotypic couples and mating location in field cages analysed via compatibility indices. Central and southern populations of Bactrocera dorsalis displayed positive assortative mating in the 2010 trials but mated randomly in the 2011 trials. 'Wildish' southern Thailand males mated significantly earlier than central Thailand males in 2010; this difference was considerably reduced in 2011, yet homotypic couples from southern Thailand still formed significantly earlier than all other couple combinations. There was no significant difference in couple location in 2010; however, couple location significantly differed among pair types in 2011 with those involving southern Thailand females occurring significantly more often on the tree relative to those with central Thailand females. Relative participation also changed with time, with more southern Thailand females forming couples relative to central Thailand females in 2010; this difference was considerably decreased by 2011. These results reveal how subtle changes in sexual behaviour, as driven by laboratory rearing conditions, may significantly influence mating

  3. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of BdFoxO gene in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Bei; Yang, Wen-Jia; Xie, Yi-Fei; Xu, Kang-Kang; Tian, Yi; Yuan, Guo-Rui; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-03-10

    The forkhead box O transcription factor (FoxO) is an important downstream transcription factor in the well-conserved insulin signaling pathway, which regulates the body size and development of insects. In this study, the FoxO gene (BdFoxO) was identified from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). The open reading frame of BdFoxO (2732bp) encoded a 910 amino acid protein, and the sequence was well conserved with other insect species. The BdFoxO was highly expressed in larvae and pupae among different development stages, and the highest tissue-specific expression level was found in the fat bodies compared to the testis, ovary, head, thorax, midgut, and Malpighian tubules of adults. Interestingly, we found BdFoxO expression was also up-regulated by starvation, but down-regulated when re-fed. Moreover, the injection of BdFoxO double-stranded RNAs into third-instar larvae significantly reduced BdFoxO transcript levels, which in turn down-regulated the expression of other four genes in the insulin signaling pathway. The silencing of BdFoxO resulted in delayed pupation, and the insect body weight increased significantly compared with that of the control. These results suggested that BdFoxO plays an important role in body size and development in B. dorsalis. PMID:26701614

  4. The role of the transformer gene in sex determination and reproduction in the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Zheng, Wenping; Handler, Alfred M; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-12-01

    Transformer (tra) is a switch gene in the somatic sex-determination hierarchy that regulates sexual dimorphism based on RNA splicing in many insects. In tephritids, a Y-linked male determining gene (M) controls sex in the sex-determination pathway. Here, homologues of Drosophila tra and transformer-2 (tra-2) genes were isolated and characterized in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), one of the most destructive agricultural insect pests in many Asian countries. Two male-specific and one female-specific isoforms of B. dorsalis transformer (Bdtra) were identified. The presence of multiple TRA/TRA-2 binding sites in Bdtra suggests that the TRA/TRA-2 proteins are splicing regulators promoting and maintaining, epigenetically, female sex determination by a tra positive feedback loop in XX individuals during development. The expression patterns of female-specific Bdtra transcripts during early embryogenesis shows that a peak appears at 15 h after egg laying. Using dsRNA to knock-down Bdtra expression in the embryo and adult stages, we showed that sexual formation is determined early in the embryo stage and that parental RNAi does not lead to the production of all male progeny as in Tribolium castaneum. RNAi results from adult abdominal dsRNA injections show that Bdtra has a positive influence on female yolk protein gene (Bdyp1) expression and fecundity. PMID:26481008

  5. Discovery of genes related to insecticide resistance in Bactrocera dorsalis by functional genomic analysis of a de novo assembled transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    Full Text Available Insecticide resistance has recently become a critical concern for control of many insect pest species. Genome sequencing and global quantization of gene expression through analysis of the transcriptome can provide useful information relevant to this challenging problem. The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is one of the world's most destructive agricultural pests, and recently it has been used as a target for studies of genetic mechanisms related to insecticide resistance. However, prior to this study, the molecular data available for this species was largely limited to genes identified through homology. To provide a broader pool of gene sequences of potential interest with regard to insecticide resistance, this study uses whole transcriptome analysis developed through de novo assembly of short reads generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS. The transcriptome of B. dorsalis was initially constructed using Illumina's Solexa sequencing technology. Qualified reads were assembled into contigs and potential splicing variants (isotigs. A total of 29,067 isotigs have putative homologues in the non-redundant (nr protein database from NCBI, and 11,073 of these correspond to distinct D. melanogaster proteins in the RefSeq database. Approximately 5,546 isotigs contain coding sequences that are at least 80% complete and appear to represent B. dorsalis genes. We observed a strong correlation between the completeness of the assembled sequences and the expression intensity of the transcripts. The assembled sequences were also used to identify large numbers of genes potentially belonging to families related to insecticide resistance. A total of 90 P450-, 42 GST-and 37 COE-related genes, representing three major enzyme families involved in insecticide metabolism and resistance, were identified. In addition, 36 isotigs were discovered to contain target site sequences related to four classes of resistance genes. Identified sequence motifs were also

  6. Effects of Neem Leaf Dust and a Commercial Formulation of a Neem Compound on the Longevity, Fecundity and Ovarian Development of the Melon Fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett and the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahfuza Khan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Neem leaf dust and a commercial formulation of neem were tested on adult Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel to determine their effects on the longevity, fecundity and ovarian development. Different combinations of neem leaf dust and a commercial formulation of a neem compound incorporated with sugar solution and adult rearing diets were tested. The Laboratory tests showed that ingestion of neem can significantly reduced the longevity and fertility of both the fly species. Significantly fewer pupae were collected from adults fed on laboratory rearing diet and nimbicidine as water source. Effect of neem treatment on the pupation and subsequent adult emergence of late-instar larvae was negligible. Microscopic observation indicated that the decreased fecundity was due to the block of ovarian development. Experimental results confirmed that neem can be effectively used as a safe alternative insecticide for the control of Bactrocera species.

  7. Pupal X-ray irradiation influences protein expression in adults of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Villalun, MaryAnn; Geib, Scott M; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Stanley, David

    2015-05-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a pest of fruit in the Asia-Pacific region and also, due to quarantine restrictions, a threat to California fruit production. Area-wide suppression of B. dorsalis integrated several approaches including the sterile insect technique (SIT). SIT involves exposing juveniles to gamma radiation and releasing sterile males in substantial numbers, where they successfully compete for wild females. The resulting infertile eggs lead to reduction of the pest populations. Although these protocols are well documented, arising issues about the international transport and distribution of radioactive products is creating difficulties in use of radioactive sources for sterilizing radiation. This led to a shift toward use of X-ray irradiation, which also sterilizes male and female insects. However, use of X-ray technologies is in its infancy and there is virtually no information on the effects of irradiation, other than sterilization, at the physiological and molecular levels of fruit fly biology. We posed the hypothesis that sterilizing male oriental fruit flies via radiation treatment also influences protein expression in the flies. We found that exposing pupae to X-ray irradiation impacted expression of 26 proteins in adult females and 31 proteins in adult males. Seven proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, larval cuticle protein 2, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein alpha-B and A chains, general odorant-binding protein 99b, polyubiquitin, and protein disulfide-isomerase) were impacted in both sexes. Some of the proteins act in central energy-generating and in pheromone-signal processing pathways; we infer that males sterilized by X-ray irradiation may be enfeebled in their ability to compete with wild males for females in nature. PMID:25772096

  8. Evaluation of endogenous references for gene expression profiling in different tissues of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jin-Jun

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR has been widely used for quantification of mRNA as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. For accurate gene quantification analysis, normalization of RT-qPCR data is absolutely essential. To date, normalization is most frequently achieved by the use of internal controls, often referred to as reference genes. However, several studies have shown that the reference genes used for the quantification of mRNA expression can be affected by the experimental set-up or cell type resulting in variation of the expression level of these key genes. Therefore, the evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of insects. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in three different tissues (midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel. Results Two different programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were used to analyze the data. According to geNorm, α-TUB + ACT5 are the most appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling across the three different tissues in the female flies, while ACT3 + α-TUB are considered as the best for males. Furthermore, we evaluated the stability of the candidate reference genes to determine the sexual differences in the same tissue. In the midgut and Malpighian tubules, ACT2 + α-TUB are the best choice for both males and females. However, α-TUB + ACT1 are the best pair for fat body. Meanwhile, the results calculated by Normfinder are quite the same as the results with geNorm; α-TUB is always one of the most stable genes in each sample validated by the two programs. Conclusions In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes for gene expression profiling in different tissues of B. dorsalis. Moreover, appropriate reference genes were selected out for gene

  9. Performance of methyl eugenol + matrix + toxicant combinations under field conditions in Hawaii and California for trapping Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eric B; Ramsey, Amanda; Carvalho, Lori A

    2013-04-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a major pest of many fruit crops worldwide. Current detection programs by federal and state agencies in the United States use a grid of traps consisting of liquid methyl eugenol (lure) and naled (toxicant) applied to cotton wicks and hung inside the trap. In recent years efforts have been made to incorporate these chemicals into various solid-type matrices that could be individually packaged to reduce human exposure to the chemicals and improve handling. New solid formulations containing methyl eugenol and either naled or dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate toxicants were compared with the standard formulations on cotton wicks in large scale field evaluation in Hawaii. Two reduced risk toxicants (spinosad and Rynaxypyr) were also evaluated. In one test the solid lure-toxicant-matrix combinations were sent to California to be weathered under California climate conditions and then sent back to Hawaii for evaluation. The polymer matrices with lure and toxicant were found to be as attractive as baited wicks and have the same longevity of attraction regardless of being weathered in Hawaii or in California. The new ingestible toxicants were also effective, although further testing of these ingestible lure + toxicant + matrix products is necessary. PMID:23786060

  10. The noa gene is functionally linked to the activation of the Toll/Imd signaling pathways in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaolong; Li, Qiujia; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-02-01

    The noa gene is an essential gene encoding a very long chain fatty acid elongase. In this study, we cloned the noa gene of Bactrocera dorsalis, which encodes a protein sharing 84.50% identity to the NOA in Drosophila melanogaster. The expression profiles indicated that the transcriptional level of noa was high at the egg stage and in the testis tissue. The results showed that noa expression was up-regulated after Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli infection. Silencing of noa would influence the expression of immune related genes, including MyD88 and defensin in the Toll pathway and relish and diptericin in the Imd pathway. Moreover, infection with L. monocytogenes and S. aureus after feeding ds-noa, the expression of MyD88 and defensin down-regulated significantly in ds-noa group compared with in ds-egfp group, indicating that noa interference influenced the activation of the Toll pathway. Meanwhile, infection with L. monocytogenes and E. coli, which activated the Imd pathway, do not cause increase of the mRNA levels of relish and diptericin in ds-noa group as severely as in ds-egfp treatment, indicating that the Imd pathway was also repressed after silences of noa. PMID:26404497

  11. Inferences on the population structure and colonization process of the invasive oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aketarawong, N; Bonizzoni, M; Thanaphum, S; Gomulski, L M; Gasperi, G; Malacrida, A R; Gugliemino, C R

    2007-09-01

    The phytophagous insects of the Tephritidae family offer different case histories of successful invasions. An example is Bactrocera dorsalis sensu stricto, the oriental fruit fly which has been recognized as a key pest of Asia and the Pacific. It is known to have the potential to establish adventive populations in various tropical and subtropical areas. Despite the economic risk associated with a putative stable presence of this fly, the genetic aspects of its invasion process have remained relatively unexplored. Using microsatellite markers we have investigated the population structure and genetic variability in 14 geographical populations across the four areas of the actual species range: Far East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Area. Results of clustering and admixture, associated with phylogenetic and migration analyses, were used to evaluate the changes in population genetic structure that this species underwent during its invasion process and establishment in the different areas. The colonization process of this fly is associated with a relatively stable population demographic structure, especially in an unfragmented habitat, rich in intensive cultivation such as in Southeast Asia. In this area, the results suggest a lively demographic history, characterized by evolutionary recent demographic expansions and no recent bottlenecks. Cases of genetic isolation attributable to geographical factors, fragmented habitats and/or fruit trade restrictions were observed in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Hawaii. Regarding the pattern of invasion, the overall genetic profile of the considered populations suggests a western orientated migration route from China to the West. PMID:17845427

  12. Intraspecific variation in the wild male population, and its potential value in the mass rearing program, of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new concept for improvement of quality of breeding stock used for mass-rearing of tephritid fruit flies for sterile release eradication programs is reported. According to this concept, high quality individuals are those that are numerically dominant in the wild population and hence, they would be selected for breeding purposes. To recognize dominant variants among the wild males of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), intraspecific differences were determined. A total of nine intraspecific variants were recognized. Out of these one labelled GIIC. was dominant in the dry, wet, and fringe habitats of this fruit fly

  13. LARVAL X-RAY IRRADIATION INFLUENCES PROTEIN EXPRESSION IN PUPAE OF THE ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, BACTROCERA DORSALIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Goodman, Cynthia L; Ringbauer, Joseph; Geib, Scott M; Stanley, David

    2016-07-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) was developed to eradicate the new world screwworm from the southern United States and Mexico, and became a component of many area-wide integrated pest management programs, particularly useful in managing tephritid fruit flies. SIT is based on the idea of rearing and sterilizing male pests, originally by ionizing radiation, and then releasing into field, where they compete for and mate with wild females. Mating with sterile males leads to reduced fecundity to lower pest populations. There are concerns with the use and distribution of radioisotopes for SIT programs, which have led to developing X-ray irradiation protocols to sterilize insects. We considered the possibility that X-ray irradiation exerts sublethal impacts aside form sterilizing insects. Such effects may not be directly observable, which led us to the hypothesis that X-ray irradiation in one life stage creates alterations in biological fitness and protein expression in the subsequent stage. We tested our hypothesis by irradiating larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis. There are two major points. One, exposing larvae to X-ray treatments led to reduced adult emergence, fecundity, fertility, and flight capacity from the corresponding pupae and emerged adults. Two, the X-ray treatments led to substantial expression changes in 27 pupal proteins. We assorted the 67 spots representing these proteins into three groups, metabolism, development, and structure. Our interpretation is these X-ray induced changes in biological performance and protein expression indicate their adult counterparts may be disabled in their abilities to successfully compete for and mate wild females in native habitats. PMID:27079560

  14. The effect of methyl eugenol exposure on subsequent mating performance of sterile males of the oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of methyl eugenol (ME) on the total times of mating, consecutive mating, mating competitiveness, multiple mating, and the incidence of wild female remating were studied in sterile males from a genetic sexing strain of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Male pupae were irradiated at dose of 100 Gy by 137Cs at 2 d before emergence and the dose rate was 1.00 Gy/min. Sexually mature 10 day old sterile males were fed ME, while Non-ME-fed sterile males and normal wild males were used as control, and wild females as mating partners. The results showed that some ME-fed sterile males could mate continuously up to nine times, but the total times of consecutive mating and the mean value of continuous mating times were not significant (P> 0.05) compared with the control. The total mating times of ME-fed sterile males was 344.33±12.55 and the mean value was 6.88±0.25, but both have no significant difference compared with the control. The mating success rate of ME-fed and non- ME-fed sterile males mated with wild females were (44.67±2.40)% and (22.00±2.31)% separately. There were significant differences between them (t = -6.8, P = 0.002). The outcomes were that feeding on ME did not increase the frequency of multiple mating by sterile males, but significantly increased the mating competitiveness of sterile males against wild males. At the same time, sterile males fed ME did not significantly affect the remating of wild females 5 days after the initial mating, but increased the remating frequency of females 10 and 15 days after the initial mating. (authors)

  15. Dynamics of Bactrocera dorsalis in Jujube Orchards in Dry Hot Valley of Yuanmou%桔小实蝇在干热河谷区元谋枣园年发生动态研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨子祥; 沙毓沧; 王玖瑞; 刘海刚; 张德; 马开华; 杨建花; 段曰汤

    2013-01-01

    Bactrocera dors alls is one of the important insect pests harm Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. cv. Liuxiang and Ziziphus jujube, cv Jinsixiaozao in the dry hot valley. The text conduct a comprehensive analysis on the annual dynamics survey, climatic factors, food resources and host plants of Bactrocera dorsalis adult in the typical dry-hot valley of Yuanmou. The results show that the Bactrocera dorsalis in Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. cv. Liuxiang trap significantly higher than Ziziphus jujube, cv Jinsixiaozao; Bactrocera dorsalis adults in Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. cv. Liuxiang and Ziziphus jujube, cv Jinsixiaozao have one (August), two (February and August) peak, the peak period is basically consistent with fruit maturity; the monthly mean temperature, monthly rainfall and food source host plants are the main factors of population fluctuations. To master the changes in the population dynamics of Bactrocera dorsalis by two kinds of Zaoyuan monitoring, can timely provide a theoretical basis for Bactrocera dorsalis control period.%桔小实蝇[Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)]是危害干热河谷区台湾青枣(Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.cv.Liuxiang)和金丝小枣(Ziziphus Jujube.cv Jinsi-xiaozao)的重要害虫之一.对典型干热河谷气候区云南元谋台湾青枣和金丝小枣园桔小实蝇成虫的年发生动态进行调查,并就气候因子及食源寄主植物进行综合分析.结果表明:台湾青枣园桔小实蝇诱捕量明显高于金丝小枣园;桔小实蝇成虫在金丝小枣、台湾青枣上分别拥有1个(8月)、2个(2、8月)发生高峰期,高峰期与果实成熟期基本吻合;月均温、月降雨量和食源寄主植物是种群变动的主要因子.通过两种枣园桔小实蝇的监测,掌握种群动态的变化,可为适时制定桔小实蝇防治时期提供理论依据.

  16. 橘小实蝇、瓜实蝇和南亚果实蝇人工饲料的优化%Optimization of artificial diets for mass rearing of Bactrocera dorsalis,Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera tau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林明光; 汪兴鉴; 张艳; 孙蕊芬; 曾玲

    2013-01-01

    在温度25 ~28℃、相对湿度70%~75%和光照周期L:D=14∶10条件下进行了人工大量饲养橘小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)和瓜实蝇B.cucurbitae (Coquillett)成虫人工饲料配方的筛选试验.结果显示,1∶2重量比例混合的蔗糖和啤酒酵母是饲养这2种果实蝇的最佳成虫人工饲料,用其饲养的单雌产卵量、产卵期和孵化率分别为424.16 ~ 445.75粒,30.90 ~31.87 d,74.60% ~ 75.40%.同时,对18种由不同配方配制成的幼虫人工饲料饲养橘小实蝇、瓜实蝇和南亚果实蝇B.tau (Walker)的效果进行了比较.结果表明,玉米和麦麸作为饲料的介质优于麦片和麦麸.橘小实蝇幼虫人工饲料的优化配方为:玉米+麦麸(125 g+25 g),蔗糖25 g,啤酒酵母25 g,对羟基苯甲酸甲酯0.9g,1 mol/L盐酸4 mL,纸巾4 g,自来水300 mL;用其幼虫人工饲料饲养该虫的生物学参数包括子代孵化率、化蛹率、羽化率和平均蛹重分别为81.17% ±0.05%,96.41% ±0.02%,94.85%±0.01%与(19.40±0.08) mg.而瓜实蝇和南亚果实蝇幼虫人工饲料的优化配方为:玉米+麦麸(100 g+50 g),蔗糖30 g,啤酒酵母25 g,以及一定量的其他组分(同上);用其饲料饲养这2种果实蝇的相关参数:子代孵化率、化蛹率、羽化率和平均蛹重分别为78.50%±0.04%与76.96%±0.12%,95.73% ±0.03%与94.69% ±0.02%,94.57%±0.02%与95.82%±0.03%,(18.62±0.23) mg与(22.83±1.38) mg.试验证实,优化后的成、幼虫人工饲料具有饲养效果好、方法简便,配方材料来源广泛和价格低廉等优点,可用于室内人工大量饲养上述3种果实蝇属害虫.%Artificial diets for adult Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and B.cucurbitae (Coquillett) were evaluated in the laboratory at 25-28℃,70%-75% RH and a L∶ D ratio of 14∶ 10.A mixture of 1 part sucrose to 2 parts beer yeast by weight was the optimum artificial diet for adults of these two species.The egg quantity

  17. Transcriptome analysis to identify genes for peptides and proteins involved in immunity and reproduction from male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct of Bactrocera dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dong; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Liu, Shi-Huo; Wang, Tao; Smagghe, Guy; Jia, Fu-Xian; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    In the male reproductive system of insects, the male accessory glands and ejaculatory duct (MAG/ED) are important organs and their primary function is to enhance the fertility of spermatozoa. Proteins secreted by the MAG/ED are also known to induce post-mating changes and immunity responses in the female insect. To understand the gene expression profile in the MAG/ED of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), that is an important pest in fruits, we performed an Illumina-based deep sequencing of mRNA. This yielded 54,577,630 clean reads corresponding to 4.91Gb total nucleotides that were assembled and clustered to 30,669 unigenes (average 645bp). Among them, 20,419 unigenes were functionally annotated to known proteins/peptides in Gene Orthology, Clusters of Orthologous Groups, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway databases. Typically, many genes were involved in immunity and these included microbial recognition proteins and antimicrobial peptides. Subsequently, the inducible expression of these immunity-related genes was confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis when insects were challenged with immunity-inducible factors, suggesting their function in guaranteeing fertilization success. Besides, we identified some important reproductive genes such as juvenile hormone- and ecdysteroid-related genes in this de novo assembly. In conclusion, this transcriptomic sequencing of B. dorsalis MAG/ED provides insights to facilitate further functional research of reproduction, immunity and molecular evolution of reproductive proteins in this important agricultural pest. PMID:26297881

  18. 桔小实蝇的发生与诱杀防治研究进展%Study advance in incidence and trap control of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉玲

    2013-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a polyphagous pest of fruit and vegetable crops in South -East Asia and Hawaii. To control the population, understanding the occurrence of B. dorsalis has important significance. In this paper, the incidence, biological and ecological characteristics were summarized, and also trapping measures in recent years were discussed, in order to provide direction and references for future prevention and control work.%桔小实蝇是东南亚和夏威夷地区的杂食性果蔬作物害虫,认识其发生情况对有效防治具有重要意义.本文综述了桔小实蝇的发生近况以及生物学和生态学特性,并对桔小实蝇的生物诱杀防治措施进行了探讨,以期为今后的防治工作提供方向和参考.

  19. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and mRNA Expression of a Chitin Synthase 2 Gene from the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Kang Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chitin synthase (CHS, a potential target for eco-friendly insecticides, plays an essential role in chitin formation in insects. In this study, a full-length cDNA encoding chitin synthase 2 (BdCHS2 was cloned and characterized in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis. The BdCHS2 cDNA had 4417 nucleotides, containing an open reading frame of 4122 nucleotides, which encoded 1373 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular weight of 158.5 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis with other insect CHSs suggested that BdCHS2 belongs to insect CHS2. The BdCHS2 transcript was predominately found in midgut but was detected at low levels in fat body, Malpighian tubules, integument, and trachea. Moreover, BdCHS2 was expressed in all developmental stages, and highly expressed in the feeding stages. There was a positive relationship between BdCHS2 expression and total chitin content during development. Furthermore, both the gene expression and chitin content in midgut decreased when the insect was fed for 24 h, then starved for 24 h, while they increased dramatically and rapidly under the condition of starvation for 24 h then feeding for 24 h. These results suggest that BdCHS2 may play an important role in regulating chitin content of the midgut, and subsequently affect the growth and development of B. dorsalis.

  20. Population structure of Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., B. papayae and B. philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in southeast Asia: evidence for a single species hypothesis using mitochondrial DNA and wing-shape data

    OpenAIRE

    Schutze Mark K; Krosch Matthew N; Armstrong Karen F; Chapman Toni A; Englezou Anna; Chomič Anastasija; Cameron Stephen L; Hailstones Deborah; Clarke Anthony R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. is a pestiferous tephritid fruit fly distributed from Pakistan to the Pacific, with the Thai/Malay peninsula its southern limit. Sister pest taxa, B. papayae and B. philippinensis, occur in the southeast Asian archipelago and the Philippines, respectively. The relationship among these species is unclear due to their high molecular and morphological similarity. This study analysed population structure of these three species within a southeast Asian ...

  1. Attraction and mortality of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to STATIC Spinosad ME weathered under operational conditions in California and Florida: a reduced-risk male annihilation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Hoffman, Kevin; Mercogliano, Juan; Smith, Trevor R; Hammond, Jack; Davis, Bobbie J; Brodie, Matt; Dripps, James E

    2014-08-01

    Studies were conducted in 2013-2014 to quantify attraction, feeding, and mortality of male oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to STATIC Spinosad ME a reduced-risk male annihilation treatment (MAT) formulation consisting of an amorphous polymer matrix in combination with methyl eugenol (ME) and spinosad compared with the standard treatment of Min-U-Gel mixed with ME and naled (Dibrom). Our approach used a behavioral methodology for evaluation of slow-acting reduced-risk insecticides. ME treatments were weathered for 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d under operational conditions in California and Florida and shipped to Hawaii for bioassays. In field tests using bucket traps to attract and capture wild males, and in toxicity studies conducted in 1-m(3) cages using released males of controlled ages, STATIC Spinosad ME performed equally as well to the standard formulation of Min-U-Gel ME with naled for material aged up to 28 d in both California and Florida. In laboratory feeding tests in which individual males were exposed for 5 min to the different ME treatments, mortality induced by STATIC Spinosad ME recorded at 24 h did not differ from mortality caused by Min-U-Gel ME with naled at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d in California and was equal to or higher for all weathered time periods in Florida during two trials. Spinosad has low contact toxicity, and when mixed with an attractant and slow release matrix, offers a reduced-risk alternative for eradication of B. dorsalis and related ME attracted species, without many of the potential negative effects to humans and nontargets associated with broad-spectrum contact insecticides such as naled. PMID:25195423

  2. 基于物联网的桔小实蝇诱捕监测装备设计及试验%Design and test of remote monitoring equipment for bactrocera dorsalis trapping based on internet of things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖德琴; 傅俊谦; 邓晓晖; 冯健昭; 殷建军; 可欣荣

    2015-01-01

    For bactrocera dorsalis field monitoring, the current method had some disadvantages: a heavy workload, low efficiency, poor reliability, low accuracy, and it could not large-scale and fast monitor the orchard pest situation in real time. Agriculture experts eager to have a solution to automatically count the number of bactrocera dorsalis and remotely observe the trapping result in real time to reduce their labor so that they could focus more on the study of the characteristics of insects. Therefore, combining the image target detection technology and the target tracking technology to develop an automated counting system by using a video image sensor would be necessary. In order to realize the real-time monitoring, the bactrocera dorsalis trapping, and a rapid diagnosis, an IOT-Based remote monitoring equipment for bactrocera dorsalis trapping was provided in this paper. The equipment included a trap monitoring device, a solar power supply device, and the monitoring control device. The trap monitoring device was comprised of a top cover, a transparent funnel, a trap bottle, a LED, and a camera;the solar energy device was comprised of a solar panel, a storage battery, and a solar panel bracket;the bactrocera dorsalis monitoring control system device was comprised of a Fit-pc controller, a 3G communication module, and the independent software for counting bactrocera dorsalis’ numbers. This equipment combined machine vision technology and telecommunication technology with solar power technology. The purpose of the equipment was to achieve a whole function for bactrocera dorsalis trap monitoring with plant diseases and insect pests information collection, together with processing, transmission, and self-supply. It could monitor the trapping process and precise calculation of the number of bactrocera dorsalis anytime and anywhere, and also automatically transmit the results to the remote server or store it in a local storage card. For object extraction,this paper used

  3. Study and application on sterile insect technique for oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis in the field to control the fly%桔小实蝇不育技术及应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁广勤; 梁帆; 赵菊鹏; 邹伟权; 周庆贤; 伍伟亮; 吴佳教; 胡学难

    2008-01-01

    以钴(60Co)的不同剂量,对桔小实蝇(Bactrocera dorsalis)蛹进行不育辐照对比测定,结果显示,桔小实蝇有效不育的剂量为95Gy.雄性不育成虫可导致野外处女雌性成虫终生不育以及在果园扩散的距离多集中在140 m的范围,为制定应用不育蝇防治野生蝇的策略提供科学依据.

  4. 诱蝇醚防治柑桔小实蝇适宜添加间隔期的试验%An experiment of suitable accession interval for controlling Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel by Methyl Eugenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄后琚

    2009-01-01

    Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel is one of the major insects endangering citrus, which can threaten severely citrus production. Methyl Eugenol has an obvious effect for controlling Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel. In order to find most suitable accession interval, the writer has conducted an experiment with different accession intervals. The experimental results show that in higher temperature, each accession of 2 ml and 30d interval will be best selection.%柑桔小实蝇是柑桔(包括橙、柚类)重要害虫之一,严重威胁着柑桔的生产.诱蝇醚对柑桔小实蝇的防效显著.为了找到添加诱蝇醚适宜的间隔期,笔者进行了诱蝇醚不同添加间隔期的试验.试验的结果表明:在气温较高的气候条件下,当每次添加诱蝇醚的量为2ml时,添加诱蝇醚的间隔期以30d为宜.

  5. Population structure of Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., B. papayae and B. philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae in southeast Asia: evidence for a single species hypothesis using mitochondrial DNA and wing-shape data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schutze Mark K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bactrocera dorsalis s.s. is a pestiferous tephritid fruit fly distributed from Pakistan to the Pacific, with the Thai/Malay peninsula its southern limit. Sister pest taxa, B. papayae and B. philippinensis, occur in the southeast Asian archipelago and the Philippines, respectively. The relationship among these species is unclear due to their high molecular and morphological similarity. This study analysed population structure of these three species within a southeast Asian biogeographical context to assess potential dispersal patterns and the validity of their current taxonomic status. Results Geometric morphometric results generated from 15 landmarks for wings of 169 flies revealed significant differences in wing shape between almost all sites following canonical variate analysis. For the combined data set there was a greater isolation-by-distance (IBD effect under a ‘non-Euclidean’ scenario which used geographical distances within a biogeographical ‘Sundaland context’ (r2 = 0.772, P r2 = 0.217, P beast analysis provided a root age and location of 540kya in northern Thailand, with migration of B. dorsalis s.l. into Malaysia 470kya and Sumatra 270kya. Two migration events into the Philippines are inferred. Sequence data revealed a weak but significant IBD effect under the ‘non-Euclidean’ scenario (r2 = 0.110, P  Conclusions Bactrocera dorsalis s.s., B. papayae and B. philippinensis likely represent one species structured around the South China Sea, having migrated from northern Thailand into the southeast Asian archipelago and across into the Philippines. No migration is apparent between the Philippines and Taiwan. This information has implications for quarantine, trade and pest management.

  6. Low Diversity Bacterial Community and the Trapping Activity of Metabolites from Cultivable Bacteria Species in the Female Reproductive System of the Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Our goal was to identify the bacteria inhabiting the reproductive system of the female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, and evaluate the chemotaxis of B. dorsalis to the metabolites produced by the bacteria. Based on 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE, 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were assigned to the five bacterial classes Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Actinobacteria. Nine OTUs were assigned to Gammaproteobacteria, which was the most highly represented class. Enterobacteriaceae constituted the dominant family, and within this family, three genera and five species were identified, including Enterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Raoultella terrigena and Enterobacter amnigenus. In this set, the first two species were the dominant components, and the latter three species were the minor ones. Finally, we found that the metabolites produced by R. terrigena, K. oxytoca and K. pneumoniae were attractive to the B. dorsalis adults, and in field studies, B. dorsalis adults were most attracted to K. oxytoca. Collectively, our results suggest that the female reproductive system plays an important role in the transfer of enterobacteria from the gut to fruit. Our data may prompt the development of a female-targeted population control strategy for this fly.

  7. The Scirtothrips dorsalis Species Complex: Endemism and Invasion in a Global Pest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Dickey

    Full Text Available Invasive arthropods pose unique management challenges in various environments, the first of which is correct identification. This apparently mundane task is particularly difficult if multiple species are morphologically indistinguishable but accurate identification can be determined with DNA barcoding provided an adequate reference set is available. Scirtothrips dorsalis is a highly polyphagous plant pest with a rapidly expanding global distribution and this species, as currently recognized, may be comprised of cryptic species. Here we report the development of a comprehensive DNA barcode library for S. dorsalis and seven nuclear markers via next-generation sequencing for identification use within the complex. We also report the delimitation of nine cryptic species and two morphologically distinguishable species comprising the S. dorsalis species complex using histogram analysis of DNA barcodes, Bayesian phylogenetics, and the multi-species coalescent. One member of the complex, here designated the South Asia 1 cryptic species, is highly invasive, polyphagous, and likely the species implicated in tospovirus transmission. Two other species, South Asia 2, and East Asia 1 are also highly polyphagous and appear to be at an earlier stage of global invasion. The remaining members of the complex are regionally endemic, varying in their pest status and degree of polyphagy. In addition to patterns of invasion and endemism, our results provide a framework both for identifying members of the complex based on their DNA barcode, and for future species delimiting efforts.

  8. 不同诱捕处理在苦瓜地上对瓜实蝇和桔小实蝇的诱捕效果研究%Trapping Effects of Different Trapping Methods to Bactrocera Dorsalis and Bactrocera Cucurbitae in Bitter Gourd Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖永林; 张扬; 李燕芳; 肖汉祥; 张振飞; 符悦冠

    2013-01-01

    研究引诱剂的5种不同诱捕处理在苦瓜地上对瓜实蝇和桔小实蝇的诱捕效果.结果发现,好粘主要诱捕桔小实蝇雄虫,稳得主要诱捕瓜实蝇雄虫,2种诱剂均可同时引诱小量其它实蝇;在用量1 g的条件下,引诱剂的5种不同诱捕处理中瓶内喷涂对2种实蝇的诱捕效果均明显好于瓶外喷涂,且好粘与稳得对2种实蝇雄虫的诱捕效果随着瓶内水量的增加先增强后逐渐减弱,加水50 mL时达最大值.研究还探讨了好粘与稳得2种引诱剂对苦瓜地外围瓜实蝇和桔小实蝇雄虫的诱捕效果,结果好粘与稳得2种引诱剂在寄主植物外围不同位点上均可诱捕瓜实蝇和桔小实蝇雄虫,且某一位点上虫量发生越大其诱捕量越大.%A comparative study was conducted on the trapping effects of attractants under five different trapping methods to Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera dorsalis in bitter gourd field. The results showed that attractant Haonian mainly had trapping effect to male B. dorsalis, Wende mainly to male B. cucurbitae, besides, both of these two attractants were attractive to some other species fruit flies. With lg attractant, all five methods reflected that sprayed attractants to inside of bottles were more effective to B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis than sprayed on the surface of the bottles. When sprayed to the inside of the bottles, both Haonian and Wende's trapping effects were increased while adding water in the bottle, and the effects were decreased when keeping adding water after the strongest effects appeared when 50mL added. This study also discussed the trapping effects of attractants Haonian and Wende to B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis on the outside of the bitter gourd field. It was found that both of Haonian and Wende had trapping effects to B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis even when placed in different sites that had certain distance to host plant, and where there were more B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis, there

  9. Characterization and evaluation of microsatellite markers in a strain of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), with a genetic sexing character used in sterile insect population control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, is a key economic insect pest reducing fruit yield and generating constraints in the international market. The application of the sterile insect technique (SIT) continues to reveal areas where new technologies can improve the effectiveness of fruit fly control. One such advancement concerns insect strains. In the present study, a mass-reared strain of the fly with a translocation-based genetic sexing character (Salaya1) based on a brown-white pupal colour dimorphism was genetically characterized using 11 microsatellite DNA markers. Subsequently, these markers were used to evaluate the maintenance of genetic variability in the strain under mass-rearing conditions. Mating competitiveness of this strain was also tested in field cages. Two of the newly characterized Y-pseudo-linked microsatellite markers were used for strain identification in field monitoring traps. The strain was also validated in a pilot integrated pest management programme using male-only SIT in a fruit orchard. The programme resulted in the suppression of the fruit fly population

  10. Pictorial keys for predominant Bactrocera and Dacus fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae of north western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Prabhakar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A pictorial key for 13 species of fruit flies under 2 genera namely Bactrocera and Dacus of subfamily Dacinae (Diptera: Tephritidae is presented in this paper based on actual photographs of fruit flies collected from north western Himalaya of India during 2009-2010. Among these, Bactrocera diversa (Coquillett, Bactrocera scutellaris (Bezzi, Bactrocera tau (Walker, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel and Dacus ciliatus Loew are the pests of agricultural and horticultural ecosystems. Bactrocera latifrons, Bactrocera nigrofemoralis White and Tsuruta, Dacus longicornis Wiedemann and Dacus sphaeroidalis (Bezzi are the new records from the region of which host range has yet to be investigated. The pictorial keysdeveloped for these species will help the researchers for their easy and accurate identification.

  11. Ovipositor morphology and host relations of the Bactrocera tau complex (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chalao Sumrandee; John R. Milne; Visut Baimai

    2011-01-01

    The taxon, Bactrocera tau, is a complex of fruit flies that infest fruits of many species in the family Cucurbitaceaeas well as fruits from very different plant families in southeast Asia. Past mitotic karyotype studies of B. tau flies from differentgeographic location- and/or host-associated populations indicate there are nine forms present within the taxon in Thailand,which have been designated as B. tau forms A to I. In this study, ovipositor morphology was compared among sevenmembers of t...

  12. Polytene Chromosome Analysis of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Yesmin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation constitutes a first effort to study the polytene chromosomes of Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae. It is a serious pest of the Bactrocera dorsalis complex group, infesting various types of fruits and vegetables in Southeast Asia, Australia and the Pacific. The aim of this study was to determine and analyse each arm of the salivary gland polytene chromosomes of this species individually. The tips, distinguishing characteristics as well as significant landmarks are recognized in each chromosome arm. Photographic illustrations of the chromosomes is presented and discussed. The information can be used for comparative studies among species of the tephritid genera which facilitate the development of novel control methods.

  13. Optimization design and experiment of monitoring system forBactrocera dorsalis trapping under lighting variations%适应场景光照变化的桔小实蝇诱捕监测系统优化设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖德琴; 叶耀文; 冯健昭; 潘春华; 陆永跃

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera Dorsalis is a type of invasive pests and causes serious damage to many important economic crops. In order to monitor Bactrocera Dorsalisaccurately, and to reduce the misjudgment of light-induced problem, a remote monitoring system which combined a hardware equipment and a software system was designed. The hardware equipment was optimized based on our preliminary design forBactrocera Dorsalis trapping. By improving the shading system, solar devices and 4G communications devices, the hardware equipment now can be self-powered and integrate the insect pest information collection, processing and transmission as a whole functionality. In addition, this paper presents a good human-computer interaction software system, which includes theBactrocera Dorsalis monitoring programs, the server and the client-side. The monitoring program can monitor the trapping process, precisely calculate the number ofBactrocera Dorsalis, and automatically transmit the results to the remote server or store it in a local storage card. Users are convenient to obtain the monitoring information through the client-side. In order to improve the accuracy ofthe Bactrocera Dorsalis detection algorithm (BDDA) and achieve the requirements of real-time systems, an algorithm namedBactrocera Dorsalis detection algorithm under lighting variations (BDDA-LV) was proposed. The BDDA-LV began by selecting appropriate background model according to the light conditions. Then the background difference method was used to extractBactrocera Dorsalis target preliminarily. Median filtering and morphological filtering for the image was used to reduce white noise, and eliminate holes in the target area to improve the image quality. The image was then divided into blocks based on the adjacent pixels of the image and used these blocks for Geometric feature matching, so that theBactrocera Dorsalis area can be extracted. Both BDDA-LV algorithm and BDDA algorithm were tested by two sets of data. These data came from

  14. Ovipositor morphology and host relations of the Bactrocera tau complex (Diptera: Tephritidae in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalao Sumrandee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The taxon, Bactrocera tau, is a complex of fruit flies that infest fruits of many species in the family Cucurbitaceaeas well as fruits from very different plant families in southeast Asia. Past mitotic karyotype studies of B. tau flies from differentgeographic location- and/or host-associated populations indicate there are nine forms present within the taxon in Thailand,which have been designated as B. tau forms A to I. In this study, ovipositor morphology was compared among sevenmembers of the B. tau complex using scanning electron microscopy. The flies could be placed into two main groups based onthe shape of the aculeus apex. The first group comprised B. tau forms C and I which have trilobed aculeus apices. The secondgroup included B. tau forms A, D, E, F and G, all of which have single-pointed apices. The latter five forms were furtherdivided on the basis of the sharpness of the aculeus apex into “medium” (A and E, “sharp” (D and G and “blunt” (F apices.Host fruit associations, fly aculeus apex shape and geographical region were overlain onto a molecular phylogeny previouslypublished for the B. tau group in Thailand. Cucurbitaceae fruits appear to be ancestral hosts for the B. tau complex whereasthe use of fruits of other plant families appeared late in the evolutionary history of this group. Forms with trilobed and singlepointedaculeus apices separated early in B. tau evolutionary history, but the split does not seem host related. Flies withmedium, sharp and blunt, simple-pointed aculeus apices showed no evident associations, being randomly distributed acrossthe phylogenetic tree. Bactrocera tau form A which infested fruits of nine Cucurbitaceae species was found in all fivesurveyed regions, whereas each of the other forms, which were restricted to 1-3 fruit species, were found in 1-2 regions.

  15. The geometric approach to explore the Bactrocera tau complex (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kitthawee, S.; Dujardin, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Specimens of the genus Bactrocera were collected from several host plants in northern and western Thailand. They were morphologically recognized as Bactrocera tau and were subdivided into eleven samples according to host plant, geographic origin and time of collection. Twelve landmarks of the right wing were described in a total of 264 males and 276 females. An exploratory analysis using kernel density estimates was performed on the multivariate morphometric space. Non-parametric classificati...

  16. 桔小实蝇电压门控钠离子通道基因cDNA克隆及其生物信息学分析%Cloning and Bioinformatics Analysis of Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Gene cDNA in Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋玄赵; 魏丹丹; 申光茂; 豆威; 王进军

    2012-01-01

    [目的]克隆获得桔小实蝇(Bactrocera dorsalis)电压门控钠离子通道基因cDNA序列,明确其典型特征,为研究桔小实蝇抗性分子机理奠定基础.[方法]采用RT-PCR和PCR技术,克隆桔小实蝇钠离子通道基因cDNA序列,利用相关软件对其序列进行生物信息学分析.[结果]克隆得到1条长为6 446 bp的cDNA序列,包含1个6 405 bp的完整开放阅读框,共编码2 134个氨基酸.同源比对发现,桔小实蝇与果蝇(Drosophila melanogaster,NP_001188635)和家蝇(Musca domestica,AAB47604)钠离子通道基因相似度分别高达91.7%和86.9%,而与人的钠离子通道Nav1.2基因(Homo sapiens,NP_066287)相似度为42.3%.所克隆序列包含昆虫钠离子通道所有典型特征.[结论]成功地从桔小实蝇中克隆得到钠离子通道基因完整开放阅读框.该钠离子通道基因存在丰富的选择性剪接,发现了3个可能与抗性相关的碱基取代.钠离子通道基因有可能发展成为一种昆虫系统发育研究的分子标记.%[Objective] The objective of this study is to clone voltage-gated sodium channel gene (VGSC) from Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and to identify its typical hallmarks. It will provide basic molecular information for clarifying insecticide resistance mechanism of B. dorsalis. [Method] The cDNA sequence was isolated using RT-PCR and PCR methods. Based on the sequencing results, the bioinformatics analysis of nucleic acid and putative amino acid was conducted. [Result] An almost full-length cDNA sequence (6 446 bp) of VGSC was obtained, including a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 6 405 bp, which encoded 2 134 amino acids and included all the typical hallmarks of VGSC. The amino acid shared 91.7%, 86.9% and 42.3% identity with sodium channel genes of Drosophila melanogaster (NP_001188635), Musca domestica (AAB47604), and Homo sapiens Navl.2 (NP066287), respectively. [Conclusion] A complete ORF of VGSC was sequenced with clone strategy from oriental

  17. The mitochondrial genome of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Complete DNA sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic analysis with other tephritids using next generation DNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Jaipal S; Naaz, Naiyar; Prabhakar, Chandra S; Rao, Mathukumalli Srinivasa; Das, Bikash

    2015-09-15

    Mitochondrial genome can provide information for genomic structure as well as for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary biology. The complete 15,935 bp mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae), is assembled from Illumina MiSeq read data. The mitogenome information for B. zonata was compared to the homologous sequences of other tephritids. Annotation indicated that the structure and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA sequences were typical of, and similar to, the ten closely related tephritid species. The nucleotide composition shows heavily biased toward As and Ts accounting 73.34% and exhibits a slightly positive AT skew, which is similar to other known tephritid species. All PCGs are initiated by ATN codons, except for cox1 with TCG and atp8 with GTG. Nine PCGs use a common stop codon of TAA or TAG, whereas the remaining four use an incomplete termination codon T or TA likely to be completed by adenylation. All tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, with an exception for trnS((AGN)). Four short intergenic spacers showed high degree of conservation among B. zonata and other ten tephritids. A poly(T) stretch at the 5' end followed by [TA(A)]n-like stretch and a tandem repeats of 39 bp has been observed in CR. The analysis of gene evolutionary rate revealed that the cox1 and atp6 exhibits lowest and highest gene substitution rates, respectively than other genes. The phylogenetic relationships based on Maximum Likelihood method using all protein-coding genes and two ribosomal RNA genes confirmed that B. zonata is closely related to Bactrocera correcta, Bactrocera carambolae, Bactrocera papayae, and Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera dorsalis belonging to B. dorsalis species complex forms a monophyletic clade, which is in accordance with the traditional morphological classification and recent molecular works. PMID:26031235

  18. Experiment and development of monitoring system for Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) based on wireless sensors network%基于无线传感器网络的橘小实蝇成虫监测系统设计与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文韬; 洪添胜; 李立君; 李震; 叶智杰; 张彦晖

    2013-01-01

    Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) were invasive pests that were occurred frequently and were seriously harmful for fruit trees’ growth and have been ranked an important quarantine object in many countries and regions. So far, the main prevention method for Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) has been chemical pest control, which not only caused serious damages on the economic field but also brought on water and soil resources pollution, ecological system damages, damage to food security and its impact on human health, and a series of major problems. In order to detect the real-time number of Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel) and monitor the corresponding environmental information accurately in a large-scale orchard, a wireless sensor network was employed. The dynamic monitoring system included ten pest-sensor nodes, one environmental-sensor node, and one WSN+GPRS node, all of which were deployed in the national citrus industry experimental orchards at South China Agricultural University. TinyOS and ZigBee were applied as the operating system and the communication protocol respectively for all monitoring nodes. Mean current consumption for all monitor nodes ranged from 39.52 to 42.72 mA in standby mode and from 92.21 to 95.32 mA under full operating mode. Mean current consumption of the router was kept steadily around 190mA in standby mode, and rose to stay around 250mA under communications condition. The results showed that the solar powering module sufficiently met the system power requirements. The results of the five-month communication experiments indicated that the PLR of all monitor nodes obtained a stable range from 11.9%to 20.8%, which can meet the requirements for long-time monitoring, and the statistics of the PDR had a parabola curve distribution. It meant that the stability of communication was more correlated to crop canopies and atmospheric conditions according to the short-range radio signal propagation theory. It was highly recommended that the antennas be mounted

  19. cDNA cloning, tissue expression and ligand binding characteristics of odorant-binding protein 2 from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)%桔小实蝇气味结合蛋白BdorOBP2的cDNA克隆、组织表达及配基结合特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲; 李红亮; 周宇翔; 赵磊; 张林雅; 倪翠侠; 商晗武

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the function and binding characteristics of the odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) in the oriental fruit fly,Bactrocera dorsalis,we cloned an OBP cDNA from B.dorsalis,which was named BdorOBP2 (GenBank accession no.:KC773766),and then heterologously expressed its protein in prokaryotic cells.BdorOBP2 contains a 447-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 148-amino-acid residues.The mature protein of BdorOBP2 includes six conserved cysteine residues,which are the hallmark of insect OBPs.Real-time quantitative PCR results showed that BdorOBP2 was expressed in different tissues with the highest expression in the head and the lowest in the wings (63 % ± 6% of the expression level in the head).The recombinant protein BdorOBP2 was purified by affinity chromatography,and N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (1-NPN) was applied as a fluorescent probe to measure the binding capacity of BdorOBP2 with each of seven major host fruit odors.The results indicated that BdorOBP2 can evidently bind to most esters and aldehydes examined.BdorOBP2 showed the highest affinity to trans-2-hexenal and β-ionone with the dissociation constant KD of 9.96 and 15.37 μmol/L,respectively.The results of this study may help rational designs of specific and effective attractants to be used for managing B.dorsalis.%为了研究桔小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis气味结合蛋白(odorant-binding proteins,OBPs)参与其嗅觉识别过程中的功能及其与植物气味的结合特性,本研究克隆了桔小实蝇的一个气味结合蛋白基因,命名为BdorOBP2(GenBank登录号为KC773766),并对该基因进行了原核表达.BdorOBP2开放阅读框长447 bp,编码148个氨基酸,具有典型的6个半胱氨酸位点.定量PCR结果显示,桔小实蝇BdorOBP2在不同组织中均有表达,其中头部中的表达量最高,翅中表达量最低(为头部表达量的63%±6%).构建了BdorOBP2原核表达载体,诱导并获得了重组BdorOBP2并进行了亲和层析纯化.最后以N-苯基-1-

  20. Tabes dorsalis: electrodiagnostic features.

    OpenAIRE

    Donofrio, P D; Walker, F O

    1988-01-01

    Electrodiagnostic data have not been previously reported in tabes dorsalis. A patient with tabes dorsalis is described whose nerve conduction studies and median nerve somatosensory evoked responses (SEPs) were normal. H-reflexes were absent. SEPs of the tibial nerve suggested posterior column dysfunction. These electrodiagnostic findings correlate precisely with the known pathology of tabes dorsalis.

  1. Resolving cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M Teresa; De Meyer, Marc; Clarke, Anthony R

    2015-01-01

    An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on "Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade" was conducted from 2010 to 2015. As captured in the CRP title, the objective was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. The scientific output was the accurate alignment of biological species with taxonomic names; which led to the applied outcome of assisting FAO and IAEA Member States in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and the facilitation of international agricultural trade. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, using coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, within an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. The following progress was made for the four complexes selected and studied: Anastrepha fraterculus complex - Eight morphotypes and their geographic and ecological distributions in Latin America were defined. The morphotypes can be considered as distinct biological species on the basis of differences in karyotype, sexual incompatibility, post-mating isolation, cuticular hydrocarbon, pheromone, and molecular analyses. Discriminative taxonomic tools using linear and geometric morphometrics of both adult and larval morphology were developed for this complex. Bactrocera dorsalis complex - Based on genetic, cytogenetic, pheromonal, morphometric, and behavioural data, which showed no or only minor variation between the Asian/African pest fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera invadens, the latter three species were synonymized with Bactrocera dorsalis. Of the five target pest taxa studied, only Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae remain as scientifically valid

  2. Resolving cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M. Teresa; De Meyer, Marc; Clarke, Anthony R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade” was conducted from 2010 to 2015. As captured in the CRP title, the objective was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. The scientific output was the accurate alignment of biological species with taxonomic names; which led to the applied outcome of assisting FAO and IAEA Member States in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and the facilitation of international agricultural trade. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, using coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, within an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. The following progress was made for the four complexes selected and studied: Anastrepha fraterculus complex – Eight morphotypes and their geographic and ecological distributions in Latin America were defined. The morphotypes can be considered as distinct biological species on the basis of differences in karyotype, sexual incompatibility, post-mating isolation, cuticular hydrocarbon, pheromone, and molecular analyses. Discriminative taxonomic tools using linear and geometric morphometrics of both adult and larval morphology were developed for this complex. Bactrocera dorsalis complex – Based on genetic, cytogenetic, pheromonal, morphometric, and behavioural data, which showed no or only minor variation between the Asian/African pest fruit flies Bactrocera dorsalis, Bactrocera papayae, Bactrocera philippinensis and Bactrocera invadens, the latter three species were synonymized with Bactrocera dorsalis. Of the five target pest taxa studied, only Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae remain as

  3. EFFECTIVENESS OF BAIT SPRAYS ON BORDER WINDBREAKS FOR POPULATION SUPPRESSION OF BACTROCERA SPP. IN PAPAYA ORCHARDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is standard practice to apply bait sprays to plants bordering a host crop area, and not to the host crop itself, for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), populations. In contrast, bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel), popula...

  4. Oviposition deterrents of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis to non-host plant extracts%非寄主植物提取物对橘小实蝇的产卵拒避作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林海清; 刘少明; 欧阳革成; 杨悦屏; 黄灏维; 郭家骏; 熊锦君

    2008-01-01

    选取4种非寄主植物柠檬桉Eucalyptus citriodora、樟树Cinnamomum camphora、白千层Melaleuca leucadendron、夹竹桃Nerium indicum,初步研究了这4种植物叶子提取物对橘小实蝇Bactrocera dorsalis的产卵拒避作用.以无水乙醇作溶剂,供试4种植物中的白千层提取物对橘小实蝇具有较强的产卵拒避作用.检测了橘小实蝇对4种植物的乙醇提取物的触角电位值,发现各生物测定值与雌虫触角电位值呈显著相关性,表明其中的挥发性组分是橘小实蝇对植物提取物产生拒避反应的重要原因之一.用无水乙醇、乙醚、石油醚、二氯甲烷作溶剂,分别提取白千层叶,仅乙醇提取物有显著拒避作用;用这4种溶剂分别提取樟树叶,则无水乙醇、乙醚、石油醚作溶剂的提取物都有较好效果.

  5. Eradication of Bactrocera papayae (Diptera: Tephritidae) by male annihilation and protein baiting in Queensland, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An established population of Bactrocera papayae Drew and Hancock (Asian papaya fruit fly) was detected on the Australian mainland near Cairns, north Queensland, on 16 October 1995 (Fay et al. 1997). Coincidentally, the first flies were bred from green papaya, a host not normally utilised in the unripe state by indigenous fruit fly species. B. papayae is a member of the Oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis) complex (Drew and Hancock 1994) and has more than 190 known hosts in Southeast Asia, where it is a major pest species. Consequently, the threat to Australian horticulture posed by the incursion was recognised immediately. By 26 October 1995, breeding populations were confirmed around Cairns, Mossman and Mareeba and a Pest Quarantine Area (PQA) was legislated. By 1 November 1995, following detections south of Innisfail, the PQA boundaries were set at 144 deg. 15'E, 19 deg. 00'S, covering nearly 78,000 km2. B. papayae was ultimately trapped over some 20,000 km2. A national eradication campaign began in November 1995, undertaken by the Queensland Department of Primary Industries

  6. Allozyme electrophoretic evidence for a complex of species within the Bactrocera tau group (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Visut Baimai; Anchalee Saelee; San Tigvattananont

    2006-01-01

    Electrophoretic analysis of the Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) tau-like flies collected from wild populations coupled with morphological observation and cytological evidence has revealed seven species within this taxon, temporarily designated as species A (= B. tau s.s), C, D, E, F, G and I. These enzyme electrophoretic characteristics distinguishing these species (including four sympatric and two allopatric species) are described in this study. The value of Wright's fixation index, FST, among popul...

  7. Nonhost status of mangosteen to Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera:Tephritidae) in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postharvest quarantine treatments (irradiation or vapor heat) are used to control fruit flies and other pests in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L) exported to the United States and Japan from Thailand. No-choice tests were conducted in the laboratory to determine whether Thai mangosteen is a host f...

  8. Evaluation of Soaked Wooden Killer Blocks for Male Annihilation (MA on Fruit Fly Bactrocera Spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Afzal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of plastic traps with wooden blocks soaked in lure mixed with insecticide was assessed. Blocks are cheaper, simple and less likely to be blown down or stolen compared with plastic traps. Square and oblong are more effective against round and hexagonal. Plywood is best for block construction. About 92 % flies caught were Bactrocera zonata Saunders and the remaining was B. dorsalis Hendel. Incase of mixture composition, 6:4:1 is more important than other ratios. Spacing of 20 m between blocks appeared to be optimal, so it could be recommended 10-blocks / acre.

  9. Behaviour and chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    . Semiochemicals are divided into ecomone and para-ecomone, the former is released naturally into the environment, the latter is not. An ecomone with intraspecies activity is known as a pheromone. One with interspecies activity is generally grouped under allelochemicals. It is specifically known as: 1) an allomone when it benefits the releaser with detrimental effect on the receiver, 2) a kairomone when it benefits the receiver with detrimental effect on the releaser, 3) a synomone when it benefits both the releaser and receiver, or 4) an apneumone when released from dead or decaying material caused by microbial action. A para-ecomone may be either a constituent of an organism or a synthetic chemical not released naturally. It should be emphasised that a chemical can be an ecomone and a para-ecomone and, as an ecomone, may act as a pheromone as well as an allomone or a kairomone. The study of an organism's ecomone in relation to the environment, interaction between individuals belonging to the same and/or different species, and how it affects behaviour constitutes the bulk of chemical ecology. Ecomones in applied entomology may be exploited as agents for 1) insect pest surveillance and monitoring, 2) trapping insect in population estimation or as an intervention technique such as the area-wide male annihilation technique, and 3) understanding and disrupting insect communication in a pest control or management programme. This paper presents an update of the behaviour within the context of chemical ecology of Bactrocera flies which is crucial in the understanding the flies' role in the complex communal interrelationships within Malaysian agro- and natural ecosystems as previously presented (Tan 1993)

  10. Regional Suppression of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae in the Pacific through Biological Control and Prospects for Future Introductions into Other Areas of the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bactrocera fruit fly species are economically important throughout the Pacific. The USDA, ARS U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center has been a world leader in promoting biological control of Bactrocera spp. that includes classical, augmentative, conservation and IPM approaches. In Hawaii, establishment of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett in 1895 resulted in the introduction of the most successful parasitoid, Psyttalia fletcheri (Silvestri; similarly, establishment of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel in 1945 resulted in the introduction of 32 natural enemies of which Fopius arisanus (Sonan, Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead and Fopius vandenboschi (Fullaway were most successful. Hawaii has also been a source of parasitoids for fruit fly control throughout the Pacific region including Australia, Pacific Island Nations, Central and South America, not only for Bactrocera spp. but also for Ceratitis and Anastrepha spp. Most recently, in 2002, F. arisanus was introduced into French Polynesia where B. dorsalis had invaded in 1996. Establishment of D. longicaudata into the new world has been important to augmentative biological control releases against Anastrepha spp. With the rapid expansion of airline travel and global trade there has been an alarming spread of Bactrocera spp. into new areas of the world (i.e., South America and Africa. Results of studies in Hawaii and French Polynesia, support parasitoid introductions into South America and Africa, where B. carambolae and B. invadens, respectively, have become established. In addition, P. fletcheri is a candidate for biological control of B. cucurbitae in Africa. We review past and more

  11. Evaluating mating compatibility within fruit fly cryptic species complexes and the potential role of sex pheromones in pre-mating isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, M. Laura; Devescovi, Francisco; Břízová, Radka; Bachmann, Guillermo; Segura, Diego F.; Kalinová, Blanka; Fernández, Patricia; Ruiz, M. Josefina; Yang, Jianquan; Teal, Peter E.A.; Cáceres, Carlos; Vreysen, Marc J.B.; Hendrichs, Jorge; Vera, M. Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study of sexual behavior and the identification of the signals involved in mate recognition between con-specifics are key components that can shed some light, as part of an integrative taxonomic approach, in delimitating species within species complexes. In the Tephritidae family several species complexes have received particular attention as they include important agricultural pests such as the Ceratitis fasciventris (Bezzi), Ceratitis anonae (Graham) and Ceratitis rosa Karsch (FAR) complex, the Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) complex and the Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) complex. Here the value and usefulness of a methodology that uses walk-in field cages with host trees to assess, under semi-natural conditions, mating compatibility within these complexes is reviewed, and the same methodology to study the role of chemical communication in pre-mating isolation among Anastrepha fraterculus populations is used. Results showed that under the same experimental conditions it was possible to distinguish an entire range of different outcomes: from full mating compatibility among some populations to complete assortative mating among others. The effectiveness of the methodology in contributing to defining species limits was shown in two species complexes: Anastrepha fraterculus and Bactrocera dorsalis, and in the case of the latter the synonymization of several established species was published. We conclude that walk-in field cages constitute a powerful tool to measure mating compatibility, which is also useful to determine the role of chemical signals in species recognition. Overall, this experimental approach provides a good source of information about reproductive boundaries to delimit species. However, it needs to be applied as part of an integrative taxonomic approach that simultaneously assesses cytogenetic, molecular, physiological and morphological traits in order to reach more robust species delimitations. PMID:26798257

  12. Sex and aggregation pheromone transport after methyl eugenol consumption in male Bactrocera papayae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amongst at least 52 sibling species complexes in the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae), B. papayae (formerly Mal B) Drew and Hancock (Drew and Hancock 1994) is beginning to emerge as an economically important insect pest which poses a severe threat to the fruit cultivation in both subtropical and tropical countries. In Malaysia, B. papayae is one of the most damaging pests which infests many commercially grown fruits (Tan and Lee 1982). Like the Oriental fruit fly and its sibling species complex, B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, B. papayae is also strongly attracted to, and compulsively feeds on, methyl eugenol (ME) (Tan 1993). Chemical analyses revealed that in B. papayae males, ME is converted to phenylpropanoids which are then selectively accumulated in the rectal gland. Of the three major volatile substances, 2-allyl-4,5-dimethoyphenol (allyl-DMP) was detected in higher quantities relative to the trans-coniferyl alcohol (4-(3-hydroxy-E-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenol) (CF) and cis-3,4-dimethoxycinnamyl alcohol (cis-DMC) (Nishida et al. 1988a, 1988b). Behavioural studies have also shown that allyl-DMP and CF function as male sex and aggregation pheromone in B. papayae (Tan and Nishida 1996, Hee and Tan 1998). Allyl-DMP was found to be the most attractive compound and cis-DMC the least attractive to the males (Tan 1996). Consumption of ME enhances the mating competitiveness of males. This is demonstrated by the strong attraction of females to conspecific ME-fed males in wind tunnel experiments (Hee and Tan 1998). In male-male mating competition for virgin females, males that fed on ME performed significantly better (Shelly and Dewire 1994, Tan and Nishida 1996). Thus it appears that ME-fed males produced signals that were more attractive. However, the characterisation and understanding of the functions of these phenylpropanoids have not been accompanied by studies of their physiological mode of transport in male flies. The current

  13. Evaluating mating compatibility within fruit fly cryptic species complexes and the potential role of sex pheromones in pre-mating isolation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juárez, M. L.; Devescovi, F.; Břízová, Radka; Bachmann, G.; Segura, D. F.; Kalinová, Blanka; Fernández, P.; Ruiz, M. J.; Yang, J.; Teal, P. E. A.; Cáceres, C.; Vreysen, M. J. B.; Hendrichs, J.; Vera, M. T.

    -, č. 540 (2015), s. 125-155. ISSN 1313-2989 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13AR018 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : species delimitation * field cages * Tephritidae * Anastrepha fraterculus * Bactrocera dorsalis Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2014 http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6133

  14. Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoretic Band Pattern of Esterase in the Pupae of Bactrocera papavae and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hasanuzzaman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to compare the electrophoretic banding patterns of esterase isozyme between the pupae of Bactrocera papayae and Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae by using polyacrylamide gel. These two Bactrocera species are the major agricultural pests, especially fruits and vegetables. One esterase band, EST-1 was detected and the relative mobility value was 0.15 which was close to the cathode. The EST-1 band was present in the pupae of both Bactrocera species. There was no difference in the esterase patterns of both species. The thickness and activation of the band varied slightly. So, the results prove that the pupae of the two Bactrocera species have almost similar esterase band pattern in the same polyacrylamide gel.

  15. Evaluation of Entomopathogenic Fungi Against Chilli Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis

    OpenAIRE

    Arthurs, Steven Paul; Aristizábal, Luis Fernando; Avery, Pasco Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Commercial strains of entomopathogenic fungi were evaluated for control of chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an invasive pest of ornamental and vegetable plants in the Caribbean and southeastern United States. In laboratory assays, LC50 values against adult S. dorsalis were 5.1 × 104 CFU/mL for Beauveria bassiana GHA, with higher values 3.1 × 105 for Metarhizium brunneum F52 and 3.8 × 105 for Isaria fumosorosea Apopka 97. Second instars were comparatively le...

  16. Chemical Stimulants and Genetic Sexing Boost the SIT: Evidence from Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera Dorsalis in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic and chemical means have been developed to significantly improve the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique against tephritid fruit flies in recent years. Beginning with the development of genetic sexing techniques some 25 years ago, all-male strains of several species of fruit flies h...

  17. KETERTARIKAN LALAT BUAH BACTROCERA PADA EKSTRAK OLAHAN LIMBAH KAKAO BERPENGAWET

    OpenAIRE

    Dyah Rini Indriyanti; Niken Subekti; Latifah -

    2012-01-01

    Lalat buah Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) merupakan salah satu hama pen ting menyerang tanaman buah-buahan dan sayuran. B. carambolae di laboratorium tertarik pada olahan limbah kakao. Hasil uji coba di lapangan belum memuaskan karena olahan limbah kakao mudah rusak. Tujuan penelitian ini mengkaji respon lalat buah Bactrocera yang diberi umpan ekstrak olahan limbah kakao berpenga wet. Pengawet yang digunakan yakni: Natrium klorida (NaCl), Natrium benzoat (C7H5NaO2) dan Potasium sorbat...

  18. KETERTARIKAN LALAT BUAH BACTROCERA PADA EKSTRAK OLAHAN LIMBAH KAKAO BERPENGAWET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rini Indriyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lalat buah Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae merupakan salah satu hama pen ting menyerang tanaman buah-buahan dan sayuran. B. carambolae di laboratorium tertarik pada olahan limbah kakao. Hasil uji coba di lapangan belum memuaskan karena olahan limbah kakao mudah rusak. Tujuan penelitian ini mengkaji respon lalat buah Bactrocera yang diberi umpan ekstrak olahan limbah kakao berpenga wet. Pengawet yang digunakan yakni: Natrium klorida (NaCl, Natrium benzoat (C7H5NaO2 dan Potasium sorbat (C6H7KO2. Konsentrasi yang dipakai masing-masing pengawet 0,1%; 0,2% dan 0,3%. Pengamatan dilakukan selama satu ming gu. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa daya tahan limbah yang diberi penga wet dan yang tidak dilihat secara secara fisik (warna dan tekstur tidak berbeda nyata, namun ada perbedaan bau. Limbah yang tidak diberi pengawet ada kecen derungan baunya tidak sedap dibanding yang diberi pengawet. Hal ini yang mempengaruhi ketertarikan lalat terhadap olahan limbah kakao. Respon ketertarikan lalat Bactrocera terhadap olahan limbah kakao yang diberi pengawet berbeda antara satu dengan yang lain. Respon ketertarikan tertinggi Bactrocera cenderung pada olahan limbah kakao yang diberi pengawet Natrium klorida 0,3%, Potasium sorbat 0,2% dan Natrium benzoat 0,1%.The fruit fly Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae is one of the important pests attacking crops of fruits and vegetables. In the laboratory, B. carambolae was attracted by the processed cocoa waste. The results of field trials have not been satisfactory yet, because the processed cocoa waste was easily damaged. The purpose of the study wast to examine the response of Bactrocera to the bait made of processed cocoa extract waste containing preservatives. The preservatives used were: Sodium chloride (NaCl, sodium benzoate (C7H5NaO2 and potassium sorbate (C6H7KO2. The concentration of each preservative was 0.1%; 0.2% and 0.3%. A one-week observation was made. The result showed that there was no

  19. Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Three Bactrocera Fruit Flies of Subgenus Bactrocera (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Phylogenetic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Suana, I. Wayan

    2016-01-01

    Bactrocera latifrons is a serious pest of solanaceous fruits and Bactrocera umbrosa is a pest of Artocarpus fruits, while Bactrocera melastomatos infests the fruit of Melastomataceae. They are members of the subgenus Bactrocera. We report here the complete mitochondrial genome of these fruit flies determined by next-generation sequencing and their phylogeny with other taxa of the subgenus Bactrocera. The whole mitogenomes of these three species possessed 37 genes namely, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 rRNA and 22 tRNA genes. The mitogenome of B. latifrons (15,977 bp) was longer than those of B. melastomatos (15,954 bp) and B. umbrosa (15,898 bp). This difference can be attributed to the size of the intergenic spacers (283 bp in B. latifrons, 261 bp in B. melastomatos, and 211 bp in B. umbrosa). Most of the PCGs in the three species have an identical start codon, except for atp8 (adenosine triphosphate synthase protein 8), which had an ATG instead of GTG in B. umbrosa, whilst the nad3 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3) and nad6 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6) genes were characterized by an ATC instead of ATT in B. melastomatos. The three species had identical stop codon for the respective PCGs. In B. latifrons and B. melastomatos, the TΨC (thymidine-pseudouridine-cytidine)-loop was absent in trnF (phenylalanine) and DHU (dihydrouracil)-loop was absent in trnS1 (serine S1). In B. umbrosa, trnN (asparagine), trnC (cysteine) and trnF lacked the TψC-loop, while trnS1 lacked the DHU-stem. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 PCGs was in general concordant with 15 mitochondrial genes (13 PCGs and 2 rRNA genes), with B. latifrons and B. umbrosa forming a sister group basal to the other species of the subgenus Bactrocera which was monophyletic. The whole mitogenomes will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26840430

  20. The relationship between the deep fibular nerve and the dorsalis pedis artery and its surgical importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relationship between the deep fibular nerve and the dorsalis pedis artery to provide useful anatomical knowledge for safe surgical approaches in plastic surgery. The dissection of 30 cadaver lower limbs was undertaken to describe the relationship of the deep fibular nerve to the dorsalis pedis artery in the anterior tarsal tunnel and on the dorsum of the foot. The anterior tarsal tunnel is a flattened space between the inferior extensor retinaculum and the fascia overlying the talus and navicular. The deep fibular nerve and its branches pass longitudinally through this fibro-osseous tunnel, deep to the tendons of the extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus. Four distinct relationships of the deep fibular nerve to the dorsalis pedis artery were determined. The dorsalis pedis neurovascular island flap contains both the dorsalis pedis artery and the deep fibular nerve. Because the design of a neurovascular free flap requires detailed knowledge of the nerve and vascular supply, the data presented here are intended to help surgeons during surgical approaches to the foot and ankle.

  1. Dorsalis pedis arterialized venous flap for hand and foot reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Guang; LEI Hong-yu; GUO Shuang; HUANG Jian-hua; YU Hao

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To report the results of repair of skin defects in the extremities with arterialized venous flap harvested from the lateral aspect of the dorsum of the foot.Methods:Six cases of skin and soft tissue defects over the foot and hands were resurfaced by free arterialized venous flaps,including five patients with skin defects of the hands,and one with defects at the dorsum of the foot.The flaps were harvested from the lateral aspect of the dorsum of the foot with the sizes ranging from 2 cm×5.5 cm to 6 cm×11 cm.Two veins at the proximal margin of the flap were retained,one of which was anastomosed to a recipient bed artery to provide arterial inflow and the other was anastomosed to a recipient bed vein for venous outflow.Results:All flaps demonstrated mild edema and survived completely.Blisters appeared on four flaps.Using this technique,we achieved good functional and cosmetic results in this series.Conclusions:Dorsalis pedis arterialized venous flap with rich vascular communications could enhance peripheral perfusion and decrease congestion of venous flaps,thereby improves reliability and utility for extremity reconstruction.

  2. Superselective Urokinase Infusion Therapy for Dorsalis Pedis Artery Occlusion in Buerger's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occlusion of the proximal left dorsalis pedis artery (DPA) in a patient with Buerger's disease was treated by continuous urokinase intraarterial infusion using a microcatheter. Recanalization of the DPA and healing of a toe ulcer were achieved. The patient remains asymptomatic during a 4-year follow-up

  3. Haplotype analysis of global chili thrips (Schirtothrips dorsalis) populations using the metazoan barcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scirtothirps dorsalis is a globally invasive polyphagous crop pest infesting several major field and ornamental crops. Established in Florida since 2005, it had spread to Texas within one year. Establishing a putative source locality of the US population would help stakeholders target effective cont...

  4. Haplotype analysis of global chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis) populations using the metazoan barcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scirtothirps dorsalis is a globally invasive polyphagous crop pest infesting several major field and ornamental crops. Established in Florida since 2005, it had spread to Texas within one year. Establishing a putative source locality of the US population would help stakeholders target effective cont...

  5. Effects of gamma radiation on fruit flies pupae, Dacus dorsalis Hendel and Dacus zonatus (Saunders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1, 3, 6, 8-day-old (+-4 hr) and 1, 3, 6, 7-day-old (+-4 hr) pupae of Dacus dorsalis Hendel and Dacus zonatus (Saunders) were irradiated in air with gamma rays from cobalt-60 source. The results showed that the LD50 and LD95 for 1, 3, 6 and 8-day-old (+-4 hr) D. dorsalis pupae were 18.6, 29.9, 3.11, 560.7 and 36.7, 72.9, 621.4, 884.6 Gray respectively. The LD50 and LD95 for 1, 3, 6 and 7-day-old (+-4 hr) D. zonatus pupae were 8.88, 25.3, 226.6, 546.6 and 16, 75.2, 427.5, 958.4 Gray respectively. Radiation dose at 90.3 and 89.7 Gray sterilized 100% D. dorsalis and D. zonatus males emerged from pupae 2 days before emergence respectively. In addition, D. dorsalis and D. zonatus females emerged from pupae irradiated at 60 and 40 Gray were unable to lay eggs respectively

  6. ESTIMATING BACTERIAL DIVERSITY IN SCIRTOTHRIPS DORSALIS (THYSANOPTERA: THRIPIDAE) VIA NEXT GENERATION SEQUENCING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Aaron M.; Trease, Andrew J.; Jara-Cavieres, Antonella; Kumar, Vivek; Christenson, Matthew K.; Potluri, Lakshmi-Prasad; Morgan, J. Kent; Shatters, Robert G.; Mckenzie, Cindy L.; Davis, Paul H.; Osborne, Lance S.

    2014-01-01

    The last 2 decades have produced a better understanding of insect-microbial associations and yielded some important opportunities for insect control. However, most of our knowledge comes from model systems. Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) have been understudied despite their global importance as invasive species, plant pests and disease vectors. Using a culture and primer independent next-generation sequencing and metagenomics pipeline, we surveyed the bacteria of the globally important pest, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood. The most abundant bacterial phyla identified were Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria and the most abundant genera were Propionibacterium, Stenotrophomonas, and Pseudomonas. A total of 189 genera of bacteria were identified. The absence of any vertically transferred symbiont taxa commonly found in insects is consistent with other studies suggesting that thrips primarilly acquire resident microbes from their environment. This does not preclude a possible beneficial/intimate association between S. dorsalis and the dominant taxa identified and future work should determine the nature of these associations. PMID:25382863

  7. Widespread distribution of the piggyBac transposon in various bactrocera species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The piggyBac transposable element from the Lepidopteran species Trichoplusia ni is currently the most widely used vector for insect transgenesis. Consequently, the presence of piggyBac-like sequences has been investigated, by PCR and Southern analysis, in different species of target genera such as Ceratitis, Bactrocera and Anastrepha, along with Tirhitromina and Rhagoletis. PiggyBac-like sequences were detected in several Bactrocera species. The evolution of the piggyBac-like sequences is discussed with respect to the phylogenies of the hosts. (author)

  8. Evaluation of Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as biological control agents of Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood poses a significant risk to many food and ornamental crops in the Caribbean, Florida and Texas. We evaluated two species of phytoseiid mite as predators of S. dorsalis. In leaf disc assays, gravid females of Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius s...

  9. Artificial rearing of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) into the area-wide management of the peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) is a promising althernative to the localized use of chemical control tactics. Implementation of the SIT requires adequate numbers of sterile male insects that are produ...

  10. Diversity and ecology of natural enemies of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent establishment in North America of olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Gmel.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), has renewed interest in classical biological control of this pest. Previous surveys conducted in Africa and Asia during the 20th century demonstrated a greater natural enemy diversity in s...

  11. Male Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tau (Diptera; Tephritidae) attractants from Elsholtzia pubescens Bth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasyim, A.; Muryati,; Mizu Istianto,; Kogel, de W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Studies on the ability of different plant extracts to attract male fruit flies indicated that an extract of Elsholtzia pubescens attracted male Bactrocera tau fruit flies in Passion fruit orchards in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Analyses of the plant extract showed that the major compound present was Ca

  12. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Song, Sze-Looi; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand) was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok), without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres), indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94%) was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77%) and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%). This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern. PMID:26090853

  13. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae: Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoi-Sen Yong

    Full Text Available Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia and southern hemisphere (Indonesia were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2 genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences revealed that B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (Peninsular Malaysia, East Malaysia, Thailand was distinctly different from the southern hemisphere (Indonesia: Java, Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades (northern and southern hemispheres, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for the concatenated COI+COII+16S nucleotide sequences between the taxa from the northern and southern hemispheres ('p' = 4.46-4.94% was several folds higher than the 'p' distance for the taxa in the northern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00-0.77% and the southern hemisphere ('p' = 0.00%. This distinct difference was also reflected by concatenated COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequences with an uncorrected 'p' distance of 2.34-2.69% between the taxa of northern and southern hemispheres. In accordance with the type locality the Indonesian taxa belong to the nominal species. Thus the taxa from the northern hemisphere, if they were to constitute a cryptic species of the B. caudata species complex based on molecular data, need to be formally described as a new species. The Thailand and Malaysian B. caudata populations in the northern hemisphere showed distinct genetic structure and phylogeographic pattern.

  14. Capturing and toying with hyraxes (Dendrohyrax dorsalis) by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Bossou, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, S; Yamakoshi, G; Fujita, S; Ohashi, G; Matsuzawa, T

    2001-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) were observed capturing and toying with western tree hyraxes (Dendrohyrax dorsalis, Order Hyracoidea) at Bossou, Guinea. An adolescent female carried one hyrax for 15 hr, slept with it in her nest, and groomed it. The captive was not consumed. Nearby adults ignored the hyrax. In another case, two adolescent males timidly inspected a small hyrax. These observations indicate that the chimpanzees at Bossou do not regard the hyrax as a prey animal, supporting the idea that lack of opportunity does not seem to be the only reason that chimpanzees do not consume an individual of a potential prey species. PMID:11170171

  15. On the taxonomical status of Arctodiaptomus dampfi Brehm (Crustacea: Copepoda: Diaptomidae with comments on A. dorsalis (Marsh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo SUÁREZ-MORALES

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Arctodiaptomus dampfi Brehm is a diaptomid copepod described from Lake Petén, in Guatemala. Due to the fact that the type material is lost and no additional material was available, the taxonomical status of this species remained unclear for more than 65 years. Arctodiaptomus dampfi has been advanced as a synonym of A. dorsalis and some authors followed this position; instead, others recognized this species in regional checklists. We collected zooplankton samples at Lake Petén, A. dampfi type locality, and compared this material with confirmed museum specimens and material from Louisiana, the type locality of A. dorsalis. Our observations with light microscopy and SEM allowed us to state that A. dampfi is in fact a synonym of A. dorsalis and should be excluded from regional lists. This was concluded after examination and comparison of the taxonomically relevant structures in both groups of specimens. Differences between both groups of specimens were slight. We found significative size differences between the Guatemalan population and the other neotropical and nearctic ones, the former being the smallest sized populations known throughout the known distributional range of A. dorsalis.

  16. History of Neurology and Psychiatry: Sewing Machine, Tabes Dorsalis, and Ovarian Hysteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlef Claus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hysteria was the Sphinx of nervous disorders. In ancient times the cause of hysteria was supposed to be sited in the womb. However the French Neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot favoured the ovaries as the site of the origin of hysteria, and he recommended the therapeutic compression of the ovaries in order to terminate hysterical fits. To this end, the treatment of hysteria in women was carried out by the surgical removal of one ovary. This surgical intervention was not without risk in the 19th century, but more to the point it did not help the patients. Most German Neurologists doubted this “hysteric ovary” theory, but it was not until after 1901 that Steinhausen was able to prove by statistical analysis, that the “hysteric” ovary did not exist at all. Statistical data analysis also helped to support the connection between Syphilis and Tabes dorsalis, which usually became clinically manifest several years after infection. In those days neither cerebrospinal fluid analysis nor serology were available. Apart from several nonspecific suspected causes of Tabes - it was the use of the newly invented sewing machine that came under suspicion as the trigger of Tabes dorsalis.

  17. The complete mitochondrial genome of the pumpkin fruit fly, Bactrocera tau (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Meihua; Zhang, Rui; Xiang, Caiyu; Zhou, Xin

    2016-07-01

    The pumpkin fruit fly, Bactrocera tau, is an important quarantine pest in many countries because of its mass destructiveness to a variety of vegetable and fruit plants. In this study, we report the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of B. tau. Its complete mitogenome sequence is 15,687 bp in length, which contains a non-coding control region and all of the 37 genes of bilaterian animals (13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and 2 rRNA genes). A phylogenetic tree of the complete mitogenome of all available Tephritidae species was established to approve the accuracy. The base composition of mitogenome sequence and the gene arrangement including directions are rather conservative, compared to other published mitogenomes of Bactrocera species. This first complete mitogenome of B. tau will facilitate the development of new DNA markers for species diagnosis, therefore improving accurate detection of quarantine species. PMID:26024140

  18. Development of female attractants with local food-based chemicals for Bactrocera zonata (Saunders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among tephritid fruit flies, the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders), is the most destructive pests of many fleshy fruits in Pakistan. Although several male trapping systems are available for the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata, female attracting systems are not available yet. Studies conducted indicated that among the thirty two female targeted attractants evaluated, protein hydrolysate (NuLure) in combination with Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) in a 3:7 ratio attracted the highest number of female flies followed by NuLure + DAP 4:6 and NuLure + DAP 1:9. However, male catch was comparatively higher than female catch in the traps. Studies indicated that trap design also played a significant role for attracting fruit flies and the close bottom dry traps having two holes on each side captured the maximum numbers. (author)

  19. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J. B.; Teal, P. E. A.; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (i...

  20. Tests on the effectiveness of kaolin and copper hydroxide in the control of Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin)

    OpenAIRE

    Caleca, V; Rizzo, R.

    2007-01-01

    Repellent and antiovipositional products in the control of Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) find a great interest in organic farming, because of the lack of effective products able to kill the olive fly preimmaginal stages. In 2003 in Castelvetrano (Trapani province, Sicily), tests on the effectiveness of Surround WP, a product containing 95% of kaolin, were carried out on three table olive cultivars, Nocellara del Belice, Moresca and Tonda Iblea. In 2004, in the same field and on the same cultiv...

  1. Kaolin protects olive fruits from Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) infestations unaffecting olive oil quality

    OpenAIRE

    Perri, Dr Enzo; Iannotta, dr. Nino; Muzzalupo, PhD Innocenzo; Russo, Dr Anna; Caravita, Dr Maria Anna; Pellegrino, Massimiliano; Parise, Mr Attilio; Tucci, Mr Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy of the processed kaolin “Surround WP” to control olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae Gmelin, field infestations was investigated in east Calabria. The preliminary results showed that fruit infestation levels were significantly reduced on kaolin-treated trees compared with untreated trees. The promising results of these experiments points to the feasibility of using particle film technology composed of a non-toxic material, to avoid olive fly damage as an alternative to the applicat...

  2. Distinct Genetic Lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) Revealed by COI and 16S DNA Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Phaik-Eem Lim; Ji Tan; I WAYAN SUANA; Praphathip Eamsobhana; Hoi Sen Yong

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malays...

  3. Physiological ecology of desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis) eggs: temperature and water relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, A.

    1980-12-01

    The soil environment imposes constraints on the timing of oviposition and the location of suitable sites for egg burrows of the desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). The effects of temperature and water potential on the developmental period and hatching success of eggs were determined. Eggs hatch normally between 28/sup 0/ and 38/sup 0/C at environmental water potentials between -50 and -1500 kPa. Predictions were derived for the timing and placement of egg clutches based on soil water potential and temperature profiles measured in the field and on the results of laboratory incubation experiments. The results suggest that egg burrows should be located at depths >22 cm in washes or possibly in sparsely vegetated areas away from creosote bushes. The biogeography of desert iguanas within the United States is discussed in relation to soil environments and tolerances of eggs. The physical factors affecting incubation may limit the geographical range of desert iguanas.

  4. Benzyl acetates as attractants for the male oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis, and the male melon fly, Dacus cucurbitae

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, Robert L.; Metcalf, Esther R.; Mitchell, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Fifty compounds related to benzyl acetate were evaluated quantitatively as attractants to the male oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) and the male melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae). Thienylmethyl acetate was nearly as attractive as benzyl acetate to both species, but cyclohexylmethyl acetate was completely unattractive, emphasizing the role of the planar aromatic ring in receptor interaction. Although benzyl acetate was equally attractive to both species, para substituents invariably reduced attr...

  5. The complete mtDNA genome of Triplophysa dorsalis (Cypriniformes, Balitoridae, Cobitoidea): genome characterization and phylogenetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dujuan; Conteh Kanu, Unisa; Zhao, Guang; Xie, Peng; Yuan, Hao; Li, Yu; Niu, Jiangong; Ma, Xufa

    2016-09-01

    Based upon the morphological characters, the genus Triplophysa (plateau Loach) is a highly diverse group in the family Balitoridae (or Cypriniformes, Cobitoidea) with 133 valid species. Therefore, the taxonomic relationship of this species at the genetic level remains ambiguous. In the present study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of Triplophysa dorsalis. In order to understand its position and genetic background at the gene level, the characteristics of mitochondrial DNA sequences and phylogenetic relationship were examined. The mitochondrial genome of T. dorsalis is similar to those of the typical vertebrates, 16 572 bp in length, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, and a non-coding control region (D-loop). All genes were encoded on the heavy strand except for ND6 and 8 tRNA genes. The overall base composition of the heavy strand was 28.16%, 28.41%, 25.62% and 17.82% for A, T, C and G, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the seven Triplophysa species clustered together with T. dorsalis to form a sister group with Triplophysa strauchii, T. bleekeri, T. stoliczkai and T. bombifrons. The two genera Triplophysa and Barbatula formed a sister-group relationship, the species Homatula potanini located in the intermediate position, and the genus Leptobotia elongata was in the basal position in the subfamily Nemacheilidae. Further investigations with more Triplophysa species need to be performed for better understanding of the evolutionary history of this fascinating genus. PMID:26457606

  6. Multigene Phylogeography of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae): Distinct Genetic Lineages in Northern and Southern Hemispheres

    OpenAIRE

    Hoi-Sen Yong; Phaik-Eem Lim; Ji Tan; Sze-Looi Song; I WAYAN SUANA; Praphathip Eamsobhana

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera caudata is a pest of pumpkin flower. Specimens of B. caudata from the northern hemisphere (mainland Asia) and southern hemisphere (Indonesia) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of the nuclear 28S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) genes, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) and 16S rRNA genes. The COI, COII, 16S rDNA and concatenated COI+COII+16S and COI+COII+16S+28S+ITS-2 nucleotide sequenc...

  7. Competitiveness of irradiated methyl eugenol fed oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of methyl eugenol feeding in the sexual competitiveness of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis was studied. Addition of methyl eugenol concentration up to 0.5 ml per liter diet revealed no significant difference base on different quality control parameters used in the study. Results of mating tests showed high number of mated pairs were collected on flies fed with methyl eugenol both on the larvae and adult stage as compared with the untreated flies. Although no significant difference was observed between the larval and adult methyl eugenol-fed flies, the number of mated pairs slightly increased in the former than the latter in all mating tests conducted. (Author)

  8. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements.

  9. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements. PMID:27392643

  10. Suitability of a liquid larval diet for rearing the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A liquid larval diet as an artificial rearing medium was successfully tested for the Philippines fruit fly Bactrocera philippinensis Drew & Hancock. The biological parameters studied were pupal weight, adult emergence and fliers, sex ratio, fecundity and fertility. The insects performed most satisfa...

  11. A population analysis of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni using microsatellite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), the Queensland fruit fly or Q-fly, is the most economically important horticultural pest in Australia, infesting almost every commercial vegetable and fruit crop (Drew 1989). It is well established as a serious pest all along the east coast of Australia, as far south as the east Gippsland area of Victoria (Drew 1989). B. tryoni has the potential to spread across Australia to South Australia, Victoria and the tropical regions of the Northern Territory (Meats 1989) and flies classified as B. tryoni have been identified in the Northern Territory (Osborne et al. 1997). Winter breeding of B. tryoni is believed to occur only in the northern half of the range, although winged adults are usually sufficiently hardy to survive the southern winter without reproducing (Meats 1989). The number of generations per year is also a function of temperature, ranging from about eight in northern Queensland to about three in the Sydney region (Fletcher 1989). In recent years, there has been an increase in the frequency of outbreaks in horticulturally important areas, inland in the southeast of the continent, where irrigation systems have been in use (Bateman 1991). Small-scale outbreaks occur in Adelaide (Maelzer 1990), and a more substantial outbreak was eradicated from Perth (Fisher 1996). These outbreaks mean the suspension of fruit fly free status with severe financial implications for the regions affected. To assist with the control of outbreaks within the fly-free zones and to facilitate area-wide management programmes in the endemic areas, it would be useful to have molecular genetic markers capable of identifying population structure. Population analysis requires markers which are capable of easy and repeatable scoring and which are as polymorphic as possible. Microsatellites are now widely regarded as the most useful molecular markers available for genetic typing of individuals for kinship or larger-scale population studies (Bruford and Wayne 1993

  12. Alimentary Tract Bacteria Isolated and Identified with API-20E and Molecular Cloning Techniques from Australian Tropical Fruit Flies, Bactrocera cacuminata and B. tryoni

    OpenAIRE

    Thaochan, N.; Drew, R. A. I.; Hughes, J M; Vijaysegaran, S.; Chinajariyawong, A.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria were isolated from the crop and midgut of field collected Bactrocera cacuminata (Hering) and Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Two methods were used, firstly isolation onto two types of bacteriological culture media (PYEA and TSA) and identification using the API-20E diagnostic kit, and secondly, analysis of samples using the 16S rRNA gene molecular diagnostic method. Using the API-20E method, 10 genera and 17 species of bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae we...

  13. Detection method for irradiated oriental fruit fly (Dacus Dorsalis) for quarantine purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation is one of the techniques used to effectively rid fresh produce of insect pests and efficacy of radiation dose on food is measured by a probit 9 (99.9968% mortality) quarantine security. Present of suitable biochemical markers for irreversible radiation injury in insect pests could be used as convincing proofs of the efficacy of radiation dose. A biochemical marker (designated Gs-protein) for radiation injury in Oriental fruit fly, Dacus dorsalis, was detected in the SDS-PAGE profile of two-day old pupae and adult insect stage. Gs-protein is not observed in larvae and eggs. An apparent molecular weight of 109 kDa was calculated. A tyrosinase enzyme activity was observed in the soluble fraction of pupal total homogenate and SDS-PAGE-isolated Gs-protein; however, no tyrosinase activity was measured in irradiated sample. The optical absorbance of the soluble fraction from unirradiated pupal total homogenate measured at 360 nm was found to increase with time. From the results of the studies, the apparent loss of Gs-protein in irradiated larvae is likely the result of loss of melanization capability in irradiated larvae which is linked to the absence of tyrosinase enzyme. The data presented seems to establish the role of Gs-protein as a biomarker for gamma-irradiation induced deactivation of pupal development and as a convenient indicator of the effectiveness of gamma radiation as a quarantine treatment. (author). 3 refs.; 3 figs

  14. A biochemical marker for detection or irradiated pupae of the oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biochemical method for detecting a radiation sensitive protein marker in pupae of gamma irradiated larvae of the Oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis) using SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is presented. Third instar larvae were irradiated at 100 Gy using a 60Co dry gamma cell. SDS-PAGE protein profile analysis of pupae of the irradiated larvae revealed the absence of a specific protein band (ascribed to a gene product, Gs, of a putative radiation sensitive marker gene) in comparison to the protein profile of unirradiated control larvae. Absence of the Gs protein band from the electrophoretic gel profile was observed only in two-day-old pupae (day 3 post-irradiation) and even at a dose as low as 40 Gy. Thus, irradiation of immature (two-day-old) larvae at 100 Gy resulted in the subsequent absence of the Gs protein only after day 8 post-irradiation (three-day-old pupae), by which stage the pupae of the unirradiated larvae had already started to synthesize the Gs protein, as seen by the SDS-PAGE gel profile. The absence of this Gs protein band in the SDS-PAGE profile of pupae of the irradiated larvae could be used as a biochemical marker for establishing the efficacy or irradiation of the Oriental fruit fly. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs

  15. A clinical study of new cases of parenchymal neurosyphilis: has tabes dorsalis disappeared or been missed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Qing; Huang, Ming; Jia, Xiao-Yan; Zou, Ya-Fen; Chen, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Tabes dorsalis (TD) was documented as the most common parenchymal neurosyphilis, but its incidence dramatically declined in the antibiotic era. Syphilis has resurged on the China mainland since the 1980s. In recent years, physicians have been reporting parenchymal neurosyphilis, and the overwhelming majority was general paresis, but this was not the case in the authors' hospital. To make clear the real situation of parenchymal neurosyphilis in the authors' hospital, a retrospective review was carried out of the records of patients during 2009-2012. Overrepresented clinical new cases of tabetic and paretic parenchymal neurosyphilis were collected. Clinical characteristics, neuroimaging, laboratory data, and responses to penicillin were analyzed in two groups. The efficiency of two current criteria based on CSF antibodies tests was inspected. In the 43 cases with positive serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and TPPA tests, 18 patients met the criteria of this study: 11 presented with symptoms of general paresis, and seven had typical presentations of TD. There were statistical differences in serum RPR titers, CSF RPR, white blood cell count, and TP between the paretic and tabetic groups. The response to penicillin was relatively poor in TD. The efficiency of two current criteria was lower in the diagnosis of TD. TD was not uncommon in our area. Its clinical features remained typical, but underdiagnosis with CSF-based criteria and a decreased response to penicillin were prominent issues. PMID:25321411

  16. 77 FR 75007 - Importation of Sand Pears From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ..., 2011, we published a proposed rule \\2\\ in the Federal Register (76 FR 78168- 78172, Docket No. APHIS... viennensis (Zacher), Hawthorn spider mite. Aphanostigma iaksuiense (Kishida), an aphid. Bactrocera dorsalis... (Zacher), Hawthorn spider mite; Aphanostigma iaksuiense (Kishida), an aphid; Bactrocera dorsalis,...

  17. Influences of several insecticides on the luring and killing effect on Methyl eugenol of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hedel)%几种杀虫剂对桔小实蝇引诱剂诱杀效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴剑光; 李小健; 胡学难; 刘晓莹; 郑少波; 鄞杰平; 黄锦炎

    2015-01-01

    使用桔小实蝇引诱剂(甲基丁香酚Methyl eugenol,简称Me),按体积比10:1分别与四种杀虫剂混合,进行了桔小实蝇诱杀效果试验.试验结果表明:四种杀虫剂中,敌敌畏的诱杀效果最佳;马拉硫磷诱杀效果明显优于氯氰菊酯和功夫两种杀虫剂.试验提出了与桔小实蝇引诱剂混合的杀虫剂选择以及换药时间.

  18. 6种植物提取物对橘小实蝇生物活性的影响%Bioactivities of Extracts from Six Species Plants to the Bactrocera dorsalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁伊旻; 张宏宇

    2011-01-01

    Extracted from 6 species plants by supercritical fluid CO2, Piper nigrum, Acorus calamus, Acorus tatarinowii, Phellodendron amurense, Nelutnbo nucifera, Rhus chinensis, were evaluated as contact effect and stomach poisoning activity to the oriental fruit fly adults. The results indicated that Piper nigrum, Acorus calamus and Acorus tatarinowii had stronger contact effect to the adults, at 103.95 (xg/cm2 treatment after 2 hours, the corrected mortality rates were 100%, 96.67%, 96.67%. Farther studied contact toxicity of extracts of these three species plants, the result indicated Piper nigrum had the strongest effect, the LG50 was 0.25 mg/mL. The contact effects of Phellodendron amurense and Rhus chinensis were less strong, Nelumbo nucifera had no contact effect to the adults. On the study of stomach poisoning activity, Piper nigrum had the strongest effect, at 1.5 mg/mL treatment after 96 hours, the corrected mortality rate was 84.44%, Acorus calamus was 23.33%, Acorus tatarinowii was, 26.67%.%采用超临界CO2萃取方法提取胡椒(Piper nigrum),菖蒲(Acorus calamus),石菖蒲(Acorus tatarinowii),黄檗(Phellodendron amurense),莲(Nelumbo nucifera),盐肤木(Rhus chinensis) 等6种植物提取物,并测定提取物对橘小实蝇成虫的触杀和胃毒生物活性.结果表明,胡椒、菖蒲、石菖蒲提取物均对橘小实蝇成虫有很好的触杀作用,103.95 μg/cm2的浓度处理2h后,校正死亡率分别为100%、96.67%、96.67%.进一步测定这3种植物提取物对橘小实蝇的触杀毒力,表明胡椒提取物对橘小实蝇的毒力最高,LG50的值为0.25 mg/mL.黄檗、盐肤木提取物触杀效果中等,莲未表现出触杀活性.胃毒活性测定试验中,胡椒提取物的效果最好,1.50 mg/mL浓度处理96 h后,其校正死亡率为84.44%,菖蒲和石菖蒲提取物的试虫校正死亡率分别为23.33%、26.67%.

  19. Development of transport technique by chilling for melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptela: Dephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effect of chilling on mass-reared melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae COQ., groups of adult flies were exposed to 3, 0.5, -2.2 and -3.5°C for 6, 12, 24 and 48h. The recovery and longevity of adult chilled for less than 24h at about 0.5°C was not adversely affected. A special container for chilled flies, which was able to keep the temperature below 10°C for 4h, was designed for their long-distance transport. The longevities of flies using aerial distribution by helicopter and hand release on the ground using the chilled transport container were compared with direct release from an emergence box without chilling at Miyagi Island in Okinawa Prefecture. There were no significant differences in longevity between the three release methods

  20. Monitoring Resistance to Spinosad in the Melon Fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae in Hawaii and Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinosad is a natural insecticide with desirable qualities, and it is widely used as an alternative to organophosphates for control of pests such as the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett. To monitor the potential for development of resistance, information about the current levels of tolerance to spinosad in melon fly populations were established in this study. Spinosad tolerance bioassays were conducted using both topical applications and feeding methods on flies from field populations with extensive exposure to spinosad as well as from collections with little or no prior exposure. Increased levels of resistance were observed in flies from the field populations. Also, higher dosages were generally required to achieve specific levels of mortality using topical applications compared to the feeding method, but these levels were all lower than those used for many organophosphate-based food lures. Our information is important for maintaining effective programs for melon fly management using spinosad.

  1. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaik-Eem Lim

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%. Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies.

  2. Distinct genetic lineages of Bactrocera caudata (Insecta: Tephritidae) revealed by COI and 16S DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Phaik-Eem; Tan, Ji; Suana, I Wayan; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Yong, Hoi Sen

    2012-01-01

    The fruit fly Bactrocera caudata is a pest species of economic importance in Asia. Its larvae feed on the flowers of Cucurbitaceae such as Cucurbita moschata. To-date it is distinguished from related species based on morphological characters. Specimens of B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia and Indonesia (Bali and Lombok) were analysed using the partial DNA sequences of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S rRNA genes. Both gene sequences revealed that B. caudata from Peninsular Malaysia was distinctly different from B. caudata of Bali and Lombok, without common haplotype between them. Phylogenetic analysis revealed two distinct clades, indicating distinct genetic lineage. The uncorrected 'p' distance for COI sequences between B. caudata of Malaysia-Thailand-China and B. caudata of Bali-Lombok was 5.65%, for 16S sequences from 2.76 to 2.99%, and for combined COI and 16S sequences 4.45 to 4.46%. The 'p' values are distinctly different from intraspecific 'p' distance (0-0.23%). Both the B. caudata lineages are distinctly separated from related species in the subgenus Zeugodacus - B. ascita, B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora, B. tau, B. cucurbitae, and B. depressa. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicates that the B. caudata lineages are closely related to B. ascita sp. B, and form a clade with B. scutellata, B. ishigakiensis, B. diaphora and B. ascita sp. A. This study provides additional baseline for the phylogenetic relationships of Bactrocera fruit flies of the subgenus Zeugodacus. Both the COI and 16S genes could be useful markers for the molecular differentiation and phylogenetic analysis of tephritid fruit flies. PMID:22615962

  3. Radiosensitivity of different immature stages and ages of oriental fruitfly, Dacus Dorsalis Hendel, to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to determine the sensitivity of different ages of eggs, larvae and pupae of the oriental fruitfly to varying doses of gamma radiation. The most sensitive stage was the egg followed by the pupa and then the larva. Radiosensitivity of the eggs decreased as age increased from 2-3 to 28 hours during treatment. The LD 50 for younger eggs (2-13 hours) was less than 0.5 krad and for nearly mature eggs (18-28 hours) from 2.3 to 14.9 krad. Similarly with the larval stage, the LD 50 values increased with age of fruit flies at treatment. For 1-day-old larvae, the LD 50 was observed at 2.5 krad while for 7-day-old larvae, the LD 50 increased to 50 krad. Dosage required for 50% mortality in 1-day-old pupae was 1.4 krad and 32.1 krad for older pupae. Pupation was reduced to zero when 4-day-old larvae were exposed at 50 krad and 1-day-old larvae at 10 krad. More than 50 krad was required to prevent emergence of mature (7-day-old) pupae. The sex ratio of the emerging adults of D. dorsalis from the irradiated pupae assumed a 1:1 ratio. However, some adults had abnormally-developed wings upon emergence. Abnormality rates were greater when the pupae were treated young. Results indicate the feasibility of gamma radiation in the range of 40-50 krad for commodity treatments of fruits. (author)

  4. Electrophysiological study of supraspinal input and spinal output of cat's subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Velo

    Full Text Available This work addressed the study of subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD neurons in relation to their supraspinal input and the spinal terminating sites of their descending axons. SRD extracellular unitary recordings from anesthetized cats aimed to specifically test, 1 the rostrocaudal segmental level reached by axons of spinally projecting (SPr neurons collateralizing or not to or through the ipsilateral nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NRGc, 2 whether SPr fibers bifurcate to the thalamus, and 3 the effects exerted on SRD cells by electrically stimulating the locus coeruleus, the periaqueductal grey, the nucleus raphe magnus, and the mesencephalic locomotor region. From a total of 191 SPr fibers tested to cervical 2 (Ce2, thoracic 5 (Th5 and lumbar5 (Lu5 stimulation, 81 ended between Ce2 and Th5 with 39 of them branching to or through the NRGc; 21/49 terminating between Th5 and Lu5 collateralized to or through the same nucleus, as did 34/61 reaching Lu5. The mean antidromic conduction velocity of SPr fibers slowed in the more proximal segments and increased with terminating distance along the cord. None of the 110 axons tested sent collaterals to the thalamus; instead thalamic stimulation induced long-latency polysynaptic responses in most cells but also short-latency, presumed monosynaptic, in 7.9% of the tested neurons (18/227. Antidromic and orthodromic spikes were elicited from the locus coeruleus and nucleus raphe magnus, but exclusively orthodromic responses were observed following stimulation of the periaqueductal gray or mesencephalic locomotor region. The results suggest that information from pain-and-motor-related supraspinal structures converge on SRD cells that through SPr axons having conduction velocities tuned to their length may affect rostral and caudal spinal cord neurons at fixed delays, both directly and in parallel through different descending systems. The SRD will thus play a dual functional role by simultaneously

  5. Ecotoxicology of pesticides on natural enemies of olive groves. Potential of ecdysone agonists for controlling Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bengochea Budia, Paloma

    2012-01-01

    Pesticide applications are still one of the most common control methods against the main olive grove pests and diseases: the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), the olive moth, Prays oleae (Bernard), the black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier), and the olive leaf spot, caused by the fungus Spilocaea oleagina Fries. However, and because the new pesticide legislation is aimed at an integrated pest and disease management, it is still important to evaluate and to know the ecotoxicology of p...

  6. Parasitism, Emergence, and Development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Pupae of Different Ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host–parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under labor...

  7. Irradiation as Quarantine Treatment of Rambutan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggs and larvae of Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera correcta were investigated for their tolerant dose of irradiation. Artificially in feasted rambutans were irradiated at target doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 Gy. The results showed that the lowest dose that could inhibit adult emergence was 102.89 Gy for B. dorsalis and 97.61 Gy for B. correcta (P=0.999968, Probit 9). Larvae of B. dorsalis were irradiated at the dose

  8. Complete mitochondrial genome of Bactrocera arecae (Insecta: Tephritidae) by next-generation sequencing and molecular phylogeny of Dacini tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Song, Sze-Looi; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Chan, Kok-Gan; Chow, Wan-Loo; Eamsobhana, Praphathip

    2015-01-01

    The whole mitochondrial genome of the pest fruit fly Bactrocera arecae was obtained from next-generation sequencing of genomic DNA. It had a total length of 15,900 bp, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a non-coding region (A + T-rich control region). The control region (952 bp) was flanked by rrnS and trnI genes. The start codons included 6 ATG, 3 ATT and 1 each of ATA, ATC, GTG and TCG. Eight TAA, two TAG, one incomplete TA and two incomplete T stop codons were represented in the protein-coding genes. The cloverleaf structure for trnS1 lacked the D-loop, and that of trnN and trnF lacked the TΨC-loop. Molecular phylogeny based on 13 protein-coding genes was concordant with 37 mitochondrial genes, with B. arecae having closest genetic affinity to B. tryoni. The subgenus Bactrocera of Dacini tribe and the Dacinae subfamily (Dacini and Ceratitidini tribes) were monophyletic. The whole mitogenome of B. arecae will serve as a useful dataset for studying the genetics, systematics and phylogenetic relationships of the many species of Bactrocera genus in particular, and tephritid fruit flies in general. PMID:26472633

  9. Relative incidence of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus ciliatus Loew on cucurbitaceous vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.K. Krishna; Verghese, Abraham; Shivakumara, B.; Krishnamoorthy, P.N.; Ranganath, H.R. [Indian Institute of Horticultural Research, Bangalore (India). Div. of Entomology and Nematology

    2006-07-01

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables and fruits in many parts of the world. Infestation of an another species, the lesser pumpkin fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew is reported on a few cucurbits in the Indian sub-continent and Africa. While extensive work on seasonality, infestation percent, host preference, attraction to para pheromone on B. cucurbitae has been reported, little is known of D. ciliatus. Field experiments were carried out at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore (12058'N; 77035'E) from June 2002- October 2003. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and pickling cucumbers [C. sativus L (variety. Ijax)] were raised at monthly interval. Cue lure baited bottle traps were hung to monitor B. cucurbitae and other related species. Bactrocera cucurbitae was present all through the year and maximum number of adults was trapped during August (14.14/trap/week). Dacus ciliatus was trapped only from May to October but in relatively less numbers ({approx} 1/week). Maximum fruit fly infestation was 77.03 % on bitter gourd (August 2003), 75.65 % on ridge gourd (Nov. 02), 73.83 % on cucumber (October, 02) and 63.31 % on pickling cucumber (October, 02). Trap catches of B. cucurbitae was significantly and positively correlated with relative humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature, RH (%), rainfall (mm), evaporation (mm) and wind speed (km/h) collectively determined 44 % of B. cucurbitae trap catches. Maximum fruit fly emergence of 494.64/ kg fruit was on bitter gourd (October, 2002) followed by cucumber (431.97, November, 2002), pickling cucumber (307.51, October 2002) and ridge gourd (210.74, October, 2003). Dacus ciliatus formed only 4.5% of the total number of fruit flies on bitter gourd and 0.2% on pickling cucumber. Its infestation was not observed on cucumber and ridge gourd. Parasitism by the larval

  10. Relative incidence of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and Dacus ciliatus Loew on cucurbitaceous vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) is a major pest of cucurbitaceous vegetables and fruits in many parts of the world. Infestation of an another species, the lesser pumpkin fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew is reported on a few cucurbits in the Indian sub-continent and Africa. While extensive work on seasonality, infestation percent, host preference, attraction to para pheromone on B. cucurbitae has been reported, little is known of D. ciliatus. Field experiments were carried out at the Indian Institute of Horticultural Research (IIHR), Bangalore (12058'N; 77035'E) from June 2002- October 2003. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L), ridge gourd (Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb), bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) and pickling cucumbers [C. sativus L (variety. Ijax)] were raised at monthly interval. Cue lure baited bottle traps were hung to monitor B. cucurbitae and other related species. Bactrocera cucurbitae was present all through the year and maximum number of adults was trapped during August (14.14/trap/week). Dacus ciliatus was trapped only from May to October but in relatively less numbers (∼ 1/week). Maximum fruit fly infestation was 77.03 % on bitter gourd (August 2003), 75.65 % on ridge gourd (Nov. 02), 73.83 % on cucumber (October, 02) and 63.31 % on pickling cucumber (October, 02). Trap catches of B. cucurbitae was significantly and positively correlated with relative humidity. Maximum and minimum temperature, RH (%), rainfall (mm), evaporation (mm) and wind speed (km/h) collectively determined 44 % of B. cucurbitae trap catches. Maximum fruit fly emergence of 494.64/ kg fruit was on bitter gourd (October, 2002) followed by cucumber (431.97, November, 2002), pickling cucumber (307.51, October 2002) and ridge gourd (210.74, October, 2003). Dacus ciliatus formed only 4.5% of the total number of fruit flies on bitter gourd and 0.2% on pickling cucumber. Its infestation was not observed on cucumber and ridge gourd. Parasitism by the larval-pupal parasitoid

  11. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia L. Reynolds

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni.

  12. Longevity of Mass-Produced Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae) Held Without Food or Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Bernard C; Sundaralingam, Selliah; Jiang, Laura; Nicol, Helen I

    2014-12-01

    The sterile insect technique is used to manage or control fruit flies throughout the world. The technique relies on large scale production before delivery to release managers. As part of the mass production phase, there are many quality control tests to demonstrate and maintain high quality pupae and flies. One highly desirable characteristic is adults with a long life so that these adults can reach sexual maturity and sterile males mate with wild fertile flies in the field and thus produce no viable offspring. Originally longevity was assessed allowing adults to have unlimited access to food and water. As quality and longevity increased, this methodology added significantly to workload and space demands and many facilities moved to testing longevity under stress where no food or water was provided. Here we examined >27,000 Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) from 160 weekly production batches from July 2004 to October 2009 where flies were not provided food or water. The mean longevity was 54.4 ± SE hours. Longevity was significantly shorter from August to March, and the longevity was significantly longer in June. Longevity was not related to pupal weight, contrary to expectations. Weights were significantly lower in June and highest in summer. PMID:26470075

  13. A chromogenic test for irradiated oriental fruitfly, Bactrocera philippinensis as quarantine diagnostic kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biochemical marker of irradiated Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis was isolated and identified in denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The biomarker, Gs-protein, is the biosynthetic product of a radiosensitive gene locus of B philippinensis. The gene seems to be sensitive to radiation even at a low dose of 25 Gy as demonstrated by the loss of the Gs-protein band from SDS-PAGE gel analysis of pupal homogenates and total soluble protein fractions of irradiated larvae. Isolated Gs-protein has a tyrosinase enzyme activity capable of converting tyrosine into an intermediate product, DOPA(Dihydroxilphenolaldanim). It also exhibits the copper-containing character of mushroom tyrosinase as shown in a preliminary TXRF analysis. An apparent molecular weight of 109 kDa was calculated from SDS-PAGE preparation of the Gs-protein with high molecular weight proteins as standards. In particular, a convenient chromogenic test for tyrosinase present in homogenates of fruit fly, B. philippinensis, at different stages of development starting from 2nd instar larva, has been devised to detect whether the fruit fly had been irradiated at a dose of at least 100 Gy. Starting with homogenate material from fruit fly to be tested, a simple such test based on the activity of the tyrosinase enzyme with its substrate produces a positive dark brown to black coloration on a test spot mounted on acetate film containing 2-methyl DOPA. (author)

  14. Infestation of Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae, in California and Taxonomy of its Host Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Athar

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the trapping survey were analyzed to determine the taxonomy of various tree species infested by the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae in California. Since its first appearance in California in 1998, the olive fruit fly has spread from Los Angeles to 37 counties, including all of the state’s commercial olive growing areas. Olive fruit flies were trapped from 19 tree species belonging to nine genera distributed in seven families of angiosperms. Olives (Family Oleaceae were the preferred host of the olive fruit fly. Family Rosaceae had nine host tree species followed by Rutaceae (five host tree species. Other host tree species were distributed in Anacardiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae, Lythraceae and Malpigiaceae families. These hosts were mostly fruit trees with the exceptions of Brazilian pepper tree, carob, crape myrtle and ornamental plum. The host list reflects typical hosts and is not comprehensive. It is unknown if different olive cultivars are more attractive to the fly or more susceptible to fly damage. The pest directly attacks olive fruits and can devastate entire harvests. Adults feed on nectar, honeydew and other opportunistic sources of liquid or semi-liquid food. University of California scientists are now developing specific information about the olive fruit fly in California and have synthesized useful findings from Europe, where the pest has long been established.

  15. Cold tolerance and disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Hass' avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N; Mohamed, S A; Nderitu, P W; Ekasi, S

    2012-12-01

    Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) has spread rapidly across Africa and currently poses a phytosanitary threat to the fruit industry of South Africa. In reaction a cold mitigating treatment to provide phytosanitary security to importing countries was developed in Nairobi, Kenya. Using laboratory reared fruit flies, the rate of development in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller) was determined at 28 degrees C. Fruit ripeness or softness was found to be a factor improving larval fruit fly survival. Using this information the egg and larval developmental stages were subjected to 2 degrees C cold treatment and it was found that the third instars were the most cold tolerant life stage and that it was expected that between 16 and 17 d treatment would provide phytosanitary security. There were no survivors in the treatment of an estimated 153,001 individuals in four replicates at an average fruit pulp temperature of 2 degrees C satisfying the Probit 9 level of efficiency at a confidence of >95%. These data provide evidence that a continuous cold treatment of 1.5 degrees C or lower for 18 d would provide phytosanitary security in that any consignment entering an importing country poses no risk of accidental importation of B. invadens. PMID:23356059

  16. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. PMID:24995839

  17. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author)

  18. Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The term complexity derives etymologically from the Latin plexus, which means interwoven. Intuitively, this implies that something complex is composed by elements that are difficult to separate. This difficulty arises from the relevant interactions that take place between components. This lack of separability is at odds with the classical scientific method - which has been used since the times of Galileo, Newton, Descartes, and Laplace - and has also influenced philosophy and engineering. In recent decades, the scientific study of complexity and complex systems has proposed a paradigm shift in science and philosophy, proposing novel methods that take into account relevant interactions.

  19. Improving clinical examination in acute tibial fractures by enhancing visual cues: the case for always 'cutting back' a tibial back-slab and marking the dorsalis pedis pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alasdair; Kimber, Cheryl; Bramwell, Donald; Jaarsma, Ruurd

    2016-08-01

    Look, feel, move is a simple and widely taught sequence to be followed when undertaking a clinical examination in orthopaedics (Maher et al., 1994; McRae, 1999; Solomon et al., 2010). The splinting of an acute tibial fracture with a posterior back-slab is also common practice; with the most commonly taught design involving covering the dorsum of the foot with bandaging (Charnley, 1950; Maher et al., 1994; McRae, 1989). We investigated the effect of the visual cues provided by exposing the dorsum of the foot and marking the dorsalis pedis pulse. We used a clinical simulation in which we compared the quality of the recorded clinical examination undertaken by 30 nurses. The nurses were randomly assigned to assess a patient with either a traditional back-slab or one in which the dorsal bandaging had been cut back and the dorsalis pedis pulse marked. We found that the quality of the recorded clinical examination was significantly better in the cut-back group. Previous studies have shown that the cut-back would not alter the effectiveness of the back-slab as a splint (Zagorski et al., 1993). We conclude that all tibial back-slabs should have the bandaging on the dorsum of the foot cut back and the location of the dorsalis pedis pulse marked. This simple adaptation will improve the subsequent clinical examinations undertaken and recorded without reducing the back-slab's effectiveness as a splint. PMID:27236718

  20. Classical biological control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera olea (Diptera: Tephritidae), using the exotic parasitoie, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important pest of olives which is worldwide distributed and responsible for economic losses of approximately US$800 million per year. Since the 2000s both economical and environmental concerns have raised interested in clas...

  1. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (ii) no methoprene but fed on a protein diet; (iii) methoprene and sugar-fed only; and (iv) sugar-fed, 14-d-old males acted as controls. Treatments had no effect on a male's ability to depress the female remating receptivity in comparison to the control. Females mated with protein-deprived males showed higher remating receptivity than females first mated with protein-fed males. Methoprene and protein diet interaction had a positive effect on male mating success during the first and second mating of females. Significantly more females first mated with sugar-fed males remated with protein-fed males and females first mated with methoprene treated and protein-fed males were more likely to remate with similarly treated males. Females mating latency (time to start mating) was significantly shorter with protein-fed males, and mating duration was significantly longer with protein-fed males compared with protein-deprived males. These results are discussed in the context of methoprene and/or dietary protein as prerelease treatment of sterile males in area-wide control of melon fly integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT). PMID:24376160

  2. The Effect of Gamma Radiation on some Biological Aspects of Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma-irradiation on certain biological aspects of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata following gamma irradiation of 5 days old pupae were studied. Treatment led to a decrease in percentage adult emergence which was 3.66, 9.22, 14.77.18.55 and 22.66, following irradiation with 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90 Gy, respectively. Some emerged flies exhibited malformation being 3.3, 5, 6.7, 8.3 and 11.7% in flies irradiated as pupae with the respective mentioned doses. Sex ratio of emerged flies were shifted towards females. When male flies, emerging from irradiated pupae with 10, 30, 50, 70 or 90 Gy were paired with untreated females the mean number of deposited eggs was reduced to 211.3, 197.3, 184, 173 and 161.3 eggs /female as compared to 220 eggs/ female in the control. Percentages of hatched eggs were 62.1, 40.2, 26.6, 7.9 and zero as compared to 81.8 in the control. The effect on reproductive potential was more evident when unirradiated males were paired with female flies emerging from irradiated 5 day old pupa. In females emerged of pupae irradiated with 10 and 30 Gy mated with unirradiated male; the mean number of eggs laid per female were 135.1 and 72.3 eggs comparing to 233.4 in control. The percentages of eggs hatch were 57.4 and 35.3% in at doses 10 and 30 Gy, respectively in comparing to 82.2% in control. No eggs laid by females emerged from pupae exposed to the higher considered doses of 50, 70 or 90 Gy

  3. Methoprene application and diet protein supplementation to male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, modifies female remating behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Teal, P E A; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Methoprene (an analogue of juvenile hormone) application and feeding on a protein diet is known to enhance male melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae), mating success. In this study, we investigated the effect of these treatments on male B. cucurbitae's ability to inhibit female remating. While 14-d-old females were fed on protein diet, 6-d-old males were exposed to one of the following treatments: (i) topical application of methoprene and fed on a protein diet; (ii) no methoprene but fed on a protein diet; (iii) methoprene and sugar-fed only; and (iv) sugar-fed, 14-d-old males acted as controls. Treatments had no effect on a male's ability to depress the female remating receptivity in comparison to the control. Females mated with protein-deprived males showed higher remating receptivity than females first mated with protein-fed males. Methoprene and protein diet interaction had a positive effect on male mating success during the first and second mating of females. Significantly more females first mated with sugar-fed males remated with protein-fed males and females first mated with methoprene treated and protein-fed males were more likely to remate with similarly treated males. Females mating latency (time to start mating) was significantly shorter with protein-fed males, and mating duration was significantly longer with protein-fed males compared with protein-deprived males. These results are discussed in the context of methoprene and/or dietary protein as prerelease treatment of sterile males in area-wide control of melon fly integrating the sterile insect technique (SIT). PMID:24376160

  4. Spatial distribution pattern and sequential sampling plans for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin (Dip: Tephritidae in olive orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arbab

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of adult and larvae Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae, a key pest of olive, was studied in olive orchards. The first objective was to analyze the dispersion of this insect on olive and the second was to develop sampling plans based on fixed levels of precision for estimating B. oleae populations. The Taylor’s power law and Iwao’s patchiness regression models were used to analyze the data. Our results document that Iwao’s patchiness provided a better description between variance and mean density. Taylor’s b and Iwao’s β were both significantly more than 1, indicating that adults and larvae had aggregated spatial distribution. This result was further supported by the calculated common k of 2.17 and 4.76 for adult and larvae, respectively. Iwao’s a for larvae was significantly less than 0, indicating that the basic distribution component of B. oleae is the individual insect. Optimal sample sizes for fixed precision levels of 0.10 and 0.25 were estimated with Iwao’s patchiness coefficients. The optimum sample size for adult and larvae fluctuated throughout the seasons and depended upon the fly density and desired level of precision. For adult, this generally ranged from 2 to 11 and 7 to 15 traps to achieve precision levels of 0.25 and 0.10, respectively. With respect to optimum sample size, the developed fixed-precision sequential sampling plans was suitable for estimating flies density at a precision level of D=0.25. Sampling plans, presented here, should be a tool for research on pest management decisions of B. oleae.

  5. Determination of Opiinae parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) associated with crop infesting Bactrocera spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) using COI and Cyt b sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Safiah; Yaakop, Salmah; Zain, Badrul Munir Md.

    2013-11-01

    Members of the Opiinae subfamily (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) are well known as important parasitoids of fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae). They are widely used as biological control agents of fruit flies, especially the Bactrocera Macquart species that infest fruits. In this study, the larvae of fruit flies were collected from infested crops including star fruit, guava, wax apple and ridge gourd. The parasitized larvae were then reared under laboratory conditions until emergence of the adult parasitoids. Additionally, Malaise trap also was used to collect parasitoid species. The general concept of the multiplex PCR has been performed is to amplify two mitochondrial DNA markers, namely cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cyt b) simultaneously. Therefore, the lengthy process of reaction will be reduced. The status of the fruit fly species has also been confirmed by using COI marker on the early stage of the larvae. Maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian Inference (BI) were implemented to help and support the identification of Opiinae species. The result obtained from this study showed three parasitoid genera of the Opiinae viz. Fopius Wharton, Psyttalia Walker and Diachasmimorpha Viereck. Each genus has been determined by clustering together in a similar clade according to their infested crops. Therefore, accurate determination of parasitoids and the fruit fries species was highly useful and necessary for successful biological control of Bactrocera species.

  6. Effects of Curcuma longa extracts on mortality and fecundity of Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae Efeitos dos extratos de Curcuma longa sobre mortalidade e fecundidade de Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rauf Siddiqi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata, is a significant pest of fruit and vegetable crops in South East Asia and Pacific region. Ccontrol strategies of fruit flies, relying chiefly on insecticides, have serious environmental consequences, disturbing the agro-ecosystem as well as eliminating natural enemies. This study was oriented at exploring the potential of turmeric, Curcuma longa, extracts to control the peach fruit fly. Freshly emerged female adults of Bactrocera zonata were continuously fed for 16 days on diet containing 1000, 500 and 250 ppm of acetone extract of Curcuma longa separately in laboratory cages. The extract caused 85.00, 66.67 and 56.67 percent mortality at 1000, 500 and 250 ppm respectively. The surviving females were mated and allowed to reproduce on clean guava fruits in separate cages. The inhibition in pupal progeny was 67.90, 60.74 and 51.96 percent in the flies fed on 1000, 500 and 250 ppm, the inhibition observed in adult progeny was 84.68, 79.03 and 67.74 percent, respectively.A mosca do pêssego, Bactrocera zonata, é uma importante praga das frutas e produtos hortícolas no Sudeste Asiático e Pacífico. As estratégias de controle de moscas-das-frutas, que se baseia principalmente no uso de inseticidas, têm consequências ambientais graves, perturbando o agroecossistema, bem como eliminando os inimigos naturais. Este estudo foi orientado a explorar as potencialidades dos extratos de açafrão Curcuma longa para controle de B. zonata. Após a emergência, adultos de fêmeas de B. zonata foram continuamente alimentados, durante 16 dias, com dieta contendo 1000, 500 e 250 ppm de extrato acetônico de C. longa separadamente em gaiolas no laboratório. O extrato causou 85,00, 66,67 e 56,67 % de mortalidade em 1000, 500 e 250 ppm, respectivamente. As fêmeas foram acasaladas e postas para ovipositar separadamente em goiabas dentro das gaiolas. A inibição na progênie pupal foi 67,90, 60,74 e 51,96 % nos insetos

  7. Subdivisions of the auditory midbrain (n. mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis in zebra finches using calcium-binding protein immunocytochemistry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Logerot

    Full Text Available The midbrain nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis pars dorsalis (MLd is thought to be the avian homologue of the central nucleus of the mammalian inferior colliculus. As such, it is a major relay in the ascending auditory pathway of all birds and in songbirds mediates the auditory feedback necessary for the learning and maintenance of song. To clarify the organization of MLd, we applied three calcium binding protein antibodies to tissue sections from the brains of adult male and female zebra finches. The staining patterns resulting from the application of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin antibodies differed from each other and in different parts of the nucleus. Parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity was distributed throughout the whole nucleus, as defined by the totality of the terminations of brainstem auditory afferents; in other words parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity defines the boundaries of MLd. Staining patterns of parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin defined two regions of MLd: inner (MLd.I and outer (MLd.O. MLd.O largely surrounds MLd.I and is distinct from the surrounding intercollicular nucleus. Unlike the case in some non-songbirds, however, the two MLd regions do not correspond to the terminal zones of the projections of the brainstem auditory nuclei angularis and laminaris, which have been found to overlap substantially throughout the nucleus in zebra finches.

  8. Influence of gaze and directness of approach on the escape responses of the Indian rock lizard, Psammophilus dorsalis (Gray, 1831)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rachakonda Sreekar; Suhel Quader

    2013-12-01

    Animals often evaluate the degree of risk posed by a predator and respond accordingly. Since many predators orient their eyes towards prey while attacking, predator gaze and directness of approach could serve as conspicuous indicators of risk to prey. The ability to perceive these cues and discriminate between high and low predation risk should benefit prey species through both higher survival and decreased energy expenditure. We experimentally examined whether Indian rock lizards (Psammophilus dorsalis) can perceive these two indicators of predation risk by measuring the variation in their fleeing behaviour in response to type of gaze and approach by a human predator. Overall, we found that the gaze and approach of the predator influenced flight initiation distance, which also varied with attributes of the prey (i.e. size/sex and tail-raise behaviour). Flight initiation distance (FID) was 43% longer during direct approaches with direct gaze compared with tangential approaches with averted gaze. In further, exploratory, analyses, we found that FID was 23% shorter for adult male lizards than for female or young male (FYM) lizards. In addition, FYM lizards that showed a tail-raise display during approach had a 71% longer FID than those that did not. Our results suggest that multiple factors influence the decision to flee in animals. Further studies are needed to test the generality of these factors and to investigate the proximate mechanisms underlying flight decisions.

  9. The oviposition of the chili fruit fly (Bactrocera latifrons Hendel (Diptera: Tephritidae with reference to reproductive capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anothai Wingsanoi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The chili fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons Hendel, is a serious pest of chili fruit production in Thailand. To determine theeffective control planning of the fly population, the oviposition related to reproductive capacity of the female were observed.The female ovary was daily dissected through the entire life span and the eggs inside the ovary were examined and counted.There were 44.84±19.60 eggs/ovary. The oviposition of female was simultaneously conducted. Eggs inside the ovarypresented on 8th day and the female oviposited on 10th day of the life span. The female laid 4.25±2.28 eggs, which was 12.45±9.56 fold less than the reproductive capacity. The female longevity was 31.1±8.40 days and the oviposition period was 40days.

  10. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment against the invader fruit fly (Bactrocera Invadens, Drew) in mangoes (Mangifera Indica L,)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of the African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta and White, in Ghana has led to limitations in the export of mango fruits from Ghana to other countries. The limitations ranging from increased control costs to outright rejection of exports has necessitated a study in the area of quarantine treatment. A study was conducted to ascertain the effectiveness of gamma radiation for control of Bactrocera invadens in fruit destined for export. Pupae were obtained from the incubation of mango fruits collected from various locations. Adults were reared and infestation levels were determined after fruits were exposed to 5, 10, 20 females in different cages. Late instar larvae in fruits were irradiated at 15, 25, 35, 45, 50, 60 and 75 Gy to determine an effective dose for B. invadens. The mortality of the fly was determined at the various doses to obtain a probit 9 figure of 68.06 Gy (rounded to 70 Gy). The confirmatory test for 3050 larvae endorsed the effective dose as the probit 9 dose. Non-infested mature green export grade mango fruits were irradiated with 0, 70 and 150 Gy to determine its effect on ascorbic acid and total acidity content, sweetness, colour, juiciness, sourness, aroma and firmness of the mango fruits. Ascorbic acid and total acidity were not irradiation dependent. Varietal differences (p0.05) by irradiation. Varietal differences did not affect the acceptability of the sweetness, sourness and colour of the fruits (p>0.05). Storage days significantly affected (p<0.05) the acceptability of all the sensory attributes. (au)

  11. Evaluation of the efficacy of beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive fruit fly bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mango production plays an important role in Africa’s economy. However, the African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens is causing high yield losses as an important quarantine pest. Suppression of fruit flies for increased mango production will increasingly rely on management methods which exert low negative environmental impact. Beauveria bassiana is an insect pathogenic fungus used as microbial insecticide because it leaves produce to their fresh state, flavor, colour and texture with no change in the chemical composition of the product and is environmentally friendly. Evaluation of the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the invasive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephriitidae) was carried out. The fungus B. bassiana (Botanigard® ES) containing 11.3% Beauveria bassiana GHA strain was applied at concentrations of 106, 53.0, 26.5, 13.3 and 6.65(x 106 spores/ml). When three developmental stages of the fruit fly (larvae, puparia and adults) were treated with Beauveria bassiana, the severity of the damage caused by the fungus increased with increasing fungal concentration. The results show lethal time (LT50) that ranged from 2.8 to 3.6 days for a dose of 106 x 106 spores/ml. Comparing methods of fungal application in the field, the result indicated that applying the fungus in fruit fly traps in mango canopies is the better method for fruit flies control in the field as compared to the soil surface spray method. However, both methods could be employed for better results The study of gamma radiation on the virulence of the fungus showed that the combined effect of the fungus and gamma irradiation gave better result by increasing adult mortality to 100 % within three days at 106 x106 spores/ml irradiated at 150 Gy than applying fungal treatment only. (author)

  12. Trans-jugular catheter-directed thrombolysis combined with trans-dorsalis pedis vein thrombolysis for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis of the lower limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility and efficacy of trans-jugular catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) together with trans-dorsalis pedis vein thrombolysis for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower limbs. Methods: Jugular vein puncture, indwelling catheter and placement of IVC filter were performed in 18 patients with DVT (study group) followed by continuous trans-jugular CDT together with trans-dorsalis pedis vein thrombolysis. During the corresponding period, 16 patients with DVT (control group) received trans-dorsalis pedis vein thrombolysis only. Results: The thrombolytic time and total dose of urokinase in study group and control group were (6.6 ± 2.3) days, (5.52 ± 2.24) x 106 units and (8.2 ± 1.4) days, (7.00 ± 1.66) x 106 units respectively. The thrombolytic time and total dose of urokinase in study group were significantly lower than that in control group (P < 0.05). After the treatment the thigh circumference and calf circumference in study group showed a reduction of (4.6 ± 2.1) cm and (4.0 ± 2.1) cm respectively, which were (3.2 ± 1.7) cm and (2.7 ± 1.5) cm respectively in control group, the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The complete patent of the veins was 66.7% in study group and 31.3% in control group, the difference between two groups was significant (P < 0.05). In four cases of the study group, the filters were withdrawn through the original puncture site after the thrombus was completely dissolved. Conclusion: Trans-jugular CDT combined with trans-dorsalis pedis vein thrombolysis is an effective and safe therapeutic technique for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis of the lower extremities, moreover, the filter can be taken back via the original puncture site when the thrombus is completely dissolved. (authors)

  13. A new species of Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from western Colombia and Ecuador, with emended diagnoses of P. aquilus, P. dorsalis, and P. umbratus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2009-01-01

    The Neotropical bat genus Platyrrhinus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae: Stenodermatinae) currently comprises 15 species. Our morphological and morphometric analysis of large and medium-sized Platyrrhinus revealed a distinctive Undescribed species from western South America. We also recognize P. aquilus (Handley & Ferris 1972) and P. umbratus (Lyon 1902) as valid species. We describe P. nitelinea sp. nov. from western Colombia and Ecuador and provide emended diagnoses along with descriptions of P. aquilus, P.. dorsalis, and P. umbratus. Phylogenetic analysis of Platyrrhinus based on morphological characters indicates that P. aquilus is closely related to P. aurarius and P. nigellus, P. umbratus to P. chocoensis, and P. nitelinea to P. vittatus.

  14. Novas pragas agrícolas na Ilha de S. Nicolau - Cabo Verde: Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lep.:Gelechiidae) e Bactrocera invadens (Drew, Tsuruta & White) (Dipt.: Tephritidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Melissa Vanize dos Anjos da Costa

    2013-01-01

    In the last two years, invasive species that are pests of agricultural crops were introduced in some of the islands of the archipelago of Cape Verde with a high economic impact in agriculture. These include the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechidae) and Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White (Diptera: Tephritidae). In order to assess the presence of these pests on the island of São Nicolau, attractive traps were settled in four areas with banana...

  15. The effect of fly attack (Bactrocera oleae) on the quality and phenolic content of Chemlal olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mettouchi, Soraya; Angerosa, Franca; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Bellal, Mohand Mouloud

    2009-01-01

    The attack on olives by the pest Bactrocera oleae has been studied to determine its influence on the olive oil quality (free acidity, peroxide value, UV extinction, sensorial quality), the total polyphenol and the individual phenolic compounds. The Algerian chemlal olive variety was used in this work. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of phenolic compounds were performed using the colorimetric method and the GC coupled with mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that the attack modif...

  16. Insect growth regulators as potential insecticides to control olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae Rossi): insect toxicity bioassays and molecular docking approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bengochea Budia, Paloma; Christiaens, Olivier; Amor Parrilla, Fermín; Viñuela Sandoval, Elisa; Rougé, Pierre; Medina Velez, Maria Pilar; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a key pest in olive orchards, causing serious economic damage. To date, the pest has already developed resistance to the insecticides commonly applied to control it. Thus, in searching for new products for an accurate resistance management programme, targeting the ecdysone receptor (EcR)might provide alternative compounds for use in such programmes. RESULTS: Residual contact and oral exposure in the laboratory of B. oleae adults to the dibenzoy...

  17. Pest risk assessment for regulatory control of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Musina area (Limpopo Province) / J.H. Venter.

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Jan Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Fruit flies (Tephritidae) can enter and establish in new territories due to the movement of fruit from one area to another through trade or tourism, which can negatively impact on fruit production and market access. An invader fruit fly species (Bactrocera invadens) has established on the African continent and has spread throughout sub-Saharan Africa. This newly described polyphagous fruit fly species is a successful invader species which continues to distribute and establish in new habitats....

  18. Simulation of the Electrical Field in Equine Larynx to Optimize Functional Electrical Stimulation in Denervated Musculus Cricoarythenoideus Dorsalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Martin; Martinek, Johannes

    2014-09-23

    Distribution of the electrical field is very important to activate muscle and nerve cells properly. One therapeutic method to treat Recurrent Laryngeal Neuropathy (RLN) in horses can be performed by Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). Current method to optimize the stimulation effect is to use implanted quadripolar electrodes to the musculus cricoarythenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and testing electrode configuration until best possible optimum is reached. For better understanding and finding of maximum possible activation of CAD a simulation model of the actual entire setting is currently in development. Therefore the geometric model is built from CT-data of a dissected larynx containing the quadripolar electrodes as well as fiducials for later data registration. The geometric model is the basis for a finite difference method containing of voxels with corresponding electrical conductivity of the different types of tissue due to threshold segmentation of the CT-data. Model validation can be done by the measurement of the 3D electrical potential distribution of a larynx positioned in an electrolytic tray. Finally, measured and calculated results have to be compared as well as further investigated. Preliminary results show, that changes of electrode as well as conductivity configuration leads to significant different voltage distributions and can be well presented by equipotential lines superimposed CT-slices - a Matlab graphical user interface visualizes the results in freely selectable slices of the 3D geometry. Voltage distribution along theoretically estimated fiber paths could be calculated as well as visualized. For further calculation of nerve or denervated muscle fiber activation and its optimization, real fiber paths have to be defined and referenced to the potential- and the CT-data. PMID:26913137

  19. Cat's medullary reticulospinal and subnucleus reticularis dorsalis noxious neurons form a coupled neural circuit through collaterals of descending axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiras, Roberto; Martín-Cora, Francisco; Velo, Patricia; Liste, Tania; Canedo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Animals and human beings sense and react to real/potential dangerous stimuli. However, the supraspinal mechanisms relating noxious sensing and nocifensive behavior are mostly unknown. The collateralization and spatial organization of interrelated neurons are important determinants of coordinated network function. Here we electrophysiologically studied medial medullary reticulospinal neurons (mMRF-RSNs) antidromically identified from the cervical cord of anesthetized cats and found that 1) more than 40% (79/183) of the sampled mMRF-RSNs emitted bifurcating axons running within the dorsolateral (DLF) and ventromedial (VMF) ipsilateral fascicles; 2) more than 50% (78/151) of the tested mMRF-RSNs with axons running in the VMF collateralized to the subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD) that also sent ipsilateral descending fibers bifurcating within the DLF and the VMF. This percentage of mMRF collateralization to the SRD increased to more than 81% (53/65) when considering the subpopulation of mMRF-RSNs responsive to noxiously heating the skin; 3) reciprocal monosynaptic excitatory relationships were electrophysiologically demonstrated between noxious sensitive mMRF-RSNs and SRD cells; and 4) injection of the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin evidenced mMRF to SRD and SRD to mMRF projections contacting the soma and proximal dendrites. The data demonstrated a SRD-mMRF network interconnected mainly through collaterals of descending axons running within the VMF, with the subset of noxious sensitive cells forming a reverberating circuit probably amplifying mutual outputs simultaneously regulating motor activity and spinal noxious afferent input. The results provide evidence that noxious stimulation positively engages a reticular SRD-mMRF-SRD network involved in pain-sensory-to-motor transformation and modulation. PMID:26581870

  20. Contributions to elevated metabolism during recovery: dissecting the excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in the desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Thomas V; Gleeson, Todd T

    2008-01-01

    The excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), a measure of recovery costs, is known to be large in ectothermic vertebrates such as the desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis), especially after vigorous activity. To analyze the cause of these large recovery costs in a terrestrial ectotherm, Dipsosaurus were run for 15 s at maximal-intensity (distance 35.0+/-1.9 m; 2.33+/-0.13 m s(-1)) while O(2) uptake was monitored via open-flow respirometry. Muscle metabolites (adenylates, phosphocreatine, and lactate) were measured at rest and after 0, 3, 10, and 60 min of recovery. Cardiac and ventilatory activity during rest and recovery were measured, as were whole-body lactate and blood lactate, which were used to estimate total muscle activity. This vigorous activity was supported primarily by glycolysis (65%) and phosphocreatine hydrolysis (29%), with only a small contribution from aerobic metabolism (2.5%). Aerobic recovery lasted 43.8+/-4.6 min, and EPOC measured 0.166+/-0.025 mL O(2) g(-1). This was a large proportion (98%) of the total suprabasal metabolic cost of the activity to the animal. The various contributions to EPOC after this short but vigorous activity were quantified, and a majority of EPOC was accounted for. The two primary causes of EPOC were phosphocreatine repletion (32%-50%) and lactate glycogenesis (30%-47%). Four other components played smaller roles: ATP repletion (8%-13%), elevated ventilatory activity (2%), elevated cardiac activity (2%), and oxygen store resaturation (1%). PMID:18040968

  1. Biologia reprodutiva de Delomys dorsalis (Hensel, 1872 - Rodentia, Sigmodontinae - em área de floresta ombrófila mista, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina V. Cademartori

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive Biology of Delomys dorsalis (HENSEL, 1872 -Rodentia, Sigmodontinae- in an area of mixed forest with conifers, at Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Delomys dorsalis is restricted to the wet tropical and subtropical forests of southern and southeastern Brazil and northeastern Argentina. The reproductive cycle of this species was studied by the histological examination of the reproductive tracts of animals caught in an area of mixed forest with conifers (29º 23´ S, 50º 23´ W, in southern Brazil, and from observations on a laboratory group of individuals. Fourteen expeditions were carried out from February 1997 to April 1998, during approximately 3 nights, using 140 live traps set on the ground and on branches between 1.5 and 2.0 m high. Reproductively active individuals were observed year round, although winter was marked by a reduction in breeding activity resulting from recruitment. Females showed a post-partum oestrus and a gestation time between 21 and 22 days. The litter size in captivity ranged from two to four, though pregnant females collected from the field had even five embryos. External reproductive features, frequently used as indicatives of the reproductive status of small mammals in ecological studies, were not accurate and underestimated the number of active animals in the population. Some individuals showed a remarkable scansorial ability that should be considered in future studies about population dynamics.

  2. Constrained spherical deconvolution-based tractography to depict and characterize a case of "hyperplastic fornix dorsalis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contarino, Valeria Elisa; Bulgheroni, Sara; Savoiardo, Mario; Annunziata, Silvia; Aquino, Domenico; Riva, Daria; Erbetta, Alessandra

    2014-12-01

    The authors report the relevance of Constrained Spherical Deconvolution (CSD)-based tractography in demonstrating and quantitatively assessing a complex midline structure malformation in a 9-year-old girl with moderate intellectual disability and thickening of corpus callosum (CC) body discovered through conventional MRI (cMRI). Color-encoded fractional anisotropy (FA) maps clearly demonstrated what the cMRI showed as a thicknening of CC: a green, longitudinal bundle running dorsally to the body of CC. A more complex midline maldevelopmental disorder was suspected. CSD-based tractography was performed to virtually dissect the anomalous supracallosal longitudinal bundle (SLB), CC, fornix, anterior commissure (AC) and cingula. In addition, DTI-derived metrics were calculated for each virtually dissected fiber tract. The tractography study evidenced projections of the anomalous SLB in left forceps minor and to parietal regions, and projections of the fornix in right forceps minor. CC virtual dissection showed no gross abnormality, and cingula appeared slightly less extended than normal. The considerable thinning of AC hampered its virtual dissection. DTI-derived metrics suggested alterations in fornix microstructure, attributable to higher fiber density. In investigating white matter, cMRI may not be sufficient in addressing and assessing possible anomalies, while advanced CSD-based tractography and DTI-derived metrics may prove helpful in depicting and characterizing white matter anomalies in developmental disorders. PMID:25093633

  3. The effect of fly attack (Bactrocera oleae on the quality and phenolic content of Chemlal olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mettouchi, Soraya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The attack on olives by the pest Bactrocera oleae has been studied to determine its influence on the olive oil quality (free acidity, peroxide value, UV extinction, sensorial quality, the total polyphenol and the individual phenolic compounds. The Algerian chemlal olive variety was used in this work. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of phenolic compounds were performed using the colorimetric method and the GC coupled with mass spectrometry. The results demonstrated that the attack modified the quality of olive oil and confirmed the existence of hydrolytic and mostly oxidative processess which strongly reduced the amount of O-diphenolic compounds. The extent of modification was much greater when the olives were attacked and harvested at an advanced stage of maturity. Early harvesting could be an effective way to limit the damage caused by B. oleae and to improve the quality of virgin olive oil.Se ha estudiado el ataque de las aceitunas por la plaga Bactrocera oleae con el fin de determinar la influencia sobre la calidad del aceite de oliva (acidez libre, índice de peróxidos, extinción UV, calidad sensorial, polifenoles totales e individuales. Este estudio se realizó con el aceite de oliva obtenido a partir de la mayoritaria variedad de Argelia (Chemlal. El análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo de los compuestos fenólicos se realizó por el método colorimétrico y por cromatografía gaseosa acoplada a la espectomertria de masas respectivamente. Los resultados demostraron que el ataque de la mosca, modifica la calidad del aceite de oliva y se confirmó además la existencia de procesos hidroliticos y, en particular oxidativos, que reducen fuertemente la cantidad de compuestos O-difenólicos. El alcance de la modificación fue mucho mayor cuando las aceitunas fueron atacadas en una fase avanzada de maduración. La recolección temprana podría ser una manera eficaz para limitar el daño causado por B. oleae y mejorar la calidad del aceite

  4. Assessment effect of gamma radiation on the flight ability of the peach fruit fly, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Ismail Ragab; El-Aw, M A M; Hashem, A G; Draz, K A

    2013-12-01

    The sterile insect technique is one of the most methods of fruit flies control. Flight ability of the Peach Fruit Fly (PFF), Bactrocera zonata was conducted under laboratory conditions to evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on flight ability of PFF, B. zonata. Pupae of PFF, B. zonata, were irradiated in an air atmosphere at 24, 48 and 72 h before adult emergence with three doses of Cobalt 60 (10, 30 and 50 Gray) and tested against 6, 12 and 20 cm tube heights. Flight Ability Percentage (FAP) of PFF was carried out for newly emerged flies and six-days-old of adult flies. FAP of newly emerged-and six- days-old of adult flies was inversely proportional to the tube heights, doses of gamma rays and with progress the age of flies. The FAP value was significantly higher at 6 cm tube height, followed by 12 cm then 20 cm tube heights for all tested levels of gamma rays, respectively. PMID:24506040

  5. Microsatellite markers reveal population structure and low gene flow among collections of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Li, Yunlong; Ruiz-Arce, Raul; McPheron, Bruce A; Wu, Jiajiao; Li, Zhihong

    2011-06-01

    The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is widespread agricultural pest, and it is known to have the potential to establish invasive populations in various tropical and subtropical areas. Despite the economic risk associated with a putative stable presence of this fly, the population genetics of this pest have remained relatively unexplored in Asia, the main area for distribution of this pest. The goals for this study were to employ nuclear markers to examine geographic collections for population genetic structure and quantify the extent of gene flow within these Southeast Asian and Chinese populations. To achieve these goals, we used 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers. A low level of genetic diversity was found among collections from China and higher levels were seen in Southeast Asia collections. Three genetically distinct groups, Southeast Asia, southwest China, and southeast China, were recovered by Bayesian model-based clustering methods, the phylogenetic reconstruction and the principal coordinate analysis. The Mantel test clearly shows geographical distance contributed in the genetic structuring of B. cucurbitae's populations. No recent bottlenecks for any of the populations examined. The results of clustering, migration analyses, and Mantel test, strongly suggest that the regional structure observed may be due to geographical factors such as mountains, rivers, and islands. We found a high rate of migration in some sites from the southwest China region (cluster 1) and the southeast China region (cluster 2), suggesting that China-Guangdong-Guangzhou (GZ) may be the center of melon fruit fly in the southeast China region. PMID:21735930

  6. Use of alpha-ionol + cade oil for detection and monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is a tephritid fruit fly that primarily infests solanaceous fruits. Although primarily of Asian distribution, it has invaded Hawaii and, more recently, the continent of Africa (Tanzania and Kenya). Male B. latifrons uniquely respond to alpha-ionol + cade oil, rather than to either methyl eugenol or cuelure, to which males of the majority of other Dacine fruit flies respond. Here we present research results detailing the age of male B. latifrons response to alpha-ionol + cade oil, the persistence of wick attractiveness, and the effectiveness of alpha-ionol + cade oil in detecting B. latifrons populations. Based on wind tunnel studies with wild flies, male response steadily increased from 5% at age 2 to 45% at age 28, with male response exceeding 50% of the peak response by Day 7 and exceeding 75% and 90% by days 14 and 21, respectively. The attractiveness of wicks treated with 2.0 ml alpha-ionol and 1.0 ml cade oil (on separate wicks) declined over time, with wick response reduced to about 50% of the fresh catch after 6 1/2 weeks. Based on concurrent alpha-ionol + cade oil based trapping and collections of turkey berry, Solanum torvum (Solanaceae), fruits, the presence of B. latifrons was detected at the time of fruit collection, 75.5 % of the time. (author)

  7. Use of alpha-ionol + cade oil for detection and monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuate, Grant T.; Jang, Eric B., E-mail: grant.mcquate@ars.usda.go, E-mail: eric.jang@ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS), Hilo, HI (United States). Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center; Bokonon-Ganta, Aime H., E-mail: aimehbg@hawaii.ed [University of Hawaii (CTAHR/PEPS/UH), Honolulu, HI (United States). Coll. of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources. Dept. of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences

    2006-07-01

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) is a tephritid fruit fly that primarily infests solanaceous fruits. Although primarily of Asian distribution, it has invaded Hawaii and, more recently, the continent of Africa (Tanzania and Kenya). Male B. latifrons uniquely respond to alpha-ionol + cade oil, rather than to either methyl eugenol or cuelure, to which males of the majority of other Dacine fruit flies respond. Here we present research results detailing the age of male B. latifrons response to alpha-ionol + cade oil, the persistence of wick attractiveness, and the effectiveness of alpha-ionol + cade oil in detecting B. latifrons populations. Based on wind tunnel studies with wild flies, male response steadily increased from 5% at age 2 to 45% at age 28, with male response exceeding 50% of the peak response by Day 7 and exceeding 75% and 90% by days 14 and 21, respectively. The attractiveness of wicks treated with 2.0 ml alpha-ionol and 1.0 ml cade oil (on separate wicks) declined over time, with wick response reduced to about 50% of the fresh catch after 6 1/2 weeks. Based on concurrent alpha-ionol + cade oil based trapping and collections of turkey berry, Solanum torvum (Solanaceae), fruits, the presence of B. latifrons was detected at the time of fruit collection, 75.5 % of the time. (author)

  8. Towards understanding temporal and spatial dynamics of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) infestations using decade-long agrometeorological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Susanna; Guidotti, Diego; Ricciolini, Massimo; Petacchi, Ruggero

    2016-04-01

    Insect dynamics depend on temperature patterns, and therefore, global warming may lead to increasing frequencies and intensities of insect outbreaks. The aim of this work was to analyze the dynamics of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), in Tuscany (Italy). We profited from long-term records of insect infestation and weather data available from the regional database and agrometeorological network. We tested whether the analysis of 13 years of monitoring campaigns can be used as basis for prediction models of B. oleae infestation. We related the percentage of infestation observed in the first part of the host-pest interaction and throughout the whole year to agrometeorological indices formulated for different time periods. A two-step approach was adopted to inspect the effect of weather on infestation: generalized linear model with a binomial error distribution and principal component regression to reduce the number of the agrometeorological factors and remove their collinearity. We found a consistent relationship between the degree of infestation and the temperature-based indices calculated for the previous period. The relationship was stronger with the minimum temperature of winter season. Higher infestation was observed in years following warmer winters. The temperature of the previous winter and spring explained 66 % of variance of early-season infestation. The temperature of previous winter and spring, and current summer, explained 72 % of variance of total annual infestation. These results highlight the importance of multiannual monitoring activity to fully understand the dynamics of B. oleae populations at a regional scale.

  9. Optimizing methyl-eugenol aromatherapy to maximize posttreatment effects to enhance mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Ihsan ul; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    Methyl-eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural phytochemical, did enhance male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) mating competitiveness 3 d after ingestion. Enhanced male mating competitiveness can significantly increase the effectiveness of the sterile insect technique (SIT). ME application to mass reared sterile flies by feeding is infeasible. ME application by aromatherapy however, would be a very practical way of ME application in fly emergence and release facilities. This approach was shown to enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae 3 d posttreatment (DPT). Despite this added benefit, every additional day of delaying release will reduce sterile fly quality and will add cost to SIT application. The present study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 1DPT and 2DPT. ME aromatherapy 1DPT or 2DPT did enhance mating competitiveness of B. carambolae males whereas ME feeding 1DPT and 2DPT did not. Male mating competitiveness was enhanced by the ME aromatherapy irrespective if they received 1DPT, 2DPT or 3DPT. ME aromatherapy, being a viable approach for its application, did enhance mating competitiveness of male B. carambolae 1 d posttreatment as ME feeding did 3 d after ingestion. PMID:24935641

  10. The effect of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) on quality parameters, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjkouh, Lynda; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Keciri, Sonia; Santos, Joana; Nunes, M Antónia; Oliveira, M B P P

    2016-06-15

    The present study was performed on olives from two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Metidja) with different rates of attack by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real attacked %) and the corresponding olive oils. The aim was to verify the attack effect on quality parameters (free fatty acid, peroxide value, K232 and K270, oxidation stability), bioactive compounds (fatty acids and tocopherols, and total phenols and flavonoids), and on the antioxidant (reducing power, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching inhibition, ABTS and DPPH) and antibacterial (against 8 referenced human enteropathogenic bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method) capacities. Oils from infested olives were downgraded to the virgin olive oil category. Rougette de Metidja, the cultivar with a higher drupe size, was more attacked than Limli. The B. oleae attack causes an important decrease in the total phenolic contents (>30%) but to a lesser degree in the case of tocopherols. Among them, α-tocopherol is the most affected. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities were highly correlated with phenolic levels. The results of this study show the importance of controlling the fly attack because it causes a decrease in the beneficial health effects of olive oils. PMID:27220688

  11. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, and their cross-species amplification in the Tephritidae family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakani Evdoxia G

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tephritidae family of insects includes the most important agricultural pests of fruits and vegetables, belonging mainly to four genera (Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Anastrepha and Rhagoletis. The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the major pest of the olive fruit. Currently, its control is based on chemical insecticides. Environmentally friendlier methods have been attempted in the past (Sterile Insect Technique, albeit with limited success. This was mainly attributed to the lack of knowledge on the insect's behaviour, ecology and genetic structure of natural populations. The development of molecular markers could facilitate the access in the genome and contribute to the solution of the aforementioned problems. We chose to focus on microsatellite markers due to their abundance in the genome, high degree of polymorphism and easiness of isolation. Results Fifty-eight microsatellite-containing clones were isolated from the olive fly, Bactrocera oleae, bearing a total of sixty-two discrete microsatellite motifs. Forty-two primer pairs were designed on the unique sequences flanking the microsatellite motif and thirty-one of them amplified a PCR product of the expected size. The level of polymorphism was evaluated against wild and laboratory flies and the majority of the markers (93.5% proved highly polymorphic. Thirteen of them presented a unique position on the olive fly polytene chromosomes by in situ hybridization, which can serve as anchors to correlate future genetic and cytological maps of the species, as well as entry points to the genome. Cross-species amplification of these markers to eleven Tephritidae species and sequencing of thirty-one of the amplified products revealed a varying degree of conservation that declines outside the Bactrocera genus. Conclusion Microsatellite markers are very powerful tools for genetic and population analyses, particularly in species deprived of any other means of genetic analysis. The

  12. Efficacy of locally produced papain enzyme for the production of protein bait for bactrocera invadens (diptera: tephritidae) control in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autolysed brewery yeast waste is currently being used as cost effective protein bait for Bactrocera invadens control the world over to replace commercial protein hydrolysate bait formulations. However, significant reduction in production cost can be achieved when all the production materials are from local sources. This experiment was aimed at assessing the efficacy of locally produced papain extracted from 'Red lady' pawpaw fruit latex and skin peel to be used for protein bait production. Aqueous two-phase extraction of papain from pawpaw fruit latex with 15 % (NH4)2SO4 - 8 % PEG recovered 64.72 ± 2.08 % papain into the supernatant with 7.33 % proteolytic activity yield and a fold purification of 58.11 ± 1.67. Proteolytic activity and protein concentration measured for the aqueous two-phase extracts of pawpaw skin peel were significantly higher (p= 0.00) than crude extracts of skin peel. However, the aqueous two phase extraction of papain from skin peel needs to be optimised further since SDS-PAGE showed no visible bands in the different phase extracts. Gamma irradiation at 10 KGy increased the proteolytic activity of crude papain by 21.69 % of the non-irradiated papain and subsequently increased the specific activity by 18.51 % but the protein concentration was not affected. Protein baits prepared with crude papain extracted from the pawpaw fruit latex and skin peels were evaluated in laboratory bioassays with wild flies reared from field collected infested mangoes. The source of papain did not affect the protein bait recovery, the pH and protein concentration though colour of bait differed for crude fruit latex papain bait (dark brown) and skin peel papain bait (light brown). The bait preparations had equal attractance to male and female B. invadens. Mean attractance to protein baits produced with fruit latex and skin peel papain baits were between 25.00 ± 7.56 % and 47.50 ± 11.09 % respectively for males, 25.00 ± 13.13 % and 32.86 ± 8.23 % for

  13. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Chinese Citrus Fly, Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae), by High-Throughput Illumina Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Xiong, Ke-Cai; Liu, Ying-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlein), is one of the most devastating pests of citrus in the temperate areas of Asia. So far, studies involving molecular biology and physiology of B. minax are still scarce, partly because of the lack of genomic information and inability to rear this insect in laboratory. In this study, de novo assembly of a transcriptome was performed using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 20,928,907 clean reads were obtained and assembled into 33,324 unigenes, with an average length of 908.44 bp. Unigenes were annotated by alignment against NCBI non-redundant protein (Nr), Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway (KEGG) database. Genes potentially involved in stress tolerance, including 20 heat shock protein (Hsps) genes, 26 glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) genes, and 2 ferritin subunit genes, were identified. These genes may play roles in stress tolerance in B. minax diapause stage. It has previously been found that 20E application on B. minax pupae could avert diapause, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Thus, genes encoding enzymes in 20E biosynthesis pathway, including Neverland, Spook, Phantom, Disembodied, Shadow, Shade, and Cyp18a1, and genes encoding 20E receptor proteins, ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP), were identified. The expression patterns of 20E-related genes among developmental stages and between 20E-treated and untreated pupae demonstrated their roles in diapause program. In addition, 1,909 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected, which will contribute to molecular marker development. The findings in this study greatly improve our genetic understanding of B. minax, and lay the foundation for future studies on this species. PMID:27331903

  14. Design of a micro colorimetric enzyme assay for screening of radioprotectors using the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera Philippine's Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of function and expression of a 109kDa protein is observed in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera philippinensis, upon exposure to a γ-radiation dose of 100 Gy. Found to possess tyrosinase activity, this marker enzyme is particularly important during quarantine treatment of export fruits. A semi-automated radioprotector screening assay for anti-cancer drug development at PNRI has been developed and optimized. Larvae of B.philippinensis are subjected to relatively high and low doses of standard radioprotectors (L-glutathione (GSH), tert-butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), garlic bulb extracts), temperature treatments (37 degrees centegrade and 42 degrees centegrade) and relatively high and low radiation doses (10 and 40 Gy) following a 2-factorial design. Using mushroom tyrosinase as standard and 605 nm as reference wavelength, optimum precision, sensitivity and curve linearity are achieved at the 405 nm window within 60-minute reaction time with 2-methyl DOPA yielding dopachrome. Significant radioprotection and tyrosinase activity are observed. Results showed that GSH exhibited the best radioprotection with an emergence rate of 100% (GSHη 42 degrees10). Consequently, GSHη exhibited a high dopachrome level next to garlicη. Garlic approximates the performance of GSH and BHA, but the fact that dopachrome levels or garlich are exceeding high could be correlated with the relatively lower emergence rates observed. Dopachrome level of 0.45-005μg/ml exhibits the optimal radioprotection.Other radioprotectors will be screened in the future using this assay in search of potent and less toxic radioprotectors that could decrease radiation-induced morbidities and improve therapeutic gains in patients undergoing therapy. (Author)

  15. Analysis of the Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Transcriptome and Phylogenetic Classification of the Major Detoxification Gene Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Pavlidi

    Full Text Available The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae has a unique ability to cope with olive flesh, and is the most destructive pest of olives worldwide. Its control has been largely based on the use of chemical insecticides, however, the selection of insecticide resistance against several insecticides has evolved. The study of detoxification mechanisms, which allow the olive fruit fly to defend against insecticides, and/or phytotoxins possibly present in the mesocarp, has been hampered by the lack of genomic information in this species. In the NCBI database less than 1,000 nucleotide sequences have been deposited, with less than 10 detoxification gene homologues in total. We used 454 pyrosequencing to produce, for the first time, a large transcriptome dataset for B. oleae. A total of 482,790 reads were assembled into 14,204 contigs. More than 60% of those contigs (8,630 were larger than 500 base pairs, and almost half of them matched with genes of the order of the Diptera. Analysis of the Gene Ontology (GO distribution of unique contigs, suggests that, compared to other insects, the assembly is broadly representative for the B. oleae transcriptome. Furthermore, the transcriptome was found to contain 55 P450, 43 GST-, 15 CCE- and 18 ABC transporter-genes. Several of those detoxification genes, may putatively be involved in the ability of the olive fruit fly to deal with xenobiotics, such as plant phytotoxins and insecticides. In summary, our study has generated new data and genomic resources, which will substantially facilitate molecular studies in B. oleae, including elucidation of detoxification mechanisms of xenobiotic, as well as other important aspects of olive fruit fly biology.

  16. Psyttalia ponerophaga (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a potential biological control agent of olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, K R; Daane, K M; Kirk, A; Andrews, J W; Johnson, M W; Messing, R H

    2007-06-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a newly invasive, significant threat to California's olive industry. As part of a classical biological control programme, Psyttalia ponerophaga (Silvestri) was imported to California from Pakistan and evaluated in quarantine. Biological parameters that would improve rearing and field-release protocols and permit comparisons to other olive fruit fly biological control agents were measured. Potential barriers to the successful establishment of P. ponerophaga, including the geographic origins of parasitoid and pest populations and constraints imposed by fruit size, were also evaluated as part of this investigation. Under insectary conditions, all larval stages except neonates were acceptable hosts. Provided a choice of host ages, the parasitoids' host-searching and oviposition preferences were a positive function of host age, with most offspring reared from hosts attacked as third instars. Immature developmental time was a negative function of tested temperatures, ranging from 25.5 to 12.4 days at 22 and 30 degrees C, respectively. Evaluation of adult longevity, at constant temperatures ranging from 15 to 34 degrees C, showed that P. ponerophaga had a broad tolerance of temperature, living from 3 to 34 days at 34 and 15 degrees C, respectively. Lifetime fecundity was 18.7 +/- 2.8 adult offspring per female, with most eggs deposited within 12 days after adult eclosion. Olive size affected parasitoid performance, with lower parasitism levels on hosts feeding in larger olives. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to field manipulation and selection of parasitoid species for olive fruit fly biological control in California and worldwide. PMID:17524155

  17. Parasitism, emergence, and development of Spalangia endius (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in pupae of different ages of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang-De; Ji, Xun-Cong; Han, Yun; Fu, Bu-Li; Liu, Kui

    2015-01-01

    The wasp Spalangia endius Walker (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a major parasitoid of the pupae of fruit flies, which are a common agricultural pest. An understanding of this intricate host-parasitoid interaction could provide basic information necessary for the sustainable integrated biological control of fruit flies. In this study, we investigated the effect of S. endius on different-aged pupae of the melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett by using choice and nonchoice tests under laboratory conditions. We showed that S. endius females oviposited, and their progeny successfully developed, in different-aged pupae of B. cucurbitae regardless of the method of exposure. There was an oviposition preference for 3-5-d-old pupa. The highest mean percentage parasitism occurred on 4- and 5-d-old hosts, followed by 2- and 3-d-old hosts. The average development time for both males and females was significantly longer in 6-7-d-old hosts than in the younger host stages. Adult females that developed from younger host pupae (2-5-d old) were significantly heavier than those from older host pupae (6-7-d old), and they also lived longer. The sex ratio (proportion of females) of the parasite progeny decreased with an increase in host age. Host mortality also decreased gradually as the pupal age increased. The differences in development time, body weight, and longevity between females and males were significant. These results suggest that S. endius is a good candidate for the biological control of B. cucurbitae. PMID:25700538

  18. Morphological and histological damage on reproduction organ of radio-sterilized male fruit flies bactrocera carambolae (drew & hancock) (diptera; tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that gamma irradiation of 90 Gy on pupae of Bactrocera carambolae (Drew & Hancock) fruit fly induced sterility on the adults, however limited data on the cause of sterility is available. To obtain such information, morphological and histological damages on the reproduction organ of male adult flies emerged from irradiated pupae were observed. Pupae of 9 day-old were irradiated with 90 Gy gamma, and the male adults of 7 and 14 day-old emerged from the pupae were dissected to obtained the testis. Morphology and size of the testis of irradiated and unirradiated flies were observed under the microscopes, each in 10 replicates. Preparate of the testis were also made and observed under the microscopes of 400 magnification. The results showed that significant damages were found on testis of the irradiated B. carambolae flies due to irradiation, so that the growth of the organ disturbed as shown by the smallers size of the irradiated testis as compare to the normal one. On the irradiated 7 day-old flies, the length and width of testis were 25.9 and 30.2 % smaller, while on those of 14 day-old the testis were 39.20 and 44.42 % smaller, than the normal. Besides smaller in size, dead germinal cells on the testis preparate were also observed. It is concluded that sterility on the male flies was due to the damage on the germinal cells so that abnormal spermatogenesis process happened. The smaller in size of the testis, is also differentiate between of the irradiated from the normal flies of B. carambolae. (author)

  19. Irradiation of Eggs and Larvae of Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock) Fruit Fly to Produce Irradiation Host for Its Parasitoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bactrocera carambolae (Drew and Hancock) fruit fly, a major pests of commercial fruits in Indonesia, is attacked by several species of parasitoids in the field, such as by Biosteres sp. that attacks on early instar larvae and Opius sp. on late instar larvae. In order to produce irradiated host in mass rearing of both species, several dosage of gamma were tested on both eggs and larvae. Egg masses of 0.5 ml were irradiated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy and then inoculated into artificial diet. Viability of the eggs, the larval period and the number of pupae produced were observed. About 200 third instar larvae irradiated with 0, 10, 30, 50,70 dan 90 Gy and the number and quality of the pupae developed were then observed. The results showed that the eggs irradiated with tested dosage did not reduce its viability however it reduced the survival of larvae emerged. Number of pupae produced from 0.5 ml irradiated eggs were reduced from 2740 pupae to 407, 167, 113, 53 and 44 pupae, besides the pupation delayed up to three days. Irradiation on third instars larvae did not reduce its pupation, since pupae were developed from > 85 % of irradiated larvae. However, irradiation did reduced the fly emergence from the pupae. Irradiated hosts for Biosteres sp and Opius sp can be produced by irradiating eggs however it should be evaluated since the survival rate of the larvae reduced. Irradiation of third instar larvae may produce irradiated host for Opius sp So, the use of irradiated eggs or irradiated larvae as host in the colonization of the parasitoids will insure no hosts emerged as adult. However it remain to be proved whether irradiated hosts are prefered and able to support the life of parasitoid. (author)

  20. Field evaluation of trap types and lures for Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae). Experiments conducted in Chios, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments were conducted in Chios Greece, during the summers of 2001 to 2004 to compare different trapping systems for the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi). Plastic Multilure traps (MLT) (McPhail type) baited with an aqueous solution of NuLure plus borax was the most effective trapping system followed by same traps baited with Ammonium Bicarbonate (AB) tablets. Interestingly, the superiority of NuLure was persistent under low and high population densities. NuLure-baited traps were the least selective capturing large number of non-target insects. Interestingly though, they caPTure less Chrysopids than AB baited traps. Addition of a dispenser of the sex pheromone Spiroketol (SK) in AB-baited traps did not increase Captures of males neither the total number of adults captured. Wet (provide with water plus triton) AB-baited traps were more effective than similarly baited dry traps (provided with a DDVP tablet). Captures of olive fruit flies in a Citrus orchard in the same area showed that NuLure-baited MLT traps were more effective than similar traps baited with long lasting dispensers of Ammonium Acetate (AA), Putrescine (PT) and Trimethylamine (TMA). Increasing the number of AB dispensers did not result in any increase of the captured olive fruit flies. In other experiments we found that NuLure-baited, MLT traps were approx. 2.5 times more effective than Elcophon traps baited with Entomela (a commercial Greek trap). Sensus traps baited with Questlure (a South African trap) were completely ineffective for olive fruit fly. Different combinations of AB with one or all of the following food attractant AA, PT and TMA did not increase the effectiveness of the MLT traps. Finally, we found out that changing the color of the lower part of the MLT traps from yellow to red decreased the number of the attracted olive fruit flies. The importance of these findings for developing new attractants and/or trapping systems for the olive fruit fly, as well as for the

  1. Management of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, infesting cucurbit growing areas of Bangladesh using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protocols for the application of SIT have been developed to suppress the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae, the key pest of cucurbit growing areas in the country. Collaborations have been initiated to transfer the technology to the field through the Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI). They have the established network among the horticultural producers throughout the country. The Insect Biotechnology Division of the Institute of Food and Radiation Biology (IFRB) has developed mass-rearing of the fruit fly using artificial diet and protocols for SIT application i.e., sterility dose, mating competitiveness, quality control etc. Semi-field trials of SIT have been conducted successfully. The sterilising dose for the melon fly was determined by exposing 72 hrs old pupae to gamma rays at various doses: 5,10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 Gy. Mating competitiveness of the irradiated males and the virgin untreated females were conducted at ratios 1:1. A radiation dose of 50 Gy induced 100% sterility in the melon fly. Semi-field trials of the melon fly, B. cucurbitae were conducted on the premises of IFRB. A netted area of 3 x 1.5 x 2 meters (L x W x H) was used for the semi field trial experiments. The irradiated males (50 Gy) and unirradiated females were released at a ratio of 1:1 in the netted cages. The mating period was recorded between 5 p.m. and 9 p.m. Complete sterility was achieved at 50 Gy but percent mating of irradiated males with unirradiated females was recorded as 69.4 % ± 7.8. Further work on mating competitiveness, longevity of sterile males and preliminary field trials are in progress following the SIT model of Knipling. Extensive cucurbit growing areas of the southwestern parts (Jessore district) of Bangladesh have been selected for the preliminary field release programme of the melon fly. For the proper implementation of melon fly SIT programme, the following management structure has been formulated in

  2. STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE OF ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, Bactrocera dorsalis (HENDEL)—— OPTIMAL PUPAL AGE AND DOSE OF IRRADIATION TREATMENT FOR MALE PUPAE%橘小实蝇雄性不育技术——雄蛹辐照最佳时期和剂量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季清娥; 侯伟荣; 陈家骅

    2007-01-01

    羽化前1、2、3d的橘小实蝇雄蛹分别经过90、100、105Gy的60Co辐射,检测其羽化率、飞行能力和耐压存活率;羽化后再分别与普通雌虫杂交,在羽化后的第10天、第17天分别取卵200粒,计算卵孵化率.研究结果表明,对橘小实蝇雄蛹辐射的最佳时期为羽化前2d;最佳辐射照量为100Gy.

  3. 橘小实蝇雄性不育技术应用过程中混入雌虫活力的研究%VIABILITY OF THE MISS-SEXED FEMALE PUPAE IN THE PROCESS OF APPLICATION OF STERILE INSECT TECHNIQUE OF MALE ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, Bactrocera dorsalis ( HENDEL )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季清娥; 杜迎刚; 侯伟荣; 陈家骅

    2008-01-01

    取羽化前1、2和3d(即-1d、-2d和-3d)来自橘小实蝇遗传性别品系的雌蛹,分别经过90、100和105Gy的60Co辐照后,检测成虫的羽化率、飞行能力和耐压存活率;辐照处理的雌蛹羽化后再分别与普通雄虫和来自遗传性别品系的不育雄虫杂交,在羽化后的第10天、第17天分别采卵,记录产卵量和卵孵化率.结果表明,雌虫羽化率、飞行能力和耐压存活率等变化与雄虫接受辐照后的质量监测结果相同;经过辐照的雌、雄虫相互交配不产卵;辐照处理过的雌虫与普通雄虫交配,成虫的产卵量明显减少,而且剂量越大,蛹龄越小,产卵量越少.

  4. Model Study of Oriental Fruit Fly (Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel) Occurrence and Dynamic in Citrus Orchard%柑橘园柑橘小实蝇入侵扩散规律与危害动态模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李达林; 汪恩国

    2011-01-01

    In order to explore the pattern of oriental fruit fly invasion,dissemination and damage,and improve monitoring and control techniques,the data on annual population dynamics were collected by applying specific sex pheromone traps in 35 monitoring points in the citrus orchard all over 19 communities of Linhai County and 2 systemic monitoring points in Fulong citrus orchard of Gucheng,and Linhai fruit market during 2008-2010.It was found that the temporal and spatial population distribution of oriental fruit fly invasion and dissemination was tower-type in Linhai area,which meant the invasion from the center city spreading to the surrounding area.Population dynamics of oriental fruit fly might usually be described by a single peak curve.The first trap of adult insect appeared between mid-June and mid-July;with the growth inflection point forming in early-August,and the biggest amount of population appeared between September and October.The main factors affecting the population dynamics were population base,climate and habitat conditions.Oriental fruit fly population base (m 6 ) and the annual trapped population (M) might be described by relational model M=23.8339 m 6 +59.8003(n=6,r=0.9735 ** ).The relationship between 10 days average population density (m n ) and 10 days average temperature in the latest 3 months (t n-9 ) was m n =1.9248t n-9 -14.88063 (n=72,r=0.5123 ** ).The relationship models among trapped population of citrus fruiting period (M),infect rate of plant (R%),infect rate of fruit (P%),amount of larvae per fruit (N) were R=0.3667M-1.2746 (n=11,r=0.8901 ** ),P=0.0581R+0.3112 (n=11,r=0.9649 ** ),and N=0.6438P+0.9610 (n=11,r=0.7000 * ).These models of oriental fruit fly invasion and dissemination could reflect the dynamic changes of oriental fruit fly in citrus orchard and help to make the better forecast and control decision..%为了探索柑橘小实蝇入侵扩散与危害规律,提高其监测与防控水平,2008—2010年应用柑橘小实蝇专用性诱剂和诱捕器,在全市19个镇(街道)35个柑橘园建立监测点进行全市性入侵扩散分布普查;在古城伏龙柑橘园和市区水果市场,建立2个系统监测点开展全年种群数量消长监测,结果表明柑橘小实蝇种群入侵扩散与时空分布呈塔型趋势,即以城区为中心,并呈向周边区域扩散蔓延趋势;全年种群时序数量变化主要呈单峰型曲线变化,一般于6月中下旬至7月上中旬初见性诱成虫,8月上旬形成增长拐点,9—10月形成数量高峰,影响种群数量消长的主要因子有种群基数、气候和生境条件等,从而创建柑橘小实蝇基数(m6)与全年种群诱量(M)关系模型M=23.8339m6+59.8003(n=6,r=0.9735**)、当旬虫口密度(mn)与其前3个月的旬平均气温(tn-9)关系模型mn=1.9248tn-9-14.88063(n=72,r=0.5123**),以及柑橘挂果期成虫诱量(M)、有虫株率(R%)、有虫果率(P%)、每虫果幼虫量(N)等关系模型:R=0.3667M-1.2746(n=11,r=0.8901**);P=0.0581R+0.3112(n=11,r=0.9649**);N=0.6438P+0.9610(n=11,r=0.7000*)。应用柑橘小实蝇种群入侵扩散危害规律及其参数模型,可反映柑橘园柑橘小实蝇发生变化动态,可随旬作出预报和决策防治,这对提高其监测预警和持续控制具有重要指导意义。

  5. Estimation of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae Gmel. (Diptera, Tephritidae) attractants for area-wide monitoring and suppression programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae Gmel. (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most serious pest of olives in the Mediterranean countries as well as in the whole Croatian olive growing regions. Economic losses due to this pest have been estimated to reach up to 15 % of the olive crop, in spite of the fact that insecticide treatments are applied every year to control the olive fly population. In the Croatian olive growing regions, the fruit infestation before picking time, can reach up to over 80% in the southern and middle Dalmacia region without any control measures. The damage caused by the olive fly and its control measures result in: reduction in yield and quality of fruit and hence of olive oil; use of expensive chemicals and machinery that increases production costs and the use of toxic chemicals creating many environmental problems. In terms of practical application of alternative or biotechnological area-wide methods in central Dalmacia, basic experiments on the development of trapping systems have been carried on during two years. These experiments include the testing of three types of attractants commonly used in other Mediterranean olive growing regions for olive fly control. The experiments include food attractants: hydrolized protein with the trade name Buminal in liquid form and ammonium phosphate in solid form and also the main female sex pheromone component 1,7-dioxaspiro (5,5) undecane formulated as polyethylene vials. The responses of olive fly to all three attractants were observed separately and compared with combinations of two and three attractants. The data on the total number of flies captured, total number of males and females and percentage of females, were collected during the period of olive fly attack. The results showed that during periods of high temperatures and low humidity, olive fly was strongly attracted to both food attractants buminal and ammonium phosphate. This period was generally defined during summer months until the

  6. Agonistic-like responses from the torus semicircularis dorsalis elicited by GABA A blockade in the weakly electric fish Gymnotus carapo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.T. Duarte

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Findings by our group have shown that the dorsolateral telencephalon of Gymnotus carapo sends efferents to the mesencephalic torus semicircularis dorsalis (TSd and that presumably this connection is involved in the changes in electric organ discharge (EOD and in skeletomotor responses observed following microinjections of GABA A antagonist bicuculline into this telencephalic region. Other studies have implicated the TSd or its mammalian homologue, the inferior colliculus, in defensive responses. In the present study, we explore the possible involvement of the TSd and of the GABA-ergic system in the modulation of the electric and skeletomotor displays. For this purpose, different doses of bicuculline (0.98, 0.49, 0.245, and 0.015 mM and muscimol (15.35 mM were microinjected (0.1 µL in the TSd of the awake G. carapo. Microinjection of bicuculline induced dose-dependent interruptions of EOD and increased skeletomotor activity resembling defense displays. The effects of the two highest doses showed maximum values at 5 min (4.3 ± 2.7 and 3.8 ± 2.0 Hz, P < 0.05 and persisted until 10 min (11 ± 5.7 and 8.7 ± 5.2 Hz, P < 0.05. Microinjections of muscimol were ineffective. During the interruptions of EOD, the novelty response (increased frequency in response to sensory novelties induced by an electric stimulus delivered by a pair of electrodes placed in the water of the experimental cuvette was reduced or abolished. These data suggest that the GABA-ergic mechanisms of the TSd inhibit the neural substrate of the defense reaction at this midbrain level.

  7. Feasibility study of MR time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics sequence in evaluation of the dorsalis pedis artery and the first dorsal metatarsal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of MR angiography of the dorsalis pedis artery (DPA), the first dorsal metatarsal artery (FDMA) and the branches at the first toe web by three-dimensional time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) sequence. Methods: Forty three patients with suspected or known soft tissue diseases of the ankle and foot were examined retrospectively by MR TRICKS sequence. Two experienced radiologists independently evaluated the visualization performance of DPA, FDMA and its branches with maximum intensity projection. Kappa analysis was performed for the image evaluation of the two radiologists. Consensus scores were obtained if the two radiologists had different scores. Clinical classification of FDMA was carried out for patients with scores equal to, or more than 2 points after imaging evaluation. FDMA was categorized according to its location (superficial, intramuscular, infra-muscular, absent), diameter (large, medium and small) and branching pattern at the toe web (ramifying type, main trunk type and fine small branch). Results: The scoring results of the two radiologists indicated a high agreement (Kappa value =0.895, P<0.05). TRICKS images can clearly show the arterial filling of DPA, FDMA and its branches. The final consensus scores were as follows: 8 patients had 4 grade and 22 patients 3 grade, 8 patients 2 grade and 5 patients 1 grade. Clinical classification of FDMA for 38 patients (arterial scales ≥2 point): (1) Location: superficial (8 patients), intramuscular (23 patients), intramuscular (7 patients); (2) Diameter at the midpoint of FDMA: large (2 patients), medium (25 patients), and small (11 patients); (3) Branching pattern at the toe web: ramifying type (11 patients), main trunk type (5 patients), fine branch (14 patients). Conclusion: MR TRICKS sequences are valuable in the evaluation of the DPA and FDMA and its branches, which can provide useful anatomical information for classification of FDMA. (authors)

  8. The Study of Compound Quality of various Siam Weed (Eupatorium odoratum) Extracts and Toxicity Detoxification mechanisms Against 3rd Instar Larvae of Fruit Fly (Dacus dorsalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1H-NMR spectroscopy showed signals of DeltaH tild0.71.6 from hexane-leaf extracts from Siam weed (Eupatorium odoratum) These signals derive from protons of non-polar compounds which include fatty acid residues and terpinoids. In addition, the amplification of the signals indicated of some minor DeltaH tild6.2-7.7. This revealed protons from aromatic rings possibly involving in flavonoids from 1H-NMR spectrum. This is a believe that is a believe that these compounds could be varied from slightly polar compounds to moderately polar compounds. Furthermore, the Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of hexane, chloroform and methanol fractions showed the extracts composed of majority of less polar. It is and indication of the method of separation is quite food for separation of polarity basis from these extracts. Finally, the TLC of hexane fraction distinctively produced 7-8 compounds from the extracts. Toxicity testing using topical spray method showed that methnoloc extracts gave highest toxicity against 3rd instar larvae of fruit fly (Darcus dorsalis). The root extracts produced ca. 5 fold mohile GSH-S-transferase ws elevated 2-3 fold. The addition of dimethyl maleate into the extraccts increased their toxicity. The persistent experiment of eupathal from the extracts showed that the extracts can be stabilixed under aqueous solution upto 1 month with losing the compound. Finally, the Siam weed extracts prosuced non toxic to non-target organisms such as gabbies, bee, and mouse. The results of LC50 showed 15,000-26,000 mg/L 6,000-15,000 mg/L and 3,000-10,000 mg/L from hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts, respectively.

  9. Identification of leaf volatiles from olive (Olea europaea) and their possible role in the ovipositional preferences of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a monophagous pest that displays an oviposition preference among cultivars of olive (Olea europaea L.). To clarify the oviposition preference, the olive leaf volatiles of three olive cultivars (Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) were assessed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) at six different periods of olive fruit maturation and degrees of infestation. A total of 39 volatiles were identified, mainly esters and alcohols, with a minor percentage of aldehydes, ketones and terpenic compounds, including sesquiterpenes. At sampling dates with higher degrees of infestation, cv. Cobrançosa had, simultaneously, significantly lower infestation degrees and higher volatile amounts than the other two cultivars, with a probable deterrent effect for oviposition. The green leaf volatiles (GLVs) (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate) were the main compounds identified in all cultivars, together with toluene. The abundance of GLVs decreased significantly throughout maturation, without significant differences among cultivars, while toluene showed a general increase and positive correlation with olive fly infestation levels. The results obtained could broaden our understanding of the roles of various types and amounts of olive volatiles in the environment, especially in olive fly host selection and cultivar preference. PMID:26603276

  10. Population Dynamics of Pre-Imaginal Stages of Olive Fruit Fly Bactrocera oleae Gmel. (Diptera, Tephritidae in the Region of Bar (Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Perović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive fruit fly is the most harmful pest of olive fruits and important for oil production.Damage involves yield reduction as a consequence of premature fruit drop, but also areduced quality of olive oil and olive products. There is little available data regarding thebiology of Bactrocera oleae in Montenegro. Knowledge of the pest life cycle and developmentwould improve optimization of insecticide application timing and protection offruits, and reduce adverse effects on the environment.Investigation was conducted on the Žutica variety in an olive grove located in Bar duringa three-year period. Population dynamics of the pre-imaginal stages and level of fruitinfestation were monitored from mid-July until the end of October.The results of this three-year investigation showed that the beginning of infestationwas always at the end of July. It was also found that, depending on environmental conditions,the level of infestation was low until the end of August. In September and October itmultiplied, and reached maximum by the end of October.Regarding infestation structure, eggs and first instar larvae were the dominant developmentalstages of the pest until the middle of September. From mid-September until mid-October all developmental stages (eggs, larvae, pupae were equally present in infestedfruits. Pupae, cocoons and abandoned galleries prevailed until the harvest.

  11. Functional Ultrastructure of Antennae, Wings and their Associated Sensory Receptors of Peach Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Zonata (Saunders) as Influenced by the Sterilizing Dose of Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the fact that, any undesirable effects of gamma irradiation with the sterilizing dose (90 Gy) on the peach fruit fly Bactrocera Zonata (Saunders), will lead indirectly to failure of irradiated males to disperse strongly, to seek out appropriate niches or to behave synchrony with wild males to success in the courtship with females and/or to mate during the application of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Using the scanning electron microscopy, the changes which occurred to the antennae, wings and their associated sensilla due to the sterilizing dose were investigated. The ultrastructure of antennae in this fly showed no sexual dimorphism, but they differed significantly (P0.05) differences in the morphometric traits: head length, head width, thorax length and wing length that may result in the male mating success of the peach fruit fly. However, the significant decreases (P<0.05) in the wing width and the significant changes in the apical, anal and humural angles of the wing may affect the circadian rythum and the role of the wings for location host plant fruit for feeding, courtship and mating behaviour

  12. Flightless mutants in the melon fly and oriental fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their possible role in the sterile insect release method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new mutants that affect adult wing morphology and render the flies incapable of flight.sbd.bubble wing (bw) in the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and small wing (sw) in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel).sbd.are described. Both mutants have variable expression and are caused by autosomal, recessive genes. We discuss the possible role of these alleles in constructing genetic sex sorting systems to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the sterile insect release method

  13. Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. PMID:25688089

  14. Population activity of peach fruit fly Bactrocera zonata (Saunders (Diptera: Tephiritidae at fruits orchards in Kafer El-Shikh Governorate, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil A. Draz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peach Fruit Fly (PFF Bactrocera zonata (Saunders is one of most dominant and destructive key pest in fruit orchards in different agro-ecosystem in Egypt, so monitoring adults' population fluctuation in orchards, through capturing adults, has been considered as main way to forecasting or management the pest. So current study aimed to assay the efficiency of Jackson traps baited with methyl eugenol (M.E. on male capture, that were distributed in different fruit trees orchards, in different positions and hang levels in one of Egyptian agroecosystem (Kafer El-Shikh Governorate, from (May 2014 to April 2015. Moreover, adults capture in McPhail traps in navel orange orchards intercropping with Guava were exploded to detect abundant and rearing season of the pest studying impact of abiotic factors on population, and estimation number, time and duration of annual generation. Obtained results declared that the pest had 7-8 annually generation. Jackson traps that placed in center of orchard and hanged at 2 m height more efficient than others for male catches. Highest numbers of PFF male attack orchards of Navel orange intercropping with Guava, while the lowest were with Navel orange and Guava. Each of season and kind of orchard or intercropping system had combined and significant effect on mass trapping. In McPhail traps, highest mass trapping of adult was observed in autumn (20.353 adult/ trap/ week, while each of spring, summer and winter season were similar in mass trapping. Only Wind direction as climatic factors had negative significant effect on mass trapping of PFF adults in McPhail traps, while each of maximum and mean temperature of winter season had positive significant effect on mass trapping.

  15. Characteristics of hot spots of melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) in sterile fly release areas on Okinawa island [Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatio-temporal dynamics of populations of the melon fly, Bactrocera (Dacus) cucurbitae COQUILLETT, in the southern part of Okinawa Island where an eradication program using sterile flies has been conducted, were analyzed in relation to the seasonal succession and abundance of wild and cultivated host fruits. The study areas were classified into four major zones according to the seasonal abundance of flies caught by cue-lure traps and the availability of host fruits including Diplocyclos palmatus, Melothria liukiuensis and Momordica charantia var. pevel. Zone-I is characterized by the continuous presence of host fruits and a relatively-high population density of the melon fly indicated by the cue-lure trap catch of more than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day throughout the year. Zone-II has a characteristic decline in both number of host fruits and fly density during the fall-winter period with an annual average of less than 1, 000 flies per 1, 000 traps per day. Zone-III includes areas where host fruits and flies (about 1 fly/trap/day) were relatively abundant only during the winter-spring period. Zone-IV is characterized by constantly low availability of host fruits and low fly density throughout the year. Hot spots, which are defined as areas where the ratio of sterile to wild flies hardly increases despite frequent and intensive release of sterile flies, were found in the Zone-I areas. Therefore, the continuous presence and abundance of host fruits appears to hot spots. For effective control of this species, it is essential to locate such areas and release sterile flies

  16. Development of traps and killing agents to improve the mass trapping technique against Ceratitis capitata Wied and Bactrocera oleae Gmel. (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the framework of a Joint FAO/IAEA Division Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) a number of countries have carried out experiments specially in the application of the various trapping methodologies to survey fruit flies of economic importance. Spain collaborated through an 'Agreement Contract' between 2000- 2005. Spain is world's number one citrus exporter to the European Community and other countries such as USA, Korea, and Japan. Nowadays 'Mass Trapping' is an important activity to control medfly (Ceratitis capitata, Wied) in citrus areas. Thousands of traps have been hung in citrus plantations and in isolated trees (figs), all managed and coordinated by the agricultural authorities. One of the highest costs of this technique is the manpower required to bait and place the traps. Under the standard research protocol of the CRP we have developed a trap in order to facilitate the manipulation of the attractants and hanging the traps on the trees. 'Easy Trap' is the name of the new trap. It is composed of a transparent and a yellow part. When assembled a rectangular box is formed. It has two invaginated opposite holes on the upper part. An adaPTable hanger allows traps to be easily and quickly hang on the fruit trees. Mass trapping experiments were conducted for control of medfly as well as for olive fly (Bactrocera oleae). This paper presents the results of the experiments carried out in Spain during the last year (2004) with this trap. The Easy trap baited with Ammonium Acetate and Trimethylamine using Deltamethrine as killing agent was the best trap against C. capitata in a mango orchard. The same trap baited with NuLure 9% + borax 3% solution was the best trap when it was tested in an olive grove against B. oleae. (author)

  17. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and/or Chemosterilant Thiourea on the Sterility and Fitness of Male Peach Fruit Fly Bactrocera Zonata (Saunders) (Dipter:Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phrate adults (8-days old pupae) of Bactrocera zonata were irradiated at doses 30-90 Gy under laboratory conditions. The results indicated that the females and males flies were sterilized with the doses of 50 and 90 Gy, respectively. Percent survival of both sexes was non-significantly different from the control at low doses while it was decreased with the highest dose. The effect of another sterilizing agent on B. zonata was studied by dipping mature pupae on different concentrations of thiourea (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2%). The concentration 2% induced 100% sterility for both sexes and applying thiourea and gamma radiation, each at sub-sterilizing level, produced complete sterility in B. zonata due to the relationship between the two sterilizing agents. The investigation showed that the mating competitiveness of the males when treated with 0.5% of thiourea then irradiated at 70 Gy was almost equal to that of the non-treated males. The total competitiveness values of treated males were estimated to range from 1.13 to 1.38 for the two different ratios 1:1:1 and 3:1:1 (treated male: normal male: normal female). The scanning electron microscope revealed that five distinct morphological types of sensilla were observed among normal antenna and foreleg; these were microtrachia, trichoidea (types: sharp T1 and blunt T2), chaetica and basiconica (type non-socket), so, any undesirable changes in the sensilla of antennae and forelegs as the result of treated mature pupae with the sterilizing gamma dose (90 Gy) will lead indirectly to failure of irradiated males to respond to calling females to mate or to have synchrony with wild males

  18. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  19. Liquid Larval Diet for Fruit Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit fly liquid larvae diet has been developed for rearing Bactrocera dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in small and large scales and is ready for technology transfer into factory scale. The most appropriate rearing conditions using liquid diet up-to-date have been identified as follows: (1) basic diet fo...

  20. The repellency and anti-oviposition effects of Thiem-seed oil and Thiem-seed crude extract on melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coq., Diptera : Tephritidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sritangnanta, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on repellency and anti-oviposition effects of Thiem-seed oil and Thiem-seed crude extract on melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae Coq. were carried out under laboratory and field conditions. Five concentrations of the oils and the crude extract at 50, 100, 150, 200 and 300 g/L were tested in the laboratory. Effective concentration at 50% (EC50 and effective time at 80% (ET80 of repellent and anti-oviposition actions were calculated using probit analysis at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours after application. The results show that the repellent and anti-oviposition actions on the melon fly of the Thiem-seed oil were better than those of the Thiem-seed crude extract. At 24 hours, the EC50 for the repellent and the anti-oviposition actions of the oil were 10.86 and 7.80 g/L, whereas those of the crude extract were > 100 and 21.70 g/L, respectively. At the concentration of 300 g/L (30% W/V, the ET80 of the repellent and the anti-oviposition actions of the oil were 23.23 hours and 38.01 hours, whereas those of the crude extract were 5.14 hours and 13.86 hours,respectively. In the field study, the results show that the cucumbit fruit damage due to the melon fly was equal at 43.3% in the plots treated with the oil and in those treated with crude extract at the concentration of 15% (W/V after 5 days of application. The fruit damage was high at 73.3% in untreated plots. The application of the oil and the crude extract mixed with 10% (W/V surfactants, Latron® CS-7 and Foil®, provided a reduction in fruit damage ranging from 46.2% to 61.4% as compared to the application of the oil and the crude extract alone.

  1. Selective extraction of Bactrocera oleae sexual pheromone from olive oil by dispersive magnetic microsolid phase extraction using a molecularly imprinted nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Carmen Alcudia-León, María; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2016-07-15

    Bactrocera oleae Gmelin, also known as olive fruit fly, is the main olive tree pest. It produces a severe effect not only on the productivity but also on the quality of the olive-related products. In fact, the oil obtained from infected olives has a lower antioxidant power. In addition, an increase of the oil acidity, peroxide index and UV-absorbance can also be observed. 1,7-dioxaspiro-[5,5]-undecane (DSU), is the main component of the sexual pheromone of this pest and may be used as marker of the pest incidence. In this context, the development of new methods able to detect the pheromones in several samples, including agri-food or environmental ones, is interesting. In this work, we synthesized a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIPS) layer over magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP) for the selective recognition of DSU. They were prepared using DSU as template and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to associate the target analyte on the surface of the magnetic substrate and the later polymerization of ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in presence of 2,2-azobisisobutyonnitrile (AIBN). The resulting Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP composite was characterized by different techniques. The maximum adsorption capacity of DSU on Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP in hexane was 32mg/g (5.3 times than that obtained for the non-imprinted composite). In addition, Fe3O4@SiO2@MIP showed a short equilibrium time (45min) and potential reusability. The combination of dispersive magnetic microsolid phase extraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection allows the determination of DSU in real samples at concentrations as low as 10μg/L with precision better than 7.5% (expressed as relative standard deviation). The relative recoveries are in the range between 95 and 99%, which indicates the potential of the methodology. Finally, it has been applied to real olive oil samples being the presence of the pest detected is some of them. PMID:27295964

  2. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. PMID:26463186

  3. 果蔬重要实蝇属的分布、危害与形态特征比较研究%Comparative Study on Distribution, Harm and Morphological Characteristics of Important Insects in Bactrocera in Fruits and Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄振; 黄可辉

    2012-01-01

    This paper expounded the geological distribution, host plant species and major morphological characteristics of the important quarantine pest insects in fruits and vegetables in the following five genera: Bactrocera Macquart, Dacus Fabricius, Ceratitis Macleay, Anastrepha Schiner and Rhagoletis Loew, compared the similarities and differences among the five genera, and put forward some measures for the control of the important pest insects in fruits and vegetables in these genera.%阐述了果实蝇属、寡鬃实蝇属、小条实蝇属、按实蝇属、绕实蝇属5个检疫性害虫果蔬实蝇属的地理分布、寄主及其主要形态特征,比较了各个属形态特征的异同,并提出了一些防治果蔬重要实蝇属的措施.

  4. Two-year data on the field evaluation of attractants for Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae in three localities in southern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: During the years 2003 and 2004, our organisations joined the FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project on 'Development of improved attractants and their integration into fruit fly SIT management programmes'. Objective of the work was the evaluation of fruit fly attractants on two species of economic importance in Italy: Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae, following the experimental protocol agreed at previous Research Coordination Meetings. In the 2003 season we selected two locations of southern Italy, one for each tephritid target species: C. capitata experiments have been performed in Eastern Sicily, in one of the most typical areas for citrus orchards; the work on B. oleae has been conducted in the vicinity of Foggia, Apulia, in the Italian southeastern plains, one of the largest and most productive areas for olives. Late summer and early autumn of 2003 were very hot and dry in Italy. For this reason both fly species, after a first detection during June, disappeared in July and August, returning in September with extremely low infestation rates. Nevertheless, experiments gave clear information on insects' preference for the proposed baits. Among the 5 different baits used in Sicily, treatments using the 3 Biolure components (Putrescine, Ammonium Acetate, Trimethylamine) elicited better results than the NuLure control. All baits showed marked selectivity for females. First captures among the 6 different baits utilised for the control of olive fruit fly in Apulia, were recorded during the first week of September; best scores were detected on the traps baited with NuLure, showing a capture sex ratio of 1:1; and, in a side experiment, on traps baited with the female pheromone, showing 100% male captures. For both insects, the relatively low numbers of captures can be correlated with the low infestation rate: this data was confirmed by the high yield in qualitative and quantitative terms. The tests with the medfly have been repeated in 2004 in an organic

  5. Roles of semiochemicals in mating systems: A comparison between Oriental fruit fly and Medfly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Males of tephritid fruit fly species show strong affinity to specific chemicals produced by plants. Amongst the economically important species in the Asian Pacific area, methyl eugenol acts as a potent attractant for males of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and several other species within the dorsalis species complex (e.g., B. papayae Drew and Hancock, B. carambolae Drew and Hancock, etc.), cuelure [4-(4-acetoxyphenyl)-2-butanone] and the naturally occurring deacetyl derivative (raspberry ketone) act as specific attractants for flies such as the melon fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the Queensland fruit fly, B. tryoni (Froggatt) (Metcalf 1990). These attractants have been successfully used as baits in mass trapping for monitoring populations during eradication programmes for these pests (Chambers 1977, Koyama et al. 1984). Likewise, trimedlure has been developed as a synthetic attractant for males of the Mediterranean fruit fly (Medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), while α-copaene has been known to be a naturally occurring attractant for the species. For most tephritids, however, the biological function of male attraction to these natural or artificial compounds remains unclear. Recent studies (Nishida et al. 1988 1997, Nishida and Fukami 1990, Tan 1993, Tan and Nishida 1996) have shown that males of B. dorsalis and related species ingest these compounds from natural sources, selectively incorporate them into the rectal glands, and use them to synthesise the sex pheromone and allomone. It appears that similar chemical compounds, when ingested, may provide pheromonal precursors in the melon fly as well (Nishida et al. 1993, Shelly and Villalobos 1995). In contrast, Medfly males do not feed on the source of chemical attractant. According to our observations, α-copaene strongly affected the courtship behaviour of the Medfly, which suggests that these natural compounds may possibly be involved in the formation of leks and the mating

  6. Age-stage, two-sex life tables of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) with a discussion on the problem of applying female age-specific life tables to insect populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bing Huang; Hsin Chi

    2012-01-01

    Age-stage,two-sex life tables of the melon fly,Bactrocera cucurbitae ( Coquillett) (Diptera:Tephritidae),reared on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.),sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica Roem) and a carrot medium (mashed Daucus carota L.mixed with sucrose and yeast hydrolysate) were constructed under laboratory conditions at 25 ± 1 ℃,65% ± 0.5%relative humidity,and a photoperiod 12 ∶ 12h (L ∶ D).The intrinsic rates of increase of B.cucurbitae were 0.144 6,0.141 2 and 0.068 8 days on cucumber,sponge gourd,and carrot medium,respectively.The highest net reproduction rate was 172 offspring per fly reared on sponge gourd.The mean generation times of B.cucurbitae ranged from 34 days reared on cucumber to 56 days reared on carrot medium.The life history raw data was analyzed using the traditional female age-specific life table and compared to results obtained using the age-stage,two-sex life table.When the age-specific female life table is applied to an age-stage-structured two-sex population,survival and fecundity curves will be improperly manipulated due to an inability to include variation in preadult development time.We discussed different interpretations of the relationship between the net reproductive rate and the intrinsic rate of increase to clarify possible misunderstanding in the literature.

  7. 16s rDNA文库法分析番石榴果实蝇共生菌组成%Composition of symbiotic bacteria associated with Bactrocera correcta analyzed by 16s rDNA libraries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴阳; 李志红; 柳丽君; 吴佳教; 邓裕亮

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The composition of symbiotic bacteria associated with Guava fruit fly, Bacirocera correcta (Bezzi), was investigated to provide the basis for further study on physiological function of the symbionts and co-evolution between bacteria and the host. [Method] 16s rDNA libraries of laboratory population for B. correcta were constructed, and BLAST analysis of bacterial composition and abundance was carried out in this study. [Result] The dominant symbionts in B. correcta male adults were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Lactococcus lactis, while symbiotic bacteria in female adults were Enterobacter bacteria. [Conclusion] Various bacteria are present in the Guava fruit fly, B. correcta.%[目的]探索分析番石榴果实蝇[ Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi)]的共生菌组成,为进一步探索共生菌的生理功能以及与宿主的协同进化关系奠定基础.[方法]构建番石榴果实蝇室内种群共生菌的16s rDNA文库,BLAST分析其共生菌的组成以及丰度.[结果]室内雄虫共生菌主要为Pseudomonas aeruginosa和Lactococcus lactis,雌虫共生菌主要为Enterobacter属的细菌.[结论]本研究结果证明番石榴果实蝇存在多种共生菌.

  8. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger I. Vargas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas.

  9. Improved attractants for Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae(Gmelin): Two years data evaluating the responses of wild fly populations in 3 Southern Italy locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were conducted during 2003 and 2004 on wild Mediterranean fruit flies (medfly), Ceratitis capiata (Wiedemann) and on olive fruit flies, Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), in three locations in southern Italy. The tests with medfly were carried out in a citrus orchard in Sicily during 2003, from the end of September until the end of November, and in a peach orchard in Basilicata during the summer of 2004; while tests on olive fruit fly have been carried out both years in the same location in Apulia, starting in late August and finishing at the end of November. Among the 5 different baits used for the control of medfly in Sicily, the first records on the captures started during the 3rd week (mid October). Treatments B and C (AA+PT+TMA and AA+TMA, respectively) showed the best scores compared to the others and to the control (NuLure). Evaluating the captures among the 6 different baits utilized for the control of olive fruit fly in Apulia, first records started during the 3rd week (begin of September), and the best scores were detected on the traps with NuLure, showing a sex ratio in the captures of 1:1. Interesting data were recorded both years with the pheromone treatment (side experiment), showing a performance extremely high compared even with NuLure. (author)

  10. Complex Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Franceschet, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Complex systems and their underlying convoluted networks are ubiquitous, all we need is an eye for them. They pose problems of organized complexity which cannot be approached with a reductionist method. Complexity science and its emergent sister network science both come to grips with the inherent complexity of complex systems with an holistic strategy. The relevance of complexity, however, transcends the sciences. Complex systems and networks are the focal point of a philosophical, cultural ...

  11. Complex chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bong Gon; Kim, Jae Sang; Kim, Jin Eun; Lee, Boo Yeon

    2006-06-15

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  12. Complex chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces complex chemistry with ten chapters, which include development of complex chemistry on history coordination theory and Warner's coordination theory and new development of complex chemistry, nomenclature on complex with conception and define, chemical formula on coordination compound, symbol of stereochemistry, stereo structure and isomerism, electron structure and bond theory on complex, structure of complex like NMR and XAFS, balance and reaction on solution, an organo-metallic chemistry, biology inorganic chemistry, material chemistry of complex, design of complex and calculation chemistry.

  13. Bucolic Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Brešar, Bostjan; Chepoi, Victor; Gologranc, Tanja; Osajda, Damian

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we introduce and investigate bucolic complexes, a common generalization of systolic complexes and of CAT(0) cubical complexes. This class of complexes is closed under Cartesian products and amalgamations over some convex subcomplexes. We study various approaches to bucolic complexes: from graph-theoretic and topological viewpoints, as well as from the point of view of geometric group theory. Bucolic complexes can be defined as locally-finite simply connected prism complexes satisfying some local combinatorial conditions. We show that bucolic complexes are contractible, and satisfy some nonpositive-curvature-like properties. In particular, we prove a version of the Cartan-Hadamard theorem, the fixed point theorem for finite group actions, and establish some results on groups acting geometrically on such complexes. We also characterize the 1-skeletons (which we call bucolic graphs) and the 2-skeletons of bucolic complexes. In particular, we prove that bucolic graphs are precisely retracts of Ca...

  14. Tropical complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    We introduce tropical complexes, which are Delta-complexes together with additional numerical data. On a tropical complex, we define divisors and linear equivalence between divisors, analogous to the notions for algebraic varieties, and generalizing previous work for graphs. We prove a comparison theorem showing that divisor-curve intersection numbers agree under certain conditions.

  15. Medical Complex

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of the Medical Complex. This project covers the construction of a new Hong Kong University Medical Complex on Sassoon Road, Pokfulam. The complex will comprise two buildings, one will house laboratories and a car park, while the other will contain lecture halls

  16. Communication complexity and information complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratov, Denis

    Information complexity enables the use of information-theoretic tools in communication complexity theory. Prior to the results presented in this thesis, information complexity was mainly used for proving lower bounds and direct-sum theorems in the setting of communication complexity. We present three results that demonstrate new connections between information complexity and communication complexity. In the first contribution we thoroughly study the information complexity of the smallest nontrivial two-party function: the AND function. While computing the communication complexity of AND is trivial, computing its exact information complexity presents a major technical challenge. In overcoming this challenge, we reveal that information complexity gives rise to rich geometrical structures. Our analysis of information complexity relies on new analytic techniques and new characterizations of communication protocols. We also uncover a connection of information complexity to the theory of elliptic partial differential equations. Once we compute the exact information complexity of AND, we can compute exact communication complexity of several related functions on n-bit inputs with some additional technical work. Previous combinatorial and algebraic techniques could only prove bounds of the form theta( n). Interestingly, this level of precision is typical in the area of information theory, so our result demonstrates that this meta-property of precise bounds carries over to information complexity and in certain cases even to communication complexity. Our result does not only strengthen the lower bound on communication complexity of disjointness by making it more exact, but it also shows that information complexity provides the exact upper bound on communication complexity. In fact, this result is more general and applies to a whole class of communication problems. In the second contribution, we use self-reduction methods to prove strong lower bounds on the information

  17. Effect Analysis About Suffocating the Larva of Bactrocera minax with No-insecticide Plastic Bags%塑料袋闷杀柑桔大实蝇虫果死亡率调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡光灿; 易继平; 张国平

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to select an efficient and non-pol-luting method to kil the larva of fruit fly in citrus. [Method] The larvae of Bactrocera minax in citrus fruits were suffocated using plastic bags with or without a certain concentration of pesticide. Then, the mortality of in different treatments was mea-sured 24, 48, 60, 240 and 480 h later. Final y, variance analysis was carried out. [Result] There was no significant difference in the mortality between the two treat-ments: suffocating the larvae with sealed plastic bags containing no or a certain concentration of pesticide 5 d. later. The former had high mortality, but also was e-conomic and without any pol ution. The orange maggots were more easier to be kil ed in sealed plastic bags. [Conclusion] Suffocating orange maggots with no-insec-ticide plastic bag is economic, efficient and has no pol ution to the environment.%[目的]探索经济、高效、无污染的杀死柑桔大实蝇幼虫的科学方法。[方法]选择塑料袋加某一浓度的杀虫剂和不加杀虫剂闷处柑桔大实蝇幼虫的方法,得出幼虫死亡数据,并进行方差分析。[结果]处理5d后,塑料袋封口不加药处理和塑料袋封口加药处理幼虫死亡率无明显差异;与加药不封闭处理相比,在隔绝空气的条件下更易杀死柑桔大实蝇幼虫。[结论]塑料袋封口不加药处理更经济有效,且不污染环境。

  18. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Engaging complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gys M. Loubser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss studies in complexity and its epistemological implications for systematic and practical theology. I argue that engagement with complexity does not necessarily assurea non-reductionist approach. However, if complexity is engaged transversally, it becomes possible to transcend reductionist approaches. Moreover, systematic and practical the ologians can draw on complexity in developing new ways of understanding and, therefore, new ways of describing the focus, epistemic scope and heuristic structures of systematic and practical theology. Firstly, Edgar Morin draws a distinction between restricted and general complexity based on the epistemology drawn upon in studies in complexity. Moving away from foundationalist approaches to epistemology, Morin argues for a paradigm of systems. Secondly,I discuss Kees van Kooten Niekerk�s distinction between epistemology, methodology andontology in studies in complexity and offer an example of a theological argument that drawson complexity. Thirdly, I argue for the importance of transversality in engaging complexity by drawing on the work of Wentzel van Huyssteen and Paul Cilliers. In conclusion, I argue that theologians have to be conscious of the epistemic foundations of each study in complexity, and these studies illuminate the heart of Reformed theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, this article has both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications. When theologians engage studies incomplexity, the epistemological roots of these studies need to be considered seeing thatresearchers in complexity draw on different epistemologies. Drawing on transversality wouldenhance such considerations. Furthermore, Edgar Morin�s and Paul Cilliers� approach tocomplexity will inform practical and theoretical considerations in church polity and unity.

  20. Carney Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Carney complex are Cushing’s syndrome and multiple thyroid nodules (tumors). Cushing’s syndrome features a combination of weight gain, ... with Carney complex include adrenocortical carcinoma , pituitary gland tumors , thyroid , colorectal , liver and pancreatic cancers . Ovarian cancer in ...

  1. Simplifying complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemput, van de I.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior

  2. Hamiltonian complexity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years we have seen the birth of a new field known as Hamiltonian complexity lying at the crossroads between computer science and theoretical physics. Hamiltonian complexity is directly concerned with the question: how hard is it to simulate a physical system? Here I review the foundational results, guiding problems, and future directions of this emergent field.

  3. 柑橘大实蝇成虫的时空分布与产卵规律%Spatial and temporal distribution and oviposition behaviour of adult Bactrocera ( Tetradacus ) minax (Enderlein)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杖黎; 李涛; 石章红; 陈政; 张宏宇

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese citrus fruit fly Bactrocera {Tetradacus) minax (Enderlein) is one of the most harmful pests for fruit crops. Few studies have been conducted to determine the ovipositing behavior of this species, and little is known about the movement rhythms of the adults after their emergence. In this study, the movement rhythms of B. Minax adults was revealed after their emergence and the ovi-position preference of females was observed through field investigations. The results indicated that the majority of B. Minax adults flied around the junction zone of mixed woods and orchard in the period of over twenty days after the emergence. And it reached a peak on June 11th, we trapped (24. 0 ± 5. 6) insects per pot in a 5 m zone of mixed woods in the peak period,while the date was (74. 7 ± 21. 9) insects per pot in the 5 m zone of orchard, which was significantly higher than that in other trapping zones. In the peak period of emergence, more than sixty percent of the adult B. Minax flied around the junction zone. After the emergence peak, the distribution of B. Minax in orchard tended to be uniform. Except that no B. Minax adults was trapped in the sampling zone designated as 100 m zone in mixed woods, the trapped numbers of B. Minax in other sampling zones showed no significant difference. Additionally, the greatest number of oviposition marks of B. Minax were found to be in the middle of an orange, which were significantly more than those in two other parts such as the stem end and the fruit navel. Furthermore, the number of oviposition marks in the dark side of orange was seven times higher than those in the sunny side. It suggested that B, minax females preferred to oviposit in the fruit right side. However, B. Minax females showed no preferences to the oranges from different locations.%通过实地调查,观察并分析了柑橘大实蝇Bactrocera(Tetradacus) minax (Enderlein)成虫在柑橘园及其附近杂树林的觅食产卵活动规律.结果表明:在柑橘

  4. 南亚果实蝇多酚氧化酶的性质研究%Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from the fruit fly Bactrocera tau (Walker) ( Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小珍; 刘映红

    2011-01-01

    [目的]为揭示南亚果实蝇Bactrocera tau (Walker)不同发育阶段体内多酚氧化酶的活性与性质.[方法]以邻苯二酚为底物,在415 nm波长下测定了南亚果实蝇l,2和3龄幼虫、蛹以及成虫多酚氧化酶的活性和动力学参数.[结果]南亚果实蝇在不同发育阶段,多酚氧化酶的活性存在明显差异,通常3龄幼虫中活性最高,为434.42 U/mg;蛹中最低,为231.05 U/mg.在pH 6.5时,南亚果实蝇不同发育阶段多酚氧化酶的活性分别为265.42,358.34,444.42,210.02和373.99 U/mg,但当pH值高于7.0或低于5.0时,多酚氧化酶的活性则明显下降.在温度为34℃和37℃时,南亚果实蝇各发育阶段多酚氧化酶的活性均较高,当温度高于40℃或低于27℃时,活性则明显下降.以邻苯二酚为底物,2龄幼虫中多酚氧化酶的Km值(3.10 mmol/min)和Vmax(476.19 mmol/L)较大,说明多酚氧化酶对底物邻苯二酚催化能力强;蛹中多酚氧化酶的Km(0.63 mmol/min)和Vmax(50.25 mmoL/L)较小,说明多酚氧化酶对底物的亲和力和催化能力弱.当以L-DOPA为底物时,3龄幼虫中多酚氧化酶的Km值和Vmax较大,分别为0.49mmol/min和188.68mmoL/L;蛹中多酚氧化酶的Km值和Vmax较小,分别为0.25 mmol/min和21.79 mmol/L.[结论]南亚果实蝇体内多酚氧化酶在不同温度和pH值下的活性和动力学参数与虫体发育阶段密切相关.%[Objective] This study aims to determine the activities of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) in the fruit fly Bactrocera tau (Walker) during various developmental stages.[ Methods] The PPO activity and kinetic properties in the 1st,2nd and 3rd instar larva,pupa and adult were determined with spectrophotomethrical method using catechol as the substrate.[ Results ] The PPO activities varied significantly during different developmental stages of B.tau.The enzyme activity in the 3rd instar larva was the highest (434.42 U/mg) and that in pupa was the lowest (231.05 U/mg).At pH 6.5,the enzyme activities in the

  5. Managing Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Vandepitte, Sonia; Minacori, Patricia;

    2013-01-01

    and into French. The complexity of the undertaking proved to be a central element in the students' learning, as the collaboration closely resembles the complexity of international documentation workplaces of language service providers. © Association of Teachers of Technical Writing.......This article discusses the largest and most complex international learning-by-doing project to date- a project involving translation from Danish and Dutch into English and editing into American English alongside a project involving writing, usability testing, and translation from English into Dutch...

  6. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  7. Complex Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Kleefeld

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to some generalized correspondence principle the classical limit of a non-Hermitian quantum theory describing quantum degrees of freedom is expected to be the well known classical mechanics of classical degrees of freedom in the complex phase space, i.e., some phase space spanned by complex-valued space and momentum coordinates. As special relativity was developed by Einstein merely for real-valued space-time and four-momentum, we will try to understand how special relativity and covariance can be extended to complex-valued space-time and four-momentum. Our considerations will lead us not only to some unconventional derivation of Lorentz transformations for complex-valued velocities, but also to the non-Hermitian Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations, which are to lay the foundations of a non-Hermitian quantum theory.

  8. Simplifying complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Leemput, van de, J.C.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I use mathematical models to explore the properties of complex systems ranging from microbial nitrogen pathways and coral reefs to the human state of mind. All are examples of complex systems, defined as systems composed of a number of interconnected parts, where the systemic behavior leads to the emergence of properties that would not be expected from behavior or properties of the individual parts of the system. Although the full behavior of the systems I address will probably...

  9. Complex networks: Patterns of complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2010-07-01

    The Turing mechanism provides a paradigm for the spontaneous generation of patterns in reaction-diffusion systems. A framework that describes Turing-pattern formation in the context of complex networks should provide a new basis for studying the phenomenon.

  10. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  11. Effect of temperature on the development and reproduction of Bactrocera cucurbitae(Coquillett)population%温度对瓜实蝇实验种群生长发育及生殖的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦淑丹; 黄树生; 王玉群; 曾东强; 凌炎

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究温度对广西瓜实蝇生长发育的影响,为瓜实蝇的综合防治提供理论依据.[方法]采用人工恒温饲养方法,分别设置15、20、25、30、35℃5个恒温条件,测定不同恒温条件下瓜实蝇的生长发育、存活和繁殖情况.[结果]瓜实蝇卵、幼虫、蛹、产卵前期和世代的发育起点温度分别为10.56、7.33、10.77、9.72和10.77℃,有效积温分别为12.68、117.91、107.15、364.43和602.17℃·d;在35℃时蛹不能存活,25℃时单雌产卵量最大,平均每头雌虫产卵1428.30粒,15℃时最低,平均240.30粒;在15~30C时,瓜实蝇实验种群趋势指数均大于1,在25、30℃时,种群趋势指数最大,分别为447.37和301.19.[结论]l5~30℃范围内瓜实蝇可正常发育,25~30℃为其最适生长发育及繁殖温度.%[Objective]The present experiment was conducted to study the effect of temperature on developmental and reproductive stages of Bactrocera cucurbitae population (Coquillett) in order to provide basic information for its integrated control. [Method]The B. Cueurbitae populations were artificially fed at five constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35℃) and the development, reproduction and their survival rates were determined by artificial feeding method during various developmental stages. [Result]The threshold temperatures for the development of eggs, larva, pupa, pre-oviposition period and generation of B. Cueurbitae were 10.56, 7.33, 10.77, 9.72 and 10.77℃ respectively, and the effective accumulated temperature of them were 12.68, 117.91, 107.15, 364.43 and 602.17 d·℃, respectively. The pupa could not survived at 35℃. The female adults were found to produced maximum eggs (1428.3 eggs per female) under the condition of 25℃, while minimum egg production (240.3 eggs per female) was recorded at 15℃. The population trend indices of B. Cueurbitae was recorded over 1, and it was recorded as maximum (447.37) at 25℃, followed by 301.19 at 30

  12. Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Evsukoff, Alexandre; González, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade we have seen the emergence of a new inter-disciplinary field focusing on the understanding of networks which are dynamic, large, open, and have a structure sometimes called random-biased. The field of Complex Networks is helping us better understand many complex phenomena such as the spread of  deseases, protein interactions, social relationships, to name but a few. Studies in Complex Networks are gaining attention due to some major scientific breakthroughs proposed by network scientists helping us understand and model interactions contained in large datasets. In fact, if we could point to one event leading to the widespread use of complex network analysis is the availability of online databases. Theories of Random Graphs from Erdös and Rényi from the late 1950s led us to believe that most networks had random characteristics. The work on large online datasets told us otherwise. Starting with the work of Barabási and Albert as well as Watts and Strogatz in the late 1990s, we now know th...

  13. Managing Complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian; Malard, Joel M.

    2004-08-01

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today’s most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically-based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This paper explores the state of the art in the use physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and to deriving stable and robust control strategies for them. In particular we review and discussion applications of some analytic methods based on the thermodynamic metaphor according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood.

  14. Complex dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carleson, Lennart

    1993-01-01

    Complex dynamics is today very much a focus of interest. Though several fine expository articles were available, by P. Blanchard and by M. Yu. Lyubich in particular, until recently there was no single source where students could find the material with proofs. For anyone in our position, gathering and organizing the material required a great deal of work going through preprints and papers and in some cases even finding a proof. We hope that the results of our efforts will be of help to others who plan to learn about complex dynamics and perhaps even lecture. Meanwhile books in the field a. re beginning to appear. The Stony Brook course notes of J. Milnor were particularly welcome and useful. Still we hope that our special emphasis on the analytic side will satisfy a need. This book is a revised and expanded version of notes based on lectures of the first author at UCLA over several \\Vinter Quarters, particularly 1986 and 1990. We owe Chris Bishop a great deal of gratitude for supervising the production of cour...

  15. Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum instanton (QI approximation is recently proposed for the evaluations of the chemical reaction rate constants with use of full dimensional potential energy surfaces. Its strategy is to use the instanton mechanism and to approximate time-dependent quantum dynamics to the imaginary time propagation of the quantities of partition function. It thus incorporates the properties of the instanton idea and the quantum effect of partition function and can be applied to chemical reactions of complex systems. In this paper, we present the QI approach and its applications to several complex systems mainly done by us. The concrete systems include, (1 the reaction of H+CH4→H2+CH3, (2 the reaction of H+SiH4→H2+SiH3, (3 H diffusion on Ni(100 surface; and (4 surface-subsurface transport and interior migration for H/Ni. Available experimental and other theoretical data are also presented for the purpose of comparison.

  16. Cosmic Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, John C.

    2012-01-01

    What explains the extraordinary complexity of the observed universe, on all scales from quarks to the accelerating universe? My favorite explanation (which I certainty did not invent) ls that the fundamental laws of physics produce natural instability, energy flows, and chaos. Some call the result the Life Force, some note that the Earth is a living system itself (Gaia, a "tough bitch" according to Margulis), and some conclude that the observed complexity requires a supernatural explanation (of which we have many). But my dad was a statistician (of dairy cows) and he told me about cells and genes and evolution and chance when I was very small. So a scientist must look for me explanation of how nature's laws and statistics brought us into conscious existence. And how is that seemll"!gly Improbable events are actually happening a!1 the time? Well, the physicists have countless examples of natural instability, in which energy is released to power change from simplicity to complexity. One of the most common to see is that cooling water vapor below the freezing point produces snowflakes, no two alike, and all complex and beautiful. We see it often so we are not amazed. But physlc!sts have observed so many kinds of these changes from one structure to another (we call them phase transitions) that the Nobel Prize in 1992 could be awarded for understanding the mathematics of their common features. Now for a few examples of how the laws of nature produce the instabilities that lead to our own existence. First, the Big Bang (what an insufficient name!) apparently came from an instability, in which the "false vacuum" eventually decayed into the ordinary vacuum we have today, plus the most fundamental particles we know, the quarks and leptons. So the universe as a whole started with an instability. Then, a great expansion and cooling happened, and the loose quarks, finding themselves unstable too, bound themselves together into today's less elementary particles like protons and

  17. Complex silumins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study presents the results of investigations carried out on silumins with additions of Mg, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo and W. The silumins containing Mg, Cu and Ni are well-known and commonly used in construction of machines and equipment.Design/methodology/approach: Additions of Cr, Mo and W have not been thoroughly investigated yet. They are considered a new family of innovative cast aluminium alloys.Findings: In Al-Si systems they form silicides, like Cr3Si, Mo3Si, W3Si and intermetallic phases of Al13Cr4Si4, Al12Mo, Al12W and AlWSi. The silicides crystallise in cubic lattice of parameters similar to aluminium and silicon.Research limitations/implications: Therefore they can act as crystallisation substrates and occur as separate phases. The examinations under the microscope and X-ray microanalysis of the linear and point distribution of elements confirmed the presence of the above mentioned phases. A combination of two elements, e.g. Cr and Mo, or Cr and W, was observed to cause the formation of complex silicide layers of Mo3Si and (Cr, Mo3Si, or Cr3Si as well as (W, Cr3Si.Originality/value: The presence of the silicides has been indicated as a possible source of the refinement of α(Al and β(Si phases. The precipitations of these phases and of the intermetallic phases favour a high degree of the silumins hardening. A characteristic feature is the fact that nucleation and crystallisation of the successive phases takes place at the phase boundaries formed between the previously precipitated phase and solid solution α. The studies carried out so far have indicated that in complex silumins at high temperatures crystallise the silicides and peritectic phases of Al12W, AlWSi, Al12Mo and Al13Cr4Si4. Phases α or β are the next ones to crystallise, followed by complex eutectic α + β +Al(Si, Cr, Mo, W, Fe. Further crystallise the phases of Mg2Si, Al3Ni and Al2Cu. The silumins presented here are characterised by high mechanical properties: Rp0

  18. Development of a local baiting system for the control of the Africa invader fly, (Bactrocera invadens) Drew, Tsuruta and White (Diptera: Tephritidae) in mango orchards at Somanya, Eastern Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit production plays an important role in Africa's economy. In Ghana, mango is targeted as one of the next non-traditional export crop that is expected to fetch the highest foreign exchange for the country and replace cocoa. Ghana's current production is said to have increased from 6,800 tonnes in 2007 to about 7000 tonnes in 2010. However, the African invader fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens, is causing high yield losses as an important quarantine pest and has brought some setback in the mango trade between Ghana and their exporting destinations. Imported commercial protein hydrolysate bait for controlling the flies constitutes the highest cost component of the control programme, excluding cost of labour. The baits are exhorbitant for local farmers and seldom available. This setback has called for the need to design and implement efficient and cost-effective control regimes for managing this pest. The objective of the study was to explore the development of locally produced, cheap and efficient baiting system using brewery yeast wastes and coloured cylinder traps to attract and control this quarantine pest. A 1 ha study area was selected within DORMEHSCO FARM, a mango orchard at Somanya in the Eastern region of Ghana with the Keith mango variety for the study. Local sources of Guiness, Beer and Pito yeast wastes were collected into Winchester bottles and subjected to pasteurisation. Papain enzyme was added to maximize yeast cell autolysis at 70 degrees celcius for 9 hours. The Micro-Kjeldahl apparatus was used to determine the percentage protein in each waste. Transparent cylinder traps with three different colours of lids (red, yellow and green) and three 3cm diameter round holes referred to as coloured traps were used to dispense the baits. The traps were labelled according to the type of bait and trap colour combination. The trials were conducted in two successive peak fruiting seasons fron October to November, 2011 (minor season and then from April to June

  19. Measuring Tax Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    David Ulph

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines a number of issues relating to the measurement of tax complexity. It starts with an analysis of the concept of tax complexity, distinguishing tax design complexity and operational complexity. It considers the consequences/costs of complexity, and then examines the rationale for measuring complexity. Finally it applies the analysis to an examination of an index of complexity developed by the UK Office of Tax Simplification (OTS). Postprint

  20. On State Complexes and Special Cube Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Valerie J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the first steps toward a classification of non-positively curved cube complexes called state complexes. A "state complex" is a configuration space for a "reconfigurable system," i.e., an abstract system in which local movements occur in some discrete manner. Reconfigurable systems can be used to describe, for example,…

  1. Pricing complexity options

    OpenAIRE

    Malihe Alikhani; Bj{\\o}rn Kjos-Hanssen; Amirarsalan Pakravan; Babak Saadat

    2015-01-01

    We consider options that pay the complexity deficiency of a sequence of up and down ticks of a stock upon exercise. We study the price of European and American versions of this option numerically for automatic complexity, and theoretically for Kolmogorov complexity. We also consider run complexity, which is a restricted form of automatic complexity.

  2. Three promising fungal strains pathogenic to fruit flies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiji, T.; Praveena, R.; Babu, Kavitha; Naseema, A.; Anitha, N. [College of Agriculture, Kerala (India)

    2006-07-01

    Pathogenicity of the fungi Paecilomyces lilacinus, isolated from Bactrocera cucurbitae, and Aspergillus candidus, isolated from B. dorsalis, was tested. Cross infectivity of P. lilacinus on B. dorsalis and A. candidus on B. cucurbitae and cross infectivity of a local isolate of B. bassiana from bhindi leaf roller (Sylepta derogata) on fruit flies (B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis ) were also studied. These fungi were new records in these hosts. P. lilacinus at 109 spores / ml caused 96.67% and 100 % cumulative mortality in fruit flies on the second and on the third days. LC50 values of P. lilacinus on B. cucurbitae were 5.0 x 106, 8.0 x 105, 7.0 x 105 spores/ ml on second, third and fourth day, respectively. The fungus was found to cross infect B. dorsalis. LC50 values of A. candidus on B. cucurbitae were 1.29 x 108, 1.22 x 107, 2.27 x 106 spores / ml on third, fourth and fifth day, respectively. The fungus was found to be cross infective to B. cucurbitae. B. bassiana at 109 spores/ ml on B. dorsalis was found to cause 70%, 80% and 90% mortality on fourth, fifth and sixth day. LC50 values of B. bassiana on B. dorsalis were 7.0 x 108, 2.0 x 107, 5.0 x 106 spores/ ml on third, fourth and fifth day ,respectively . Formulation of P. lilacinus as wettable powder and granules and B. bassiana as wettable powder, were also prepared and their efficacy was tested on hosts. (author)

  3. Radiation disinfestation as a quarantine treatment for solo papaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solo papaya is subject to infestation by the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Since ethylene dibromide has been banned for use as a fumigant for fruits, gamma radiation was investigated as an alternative quarantine disinfestation treatment for solo papaya. Results of small-scale laboratory tests showed that 150 Gy completely prevented the emergence of B. dorsalis. For egg-infested solo papaya, pupal recovered decreased with increasing dose while insect survival was not associated with fruit maturity. For larvae-infested ones, insect survival, in general, was highest in the full-ripe stage and lowest in the one-fourth-ripe stage of the fruit. Confirmatory tests of the proposed treatment using more than 100,000 test insects revealed that 150 Gy radiation dose is sufficient to provide Probit 9 quarantine security for solo papaya. (author). 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  4. Control of egg hatch ability and adult emergence of three fruit fly species in papayas by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma radiation on the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera Dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera Cucurbitae (Coquilett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis Capitata (Weidemann) were studied. Melon fly was determined to be the most susceptible of the three species. A dosage of 550 Gy rendered the eggs 100% sterile when irradiated in papayas at 4-6 hours before hatching. Oriental and mediterranean fruit flies were found to be more resistant, requiring doses of 750 and 850 Gy, respectively. A dose of only 100 Gy was needed to inhibit adult eclosion when the three species were treated at third instar larvae. Warm water treatment at 490C for 20 minutes was found sufficient in preventing the hatching of any egg in the infested papaya fruits. However, since eggs may hatch before the warm-water treatment can be applied, a combination of irradiation treatment using 100 Gy is recommended for disinfestation of papaya fruits. (author). 17 refs.; 3 tabs

  5. Studies of Sterile Irradiation Effects on the White-striped Fruit Fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In general, sterile irradiation can affect vigor and mating competitiveness of the fruit flies. The objective of the experiments was to study the effects of sterile irradiation on the white-striped oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), developed for sterile fly detection. A day before adult emergence, the pupae were irradiated at the dose of 90 Grays. No effects on adult emergence and flight ability were observed. However, it induced complete sterility in both sexes. Also, it decreased male mating competitiveness significantly, while increasing sexual competitiveness significantly

  6. 针刺"内关""中脘""足三里"对背侧网状亚核神经元放电的影响%Effects of Electroacupuncture of "Neiguan" (PC 6),"Zhongwan" (CV 12) and "Zusanli" (ST 36)on Electrical Activities of Neurons in Subnucleus Reticularis Dorsalis in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀来喜; 闫丽萍; 王海军; 李亮; 何伟; 贲卉; 朱兵

    2009-01-01

    目的:观察腧穴"胃病方"即"内关""中脘""足三里"的针刺信号在背侧网状亚核传导与整合的途径.方法:选用健康成年雄性SD大鼠,10%乌拉坦腹腔注射麻醉,人工呼吸.立体定位仪固定头部,暴露菱形窝,玻璃微电极记录延脑背侧网状亚核(SRD)神经元细胞放电.首先记录30 s的神经元背景活动,然后施以手法(捻转角度120°、频率80次/min)刺激"内关"30 s,同时记录SRD神经元的反应;刺激结束,待细胞放电恢复后,再用相同手法分别刺激"中脘"与"足三里"穴.结果:刺激"内关"穴后,放电频率从(1.67±0.35)个/s增加到(17.55±1.40)个/s;刺激"中脘"穴后,放电频率从(2.35±0.43)个/s增加到(16.96±1.83)个/s;刺激"足三里"后,放电频率从(1.83±0.37)个/s增加到(17.39±1.58)个/s.结论:SRD可能为腧穴"胃病方"3穴在中枢传入信息聚合的部位之一.%Objective To compare the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of "Gastric Problem Formula" ["Neiguan" (PC 6), "Zhongwan" (CV 12) and "Zusanli" (ST 36)] on electrical activities of neurons of medullary subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD) of the rat. Methods Experiments were performed on SD rats anesthetized by 10% urethane (1.0 -1. 5 g/kg). Under artificial ventilation and immobilization (2% gallamine triethiodide, 5 ml/kg), extracelluar discharges were recorded by glass micropipettes inserted into SRD of the medulla (Caudal to the Obex: - 1. 0-2. 0 mm, L/R: 0. 5- 1. 5 mm, H: 0. 6- 1. 5 mm below the medullary surface). Following getting stable recordings, the acupuncture needle inserted in "Neiguan" (PC 6) was manipulated moderately (twisting range: 120°, frequency: 80 times/min) for 30 s. The same manipulation was performed at "Zhongwan" (CV 12) and "Zusanli" (ST 36) separately. Results After moderate acupuncture stimulation, in the recorded 13 SRD neurons, the discharges were increased from (1. 67±0. 35) spikes/s to (17. 55± 1. 40) spikes/s for "Neiguan" (PC 6), from

  7. Second Quantized Kolmogorov Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Caroline; Vedral, Vlatko; Nagarajan, Rajagopal

    2008-01-01

    The Kolmogorov complexity of a string is the length of its shortest description. We define a second quantised Kolmogorov complexity where the length of a description is defined to be the average length of its superposition. We discuss this complexity's basic properties. We define the corresponding prefix complexity and show that the inequalities obeyed by this prefix complexity are also obeyed by von Neumann entropy.

  8. Complex Multiplicative Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Bashirov, Agamirza; Riza, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we extend the concepts of multiplicative de- rivative and integral to complex-valued functions of complex variable. Some drawbacks, arising with these concepts in the real case, are explained satis- factorily. Properties of complex multiplicative derivatives and integrals are studied. In particular, the fundamental theorem of complex multiplicative calculus, relating these concepts, is proved. It is shown that complex multi- plicative calculus is not just another realizat...

  9. Complex networks analysis of language complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Amancio, Diego R; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Costa, Luciano da F; 10.1209/0295-5075/100/58002

    2013-01-01

    Methods from statistical physics, such as those involving complex networks, have been increasingly used in quantitative analysis of linguistic phenomena. In this paper, we represented pieces of text with different levels of simplification in co-occurrence networks and found that topological regularity correlated negatively with textual complexity. Furthermore, in less complex texts the distance between concepts, represented as nodes, tended to decrease. The complex networks metrics were treated with multivariate pattern recognition techniques, which allowed us to distinguish between original texts and their simplified versions. For each original text, two simplified versions were generated manually with increasing number of simplification operations. As expected, distinction was easier for the strongly simplified versions, where the most relevant metrics were node strength, shortest paths and diversity. Also, the discrimination of complex texts was improved with higher hierarchical network metrics, thus point...

  10. 柑橘大实蝇生物、生态学及辐照不育技术最新研究进展%Research progress on the biology, ecology and the application of sterile insect technique on Bactrocera minax (Enderlein)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂芬; 王福莲; 吕志创; 黄聪; 李咏军; 郭建英; 李传仁; 万方浩

    2015-01-01

    Bactrocera minax ( Enderlein) , the Chinese citrus fruit fly, is one of the most important citrus pests in southern China. In recent years, the damage caused by this species on citrus plants has increased, causing the citrus industry suffer a great loss. In this paper, knowledge on the effects of environmental factors, including temperature, photoperiod, as well as adult nutrition ( hunger, thirst) and tolerance to flooding in mature larvae, and on adult behavior of B. minax are evaluated. The parameters of artificial diet for mass rearing of B. minax adults and larvae, as well as the diapausing mechanisms of B. minax pupa is now clarified. The key techniques for IST ( irradiation sterile technique) , including the optimal irradiation dose of the 60 Co-γray and the optimal develop-ment status of irradiated B. minax pupa were clarified, leading to the first successful attempt to use IST to control B. minax in an or-ange orchard in Hubei Province. Finally, a proposal for further research on the sustainable management of B. minax is proposed.%柑橘大实蝇是柑橘类果树的一种重要害虫,近几年在我国柑橘种植区的危害呈上升趋势,给柑橘产业造成了巨大损失。本文概述了环境因素包括温度、光周期、营养状况(饥渴)以及水淹对柑橘大实蝇生物学特性和成虫行为的影响,柑橘大实蝇成虫和幼虫人工饲养技术参数,柑橘大实蝇蛹滞育机制,辐照不育关键技术包括最佳辐照剂量和辐照时期,及其在湖北柑橘园柑橘大实蝇防控中的应用与示范情况等,并指出了尚需进一步开展的研究内容。

  11. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type ... at least two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications ...

  12. Curve complexes are rigid

    OpenAIRE

    Rafi, Kasra; Schleimer, Saul

    2007-01-01

    Any quasi-isometry of the complex of curves is bounded distance from a simplicial automorphism. As a consequence, the quasi-isometry type of the curve complex determines the homeomorphism type of the surface.

  13. Complexity An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Parwani, R R

    2002-01-01

    This article summarises a Web-book on "Complexity" that was developed to introduce undergraduate students to interesting complex systems in the biological, physical and social sciences, and the common tools, principles and concepts used for their study.

  14. Oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Azevedo, Cristina G.; Vollhardt, K. Peter C.

    2002-01-18

    Synthesis, characterization, and reactivity studies of oligocyclopentadienyl transition metal complexes, namely those of fulvalene, tercyclopentadienyl, quatercyclopentadienyl, and pentacyclopentadienyl(cyclopentadienyl) are the subject of this account. Thermal-, photo-, and redox chemistries of homo- and heteropolynuclear complexes are described.

  15. Quantum Communication Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Klauck, Hartmut

    2000-01-01

    This paper surveys the field of quantum communication complexity. Some interesting recent results are collected concerning relations to classical communication, lower bound methods, one-way communication, and applications of quantum communication complexity.

  16. Irinotecan Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irinotecan lipid complex is used in combination with other medications to treat pancreatic cancer that has spread to other parts of ... after treatment with other chemotherapy medications. Irinotecan lipid complex is in a class of antineoplastic medications called ...

  17. Vincristine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincristine lipid complex is used to treat a certain type of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; a type of cancer of the ... two different treatments with other medications. Vincristine lipid complex is in a class of medications called vinca ...

  18. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat ovarian cancer that has not improved or that has worsened after treatment with other medications. Doxorubicin lipid complex is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  19. Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 514 Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) WHAT IS MAC? HOW DO I KNOW ... THE BOTTOM LINE WHAT IS MAC? Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) is a serious illness caused by common ...

  20. Cytarabine Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cytarabine lipid complex is used to treat lymphomatous meningitis (a type of cancer in the covering of the spinal cord and brain). Cytarabine lipid complex is in a class of medications called antimetabolites. ...

  1. Evolution of biological complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Adami, Christoph; Ofria, Charles; Collier, Travis C.

    2000-01-01

    In order to make a case for or against a trend in the evolution of complexity in biological evolution, complexity needs to be both rigorously defined and measurable. A recent information-theoretic (but intuitively evident) definition identifies genomic complexity with the amount of information a sequence stores about its environment. We investigate the evolution of genomic complexity in populations of digital organisms and monitor in detail the evolutionary transitions that increase complexit...

  2. Complexity Near Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, Edi

    2015-01-01

    We generalize the concept of complexity near horizons to all nondegenerate black holes. For Schwarzschild black holes, we show that Rindler observers see a complexity change of $S$ during proper time $1/\\kappa$ which corresponds to the creation of a causal patch with proper length $1/\\kappa$ inside the horizon. We attempt to describe complexity in the horizon CFT and the Euclidean picture.

  3. Complex variables I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables I includes functions of a complex variable, elementary complex functions, integrals of complex functions in the complex plane, sequences and series, and poles and r

  4. SYSTEMS WITH COMPLEXITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Chenghong; ZHANG Lijun

    2004-01-01

    Science of Complexity is a newly emerging branch of natural scienceAlthoughwe still haven't a precise definition, there are some principles for justifying whether a systemis a complex systemThe purpose of this article is to reveal some of such principlesOnthe basis of them, the concept of a system with complexity is proposedThey may helpus to distinguish a real complex system from complicated objects in common senseThenwe propose some fundamental problems faced by the study of systems with complexity.

  5. Randomness, Information, and Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Grassberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We review possible measures of complexity which might in particular be applicable to situations where the complexity seems to arise spontaneously. We point out that not all of them correspond to the intuitive (or "naive") notion, and that one should not expect a unique observable of complexity. One of the main problems is to distinguish complex from disordered systems. This and the fact that complexity is closely related to information requires that we also give a review of information measures. We finally concentrate on quantities which measure in some way or other the difficulty of classifying and forecasting sequences of discrete symbols, and study them in simple examples.

  6. Photocytotoxic lanthanide complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhtar Hussain; Akhil R Chakravarty

    2012-11-01

    Lanthanide complexes have recently received considerable attention in the field of therapeutic and diagnostic medicines. Among many applications of lanthanides, gadolinium complexes are used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents in clinical radiology and luminescent lanthanides for bioanalysis, imaging and sensing. The chemistry of photoactive lanthanide complexes showing biological applications is of recent origin. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment modality of cancer using a photosensitizer drug and light. This review primarily focuses on different aspects of the chemistry of lanthanide complexes showing photoactivated DNA cleavage activity and cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Macrocyclic texaphyrin-lanthanide complexes are known to show photocytotoxicity with the PDT effect in near-IR light. Very recently, non-macrocyclic lanthanide complexes are reported to show photocytotoxicity in cancer cells. Attempts have been made in this perspective article to review and highlight the photocytotoxic behaviour of various lanthanide complexes for their potential photochemotherapeutic applications.

  7. Complex networks and computing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuigeng ZHOU; Zhongzhi ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    @@ Nowadays complex networks are pervasive in various areas of science and technology. Popular examples of complex networks include the Internet, social networks of collaboration, citations and co-authoring, as well as biological networks such as gene and protein interactions and others. Complex networks research spans across mathematics, computer science, engineering, biology and the social sciences. Even in computer science area, increasing problems are either found to be related to complex networks or studied from the perspective of complex networks, such as searching on Web and P2P networks, routing in sensor networks, language processing, software engineering etc. The interaction and mergence of complex networks and computing is inspiring new chances and challenges in computer science.

  8. Two giant stellar complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Yu. N.; Efremov, E. Yu.

    Common star complexes are huge (0.3-1 kpc in diameter) groups of relatively young stars, associations and clusters. The complexes usually form regular chains along spiral arms of grand design galaxies, being evidently formed and supported by magneto- gravitational instability developing along an arm. Special attention is given to a few large complexes which have signatures of gravitational boundness, such as round shape and high central density. Concentrations of stars and clusters in such a complex in M51 galaxy were found in this paper; we concluded it is possible to suggest that the complex is gravitationally bound. It is also stressed that some properties of the giant complex in NGC 6946 (such as its semicircular and sharp Western edge) are still enigmatic.

  9. Simplicial complexes of graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    A graph complex is a finite family of graphs closed under deletion of edges. Graph complexes show up naturally in many different areas of mathematics, including commutative algebra, geometry, and knot theory. Identifying each graph with its edge set, one may view a graph complex as a simplicial complex and hence interpret it as a geometric object. This volume examines topological properties of graph complexes, focusing on homotopy type and homology. Many of the proofs are based on Robin Forman's discrete version of Morse theory. As a byproduct, this volume also provides a loosely defined toolbox for attacking problems in topological combinatorics via discrete Morse theory. In terms of simplicity and power, arguably the most efficient tool is Forman's divide and conquer approach via decision trees; it is successfully applied to a large number of graph and digraph complexes.

  10. How evolution guides complexity

    OpenAIRE

    LARRY S. YAEGER

    2009-01-01

    Long-standing debates about the role of natural selection in the growth of biological complexity over geological time scales are difficult to resolve from the paleobiological record. Using an evolutionary model—a computational ecosystem subjected to natural selection—we investigate evolutionary trends in an information-theoretic measure of the complexity of the neural dynamics of artificial agents inhabiting the model. Our results suggest that evolution always guides complexity change, just n...

  11. Quantum Computational Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Watrous, John

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys quantum computational complexity, with a focus on three fundamental notions: polynomial-time quantum computations, the efficient verification of quantum proofs, and quantum interactive proof systems. Properties of quantum complexity classes based on these notions, such as BQP, QMA, and QIP, are presented. Other topics in quantum complexity, including quantum advice, space-bounded quantum computation, and bounded-depth quantum circuits, are also discussed.

  12. Complex Systems and Dependability

    CERN Document Server

    Zamojski, Wojciech; Sugier, Jaroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Typical contemporary complex system is a multifaceted amalgamation of technical, information, organization, software and human (users, administrators and management) resources. Complexity of such a system comes not only from its involved technical and organizational structure but mainly from complexity of information processes that must be implemented in the operational environment (data processing, monitoring, management, etc.). In such case traditional methods of reliability analysis focused mainly on technical level are usually insufficient in performance evaluation and more innovative meth

  13. Engineering Complex Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Mikos, Antonios G.; Herring, Susan W.; OCHAREON, PANNEE; Elisseeff, Jennifer; Lu, Helen H.; Kandel, Rita; Schoen, Frederick J.; Toner, Mehmet; Mooney, David; ATALA, ANTHONY; VAN DYKE, MARK E.; Kaplan, David; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2006-01-01

    This article summarizes the views expressed at the third session of the workshop “Tissue Engineering—The Next Generation,” which was devoted to the engineering of complex tissue structures. Antonios Mikos described the engineering of complex oral and craniofacial tissues as a “guided interplay” between biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors, and local cell populations toward the restoration of the original architecture and function of complex tissues. Susan Herring, reviewing osteogenesis and ...

  14. Berger Engineering Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description/History: Engineering laboratory The Berger Lab Complex is a multi-purpose building with professional office, 100 seat auditorium, general purpose labs,...

  15. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.; Clemenson, P. I.; Carneiro, K.; Yueqiuan, S.; Mortensen, Kell

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  16. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.;

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  17. MULTISCALE COMPLEXITY/ENTROPY

    OpenAIRE

    Y. BAR-YAM

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the role of scale dependence of entropy/complexity and its relationship to component interdependence. The complexity as a function of scale of observation is expressed in terms of subsystem entropies for a system having a description in terms of variables that have the same a priori scale. The sum of the complexity over all scales is the same for any system with the same number of underlying degrees of freedom (variables), even though the complexity at specific scales differs due t...

  18. Phospholyl-uranium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having reported a bibliographical study on penta-methylcyclopentadienyl uranium complexes, and a description of the synthesis and radioactivity of uranium (III) and (IV) boron hydrides compounds, this research thesis reports the study of mono and bis-tetramethyl-phospholyl uranium complexes comprising chloride, boron hydride, alkyl and alkoxide ligands. The third part reports the comparison of structures, stabilities and reactions of homologue complexes in penta-methylcyclopentadienyl and tetramethyl-phospholyl series. The last part addresses the synthesis of tris-phospholyl uranium (III) and (IV) complexes.

  19. Introductory complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Richard A

    1984-01-01

    A shorter version of A. I. Markushevich's masterly three-volume Theory of Functions of a Complex Variable, this edition is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in complex analysis. Numerous worked-out examples and more than 300 problems, some with hints and answers, make it suitable for independent study. 1967 edition.

  20. Complexity dimensions and learnability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-H. Nienhuys-Cheng (Shan-Hwei); M. Polman

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA stochastic model of learning from examples has been introduced by Valiant [1984]. This PAC-learning model (PAC = probably approximately correct) reflects differences in complexity of concept classes, i.e. very complex classes are not efficiently PAC-learnable. Blumer et al. [1989] foun

  1. The complexity of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P.P. (Hennie Lótter

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article an alternative philosophy of science based on ideas drawn from the study of complex adaptive systems is presented. As a result of the enormous expansion in scientific disciplines, and the number of scientists and scientific institutions in the twentieth century, I believe science can be characterised as a complex system. I want to interpret the processes of science through which scientists themselves determine what is regarded as good science. This characterisation of science as a complex system can supply an answer to the question why the sciences have been so successful in solving growing numbers of problems and correcting their own mistakes. I utilise components of complexity theory to explain and interpret science as a complex system. I first explain the concept of complexity in ordinary language. The explanation of science as a complex system starts with a definition of the basic rules guiding the behaviour of science as a complex system. Next, I indicate how various sciences have resulted through the implementation of these rules in the study of a specific aspect of reality. The explanation of the growth of science through evolutionary adaptation and learning forms the core o f the article.

  2. Complexity in Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierschynski, Jarek; Louie, Belinda; Pughe, Bronwyn

    2015-01-01

    One of the key requirements of Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English Language Arts is that students are able to read and access complex texts across all grade levels. The CCSS authors emphasize both the limitations and lack of accuracy in the current CCSS model of text complexity, calling for the development of new frameworks. In response…

  3. Freestanding Complex Optical Scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbie, David A.

    A complex freestanding optical mark recognition (OMR) scanner is one which is not on-line to an external processor; it has intelligence stemming from an internal processor located within the unit or system. The advantages and disadvantages of a complex OMR can best be assessed after identifying the scanning needs and constraints of the potential…

  4. Visual Complexity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donderi, Don C.

    2006-01-01

    The idea of visual complexity, the history of its measurement, and its implications for behavior are reviewed, starting with structuralism and Gestalt psychology at the beginning of the 20th century and ending with visual complexity theory, perceptual learning theory, and neural circuit theory at the beginning of the 21st. Evidence is drawn from…

  5. Urban geography and complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Pumain

    2004-01-01

    The contemporary approach of complex systems raises common questions that could be handled by a transdisciplinary theory. We demonstrate how the main concepts of urban geography could be integrated in such a theory ofcomplexity. We illustrate the complexity approach by a short presentationof the SIMPOP model that uses a multi-agents formalism for the simulationof the evolutionary properties of systems of cities.

  6. Gold trifluoromethyl complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Rubio, Juan; Vicente, José

    2015-12-01

    This article reviews the synthesis, reactivity and applications of gold trifluoromethyl complexes, which are the only isolated perfluoroalkyl complexes of gold. The most reported examples are neutral Au(i) complexes of the type [Au(CF3)L], whereas only two Au(ii) trifluoromethyl complexes have been reported, both being diamagnetic and containing a strong Au-Au bond. A number of Au(iii) trifluoromethyl complexes have been prepared by oxidative addition of halogens or iodotrifluoromethane to Au(i) complexes or, in a few cases, by transmetallation reactions. Owing to the limitations of the available synthetic methods, a lower number of examples is known, particularly for the oxidation states (ii) and (iii). Gold trifluoromethyl complexes present singular characteristics, such as thermal stability, strong Au-C bonds and, in some cases, reactive α-C-F bonds. Some of the Au(iii) complexes reported, show unusually easy reductive elimination reactions of trifluoromethylated products which could be applied in the development of gold-catalyzed processes for the trifluoromethylation of organic compounds. PMID:26169553

  7. [Complexity: an introduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Carlos Alberto Palacio; Jaramillo, Francisco Luis Ochoa

    2011-01-01

    Complexity appears in the twentieth century as a way to understand many phenomena that are perceived as chaotic and complex from classical thought, which still persist in our way of explaining the world. Its purpose is to study the complex and adaptive systems that are sensitive to initial conditions. Some of the characteristics of complex thought are systemic perspective, autopoiesis, self-organization, emergent properties, unpredictability of the systems, analogic thought, and the complementarity of the phenomena, among others. Living systems respond to a complex logic, and in that sense, our vision of human populations and patients, and how we try to solve problems and human diseases, should be open to the possibilities that arise from this form of understand the world. PMID:21503430

  8. Reset Complexity of Ideal Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Maslennikova, Marina

    2014-01-01

    We present a new characteristic of a regular ideal language called reset complexity. We find some bounds on the reset complexity in terms of the state complexity of a given language. We also compare the reset complexity and the state complexity for languages related to slowly synchronizing automata and study uniqueness question for automata yielding the minimum of reset complexity.

  9. Stable Spirocyclic Meisenheimer Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Guirado

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Meisenheimer complexes are important intermediates in Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions (SNAr. They are formed by the addition of electron rich species to polynitro aromatic compounds or aromatic compounds with strong electron withdrawing groups. It is possible to distinguish two types of Meisenheimer or σ-complexes, the σHcomplex or σX-complex (also named ipso, depending on the aromatic ring position attacked by the nucleophile (a non-substituted or substituted one, respectively. Special examples of σX- or ipso-complexes are formed through intermediate spiro adducts, via intramolecular SNAr. Some of these spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes, a type of σXcomplex, are exceptionally stable in solution and/or as solids. They can be isolated and characterized using X-ray, and various spectroscopic techniques such as NMR, UV-Vis, IR, and fluorescence. A few of these stable spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes are zwitterionic and exhibit interesting photophysical and redox properties. We will review recent advances, synthesis and potential applications of these stable spirocyclic Meisenheimer complexes.

  10. Complex intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkouri, Abdulazeez (Moh'd. Jumah) S.; Salleh, Abdul Razak

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a new concept of complex intuitionistic fuzzy set (CIFS) which is generalized from the innovative concept of a complex fuzzy set (CFS) by adding the non-membership term to the definition of CFS. The novelty of CIFS lies in its ability for membership and non-membership functions to achieve more range of values. The ranges of values are extended to the unit circle in complex plane for both membership and non-membership functions instead of [0, 1] as in the conventional intuitionistic fuzzy functions. We define basic operations namely complement, union, and intersection on CIFSs. Properties of these operations are derived.

  11. Query complexity in expectation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaniewski, J.; Lee, Troy; Wolf,

    2014-01-01

    We study the query complexity of computing a function f:{0,1}^n-->R_+ in expectation. This requires the algorithm on input x to output a nonnegative random variable whose expectation equals f(x), using as few queries to the input x as possible. We exactly characterize both the randomized and the quantum query complexity by two polynomial degrees, the nonnegative literal degree and the sum-of-squares degree, respectively. We observe that the quantum complexity can be unboundedly smaller than t...

  12. Complexity and forensic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard Martin

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that nonlinearity and complexity are the norm in human physiological systems, the relevance of which is informing an enhanced understanding of basic pathological processes such as inflammation, the host response to severe trauma, and critical illness. This article will explore how an understanding of nonlinear systems and complexity might inform the study of the pathophysiology of deaths of medicolegal interest, and how 'complexity thinking' might usefully be incorporated into modern forensic medicine and forensic pathology research, education and practice. PMID:26372537

  13. Complexity for Artificial Substrates (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loke, L.H.L.; Jachowski, N.R.; Bouma, T.J.; Ladle, R.J.; Todd, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical habitat complexity regulates the structure and function of biological communities, although the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unclear. Urbanisation, pollution, unsustainable resource exploitation and climate change have resulted in the widespread simplification (and loss) o

  14. Complex tunneling dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.-D. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: cdyang@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2007-04-15

    Tunneling dynamics and tunneling trajectories are modeled exactly by complex-extended Hamilton-Jacobi formulation in this paper. It is found that the wave-like properties of tunneling particles, such as reflection, refraction, and transmission resonance, can be identified and explained in terms of particle's motion in complex space with the tunneling time defined as the usual sense of classical time. Following the complex trajectories determined by the complex Hamilton equations of motion, we can connect classical trajectories smoothly with tunneling trajectories using position and velocity continuity at the interface of the media, locate the particle's position at any instant, and find the time spent by a particle within the potential. A microscopic tunneling model is also developed to explain the probabilistic nature why a particle with the same incident conditions sometimes transmits the potential and sometimes is reflected from the potential.

  15. Management recommendations: Tewaukon Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Tewaukon Complex, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional comments are...

  16. Physical Sciences Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This 88,000 square foot complex is used to investigate basic physical science in support of missile technology development. It incorporates office space, dedicated...

  17. Complex coacervate core micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Ilja K; de Keizer, Arie; Cohen Stuart, Martien A

    2009-01-01

    In this review we present an overview of the literature on the co-assembly of neutral-ionic block, graft, and random copolymers with oppositely charged species in aqueous solution. Oppositely charged species include synthetic (co)polymers of various architectures, biopolymers - such as proteins, enzymes and DNA - multivalent ions, metallic nanoparticles, low molecular weight surfactants, polyelectrolyte block copolymer micelles, metallo-supramolecular polymers, equilibrium polymers, etcetera. The resultant structures are termed complex coacervate core/polyion complex/block ionomer complex/interpolyelectrolyte complex micelles (or vesicles); i.e., in short C3Ms (or C3Vs) and PIC, BIC or IPEC micelles (and vesicles). Formation, structure, dynamics, properties, and function will be discussed. We focus on experimental work; theory and modelling will not be discussed. Recent developments in applications and micelles with heterogeneous coronas are emphasized. PMID:19038373

  18. A complex legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Cristopher

    2011-11-01

    In his tragically short life, Alan Turing helped define what computing machines are capable of, and where they reach inherent limits. His legacy is still felt every day, in areas ranging from computational complexity theory to cryptography and quantum computing.

  19. On scattered subword complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Kása, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Special scattered subwords, in which the gaps are of length from a given set, are defined. The scattered subword complexity, which is the number of such scattered subwords, is computed for rainbow words.

  20. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  1. Algorithmic Problem Complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Burgin, Mark

    2008-01-01

    People solve different problems and know that some of them are simple, some are complex and some insoluble. The main goal of this work is to develop a mathematical theory of algorithmic complexity for problems. This theory is aimed at determination of computer abilities in solving different problems and estimation of resources that computers need to do this. Here we build the part of this theory related to static measures of algorithms. At first, we consider problems for finite words and stud...

  2. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, W; Tomasiello, A; Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; Tomasiello, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    We construct a class of symplectic non--Kaehler and complex non--Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten--dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)--structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  3. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds

  4. Statistical complexity and disequilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the concept of disequilibrium as an essential ingredient of a family of statistical complexity measures. We find that Wootters' objections to the use of Euclidean distances for probability spaces become quite relevant to this endeavor. Replacing the Euclidean distance by the Wootters' one noticeably improves the behavior of the associated statistical complexity measure, as evidenced by its application to the dynamics of the logistic map

  5. Urban geography and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pumain

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary approach of complex systems raises common questions that could be handled by a transdisciplinary theory. We demonstrate how the main concepts of urban geography could be integrated in such a theory ofcomplexity. We illustrate the complexity approach by a short presentationof the SIMPOP model that uses a multi-agents formalism for the simulationof the evolutionary properties of systems of cities.

  6. Advances in network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.

  7. NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX BIOGENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Martinez, Javier; Rout, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are the sole mediators of transport between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. NPCs have a life cycle: they assemble, disassemble, turn over and age. The molecular mechanisms governing these different vital steps are beginning to emerge, suggesting key roles for the core structural scaffold of the NPC and auxiliary factors in the assembly of this large macromolecular complex, and connections between NPC maintenance, NPC turnover, and ageing of the cell.

  8. Tuberous sclerosis complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant disorder with variable affection of the central nervous system (CNS) and many other organ systems. Radiological features include various lesions of the brain as well as lesions of the lungs, kidneys and the heart. Imaging is important for the early detection of complications. This article provides an overview of the clinical features and therapy as well as the specific imaging of tuberous sclerosis complex. (orig.)

  9. Weathering trials of Amulet cue-lure and Amulet methyl eugenol "attract-and-kill" stations with male melon flies and oriental fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Stark, John D; Mackey, Bruce; Bull, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Amulet C-L (cue-lure) and Amulet ME (methyl eugenol) molded paper fiber "attract-and-kill" dispensers containing fipronil were tested under Hawaiian weather conditions against Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (melon fly) and Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (oriental fruit fly), respectively. In paired tests (fresh versus weathered), C-L dispensers were effective for at least 77 d, whereas ME dispensers were effective for at least 21 d. Thus, C-L dispensers exceeded, whereas ME dispensers did not meet the label interval replacement recommendation of 60 d. Addition of 4 ml of ME to 56-d-old ME dispensers restored attraction and kill for an additional 21 d. This result suggested the fipronil added at manufacture was still effective. By enclosing and weathering ME dispensers inside small plastic bucket traps, longevity of ME dispensers was extended up to 56 d. Fipronil ME and C-L dispensers also were compared, inside bucket traps, to other toxicants: spinosad, naled, DDVP, malathion, and permethrin. Against B. dorsalis, fipronil ME dispensers compared favorably only up to 3 wk. Against B. cucurbitae, fipronil C-L dispensers compared favorably for at least 15 wk. Our results suggest that fipronil C-L dispensers can potentially be used in Hawaii; however, fipronil ME dispensers need to be modified or protected from the effects of weathering to extend longevity and meet label specifications. Nonetheless, Amulet C-L and ME dispensers are novel prepackaged formulations containing C-L or ME and fipronil that are more convenient and safer to handle than current liquid insecticide formulations used for areawide suppression of B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae in Hawaii. PMID:16334323

  10. Modelling Complexity in Musical Rhythm

    OpenAIRE

    Liou, Cheng-Yuan; Wu, Tai-Hei; Lee, Chia-Ying

    2007-01-01

    This paper constructs a tree structure for the music rhythm using the L-system. It models the structure as an automata and derives its complexity. It also solves the complexity for the L-system. This complexity can resolve the similarity between trees. This complexity serves as a measure of psychological complexity for rhythms. It resolves the music complexity of various compositions including the Mozart effect K488. Keyword: music perception, psychological complexity, rhythm, L-system, autom...

  11. Trap capture of three economically important fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae): evaluation of a solid formulation containing multiple male lures in a Hawaiian coffee field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelly, Todd; Nishimoto, Jon; Kurashima, Rick

    2012-08-01

    Invasive fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) pose a global threat to agriculture through direct damage to food crops and the accompanying trade restrictions that often result. Early detection is vital to controlling fruit flies, because it increases the probability of limiting the growth and spread of the invasive population and thus may greatly reduce the monetary costs required for eradication or suppression. Male-specific lures are an important component of fruit fly detection, and three such lures are used widely: trimedlure (TML), cue lure (CL), and methyl eugenol (ME), attractive to Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann); melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett); and oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), respectively. In California, Florida, and Texas, the two Bactrocera lures are applied to separate species-specific traps as liquids (with a small amount of the insecticide naled added), whereas TML is delivered as a solid plug in another set of traps. Thus, the detection protocol involves considerable handling time as well as potential contact with a pesticide. The purpose of this study was to compare trap capture between liquid male lures and "trilure" wafers that contain TML, ME, raspberry ketone (RK, the hydroxy equivalent of CL), and the toxicant DDVP embedded within a solid matrix. Field studies were conducted in a Hawaiian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) field where the three aforementioned species co-occur, showed that the wafer captured at least as many flies as the liquid baits for all three species. This same result was obtained in comparisons using both fresh and aged (6-wk) baits. Moreover, the wafers performed as well as the single-lure traps in an ancillary experiment in which TML plugs were substituted for liquid TML. Additional experiments demonstrated explicitly that the presence of ME and RK had no effect on captures of C. capitata males and similarly that the presence of TML had no effect on the capture of B

  12. Fitness costs of an insecticide resistance and their population dynamical consequences in the oriental fruit fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chi-Chun; Okuyama, Toshinori; Wu, Wen-Jer; Feng, Hai-Tung; Hsu, Ju-Chun

    2011-12-01

    Naled is a commonly used insecticide for controlling populations of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), in Taiwan and other countries. B. dorsalis has developed resistance to the insecticide, and the resistance management is an important issue. Ecological effects (e.g., fitness costs) of the resistance, when fully understood, can be used for the resistance management. This study examined the effects of the insecticide resistance on important life history traits (i.e., survival rates, stage durations, and fecundity) of the oriental fruit fly by comparing the traits of insecticide resistant individuals and susceptible individuals. Population dynamical properties were also examined using a stage-structured matrix model that was parameterized with the empirical data. The results revealed that susceptible individuals had shorter stage durations (e.g., grew faster) and reproduced more than resistant individuals. The average longevity of sexually mature susceptible adults was longer than that of sexually mature resistant adults. The matrix population model predicted that a population of the susceptible individuals would grow faster than a population of the resistant individuals in the absence of the insecticide. The sensitivity analysis of the model suggests that the sexually immature adult stage is a good candidate for controlling B. dorsalis populations. PMID:22299368

  13. Field trials of spinosad as a replacement for naled, DDVP, and malathion in methyl eugenol and cue-lure bucket traps to attract and kill male oriental fruit flies and melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Miller, Neil W; Stark, John D

    2003-12-01

    Spinosad was evaluated in Hawaii as a replacement for organophosphate insecticides (naled, dichlorvos [DDVP], and malathion) in methyl eugenol and cue-lure bucket traps to attract and kill oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, and melon fly, B. cucurbitae Coquillett, respectively. In the first and second methyl eugenol trials with B. dorsalis, naled was in the highest rated group for all evaluation periods (at 5, 10, 15, and 20 wk). Spinosad was equal to naled at 5 and 10 wk during both trials 1 and 2, and compared favorably with malathion during trial 2. During the first cue-lure trial with B. cucurbitae, naled and malathion were in the top rated group at 5, 10, 15, and 20 wk. Spinosad was equal to naled at 5 wk. During the second cue-lure trial, spinosad and naled were both in the top rated group at 10, 15, and 20 wk. Use of male lure traps with methyl eugenol or cue-lure had no effect on attraction of females into test areas. Our results suggest that spinosad, although not as persistent as naled or malathion, is safer to handle and a more environmentally friendly substitute for organophosphate insecticides in methyl eugenol and cue-lure traps for use in B. dorsalis and B. cucurbitae areawide integrated pest management programs in Hawaii. PMID:14977115

  14. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes (64Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective 64Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective 64Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential, with hypoxia

  15. Hypoxia targeting copper complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearling, J.L

    1998-11-01

    The importance and incidence of tumour hypoxia, its measurement and current treatments available, including pharmacological and radiopharmacological methods of targeting hypoxia, are discussed. A variety of in vitro and in vivo methods for imposing hypoxia have been developed and are reviewed. Copper, its chemistry, biochemistry and radiochemistry, the potential for use of copper radionuclides and its use to date in this field is considered with particular reference to the thiosemicarbazones. Their biological activity, metal chelation, in vitro and in vivo studies of their radiocopper complexes and the potential for their use as hypoxia targeting radiopharmaceuticals is described. The reduction of the copper(II) complex to copper(l), its pivotal importance in their biological behaviour, and the potential for manipulation of this to effect hypoxia selectivity are described. An in vitro method for assessing the hypoxia selectivity of radiopharmaceuticals is reported. The rapid deoxygenation and high viability of a mammalian cell culture in this system is discussed and factors which may affect the cellular uptake of a radiopharmaceutical are described. The design, synthesis and complexation with copper and radiocopper of a range of bis(thiosemicarbazones) is reported. Synthesis of these compounds is simple giving high yields of pure products. The characteristics of the radiocopper complexes ({sup 64}Cu) including lipophilicity and redox activity are reported (reduction potentials in the range -0.314 - -0.590 V). High cellular uptakes of the radiocopper complexes of the ligands, in hypoxic and normoxic EMT6 and CHO320 cells, were observed. Extremes of selectivity are shown ranging from the hypoxia selective {sup 64}Cu(II)ATSM to normoxic cell selective {sup 64}Cu(II)GTS. The selectivities observed are compared with the physico chemical characteristics of the complexes. A good correlation exists between selectivity of the complex and its Cu(II)/Cu(I) reduction potential

  16. The Orion complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with some of the most typical complexes of interstellar matter and presents a holistic view of the well studied complexes in Orion, built on information derived from various branches of modern astrophysics. A wealth of published data is presented in the form of photographs, contour maps, diagrams and numerous heavily annotated tables. Chapter 1, which is concerned with the large scale view of the Orion region, outlines the morphology of the area and examines in particular the nature of Barnard's Loop and the associated filamentary structure in addition to the origin of the I Orion OB association. Chapter 2 focuses on the Great Orion Nebula (M42 or NGC 1976) and the small H II region to the north (M43 or NGC 1982). Chapter 3 examines the Orion Complex as a whole, i.e. the H II regions M42 and M43, the associated molecular clouds OMC 1 and OMC 2 and their interrelations. Chapter 4 contains a discussion of the empirical models introduced to attempt to explain certain aspects of this very complex region, and chapter 5 investigates the second prominent H II region and molecular cloud complex, NGC 2024 (Orion B, W12). (Auth.)

  17. Algorithmic Relative Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Cerra

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information content and compression are tightly related concepts that can be addressed through both classical and algorithmic information theories, on the basis of Shannon entropy and Kolmogorov complexity, respectively. The definition of several entities in Kolmogorov’s framework relies upon ideas from classical information theory, and these two approaches share many common traits. In this work, we expand the relations between these two frameworks by introducing algorithmic cross-complexity and relative complexity, counterparts of the cross-entropy and relative entropy (or Kullback-Leibler divergence found in Shannon’s framework. We define the cross-complexity of an object x with respect to another object y as the amount of computational resources needed to specify x in terms of y, and the complexity of x related to y as the compression power which is lost when adopting such a description for x, compared to the shortest representation of x. Properties of analogous quantities in classical information theory hold for these new concepts. As these notions are incomputable, a suitable approximation based upon data compression is derived to enable the application to real data, yielding a divergence measure applicable to any pair of strings. Example applications are outlined, involving authorship attribution and satellite image classification, as well as a comparison to similar established techniques.

  18. Complexity of Economical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pavlos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study new theoretical concepts are described concerning the interpretation of economical complex dynamics. In addition a summary of an extended algorithm of nonlinear time series analysis is provided which is applied not only in economical time series but also in other physical complex systems (e.g. [22, 24]. In general, Economy is a vast and complicated set of arrangements and actions wherein agents—consumers, firms, banks, investors, government agencies—buy and sell, speculate, trade, oversee, bring products into being, offer services, invest in companies, strategize, explore, forecast, compete, learn, innovate, and adapt. As a result the economic and financial variables such as foreign exchange rates, gross domestic product, interest rates, production, stock market prices and unemployment exhibit large-amplitude and aperiodic fluctuations evident in complex systems. Thus, the Economics can be considered as spatially distributed non-equilibrium complex system, for which new theoretical concepts, such as Tsallis non extensive statistical mechanics and strange dynamics, percolation, nonGaussian, multifractal and multiscale dynamics related to fractional Langevin equations can be used for modeling and understanding of the economical complexity locally or globally.

  19. Complexity: The bigger picture

    CERN Document Server

    Vicsek, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    If a concept is not well defined, there are grounds for its abuse. This is particularly true of complexity, an inherently interdisciplinary concept that has penetrated very different fields of intellectual activity from physics to linguistics, but with no underlying, unified theory. Complexity has become a popular buzzword used in the hope of gaining attention or funding -- institutes and research networks associated with complex systems grow like mushrooms. Why and how did it happen that this vague notion has become a central motif in modern science? Is it only a fashion, a kind of sociological phenomenon, or is it a sign of a changing paradigm of our perception of the laws of nature and of the approaches required to understand them? Because virtually every real system is inherently extremely complicated, to say that a system is complex is almost an empty statement - couldn't an Institute of Complex Systems just as well be called an Institute for Almost Everything? Despite these valid concerns, the world is ...

  20. Synchronization in complex networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  1. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  2. Thiosemicarbazone complexes of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One aproach to the design of new sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals consists in the preparation of bifunctional radio-pharmaceuticals [1]. In this approach, a bifunctional molecule is synthesized which possesses a chelating functional group (capable of forming a stable complex with sup(99m)Tc) attached to a second functional group which is expected to have a useful biological distribution. Thiosemicarbazones are compounds that possess great chelating capacity [2] and are easily obtainable by condensation of the theosemicarbazide (H2N-NH-CS-NH2) or substituted thiosemicarbazide with the carbonyl groups of aldehydes or ketones. Consequently transformation of molecules of biological interest that the carbonyl group possess in thiosemicarbazones is simple and these modified molecules could act a bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals. For this reason a series of thiosemicarbazone complexes of 99Tc was prepared. This is the first report on technetium complexes with thiosemicarbazones. (orig.)

  3. Thiosemicarbazone complexes of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grases, F.; Genestar, C.

    1985-01-01

    One aproach to the design of new sup(99m)Tc-radiopharmaceuticals consists in the preparation of bifunctional radio-pharmaceuticals (1). In this approach, a bifunctional molecule is synthesized which possesses a chelating functional group (capable of forming a stable complex with sup(99m)Tc) attached to a second functional group which is expected to have a useful biological distribution. Thiosemicarbazones are compounds that possess great chelating capacity (2) and are easily obtainable by condensation of the theosemicarbazide (H/sub 2/N-NH-CS-NH/sub 2/) or substituted thiosemicarbazide with the carbonyl groups of aldehydes or ketones. Consequently transformation of molecules of biological interest that the carbonyl group possess in thiosemicarbazones is simple and these modified molecules could act as bifunctional radiopharmaceuticals. For this reason a series of thiosemicarbazone complexes of /sup 99/Tc was prepared. This is the first report on technetium complexes with thiosemicarbazones.

  4. Nonergodic complexity management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Nicola; Lambert, David; West, Bruce J.; Bologna, Mauro; Grigolini, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Linear response theory, the backbone of nonequilibrium statistical physics, has recently been extended to explain how and why nonergodic renewal processes are insensitive to simple perturbations, such as in habituation. It was established that a permanent correlation results between an external stimulus and the response of a complex system generating nonergodic renewal processes, when the stimulus is a similar nonergodic process. This is the principle of complexity management, whose proof relies on ensemble distribution functions. Herein we extend the proof to the nonergodic case using time averages and a single time series, hence making it usable in real life situations where ensemble averages cannot be performed because of the very nature of the complex systems being studied.

  5. Emergent Complex Network Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhihao; Rahmede, Christoph; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-01-01

    Networks are mathematical structures that are universally used to describe a large variety of complex systems such as the brain or the Internet. Characterizing the geometrical properties of these networks has become increasingly relevant for routing problems, inference and data mining. In real growing networks, topological, structural and geometrical properties emerge spontaneously from their dynamical rules. Nevertheless we still miss a model in which networks develop an emergent complex geometry. Here we show that a single two parameter network model, the growing geometrical network, can generate complex network geometries with non-trivial distribution of curvatures, combining exponential growth and small-world properties with finite spectral dimensionality. In one limit, the non-equilibrium dynamical rules of these networks can generate scale-free networks with clustering and communities, in another limit planar random geometries with non-trivial modularity. Finally we find that these properties of the geo...

  6. Viral quasispecies complexity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Josep; Perales, Celia; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco; Esteban, Juan I; Quer, Josep; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Mutant spectrum dynamics (changes in the related mutants that compose viral populations) has a decisive impact on virus behavior. The several platforms of next generation sequencing (NGS) to study viral quasispecies offer a magnifying glass to study viral quasispecies complexity. Several parameters are available to quantify the complexity of mutant spectra, but they have limitations. Here we critically evaluate the information provided by several population diversity indices, and we propose the introduction of some new ones used in ecology. In particular we make a distinction between incidence, abundance and function measures of viral quasispecies composition. We suggest a multidimensional approach (complementary information contributed by adequately chosen indices), propose some guidelines, and illustrate the use of indices with a simple example. We apply the indices to three clinical samples of hepatitis C virus that display different population heterogeneity. Areas of virus biology in which population complexity plays a role are discussed. PMID:27060566

  7. Complex Aperture Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Owladeghaffari, Hamed

    2009-01-01

    A complex network approach on a rough fracture is developed. In this manner, some hidden metric spaces (similarity measurements) between apertures profiles are set up and a general evolutionary network in two directions (in parallel and perpendicular to the shear direction) is constructed. Evaluation of the emerged network shows the connectivity degree (distribution) of network, after a transition step; fall in to the stable states which are coincided with the Gaussian distribution. Based on this event and real observations of the complex network changes, an algorithm (COmplex Networks on Apertures: CONA) is proposed in which evolving of a network is accomplished using preferential detachments and attachments of edges (based on a competition and game manner) while the number of nodes is fixed. Also, evolving of clustering coefficients and number of edges display similar patterns as well as are appeared in shear stress, hydraulic conductivity and dilation changes, which can be engaged to estimate shear strengt...

  8. Complex-Valued Autoencoders

    CERN Document Server

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2011-01-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits whose learning goal is to minimize a distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders can be defined over any field and only real-valued linear autoencoder have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the $L_2$ norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalizatio...

  9. Philosophy of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of comple...

  10. Modeling Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Boccara, Nino

    2010-01-01

    Modeling Complex Systems, 2nd Edition, explores the process of modeling complex systems, providing examples from such diverse fields as ecology, epidemiology, sociology, seismology, and economics. It illustrates how models of complex systems are built and provides indispensable mathematical tools for studying their dynamics. This vital introductory text is useful for advanced undergraduate students in various scientific disciplines, and serves as an important reference book for graduate students and young researchers. This enhanced second edition includes: . -recent research results and bibliographic references -extra footnotes which provide biographical information on cited scientists who have made significant contributions to the field -new and improved worked-out examples to aid a student’s comprehension of the content -exercises to challenge the reader and complement the material Nino Boccara is also the author of Essentials of Mathematica: With Applications to Mathematics and Physics (Springer, 2007).

  11. Synchronization in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Alex; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Kurths, Jurgen; Moreno, Yamir; Zhou, Changsong

    2008-12-01

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understanding synchronization phenomena in natural systems now take advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also take an overview of the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying patterns of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  12. BRAND program complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the structure, input procedure and recording rules of initial data for the BRAND programme complex intended for the Monte Carlo simulation of neutron physics experiments. The BRAND complex ideology is based on non-analogous simulation of the neutron and photon transport process (statistic weights are used, absorption and escape of particles from the considered region is taken into account, shifted readouts from a coordinate part of transition nucleus density are applied, local estimations, etc. are used). The preparation of initial data for three sections is described in detail: general information for Monte Carlo calculation, source definition and data for describing the geometry of the system. The complex is to be processed with the BESM-6 computer, the basic programming lan-- guage is FORTRAN, volume - more than 8000 operators

  13. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions or...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....

  14. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value to...... resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coherent and flexible approach named systemic planning. The inclusion of both the theoretical and practical aspects of systemic planning makes this book a key resource for researchers and...... students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business and...

  15. Nuclear weapons complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, GAO provides its views on DOE's January 1991 Nuclear Weapons Complex Reconfiguration Study. GAO believes that DOE's new reconfiguration study provides a starting point for reaching agreement on solutions to many of the complex's problems. Key decisions still need to be made about the size of the complex, where to relocate plutonium operations, what technologies should be used for new tritium production, and what to do with excess plutonium. The total cost for reconfiguring and modernizing is still uncertain and some management issues remain unresolved. Congress faces a difficult task in making these decisions given the conflicting demands for scare resources in a time of growing budget deficits and war in the Persian Gulf

  16. Can Complexity be Planned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Koutny

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The long accepted complexity invariance of human languages has become controversial within the last decade. In investigations of the problem, both creole and planned languages have often been neglected. After a presentation of the scope of the invariance problem and the proposition of the natural to planned language continuum, this article will discuss the contribution of planned languages. It will analyze the complexity of Esperanto at the phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic levels, using linguistic data bases. The role of the L2 speech community and development of the language will also be taken into account when discussing the endurance of the same level of simplicity of this planned international language. The author argues that complexity can be variable and to some extent planned and maintained.

  17. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  18. Management of complex fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, Hans Staby; Andersen, Peder; Hoff, Ayoe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how fisheries economics management issues or problems can be analyzed by using a complex model based on conventional bioeconomic theory. Complex simulation models contain a number of details that make them suitable for practical management advice......, including taking into account the response of the fishermen to implemented management measures. To demonstrate the use of complex management models this paper assesses a number of second best management schemes against a first rank optimum (FRO), an ideal individual transferable quotas (ITQ) system....... This is defined as the management scheme which produces the highest net present value over a 25 year period. The assessed management schemes (scenarios) are composed by several measures as used in the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union for the cod fishery in the Baltic Sea. The scenarios are total...

  19. Complex/Symplectic Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Wu-yen; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Tomasiello, Alessandro; /Stanford U., ITP

    2005-10-28

    We construct a class of symplectic non-Kaehler and complex non-Kaehler string theory vacua, extending and providing evidence for an earlier suggestion by Polchinski and Strominger. The class admits a mirror pairing by construction. Comparing hints from a variety of sources, including ten-dimensional supergravity and KK reduction on SU(3)-structure manifolds, suggests a picture in which string theory extends Reid's fantasy to connect classes of both complex non-Kaehler and symplectic non-Kaehler manifolds.

  20. Complexity and Fly Swarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Grant; Murray, Joelle

    Complexity is the study of phenomena that emerge from a collection of interacting objects and arises in many systems throughout physics, biology, finance, economics and more. Certain kinds of complex systems can be described by self-organized criticality (SOC). An SOC system is one that is internally driven towards some critical state. Recent experimental work suggests scaling behavior of fly swarms-one of the hallmarks of an SOC system. Our goal is to look for SOC behavior in computational models of fly swarms.

  1. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.

    2010-11-15

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  2. Luminescent macrocyclic lanthanide complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Corneillie, Todd M.; Xu, Jide

    2012-05-08

    The present invention provides a novel class of macrocyclic compounds as well as complexes formed between a metal (e.g., lanthanide) ion and the compounds of the invention. Preferred complexes exhibit high stability as well as high quantum yields of lanthanide ion luminescence in aqueous media without the need for secondary activating agents. Preferred compounds incorporate hydroxy-isophthalamide moieties within their macrocyclic structure and are characterized by surprisingly low, non-specific binding to a variety of polypeptides such as antibodies and proteins as well as high kinetic stability. These characteristics distinguish them from known, open-structured ligands.

  3. Complex variables II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Solomon, Alan D

    2013-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Complex Variables II includes elementary mappings and Mobius transformation, mappings by general functions, conformal mappings and harmonic functions, applying complex functions to a

  4. Complexity in Managing Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2011-01-01

    In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective modulari......In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective...

  5. Nonlinear dynamics and complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert; Fu, Xilin

    2014-01-01

    This important collection presents recent advances in nonlinear dynamics including analytical solutions, chaos in Hamiltonian systems, time-delay, uncertainty, and bio-network dynamics. Nonlinear Dynamics and Complexity equips readers to appreciate this increasingly main-stream approach to understanding complex phenomena in nonlinear systems as they are examined in a broad array of disciplines. The book facilitates a better understanding of the mechanisms and phenomena in nonlinear dynamics and develops the corresponding mathematical theory to apply nonlinear design to practical engineering.

  6. Theories of computational complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Calude, C

    1988-01-01

    This volume presents four machine-independent theories of computational complexity, which have been chosen for their intrinsic importance and practical relevance. The book includes a wealth of results - classical, recent, and others which have not been published before.In developing the mathematics underlying the size, dynamic and structural complexity measures, various connections with mathematical logic, constructive topology, probability and programming theories are established. The facts are presented in detail. Extensive examples are provided, to help clarify notions and constructions. The lists of exercises and problems include routine exercises, interesting results, as well as some open problems.

  7. Deformable Simplicial Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misztal, Marek Krzysztof

    In this dissertation we present a novel method for deformable interface tracking in 2D and 3D|deformable simplicial complexes (DSC). Deformable interfaces are used in several applications, such as fluid simulation, image analysis, reconstruction or structural optimization. In the DSC method, the...... triangles/tetrahedra marked as outside from those marked as inside. Such an approach allows for robust topological adaptivity. Among other advantages of the deformable simplicial complexes there are: space adaptivity, ability to handle and preserve sharp features, possibility for topology control. We...

  8. Complex matrix model duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  9. Supporting complex search tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    fragmented at best. The workshop addressed the many open research questions: What are the obvious use cases and applications of complex search? What are essential features of work tasks and search tasks to take into account? And how do these evolve over time? With a multitude of information, varying from...... introductory to specialized, and from authoritative to speculative or opinionated, when to show what sources of information? How does the information seeking process evolve and what are relevant differences between different stages? With complex task and search process management, blending searching, browsing...

  10. Applied complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Dettman, John W

    1965-01-01

    Analytic function theory is a traditional subject going back to Cauchy and Riemann in the 19th century. Once the exclusive province of advanced mathematics students, its applications have proven vital to today's physicists and engineers. In this highly regarded work, Professor John W. Dettman offers a clear, well-organized overview of the subject and various applications - making the often-perplexing study of analytic functions of complex variables more accessible to a wider audience. The first half of Applied Complex Variables, designed for sequential study, is a step-by-step treatment of fun

  11. Introduction to complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Priestley, H A

    2003-01-01

    Complex analysis is a classic and central area of mathematics, which is studied and exploited in a range of important fields, from number theory to engineering. Introduction to Complex Analysis was first published in 1985, and for this much awaited second edition the text has been considerably expanded, while retaining the style of the original. More detailed presentation is given of elementary topics, to reflect the knowledge base of current students. Exercise sets have beensubstantially revised and enlarged, with carefully graded exercises at the end of each chapter.This is the latest additi

  12. Salen complexes with dianionic counterions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Job, Gabriel E.; Farmer, Jay J.; Cherian, Anna E.

    2016-08-02

    The present invention describes metal salen complexes having dianionic counterions. Such complexes can be readily precipitated and provide an economical method for the purification and isolation of the complexes, and are useful to prepare novel polymer compositions.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Carney complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Carney complex Carney complex Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Carney complex is a disorder characterized by an increased risk ...

  14. Amputation versus functional reconstruction in the management of complex hind foot injuries caused by land-mine explosions: a long-term retrospective comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Ege, Tolga; Kose, Ozkan; Yurttas, Yuksel; Basbozkurt, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the long-term clinical outcomes of patients who were treated with either hind foot reconstruction or amputation in complex hind foot injuries accompanied with bone and soft tissue loss due to land-mine explosions. Between 1994 and 2004, all patients with hind foot complex injuries due to land-mine explosion, who were operated in our clinic, were enrolled to the study. All patients were evaluated with Short-Form 36 (SF-36), Foot and Ankle Disability Index (FADI) and Body Image Quality of Life Inventory (BIQLI) after a mean of 15.1 ± 2.2 (range 9-19) years of follow-up. Demographic characteristics, number of operations, necessity of psychiatric treatment and all complications were compared between groups. There were a total of 42 patients [21 in reconstruction group (Gr I) and 21 in amputation group (Gr II)]. The mean age at the time of final follow-up was 38.4 ± 3.04 years in Gr I and 38.2 ± 4.24 years in Gr II (p = 0.732). The mean follow-up duration was 15.7 ± 2.07 years in Gr I and 14.57 ± 2.29 years in Gr II (p = 0.081). The number of operations was significantly higher in Gr I (8.66 ± 10.2 times vs. 4.42 ± 7.7 times, respectively, p = 0.001). The mean FADI score at the final follow-up was 64.3 ± 18.1 in Gr I. In amputation group, more patients needed psychotherapy due to major depression (12 patients vs. 4 patients, p = 0.012). Major complications in Gr I were musculocutaneous flap atrophy in calcaneal region (n = 8 patients), limited ankle motion (n = 11) and painful osteophytes on plantar region (n = 6). In Gr II, stump problems were dominating (pain and tenderness n = 10, ulcer n = 2, allergic skin lesions n = 7, painful neuroma n = 10, bony spur n = 5, paresthesia n = 1, excessive sweating n = 12). At the final visit, although SF-36 scores were similar between groups (p = 0.182), extremity reconstruction group had significantly higher BIQLI scores than the amputation group (p = 0.016). If the dorsalis pedis is

  15. "Product Complexity and Economic Development"

    OpenAIRE

    Abdon, Arnelyn; Bacate, Marife; Felipe, Jesus; Kumar, Utsav

    2010-01-01

    We rank 5,107 products and 124 countries according to the Hidalgo and Hausmann (2009) measures of complexity. We find that: (1) the most complex products are in machinery, chemicals, and metals, while the least complex products are raw materials and commodities, wood, textiles, and agricultural products; (2) the most complex economies in the world are Japan, Germany, and Sweden, and the least complex, Cambodia, Papua New Guinea, and Nigeria; (3) the major exporters of the more complex product...

  16. Managing Complex Dynamical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, John C.; Webster, Robert L.; Curry, Jeanie A.; Hammond, Kevin L.

    2011-01-01

    Management commonly engages in a variety of research designed to provide insight into the motivation and relationships of individuals, departments, organizations, etc. This paper demonstrates how the application of concepts associated with the analysis of complex systems applied to such data sets can yield enhanced insights for managerial action.

  17. Complexity of 3-orbifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Petronio, Carlo

    2004-01-01

    We extend Matveev's theory of complexity for 3-manifolds, based on simple spines, to (closed, orientable, locally orientable) 3-orbifolds. We prove naturality and finiteness for irreducible 3-orbifolds, and, with certain restrictions and subtleties, additivity under orbifold connected sum. We also develop the theory of handle decompositions for 3-orbifolds and the corresponding theory of normal 2-suborbifolds.

  18. Power grid complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Shengwei; Cao, Ming

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces self-organized criticality (SOC) theory and complex network theory and applies them to power systems. It examines four blackout models based on SOC theory and studies the SOC of power systems at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels.

  19. Complex Digital Visual Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This article identifies possibilities for data visualization as art educational research practice. The author presents an analysis of the relationship between works of art and digital visual culture, employing aspects of network analysis drawn from the work of Barabási, Newman, and Watts (2006) and Castells (1994). Describing complex network…

  20. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    De Melis, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark blue line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  1. Complexity driven photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Disorder and chaos are ubiquitous phenomena that are mostly unwanted in applications. On the contrary, they can be exploited to create a new technology. In this talk I will summarize my research in this field, discussing chaotic energy harvesting, nonlinear stochastic resonance and complex nanolasers.

  2. Psychopathology and complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Y. Álvarez R

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of complexity states that reality conveys a chaotic dynamics, ambiguous, blurred, and paradoxical, and that it does not fulfill the values of order, harmony nor perfection. However, such a chaos represents a specific way of organization and order. Human behavior explained by this paradigm vindicates on this way the outstanding role of contradiction and irregularity aside of what is linear and predictable. The purpose of this review has the primary aim to describe some concepts and assumptions that give support to the approach to complexity in behavior, especially concerning the psychopathological behavior of an individual. Some comparisons with concepts associated to complexity in scientific approaches to psychology (contextual and paradigmatical behaviorism and interbehaviorism from its own persepctive are stablished. All these elements are developed underlining the concepts of reciprocal multicausality, complex and hierarchical learning, historical and contextual factors in the comprehension of behavior, and trying to make some extrapolations on the psychopathological behavior. This approach is hence considered appropriate and necessary to understand gnosiological entities and to intervene them in their role of clinical challenges.

  3. Tevatron's complex collider cousins

    CERN Multimedia

    Fischer, W

    2004-01-01

    Letter referring to Schwarzschild's story "Disappointing performance and tight budgets confront Fermilab with tough decisions" and contesting that the Tevatron is not the most complex accelerator operating. They use the examples of CERN's SPS collider, HERA at DESY and the RHIC at Brookhaven (1/4 page)

  4. Automatic Complexity Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1989-01-01

    One way to analyse programs is to to derive expressions for their computational behaviour. A time bound function (or worst-case complexity) gives an upper bound for the computation time as a function of the size of input. We describe a system to derive such time bounds automatically using abstract...

  5. Proteasomes: a complex story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Protein degradation in eukaryotic cells is important for regulation of metabolism, progression through the division cycle, in cell signalling pathways, and in mammals also for generation of antigen fragments for presentation on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Most cell proteins...

  6. Complex Interfaces Under Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan

    mechanical processes that develop within this structure. Water-related processes at the interfaces between the compartments are complex, depending both on the interface itself, and on the characteristics of the interfaced compartments. Various aspects of global change directly or indirectly impact these...

  7. Dynamic and topological complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turalska, Malgorzata; Geneston, Elvis; Grigolini, Paolo

    2010-03-01

    Cooperative phenomena in complex networks are expected to display unusual characteristics, associated with the peculiar topology of these systems. In this context we study networks of interacting stochastic two-state units as a model of cooperative decision making. Each unit in isolation generates a Poisson process with rate g. We show that when the cooperation is introduced, the decision-making process becomes intermittent. The decision-time distribution density characterized by inverse power-law behavior is defined as a dynamic complexity. Further, the onset of intermittency, expressed in terms of the coupling parameter K, is used as a measure of dynamic efficiency of investigated topologies. We find that the dynamic complexity emerges from regular and small-world topologies. In contrast, both random and scale-free networks correspond to fast transition into exponential decision-time distribution. This property is accompanied by high dynamic efficiency of the decision-making process. Our results indicate that complex dynamical processes occurring on networks could be related to relatively simple topologies.

  8. The Complexity of Metaphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾燕梅

    2007-01-01

    Being as one figurative form of language, metaphor plays the most complicated role to make language colorful and vivid.Demonstrating the types and the features of metaphor, this article will focus on the point that metaphor is a complex language phenomenon heavily loaded with the factor of culture.

  9. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Haffner, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  10. The CERN accelerator complex

    CERN Multimedia

    Christiane Lefèvre

    2008-01-01

    The LHC is the last ring (dark grey line) in a complex chain of particle accelerators. The smaller machines are used in a chain to help boost the particles to their final energies and provide beams to a whole set of smaller experiments, which also aim to uncover the mysteries of the Universe.

  11. Statistical electromagnetics: Complex cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A selection of the literature on the statistical description of electromagnetic fields and complex cavities is concisely reviewed. Some essential concepts, for example, the application of the central limit theorem and the maximum entropy principle, are scrutinized. Implicit assumptions, biased choic

  12. Lanthanide porphyrin complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review summarizes literature data and results of the author's research on the synthesis, properties and possible fields of practical application of lanthanide porphyrin complexes. Emphasis is given to the application of luminescence properties of lanthanide derivatives in medicine. The bibliography includes 108 references.

  13. Launching Complex Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kara J.; Shahan, Emily C.; Gibbons, Lynsey K.; Cobb, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics lessons can take a variety of formats. In this article, the authors discuss lessons organized around complex mathematical tasks. These lessons usually unfold in three phases. First, the task is introduced to students. Second, students work on solving the task. Third, the teacher "orchestrates" a concluding whole-class discussion in…

  14. Symmetry in Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.

  15. Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rössler, Otto; Zelinka, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The book you hold in your hands is the outcome of the “2014 Interdisciplinary Symposium on Complex Systems” held in the historical city of Florence. The book consists of 37 chapters from 4 areas of Physical Modeling of Complex Systems, Evolutionary Computations, Complex Biological Systems and Complex Networks. All 4 parts contain contributions that give interesting point of view on complexity in different areas in science and technology. The book starts with a comprehensive overview and classification of complexity problems entitled Physics in the world of ideas: Complexity as Energy”  , followed by chapters about complexity measures and physical principles, its observation, modeling and its applications, to solving various problems including real-life applications. Further chapters contain recent research about evolution, randomness and complexity, as well as complexity in biological systems and complex networks. All selected papers represent innovative ideas, philosophical overviews and state-of-the-...

  16. Cohomological decomposition of complex nilmanifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Latorre, Adela; Ugarte, Luis

    2015-01-01

    We study pureness and fullness of invariant complex structures on nilmanifolds. We prove that in dimension six, apart from the complex torus, there exist only two non-isomorphic complex structures satisfying both properties, which live on the real nilmanifold underlying the Iwasawa manifold. We also show that the product of two almost complex manifolds which are pure and full is not necessarily full.

  17. Stable generalized complex structures

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalcanti, Gil R

    2015-01-01

    A stable generalized complex structure is one that is generically symplectic but degenerates along a real codimension two submanifold, where it defines a generalized Calabi-Yau structure. We introduce a Lie algebroid which allows us to view such structures as symplectic forms. This allows us to construct new examples of stable structures, and also to define period maps for their deformations in which the background three-form flux is either fixed or not, proving the unobstructedness of both deformation problems. We then use the same tools to establish local normal forms for the degeneracy locus and for Lagrangian branes. Applying our normal forms to the four-dimensional case, we prove that any compact stable generalized complex 4-manifold has a symplectic completion, in the sense that it can be modified near its degeneracy locus to produce a compact symplectic 4-manifold.

  18. Reducing GWAS Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelett, Dennis J; Conti, David V; Han, Ying; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Easton, Doug; Eeles, Rosalind A; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Haiman, Christopher A; Coetzee, Gerhard A

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous genomic 'hits' associated with complex phenotypes. In most cases these hits, along with surrogate genetic variation as measure by numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium, are not in coding genes making assignment of functionality or causality intractable. Here we propose that fine-mapping along with the matching of risk SNPs at chromatin biofeatures lessen this complexity by reducing the number of candidate functional/causal SNPs. For example, we show here that only on average 2 SNPs per prostate cancer risk locus are likely candidates for functionality/causality; we further propose that this manageable number should be taken forward in mechanistic studies. The candidate SNPs can be looked up for each prostate cancer risk region in 2 recent publications in 2015 (1,2) from our groups. PMID:26771711

  19. Gold Thione Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Caddeo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of the ligand Et4todit (4,5,6,7-Tetrathiocino-[1,2-b:3,4-b']-diimidazolyl-1,3,8,10-tetraethyl-2,9-dithione with gold complexes leads to the dinuclear gold(I complexes [{Au(C6F5}2(Et4todit] and [Au(Et4todit]2(OTf2, which do not contain any gold-gold interactions, or to the gold(III derivative [{Au(C6F53}2(Et4todit]. The crystal structures have been established by X-ray diffraction studies and show that the gold centers coordinate to the sulfur atoms of the imidazoline-2-thione groups.

  20. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions or...... meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  1. Resilience and Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlberg, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores two key concepts: resilience and complexity. The first is understood as an emergent property of the latter, and their inter-relatedness is discussed using a three tier approach. First, by exploring the discourse of each concept, next, by analyzing underlying relationships and......, finally, by presenting the Cynefin Framework for Sense-Making as a tool of explicatory potential that has already shown its usefulness in several contexts. I further emphasize linking the two concepts into a common and, hopefully, useful concept. Furthermore, I argue that a resilient system is not merely...... robust. Robustness is a property of simple or complicated systems characterized by predictable behavior, enabling the system to bounce back to its normal state following a perturbation. Resilience, however, is an emergent property of complex adaptive systems. It is suggested that this distinction is...

  2. Polystochastic Models for Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2010-01-01

    This book is devoted to complexity understanding and management, considered as the main source of efficiency and prosperity for the next decades. Divided into six chapters, the book begins with a presentation of basic concepts as complexity, emergence and closure. The second chapter looks to methods and introduces polystochastic models, the wave equation, possibilities and entropy. The third chapter focusing on physical and chemical systems analyzes flow-sheet synthesis, cyclic operations of separation, drug delivery systems and entropy production. Biomimetic systems represent the main objective of the fourth chapter. Case studies refer to bio-inspired calculation methods, to the role of artificial genetic codes, neural networks and neural codes for evolutionary calculus and for evolvable circuits as biomimetic devices. The fifth chapter, taking its inspiration from systems sciences and cognitive sciences looks to engineering design, case base reasoning methods, failure analysis, and multi-agent manufacturing...

  3. Gold Thione Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Caddeo; Vanesa Fernández-Moreira; Massimiliano Arca; Antonio Laguna; Vito Lippolis; M. Concepción Gimeno

    2014-01-01

    The reaction of the ligand Et4todit (4,5,6,7-Tetrathiocino-[1,2-b:3,4-b']-diimidazolyl-1,3,8,10-tetraethyl-2,9-dithione) with gold complexes leads to the dinuclear gold(I) complexes [{Au(C6F5)}2(Et4todit)] and [Au(Et4todit)]2(OTf)2, which do not contain any gold-gold interactions, or to the gold(III) derivative [{Au(C6F5)3}2(Et4todit)]. The crystal structures have been established by X-ray diffraction studies and show that the gold centers coordinate to the sulfur atoms of the imidazoline-2-t...

  4. The Complexity of Coverage

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Majumdar, Rupak

    2008-01-01

    We study the problem of generating a test sequence that achieves maximal coverage for a reactive system under test. We formulate the problem as a repeated game between the tester and the system, where the system state space is partitioned according to some coverage criterion and the objective of the tester is to maximize the set of partitions (or coverage goals) visited during the game. We show the complexity of the maximal coverage problem for non-deterministic systems is PSPACE-complete, but is NP-complete for deterministic systems. For the special case of non-deterministic systems with a re-initializing ``reset'' action, which represent running a new test input on a re-initialized system, we show that the complexity is again co-NP-complete. Our proof technique for reset games uses randomized testing strategies that circumvent the exponentially large memory requirement in the deterministic case.

  5. Minimum Complexity Pursuit

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, Shirin

    2011-01-01

    The fast growing field of compressed sensing is founded on the fact that if a signal is 'simple' and has some 'structure', then it can be reconstructed accurately with far fewer samples than its ambient dimension. Many different plausible structures have been explored in this field, ranging from sparsity to low-rankness and to finite rate of innovation. However, there are important abstract questions that are yet to be answered. For instance, what are the general abstract meanings of 'structure' and 'simplicity'? Do there exist universal algorithms for recovering such simple structured objects from fewer samples than their ambient dimension? In this paper, we aim to address these two questions. Using algorithmic information theory tools such as Kolmogorov complexity, we provide a unified method of describing 'simplicity' and 'structure'. We then explore the performance of an algorithm motivated by Ocam's Razor (called MCP for minimum complexity pursuit) and show that it requires $O(k\\log n)$ number of samples...

  6. The vault complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zon, A; Mossink, M H; Scheper, R J; Sonneveld, P; Wiemer, E A C

    2003-09-01

    Vaults are large ribonucleoprotein particles found in eukaryotic cells. They are composed of multiple copies of a Mr 100,000 major vault protein and two minor vault proteins of Mr 193,000 and 240,000, as well as small untranslated RNAs of 86-141 bases. The vault components are arranged into a highly characteristic hollow barrel-like structure of 35 x 65 nm in size. Vaults are predominantly localized in the cytoplasm where they may associate with cytoskeletal elements. A small fraction of vaults are found to be associated with the nucleus. As of yet, the precise cellular function of the vault complex is unknown. However, their distinct morphology and intracellular distribution suggest a role in intracellular transport processes. Here we review the current knowledge on the vault complex, its structure, components and possible functions. PMID:14523546

  7. Fluorido complexes of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorine chemistry has received considerable interest during recent years due to its significant role in the life sciences, especially for drug development. Despite the great nuclear medicinal importance of the radioactive metal technetium in radiopharmaceuticals, its coordination chemistry with the fluorido ligand is by far less explored than that of other ligands. Up to now, only a few technetium fluorides are known. This thesis contains the synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization of novel technetium fluorides in the oxidation states ''+1'', ''+2'', ''+4'' and ''+6''. In the oxidation state ''+6'', the fluoridotechnetates were synthesized either from nitridotechnetic(VI) acid or from pertechnetate by using reducing agent and have been isolated as cesium or tetraethylammonium salts. The compounds were characterized spectroscopically and structurally. In the intermediate oxidation state ''+4'', hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) was known for long time and studied spectroscopically. This thesis reports novel and improved syntheses and solved the critical issues of early publications such as the color, some spectroscopic properties and the structure of this key compound. Single crystal analyses of alkali metal, ammonium and tetramethylammonium salts of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) are presented. In aqueous alkaline solutions, the ammonium salt of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) undergoes hydrolysis and forms an oxido-bridged dimeric complex. It is the first step hydrolysis product of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) and was characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Low-valent technetium fluorides with the metal in the oxidation states of ''+2'' or ''+1'' are almost unknown. A detailed description of the synthesis and characterization of pentafluoridonitrosyltechnetate(II) is presented. The complex was isolated as alkali metal salts, and spectroscopic as well as structural features of the complexes are presented. Different salts of the trans

  8. Modeling Complex Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book by Nino Boccara presents a compilation of model systems commonly termed as 'complex'. It starts with a definition of the systems under consideration and how to build up a model to describe the complex dynamics. The subsequent chapters are devoted to various categories of mean-field type models (differential and recurrence equations, chaos) and of agent-based models (cellular automata, networks and power-law distributions). Each chapter is supplemented by a number of exercises and their solutions. The table of contents looks a little arbitrary but the author took the most prominent model systems investigated over the years (and up until now there has been no unified theory covering the various aspects of complex dynamics). The model systems are explained by looking at a number of applications in various fields. The book is written as a textbook for interested students as well as serving as a comprehensive reference for experts. It is an ideal source for topics to be presented in a lecture on dynamics of complex systems. This is the first book on this 'wide' topic and I have long awaited such a book (in fact I planned to write it myself but this is much better than I could ever have written it!). Only section 6 on cellular automata is a little too limited to the author's point of view and one would have expected more about the famous Domany-Kinzel model (and more accurate citation!). In my opinion this is one of the best textbooks published during the last decade and even experts can learn a lot from it. Hopefully there will be an actualization after, say, five years since this field is growing so quickly. The price is too high for students but this, unfortunately, is the normal case today. Nevertheless I think it will be a great success! (book review)

  9. Complex Business Negotiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholst, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Most scholars agree that engaging in preparation and planning is key to a negotiation’s effectiveness but research has largely focused solely on what happens at the negotiation table, rather than in preparation for it. This thesis addresses the balance by clarifying which preparation and planning activities are undertaken to conduct a complex business negotiation. It examines not only what activities are conducted, but also by whom, and when. One important question for both pra...

  10. Complex regimes of synchronization

    OpenAIRE

    Yeldesbay, Azamat

    2014-01-01

    Synchronization is a fundamental phenomenon in nature. It can be considered as a general property of self-sustained oscillators to adjust their rhythm in the presence of an interaction. In this work we investigate complex regimes of synchronization phenomena by means of theoretical analysis, numerical modeling, as well as practical analysis of experimental data. As a subject of our investigation we consider chimera state, where due to spontaneous symmetry-breaking of an initially ho...

  11. Topics in complex systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Yee Jiun

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Fundamental laws of physics, although successful in explaining many phenomena observed in nature and society, cannot account for the behaviour of complex, non-Hamiltonian systems. Much effort has been devoted to better understanding the topological properties of these systems. Neither ordered nor disordered, these systems of high variability are found in many areas of science. Studies on sand...

  12. Arithmetic of Complex Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Lange, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    It was the aim of the Erlangen meeting in May 1988 to bring together number theoretists and algebraic geometers to discuss problems of common interest, such as moduli problems, complex tori, integral points, rationality questions, automorphic forms. In recent years such problems, which are simultaneously of arithmetic and geometric interest, have become increasingly important. This proceedings volume contains 12 original research papers. Its main topics are theta functions, modular forms, abelian varieties and algebraic three-folds.

  13. The Tuberous Sclerosis complex

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, M.; Gomez, M.

    1993-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder that results from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes and is associated with hamartoma formation in multiple organ systems. The neurological manifestations of TSC are particularly challenging and include infantile spasms, intractable epilepsy, cognitive disabilities, and autism. Progress over the past 15 years has demonstrated that the TSC1 or TSC2 encoded proteins modulate cell function via the mTOR signaling cascade and serv...

  14. Complex Game Design Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanasamy, Viknashvaran; Wong, Kok Wai; Rai, Shri; Chiou, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    International audience This paper looks at the game design and engineering approach to model the game design. The game modeling framework discussed in this paper could be a systematic alternative for implementing in the game engine architecture. The suggested game modeling framework incorporates structural game component, temporal game component and boundary game component frameworks. It is suitable to model most complex games and game engines.

  15. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  16. ECONOMICS AND COMPLEXITY

    OpenAIRE

    ALAN KIRMAN

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a view of the economy as a complex system with heterogeneous interacting agents who collectively organize themselves to generate aggregate phenomena which cannot be regarded as the behavior of some average or representative individual. There is an essential difference between the aggregate and the individual and such phenomena as bubbles and crashes, herd behavior, the transmission of information and the organization of trade are better modeled in the sort of framework sug...

  17. Nanoparticle complex fluids

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis concerns the study of complex nanofluids. The interaction of particles in dispersions under the influence of electric and magnetic fields has been studied. The main focus has been the investigation of the behavior of carbon particle dispersions. A novel type of carbon material, namely carbon cone (CC) material, has been characterized using atomic force microscope, scanning tunnelling microscope and scanning electron microscope. The CC material is a mixed powd...

  18. Complexity Science for Simpletons

    OpenAIRE

    Feinstein C. A.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we shall describe some of the most interesting topics in the subject of Complexity Science for a general audience. Anyone with a solid foundation in high school mathematics (with some calculus) and an elementary understanding of computer programming will be able to follow this article. First, we shall explain the significance of the P versus NP problem and solve it. Next, we shall describe two other famous mathematics problems, the Collatz 3n+ 1 Conjec...

  19. Complex wounds Feridas complexas

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Castro Ferreira; Paulo Tuma Júnior; Viviane Fernandes de Carvalho; Fábio Kamamoto

    2006-01-01

    Complex wound is the term used more recently to group those well-known difficult wounds, either chronic or acute, that challenge medical and nursing teams. They defy cure using conventional and simple "dressings" therapy and currently have a major socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this review is to bring these wounds to the attention of the health-care community, suggesting that they should be treated by multidisciplinary teams in specialized hospital centers. In most cases, surgical treat...

  20. Complex Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Talha Khan; Rose Amy Franco

    2014-01-01

    Complex sleep apnea is the term used to describe a form of sleep disordered breathing in which repeated central apneas (>5/hour) persist or emerge when obstructive events are extinguished with positive airway pressure (PAP) and for which there is not a clear cause for the central apneas such as narcotics or systolic heart failure. The driving forces in the pathophysiology are felt to be ventilator instability associated oscillation in PaCO2 arterial partial pressure of Carbon Dioxide, continu...

  1. Complex fission phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Poenaru, D N; Greiner, W

    2005-01-01

    Complex fission phenomena can be studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle-point) nuclear shapes, may be obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in cold fission phenomena can be explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are outlined. Predictions of two alpha accompanied fission are experimentally confirmed.

  2. Irreducible symplectic complex spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kirschner, Tim

    2012-01-01

    In chapter 1 we define period mappings of Hodge-de Rahm type for certain submersive, yet not necessarily locally topologically trivial, morphisms of complex manifolds. Generalizing Griffiths's theory, we interpret the differential of such period mappings as the composition of the Kodaira-Spencer map and a map derived from the sheaf cohomological cup product and the contraction of vector fields with differential forms. In chapter 2 of the text, we consider a submersive morphism $f\\colon X\\to S...

  3. Complex fission phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Poenaru, Dorin N.; Gherghescu, Radu A.; Greiner, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Complex fission phenomena are studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle point) nuclear shapes are obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in binary cold fission of Th and U isotopes is explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are ou...

  4. Complex Alternative Splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jung Woo; Graveley, Brenton R.

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a powerful means of controlling gene expression and increasing protein diversity. Most genes express a limited number of mRNA isoforms, but there are several examples of genes that use alternative splicing to generate hundreds, thousands, and even tens of thousands of isoforms. Collectively such genes are considered to undergo complex alternative splicing. The best example is the Drosophila Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) gene, which can generate 38,016 is...

  5. Complexity, contingency, and criticality.

    OpenAIRE

    Bak, P; M. Paczuski

    1995-01-01

    Complexity originates from the tendency of large dynamical systems to organize themselves into a critical state, with avalanches or "punctuations" of all sizes. In the critical state, events which would otherwise be uncoupled become correlated. The apparent, historical contingency in many sciences, including geology, biology, and economics, finds a natural interpretation as a self-organized critical phenomenon. These ideas are discussed in the context of simple mathematical models of sandpile...

  6. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruehl, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic pain condition characterized by autonomic and inflammatory features. It occurs acutely in about 7% of patients who have limb fractures, limb surgery, or other injuries. Many cases resolve within the first year, with a smaller subset progressing to the chronic form. This transition is often paralleled by a change from "warm complex regional pain syndrome," with inflammatory characteristics dominant, to "cold complex regional pain syndrome" in which autonomic features dominate. Multiple peripheral and central mechanisms seem to be involved, the relative contributions of which may differ between individuals and over time. Possible contributors include peripheral and central sensitization, autonomic changes and sympatho-afferent coupling, inflammatory and immune alterations, brain changes, and genetic and psychological factors. The syndrome is diagnosed purely on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms. Effective management of the chronic form of the syndrome is often challenging. Few high quality randomized controlled trials are available to support the efficacy of the most commonly used interventions. Reviews of available randomized trials suggest that physical and occupational therapy (including graded motor imagery and mirror therapy), bisphosphonates, calcitonin, subanesthetic intravenous ketamine, free radical scavengers, oral corticosteroids, and spinal cord stimulation may be effective treatments. Multidisciplinary clinical care, which centers around functionally focused therapies is recommended. Other interventions are used to facilitate engagement in functional therapies and to improve quality of life. PMID:26224572

  7. Control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Albertos, Pedro; Blanke, Mogens; Isidori, Alberto; Schaufelberger, Walter; Sanz, Ricardo

    2001-01-01

    The world of artificial systems is reaching complexity levels that es­ cape human understanding. Surface traffic, electricity distribution, air­ planes, mobile communications, etc. , are examples that demonstrate that we are running into problems that are beyond classical scientific or engi­ neering knowledge. There is an ongoing world-wide effort to understand these systems and develop models that can capture its behavior. The reason for this work is clear, if our lack of understanding deepens, we will lose our capability to control these systems and make they behave as we want. Researchers from many different fields are trying to understand and develop theories for complex man-made systems. This book presents re­ search from the perspective of control and systems theory. The book has grown out of activities in the research program Control of Complex Systems (COSY). The program has been sponsored by the Eu­ ropean Science Foundation (ESF) which for 25 years has been one of the leading players in stimula...

  8. Keynes, Hayek and Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Paul

    In the spirit of the overall topic of the conference, in this paper I consider the extent to which economic theory includes elements of the complex systems approach. I am setting to one side here the developments over the past decade in applying complex systems analysis to economic problems. This is not because this recent work is not important. It most certainly is. But I want to argue that there is a very distinct tradition of what we would now describe as a complex systems approach in the works of two of the greatest economists of the 20th century. There is of course a dominant intellectual paradigm within economics, that known as `neo-classical'economics. This paradigm is by no means an empty box, and is undoubtedly useful in helping to understand how some aspects of the social and economic worlds work. But even in its heyday, neo-classical economics never succeeded by its empirical success in driving out completely other theoretical approaches, for its success was simply not sufficient to do so. Much more importantly, economics over the past twenty or thirty years has become in an increasing state of flux.

  9. Regional programme for the eradication of the Carambola fruit fly in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bactrocera carambolae Drew and Hancock, the Carambola fruit fly (CFF), was probably introduced into Suriname from Indonesia in the 1960s or 1970s. The most likely mechanism of introduction was people arriving at Suriname from Indonesia by air, through Amsterdam. Any other method of transport would be too lengthy. Air travel was not commonly available to the general Surinamese population before the 1960s. About one-fifth of the Surinamese population is of Indonesian origin, and many strong ties remained between the countries. These ties are loosening with the increasing number of generations after immigration, which occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. The first recorded Bactrocera found in Suriname was in 1975, when flies were reared from a market fruit and preserved unidentified in the Ministry of Agriculture's insect collection. Bactrocera were not recorded again until 1986, when infested fruits were brought to the attention of the Ministry by a homeowner. These specimens were sent to the United States for identification and were identified as Dacus dorsalis. B. carambolae was formally described in 1994 as a species belonging to the B. dorsalis complex (Drew and Hancock 1994). At that time, in 1986, little importance was given to the finding in the United States, perhaps because the identifier was unaware that Suriname is in South America rather than Asia. The international community would only become aware of the establishment of a Dacus/Bactrocera species in the Americas four years later. The population of flies in the Guyanas has now been identified as B. carambolae, and its establishment in South America is a threat to the production and marketing of fruits throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas and the Caribbean (Hancock 1989). It might be expected that the newly established B. carambolae would move rapidly into the tropical forests where there are many species of the native Anastrepha fruit flies and, presumably, many

  10. Software Complexity Methodologies & Software Security

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Rafighi; Nasser Modiri

    2011-01-01

    It is broadly clear that complexity is one of the software natural features. Software natural complexity and software requirement functionality are two inseparable part and they have special range. measurement complexity have explained with using the MacCabe and Halsted models and with an example discuss about software complexity in this paper Flow metric information Henry and Kafura, complexity metric system Agresti-card-glass, design metric in item’s level have compared and peruse then cate...

  11. Transition Complexity of Incomplete DFAs

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Gao; Kai Salomaa; Sheng Yu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the transition complexity of regular languages based on the incomplete deterministic finite automata. A number of results on Boolean operations have been obtained. It is shown that the transition complexity results for union and complementation are very different from the state complexity results for the same operations. However, for intersection, the transition complexity result is similar to that of state complexity.

  12. Sensemaking: a complexity perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Lynam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our intent was to provide a methodological overview of the primary data collection process in support of the other articles in this special issue. We documented and illustrated the use of a data collection and analysis suite, SenseMaker, that was designed to collect and work with narrative fragments. The approach presented adds a new and inherently mixed tool to the mixed methods toolbox. Despite its novelty and potential utility, little has been written in the academic literature on the application of SenseMaker to complex problems. To the best of our knowledge, the approach has not been used in relation to climate change or climate change adaptation and has not been presented in the mixed methods literature. We sought to contribute to filling this gap through describing the approach used to generate the data that underpin the articles in this special feature. Our purpose was to illustrate some of the potential and most notable challenges of using the SenseMaker data collection and analysis process in a complex domain through examining adaptation to climate change. Our overview was not exhaustive but rather sought to highlight capabilities and challenges through examining experiences of adaptation from a stages of change perspective. SenseMaker provides a remarkably powerful tool for the capture of micronarratives of complex phenomena such as climate change. The capacity to have respondents interpret, i.e., make sense of, their own narratives is an important innovation that provides one plausible solution to the problem of analysts coding narratives. Analytically, however, SenseMaker is relatively weak for those seeking strong statistical support for analyses and provides no capability for analyzing the narratives themselves.

  13. Complex-Valued Autoencoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-01-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L2 norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory. PMID:22622264

  14. Complexity from the ordinary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2006-01-01

    raised by the statements above. The forest territory is a vast managed landscape exhibiting a multiplicity of conditions in constant flux resulting from the management strategy of the 50 year cycle – a period defining the planting, maturation and harvesting of each forest plot. The cognitive psychologist......, specificity and complexity. By considering the design process as a continual iterative cycle in which the digital and analogue are closely coupled, we might imagine a construct that continually redefines itself in relation to its context, attempting to become increasingly specific to location and purpose over...

  15. Organization of complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsak, Maksim

    Many large complex systems can be successfully analyzed using the language of graphs and networks. Interactions between the objects in a network are treated as links connecting nodes. This approach to understanding the structure of networks is an important step toward understanding the way corresponding complex systems function. Using the tools of statistical physics, we analyze the structure of networks as they are found in complex systems such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, and numerous industrial and social networks. In the first chapter we apply the concept of self-similarity to the study of transport properties in complex networks. Self-similar or fractal networks, unlike non-fractal networks, exhibit similarity on a range of scales. We find that these fractal networks have transport properties that differ from those of non-fractal networks. In non-fractal networks, transport flows primarily through the hubs. In fractal networks, the self-similar structure requires any transport to also flow through nodes that have only a few connections. We also study, in models and in real networks, the crossover from fractal to non-fractal networks that occurs when a small number of random interactions are added by means of scaling techniques. In the second chapter we use k-core techniques to study dynamic processes in networks. The k-core of a network is the network's largest component that, within itself, exhibits all nodes with at least k connections. We use this k-core analysis to estimate the relative leadership positions of firms in the Life Science (LS) and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sectors of industry. We study the differences in the k-core structure between the LS and the ICT sectors. We find that the lead segment (highest k-core) of the LS sector, unlike that of the ICT sector, is remarkably stable over time: once a particular firm enters the lead segment, it is likely to remain there for many years. In the third chapter we study how

  16. Languages, decidability, and complexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haar, S.; Masopust, Tomáš

    1. London: Springer, 2013 - (Seatzu, C.; Silva, M.; van Schuppen, J.), s. 23-43. (Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences. 433). ISBN 978-1-4471-4275-1 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP202/11/P028 Grant ostatní: European Commission(XE) EU. ICT .DISC 224498 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Automata theory * decidability * complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4471-4276-8_2

  17. Ventricular premature complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockeria O.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular premature complexes are fairly common heart rhythm disturbances. They occur in patients of all age groups. Sometimes the registration of electrocardiogram is ample for the diagnosis.The difficulty lies in determining the causes of ventricular arrhythmia. The detailed examination is needed for verification of the diagnosis and risk stratification: a Holter monitoring, laboratory tests, a heart magnetic resonance imaging, an electrophysiological study. This results can significantly change further tactics of patient management.It is necessary to make a deliberate decision in favor of one or another treatment after revealing the causes.

  18. Kinetics of complex plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sodha, Mahendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    The presentation in the book is based on charge balance on the dust particles, number and energy balance of the constituents and atom-ion-electron interaction in the gaseous plasma. Size distribution of dust particles, statistical mechanics, Quantum effects in electron emission from and accretion on dust particles and nonlinear interaction of complex plasmas with electric and electromagnetic fields have been discussed in the book. The book introduces the reader to basic concepts and typical applications. The book should be of use to researchers, engineers and graduate students.

  19. STUDYING COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Holland

    2006-01-01

    Complex adaptive systems (cas) - systems that involve many components that adapt or learn as they interact - are at the heart of important contemporary problems. The study of cas poses unique challenges: Some of our most powerful mathematical tools, particularly methods involving fixed points, attractors, and the like, are of limited help in understanding the development of cas. This paper suggests ways to modify research methods and tools, with an emphasis on the role of computer-based models, to increase our understanding of cas.

  20. Gold phosphide complexes

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of gold complexes with five group-element donor ligands contain tertiary phosphines, although compounds with amine, arsine or stibine ligands are also known. Although phosphide ligands, which are formed by deprotonation of non-tertiary phosphines, are closely related to the former, they have been employed to a lesser extent, mainly due to their lower stability. Thus, the chemistry of phosphido-bridged derivatives of the main group elements1-3 or transition metals4-6 has been...

  1. Computability, complexity, logic

    CERN Document Server

    Börger, Egon

    1989-01-01

    The theme of this book is formed by a pair of concepts: the concept of formal language as carrier of the precise expression of meaning, facts and problems, and the concept of algorithm or calculus, i.e. a formally operating procedure for the solution of precisely described questions and problems. The book is a unified introduction to the modern theory of these concepts, to the way in which they developed first in mathematical logic and computability theory and later in automata theory, and to the theory of formal languages and complexity theory. Apart from considering the fundamental themes an

  2. Complex regional pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep J Sebastin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature.

  3. Genetics of complex diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling; Møller, Gert Lykke; Koefoed, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    A complex disease with an inheritable component is polygenic, meaning that several different changes in DNA are the genetic basis for the disease. Such a disease may also be genetically heterogeneous, meaning that independent changes in DNA, i.e. various genotypes, can be the genetic basis...... for the disease. Each of these genotypes may be characterized by specific combinations of key genetic changes. It is suggested that even if all key changes are found in genes related to the biology of a certain disease, the number of combinations may be so large that the number of different genotypes may be close...

  4. Procuring complex performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, A.; Roehrich, J.; Frederiksen, Lars;

    2014-01-01

    transition process. Design/methodology/approach – A multiple, longitudinal case study method is used to examine the transition towards PCP. The study deploys rich qualitative data sets by combining semi-structured interviews, focus group meetings and organisational reports and documents. Findings – The...... contractual and relational challenges they need to master when facing higher levels of performance and infrastructural complexity. Originality/value – The study adds to the limited empirical and conceptual understanding on the nature of long-term public-private interactions in PCP. It contributes through a...

  5. Fluorido complexes of technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariappan Balasekaran, Samundeeswari

    2013-07-04

    Fluorine chemistry has received considerable interest during recent years due to its significant role in the life sciences, especially for drug development. Despite the great nuclear medicinal importance of the radioactive metal technetium in radiopharmaceuticals, its coordination chemistry with the fluorido ligand is by far less explored than that of other ligands. Up to now, only a few technetium fluorides are known. This thesis contains the synthesis, spectroscopic and structural characterization of novel technetium fluorides in the oxidation states ''+1'', ''+2'', ''+4'' and ''+6''. In the oxidation state ''+6'', the fluoridotechnetates were synthesized either from nitridotechnetic(VI) acid or from pertechnetate by using reducing agent and have been isolated as cesium or tetraethylammonium salts. The compounds were characterized spectroscopically and structurally. In the intermediate oxidation state ''+4'', hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) was known for long time and studied spectroscopically. This thesis reports novel and improved syntheses and solved the critical issues of early publications such as the color, some spectroscopic properties and the structure of this key compound. Single crystal analyses of alkali metal, ammonium and tetramethylammonium salts of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) are presented. In aqueous alkaline solutions, the ammonium salt of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) undergoes hydrolysis and forms an oxido-bridged dimeric complex. It is the first step hydrolysis product of hexafluoridotechnetate(IV) and was characterized by spectroscopic and crystallographic methods. Low-valent technetium fluorides with the metal in the oxidation states of ''+2'' or ''+1'' are almost unknown. A detailed description of the synthesis and characterization of pentafluoridonitrosyltechnetate(II) is presented. The

  6. Characterizing biomaterial complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Clifton

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomaterials research will always require a range of techniques to examine structure and function on a range of length scales and in a range of settings. Neutron scattering provides a unique way of disentangling the molecular and structural complexity of biomaterials through study of the constituent components. We examine how the technique has been used to study surface immobilized proteins and lipid films, floating lipid bilayers as mimics of in vitro planar membranes, and formation of fibres from solution by insects and spiders.

  7. Polyhydride complexes for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Polyhydride metal complexes are being developed for application in hydrogen storage. Efforts have focused on developing complexes with improved available hydrogen weight percentages. We have explored the possibility that complexes containing aromatic hydrocarbon ligands could store hydrogen at both the metal center and in the ligands. We have synthesized novel indenyl hydride complexes and explored their reactivity with hydrogen. The reversible hydrogenation of [IrH{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3})({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 10}H{sub 7})]{sup +} has been achieved. While attempting to prepare {eta}{sup 6}-tetrahydronaphthalene complexes, we discovered that certain polyhydride complexes catalyze both the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of tetrahydronaphthalene.

  8. Canonical metrics on complex manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAU Shing-Tung

    2008-01-01

    @@ Complex manifolds are topological spaces that are covered by coordinate charts where the Coordinate changes are given by holomorphic transformations. For example, Riemann surfaces are one dimensional complex manifolds. In order to understand complex manifolds, it is useful to introduce metrics that are compatible with the complex structure. In general, we should have a pair (M, ds2M) where ds2M is the metric. The metric is said to be canonical if any biholomorphisms of the complex manifolds are automatically isometries. Such metrics can naturally be used to describe invariants of the complex structures of the manifold.

  9. Canonical metrics on complex manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAU; Shing-Tung(Yau; S.-T.)

    2008-01-01

    Complex manifolds are topological spaces that are covered by coordinate charts where the coordinate changes are given by holomorphic transformations.For example,Riemann surfaces are one dimensional complex manifolds.In order to understand complex manifolds,it is useful to introduce metrics that are compatible with the complex structure.In general,we should have a pair(M,ds~2_M)where ds~2_M is the metric.The metric is said to be canonical if any biholomorphisms of the complex manifolds are automatically isometries.Such metrics can naturally be used to describe invariants of the complex structures of the manifold.

  10. Shapes of interacting RNA complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Benjamin Mingming; Reidys, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Shapes of interacting RNA complexes are studied using a filtration via their topological genus. A shape of an RNA complex is obtained by (iteratively) collapsing stacks and eliminating hairpin loops.This shape-projection preserves the topological core of the RNA complex and for fixed topological...... genus there are only finitely many such shapes. Our main result is a new bijection that relates the shapes of RNA complexes with shapes of RNA structures. This allows to compute the shape polynomial of RNA complexes via the shape polynomial of RNA structures. We furthermore present a linear time uniform...... sampling algorithm for shapes of RNA complexes of fixed topological genus....

  11. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J S Virdi; F Chand; C N Kumar; S C Mishra

    2012-08-01

    Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex potentials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by $x = x_{1} + ip_{3}. y = x_{2} + ip_{4}, p_{x} = p_{1} + ix_{3}, p_{y} = p_{2} + ix_{4}$. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator admit quadratic complex invariants. THe obtained invariants may be useful for studying non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems.

  12. Theoretical research progress in complexity of complex dynamical networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jinqing

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the main progress in dynamical complexity of theoretical models for nonlinear complex networks proposed by our Joint Complex Network Research Group (JCNRG). The topological and dynamical properties of these theoretical models are numerically and analytically studied. Several findings are useful for understanding and deeply studying complex networks from macroscopic to microscopic levels and have a potential of applications in real-world networks.

  13. The authority of complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, N; Grundmann, R

    2001-06-01

    The assertion about the unique 'complexity' or the peculiarly intricate character of social phenomena has, at least within sociology, a long, venerable and virtually uncontested tradition. At the turn of the last century, classical social theorists, for example, Georg Simmel and Emile Durkheim, made prominent and repeated reference to this attribute of the subject matter of sociology and the degree to which it complicates, even inhibits the develop and application of social scientific knowledge. Our paper explores the origins, the basis and the consequences of this assertion and asks in particular whether the classic complexity assertion still deserves to be invoked in analyses that ask about the production and the utilization of social scientific knowledge in modern society. We present John Maynard Keynes' economic theory and its practical applications as an illustration. We conclude that the practical value of social scientific knowledge is not dependent on a faithful, in the sense of complete, representation of social reality. Instead, social scientific knowledge that wants to optimize its practicality has to attend and attach itself to elements of social situations that can be altered or are actionable. PMID:11440059

  14. Organometallic Complexes of Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Santanu; Bekyarova, Elena; Haddon, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the organometallic hexahapto complexation of chromium with graphene, graphite and carbon nanotubes. All of these extended periodic pi-electron systems exhibit some degree of reactivity toward the reagents CrCO)6 and (eta6-benzene)Cr(CO)3, and we are able to demonstrate the formation of (eta6-rene)Cr(CO)3 or (eta6-arene)2Cr, where arene = single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), exfoliated graphene (XG), epitaxial graphene (EG) and highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). We find that the SWNTs are the least reactive presumably as a result of the effect of curvature on the formation of the hexahapto bond; in the case of HOPG, (eta6-HOPG)Cr(CO)3 was isolated while the exfoliated graphene samples were found to give both (eta6-graphene)2Cr, and (eta6-graphene)Cr(CO)3 structures. We report simple and efficient routes for the mild decomplexation of the graphene-chromium complexes which appears to restore the original pristine graphene state. This study represents the first example of the use of graph...

  15. Tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henske, Elizabeth P; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Kingswood, J Christopher; Sampson, Julian R; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects multiple organ systems and is caused by loss-of-function mutations in one of two genes: TSC1 or TSC2. The disorder can affect both adults and children. First described in depth by Bourneville in 1880, it is now estimated that nearly 2 million people are affected by the disease worldwide. The clinical features of TSC are distinctive and can vary widely between individuals, even within one family. Major features of the disease include tumours of the brain, skin, heart, lungs and kidneys, seizures and TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders, which can include autism spectrum disorder and cognitive disability. TSC1 (also known as hamartin) and TSC2 (also known as tuberin) form the TSC protein complex that acts as an inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway, which in turn plays a pivotal part in regulating cell growth, proliferation, autophagy and protein and lipid synthesis. Remarkable progress in basic and translational research, in addition to several randomized controlled trials worldwide, has led to regulatory approval of the use of mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of renal angiomyolipomas, brain subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis, but further research is needed to establish full indications of therapeutic treatment. In this Primer, we review the state-of-the-art knowledge in the TSC field, including the molecular and cellular basis of the disease, medical management, major knowledge gaps and ongoing research towards a cure. PMID:27226234

  16. Syntactic Complexity as an Aspect of Text Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Roger S.; Starr, Laura E.; Bailey, Alison L.

    2015-01-01

    Students' ability to read complex texts is emphasized in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts and Literacy. The standards propose a three-part model for measuring text complexity. Although the model presents a robust means for determining text complexity based on a variety of features inherent to a text as well as…

  17. From Complex Fractional Fourier Transform to Complex Fractional Radon Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; JIANG Nian-Quan

    2004-01-01

    We show that for n-dimensional complex fractional Fourier transform the corresponding complex fractional Radon transform can also be derived, however, it is different from the direct product of two n-dimensional real fractional Radon transforms. The complex fractional Radon transform of two-mode Wigner operator is calculated.

  18. Not so Complex: Iteration in the Complex Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Robin S.

    2014-01-01

    The simple process of iteration can produce complex and beautiful figures. In this article, Robin O'Dell presents a set of tasks requiring students to use the geometric interpretation of complex number multiplication to construct linear iteration rules. When the outputs are plotted in the complex plane, the graphs trace pleasing designs…

  19. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CPRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Complex Regional Pain Syndrome - CRPS Email to a friend * ... DESCRIPTION Formerly Known as Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a pain condition ...

  20. Cadmium(2) complexes of cytosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complexes of cadmium(2) with cytosine obtained from aqueous or physiological solutions at room temperature are reported. The complexes were characterized by spectroscopic, conductometric, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR measurements and also by thermogravimetry. (Authors)

  1. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  2. Uranium nucleophilic carbene complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The only stable f-metal carbene complexes (excluding NHC) metals f present R2C2- groups having one or two phosphorus atoms in the central carbon in alpha position. The objective of this work was to develop the chemistry of carbenes for uranium (metal 5f) with the di-anion C{Ph2P(=S)}22- (SCS2-) to extend the organometallic chemistry of this element in its various oxidation states (+3-+6), and to reveal the influence of the 5f orbitals on the nature and reactivity of the double bond C=U. We first isolated the reactants M(SCHS) (M = Li and K) and demonstrated the role of the cation M+ on the evolution of the di-anion M2SCS (M = Li, K, Tl) which is transformed into LiSCHS in THF or into product of intramolecular cyclization K2[C(PhPS)2(C6H4)]. We have developed the necessary conditions mono-, bis- and tris-carbene directly from the di-anion SCS2- and UCl4, as the precursor used in uranium chemistry. The protonolysis reactions of amides compounds (U-NEt2) by the neutral ligand SCH2S were also studied. The compounds [Li(THF)]2[U(SCS)Cl3] and [U(SCS)Cl2(THF)2] were then used to prepare a variety of cyclopentadienyl and mono-cyclo-octa-tetra-enyliques uranium(IV) carbene compounds of the DFT analysis of compounds [M(SCS)Cl2(py)2] and [M(Cp)2(SCS)] (M = U, Zr) reveals the strong polarization of the M=C double bond, provides information on the nature of the σ and π interactions in this binding, and shows the important role of f orbitals. The influence of ancillary ligands on the M=C bond is revealed by examining the effects of replacing Cl- ligands and pyridine by C5H5- groups. Mulliken and NBO analyzes show that U=C bond, unlike the Zr=C bond, is not affected by the change in environment of the metal center. While the oxidation tests of carbene complexes of U(IV) were disappointing, the first carbene complex of uranium (VI), [UO2(SCS)(THF)2], was isolated with the uranyl ion UO22+. The reactions of compounds UO2X2 (X = I, OTf) with anions SCS2- and SCHS- provide the

  3. Recent Advances in Complex Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic advances in the field of complex networks have been witnessed in the past few years. This paper reviews some important results in this direction of rapidly evolving research, with emphasis on the relationship between the dynamics and the topology of complex networks. Basic quantities and typical examples of various complex networks are described. Robustness of connectivity and epidemic dynamics in complex networks are evaluated.

  4. The Complex System in Babel

    OpenAIRE

    Dwi Setiawan; Liliek Soelistyo

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how the plot of Babel reflects the principles of the quantum-physic theory of complex system such as complexity, indeterminacy and non-linearity. In terms of complexity, the movie exposes more than two distinct subplots with their subcomponents. Yet, every subplot is only meaningful when it is mentally put in relation to the others. Due to its complexity, it is highly difficult for the audience and the characters of Babel to determine the meaning or the significance of ...

  5. Holistic education and complexity thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Jörg, T.

    2007-01-01

    Paper proposal for the SIG Holistic Education at AERA 2007 Title: Holistic Education and Complexity Thinking Ton Jörg IVLOS Institute of Education University of Utrecht The Netherlands ABSTRACT In this paper I link complexity thinking with Holistic Education (HE). It is a challenge to show how HE may benefit of thinking in complexity. For me thinking in complexity is a way of humanizing our scientific thinking. It asks for a reform of our thinking. The rethinking of com...

  6. Halonickel(I) complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Rubio, Manuel; Royo Gracia, Pascual; Sáez Sáez, Isabel María; Arcas, Aurelia

    1982-01-01

    The reduction of nickel(II) halides with NaBH4 in the presence of different ligands, L=PPh3, AsPh3, SbPh3, has been studied. With a molar ratio L/Ni=3, new complexes NiX(SbPh3)3, X=Cl, Br, I, were obtained. With a molar ratio L/Ni=2, dimeric species [NiXL2]2, X=Cl, Br, I; L=PPh3, AsPh3, SbPh3, were isolated. They are unstable and decompose easily in the solid and rapidly in solution, so that pure samples were only identified for X=Cl, L=PPh3, AsPh3, SbPh3; X=Br, L=PPh3 and X=I, L=PPh3. With a...

  7. Complexity Science for Simpletons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinstein C. A.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we shall describe some of the most interesting topics in the subject of Complexity Science for a general audience. Anyone with a solid foundation in high school mathematics (with some calculus and an elementary understanding of computer programming will be able to follow this article. First, we shall explain the significance of the P versus NP problem and solve it. Next, we shall describe two other famous mathematics problems, the Collatz 3n+ 1 Conjecture and the Riemann Hypothesis, and show how both Chaitin’s incompleteness theorem and Wolfram’s notion of “computational irreducibility” are important for understanding why no one has, as of yet, solved these two problems.

  8. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Perrenoud, Ben C.

    2007-12-25

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  9. Complex singularities and PDEs

    CERN Document Server

    Caflisch, R E; Sammartino, M; Sciacca, V

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we give a review on the computational methods used to characterize the complex singularities developed by some relevant PDEs. We begin by reviewing the singularity tracking method based on the analysis of the Fourier spectrum. We then introduce other methods generally used to detect the hidden singularities. In particular we show some applications of the Pad\\'e approximation, of the Kida method, and of Borel-Polya method. We apply these techniques to the study of the singularity formation of some nonlinear dispersive and dissipative one dimensional PDE of the 2D Prandtl equation, of the 2D KP equation, and to Navier-Stokes equation for high Reynolds number incompressible flows in the case of interaction with rigid boundaries.

  10. Early AIDS dementia complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A frequent complication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is AIDS dementia complex (ADC). The authors evaluated seven patients with AIDS (aged 28-55 years, all male) for ADC by psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, CT scanning, and IMP-SPECT. Six of seven patients exhibited cognitive or behavioral abnormalities. Neuropsychological testing showed general deficits but no cases of explicit dementia. SPECT showed marked abnormalities in two cases: posterior temporal-parietal diminution of tracer uptake in one case (posterior/anterior=0.81) and marked right/left subcortical asymmetry (1.17) in the other. In three additional cases there was asymmetric tracer uptake in the subcortical and parietal regions. CT findings were normal in all seven cases. The authors conclude that functional imaging with the use of IMP-SPECT may be a useful method to follow ADC progression and response to therapy

  11. Nasal palatal: segment complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Romera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the nature of a segment which is always problematical —the palatal nasal. Phonetic results found in the acoustic, perceptive and articulate spheres, showing the different features of this nasal with regards to others, are the point of departure for a brief reflection on the phonological nature of this segment, taking into account the feature geometry and the articulatory phonology. It concludes by considering the palatal nasal /?/ as a complex segment formed by /n+j/ and the imputation, to temporary effects, of a degree of major o minor assimilation and gestural overlapping during effective perception of /?/, of /n+j/ or of /n+i/.

  12. Segmentation of complex document

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souad Oudjemia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for segmentation of documents image with complex structure. This technique based on GLCM (Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix used to segment this type of document in three regions namely, 'graphics', 'background' and 'text'. Very briefly, this method is to divide the document image, in block size chosen after a series of tests and then applying the co-occurrence matrix to each block in order to extract five textural parameters which are energy, entropy, the sum entropy, difference entropy and standard deviation. These parameters are then used to classify the image into three regions using the k-means algorithm; the last step of segmentation is obtained by grouping connected pixels. Two performance measurements are performed for both graphics and text zones; we have obtained a classification rate of 98.3% and a Misclassification rate of 1.79%.

  13. Complexity, Metastability and Nonextensivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, C.; Benedek, G.; Rapisarda, A.; Tsallis, C.

    Work and heat fluctuations in systems with deterministic and stochastic forces / E. G. D. Cohen and R. Van Zon -- Is the entropy S[symbol] extensive or nonextensive? / C. Tsallis -- Superstatistics: recent developments and applications / C. Beck -- Two stories outside Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics: Mori's Q-phase transitions and glassy dynamics at the onset of chaos / A. Robledo, F. Baldovin and E. Mayoral -- Time-averages and the heat theorem / A. Carati -- Fundamental formulae and numerical evidences for the central limit theorem in Tsallis statistics / H. Suyari -- Generalizing the Planck distribution / A. M. C. Soma and C. Tsallis -- The physical roots of complexity: renewal or modulation? / P. Grigolini -- Nonequivalent ensembles and metastability / H. Touchette and R. S. Ellis -- Statistical physics for cosmic structures / L. Pietronero and F. Sylos Labini -- Metastability and anomalous behavior in the HMF model: connections to nonextensive thermodynamics and glassy dynamics / A. Pluchino, A. Rapisarda and V. Latora -- Vlasov analysis of relaxation and meta-equilibrium / C. Anteneodo and R. O. Vallejos -- Weak chaos in large conservative systems - infinite-range coupled standard maps / L. G. Moyano, A. P. Majtey and C. Tsallis -- Deterministc aging / E. Barkai -- Edge of chaos of the classical kicked top map: sensitivity to initial conditions / S. M. Duarte Queirós and C. Tsallis -- What entropy at the edge of chaos? / M. Lissia, M. Coraddu and R. Tonelli -- Fractal growth of carbon schwarzites / G. Benedek ... [et al.] -- Clustering and interface propagation in interacting particle dynamics / A. Provata and V. K. Noussiou -- Resonant activation and noise enhanced stability in Josephson junctions / A. L. Pankratov and B. Spagnolo -- Symmetry breaking induced directed motions / C.-H. Chang and T. Y. Tsong -- General theory of Galilean-invariant entropic lattic Boltzmann models / B. M. Boghosian -- Unifying approach to the jamming transition in granular media and

  14. Complex performance in construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bougrain, Frédéric; Forman, Marianne; Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer;

    industry. The main objective of this project was to understand how the development of integrated solutions in construction led to distinct configuration of actors and structures. Furthermore, the project analyses whether these changes modified project processes and contributed to the delivery of new value...... to the end users. This report summarises the results from work undertaken in the international collaborative project “Procuring and Operating Complex Products and Systems in Construction” (POCOPSC). POCOPSC was carried out in the period 2010-2014. The project was executed in collaboration between......To fulfil the expectations of demanding clients, new project-delivery mechanisms have been developed. Approaches focusing on performance-based building or new procurement processers such as new forms of private-public partnerships are considered as solutions improving the overall performance of the...

  15. Complex Hamiltonian Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bountis, Tassos

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces and explores modern developments in the well established field of Hamiltonian dynamical systems. It focuses on high degree-of-freedom systems and the transitional regimes between regular and chaotic motion. The role of nonlinear normal modes is highlighted and the importance of low-dimensional tori in the resolution of the famous FPU paradox is emphasized. Novel powerful numerical methods are used to study localization phenomena and distinguish order from strongly and weakly chaotic regimes. The emerging hierarchy of complex structures in such regimes gives rise to particularly long-lived patterns and phenomena called quasi-stationary states, which are explored in particular in the concrete setting of one-dimensional Hamiltonian lattices and physical applications in condensed matter systems.  The self-contained and pedagogical approach is blended with a unique balance between mathematical rigor, physics insights and concrete applications. End of chapter exercises and (more demanding) res...

  16. Turbulence in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.

  17. Complexity of Strong Implementability

    CERN Document Server

    Thielen, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    We consider the question of implementability of a social choice function in a classical setting where the preferences of finitely many selfish individuals with private information have to be aggregated towards a social choice. This is one of the central questions in mechanism design. If the concept of weak implementation is considered, the Revelation Principle states that one can restrict attention to truthful implementations and direct revelation mechanisms, which implies that implementability of a social choice function is easy to check. For the concept of strong implementation, however, the Revelation Principle becomes invalid, and the complexity of deciding whether a given social choice function is strongly implementable has been open so far. In this paper, we show by using methods from polyhedral theory that strong implementability of a social choice function can be decided in polynomial space and that each of the payments needed for strong implementation can always be chosen to be of polynomial encoding...

  18. Complex Algebraic Varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Peternell, Thomas; Schneider, Michael; Schreyer, Frank-Olaf

    1992-01-01

    The Bayreuth meeting on "Complex Algebraic Varieties" focussed on the classification of algebraic varieties and topics such as vector bundles, Hodge theory and hermitian differential geometry. Most of the articles in this volume are closely related to talks given at the conference: all are original, fully refereed research articles. CONTENTS: A. Beauville: Annulation du H(1) pour les fibres en droites plats.- M. Beltrametti, A.J. Sommese, J.A. Wisniewski: Results on varieties with many lines and their applications to adjunction theory.- G. Bohnhorst, H. Spindler: The stability of certain vector bundles on P(n) .- F. Catanese, F. Tovena: Vector bundles, linear systems and extensions of (1).- O. Debarre: Vers uns stratification de l'espace des modules des varietes abeliennes principalement polarisees.- J.P. Demailly: Singular hermitian metrics on positive line bundles.- T. Fujita: On adjoint bundles of ample vector bundles.- Y. Kawamata: Moderate degenerations of algebraic surfaces.- U. Persson: Genus two fibra...

  19. Thermodynamics of complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Snoep, Jacky L.

    1998-01-01

    Thermodynamics has always been a remarkable science in that it studies macroscopic properties that are only partially determined by the properties of individual molecules. Entropy and free energy only exist in constellations of more than a single molecule (degree of freedom). They are the so...... state, For a true understanding of this BioComplexity, modem thermodynamic concepts and methods (nonequilibrium thermodynamics, metabolic and hierarchical control analysis) will be needed. We shall propose to redefine nonequilibrium thermodynamics as: The science that aims at understanding the behaviour...... of nonequilibrium systems by taking into account both the molecular properties and the emergent properties that are due to (dys)organisation. This redefinition will free nonequilibrium thermodynamics from the limitations imposed by earlier near-equilibrium assumptions, resolve the duality with...

  20. Complexity in Evolutionary Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwin's principle of evolution by natural selection is readily casted into a mathematical formalism. Molecular biology revealed the mechanism of mutation and provides the basis for a kinetic theory of evolution that models correct reproduction and mutation as parallel chemical reaction channels. A result of the kinetic theory is the existence of a phase transition in evolution occurring at a critical mutation rate, which represents a localization threshold for the population in sequence space. Occurrence and nature of such phase transitions depend critically on fitness landscapes. The fitness landscape being tantamount to a mapping from sequence or genotype space into phenotype space is identified as the true source of complexity in evolution. Modeling evolution as a stochastic process is discussed and neutrality with respect to selection is shown to provide a major challenge for understanding evolutionary processes (author)

  1. Complex wounds Feridas complexas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Castro Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex wound is the term used more recently to group those well-known difficult wounds, either chronic or acute, that challenge medical and nursing teams. They defy cure using conventional and simple "dressings" therapy and currently have a major socioeconomic impact. The purpose of this review is to bring these wounds to the attention of the health-care community, suggesting that they should be treated by multidisciplinary teams in specialized hospital centers. In most cases, surgical treatment is unavoidable, because the extent of skin and subcutaneous tissue loss requires reconstruction with grafts and flaps. New technologies, such as the negative pressure device, should be introduced. A brief review is provided of the major groups of complex wounds-diabetic wounds, pressure sores, chronic venous ulcers, post-infection soft-tissue gangrenes, and ulcers resulting from vasculitis.Ferida complexa é uma nova definição para identificar aquelas feridas crônicas e algumas agudas já bem conhecidas e que desafiam equipes médicas e de enfermagem. São difíceis de serem resolvidas usando tratamentos convencionais e simples curativos. Têm atualmente grande impacto sócio-econômico. Esta revisão procura atrair atenção da comunidade de profissionais de saúde para estas feridas, sugerindo que devam ser tratadas por equipe multidisciplinar em centro hospitalar especializado. Na maioria dos casos o tratamento cirúrgico deve ser indicado, uma vez que a perda de pele e tecido subcutâneo é extensa, necessitando de reconstrução com enxertos e retalhos. Nova tecnologia, como uso da terapia por pressão negativa foi introduzido. Breves comentários sobre os principais grupos de feridas complexas: pé diabético, úlceras por pressão, úlceras venosas, síndrome de Fournier e vasculites.

  2. Kolmogorov complexity as a language

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The notion of Kolmogorov complexity (=the minimal length of a program that generates some object) is often useful as a kind of language that allows us to reformulate some notions and therefore provide new intuition. In this survey we provide (with minimal comments) many different examples where notions and statements that involve Kolmogorov complexity are compared with their counterparts not involving complexity.

  3. Harmonic oscillator with complex frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper it is studied the problem of the harmonic oscillator with complex frequency. A special case of this problem is the determination of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the squeeze operator in quantum optics. The Hamilton operator of the complex harmonic oscillator is non-Hermitian and its study leads to the Lie-admissible theory. Because of the complex frequency the eigenvalues of the energy are complex numbers and the partition function of Boltzman and the free energy of Helmoltz are complex functions. Especially the imaginary part of the free energy describes the metastable states

  4. Technetium complexation by macrocyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research in nuclear medicine are directed towards the labelling of biological molecules, however, sup(99m)Tc does not show sufficient affinity for these molecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of macrocyclic compounds to bind strongly technetium in order to be used as complexation intermediate. The reducing agents used were a stannous complex and sodium dithionite. Cryptates and polyesters are not good complexing agents. They form two complexes: a 2:1 sandwich complex or 3:2 and a 1:1 complex. Cyclams are good complexing agents for technetium their complexations strength was determined by competition with pyrophosphate, gluconate and DTPA. Using the method of ligand exchange, the oxidation state of technetium in the Tc-cyclam complex was IV or V. They are 1:1 cationic complexes, the complex charge is +1. The biodistribution in rats of labelling solutions containing (cyclam 14 ane N4) C12H25 shows a good urinary excretion without intoxication risks

  5. Complexity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, John H

    2014-01-01

    The importance of complexity is well-captured by Hawking's comment: "Complexity is the science of the 21st century". From the movement of flocks of birds to the Internet, environmental sustainability, and market regulation, the study and understanding of complex non-linear systems has become highly influential over the last 30 years. In this Very Short Introduction, one of the leading figures in the field, John Holland, introduces the key elements and conceptual framework of complexity. From complex physical systems such as fluid flow and the difficulties of predicting weather, to complex adaptive systems such as the highly diverse and interdependent ecosystems of rainforests, he combines simple, well-known examples - Adam Smith's pin factory, Darwin's comet orchid, and Simon's 'watchmaker' - with an account of the approaches, involving agents and urn models, taken by complexity theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost eve...

  6. Understanding complex chiral plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Yue, Song; Liu, Na

    2015-10-01

    Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant and simple analytical model, which can describe, predict, and comprehend the chiroptical spectra in detail. Our study will shed light on designing well-controlled chiral-achiral coupling platforms for reliable chiral sensing.Chiral nanoplasmonics exhibits great potential for novel nanooptical devices due to the generation of a strong chiroptical response within nanoscale metallic structures. Recently, a number of different approaches have been utilized to create chiral nanoplasmonic structures. However, particularly for tailoring nanooptical chiral sensing devices, the understanding of the resulting chiroptical response when coupling chiral and achiral structures together is crucial and has not been completely understood to date. Here, we present a thorough and step-by-step experimental study to understand the intriguing chiral-achiral coupling scheme. We set up a hybrid plasmonic system, which bears resemblance to the `host-guest' system in supramolecular chemistry to analyze and explain the complex chiral response both at the chiral and achiral plasmonic resonances. We also provide an elegant

  7. Complexity of Ising Polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Kotek, Tomer

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the partition function of the Ising model from statistical mechanics, which is used to study phase transitions in physical systems. A special case of interest is that of the Ising model with constant energies and external field. One may consider such an Ising system as a simple graph together with vertex and edge weight values. When these weights are considered indeterminates, the partition function for the constant case is a trivariate polynomial Z(G;x,y,z). This polynomial was studied with respect to its approximability by L. A. Goldberg, M. Jerrum and M. Patersonin 2003. Z(G;x,y,z) generalizes a bivariate polynomial Z(G;t,y), which was studied in by D. Andr\\'{e}n and K. Markstr\\"{o}m in 2009. We consider the complexity of Z(G;t,y) and Z(G;x,y,z) in comparison to that of the Tutte polynomial, which is well-known to be closely related to the Potts model in the absence of an external field. We show that Z(G;\\x,\\y,\\z) is #P-hard to evaluate at all points in $mathbb{Q}^3$, except those in ...

  8. TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barboza-Ubarnes Miriam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC is a neurocutaneous syndrome autosomal dominant (AD, characterized by multiple hamartomas formation due to mutation of the TSC1 and TSC2 genes responsible for encoding tumor suppressor proteins. TSC is a multisystem disease; however, the diagnosis is based on the neurological involvement, skin lesions and imaging findings. Clinical case: a male teenager from Cartagena who at four months of age was diagnosed with West syndrome, managed with Vigabatrin, subsequently, he presented focal motor epilepsy. Macules and facial angiofibromas were found in physical examination. Cranial tomography scan (TAC showed left frontotemporal region tuber and subependymal nodules. Based on these criteria TSC diagnosis was carried out. Conclusion: the TSC is a diagnostic challenge for the physician, it depends on excellent medical history and a complete physical examination even the search of characteristic lesions in the skin, they can be detected from the time of birth, just as detectable imaging findings even in uterus. Genetic tests do not rule the disease, although, they are confirmatory. Rev.cienc.biomed. 2015;6(2:369-375 KEYWORDS Epilepsy; Tuberous sclerosis; Tuberous; Skin lesions.

  9. Managing Complex Environmental Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and public health risks are often handled in a process in which experts, and sometimes policy makers, try their best to quantitatively assess, evaluate and manage risks. This approach harmonises with mainstream interpretations of sustainable development, which aim at defining a desirable relationship between human and natural systems, for instance by policies that define limit values of different forms of disturbances. However, under conditions of high scientific incertitude, diverging values and distrust, this approach is far from satisfactory. The use of cell phones, hazardous chemicals, nuclear or fossil energy systems, and modern biotechnology are examples of activities causing such risks with high complexity. Against this background, a complementary interpretation of the concept of sustainable development is suggested. This interpretation is operationalised through new formulations of three common principles for public risk management; the precautionary principle, the polluter pays principle and the principle of public participation. Implementation of these reformulated principles would challenge some foundations of present mainstream views on environmental decision-making, but would on the other hand contribute to improved practices for long-term human welfare and planetary survival (full text of contribution)

  10. Complexity of Strong Implementability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Thielen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the question of implementability of a social choice function in a classical setting where the preferences of finitely many selfish individuals with private information have to be aggregated towards a social choice. This is one of the central questions in mechanism design. If the concept of weak implementation is considered, the Revelation Principle states that one can restrict attention to truthful implementations and direct revelation mechanisms, which implies that implementability of a social choice function is easy to check. For the concept of strong implementation, however, the Revelation Principle becomes invalid, and the complexity of deciding whether a given social choice function is strongly implementable has been open so far. In this paper, we show by using methods from polyhedral theory that strong implementability of a social choice function can be decided in polynomial space and that each of the payments needed for strong implementation can always be chosen to be of polynomial encoding length. Moreover, we show that strong implementability of a social choice function involving only a single selfish individual can be decided in polynomial time via linear programming.

  11. Nonisostructural complex oxide heteroepitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present an overview of the fundamentals and representative examples of the growth of epitaxial complex oxide thin films on structurally dissimilar substrates. The authors will delineate how the details of particular crystal structures and symmetry of different oxide surfaces can be employed for a rational approach to the synthesis of nonisostructural epitaxial heterostructures. The concept of oxygen eutaxy can be widely applied. Materials combinations will be split into three categories, and in all cases the films and substrates occur in different crystal structures: (1) common translational and rotational symmetry between the film and substrate planes; (2) translational symmetry mismatch between the substrates and films that is distinct from a simple mismatch in lattice parameters; and (3) rotational symmetry mismatch. In case (1), in principle single-crystalline thin films can be attained despite the films and substrates possessing different crystal structures. In case (2), antiphase boundaries will be prevalent in the thin films. In case (3), thin-film rotational variants that are joined by tilt boundaries will be present. Diffraction techniques to determine crystallographic alignment and epitaxial variants are discussed, and transmission electron microscopy studies to investigate extended defects in the thin films will also be reviewed. The authors end with open problems in this field regarding the structure of oxide interfaces that can be topics for future research

  12. Complexity management in projects between rational momentum and complex conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac, Anita; Schlamovitz, Jesper

    associated with benefits in the development of tasks and managing stakeholders. It is also associated with some difficulty in terms of an increased need for dialogue and a risk of creating goal ambiguity. Based on the findings, we conclude that classical project management approaches can benefit from......This study takes its departure in a model of complexity, developed by Stacey (1993), to test and discuss its practical benefit as perceived by practicing project managers. Based on a survey, the study finds that complexity is a phenomenon recognized by project managers, and complexity management is...... incorporating complexity management....

  13. Complexity Management In Projects Between Rational Momentum And Complex Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac, Anita; Schlamovitz, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    management is associated with benefits in the development of tasks and managing stakeholders. It is also associated with some difficulty in terms of an increased need for dialogue and a risk of creating goal ambiguity. Based on the findings, we conclude that classical project management approaches can......Abstract: This study takes its departure in a model of complexity, developed by Stacey (1993), to test and discuss its practical benefit as perceived by practicing project managers. Based on a survey, the study finds that complexity is a phenomenon recognized by project managers, and complexity...... benefit from incorporating complexity management....

  14. What is a complex graph?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongkwang; Wilhelm, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Many papers published in recent years show that real-world graphs G(n,m) ( n nodes, m edges) are more or less “complex” in the sense that different topological features deviate from random graphs. Here we narrow the definition of graph complexity and argue that a complex graph contains many different subgraphs. We present different measures that quantify this complexity, for instance C1e, the relative number of non-isomorphic one-edge-deleted subgraphs (i.e. DECK size). However, because these different subgraph measures are computationally demanding, we also study simpler complexity measures focussing on slightly different aspects of graph complexity. We consider heuristically defined “product measures”, the products of two quantities which are zero in the extreme cases of a path and clique, and “entropy measures” quantifying the diversity of different topological features. The previously defined network/graph complexity measures Medium Articulation and Offdiagonal complexity ( OdC) belong to these two classes. We study OdC measures in some detail and compare it with our new measures. For all measures, the most complex graph G has a medium number of edges, between the edge numbers of the minimum and the maximum connected graph n-1graph complexity measures are characterized with the help of different example graphs. For all measures the corresponding time complexity is given. Finally, we discuss the complexity of 33 real-world graphs of different biological, social and economic systems with the six computationally most simple measures (including OdC). The complexities of the real graphs are compared with average complexities of two different random graph versions: complete random graphs (just fixed n,m) and rewired graphs with fixed node degrees.

  15. 不同表面积和不同温度的热灸样刺激对大鼠延髓背侧网状亚核神经元的激活作用%Effect of Moxibustion-like Thermal Stimulation with Different Temperature and Covering Different Areas of “Zhongwan” (CV 12) on Discharges of Neurons in Medullary Subnucleus Reticularis Dorsalis of Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮; 杨金生; 荣培晶; 贲弃; 高昕妍; 朱兵

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨热灸法的作用机制及最佳的热灸刺激参数.方法:选用SD大鼠15只,微电极胞外记录延髓背侧网状亚核(SRD)神经元活动,观察7种不同温度(40、42、44、46、48、50、52℃)和7种不同圆形面积(直径分别为1.0、1.5、2.0、2.5、3.0、3.5、4.0 cm)组成的不同组合的热刺激对SRD神经元放电活动的影响.刺激部位以“中脘”穴为中心,刺激持续时间为30 s.结果:40℃和42℃的热刺激在任何面积下对SRD神经元均无激活作用;44℃-Φ3.5 cm和44℃-Φ4.0 cm的刺激组合对SRD神经元有明显激活作用;温度达46℃以上后,热刺激面积与SRD神经元的放电活动呈线性相关;48℃-Φ3.0 cm、50℃-Φ3.5 cm、52℃-Φ3.5 cm刺激组合达到SRD神经元放电活动的平台期,在温度不变的条件下,SRD神经元放电不再随刺激面积的增大而增加.结论:伤害性范围内的热刺激可以激活SRD神经元,当热刺激达到一定参数后,SRD神经元的激活反应会出现平台期.%Objective To observe the effect of regional thermal (moxibustion-like) stimulation on discharges of neurons in the medullary subnucleus reticularis dorsalis (SRD) and to study the best thermal stimulation parameters in the rat. Methods Experiments were performed on 15 male Sprague-Dawley rats under anesthesia (10% urethane, 1.0-1.5 g/kg). Unit discharges of single neurons in the medullary SRD were recorded extracellularly with glass micropipettes. Thermal stimulation (warm water filled in a glass bottle) with different temperature (40 ℃, 42 ℃, 44 ℃ , 46 ℃, 48 ℃, 50 ℃, 52 ℃) and covering different area (diameter: 1. 0 cm, 1. 5 cm, 2. 0 cm, 2. 5 cm, 3. 0 cm, 3. 5 cm, 4. 0 cm) was applied to "Zhongwan"(CV 12) region for 30 s. Firing rates of SRD neurons were analyzed by using Power-Lab Chart 5. 0. Results When thermal stimulation with temperature of 40 ℃ and 42 ℃ and the stimulated area of 1. 0-4. 0 cm in diameter was applied to CV 12

  16. Carney complex (CNC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertherat Jérôme

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Carney complex (CNC is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by spotty skin pigmentation, endocrine overactivity and myxomas. Skin pigmentation anomalies include lentigines and blue naevi. The most common endocrine gland manifestations are acromegaly, thyroid and testicular tumors, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD. PPNAD, a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome, is due to primary bilateral adrenal defect that can be also observed in some patients without other CNC manifestations or familial history of the disease. Myxomas can be observed in the heart, skin and breast. Cardiac myxomas can develop in any cardiac chamber and may be multiple. One of the putative CNC genes located on 17q22-24, (PRKAR1A, has been identified to encode the regulatory subunit (R1A of protein kinase A. Heterozygous inactivating mutations of PRKAR1A were reported initially in 45 to 65 % of CNC index cases, and may be present in about 80 % of the CNC families presenting mainly with Cushing's syndrome. PRKAR1A is a key component of the cAMP signaling pathway that has been implicated in endocrine tumorigenesis and could, at least partly, function as a tumor suppressor gene. Genetic analysis should be proposed to all CNC index cases. Patients with CNC or with a genetic predisposition to CNC should have regular screening for manifestations of the disease. Clinical work-up for all the manifestations of CNC should be performed at least once a year in all patients and should start in infancy. Cardiac myxomas require surgical removal. Treatment of the other manifestations of CNC should be discussed and may include follow-up, surgery, or medical treatment depending on the location of the tumor, its size, the existence of clinical signs of tumor mass or hormonal excess, and the suspicion of malignancy. Bilateral adrenalectomy is the most common treatment for Cushing

  17. ON COMPLEX DYNAMIC CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Daizhan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents some recent works on the control of dynamic systems, which have certain complex properties caused by singularity of the nonlinear structures, structure-varyings, or evolution process etc. First, we consider the structure singularity of nonlinear control systems. It was revealed that the focus of researches on nonlinear control theory is shifting from regular systems to singular systems. The singularity of nonlinear systems causes certain complexity. Secondly, the switched systems are considered. For such systems the complexity is caused by the structure varying. We show that the switched systems have significant characteristics of complex systems. Finally, we investigate the evolution systems. The evolution structure makes complexity, and itself is a proper model for complex systems.

  18. Imaging of Von Meyenburg complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, L; Favelier, S; Falcoz, M T; Loffroy, R; Krause, D; Cercueil, J P

    2016-04-01

    Von Meyenburg complexes, or biliary hamartomas, are frequently incidentally detected. They are usually easy to characterize with magnetic resonance imaging. However, in some occasions they are difficult to differentiate from other liver lesions, in particular from small liver metastases. Von Meyenburg complexes are developmental malformations of the ductal plate. They can be found in association with Caroli disease and Caroli syndrome. Like other ductal plate malformations, Von Meyenburg complexes associated with cholangiocarcinoma have been described and their relationship has been established. This review provides an update on the etiopathogenesis of Von Meyenburg complexes, illustrates the imaging features on ultrasound, CT and MRI of this condition and discusses the most common diagnostic pitfalls. The relationships between Von Meyenburg complexes and the various ductal plate malformations and the most recent literature data regarding the relationships between Von Meyenburg complexes and cholangiocarcinoma are presented. PMID:26522945

  19. A New Complete Class Complexity Metric

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Vinay; Bhattacherjee, Vandana

    2014-01-01

    Software complexity metrics is essential for minimizing the cost of software maintenance. Package level and System level complexity cannot be measured without class level complexity. This research addresses the class complexity metrics. This paper studies the existing class complexity metrics and proposes a new class complexity metric CCC (Complete class complexity metric). The CCC metric is then analytically evaluated by Weyuker's property.

  20. The Augmented Complex Kernel LMS

    OpenAIRE

    Bouboulis, Pantelis; Theodoridis, Sergios; Mavroforakis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a unified framework for adaptive kernel based signal processing of complex data was presented by the authors, which, besides offering techniques to map the input data to complex Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces, developed a suitable Wirtinger-like Calculus for general Hilbert Spaces. In this short paper, the extended Wirtinger's calculus is adopted to derive complex kernel-based widely-linear estimation filters. Furthermore, we illuminate several important characteristics of the wi...