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Sample records for bacterium biology inspired

  1. A Biologically Inspired Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the distance among records based on the correlations of data stored in the corresponding database entries. The original method (F. Bagnoli, A. Berrones and F. Franci. Physica A 332 (2004) 509-518) was formulated in the context of opinion formation. The opinions expressed over a set of topic originate a ``knowledge network'' among individuals, where two individuals are nearer the more similar their expressed opinions are. Assuming that individuals' opinions are stored in a database, the authors show that it is possible to anticipate an opinion using the correlations in the database. This corresponds to approximating the overlap between the tastes of two individuals with the correlations of their expressed opinions. In this paper we extend this model to nonlinear matching functions, inspired by biological problems such as microarray (probe-sample pairing). We investigate numerically the error between the correlation and the overlap matrix for eight sequences of reference with r...

  2. Biologically-inspired machine vision

    OpenAIRE

    Tsitiridis, A

    2013-01-01

    This thesis summarises research on the improved design, integration and expansion of past cortex-like computer vision models, following biologically-inspired methodologies. By adopting early theories and algorithms as a building block, particular interest has been shown for algorithmic parameterisation, feature extraction, invariance properties and classification. Overall, the major original contributions of this thesis have been: 1. The incorporation of a salient feature-based method for sem...

  3. From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology From biologically-inspired physics to physics-inspired biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2010-10-01

    The conference 'From DNA-Inspired Physics to Physics-Inspired Biology' (1-5 June 2009, International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy) that myself and two former presidents of the American Biophysical Society—Wilma Olson (Rutgers University) and Adrian Parsegian (NIH), with the support of an ICTP team (Ralf Gebauer (Local Organizer) and Doreen Sauleek (Conference Secretary)), have organized was intended to establish stronger links between the biology and physics communities on the DNA front. The relationships between them were never easy. In 1997, Adrian published a paper in Physics Today ('Harness the Hubris') summarizing his thoughts about the main obstacles for a successful collaboration. The bottom line of that article was that physicists must seriously learn biology before exploring it and even having an interpreter, a friend or co-worker, who will be cooperating with you and translating the problems of biology into a physical language, may not be enough. He started his story with a joke about a physicist asking a biologist: 'I want to study the brain. Tell me something about it!' Biologist: 'First, the brain consists of two parts, and..' Physicist: 'Stop. You have told me too much.' Adrian listed a few direct avenues where physicists' contributions may be particularly welcome. This gentle and elegantly written paper caused, however, a stormy reaction from Bob Austin (Princeton), published together with Adrian's notes, accusing Adrian of forbidding physicists to attack big questions in biology straightaway. Twelve years have passed and many new developments have taken place in the biologist-physicist interaction. This was something I addressed in my opening conference speech, with my position lying somewhere inbetween Parsegian's and Austin's, which is briefly outlined here. I will first recall certain precepts or 'dogmas' that fly in the air like Valkyries, poisoning those relationships. Since the early seventies when I was a first year Ph

  4. Biologically inspired toys using artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Recent developments in electroactive polymers, so-called artificial muscles, could one day be used to make bionics possible. Meanwhile, as this technology evolves novel mechanisms are expected to emerge that are biologically inspired.

  5. Biologically inspired technologies in NASA's morphing project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Cox, David E.; Lazos, Barry S.; Waszak, Martin R.; Raney, David L.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Pao, S. Paul

    2003-07-01

    For centuries, biology has provided fertile ground for hypothesis, discovery, and inspiration. Time-tested methods used in nature are being used as a basis for several research studies conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center as a part of Morphing Project, which develops and assesses breakthrough vehicle technologies. These studies range from low drag airfoil design guided by marine and avian morphologies to soaring techniques inspired by birds and the study of small flexible wing vehicles. Biology often suggests unconventional yet effective approaches such as non-planar wings, dynamic soaring, exploiting aeroelastic effects, collaborative control, flapping, and fibrous active materials. These approaches and other novel technologies for future flight vehicles are being studied in NASA's Morphing Project. This paper will discuss recent findings in the aeronautics-based, biologically-inspired research in the project.

  6. Biologically inspired self-organizing networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naoki WAKAMIYA; Kenji LEIBNITZ; Masayuki MURATA

    2009-01-01

    Information networks are becoming more and more complex to accommodate a continuously increasing amount of traffic and networked devices, as well as having to cope with a growing diversity of operating environments and applications. Therefore, it is foreseeable that future information networks will frequently face unexpected problems, some of which could lead to the complete collapse of a network. To tackle this problem, recent attempts have been made to design novel network architectures which achieve a high level of scalability, adaptability, and robustness by taking inspiration from self-organizing biological systems. The objective of this paper is to discuss biologically inspired networking technologies.

  7. How physics can inspire biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornyshev, Alexei

    2009-07-01

    In July 1997 Adrian Parsegian, a biophysicist at the National Institutes of Health in the US and a former president of the Biophysical Society, published an article in Physics Today in which he outlined his thoughts about the main obstacles to a happy marriage between physics and biology. Parsegian started his article with a joke about a physicist talking to his biology-trained friend.

  8. Biologically Inspired Micro-Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, David L.; Waszak, Martin R.

    2003-01-01

    Natural fliers demonstrate a diverse array of flight capabilities, many of which are poorly understood. NASA has established a research project to explore and exploit flight technologies inspired by biological systems. One part of this project focuses on dynamic modeling and control of micro aerial vehicles that incorporate flexible wing structures inspired by natural fliers such as insects, hummingbirds and bats. With a vast number of potential civil and military applications, micro aerial vehicles represent an emerging sector of the aerospace market. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts for biologically inspired micro aerial vehicles are being explored. Research activities focusing on a flexible fixed- wing micro aerial vehicle design and a flapping-based micro aerial vehicle concept are presented.

  9. A biologically inspired MANET architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershenbaum, Aaron; Pappas, Vasileios; Lee, Kang-Won; Lio, Pietro; Sadler, Brian; Verma, Dinesh

    2008-04-01

    Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs), that do not rely on pre-existing infrastructure and that can adapt rapidly to changes in their environment, are coming into increasingly wide use in military applications. At the same time, the large computing power and memory available today even for small, mobile devices, allows us to build extremely large, sophisticated and complex networks. Such networks, however, and the software controlling them are potentially vulnerable to catastrophic failures because of their size and complexity. Biological networks have many of these same characteristics and are potentially subject to the same problems. But in successful organisms, these biological networks do in fact function well so that the organism can survive. In this paper, we present a MANET architecture developed based on a feature, called homeostasis, widely observed in biological networks but not ordinarily seen in computer networks. This feature allows the network to switch to an alternate mode of operation under stress or attack and then return to the original mode of operation after the problem has been resolved. We explore the potential benefits such an architecture has, principally in terms of the ability to survive radical changes in its environment using an illustrative example.

  10. Biology-inspired AMO physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    This Topical Review presents an overview of increasingly robust interconnects that are being established between atomic, molecular and optical (AMO) physics and the life sciences. AMO physics, outgrowing its historical role as a facilitator—a provider of optical methodologies, for instance—now seeks to partner biology in its quest to link systems-level descriptions of biological entities to insights based on molecular processes. Of course, perspectives differ when AMO physicists and biologists consider various processes. For instance, while AMO physicists link molecular properties and dynamics to potential energy surfaces, these have to give way to energy landscapes in considerations of protein dynamics. But there are similarities also: tunnelling and non-adiabatic transitions occur both in protein dynamics and in molecular dynamics. We bring to the fore some such differences and similarities; we consider imaging techniques based on AMO concepts, like 4D fluorescence microscopy which allows access to the dynamics of cellular processes, multiphoton microscopy which offers a built-in confocality, and microscopy with femtosecond laser beams to saturate the suppression of fluorescence in spatially controlled fashion so as to circumvent the diffraction limit. Beyond imaging, AMO physics contributes with optical traps that probe the mechanical and dynamical properties of single ‘live’ cells, highlighting differences between healthy and diseased cells. Trap methodologies have also begun to probe the dynamics governing of neural stem cells adhering to each other to form neurospheres and, with squeezed light to probe sub-diffusive motion of yeast cells. Strong field science contributes not only by providing a source of energetic electrons and γ-rays via laser-plasma accelerations schemes, but also via filamentation and supercontinuum generation, enabling mainstream collision physics into play in diverse processes like DNA damage induced by low-energy collisions to

  11. Additive manufacturing of biologically-inspired materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studart, André R

    2016-01-21

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer an attractive pathway towards the fabrication of functional materials featuring complex heterogeneous architectures inspired by biological systems. In this paper, recent research on the use of AM approaches to program the local chemical composition, structure and properties of biologically-inspired materials is reviewed. A variety of structural motifs found in biological composites have been successfully emulated in synthetic systems using inkjet-based, direct-writing, stereolithography and slip casting technologies. The replication in synthetic systems of design principles underlying such structural motifs has enabled the fabrication of lightweight cellular materials, strong and tough composites, soft robots and autonomously shaping structures with unprecedented properties and functionalities. Pushing the current limits of AM technologies in future research should bring us closer to the manufacturing capabilities of living organisms, opening the way for the digital fabrication of advanced materials with superior performance, lower environmental impact and new functionalities. PMID:26750617

  12. Biologically Inspired Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Jun; Lee, Jaeho; Yang, Sung-Pyo; Kim, Ha Gon; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Yoo, Seunghyup; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2016-05-11

    Many animal species employ highly conspicuous traits as courtship signals for successful mating. Fireflies utilize their bioluminescent light as visual courtship signals. In addition to efficient bioluminescent light emission, the structural components of the firefly lantern also contribute to the enhancement of conspicuous optical signaling. Recently, these firefly lantern ultrastructures have attracted much interest and inspired highly efficient light management approaches. Here we report on the unique optical function of the hierarchical ultrastructures found in a firefly (Pyrocoelia rufa) and their biological inspiration of highly efficient organic light-emitting diode (OLED) applications. The hierarchical structures are comprised of longitudinal nanostructures and asymmetric microstructures, which were successfully replicated using geometry-guided resist reflow, replica molding, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) oxidation. The external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the bioinspired OLEDs was enhanced by up to 61%. The bioinspired OLEDs clearly showed side-enhanced super-Lambertian emission with a wide-viewing angle. The highly efficient light extraction and wide-angle illumination suggest how the hierarchical structures likely improve the recognition of firefly optical courtship signals over a wide-angle range. At the same time, the biologically inspired designs provide a new paradigm for designing functional optical surfaces for lighting or display applications. PMID:27014918

  13. Biological Inspiration in Human Centred Robotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUHuo-sheng; LIUJin-dong; CalderonCarlosA

    2004-01-01

    Human centred robotics (HCR) concerns with the development of various kinds of intelligent systems and robots that will be used in environments coexisting with humans. These systems and robots will be interactive and useful assistants/companions for people in different ages, situations, activities and environments in order to improve the quality of life. This paper presents the autors' current research work toward the development of advanced theory and technologies for HCR applications, based on inspiration from biological systems. More specifically, both bio-mimetic system modelling and robot learning by imitation are discussed respectively, and some preliminary results are demonstrated.

  14. Biologically Inspired Mushroom-Shaped Adhesive Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heepe, Lars; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-07-01

    Adhesion is a fundamental phenomenon with great importance in technology, in our everyday life, and in nature. In this article, we review physical interactions that resist the separation of two solids in contact. By using examples of biological attachment systems, we summarize and categorize various principles that contribute to the so-called gecko effect. Emphasis is placed on the contact geometry and in particular on the mushroom-shaped geometry, which is observed in long-term biological adhesive systems. Furthermore, we report on artificial model systems with this bio-inspired geometry and demonstrate that surface microstructures with this geometry are promising candidates for technical applications, in which repeatable, reversible, and residue-free adhesion under different environmental conditions—such as air, fluid, and vacuum—is required. Various applications in robotic systems and in industrial pick-and-place processes are discussed.

  15. Biologically inspired emotion recognition from speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscicchio Cosimo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Emotion recognition has become a fundamental task in human-computer interaction systems. In this article, we propose an emotion recognition approach based on biologically inspired methods. Specifically, emotion classification is performed using a long short-term memory (LSTM recurrent neural network which is able to recognize long-range dependencies between successive temporal patterns. We propose to represent data using features derived from two different models: mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC and the Lyon cochlear model. In the experimental phase, results obtained from the LSTM network and the two different feature sets are compared, showing that features derived from the Lyon cochlear model give better recognition results in comparison with those obtained with the traditional MFCC representation.

  16. Biologically inspired emotion recognition from speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponetti, Laura; Buscicchio, Cosimo Alessandro; Castellano, Giovanna

    2011-12-01

    Emotion recognition has become a fundamental task in human-computer interaction systems. In this article, we propose an emotion recognition approach based on biologically inspired methods. Specifically, emotion classification is performed using a long short-term memory (LSTM) recurrent neural network which is able to recognize long-range dependencies between successive temporal patterns. We propose to represent data using features derived from two different models: mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC) and the Lyon cochlear model. In the experimental phase, results obtained from the LSTM network and the two different feature sets are compared, showing that features derived from the Lyon cochlear model give better recognition results in comparison with those obtained with the traditional MFCC representation.

  17. Biologically Inspired Purification and Dispersion of SWCNTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeback, Daniel L.; Clarke, Mark S.; Nikolaev, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    A biologically inspired method has been developed for (1) separating single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) from other materials (principally, amorphous carbon and metal catalysts) in raw production batches and (2) dispersing the SWCNTs as individual particles (in contradistinction to ropes and bundles) in suspension, as required for a number of applications. Prior methods of purification and dispersal of SWCNTs involve, variously, harsh physical processes (e.g., sonication) or harsh chemical processes (e.g., acid reflux). These processes do not completely remove the undesired materials and do not disperse bundles and ropes into individual suspended SWCNTs. Moreover, these processes cut long SWCNTs into shorter pieces, yielding typical nanotube lengths between 150 and 250 nm. In contrast, the present method does not involve harsh physical or chemical processes. The method involves the use of biologically derived dispersal agents (BDDAs) in an aqueous solution that is mechanically homogenized (but not sonicated) and centrifuged. The dense solid material remaining after centrifugation is resuspended by vortexing in distilled water, yielding an aqueous suspension of individual, separated SWCNTs having lengths from about 10 to about 15 microns.

  18. Biologically inspired robots as artificial inspectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2002-06-01

    Imagine an inspector conducting an NDE on an aircraft where you notice something is different about him - he is not real but rather he is a robot. Your first reaction would probably be to say 'it's unbelievable but he looks real' just as you would react to an artificial flower that is a good imitation. This science fiction scenario could become a reality at the trend in the development of biologically inspired technologies, and terms like artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. For many years, the trend has been to automate processes in order to increase the efficiency of performing redundant tasks where various systems have been developed to deal with specific production line requirements. Realizing that some parts are too complex or delicate to handle in small quantities with a simple automatic system, robotic mechanisms were developed. Aircraft inspection has benefitted from this evolving technology where manipulators and crawlers are developed for rapid and reliable inspection. Advancement in robotics towards making them autonomous and possibly look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures that are beyond the capability of today's technology with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of these robots may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Making such robots is becoming increasingly feasible and in this paper the state of the art will be reviewed.

  19. A Biologically Inspired CMOS Image Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Mukul

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems are a source of inspiration in the development of small autonomous sensor nodes. The two major types of optical vision systems found in nature are the single aperture human eye and the compound eye of insects. The latter are among the most compact and smallest vision sensors. The eye is a compound of individual lenses with their own photoreceptor arrays.  The visual system of insects allows them to fly with a limited intelligence and brain processing power. A CMOS image sensor replicating the perception of vision in insects is discussed and designed in this book for industrial (machine vision) and medical applications. The CMOS metal layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer able to sense polarization information. This polarization information is shown to be useful in applications like real time material classification and autonomous agent navigation. Further the sensor is equipped with in pixel analog and digital memories which allow variation of the dynamic range and in-pixel b...

  20. Biologically Inspired Flagella-Templated Silica Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Wonjin

    The desire and need for various types of nanostructures have been met with challenges of feasibility, reproducibility, and long fabrication time. To work towards improved bottom-up methods of nanofabrication, bacterial flagella are particularly attractive bio-templates for nanotubes due to their tubular structures and small inner and outer diameters. In this work, flagella isolated from Salmonella typhimurium are used as bio-templates to fabricate silica mineralized nanotubes. The process involves as well-controlled hydrolysis and condensation reaction with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), followed by the addition of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS). By controlling the concentration of TEOS and the reaction time, a simple and precise method is developed for creating silica-mineralized flagella nanotubes (SMFNs) with various thicknesses of the silica layer. In addition, the SMFNs are further modified to multifunctional nanotubes by coating metal nanoparticles (NPs) or metal oxide NPs such as gold, palladium, and iron oxide. The metallized SMFNs are achieved through reactions including reductive metallization or oxidative hydrolysis. The results from these studies provide evidence for the complete coating of SMFNs with uniform metal NP sizes and high surface area coverage. The metallized SMFNs are found to be electrically conductive along their network structures. The current-voltage characteristics show remarkably improved electrical conductivities depending on the types of metal NPs loading and SMFN networks concentration. The biologically inspired SMFNs with metal loading will allow have controlled electrical properties that can lead to the potential of creating unique and precise nanoelectronic materials. Lastly, the randomly entangled SMFNs are characterized to demonstrate their capabilities for hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface applications.

  1. Biologically inspired highly efficient buoyancy engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akle, Barbar; Habchi, Wassim; Abdelnour, Rita; Blottman, John, III; Leo, Donald

    2012-04-01

    Undersea distributed networked sensor systems require a miniaturization of platforms and a means of both spatial and temporal persistence. One aspect of this system is the necessity to modulate sensor depth for optimal positioning and station-keeping. Current approaches involve pneumatic bladders or electrolysis; both require mechanical subsystems and consume significant power. These are not suitable for the miniaturization of sensor platforms. Presented in this study is a novel biologically inspired method that relies on ionic motion and osmotic pressures to displace a volume of water from the ocean into and out of the proposed buoyancy engine. At a constant device volume, the displaced water will alter buoyancy leading to either sinking or floating. The engine is composed of an enclosure sided on the ocean's end by a Nafion ionomer and by a flexible membrane separating the water from a gas enclosure. Two electrodes are placed one inside the enclosure and the other attached to the engine on the outside. The semi-permeable membrane Nafion allows water motion in and out of the enclosure while blocking anions from being transferred. The two electrodes generate local concentration changes of ions upon the application of an electrical field; these changes lead to osmotic pressures and hence the transfer of water through the semi-permeable membrane. Some aquatic organisms such as pelagic crustacean perform this buoyancy control using an exchange of ions through their tissue to modulate its density relative to the ambient sea water. In this paper, the authors provide an experimental proof of concept of this buoyancy engine. The efficiency of changing the engine's buoyancy is calculated and optimized as a function of electrode surface area. For example electrodes made of a 3mm diameter Ag/AgCl proved to transfer approximately 4mm3 of water consuming 4 Joules of electrical energy. The speed of displacement is optimized as a function of the surface area of the Nafion

  2. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M.; Meier, W. P.; Sinner, E. K.

    2012-01-01

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology -about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal an...

  3. Biologically Inspired Execution Framework for Vulnerable Workflow Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Safdar, Sohail; Qureshi, Muhammad Aasim; Akbar, Rehan

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of the research is to introduce a biologically inspired execution framework for workflow systems under threat due to some intrusion attack. Usually vulnerable systems need to be stop and put into wait state, hence to insure the data security and privacy while being recovered. This research ensures the availability of services and data to the end user by keeping the data security, privacy and integrity intact. To achieve the specified goals, the behavior of chameleons and concept of hibernation has been considered in combination. Hence the workflow systems become more robust using biologically inspired methods and remain available to the business consumers safely even in a vulnerable state.

  4. Patented Biologically-inspired Technological Innovations: A Twenty Year View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard H. C. Bonser

    2006-01-01

    Publication rate of patents can be a useful measure of innovation and productivity in fields of science and technology. To assess the growth in industrially-important research, I conducted an appraisal of patents published between 1985 and 2005 on online databases using keywords chosen to select technologies arising as a result of biological inspiration. Whilst the total number of patents increased over the period examined, those with biomimetic content had increased faster as a proportion of total patent publications. Logistic regression analysis reveals that we may be a little over half way through an initial innovation cycle inspired by biological systems.

  5. Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Jun; Lee, Youngseop; Kim, Ha Gon; Choi, Ki-Ju; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Park, Seongchong; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2012-11-13

    Cuticular nanostructures found in insects effectively manage light for light polarization, structural color, or optical index matching within an ultrathin natural scale. These nanostructures are mainly dedicated to manage incoming light and recently inspired many imaging and display applications. A bioluminescent organ, such as a firefly lantern, helps to out-couple light from the body in a highly efficient fashion for delivering strong optical signals in sexual communication. However, the cuticular nanostructures, except the light-producing reactions, have not been well investigated for physical principles and engineering biomimetics. Here we report a unique observation of high-transmission nanostructures on a firefly lantern and its biological inspiration for highly efficient LED illumination. Both numerical and experimental results clearly reveal high transmission through the nanostructures inspired from the lantern cuticle. The nanostructures on an LED lens surface were fabricated by using a large-area nanotemplating and reconfigurable nanomolding with heat-induced shear thinning. The biologically inspired LED lens, distinct from a smooth surface lens, substantially increases light transmission over visible ranges, comparable to conventional antireflection coating. This biological inspiration can offer new opportunities for increasing the light extraction efficiency of high-power LED packages.

  6. Development of a biologically inspired hydrobot tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Danielle; Janneh, Alhaji; Philen, Michael

    2014-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that Europa, one of the moons of Jupiter, has a large ocean underneath a thick layer of ice. In order to determine whether life exists, it has been proposed that an underwater glider (hydrobot) capable of propulsion could be sent to explore the vast ocean. In this research, we considered various smart materials to create a propulsion device inspired by dolphin tails. Dolphins are highly efficient and excellent gliders, which makes them the ideal candidate for ocean exploration. In order to select the best dolphin species, we began by reviewing literature and then utilized the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to compare the different species. Lagenorhynchus obliquidens (Pacific White-Sided Dolphin) was found to be the best choice for creating a bioinspired hydrobot. We then conducted literature review of various smart materials and using this knowledge constructed a hydrobot tail prototype. This prototype demonstrates that smart materials can be fashioned into suitable actuators to control a tail fashioned after a dolphin.

  7. Biologically-Inspired Water Propulsion System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrzej Sioma

    2013-01-01

    Most propulsion systems of vehicles travelling in the aquatic environment are equipped with propellers.Observations of nature,however,show that the absolute majority of organisms travel through water using wave motion,paddling or using water jet power.Inspired by these observations of nature,an innovative propulsion system working in aquatic environment was developed.This paper presents the design of the water propulsion system.Particular attention was paid to the use of paddling techniques and water jet power.A group of organisms that use those mechanisms to travel through water was selected and analysed.The results of research were used in the design of a propulsion system modelled simultaneously on two methods of movement in the aquatic environment.A method for modelling a propulsion system using a combination of the two solutions and the result were described.A conceptual design and a prototype constructed based on the solution were presented.With respect to the solution developed,studies and analyses of selected parameters of the prototype were described.

  8. Handwritten-word spotting using biologically inspired features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zant, Tijn; Schomaker, Lambert; Haak, Koen

    2008-01-01

    For quick access to new handwritten collections, current handwriting recognition methods are too cumbersome. They cannot deal with the lack of labeled data and would require extensive laboratory training for each individual script, style, language, and collection. We propose a biologically inspired

  9. A Project-Based Biologically-Inspired Robotics Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, R. M.; Zauner, K.-P.

    2013-01-01

    The design of any robotic system requires input from engineers from a variety of technical fields. This paper describes a project-based module, "Biologically-Inspired Robotics," that is offered to Electronics and Computer Science students at the University of Southampton, U.K. The overall objective of the module is for student groups to…

  10. Complex biological and bio-inspired systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecke, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The understanding and characterization ofthe fundamental processes of the function of biological systems underpins many of the important challenges facing American society, from the pathology of infectious disease and the efficacy ofvaccines, to the development of materials that mimic biological functionality and deliver exceptional and novel structural and dynamic properties. These problems are fundamentally complex, involving many interacting components and poorly understood bio-chemical kinetics. We use the basic science of statistical physics, kinetic theory, cellular bio-chemistry, soft-matter physics, and information science to develop cell level models and explore the use ofbiomimetic materials. This project seeks to determine how cell level processes, such as response to mechanical stresses, chemical constituents and related gradients, and other cell signaling mechanisms, integrate and combine to create a functioning organism. The research focuses on the basic physical processes that take place at different levels ofthe biological organism: the basic role of molecular and chemical interactions are investigated, the dynamics of the DNA-molecule and its phylogenetic role are examined and the regulatory networks of complex biochemical processes are modeled. These efforts may lead to early warning algorithms ofpathogen outbreaks, new bio-sensors to detect hazards from pathomic viruses to chemical contaminants. Other potential applications include the development of efficient bio-fuel alternative-energy processes and the exploration ofnovel materials for energy usages. Finally, we use the notion of 'coarse-graining,' which is a method for averaging over less important degrees of freedom to develop computational models to predict cell function and systems-level response to disease, chemical stress, or biological pathomic agents. This project supports Energy Security, Threat Reduction, and the missions of the DOE Office of Science through its efforts to

  11. Biologically-Inspired Electronics with Memory Circuit Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Di Ventra, M.; Pershin, Y. V.

    2011-01-01

    Several abilities of biological systems, such as adaptation to natural environment, or of animals to learn patterns when appropriately trained, are features that are extremely useful, if emulated by electronic circuits, in applications ranging from robotics to solution of complex optimization problems, traffic control, etc. In this chapter, we discuss several examples of biologically-inspired circuits that take advantage of memory circuit elements, namely, electronic elements whose resistive,...

  12. Nanostructure Control of Biologically Inspired Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Adrianne Marie

    Biological polymers, such as polypeptides, are responsible for many of life's most sophisticated functions due to precisely evolved hierarchical structures. These protein structures are the result of monodisperse sequences of amino acids that fold into well-defined chain shapes and tertiary structures. Recently, there has been much interest in the design of such sequence-specific polymers for materials applications in fields ranging from biotechnology to separations membranes. Non-natural polymers offer the stability and robustness necessary for materials applications; however, our ability to control monomer sequence in non-natural polymers has traditionally operated on a much simpler level. In addition, the relationship between monomer sequence and self-assembly is not well understood for biological molecules, much less synthetic polymers. Thus, there is a need to explore self-assembly phase space with sequence using a model system. Polypeptoids are non-natural, sequence-specific polymers that offer the opportunity to probe the effect of sequence on self-assembly. A variety of monomer interactions have an impact on polymer properties, such as chirality, hydrophobicity, and electrostatic interactions. Thus, a necessary starting point for this project was to investigate monomer sequence effects on the bulk properties of polypeptoid homopolymers. It was found that several polypeptoids have experimentally accessible melting transitions that are dependent on the choice of side chains, and it was shown that this transition is tuned by the incorporation of "defects" or a comonomer. The polypeptoid chain shape is also controlled with the choice of monomer and monomer sequence. By using at least 50% monomers with bulky, chiral side chains, the polypeptoid backbone is sterically twisted into a helix, and as found for the first time in this work, the persistence length is increased. However, this persistence length, which is a measure of the stiffness of the polymer, is

  13. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeong Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla.

  14. Biologically Inspired Optimization of Building District Heating Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiming Shang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we show that a biologically inspired model can be successfully applied to problems of building optimal district heating network. The model is based on physiological observations of the true slime mold Physarumpolycephalum, but can also be used for path-finding in the complicated networks of mazes and road maps. A strategy of optimally building heating distribution network was guided by the model and a well-tuned ant colony algorithm and genetic algorithm. The results indicate that although there are not large-scale efficiency savings to be made, the biologically inspired amoeboid movement model is capable of finding results of equal or better optimality than a comparable ant colony algorithm and genetic algorithm.

  15. Adaptive Fuzzy-Lyapunov Controller Using Biologically Inspired Swarm Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Carrasco Elizalde; Peter Goldsmith

    2008-01-01

    The collective behaviour of swarms produces smarter actions than those achieved by a single individual. Colonies of ants, flocks of birds and fish schools are examples of swarms interacting with their environment to achieve a common goal. This cooperative biological intelligence is the inspiration for an adaptive fuzzy controller developed in this paper. Swarm intelligence is used to adjust the parameters of the membership functions used in the adaptive fuzzy controller. The rules of the cont...

  16. Biologically Inspired Optimization of Building District Heating Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Leiming Shang; Xiaomin Zhao

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we show that a biologically inspired model can be successfully applied to problems of building optimal district heating network. The model is based on physiological observations of the true slime mold Physarumpolycephalum, but can also be used for path-finding in the complicated networks of mazes and road maps. A strategy of optimally building heating distribution network was guided by the model and a well-tuned ant colony algorithm and genetic algorithm. The results indicate th...

  17. Artificial heartbeat: design and fabrication of a biologically inspired pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a biologically inspired actuator exhibiting a novel pumping action. The design of the ‘artificial heartbeat’ actuator is inspired by physical principles derived from the structure and function of the human heart. The actuator employs NiTi artificial muscles and is powered by electrical energy generated by microbial fuel cells (MFCs). We describe the design and fabrication of the actuator and report the results of tests conducted to characterize its performance. This is the first artificial muscle-driven pump to be powered by MFCs fed on human urine. Results are presented in terms of the peak pumping pressure generated by the actuator, as well as for the volume of fluid transferred, when the actuator was powered by energy stored in a capacitor bank, which was charged by 24 MFCs fed on urine. The results demonstrate the potential for the artificial heartbeat actuator to be employed as a fluid circulation pump in future generations of MFC-powered robots (‘EcoBots’) that extract energy from organic waste. We also envisage that the actuator could in the future form part of a bio-robotic artwork or ‘bio-automaton’ that could help increase public awareness of research in robotics, bio-energy and biologically inspired design. (paper)

  18. Editorial:Mechanics of biological and bio-inspired materials%Editorial: Mechanics of biological and bio-inspired materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baohua Jia

    2012-01-01

    The field of mechanics of biological and bio-inspired materials underwent an exciting development over the past several years,which made it stand at the cutting edge of both engineering mechanics and biomechanics.As an intriguing interdisciplinary research field,it aims at elucidating the fundamental principles in nature's design of strong,multi-functional and smart Materials by focusing on the assembly,deformation,stability and failure of the materials.These principles should have wide applications in not only material sciences and mechanical engineering but also biomedical engineering.For instance,the knowledge in Mechanical principles of biological materials is very helpful for addressing some major challenges in material sciences and engineering.They also have the potential to provide quantitative understanding about how forces and deformation affect human being's health,diseases and treatment at tissue,cellular and molecular levels.This special subject on "mechanics of biological and bio-inspired materials" collects a few studies on recent development by leading scientists in this field.The biological materials or systems in these studies include cell,cytoskeleton (e.g.,microtubulus,intermediate filaments),lipid molecules and composite system of lipid and nanoparticle,tissue,and biological attachment systems,etc.

  19. 7th World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Andries; Abraham, Ajith; Plessis, Mathys; Snášel, Václav; Muda, Azah

    2016-01-01

    World Congress on Nature and Biologically Inspired Computing (NaBIC) is organized to discuss the state-of-the-art as well as to address various issues with respect to Nurturing Intelligent Computing Towards Advancement of Machine Intelligence. This Volume contains the papers presented in the Seventh World Congress (NaBIC’15) held in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa during December 01-03, 2015. The 39 papers presented in this Volume were carefully reviewed and selected. The Volume would be a valuable reference to researchers, students and practitioners in the computational intelligence field.

  20. Biologically-inspired Learning in Pulsed Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten; Woodburn, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Self-learning chips to implement many popular ANN (artificial neural network) algorithms are very difficult to design. We explain why this is so and say what lessons previous work teaches us in the design of self-learning systems. We offer a contribution to the `biologically-inspired' approach......, explaining what we mean by this term and providing an example of a robust, self-learning design that can solve simple classical-conditioning tasks. We give details of the design of individual circuits to perform component functions, which can then be combined into a network to solve the task. We argue...

  1. Biologically Inspired Robotic Arm Control Using an Artificial Neural Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosung Yang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We address a neural-oscillator-based control scheme to achieve biologically inspired motion generation. In general, it is known that humans or animals exhibit novel adaptive behaviors regardless of their kinematic configurations against unexpected disturbances or environment changes. This is caused by the entrainment property of the neural oscillator which plays a key role to adapt their nervous system to the natural frequency of the interacted environments. Thus we focus on a self-adapting robot arm control to attain natural adaptive motions as a controller employing neural oscillators. To demonstrate the excellence of entrainment, we implement the proposed control scheme to a single pendulum coupled with the neural oscillator in simulation and experiment. Then this work shows the performance of the robot arm coupled to neural oscillators through various tasks that the arm traces a trajectory. With these, the real-time closed-loop system allowing sensory feedback of the neural oscillator for the entrainment property is proposed. In particular, we verify an impressive capability of biologically inspired self-adaptation behaviors that enables the robot arm to make adaptive motions corresponding to an unexpected environmental variety.

  2. An efficient biologically-inspired photocell enhanced by quantum coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Creatore, C; Emmott, S; Chin, A W

    2013-01-01

    Artificially reproducing the biological light reactions responsible for the remarkably efficient photon-to-charge conversion in photosynthetic complexes represents a new direction for the future development of photovoltaic devices. Here, we develop such a paradigm and present a model photocell based on the nanoscale architecture of photosynthetic reaction centres that explicitly harnesses the quantum mechanical effects recently discovered in photosynthetic complexes. Quantum interference of photon absorption/emission induced by the dipole-dipole interaction between molecular excited states guarantees an enhanced light-to-current conversion and power generation for a wide range of realistic parameters, opening a promising new route for designing artificial light-harvesting devices inspired by biological photosynthesis and quantum technologies.

  3. Adaptive Fuzzy-Lyapunov Controller Using Biologically Inspired Swarm Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Carrasco Elizalde

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The collective behaviour of swarms produces smarter actions than those achieved by a single individual. Colonies of ants, flocks of birds and fish schools are examples of swarms interacting with their environment to achieve a common goal. This cooperative biological intelligence is the inspiration for an adaptive fuzzy controller developed in this paper. Swarm intelligence is used to adjust the parameters of the membership functions used in the adaptive fuzzy controller. The rules of the controller are designed using a computing-with-words approach called Fuzzy-Lyapunov synthesis to improve the stability and robustness of an adaptive fuzzy controller. Computing-with-words provides a powerful tool to manipulate numbers and symbols, like words in a natural language.

  4. Biologically inspired optics: analog semiconductor model of the beetle exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Kaia; Roth, Zachary; Srinivasan, Pradeep; Rumpf, Raymond; Johnson, Eric

    2008-08-01

    Evolution in nature has produced through adaptation a wide variety of distinctive optical structures in many life forms. For example, pigment differs greatly from the observed color of most beetles because their exoskeletons contain multilayer coatings. The green beetle is disguised in a surrounding leaf by having a comparable reflection spectrum as the leaves. The Manuka and June beetle have a concave structure where light incident at any angle on the concave structures produce matching reflection spectra. In this work, semiconductor processing methods were used to duplicate the structure of the beetle exoskeleton. This was achieved by combining analog lithography with a multilayer deposition process. The artificial exoskeleton, 3D concave multilayer structure, demonstrates a wide field of view with a unique spectral response. Studying and replicating these biologically inspired nanostructures may lead to new knowledge for fabrication and design of new and novel nano-photonic devices, as well as provide valuable insight to how such phenomenon is exploited.

  5. Invariant facial feature extraction using biologically inspired strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xing; Gong, Weiguo

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a feature extraction model for face recognition is proposed. This model is constructed by implementing three biologically inspired strategies, namely a hierarchical network, a learning mechanism of the V1 simple cells, and a data-driven attention mechanism. The hierarchical network emulates the functions of the V1 cortex to progressively extract facial features invariant to illumination, expression, slight pose change, and variations caused by local transformation of facial parts. In the network, filters that account for the local structures of the face are derived through the learning mechanism and used for the invariant feature extraction. The attention mechanism computes a saliency map for the face, and enhances the salient regions of the invariant features to further improve the performance. Experiments on the FERET and AR face databases show that the proposed model boosts the recognition accuracy effectively.

  6. Numerical simulations of odorant detection by biologically inspired sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuech, R; Stacey, M T; Barad, M F; Koehl, M A R

    2012-03-01

    The antennules of many marine crustaceans enable them to rapidly locate sources of odorant in turbulent environmental flows and may provide biological inspiration for engineered plume sampling systems. A substantial gap in knowledge concerns how the physical interaction between a sensing device and the chemical filaments forming a turbulent plume affects odorant detection and filters the information content of the plume. We modeled biological arrays of chemosensory hairs as infinite arrays of odorant flux-detecting cylinders and simulated the fluid flow around and odorant flux into the hair-like sensors as they intercepted a single odorant filament. As array geometry and sampling kinematics were varied, we quantified distortion of the flux time series relative to the spatial shape of the original odorant filament as well as flux metrics that may be important to both organisms and engineered systems attempting to measure plume structure and/or identify chemical composition. The most important predictor of signal distortion is the ratio of sensor diameter to odorant filament width. Achieving high peak properties (e.g. sharpness) of the flux time series and maximizing the total number of odorant molecules detected appear to be mutually exclusive design goals. Sensor arrays inspired specifically by the spiny lobster Panulirus argus and mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus falcatus introduce little signal distortion but these species' neural systems may not be able to resolve plume structure at the level of individual filaments via temporal properties of the odorant flux. Current chemical sensors are similarly constrained. Our results suggest either that the spatial distribution of flux across the aesthetasc array is utilized by P. argus and G. falcatus, or that such high spatiotemporal resolution is unnecessary for effective plume tracking. PMID:22155966

  7. Bio-Inspired Computer Vision: Towards a Synergistic Approach of Artificial and Biological Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Medathati, N. V. Kartheek; Neumann, Heiko; Masson, Guillaume,; Kornprobst, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    International audience Studies in biological vision have always been a great source of inspiration for design of computer vision algorithms. In the past, several successful methods were designed with varying degrees of correspondence with biological vision studies, ranging from purely functional inspiration to methods that utilise models that were primarily developed for explaining biological observations. Even though it seems well recognised that computational models of biological vision ...

  8. Biologically Inspired Photocatalytically Active Membranes for Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsinger, Nichola M.

    There is an alarming increase of a variety of new chemicals that are now being discharged into the wastewater system causing increased concern for public health and safety because many are not removed by typical wastewater treatment practices. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is a heterogeneous photocatalytic material that rapidly and completely mineralizing organics without harmful byproducts. TiO2 is synthesized by various methods, which lack the necessary control of crystal size, phase, and morphological features that yield optimized semiconductor materials. Mineralizing organisms demonstrate how nature can produce elegant structures at room temperature through controlled organic-mineral interactions. Here, we utilize biologically-inspired scaffolds to template the nucleation and growth of inorganic materials such as TiO2, which aid in controlling the size and phase of these particles and ultimately, their properties. Nanosized rutile and anatase particles were synthesized under solution conditions at relatively low temperatures and mild pH conditions. The effects of reaction conditions on phase and grain size were investigated and discussed from coordination chemistry and coarsening mechanisms. Photocatalytic characterization of TiO2 phase mixtures was performed to investigate their synergistic effect. The suspension conditions of these catalytic nanomaterials were modulated to optimize the degradation rate of organic analytes. Through the addition of an organic scaffold during the synthesis reaction, a mechanically robust (elastic) composite material containing TiO2 nanoparticles was produced. This composite was subsequently heat-treated to produce a porous, high surface area TiO2 nanoparticulate membrane. Processing conditions were investigated to characterize the growth and phase transformation of TiO2, which ultimately impacts photocatalytic performance. These bulk porous TiO2 structures can be fabricated and tailored to act as stand-alone photocatalytic membranes

  9. Holarchical Systems and Emotional Holons : Biologically-Inspired System Designs for Control of Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Pisanich, Greg

    2003-01-01

    The BEES (Bio-inspired Engineering for Exploration Systems) for Mars project at NASA Ames Research Center has the goal of developing bio-inspired flight control strategies to enable aerial explorers for Mars scientific investigations. This paper presents a summary of our ongoing research into biologically inspired system designs for control of unmanned autonomous aerial vehicle communities for Mars exploration. First, we present cooperative design considerations for robotic explorers based on the holarchical nature of biological systems and communities. Second, an outline of an architecture for cognitive decision making and control of individual robotic explorers is presented, modeled after the emotional nervous system of cognitive biological systems. Keywords: Holarchy, Biologically Inspired, Emotional UAV Flight Control

  10. Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae-Jun; Lee, Youngseop; Kim, Ha Gon; Choi, Ki-Ju; Kweon, Hee-Seok; Park, Seongchong; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2012-01-01

    Cuticular nanostructures found in insects effectively manage light for light polarization, structural color, or optical index matching within an ultrathin natural scale. These nanostructures are mainly dedicated to manage incoming light and recently inspired many imaging and display applications. A bioluminescent organ, such as a firefly lantern, helps to out-couple light from the body in a highly efficient fashion for delivering strong optical signals in sexual communication. However, the cu...

  11. Propulsion of swimming microrobots inspired by metachronal waves in ciliates: from biology to material specifications

    OpenAIRE

    Palagi, Stefano; Jager, Edwin; Mazzolai, Barbara; Beccai, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The quest for swimming microrobots originates from possible applications in medicine, especially involving navigation in bodily fluids. Swimming microorganisms have become a source of inspiration because their propulsion mechanisms are effective in the low-Reynolds number regime. In this study, we address a propulsion mechanism inspired by metachronal waves, i.e. the spontaneous coordination of cilia leading to the fast swimming of ciliates. We analyse the biological mechanism (referring to i...

  12. Isolation and biological characteristics of aerobic marine magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Pan, Hongmiao; Yue, Haidong; Song, Tao; Zhao, Yong; Chen, Guanjun; Wu, Longfei; Xiao, Tian

    2006-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have become a hot spot of research in microbiology attracting intensive interest of researchers in multiple disciplinary fields. However, the studies were limited in few fastidious bacteria. The objective of this study aims at isolating new marine magnetic bacteria and better comprehension of magnetotactic bacteria. In this study, an aerobic magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1 was isolated from sediments in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). In TEM, magnetic cells have one or several circular magnetosomes in diameter of 100nm, and consist of Fe and Co shown on energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The biological and physiological characteristics of this bacterium were also described. The colour of YSC-1 colony is white in small rod. The gram stain is negative. Results showed that Strain YSC-1 differs from microaerophile magnetotactic bacteria MS-1 and WD-1 in biology.

  13. Isolation and biological characteristics of aerobic marine magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Jun; PAN Hongmiao; YUE Haidong; SONG Tao; ZHAO Yong; CHEN Guanjun; Wu Longfei; XIAO Tian

    2006-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have become a hot spot of research in microbiology attracting intensive interest of researchers in multiple disciplinary fields. However, the studies were limited in few fastidious bacteria. The objective of this study aims at isolating new marine magnetic bacteria and better comprehension of magnetotactic bacteria. In this study, an aerobic magnetotactic bacterium YSC-1 was isolated from sediments in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). In TEM, magnetic cells have one or several circular magnetosomes in dimeter of 100nm, and consist of Fe and Co shown on energy dispersive X-ray spectrum. The biological and physiological characteristics of this bacterium were also described. The colour of YSC-1 colony is white in small rod. The gran stain is negative. Results showed that Strain YSC-1 differs from microaerophile magnetotactic bacteria MS-1 and WD-1 in biology.

  14. Biologically Inspired Target Recognition in Radar Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Qilian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the great mysteries of the brain is cognitive control. How can the interactions between millions of neurons result in behavior that is coordinated and appears willful and voluntary? There is consensus that it depends on the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Many PFC areas receive converging inputs from at least two sensory modalities. Inspired by human's innate ability to process and integrate information from disparate, network-based sources, we apply human-inspired information integration mechanisms to target detection in cognitive radar sensor network. Humans' information integration mechanisms have been modelled using maximum-likelihood estimation (MLE or soft-max approaches. In this paper, we apply these two algorithms to cognitive radar sensor networks target detection. Discrete-cosine-transform (DCT is used to process the integrated data from MLE or soft-max. We apply fuzzy logic system (FLS to automatic target detection based on the AC power values from DCT. Simulation results show that our MLE-DCT-FLS and soft-max-DCT-FLS approaches perform very well in the radar sensor network target detection, whereas the existing 2D construction algorithm does not work in this study.

  15. Mechanization and Control Concepts for Biologically Inspired Micro Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, David L.; Slominski, Eric C.

    2003-01-01

    It is possible that MAV designs of the future will exploit flapping flight in order to perform missions that require extreme agility, such as rapid flight beneath a forest canopy or within the confines of a building. Many of nature's most agile flyers generate flapping motions through resonant excitation of an aeroelastically tailored structure: muscle tissue is used to excite a vibratory mode of their flexible wing structure that creates propulsion and lift. A number of MAV concepts have been proposed that would operate in a similar fashion. This paper describes an ongoing research activity in which mechanization and control concepts with application to resonant flapping MAVs are being explored. Structural approaches, mechanical design, sensing and wingbeat control concepts inspired by hummingbirds, bats and insects are examined. Experimental results from a testbed capable of generating vibratory wingbeat patterns that approximately match those exhibited by hummingbirds in hover, cruise, and reverse flight are presented.

  16. Biologically inspired force enhancement for maritime propulsion and maneuvering

    CERN Document Server

    Weymouth, G D

    2016-01-01

    The move to high performance applications greatly increases the demand to produce large instantaneous fluid forces for high-speed maneuvering and improved power efficiency for sustained propulsion. Animals achieve remarkable feats of maneuvering and efficiency by changing their body shape to generate unsteady fluid forces. Inspired by this, we have studied a range of immersed bodies which drastically change their shape to produce fluid forces. These include relatively simple shape- changes, such as quickly changing the angle of attack of a foil to induce emergency stops and the use of tandem flapping foils to generate three times the average propulsive force of a single flapping foil. They also include more unconventional shape-changes such as high-speed retracting foil sections to power roll and dive maneuvers and the use of soft robotics to rapidly shrink the frontal area of an ellipsoid to power 68% efficient fast-start maneuvers or even completely cancel the drag force with 91% quasi-propulsive efficiency...

  17. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis eGoldschmidt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobiological studies have shown that insects are able to adapt leg movements and posture for obstacle negotiation in changing environments. Moreover, the distance to an obstacle where an insect begins to climb is found to be a major parameter for successful obstacle negotiation. Inspired by these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS and a late, reflex signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS, both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then successfully transferred to a real hexapod robot, called AMOS II. The results show that the robot can efficiently negotiate obstacles with a height up to 85% of the robot's leg length in simulation and 75% in a real environment.

  18. A design methodology for biologically inspired dry fibrillar adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksak, Burak

    Realization of the unique aspects of gecko adhesion and incorporating these aspects into a comprehensive design methodology is essential to enable fabrication of application oriented gecko-inspired dry fibrillar adhesives. To address the need for such a design methodology, we propose a fibrillar adhesion model that evaluates the effect of fiber dimensions and material on adhesive performance of fiber arrays. A fibrillar adhesion model is developed to predict the adhesive characteristics of an array of fibrillar structures, and quantify the effect of fiber length, radius, spacing, and material. Photolithography techniques were utilized to fabricate elastomer microfiber arrays. Fibers that are fabricated from stiff SU-8 photoresist are used to fabricate a flexible negative mold that facilitates fabrication of fiber arrays from various elastomers with high yield. The tips of the cylindrical fibers are modified to mushroom-like tip shapes. Adhesive strengths in excess of 100 kPa is obtained with mushroom tipped elastomer microfibers. Vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs) are utilized as enhanced friction materials by partially embedding inside soft polyurethanes. Friction coefficients up to 1 were repeatedly obtained from the resulting VACNF composite structures. A novel fabrication method is used to attach Poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PBA) molecular brush-like structures on the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). These brushes are grown on unstructured PDMS and PDMS fibers with mushroom tips. Pull-off force is enhanced by up to 7 times with PBA brush grafted micro-fiber arrays over unstructured PDMS substrate. Adhesion model, initially developed for curved smooth surfaces, is extended to self-affine fractal surfaces to better reflect the adhesion performance of fiber arrays on natural surfaces. Developed adhesion model for fiber arrays is used in an optimization scheme which estimates optimal design parameters to obtain maximum adhesive strength on a given

  19. Proceedings Fourth Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Ciobanu, Gabriel; 10.4204/EPTCS.40

    2010-01-01

    The 4th Workshop on Membrane Computing and Biologically Inspired Process Calculi (MeCBIC 2010) is organized in Jena as a satellite event of the Eleventh International Conference on Membrane Computing (CMC11). Biological membranes play a fundamental role in the complex reactions which take place in cells of living organisms. The importance of this role has been considered in two different types of formalisms introduced recently. Membrane systems were introduced as a class of distributed parallel computing devices inspired by the observation that any biological system is a complex hierarchical structure, with a flow of biochemical substances and information that underlies their functioning. The modeling and analysis of biological systems has also attracted considerable interest of the process algebra research community. Thus the notions of membranes and compartments have been explicitly represented in a family of calculi, such as ambients and brane calculi. A cross fertilization of these two research areas has ...

  20. Biologically-inspired Microfluidic Platforms and Aptamer-based Nanobiosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Hansang

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in micro/nano- technologies have shown high potentials in the field of quantitative biology, biomedical science, and analytical chemistry. However, micro/nano fluidics still requires multi-layered structures, complex plumbing/tubing, and external equipments for large-scale applications and nanotechnology-based sensors demand high cost. Interestingly, nature has much simpler and more effective solutions. The goal of this dissertation is to develop novel microfluidic platforms a...

  1. A Biologically Inspired Cooperative Multi-Robot Control Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howsman, Tom; Craft, Mike; ONeil, Daniel; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A prototype cooperative multi-robot control architecture suitable for the eventual construction of large space structures has been developed. In nature, there are numerous examples of complex architectures constructed by relatively simple insects, such as termites and wasps, which cooperatively assemble their nests. The prototype control architecture emulates this biological model. Actions of each of the autonomous robotic construction agents are only indirectly coordinated, thus mimicking the distributed construction processes of various social insects. The robotic construction agents perform their primary duties stigmergically i.e., without direct inter-agent communication and without a preprogrammed global blueprint of the final design. Communication and coordination between individual agents occurs indirectly through the sensed modifications that each agent makes to the structure. The global stigmergic building algorithm prototyped during the initial research assumes that the robotic builders only perceive the current state of the structure under construction. Simulation studies have established that an idealized form of the proposed architecture was indeed capable of producing representative large space structures with autonomous robots. This paper will explore the construction simulations in order to illustrate the multi-robot control architecture.

  2. Synechococcus as a "singing" bacterium: biology inspired by micro-engineered acoustic streaming devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ehlers, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Certain cyanobacteria, such as open ocean strains of Synechococcus, are able to swim at speeds up to 25 diameters per second, without flagella or visible changes in shape. The means by which Synechococcus generates thrust for self-propulsion is unknown. The only mechanism that has not been ruled out employs tangential waves of surface deformations. In Ehlers et al, the average swimming velocity for this mechanism was estimated using the methods inaugurated by Taylor and Lighthill in the 1950's and revisited in differential geometric language by Shapere and Wilczek in 1989. In this article we propose an entirely different physical principle self propulsion based on acoustic streaming (AS). Micro-pumps in silicon chips, based on AS, have been constructed by engineers since the 1990's, but to the best of our knowledge acoustic streaming as a means of microorganisms locomotion has not been proposed before. Our hypothesis is supported by two recent discoveries: (1) In Samuel, et al, deep-freeze electron microscopy...

  3. Synechococcus as a "singing" bacterium: biology inspired by micro-engineered acoustic streaming devices

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Kurt; Koiller, Jair

    2009-01-01

    Certain cyanobacteria, such as open ocean strains of Synechococcus, are able to swim at speeds up to 25 diameters per second, without flagella or visible changes in shape. The means by which Synechococcus generates thrust for self-propulsion is unknown. The only mechanism that has not been ruled out employs tangential waves of surface deformations. In Ehlers et al, the average swimming velocity for this mechanism was estimated using the methods inaugurated by Taylor and Lighthill in the 1950'...

  4. From Here to Autonomicity: Self-Managing Agents and the Biological Metaphors that Inspire Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2005-01-01

    We seek inspiration for self-managing systems from (obviously, pre-existing) biological mechanisms. Autonomic Computing (AC), a self-managing systems initiative based on the biological metaphor of the autonomic nervous system, is increasingly gaining momentum as the way forward for integrating and designing reliable systems, while agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomicity in systems. This paper looks at other biological metaphors such as reflex and healing, heart- beat monitors, pulse monitors and apoptosis for assisting in the realization of autonomicity.

  5. Biologically inspired control of humanoid robot arms robust and adaptive approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Spiers, Adam; Herrmann, Guido

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates a biologically inspired method of robot arm control, developed with the objective of synthesising human-like motion dynamically, using nonlinear, robust and adaptive control techniques in practical robot systems. The control method caters to a rising interest in humanoid robots and the need for appropriate control schemes to match these systems. Unlike the classic kinematic schemes used in industrial manipulators, the dynamic approaches proposed here promote human-like motion with better exploitation of the robot’s physical structure. This also benefits human-robot interaction. The control schemes proposed in this book are inspired by a wealth of human-motion literature that indicates the drivers of motion to be dynamic, model-based and optimal. Such considerations lend themselves nicely to achievement via nonlinear control techniques without the necessity for extensive and complex biological models. The operational-space method of robot control forms the basis of many of the techniqu...

  6. Color image quality assessment with biologically inspired feature and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Cheng; Tao, Dacheng

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we present a new no-reference quality assessment metric for color images by using biologically inspired features (BIFs) and machine learning. In this metric, we first adopt a biologically inspired model to mimic the visual cortex and represent a color image based on BIFs which unifies color units, intensity units and C1 units. Then, in order to reduce the complexity and benefit the classification, the high dimensional features are projected to a low dimensional representation with manifold learning. Finally, a multiclass classification process is performed on this new low dimensional representation of the image and the quality assessment is based on the learned classification result in order to respect the one of the human observers. Instead of computing a final note, our method classifies the quality according to the quality scale recommended by the ITU. The preliminary results show that the developed metric can achieve good quality evaluation performance.

  7. SelSta - A Biologically Inspired Approach for Self-Stabilizing Humanoid Robot Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimovski, Bojan; Kotke, Michael; Hörenz, Martin; Maehle, Erik

    2010-01-01

    International audience In this paper we elaborate a study on self-stabilizing humanoid robot that achieves run-time self-stabilization and energy optimized walking gait pattern parameters on different kinds of flat surfaces. The algorithmic approach named SelSta uses biologically inspired notions that introduce robustness into the self-stabilizing functionality of the humanoid robot. The approach has been practically tested on our S2-HuRo humanoid robot and the results from the tests demon...

  8. Robust Models for Optic Flow Coding in Natural Scenes Inspired by Insect Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Russell S A Brinkworth; David C O'Carroll

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of accurate self-motion information from the visual world is a difficult problem that has been solved very efficiently by biological organisms utilizing non-linear processing. Previous bio-inspired models for motion detection based on a correlation mechanism have been dogged by issues that arise from their sensitivity to undesired properties of the image, such as contrast, which vary widely between images. Here we present a model with multiple levels of non-linear dynamic adapt...

  9. Automated mitosis detection using texture, SIFT features and HMAX biologically inspired approach

    OpenAIRE

    Humayun Irshad; Sepehr Jalali; Ludovic Roux; Daniel Racoceanu; Lim Joo Hwee; Gilles Le Naour; Frédérique Capron

    2013-01-01

    Context: According to Nottingham grading system, mitosis count in breast cancer histopathology is one of three components required for cancer grading and prognosis. Manual counting of mitosis is tedious and subject to considerable inter- and intra-reader variations. Aims: The aim is to investigate the various texture features and Hierarchical Model and X (HMAX) biologically inspired approach for mitosis detection using machine-learning techniques. Materials and Methods: We propose an approach...

  10. From microbiology to cell biology: when an intracellular bacterium becomes part of its host cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, John P

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondria and chloroplasts are now called organelles, but they used to be bacteria. As they transitioned from endosymbionts to organelles, they became more and more integrated into the biochemistry and cell biology of their hosts. Work over the last 15 years has shown that other symbioses show striking similarities to mitochondria and chloroplasts. In particular, many sap-feeding insects house intracellular bacteria that have genomes that overlap mitochondria and chloroplasts in terms of size and coding capacity. The massive levels of gene loss in some of these bacteria suggest that they, too, are becoming highly integrated with their host cells. Understanding these bacteria will require inspiration from eukaryotic cell biology, because a traditional microbiological framework is insufficient for understanding how they work.

  11. Biologically inspired design framework for Robot in Dynamic Environments using Framsticks

    CERN Document Server

    S., Raja Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Robot design complexity is increasing day by day especially in automated industries. In this paper we propose biologically inspired design framework for robots in dynamic world on the basis of Co-Evolution, Virtual Ecology, Life time learning which are derived from biological creatures. We have created a virtual khepera robot in Framsticks and tested its operational credibility in terms hardware and software components by applying the above suggested techniques. Monitoring complex and non complex behaviors in different environments and obtaining the parameters that influence software and hardware design of the robot that influence anticipated and unanticipated failures, control programs of robot generation are the major concerns of our techniques.

  12. Bioluminescent reporter bacterium for toxicity monitoring in biological wastewater treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, C.J.; Lajoie, C.A.; Layton, A.C.; Sayler, G.S.

    1999-01-01

    Toxic shock due to certain chemical loads in biological wastewater treatment systems can result in death of microorganisms and loss of floc structure. To overcome the limitations of existing approaches to toxicity monitoring, genes encoding enzymes for light production were inserted to a bacterium (Shk 1) isolated from activated sludge. The Shk 1 bioreporter indicated a toxic response to concentrations of cadmium, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and hydroquinone by reductions in initial levels of bioluminescence on exposure to the toxicant. The decrease in bioluminescence was more severe with increasing toxicant concentration. Bioluminescence did not decrease in response to ethanol concentrations up to 1,000 mg/L or to pH conditions between 6.1 and 7.9. A continuous toxicity monitoring system using this bioreporter was developed for influent wastewater and tested with hydroquinone. The reporter exhibited a rapid and proportional decrease in bioluminescence in response to increasing hydroquinone concentrations.

  13. BiLBIQ A Biologically Inspired Robot with Walking and Rolling Locomotion

    CERN Document Server

    King, Ralf Simon

    2013-01-01

    The book ‘BiLBIQ: A biologically inspired Robot with walking and rolling locomotion’ deals with implementing a locomotion behavior observed in the biological archetype Cebrennus villosus to a robot prototype whose structural design needs to be developed.   The biological sample is investigated as far as possible and compared to other evolutional solutions within the framework of nature’s inventions. Current achievements in robotics are examined and evaluated for their relation and relevance to the robot prototype in question. An overview of what is state of the art in actuation ensures the choice of the hardware available and most suitable for this project. Through a constant consideration of the achievement of two fundamentally different ways of locomotion with one and the same structure, a robot design is developed and constructed taking hardware constraints into account. The development of a special leg structure that needs to resemble and replace body elements of the biological archetype is a speci...

  14. Recovery Management in All Optical Networks Using Biologically-Inspired Complex Adaptive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inadyuti Dutt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All-Optical Networks have the ability to display varied advantages like performance efficiency, throughput etc but their efficiency depends on their survivability as they are attack prone. These attacks can be categorised as active or passive because they try to access information within the network or alter the information in the network. The attack once detected has to be recovered by formulating back-up or alternative paths. The proposed heuristic uses biologically inspired Complex Adaptive System, inspired by Natural Immune System. The study shows that natural immune system exhibit unique behaviour of detecting foreign bodies in our body and removing them on their first occurrences. This phenomenon is being utilised in the proposed heuristic for recovery management in All-optical Network

  15. Recent Developments in the Application of Biologically Inspired Computation to Chemical Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, S.; Gutierrez-Gálvez, A.

    2009-05-01

    Biological olfaction outperforms chemical instrumentation in specificity, response time, detection limit, coding capacity, time stability, robustness, size, power consumption, and portability. This biological function provides outstanding performance due, to a large extent, to the unique architecture of the olfactory pathway, which combines a high degree of redundancy, an efficient combinatorial coding along with unmatched chemical information processing mechanisms. The last decade has witnessed important advances in the understanding of the computational primitives underlying the functioning of the olfactory system. In this work, the state of the art concerning biologically inspired computation for chemical sensing will be reviewed. Instead of reviewing the whole body of computational neuroscience of olfaction, we restrict this review to the application of models to the processing of real chemical sensor data.

  16. Biologically-inspired On-chip Learning in Pulsed Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten; Woodburn, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Self-learning chips to implement many popular ANN (artificial neural network) algorithms are very difficult to design. We explain why this is so and say what lessons previous work teaches us in the design of self-learning systems. We offer a contribution to the "biologically-inspired" approach......, explaining what we mean by this term and providing an example of a robust, self-learning design that can solve simple classical-conditioning tasks, We give details of the design of individual circuits to perform component functions, which can then be combined into a network to solve the task. We argue...

  17. Soft Robotics: Biological Inspiration, State of the Art, and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Trivedi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional robots have rigid underlying structures that limit their ability to interact with their environment. For example, conventional robot manipulators have rigid links and can manipulate objects using only their specialised end effectors. These robots often encounter difficulties operating in unstructured and highly congested environments. A variety of animals and plants exhibit complex movement with soft structures devoid of rigid components. Muscular hydrostats (e.g. octopus arms and elephant trunks are almost entirely composed of muscle and connective tissue and plant cells can change shape when pressurised by osmosis. Researchers have been inspired by biology to design and build soft robots. With a soft structure and redundant degrees of freedom, these robots can be used for delicate tasks in cluttered and/or unstructured environments. This paper discusses the novel capabilities of soft robots, describes examples from nature that provide biological inspiration, surveys the state of the art and outlines existing challenges in soft robot design, modelling, fabrication and control.

  18. Adaptation of sensor morphology: an integrative view of perception from biologically inspired robotics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Fumiya; Nurzaman, Surya G

    2016-08-01

    Sensor morphology, the morphology of a sensing mechanism which plays a role of shaping the desired response from physical stimuli from surroundings to generate signals usable as sensory information, is one of the key common aspects of sensing processes. This paper presents a structured review of researches on bioinspired sensor morphology implemented in robotic systems, and discusses the fundamental design principles. Based on literature review, we propose two key arguments: first, owing to its synthetic nature, biologically inspired robotics approach is a unique and powerful methodology to understand the role of sensor morphology and how it can evolve and adapt to its task and environment. Second, a consideration of an integrative view of perception by looking into multidisciplinary and overarching mechanisms of sensor morphology adaptation across biology and engineering enables us to extract relevant design principles that are important to extend our understanding of the unfinished concepts in sensing and perception. PMID:27499843

  19. Adaptation of sensor morphology: an integrative view of perception from biologically inspired robotics perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Fumiya; Nurzaman, Surya G

    2016-08-01

    Sensor morphology, the morphology of a sensing mechanism which plays a role of shaping the desired response from physical stimuli from surroundings to generate signals usable as sensory information, is one of the key common aspects of sensing processes. This paper presents a structured review of researches on bioinspired sensor morphology implemented in robotic systems, and discusses the fundamental design principles. Based on literature review, we propose two key arguments: first, owing to its synthetic nature, biologically inspired robotics approach is a unique and powerful methodology to understand the role of sensor morphology and how it can evolve and adapt to its task and environment. Second, a consideration of an integrative view of perception by looking into multidisciplinary and overarching mechanisms of sensor morphology adaptation across biology and engineering enables us to extract relevant design principles that are important to extend our understanding of the unfinished concepts in sensing and perception.

  20. Thermo-fluidic devices and materials inspired from mass and energy transport phenomena in biological system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian XIAO; Jing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Mass and energy transport consists of one of the most significant physiological processes in nature, which guarantees many amazing biological phenomena and activ-ities. Borrowing such idea, many state-of-the-art thermo-fluidic devices and materials such as artificial kidneys, carrier erythrocyte, blood substitutes and so on have been successfully invented. Besides, new emerging technologies are still being developed. This paper is dedicated to present-ing a relatively complete review of the typical devices and materials in clinical use inspired by biological mass and energy transport mechanisms. Particularly, these artificial thermo-fluidic devices and materials will be categorized into organ transplantation, drug delivery, nutrient transport, micro operation, and power supply. Potential approaches for innovating conventional technologies were discussed, corresponding biological phenomena and physical mechan-isms were interpreted, future promising mass-and-energy-transport-based bionic devices were suggested, and prospects along this direction were pointed out. It is expected that many artificial devices based on biological mass and energy transport principle will appear to better improve vari-ous fields related to human life in the near future.

  1. Biologically inspired large scale chemical sensor arrays and embedded data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, S.; Gutiérrez-Gálvez, A.; Lansner, A.; Martinez, D.; Rospars, J. P.; Beccherelli, R.; Perera, A.; Pearce, T.; Vershure, P.; Persaud, K.

    2013-05-01

    Biological olfaction outperforms chemical instrumentation in specificity, response time, detection limit, coding capacity, time stability, robustness, size, power consumption, and portability. This biological function provides outstanding performance due, to a large extent, to the unique architecture of the olfactory pathway, which combines a high degree of redundancy, an efficient combinatorial coding along with unmatched chemical information processing mechanisms. The last decade has witnessed important advances in the understanding of the computational primitives underlying the functioning of the olfactory system. EU Funded Project NEUROCHEM (Bio-ICT-FET- 216916) has developed novel computing paradigms and biologically motivated artefacts for chemical sensing taking inspiration from the biological olfactory pathway. To demonstrate this approach, a biomimetic demonstrator has been built featuring a large scale sensor array (65K elements) in conducting polymer technology mimicking the olfactory receptor neuron layer, and abstracted biomimetic algorithms have been implemented in an embedded system that interfaces the chemical sensors. The embedded system integrates computational models of the main anatomic building blocks in the olfactory pathway: the olfactory bulb, and olfactory cortex in vertebrates (alternatively, antennal lobe and mushroom bodies in the insect). For implementation in the embedded processor an abstraction phase has been carried out in which their processing capabilities are captured by algorithmic solutions. Finally, the algorithmic models are tested with an odour robot with navigation capabilities in mixed chemical plumes

  2. Biological control of postharvest spoilage caused by Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea in apple by using the bacterium Rahnella aquatilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Juan; Calvente, Viviana; de Orellano, María Edith; Benuzzi, Delia; Sanz de Tosetti, Maria Isabel

    2007-02-15

    The epiphytic bacterium Rahnella aquatilis, isolated from fruit and leaves of apples, was tested for antagonistic properties against Penicillium expansum and Botrytis cinerea on Red Delicious apple fruit. In "in vitro" assays, this bacterium inhibited completely the germination of P. expansum and B. cinerea spores, but it needed direct contact with the spores to do it. However the putative mechanism seemed be different for the two pathogens. The bacterium did not produce extracellular antibiotic substances and when the acute toxicity test was performed no mortality, toxicity symptoms or organ alterations of the test animals (Wistar rats) were observed. Assays of biological control of P. expansum and B. cinerea on apple fruit were carried out at different temperatures. At 15 degrees C and 90% RH, the incidence of disease caused by P. expansum on apples stored for 20 days, was reduced by nearly 100% by R. aquatilis (10(6) cells/ml), while in the case of B. cinerea, the reduction of decay severity was nearly 64% but there was no reduction in the incidence of disease. At 4 degrees C and 90% RH the treatment with the bacterium significantly inhibited the development of B. cinerea on apples stored for 40 days and the incidence of disease was reduced by nearly 100%, while the incidence of disease caused by P. expansum at 4 degrees C was 60%. The results obtained show that R. aquatilis would be an interesting microorganism to be used as a biocontrol agent.

  3. Soft robotic arm inspired by the octopus: I. From biological functions to artificial requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheri, L; Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B

    2012-06-01

    Octopuses are molluscs that belong to the group Cephalopoda. They lack joints and rigid links, and as a result, their arms possess virtually limitless freedom of movement. These flexible appendages exhibit peculiar biomechanical features such as stiffness control, compliance, and high flexibility and dexterity. Studying the capabilities of the octopus arm is a complex task that presents a challenge for both biologists and roboticists, the latter of whom draw inspiration from the octopus in designing novel technologies within soft robotics. With this idea in mind, in this study, we used new, purposively developed methods of analysing the octopus arm in vivo to create new biologically inspired design concepts. Our measurements showed that the octopus arm can elongate by 70% in tandem with a 23% diameter reduction and exhibits an average pulling force of 40 N. The arm also exhibited a 20% mean shortening at a rate of 17.1 mm s(-1) and a longitudinal stiffening rate as high as 2 N (mm s)(-1). Using histology and ultrasounds, we investigated the functional morphology of the internal tissues, including the sinusoidal arrangement of the nerve cord and the local insertion points of the longitudinal and transverse muscle fibres. The resulting information was used to create novel design principles and specifications that can in turn be used in developing a new soft robotic arm.

  4. A biologically inspired meta-control navigation system for the Psikharpax rat robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biologically inspired navigation system for the mobile rat-like robot named Psikharpax is presented, allowing for self-localization and autonomous navigation in an initially unknown environment. The ability of parts of the model (e.g. the strategy selection mechanism) to reproduce rat behavioral data in various maze tasks has been validated before in simulations. But the capacity of the model to work on a real robot platform had not been tested. This paper presents our work on the implementation on the Psikharpax robot of two independent navigation strategies (a place-based planning strategy and a cue-guided taxon strategy) and a strategy selection meta-controller. We show how our robot can memorize which was the optimal strategy in each situation, by means of a reinforcement learning algorithm. Moreover, a context detector enables the controller to quickly adapt to changes in the environment—recognized as new contexts—and to restore previously acquired strategy preferences when a previously experienced context is recognized. This produces adaptivity closer to rat behavioral performance and constitutes a computational proposition of the role of the rat prefrontal cortex in strategy shifting. Moreover, such a brain-inspired meta-controller may provide an advancement for learning architectures in robotics. (paper)

  5. Maneuvering control and configuration adaptation of a biologically inspired morphing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahim, Mujahid

    Natural flight as a source of inspiration for aircraft design was prominent with early aircraft but became marginalized as aircraft became larger and faster. With recent interest in small unmanned air vehicles, biological inspiration is a possible technology to enhance mission performance of aircraft that are dimensionally similar to gliding birds. Serial wing joints, loosely modeling the avian skeletal structure, are used in the current study to allow significant reconfiguration of the wing shape. The wings are reconfigured to optimize aerodynamic performance and maneuvering metrics related to specific mission tasks. Wing shapes for each mission are determined and related to the seagulls, falcons, albatrosses, and non-migratory African swallows on which the aircraft are based. Variable wing geometry changes the vehicle dynamics, affording versatility in flight behavior but also requiring appropriate compensation to maintain stability and controllability. Time-varying compensation is in the form of a baseline controller which adapts to both the variable vehicle dynamics and to the changing mission requirements. Wing shape is adapted in flight to minimize a cost function which represents energy, temporal, and spatial efficiency. An optimal control architecture unifies the control and adaptation tasks.

  6. Actions, Observations, and Decision-Making: Biologically Inspired Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Young, Larry A.; Lau, Benton

    2003-01-01

    This paper details the development and demonstration of an autonomous aerial vehicle embodying search and find mission planning and execution srrategies inspired by foraging behaviors found in biology. It begins by describing key characteristics required by an aeria! explorer to support science and planetary exploration goals, and illustrates these through a hypothetical mission profile. It next outlines a conceptual bio- inspired search and find autonomy architecture that implements observations, decisions, and actions through an "ecology" of producer, consumer, and decomposer agents. Moving from concepts to development activities, it then presents the results of mission representative UAV aerial surveys at a Mars analog site. It next describes hardware and software enhancements made to a commercial small fixed-wing UAV system, which inc!nde a ncw dpvelopnent architecture that also provides hardware in the loop simulation capability. After presenting the results of simulated and actual flights of bioinspired flight algorithms, it concludes with a discussion of future development to include an expansion of system capabilities and field science support.

  7. Propulsion of swimming microrobots inspired by metachronal waves in ciliates: from biology to material specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quest for swimming microrobots originates from possible applications in medicine, especially involving navigation in bodily fluids. Swimming microorganisms have become a source of inspiration because their propulsion mechanisms are effective in the low-Reynolds number regime. In this study, we address a propulsion mechanism inspired by metachronal waves, i.e. the spontaneous coordination of cilia leading to the fast swimming of ciliates. We analyse the biological mechanism (referring to its particular embodiment in Paramecium caudatum), and we investigate the contribution of its main features to the swimming performance, through a three-dimensional finite-elements model, in order to develop a simplified, yet effective artificial design. We propose a bioinspired propulsion mechanism for a swimming microrobot based on a continuous cylindrical electroactive surface exhibiting perpendicular wave deformations travelling longitudinally along its main axis. The simplified propulsion mechanism is conceived specifically for microrobots that embed a micro-actuation system capable of executing the bioinspired propulsion (self-propelled microrobots). Among the available electroactive polymers, we select polypyrrole as the possible actuation material and we assess it for this particular embodiment. The results are used to appoint target performance specifications for the development of improved or new electroactive materials to attain metachronal-waves-like propulsion. (paper)

  8. A new landing impact attenuation seat in manned spacecraft biologically-inspired by felids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When manned spacecraft comes back to the earth, it relies on the impact attenuation seat to protect astronauts from injuries during landing phase. Hence, the seat needs to transfer impact load, as small as possible, to the crew. However, there is little room left for traditional seat to improve further. Herein, a new seat system biologically-inspired by felids’ landing is proposed. Firstly, a series of experiments was carried out on cats and tigers, in which they were trained to jump down voluntarily from different heights. Based on the ground reaction forces combined with kinematics, the experiment indicated that felids’ landing after self-initial jump was a multi-step impact attenuation process and the new seat was inspired by this. Then the construction and work process of new seat were redesigned to realize the multi-step impact attenuation. The dynamic response of traditional and new seat is analyzed under the identical conditions and the results show that the new concept seat can significantly weaken the occupant overload in two directions compared with that of traditional seat. As a consequence, the risk of injury evaluated for spinal and head is also lowered, meaning a higher level of protection which is especially beneficial to the debilitated astronaut.

  9. A biologically inspired meta-control navigation system for the Psikharpax rat robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caluwaerts, K; Staffa, M; N'Guyen, S; Grand, C; Dollé, L; Favre-Félix, A; Girard, B; Khamassi, M

    2012-06-01

    A biologically inspired navigation system for the mobile rat-like robot named Psikharpax is presented, allowing for self-localization and autonomous navigation in an initially unknown environment. The ability of parts of the model (e.g. the strategy selection mechanism) to reproduce rat behavioral data in various maze tasks has been validated before in simulations. But the capacity of the model to work on a real robot platform had not been tested. This paper presents our work on the implementation on the Psikharpax robot of two independent navigation strategies (a place-based planning strategy and a cue-guided taxon strategy) and a strategy selection meta-controller. We show how our robot can memorize which was the optimal strategy in each situation, by means of a reinforcement learning algorithm. Moreover, a context detector enables the controller to quickly adapt to changes in the environment-recognized as new contexts-and to restore previously acquired strategy preferences when a previously experienced context is recognized. This produces adaptivity closer to rat behavioral performance and constitutes a computational proposition of the role of the rat prefrontal cortex in strategy shifting. Moreover, such a brain-inspired meta-controller may provide an advancement for learning architectures in robotics.

  10. Survey of locomotion control of legged robots inspired by biological concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU QiDi; LIU ChengJu; ZHANG JiaQi; CHEN QiJun

    2009-01-01

    Compared with wheeled mobile robots, legged robots can easily step over obstacles and walk through rugged ground. They have more flexible bodies and therefore, can deal with complex environment. Nev-ertheless, some other issues make the locomotion control of legged robots a much complicated task, such as the redundant degree of freedoms and balance keeping. From literatures, locomotion control has been solved mainly based on programming mechanism. To use this method, walking trajectories for each leg and the gaits have to be designed, and the adaptability to an unknown environment cannot be guaranteed. From another aspect, studying and simulating animals' walking mechanism for engi-neering application is an efficient way to break the bottleneck of locomotion control for legged robots. This has attracted more and more attentions. Inspired by central pattern generator (CPG), a control method has been proved to be a successful attempt within this scope. In this paper, we will review the biological mechanism, the existence evidences, and the network properties of CPG. From the en-gineering perspective, we will introduce the engineering simulation of CPG, the property analysis, and the research progress of CPG inspired control method in locomotion control of legged robots. Then, in our research, we will further discuss on existing problems, hot issues, and future research directions in this field.

  11. Adhesion and sliding response of a biologically inspired fibrillar surface: experimental observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, H; Rocca, G Della; Guduru, P R; Gao, H

    2008-07-01

    Inspired by the adhesion mechanisms of several animal species such as geckos, beetles and flies, several efforts in designing and fabricating surface engineering strategies have been made recently to mimic the adhesive and frictional behaviour of biological foot pads. An important feature of such biological adhesion systems is the ability to switch between strong attachment and easy detachment, which is crucial for animal locomotion. Recent investigations have suggested that such a 'switching' mechanism can be achieved by the elastic anisotropy of the attachment pad, which renders the magnitude of the detachment force to be direction dependent. This suggestion is supported by the observations that the fibres of the foot pads in geckos and insects are oriented at an angle to the base and that geckos curl their toes backwards (digital hyperextension) while detaching from a surface. One of the promising bio-inspired architectures developed recently is a film-terminated fibrillar PDMS surface; this structure was demonstrated to result in superior detachment force and energy dissipation compared with a bulk PDMS surface. In this investigation, the film-terminated fibrillar architecture is modified by tilting the fibres to make the surface vertically more compliant and elastically anisotropic. The directional detachment and the sliding resistance between the tilted fibrillar surfaces and a spherical glass lens are measured: both show significant directional anisotropy. It is argued that the anisotropy introduced by the tilted fibres and the deformation-induced change in the compliance of the fibre layer are responsible for the observed anisotropy in the detachment force. PMID:17971321

  12. Mechanism Interpretation of the Biological Brain Cooling and Its Inspiration on Bionic Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xue; Jing Liu

    2011-01-01

    The brain is one of the most important organs in a biological body which can only work in a relatively stable temperature range. However, many environmental factors in biosphere would cause cerebral temperature fluctuations. To sustain and regulate the brain temperature, many mechanisms of biological brain cooling have been evolved, including Selective Brain Cooling (SBC), cooling through surface water evaporation, respiration, behavior response and using special anatomical appendages. This article is dedicated to present a summarization and systematic interpretation on brain cooling strategies developed in animals by classifying and comparatively analyzing each typical biological brain cooling mechanism from the perspective of bio-heat transfer. Meanwhile, inspirations from such cooling in nature were proposed for developing advanced bionic engineering technologies especially with two focuses on therapeutic hypothermia and computer chip cooling areas. It is expected that many innovations can be achieved along this way to find out new cooling methodologies for a wide variety of industrial applications which will be highly efficient, energy saving, flexible or even intelligent.

  13. Biologically inspired hexapedal robot using field-effect electroactive elastomer artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckerle, Joseph; Stanford, Scott; Marlow, John; Schmidt, Roger; Oh, Seajin; Low, Thomas; Shastri, Subramanian V.

    2001-06-01

    Small, autonomous mobile robots are needed for applications such as reconnaissance over difficult terrain or internal inspection of large industrial systems. Previous work in experimental biology and with legged robots has revealed the advantages of using leg actuators with inherent compliance for robust, autonomous locomotion over uneven terrain. Recently developed field-effect electroactive elastomer artificial muscle actuators offer such compliance as well as attractive performance parameters such as force/weight and efficiency, so we developed a small (670 g) six-legged robot, FLEX, using AM actuators. Electrically, AM actuators are a capacitive, high-impedance load similar to piezoelectrics, which makes them difficult to rive optimally with conventional circuitry. Still, we were able to devise a modular, microprocessor-based control system capable of driving 12 muscles with up to 5,000 V, operating form an on- board battery. The artificial muscle actuators had excellent compliance and peak performance, but suffered from poor uniformity and degradation over time. FLEX is the first robot of its kind. While there is room for improvement in some of the robot systems such as actuators and their drivers, this work has validated the idea of using artificial muscle actuators in biologically inspired walking robots.

  14. Biologically-inspired approaches for self-organization, adaptation, and collaboration of heterogeneous autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Marc

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a selective survey of theoretical and experimental progress in the development of biologicallyinspired approaches for complex surveillance and reconnaissance problems with multiple, heterogeneous autonomous systems. The focus is on approaches that may address ISR problems that can quickly become mathematically intractable or otherwise impractical to implement using traditional optimization techniques as the size and complexity of the problem is increased. These problems require dealing with complex spatiotemporal objectives and constraints at a variety of levels from motion planning to task allocation. There is also a need to ensure solutions are reliable and robust to uncertainty and communications limitations. First, the paper will provide a short introduction to the current state of relevant biological research as relates to collective animal behavior. Second, the paper will describe research on largely decentralized, reactive, or swarm approaches that have been inspired by biological phenomena such as schools of fish, flocks of birds, ant colonies, and insect swarms. Next, the paper will discuss approaches towards more complex organizational and cooperative mechanisms in team and coalition behaviors in order to provide mission coverage of large, complex areas. Relevant team behavior may be derived from recent advances in understanding of the social and cooperative behaviors used for collaboration by tens of animals with higher-level cognitive abilities such as mammals and birds. Finally, the paper will briefly discuss challenges involved in user interaction with these types of systems.

  15. A biologically inspired neural network model to transformation invariant object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M.; Li, Yaqin; Siddiqui, Faraz

    2007-09-01

    Transformation invariant image recognition has been an active research area due to its widespread applications in a variety of fields such as military operations, robotics, medical practices, geographic scene analysis, and many others. The primary goal for this research is detection of objects in the presence of image transformations such as changes in resolution, rotation, translation, scale and occlusion. We investigate a biologically-inspired neural network (NN) model for such transformation-invariant object recognition. In a classical training-testing setup for NN, the performance is largely dependent on the range of transformation or orientation involved in training. However, an even more serious dilemma is that there may not be enough training data available for successful learning or even no training data at all. To alleviate this problem, a biologically inspired reinforcement learning (RL) approach is proposed. In this paper, the RL approach is explored for object recognition with different types of transformations such as changes in scale, size, resolution and rotation. The RL is implemented in an adaptive critic design (ACD) framework, which approximates the neuro-dynamic programming of an action network and a critic network, respectively. Two ACD algorithms such as Heuristic Dynamic Programming (HDP) and Dual Heuristic dynamic Programming (DHP) are investigated to obtain transformation invariant object recognition. The two learning algorithms are evaluated statistically using simulated transformations in images as well as with a large-scale UMIST face database with pose variations. In the face database authentication case, the 90° out-of-plane rotation of faces from 20 different subjects in the UMIST database is used. Our simulations show promising results for both designs for transformation-invariant object recognition and authentication of faces. Comparing the two algorithms, DHP outperforms HDP in learning capability, as DHP takes fewer steps to

  16. Utilization and viability of biologically-inspired algorithms in a dynamic multiagent camera surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhenk, Terrell N.; Dhavale, Nitin; Marmol, Salvador; Calleja, Elizabeth; Navalpakkam, Vidhya; Bellman, Kirstie; Landauer, Chris; Arbib, Michael A.; Itti, Laurent

    2003-10-01

    computational resources. The system demonstrates the viability of biologically inspired systems in a real time tracking. In future work we plan on implementing additional biological mechanisms for cooperative management of both the sensor and processing resources in this system that include top down biasing for target specificity as well as novelty and the activity of the tracked object in relation to sensitive features of the environment.

  17. Learning slow features with reservoir computing for biologically-inspired robot localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelo, Eric; Schrauwen, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes a hierarchical biologically-inspired architecture for learning sensor-based spatial representations of a robot environment in an unsupervised way. The first layer is comprised of a fixed randomly generated recurrent neural network, the reservoir, which projects the input into a high-dimensional, dynamic space. The second layer learns instantaneous slowly-varying signals from the reservoir states using Slow Feature Analysis (SFA), whereas the third layer learns a sparse coding on the SFA layer using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). While the SFA layer generates non-localized activations in space, the ICA layer presents high place selectivity, forming a localized spatial activation, characteristic of place cells found in the hippocampus area of the rodent's brain. We show that, using a limited number of noisy short-range distance sensors as input, the proposed system learns a spatial representation of the environment which can be used to predict the actual location of simulated and real robots, without the use of odometry. The results confirm that the reservoir layer is essential for learning spatial representations from low-dimensional input such as distance sensors. The main reason is that the reservoir state reflects the recent history of the input stream. Thus, this fading memory is essential for detecting locations, mainly when locations are ambiguous and characterized by similar sensor readings.

  18. Honeybees as a model for the study of visually guided flight, navigation, and biologically inspired robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2011-04-01

    Research over the past century has revealed the impressive capacities of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, in relation to visual perception, flight guidance, navigation, and learning and memory. These observations, coupled with the relative ease with which these creatures can be trained, and the relative simplicity of their nervous systems, have made honeybees an attractive model in which to pursue general principles of sensorimotor function in a variety of contexts, many of which pertain not just to honeybees, but several other animal species, including humans. This review begins by describing the principles of visual guidance that underlie perception of the world in three dimensions, obstacle avoidance, control of flight speed, and orchestrating smooth landings. We then consider how navigation over long distances is accomplished, with particular reference to how bees use information from the celestial compass to determine their flight bearing, and information from the movement of the environment in their eyes to gauge how far they have flown. Finally, we illustrate how some of the principles gleaned from these studies are now being used to design novel, biologically inspired algorithms for the guidance of unmanned aerial vehicles. PMID:21527730

  19. Computing with Biologically Inspired Neural Oscillators: Application to Colour Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Belatreche

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the computing capabilities and potential applications of neural oscillators, a biologically inspired neural model, to grey scale and colour image segmentation, an important task in image understanding and object recognition. A proposed neural system that exploits the synergy between neural oscillators and Kohonen self-organising maps (SOMs is presented. It consists of a two-dimensional grid of neural oscillators which are locally connected through excitatory connections and globally connected to a common inhibitor. Each neuron is mapped to a pixel of the input image and existing objects, represented by homogenous areas, are temporally segmented through synchronisation of the activity of neural oscillators that are mapped to pixels of the same object. Self-organising maps form the basis of a colour reduction system whose output is fed to a 2D grid of neural oscillators for temporal correlation-based object segmentation. Both chromatic and local spatial features are used. The system is simulated in Matlab and its demonstration on real world colour images shows promising results and the emergence of a new bioinspired approach for colour image segmentation. The paper concludes with a discussion of the performance of the proposed system and its comparison with traditional image segmentation approaches.

  20. Biologically inspired robotic inspectors: the engineering reality and future outlook (Keynote address)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-04-01

    Human errors have long been recognized as a major factor in the reliability of nondestructive evaluation results. To minimize such errors, there is an increasing reliance on automatic inspection tools that allow faster and consistent tests. Crawlers and various manipulation devices are commonly used to perform variety of inspection procedures that include C-scan with contour following capability to rapidly inspect complex structures. The emergence of robots has been the result of the need to deal with parts that are too complex to handle by a simple automatic system. Economical factors are continuing to hamper the wide use of robotics for inspection applications however technology advances are increasingly changing this paradigm. Autonomous robots, which may look like human, can potentially address the need to inspect structures with configuration that are not predetermined. The operation of such robots that mimic biology may take place at harsh or hazardous environments that are too dangerous for human presence. Biomimetic technologies such as artificial intelligence, artificial muscles, artificial vision and numerous others are increasingly becoming common engineering tools. Inspired by science fiction, making biomimetic robots is increasingly becoming an engineering reality and in this paper the state-of-the-art will be reviewed and the outlook for the future will be discussed.

  1. Modelling of a biologically inspired robotic fish driven by compliant parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Daou, Hadi; Salumäe, Taavi; Chambers, Lily D; Megill, William M; Kruusmaa, Maarja

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by biological swimmers such as fish, a robot composed of a rigid head, a compliant body and a rigid caudal fin was built. It has the geometrical properties of a subcarangiform swimmer of the same size. The head houses a servo-motor which actuates the compliant body and the caudal fin. It achieves this by applying a concentrated moment on a point near the compliant body base. In this paper, the dynamics of the compliant body driving the robotic fish is modelled and experimentally validated. Lighthill's elongated body theory is used to define the hydrodynamic forces on the compliant part and Rayleigh proportional damping is used to model damping. Based on the assumed modes method, an energetic approach is used to write the equations of motion of the compliant body and to compute the relationship between the applied moment and the resulting lateral deflections. Experiments on the compliant body were carried out to validate the model predictions. The results showed that a good match was achieved between the measured and predicted deformations. A discussion of the swimming motions between the real fish and the robot is presented. PMID:24451164

  2. Bio-empirical mode decomposition: visible and infrared fusion using biologically inspired empirical mode decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissinto, Paterne; Ladeji-Osias, Jumoke

    2013-07-01

    Bio-EMD, a biologically inspired fusion of visible and infrared (IR) images based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and color opponent processing, is introduced. First, registered visible and IR captures of the same scene are decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) through EMD. The fused image is then generated by an intuitive opponent processing the source IMFs. The resulting image is evaluated based on the amount of information transferred from the two input images, the clarity of details, the vividness of depictions, and range of meaningful differences in lightness and chromaticity. We show that this opponent processing-based technique outperformed other algorithms based on pixel intensity and multiscale techniques. Additionally, Bio-EMD transferred twice the information to the fused image compared to other methods, providing a higher level of sharpness, more natural-looking colors, and similar contrast levels. These results were obtained prior to optimization of color opponent processing filters. The Bio-EMD algorithm has potential applicability in multisensor fusion covering visible bands, forensics, medical imaging, remote sensing, natural resources management, etc.

  3. Biologically inspired, haltere, angular-rate sensors for micro-autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. L.; Bedair, S. S.; Schuster, B. E.; Nothwang, W. D.; Pulskamp, J. S.; Meyer, C. D.; Polcawich, R. G.

    2012-06-01

    Small autonomous aerial systems require the ability to detect roll, pitch, and yaw to enable stable flight. Existing inertial measurement units (IMUs) are incapable of accurately measuring roll-pitch-yaw within the size, weight, and power requirements of at-scale insect-inspired aerial autonomous systems. To overcome this, we have designed novel IMUs based on the biological haltere system in a microelectromechanical system (MEMS). MEMS haltere sensors were successfully simulated, designed, and fabricated with a control scheme that enables simple, straightforward decoupling of the signals. Passive mechanical logic was designed to facilitate the decoupling of the forces acting on the sensor. The control scheme was developed that efficiently and accurately decouples the three component parts from the haltere sensors. Individual, coupled, and arrayed halteres were fabricated. A series of static electrical tests and dynamic device tests were conducted, in addition to in-situ bend tests, to validate the simulation results, and these, taken as a whole, indicate that the MEMS haltere sensors will be inherently sensitive to the Coriolis forces caused by changes in angular rate. The successful fabrication of a micro-angular rate sensor represents a substantial breakthrough and is an enabling technology for a number of Army applications, including micro air vehicles (MAVs).

  4. Honeybees as a model for the study of visually guided flight, navigation, and biologically inspired robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2011-04-01

    Research over the past century has revealed the impressive capacities of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, in relation to visual perception, flight guidance, navigation, and learning and memory. These observations, coupled with the relative ease with which these creatures can be trained, and the relative simplicity of their nervous systems, have made honeybees an attractive model in which to pursue general principles of sensorimotor function in a variety of contexts, many of which pertain not just to honeybees, but several other animal species, including humans. This review begins by describing the principles of visual guidance that underlie perception of the world in three dimensions, obstacle avoidance, control of flight speed, and orchestrating smooth landings. We then consider how navigation over long distances is accomplished, with particular reference to how bees use information from the celestial compass to determine their flight bearing, and information from the movement of the environment in their eyes to gauge how far they have flown. Finally, we illustrate how some of the principles gleaned from these studies are now being used to design novel, biologically inspired algorithms for the guidance of unmanned aerial vehicles.

  5. Task-Oriented Parameter Tuning Based on Priority Condition for Biologically Inspired Robot Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaesung Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work gives a biologically inspired control scheme for controlling a robotic system. Novel adaptive behaviors are observed from humans or animals even in unexpected disturbances or environment changes. This is why they have neural oscillator networks in the spinal cord to yield rhythmic-motor primitives robustly under a changing task. Hence, this work focuses on rhythmic arm movements that can be accomplished in terms of employing a control approach based on an artificial neural oscillator model. The main challenge is to determine various parameters for applying a neural feedback to robotic systems with performing a desired behavior and self-maintaining the entrainment effect. Hence, this work proposes a task-oriented parameter tuning algorithm based on the simulated annealing (SA. This work also illustrates how to technically implement the proposed control scheme exploiting a virtual force and neural feedback. With parameters tuned, it is verified in simulations that a 3-DOF planar robotic arm traces a given trajectory precisely, adapting to uneven external disturbances.

  6. Biologically Inspired Model for Inference of 3D Shape from Texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Olman; Neumann, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    A biologically inspired model architecture for inferring 3D shape from texture is proposed. The model is hierarchically organized into modules roughly corresponding to visual cortical areas in the ventral stream. Initial orientation selective filtering decomposes the input into low-level orientation and spatial frequency representations. Grouping of spatially anisotropic orientation responses builds sketch-like representations of surface shape. Gradients in orientation fields and subsequent integration infers local surface geometry and globally consistent 3D depth. From the distributions in orientation responses summed in frequency, an estimate of the tilt and slant of the local surface can be obtained. The model suggests how 3D shape can be inferred from texture patterns and their image appearance in a hierarchically organized processing cascade along the cortical ventral stream. The proposed model integrates oriented texture gradient information that is encoded in distributed maps of orientation-frequency representations. The texture energy gradient information is defined by changes in the grouped summed normalized orientation-frequency response activity extracted from the textured object image. This activity is integrated by directed fields to generate a 3D shape representation of a complex object with depth ordering proportional to the fields output, with higher activity denoting larger distance in relative depth away from the viewer.

  7. Biologically Inspired Model for Inference of 3D Shape from Texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Olman; Neumann, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    A biologically inspired model architecture for inferring 3D shape from texture is proposed. The model is hierarchically organized into modules roughly corresponding to visual cortical areas in the ventral stream. Initial orientation selective filtering decomposes the input into low-level orientation and spatial frequency representations. Grouping of spatially anisotropic orientation responses builds sketch-like representations of surface shape. Gradients in orientation fields and subsequent integration infers local surface geometry and globally consistent 3D depth. From the distributions in orientation responses summed in frequency, an estimate of the tilt and slant of the local surface can be obtained. The model suggests how 3D shape can be inferred from texture patterns and their image appearance in a hierarchically organized processing cascade along the cortical ventral stream. The proposed model integrates oriented texture gradient information that is encoded in distributed maps of orientation-frequency representations. The texture energy gradient information is defined by changes in the grouped summed normalized orientation-frequency response activity extracted from the textured object image. This activity is integrated by directed fields to generate a 3D shape representation of a complex object with depth ordering proportional to the fields output, with higher activity denoting larger distance in relative depth away from the viewer. PMID:27649387

  8. Modelling of a biologically inspired robotic fish driven by compliant parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inspired by biological swimmers such as fish, a robot composed of a rigid head, a compliant body and a rigid caudal fin was built. It has the geometrical properties of a subcarangiform swimmer of the same size. The head houses a servo-motor which actuates the compliant body and the caudal fin. It achieves this by applying a concentrated moment on a point near the compliant body base. In this paper, the dynamics of the compliant body driving the robotic fish is modelled and experimentally validated. Lighthill’s elongated body theory is used to define the hydrodynamic forces on the compliant part and Rayleigh proportional damping is used to model damping. Based on the assumed modes method, an energetic approach is used to write the equations of motion of the compliant body and to compute the relationship between the applied moment and the resulting lateral deflections. Experiments on the compliant body were carried out to validate the model predictions. The results showed that a good match was achieved between the measured and predicted deformations. A discussion of the swimming motions between the real fish and the robot is presented. (paper)

  9. Training mechanical engineering students to utilize biological inspiration during product development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Hugh A; Gershon, Alan L; Golden, Ira; Gupta, Satyandra K; Gyger, Lawrence S; Magrab, Edward B; Spranklin, Brent W

    2007-12-01

    The use of bio-inspiration for the development of new products and devices requires new educational tools for students consisting of appropriate design and manufacturing technologies, as well as curriculum. At the University of Maryland, new educational tools have been developed that introduce bio-inspired product realization to undergraduate mechanical engineering students. These tools include the development of a bio-inspired design repository, a concurrent fabrication and assembly manufacturing technology, a series of undergraduate curriculum modules and a new senior elective in the bio-inspired robotics area. This paper first presents an overview of the two new design and manufacturing technologies that enable students to realize bio-inspired products, and describes how these technologies are integrated into the undergraduate educational experience. Then, the undergraduate curriculum modules are presented, which provide students with the fundamental design and manufacturing principles needed to support bio-inspired product and device development. Finally, an elective bio-inspired robotics project course is present, which provides undergraduates with the opportunity to demonstrate the application of the knowledge acquired through the curriculum modules in their senior year using the new design and manufacturing technologies.

  10. Novel biologically-inspired rosette nanotube PLLA scaffolds for improving human mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Allie; Hemraz, Usha D; Castro, Nathan J; Fenniri, Hicham; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2013-12-01

    Cartilage defects are a persistent issue in orthopedic tissue engineering where acute and chronic tissue damage stemming from osteoarthritis, trauma, and sport injuries, present a common and serious clinical problem. Unlike bone, cartilage repair continues to be largely intractable due to the tissue's inherently poor regenerative capacity. Thus, the objective of this study is to design a novel tissue engineered nanostructured cartilage scaffold via biologically-inspired self-assembling rosette nanotubes (RNTs) and biocompatible non-woven poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) for enhanced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) chondrogenic differentiation. Specifically, RNTs are a new class of biomimetic supramolecular nanomaterial obtained through the self-assembly of low-molecular-weight modified guanine/cytosine DNA base hybrids (the G∧C motif) in an aqueous environment. In this study, we synthesized a novel twin G∧C-based RNT (TB-RGDSK) functionalized with cell-favorable arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine-lysine (RGDSK) integrin binding peptide and a twin G∧C based RNT with an aminobutane linker molecule (TBL). hMSC adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation were evaluated in vitro in scaffold groups consisting of biocompatible PLLA with TBL, 1:9 TB-RGDSK:TBL, and TB-RGDSK, respectively. Our results show that RNTs can remarkably increase total glycosaminoglycan, collagen, and protein production when compared to PLLA controls without nanotubes. Furthermore, the TB-RGDSK with 100% well-organized RGDSK peptides achieved the highest chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs. The current in vitro study illustrated that RNT nanotopography and surface chemistry played an important role in enhancing hMSC chondrogenic differentiation thus making them promising for cartilage regeneration. PMID:24225196

  11. Integrating biologically inspired nanomaterials and table-top stereolithography for 3D printed biomimetic osteochondral scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Nathan J; O'Brien, Joseph; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2015-09-01

    The osteochondral interface of an arthritic joint is notoriously difficult to regenerate due to its extremely poor regenerative capacity and complex stratified architecture. Native osteochondral tissue extracellular matrix is composed of numerous nanoscale organic and inorganic constituents. Although various tissue engineering strategies exist in addressing osteochondral defects, limitations persist with regards to tissue scaffolding which exhibit biomimetic cues at the nano to micro scale. In an effort to address this, the current work focused on 3D printing biomimetic nanocomposite scaffolds for improved osteochondral tissue regeneration. For this purpose, two biologically-inspired nanomaterials have been synthesized consisting of (1) osteoconductive nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) (primary inorganic component of bone) and (2) core-shell poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanospheres encapsulated with chondrogenic transforming growth-factor β1 (TGF-β1) for sustained delivery. Then, a novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer and the nano-ink (i.e., nHA + nanosphere + hydrogel) were employed to fabricate a porous and highly interconnected osteochondral scaffold with hierarchical nano-to-micro structure and spatiotemporal bioactive factor gradients. Our results showed that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteochondral differentiation were greatly improved in the biomimetic graded 3D printed osteochondral construct in vitro. The current work served to illustrate the efficacy of the nano-ink and current 3D printing technology for efficient fabrication of a novel nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold. In addition, tissue-specific growth factors illustrated a synergistic effect leading to increased cell adhesion and directed stem cell differentiation.

  12. Novel biologically-inspired rosette nanotube PLLA scaffolds for improving human mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartilage defects are a persistent issue in orthopedic tissue engineering where acute and chronic tissue damage stemming from osteoarthritis, trauma, and sport injuries, present a common and serious clinical problem. Unlike bone, cartilage repair continues to be largely intractable due to the tissue's inherently poor regenerative capacity. Thus, the objective of this study is to design a novel tissue engineered nanostructured cartilage scaffold via biologically-inspired self-assembling rosette nanotubes (RNTs) and biocompatible non-woven poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) for enhanced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) chondrogenic differentiation. Specifically, RNTs are a new class of biomimetic supramolecular nanomaterial obtained through the self-assembly of low-molecular-weight modified guanine/cytosine DNA base hybrids (the G∧C motif) in an aqueous environment. In this study, we synthesized a novel twin G∧C-based RNT (TB-RGDSK) functionalized with cell-favorable arginine–glycine–aspartic acid–serine–lysine (RGDSK) integrin binding peptide and a twin G∧C based RNT with an aminobutane linker molecule (TBL). hMSC adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation were evaluated in vitro in scaffold groups consisting of biocompatible PLLA with TBL, 1:9 TB-RGDSK:TBL, and TB-RGDSK, respectively. Our results show that RNTs can remarkably increase total glycosaminoglycan, collagen, and protein production when compared to PLLA controls without nanotubes. Furthermore, the TB-RGDSK with 100% well-organized RGDSK peptides achieved the highest chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs. The current in vitro study illustrated that RNT nanotopography and surface chemistry played an important role in enhancing hMSC chondrogenic differentiation thus making them promising for cartilage regeneration. (paper)

  13. Integrating biologically inspired nanomaterials and table-top stereolithography for 3D printed biomimetic osteochondral scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Nathan J; O'Brien, Joseph; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2015-09-01

    The osteochondral interface of an arthritic joint is notoriously difficult to regenerate due to its extremely poor regenerative capacity and complex stratified architecture. Native osteochondral tissue extracellular matrix is composed of numerous nanoscale organic and inorganic constituents. Although various tissue engineering strategies exist in addressing osteochondral defects, limitations persist with regards to tissue scaffolding which exhibit biomimetic cues at the nano to micro scale. In an effort to address this, the current work focused on 3D printing biomimetic nanocomposite scaffolds for improved osteochondral tissue regeneration. For this purpose, two biologically-inspired nanomaterials have been synthesized consisting of (1) osteoconductive nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) (primary inorganic component of bone) and (2) core-shell poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanospheres encapsulated with chondrogenic transforming growth-factor β1 (TGF-β1) for sustained delivery. Then, a novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer and the nano-ink (i.e., nHA + nanosphere + hydrogel) were employed to fabricate a porous and highly interconnected osteochondral scaffold with hierarchical nano-to-micro structure and spatiotemporal bioactive factor gradients. Our results showed that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteochondral differentiation were greatly improved in the biomimetic graded 3D printed osteochondral construct in vitro. The current work served to illustrate the efficacy of the nano-ink and current 3D printing technology for efficient fabrication of a novel nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold. In addition, tissue-specific growth factors illustrated a synergistic effect leading to increased cell adhesion and directed stem cell differentiation. PMID:26234364

  14. Integrating biologically inspired nanomaterials and table-top stereolithography for 3D printed biomimetic osteochondral scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Nathan J.; O'Brien, Joseph; Zhang, Lijie Grace

    2015-08-01

    The osteochondral interface of an arthritic joint is notoriously difficult to regenerate due to its extremely poor regenerative capacity and complex stratified architecture. Native osteochondral tissue extracellular matrix is composed of numerous nanoscale organic and inorganic constituents. Although various tissue engineering strategies exist in addressing osteochondral defects, limitations persist with regards to tissue scaffolding which exhibit biomimetic cues at the nano to micro scale. In an effort to address this, the current work focused on 3D printing biomimetic nanocomposite scaffolds for improved osteochondral tissue regeneration. For this purpose, two biologically-inspired nanomaterials have been synthesized consisting of (1) osteoconductive nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) (primary inorganic component of bone) and (2) core-shell poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanospheres encapsulated with chondrogenic transforming growth-factor β1 (TGF-β1) for sustained delivery. Then, a novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer and the nano-ink (i.e., nHA + nanosphere + hydrogel) were employed to fabricate a porous and highly interconnected osteochondral scaffold with hierarchical nano-to-micro structure and spatiotemporal bioactive factor gradients. Our results showed that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteochondral differentiation were greatly improved in the biomimetic graded 3D printed osteochondral construct in vitro. The current work served to illustrate the efficacy of the nano-ink and current 3D printing technology for efficient fabrication of a novel nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold. In addition, tissue-specific growth factors illustrated a synergistic effect leading to increased cell adhesion and directed stem cell differentiation.

  15. Fixed-wing MAV attitude stability in atmospheric turbulence-Part 2: Investigating biologically-inspired sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A.; Watkins, S.; Clothier, R.; Abdulrahim, M.; Massey, K.; Sabatini, R.

    2014-11-01

    Challenges associated with flight control of agile fixed-wing Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) operating in complex environments is significantly different to any larger scale vehicle. The micro-scale of MAVs can make them particularly sensitive to atmospheric disturbances thus limiting their operation. As described in Part 1, current conventional reactive attitude sensing systems lack the necessary response times for attitude control in high turbulence environments. This paper reviews in greater detail novel and emerging biologically inspired sensors, which can sense the disturbances before a perturbation is induced. A number of biological mechanoreceptors used by flying animals are explored for their utility in MAVs. Man-made attempts of replicating mechanoreceptors have thus been reviewed. Bio-inspired flow and pressure-based sensors were found to be the most promising for complementing or replacing current inertial-based reactive attitude sensors. Achieving practical implementations that meet the size, weight and power constraints of MAVs remains a significant challenge. Biological systems were found to rely on multiple sensors, potentially implying a number of research opportunities in the exploration of heterogeneous bio-inspired sensing solutions.

  16. Biological inspiration in optics and photonics: harnessing nature's light manipulation strategies for multifunctional optical materials (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, Mathias; Sandt, Joseph D.; Nagelberg, Sara N.; Zarzar, Lauren D.; Kreysing, Moritz; Vukusic, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The precise control of light-matter interactions is crucial for the majority of known biological organisms in their struggle to survive. Many species have evolved unique methods to manipulate light in their environment using a variety of physical effects including pigment-induced, spectrally selective absorption or light interference in photonic structures that consist of micro- and nano-periodic material morphologies. In their optical performance, many of the known biological photonic systems are subject to selection criteria not unlike the requirements faced in the development of novel optical technology. For this reason, biological light manipulation strategies provide inspiration for the creation of tunable, stimuli-responsive, adaptive material platforms that will contribute to the development of multifunctional surfaces and innovative optical technology. Biomimetic and bio-inspired approaches for the manufacture of photonic systems rely on self-assembly and bottom-up growth techniques often combined with conventional top-down manufacturing. In this regard, we can benefit in several ways from highly sophisticated material solutions that have convergently evolved in various organisms. We explore design concepts found in biological photonic architectures, seek to understand the mechanisms underlying morphogenesis of bio-optical systems, aim to devise viable manufacturing strategies that can benefit from insight in biological formation processes and the use of established synthetic routines alike, and ultimately strive to realize new photonic materials with tailor-made optical properties. This talk is focused on the identification of biological role model photonic architectures, a brief discussion of recently developed bio-inspired photonic structures, including mechano-sensitive color-tunable photonic fibers and reconfigurable fluid micro-lenses. Potentially, early-stage results in studying and harnessing the structure-forming capabilities of living cells that

  17. A Marine Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Producing Multiple Antibiotics: Biological and Chemical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A marine sulfate-reducing bacterium SRB-22 was isolated by means of the agar shake dilution method and identified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA analysis. In the bioassay, its extract showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity using the paper disc agar diffusion method. This isolate showed a different antimicrobial profile than either ampicillin or nystatin and was found to produce at least eight antimicrobial components by bioautography. Suitable fermentation conditions for production of the active constituents were determined to be 28 day cultivation at 25 °C to 30 °C with a 10% inoculation ratio. Under these conditions, the SRB-22 was fermented, extracted and chemically investigated. So far an antimicrobial compound, mono-n-butyl phthalate, and an inactive compound, thymine, have been isolated and characterized.

  18. A Biologically Inspired Model of Distributed Online Communication Supporting Efficient Search and Diffusion of Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Baneerjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We inhabit a world that is not only “small” but supports efficient decentralized search – an individual using local information can establish a line of communication with another completely unknown individual. Here we augment a hierarchical social network model with communication between and within communities. We argue that organization into communities would decrease overall decentralized search times. We take inspiration from the biological immune system which organizes search for pathogens in a hybrid modular strategy. Our strategy has relevance in search for rare amounts of information in online social networks and could have implications for massively distributed search challenges. Our work also has implications for design of efficient online networks that could have an impact on networks of human collaboration, scientific collaboration and networks used in targeted manhunts. Real world systems, like online social networks, have high associated delays for long-distance links, since they are built on top of physical networks. Such systems have been shown to densify i.e. the average number of neighbours that an individual has increases with time. Hence such networks will have a communication cost due to space and the requirement of building and maintaining and increasing number of connections. We have incorporated such a non-spatial cost to communication in order to introduce the realism of individuals communicating within communities, which we call participation cost. We introduce the notion of a community size that increases with the size of the system, which is shown to reduce the time to search for information in networks. Our final strategy balances search times and participation costs and is shown to decrease time to find information in decentralized search in online social networks. Our strategy also balances strong-ties (within communities and weak-ties over long distances (between communities that bring in diverse ideas and

  19. A static and dynamical Mössbauer study of photochemical biological switch of valence states in the respiratory pigments of rhodospirillum rubrum bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. R. P. M.; Iyengar, P. K.

    1986-04-01

    We have carried out a dynamical Mössbauer spectroscopy study of photochemical reversible biological switching of oxidation-reduction processes in iron atoms present in the respiratory pigments of Rhodospirillum rubrum bacterium. The experimental technique utilised enabled us to determine an upper limit to the reaction time of about 25 ms.

  20. Identification and biological activity of potential probiotic bacterium isolated from the stomach mucus of breast-fed lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kiňová Sepov��

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The lactic acid bacterium E isolated from the stomach mucus of breast-fed lamb was identified by sequencing of 16S rDNA fragment and species-specific PCR as Lactobacillus reuteri. Its potential antimicrobial activity and ability to modulate immune system in vitro and in vivo was determined. The growth inhibition of potential pathogens decreased from Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica ser. Minnesota to Escherichia coli. The lowest inhibition activity was observed in the case of Candida albicans. The ability of L. reuteri E to modulate biological activities of human and mouse mononuclear cells was estimated in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The production of IL-1β by monocytes in vitro was significantly induced by L. reuteri E (relative activity 2.47. The ability to modulate biological activities of mononuclear cells by living L. reuteri E cells in vitro in comparison to disintegrated L. reuteri E cells in vivo differed. For example lysozyme activity in vitro was inhibited while in vivo was stimulated (relative activities 0.30 and 1.83, respectively. The peroxidase activity in vitro was stimulated while in vivo was inhibited (relative activities 1.53 and 0.17, respectively. Obtained results indicate that L. reuteri E is potential candidate to be used in probiotic preparations for animals and/or human.

  1. Biologically Inspired Electronic, Photovoltaic and Microfluidic Devices Based on Aqueous Soft Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyung Jun

    Hydrogels are a water-based soft material where three dimensional networks of hydrophilic polymer retain large amounts of water. We developed hydrogel based devices with new functionalities inspired by materials, structures and processes in nature. The advantages, such as softness, biocompatibility and high ionic conductivity, could enable hydrogels to be novel materials for biomimetic devices operated by ionic current. Moreover, microfluidic patterns are easily embedded in moldable hydrogels and allow for unique convective/diffusive transport mechanism in porous gel to be used for uniform delivery of reagent solution. We first developed and characterized a device with unidirectional ionic current flow across a SiO2/Gel junction, which showed highly efficient rectification of the ionic current by non-linear conductivity of SiO2 films. Addition of polyelectrolytes and salt to the gel layer significantly improved the performance of the new diode device because of the enhanced gel conductance. A soft matter based diode composed of hydrogel and liquid metal (eutectic gallium indium, EGaIn) was also presented. The ability to control the thickness, and thus resistivity, of an insulating oxide skin on the metal enables the current rectification. The effect of ionic conductivity and pH on the formation of the insulating oxide was investigated in a simple model system with liquid metal/electrolyte solution or hydrogel/Pt interfaces. Finally, we present a diode composed entirely of soft materials by replacing the platinum electrode with a second liquid metal electrode. A new type of hydrogel-based photovoltaic systems (HGPVs) was constructed. Two photosensitive ionized molecules embedded in aqueous gel served as photoactive species. The HGPVs showed performance comparable with or higher than those of some other biomimetic or ionic photovoltaic systems reported recently. We suggest a provisional mechanism of the device operation, based on a synergetic effect of the two dye

  2. Design and Implementation of a Biologically Inspired Flying Robot - An EPS@ISEP 2014 Spring Project

    OpenAIRE

    Caramin, Bénédicte Anki; Dunn, Iain; Ney, Rauno; Klawikowski, Yvonne; Malheiro, Benedita; Ribeiro, Maria Cristina; Silva, Manuel; Caetano, Nídia de Sá; Ferreira, Paulo; Guedes, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this EPS@ISEP project proposed in the Spring of 2014 was to develop a flapping wing flying robot. The project was embraced by a multinational team composed of four students from different countries and fields of study. The team designed and implemented a robot inspired by a biplane design, constructed from lightweight materials and battery powered. The prototype, called MyBird, was built with a 250 € budget, reuse existing materials as well as low cost solutio...

  3. Biological characteristics of marine bacterium S - 9801 strain and its culture conditions of pigment production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田黎; 何培青; 武洪庆; 温占波; 刘晨临; 李光友

    2002-01-01

    Strain of Flavobacterium sp. (S- 9801), was screened from 207 strains of marine bacteria isolated from the Bohai Sea continental shelf and the Zhujiang Estuary, for its red pigment production. The biological characteristics of strain S- 9801 and culture conditions of pigment production have been checked out in this study. The color of the bacterial colony on 2216E medium was from coccineus to rose bengal. Optimum culture conditions were sodium chloride concentration(g/dm3), 10~30; pH,3~8; temperature, 25~28℃; tryptone and yeast extract as nitrogen sources and gluccse as carbon source. Under optimum conditions, pigment accumulation started after 12 h, reaching a maximum rate of synthesis at 36 h.

  4. Performance improvement of IPMC flow sensors with a biologically-inspired cupula structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hong; Sharif, Montassar Aidi; Paley, Derek A.; McHenry, Matthew J.; Tan, Xiaobo

    2016-04-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) have inherent underwater sensing and actuation properties. They can be used as sensors to collect flow information. Inspired by the hair-cell mediated receptor in the lateral line system of fish, the impact of a flexible, cupula-like structure on the performance of IPMC flow sensors is experimentally explored. The fabrication method to create a silicone-capped IPMC sensor is reported. Experiments are conducted to compare the sensing performance of the IPMC flow sensor before and after the PDMS coating under the periodic flow stimulus generated by a dipole source in still water and the laminar flow stimulus generated in a flow tank. Experimental results show that the performance of IPMC flow sensors is significantly improved under the stimulus of both periodic flow and laminar flow by the proposed silicone-capping.

  5. A biologically inspired artificial fish using flexible matrix composite actuators: analysis and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bio-inspired prototype fish using the flexible matrix composite (FMC) muscle technology for fin and body actuation is developed. FMC actuators are pressure driven muscle-like actuators capable of large displacements as well as large blocking forces. An analytical model of the artificial fish using FMC actuators is developed and analysis results are presented. An experimental prototype of the artificial fish having FMC artificial muscles has been completed and tested. Constant mean thrusts have been achieved in the laboratory for a stationary fish for different undulation frequencies around 1 Hz. The experimental results demonstrate that a nearly constant thrust can be achieved through tuning of excitation frequency for given body stiffness. Free swimming results show that the prototype can swim at approximately 0.3 m s−1

  6. Computational intelligence in multi-feature visual pattern recognition hand posture and face recognition using biologically inspired approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Pisharady, Pramod Kumar; Poh, Loh Ai

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of computational intelligence algorithms that addresses issues in visual pattern recognition such as high computational complexity, abundance of pattern features, sensitivity to size and shape variations and poor performance against complex backgrounds. The book has 3 parts. Part 1 describes various research issues in the field with a survey of the related literature. Part 2 presents computational intelligence based algorithms for feature selection and classification. The algorithms are discriminative and fast. The main application area considered is hand posture recognition. The book also discusses utility of these algorithms in other visual as well as non-visual pattern recognition tasks including face recognition, general object recognition and cancer / tumor classification. Part 3 presents biologically inspired algorithms for feature extraction. The visual cortex model based features discussed have invariance with respect to appearance and size of the hand, and provide good...

  7. Biological effects of paenilamicin, a secondary metabolite antibiotic produced by the honey bee pathogenic bacterium Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Müller, Sebastian; Hertlein, Gillian; Heid, Nina; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Genersch, Elke

    2014-10-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood (AFB) a world-wide distributed devastating disease of the honey bee brood. Previous comparative genome analysis and more recently, the elucidation of the bacterial genome, provided evidence that this bacterium harbors putative functional nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) and therefore, might produce nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs). Such biosynthesis products have been shown to display a wide-range of biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal or cytotoxic activity. Herein we present an in silico analysis of the first NRPS/PKS hybrid of P. larvae and we show the involvement of this cluster in the production of a compound named paenilamicin (Pam). For the characterization of its in vitro and in vivo bioactivity, a knock-out mutant strain lacking the production of Pam was constructed and subsequently compared to wild-type species. This led to the identification of Pam by mass spectrometry. Purified Pam-fractions showed not only antibacterial but also antifungal and cytotoxic activities. The latter suggested a direct effect of Pam on honey bee larval death which could, however, not be corroborated in laboratory infection assays. Bee larvae infected with the non-producing Pam strain showed no decrease in larval mortality, but a delay in the onset of larval death. We propose that Pam, although not essential for larval mortality, is a virulence factor of P. larvae influencing the time course of disease. These findings are not only of significance in elucidating and understanding host-pathogen interactions but also within the context of the quest for new compounds with antibiotic activity for drug development. PMID:25044543

  8. Biological effects of paenilamicin, a secondary metabolite antibiotic produced by the honey bee pathogenic bacterium Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Müller, Sebastian; Hertlein, Gillian; Heid, Nina; Süssmuth, Roderich D; Genersch, Elke

    2014-10-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood (AFB) a world-wide distributed devastating disease of the honey bee brood. Previous comparative genome analysis and more recently, the elucidation of the bacterial genome, provided evidence that this bacterium harbors putative functional nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) and therefore, might produce nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs). Such biosynthesis products have been shown to display a wide-range of biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal or cytotoxic activity. Herein we present an in silico analysis of the first NRPS/PKS hybrid of P. larvae and we show the involvement of this cluster in the production of a compound named paenilamicin (Pam). For the characterization of its in vitro and in vivo bioactivity, a knock-out mutant strain lacking the production of Pam was constructed and subsequently compared to wild-type species. This led to the identification of Pam by mass spectrometry. Purified Pam-fractions showed not only antibacterial but also antifungal and cytotoxic activities. The latter suggested a direct effect of Pam on honey bee larval death which could, however, not be corroborated in laboratory infection assays. Bee larvae infected with the non-producing Pam strain showed no decrease in larval mortality, but a delay in the onset of larval death. We propose that Pam, although not essential for larval mortality, is a virulence factor of P. larvae influencing the time course of disease. These findings are not only of significance in elucidating and understanding host-pathogen interactions but also within the context of the quest for new compounds with antibiotic activity for drug development.

  9. Real-Time Illumination Invariant Face Detection Using Biologically Inspired Feature Set and BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Azad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, face detection has been thoroughly studied due to its wide potential applications, including face recognition, human-computer interaction, video surveillance, etc.In this paper, a new and illumination invariant face detection method, based on features inspired by the human's visual cortexand applying BP neural network on the extracted featureset is proposed.A feature set is extracted from face and non-face images, by means of a feed-forward model, which contains a view and illumination invariant C2 features from all images in the dataset. Then, these C2 feature vector which derived from a cortex-like mechanism passed to a BP neural network. In the result part, the proposed approach is applied on FEI and Wild face detection databases and high accuracy rate is achieved. In addition, experimental results have demonstrated our proposed face detector outperforms the most of the successful face detection algorithms in the literature and gives the first best result on all tested challenging face detection databases.

  10. RNA synthetic biology inspired from bacteria: construction of transcription attenuators under antisense regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among all biopolymers, ribonucleic acids or RNA have unique functional versatility, which led to the early suggestion that RNA alone (or a closely related biopolymer) might have once sustained a primitive form of life based on a single type of biopolymer. This has been supported by the demonstration of processive RNA-based replication and the discovery of 'riboswitches' or RNA switches, which directly sense their metabolic environment. In this paper, we further explore the plausibility of this 'RNA world' scenario and show, through synthetic molecular design guided by advanced RNA simulations, that RNA can also perform elementary regulation tasks on its own. We demonstrate that RNA synthetic regulatory modules directly inspired from bacterial transcription attenuators can efficiently activate or repress the expression of other RNA by merely controlling their folding paths 'on the fly' during transcription through simple RNA–RNA antisense interaction. Factors, such as NTP concentration and RNA synthesis rate, affecting the efficiency of this kinetic regulation mechanism are also studied and discussed in the light of evolutionary constraints. Overall, this suggests that direct coupling among synthesis, folding and regulation of RNAs may have enabled the early emergence of autonomous RNA-based regulation networks in absence of both DNA and protein partners

  11. Pose-Independent Face Recognition Using Biologically Inspired Feature Set and Mixture of Experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Azad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Automatic face recognition system has received significant attention during the last decades due to its wide range of applications, such as security, human-computer interaction, visual surveillance, and so on. In this paper, a new and efficient face recognition method, based on features inspired by the human’s visual cortex and applying mixture of experts’ architecture on the extracted feature set is proposed. A feature set is extracted by means of a feed-forward model, which contains a view and illumination invariant C2 features from all images in the data set. Then, these C2 feature vector which derived from a cortex-like mechanism passed to a mixture of multilayer perceptron neural networks. In the result part, the proposed approach is applied on ORL and Yale databases and the accuracy rate achieved 99.75% and 100% respectively. In addition, experimental results have demonstrated our method robust in successful recognition of human faces even with variant lighting and poses.

  12. Biological armors under impact—effect of keratin coating, and synthetic bio-inspired analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of biological armors, such as turtle shells, consist of a strong exoskeleton covered with a thin keratin coating. The mechanical role upon impact of this keratin coating has surprisingly not been investigated thus far. Low-velocity impact tests on the turtle shell reveal a unique toughening phenomenon attributed to the thin covering keratin layer, the presence of which noticeably improves the fracture energy and shell integrity. Synthetic substrate/coating analogues were subsequently prepared and exhibit an impact behavior similar to the biological ones. The results of the present study may improve our understanding, and even future designs, of impact-tolerant structures. (paper)

  13. Using parallel evolutionary development for a biologically-inspired computer vision system for mobile robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Cameron H G; Barrett, Steven F; Pack, Daniel J

    2005-01-01

    We describe a new approach to attacking the problem of robust computer vision for mobile robots. The overall strategy is to mimic the biological evolution of animal vision systems. Our basic imaging sensor is based upon the eye of the common house fly, Musca domestica. The computational algorithms are a mix of traditional image processing, subspace techniques, and multilayer neural networks.

  14. Biologically inspired kinematic synergies enable linear balance control of a humanoid robot

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Helmut; Neumann, Gerhard; Ijspeert, Auke J.; Maass, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Despite many efforts, balance control of humanoid robots in the presence of unforeseen external or internal forces has remained an unsolved problem. The difficulty of this problem is a consequence of the high dimensionality of the action space of a humanoid robot, due to its large number of degrees of freedom (joints), and of non-linearities in its kinematic chains. Biped biological organisms face similar difficulties, but have nevertheless solved this problem. Experimental data reveal that m...

  15. A high-throughput screening approach to discovering good forms of biologically inspired visual representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pinto

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available While many models of biological object recognition share a common set of "broad-stroke" properties, the performance of any one model depends strongly on the choice of parameters in a particular instantiation of that model--e.g., the number of units per layer, the size of pooling kernels, exponents in normalization operations, etc. Since the number of such parameters (explicit or implicit is typically large and the computational cost of evaluating one particular parameter set is high, the space of possible model instantiations goes largely unexplored. Thus, when a model fails to approach the abilities of biological visual systems, we are left uncertain whether this failure is because we are missing a fundamental idea or because the correct "parts" have not been tuned correctly, assembled at sufficient scale, or provided with enough training. Here, we present a high-throughput approach to the exploration of such parameter sets, leveraging recent advances in stream processing hardware (high-end NVIDIA graphic cards and the PlayStation 3's IBM Cell Processor. In analogy to high-throughput screening approaches in molecular biology and genetics, we explored thousands of potential network architectures and parameter instantiations, screening those that show promising object recognition performance for further analysis. We show that this approach can yield significant, reproducible gains in performance across an array of basic object recognition tasks, consistently outperforming a variety of state-of-the-art purpose-built vision systems from the literature. As the scale of available computational power continues to expand, we argue that this approach has the potential to greatly accelerate progress in both artificial vision and our understanding of the computational underpinning of biological vision.

  16. Biologically inspired survival analysis based on integrating gene expression as mediator with genomic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ibrahim; Clarke, Robert; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Yue; Yu, Guoqiang

    2016-10-01

    Accurately linking cancer molecular profiling with survival can lead to improvements in the clinical management of cancer. However, existing survival analysis relies on statistical evidence from a single level of data, without paying much attention to the integration of interacting multi-level data and the underlying biology. Advances in genomic techniques provide unprecedented power of characterizing the cancer tissue in a more complete manner than before, offering the opportunity to design biologically informed and integrative approaches for survival data analysis. Human cancer is characterized by somatic copy number alternation and unique gene expression profiles. However, it remains largely unclear how to integrate the gene expression and genetic variant data to achieve a better prediction of patient survival and an improved understanding of disease progression. Consistent with the biological hierarchy from DNA to RNA, we prioritize each survival-relevant feature with two separate scores, predictive and mechanistic. For mRNA expression levels, predictive features are those mRNAs whose variation in expression levels is associated with survival outcome, and mechanistic features are those mRNAs whose variation in expression levels is associated with genomic variants. Further, we simultaneously integrate information from both the predictive model and the mechanistic model through our new approach, GEMPS (Gene Expression as a Mediator for Predicting Survival). Applied on two cancer types (ovarian and glioblastoma multiforme), our method achieved better prediction power (p-value: 6.18E-03-5.15E-11) than peer methods (GE.CNAs and GE.CNAs. Lasso). Gene set enrichment analysis confirms that the genes utilized for the final survival analysis are biologically important and relevant. PMID:27619193

  17. Biologically-inspired synthetic dry adhesives for wall-climbing robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P.

    Animals such as insects, spiders, and lizards are capable of clinging to and climbing on a variety of surfaces, from rough stone to smooth silicon. Hairy microscale arrays of structures on their feet conform to surface roughness to create millions of points of contact, creating a large overall contact area. Weak intermolecular forces (van der Waals forces) between each fiber tip and the surface sum to large overall forces due to the high number of contacts. In this work we present the fabrication, characterization, and demonstration of synthetic polyurethane fibrillar adhesives inspired by these animals. Angled polymer micro-fiber arrays are fabricated and characterized. A tip modification technique is presented which enables fabrication of fibers with flat mushroom shaped tips which greatly increase the adhesion of the fibers, up to 5N/cm 2 (normal direction), and with a magnitude within the range of geckos (10 N/cm2) in the shear direction on smooth surfaces. We present a fabrication technique to create fibers with angled flat mushroom-shaped tips which replicate the directional characteristics of geckos, gripping in one direction (within the range of gecko adhesion) and releasing easily in the other. Multilevel hierarchical structures with specialized tips for roughness adaptation are also presented. Fiber hierarchies from the millimeter scale to the sub-micron scale are demonstrated, including three-level fiber fabrication with specialized tips. Hierarchical structures demonstrate up to 5 times the adhesion of an unstructured sample, and requiring up to 10 times the detachment energy. Finally, an agile, wireless, palm-sized wall climbing robot which uses the synthetic fibrillar dry adhesives to climb is presented. Waalbot , named after the van der Waals forces it uses to climb, exploits the attachment and detachment characteristics of the developed dry adhesives, capabilities include climbing smooth surfaces such as glass in any orientation on any surface slope

  18. Biologically Inspired Design Principles for Scalable, Robust, Adaptive, Decentralized Search and Automated Response (RADAR)

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    Distributed search problems are ubiquitous in Artificial Life (ALife). Many distributed search problems require identifying a rare and previously unseen event and producing a rapid response. This challenge amounts to finding and removing an unknown needle in a very large haystack. Traditional computational search models are unlikely to find, nonetheless, appropriately respond to, novel events, particularly given data distributed across multiple platforms in a variety of formats and sources with variable and unknown reliability. Biological systems have evolved solutions to distributed search and response under uncertainty. Immune systems and ant colonies efficiently scale up massively parallel search with automated response in highly dynamic environments, and both do so using distributed coordination without centralized control. These properties are relevant to ALife, where distributed, autonomous, robust and adaptive control is needed to design robot swarms, mobile computing networks, computer security system...

  19. Biologically Inspired Modular Neural Control for a Leg-Wheel Hybrid Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manoonpong, Poramate; Wörgötter, Florentin; Laksanacharoen, Pudit

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present modular neural control for a leg-wheel hybrid robot consisting of three legs with omnidirectional wheels. This neural control has four main modules having their functional origin in biological neural systems. A minimal recurrent control (MRC) module is for sensory signal...... processing and state memorization. Its outputs drive two front wheels while the rear wheel is controlled through a velocity regulating network (VRN) module. In parallel, a neural oscillator network module serves as a central pattern generator (CPG) controls leg movements for sidestepping. Stepping directions...... is developed and tested using a physics simulation environment. This study verifies that the neural modules can serve a general purpose regardless of the robot’s specific embodiment. We also believe that our neural modules can be important components for locomotion generation in other complex robotic systems...

  20. Biologically inspired crack delocalization in a high strain-rate environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipprath, Christian; Bond, Ian P; Trask, Richard S

    2012-04-01

    Biological materials possess unique and desirable energy-absorbing mechanisms and structural characteristics worthy of consideration by engineers. For example, high levels of energy dissipation at low strain rates via triggering of crack delocalization combined with interfacial hardening by platelet interlocking are observed in brittle materials such as nacre, the iridescent material in seashells. Such behaviours find no analogy in current engineering materials. The potential to mimic such toughening mechanisms on different length scales now exists, but the question concerning their suitability under dynamic loading conditions and whether these mechanisms retain their energy-absorbing potential is unclear. This paper investigates the kinematic behaviour of an 'engineered' nacre-like structure within a high strain-rate environment. A finite-element (FE) model was developed which incorporates the pertinent biological design features. A parametric study was carried out focusing on (i) the use of an overlapping discontinuous tile arrangement for crack delocalization and (ii) application of tile waviness (interfacial hardening) for improved post-damage behaviour. With respect to the material properties, the model allows the permutation and combination of a variety of different material datasets. The advantage of such a discontinuous material shows notable improvements in sustaining high strain-rate deformation relative to an equivalent continuous morphology. In the case of the continuous material, the shockwaves propagating through the material lead to localized failure while complex shockwave patterns are observed in the discontinuous flat tile arrangement, arising from platelet interlocking. The influence of the matrix properties on impact performance is investigated by varying the dominant material parameters. The results indicate a deceleration of the impactor velocity, thus delaying back face nodal displacement. A final series of FE models considered the

  1. Biology-inspired microphysiological system approaches to solve the prediction dilemma of substance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Uwe; Andersson, Tommy B; Bahinski, Anthony; Beilmann, Mario; Beken, Sonja; Cassee, Flemming R; Cirit, Murat; Daneshian, Mardas; Fitzpatrick, Susan; Frey, Olivier; Gaertner, Claudia; Giese, Christoph; Griffith, Linda; Hartung, Thomas; Heringa, Minne B; Hoeng, Julia; de Jong, Wim H; Kojima, Hajime; Kuehnl, Jochen; Leist, Marcel; Luch, Andreas; Maschmeyer, Ilka; Sakharov, Dmitry; Sips, Adrienne J A M; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas; Tagle, Danilo A; Tonevitsky, Alexander; Tralau, Tewes; Tsyb, Sergej; van de Stolpe, Anja; Vandebriel, Rob; Vulto, Paul; Wang, Jufeng; Wiest, Joachim; Rodenburg, Marleen; Roth, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The recent advent of microphysiological systems - microfluidic biomimetic devices that aspire to emulate the biology of human tissues, organs and circulation in vitro - is envisaged to enable a global paradigm shift in drug development. An extraordinary US governmental initiative and various dedicated research programs in Europe and Asia have led recently to the first cutting-edge achievements of human single-organ and multi-organ engineering based on microphysiological systems. The expectation is that test systems established on this basis would model various disease stages, and predict toxicity, immunogenicity, ADME profiles and treatment efficacy prior to clinical testing. Consequently, this technology could significantly affect the way drug substances are developed in the future. Furthermore, microphysiological system-based assays may revolutionize our current global programs of prioritization of hazard characterization for any new substances to be used, for example, in agriculture, food, ecosystems or cosmetics, thus, replacing laboratory animal models used currently. Thirty-six experts from academia, industry and regulatory bodies present here the results of an intensive workshop (held in June 2015, Berlin, Germany). They review the status quo of microphysiological systems available today against industry needs, and assess the broad variety of approaches with fit-for-purpose potential in the drug development cycle. Feasible technical solutions to reach the next levels of human biology in vitro are proposed. Furthermore, key organ-on-a-chip case studies, as well as various national and international programs are highlighted. Finally, a roadmap into the future is outlined, to allow for more predictive and regulatory-accepted substance testing on a global scale. PMID:27180100

  2. Negative Cross-Communication among Wheat Rhizosphere Bacteria: Effect on Antibiotic Production by the Biological Control Bacterium Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84

    OpenAIRE

    Morello, J. E.; Pierson, E.A.; Pierson, L S

    2004-01-01

    Phenazine antibiotic production in the biological control bacterium Pseudomonas aureofaciens 30-84 is regulated in part via the PhzR/PhzI N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) system. Previous work showed that a subpopulation of the wheat rhizosphere community positively affected phenazine gene expression in strain 30-84 via AHL signals (E. A. Pierson, D. W. Wood, J. A. Cannon, F. M. Blachere, and L. S. Pierson III, Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 11:1078-1084, 1998). In the present work, a second sub...

  3. Biologically inspired information theory: Adaptation through construction of external reality models by living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Higher animals act in the world using their external reality models to cope with the uncertain environment. Organisms that have not developed such information-processing organs may also have external reality models built in the form of their biochemical, physiological, and behavioral structures, acquired by natural selection through successful models constructed internally. Organisms subject to illusions would fail to survive in the material universe. How can organisms, or living systems in general, determine the external reality from within? This paper starts with a phenomenological model, in which the self constitutes a reality model developed through the mental processing of phenomena. Then, the it-from-bit concept is formalized using a simple mathematical model. For this formalization, my previous work on an algorithmic process is employed to constitute symbols referring to the external reality, called the inverse causality, with additional improvements to the previous work. Finally, as an extension of this model, the cognizers system model is employed to describe the self as one of many material entities in a world, each of which acts as a subject by responding to the surrounding entities. This model is used to propose a conceptual framework of information theory that can deal with both the qualitative (semantic) and quantitative aspects of the information involved in biological processes.

  4. Biologically inspired information theory: Adaptation through construction of external reality models by living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2015-12-01

    Higher animals act in the world using their external reality models to cope with the uncertain environment. Organisms that have not developed such information-processing organs may also have external reality models built in the form of their biochemical, physiological, and behavioral structures, acquired by natural selection through successful models constructed internally. Organisms subject to illusions would fail to survive in the material universe. How can organisms, or living systems in general, determine the external reality from within? This paper starts with a phenomenological model, in which the self constitutes a reality model developed through the mental processing of phenomena. Then, the it-from-bit concept is formalized using a simple mathematical model. For this formalization, my previous work on an algorithmic process is employed to constitute symbols referring to the external reality, called the inverse causality, with additional improvements to the previous work. Finally, as an extension of this model, the cognizers system model is employed to describe the self as one of many material entities in a world, each of which acts as a subject by responding to the surrounding entities. This model is used to propose a conceptual framework of information theory that can deal with both the qualitative (semantic) and quantitative aspects of the information involved in biological processes. PMID:26196087

  5. A biologically inspired modular structure to control the sit-to-stand transfer of a biped robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andani, M Emadi; Bahrami, F; Maralani, P Jabedar

    2007-01-01

    In this study, a biologically inspired control structure to control the sit-to-stand (STS) transfer from a chair is developed and simulated. STS movement is consisted of two main phases. First phase of the movement is before leaving the seat (seat-off moment). In this phase seat reactions forces act on the body parts which are in contact with the seat. The second phase is after seat-off, where the only external forces acting on the body are ground reaction forces. A proper control algorithm of the STS transfer needs to consider switching between these two phases, which correspond to two different dynamical structures. The control structure developed and discussed in this work is based on the MOSAIC structure, proposed first by Wolpert and Kawato [1]. Original MOSAIC structure has a modular architecture which is based on multiple pairs of forward and inverse models of the dynamical system to be controlled, and each module is trained separately to learn one part of a given task. The number of effective modules is predetermined. We have developed a new method to train all modules simultaneously. This method is based on reinforcement and cooperative competitive learning, and the number of effective modules is determined automatically. In this study, the simulation was begun with four modules. Our results showed that only two modules out of four were selected to control the STS task. Responsibility of controlling the task was switched between the two modules around the seat-off moment.

  6. Seeing by Touch: Evaluation of a Soft Biologically-Inspired Artificial Fingertip in Real-Time Active Touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq Assaf

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Effective tactile sensing for artificial platforms remains an open issue in robotics. This study investigates the performance of a soft biologically-inspired artificial fingertip in active exploration tasks. The fingertip sensor replicates the mechanisms within human skin and offers a robust solution that can be used both for tactile sensing and gripping/manipulating objects. The softness of the optical sensor’s contact surface also allows safer interactions with objects. High-level tactile features such as edges are extrapolated from the sensor’s output and the information is used to generate a tactile image. The work presented in this paper aims to investigate and evaluate this artificial fingertip for 2D shape reconstruction. The sensor was mounted on a robot arm to allow autonomous exploration of different objects. The sensor and a number of human participants were then tested for their abilities to track the raised perimeters of different planar objects and compared. By observing the technique and accuracy of the human subjects, simple but effective parameters were determined in order to evaluate the artificial system’s performance. The results prove the capability of the sensor in such active exploration tasks, with a comparable performance to the human subjects despite it using tactile data alone whereas the human participants were also able to use proprioceptive cues.

  7. How can selection of biologically inspired features improve the performance of a robust object recognition model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Ghodrati

    Full Text Available Humans can effectively and swiftly recognize objects in complex natural scenes. This outstanding ability has motivated many computational object recognition models. Most of these models try to emulate the behavior of this remarkable system. The human visual system hierarchically recognizes objects in several processing stages. Along these stages a set of features with increasing complexity is extracted by different parts of visual system. Elementary features like bars and edges are processed in earlier levels of visual pathway and as far as one goes upper in this pathway more complex features will be spotted. It is an important interrogation in the field of visual processing to see which features of an object are selected and represented by the visual cortex. To address this issue, we extended a hierarchical model, which is motivated by biology, for different object recognition tasks. In this model, a set of object parts, named patches, extracted in the intermediate stages. These object parts are used for training procedure in the model and have an important role in object recognition. These patches are selected indiscriminately from different positions of an image and this can lead to the extraction of non-discriminating patches which eventually may reduce the performance. In the proposed model we used an evolutionary algorithm approach to select a set of informative patches. Our reported results indicate that these patches are more informative than usual random patches. We demonstrate the strength of the proposed model on a range of object recognition tasks. The proposed model outperforms the original model in diverse object recognition tasks. It can be seen from the experiments that selected features are generally particular parts of target images. Our results suggest that selected features which are parts of target objects provide an efficient set for robust object recognition.

  8. Biological effects of paenilamicin, a secondary metabolite antibiotic produced by the honey bee pathogenic bacterium Paenibacillus larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Eva; Müller, Sebastian; Hertlein, Gillian; Heid, Nina; Süssmuth, Roderich D.; Genersch, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood (AFB) a world-wide distributed devastating disease of the honey bee brood. Previous comparative genome analysis and more recently, the elucidation of the bacterial genome, provided evidence that this bacterium harbors putative functional nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and polyketide synthases (PKSs) and therefore, might produce nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) and polyketides (PKs). Such biosynthesis products have been ...

  9. Writing Inspired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischhauser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Students need inspiration to write. Assigning is not teaching. In order to inspire students to write fiction worth reading, teachers must take them through the process of writing. Physical objects inspire good writing with depth. In this article, the reader will be taken through the process of inspiring young writers through the use of boxes.…

  10. A biologically inspired attachable, self-standing nanofibrous membrane for versatile use in oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenjimbayashi, Mizuki; Sasaki, Kaichi; Matsubayashi, Takeshi; Abe, Jyunichiro; Manabe, Kengo; Nishioka, Sachiko; Shiratori, Seimei

    2016-05-01

    Uloborus walckenaerius spider webs provided the inspiration for attachable, self-standing nanofibre sheets. The developed product adds selective wettability against oil-water mixtures to both 2D and 3D materials by attaching or covering them, leading to successful separation through a facile, scalable and low-cost process.Uloborus walckenaerius spider webs provided the inspiration for attachable, self-standing nanofibre sheets. The developed product adds selective wettability against oil-water mixtures to both 2D and 3D materials by attaching or covering them, leading to successful separation through a facile, scalable and low-cost process. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, designing procedure, cost, cross sectional SEM, influence of NFs-S components to wettability, thickness, fibre diameter and flexibility, surface tension vs. contact angle, SEM images after extraction of oil, characteristics of testing oil, large scale-fabrication of NFs-S. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03349k

  11. Biological Properties and Cell Tropism of Chp2, a Bacteriophage of the Obligate Intracellular Bacterium Chlamydophila abortus

    OpenAIRE

    Everson, J. S.; Garner, S. A.; Fane, B.; Liu, B.-L.; Lambden, P R; Clarke, I N

    2002-01-01

    A number of bacteriophages belonging to the Microviridae have been described infecting chlamydiae. Phylogenetic studies divide the Chlamydiaceae into two distinct genera, Chlamydia and Chlamydophila, containing three and six different species, respectively. In this work we investigated the biological properties and host range of the recently described bacteriophage Chp2 that was originally discovered in Chlamydophila abortus. The obligate intracellular development cycle of chlamydiae has prec...

  12. A Reconfigurable and Biologically Inspired Paradigm for Computation Using Network-On-Chip and Spiking Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Harkin; Fearghal Morgan; Liam McDaid; Steve Hall; Brian McGinley; Seamus Cawley

    2009-01-01

    FPGA devices have emerged as a popular platform for the rapid prototyping of biological Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) applications, offering the key requirement of reconfigurability. However, FPGAs do not efficiently realise the biologically plausible neuron and synaptic models of SNNs, and current FPGA routing structures cannot accommodate the high levels of interneuron connectivity inherent in complex SNNs. This paper highlights and discusses the current challenges of implementing scalable...

  13. Single Bacterium Detection Using Sers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchukov, S. A.; Baikova, T. V.; Alushin, M. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Minaeva, S. A.; Ionin, A. A.; Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Zayarny, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    This work is devoted to the study of a single Staphylococcus aureus bacterium detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and resonant Raman spectroscopy (RS). It was shown that SERS allows increasing sensitivity of predominantly low frequency lines connected with the vibrations of Amide, Proteins and DNA. At the same time the lines of carotenoids inherent to this kind of bacterium are well-detected due to the resonance Raman scattering mechanism. The reproducibility and stability of Raman spectra strongly depend on the characteristics of nanostructured substrate, and molecular structure and size of the tested biological object.

  14. A Reconfigurable and Biologically Inspired Paradigm for Computation Using Network-On-Chip and Spiking Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Harkin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available FPGA devices have emerged as a popular platform for the rapid prototyping of biological Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs applications, offering the key requirement of reconfigurability. However, FPGAs do not efficiently realise the biologically plausible neuron and synaptic models of SNNs, and current FPGA routing structures cannot accommodate the high levels of interneuron connectivity inherent in complex SNNs. This paper highlights and discusses the current challenges of implementing scalable SNNs on reconfigurable FPGAs. The paper proposes a novel field programmable neural network architecture (EMBRACE, incorporating low-power analogue spiking neurons, interconnected using a Network-on-Chip architecture. Results on the evaluation of the EMBRACE architecture using the XOR benchmark problem are presented, and the performance of the architecture is discussed. The paper also discusses the adaptability of the EMBRACE architecture in supporting fault tolerant computing.

  15. Facial expression recognition using biologically inspired features and SVM%基于生物启发特征和SVM的人脸表情识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆国旺; 王阳; 郭蔚

    2014-01-01

    将C1特征应用于静态图像人脸表情识别,提出了一种新的基于生物启发特征和SVM的表情识别算法。提取人脸图像的C1特征,利用PCA+LDA方法对特征进行降维,用SVM进行分类。在JAFFE和Extended Cohn-Kanade(CK+)人脸表情数据库上的实验结果表明,该算法具有较高的识别率,是一种有效的人脸表情识别方法。%C1 features are introduced to facial expression recognition for static images, and a new algorithm for facial expression recognition based on Biologically Inspired Features(BIFs)and SVM is proposed. C1 features of the facial images are extracted, PCA+LDA method is used to reduce the dimensionality of the C1 features, SVM is used for classifi-cation of the expression. The experiments on the JAFFE and Extended Cohn-Kanade(CK+)facial expression data sets show the effectiveness and the good performance of the algorithm.

  16. Molecular plasma deposition: biologically inspired nanohydroxyapatite coatings on anodized nanotubular titanium for improving osteoblast density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasundaram G

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganesan Balasundaram,1 Daniel M Storey,1 Thomas J Webster2,3 1Chameleon Scientific, Longmont, CO, USA; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 3Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: In order to begin to prepare a novel orthopedic implant that mimics the natural bone environment, the objective of this in vitro study was to synthesize nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (NHA and coat it on titanium (Ti using molecular plasma deposition (MPD. NHA was synthesized through a wet chemical process followed by a hydrothermal treatment. NHA and micron sized hydroxyapatite (MHA were prepared by processing NHA coatings at 500°C and 900°C, respectively. The coatings were characterized before and after sintering using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results revealed that the post-MPD heat treatment of up to 500°C effectively restored the structural and topographical integrity of NHA. In order to determine the in vitro biological responses of the MPD-coated surfaces, the attachment and spreading of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells on the uncoated, NHA-coated, and MHA-coated anodized Ti were investigated. Most importantly, the NHA-coated substrates supported a larger number of adherent cells than the MHA-coated and uncoated substrates. The morphology of these cells was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and the observed shapes were different for each substrate type. The present results are the first reports using MPD in the framework of hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti to enhance osteoblast responses and encourage further studies on MPD-based hydroxyapatite coatings on Ti for improved orthopedic applications. Keywords: hydroxyapatite, anodization, nanotechnology

  17. Inspirational Journey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Artists from across Europe and Asia ventured into the remote Chinese countryside to seek inspiration from the Miao Ethnic group "I’ve never been to Asia before and everything is strange and wonderful:supermarkets and shopping mails,even the air- port seemed exotic!"wrote Ula Sickle,a choreographer from Poland on her blog under the name"chopstick diaries."Ula was one of the 18 foreign and domestic artists participating in a cultural exchange project called the Pointe to Point: Asia-Europe Dance Forum.It aims to empower aspiring young artists from Asia and Europe to reflect upon their views of

  18. Guard Cell and Tropomyosin Inspired Chemical Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquelyn K.S. Nagel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sensors are an integral part of many engineered products and systems. Biological inspiration has the potential to improve current sensor designs as well as inspire innovative ones. This paper presents the design of an innovative, biologically-inspired chemical sensor that performs “up-front” processing through mechanical means. Inspiration from the physiology (function of the guard cell coupled with the morphology (form and physiology of tropomyosin resulted in two concept variants for the chemical sensor. Applications of the sensor design include environmental monitoring of harmful gases, and a non-invasive approach to detect illnesses including diabetes, liver disease, and cancer on the breath.

  19. BIOLOGICALLY INSPIRED HARDWARE CELL ARCHITECTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed is a system comprising: - a reconfigurable hardware platform; - a plurality of hardware units defined as cells adapted to be programmed to provide self-organization and self-maintenance of the system by means of implementing a program expressed in a programming language defined as DNA...

  20. Biologically inspired intelligent decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Timmy; Sleator, Roy D.; Walsh, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are a class of powerful machine learning models for classification and function approximation which have analogs in nature. An ANN learns to map stimuli to responses through repeated evaluation of exemplars of the mapping. This learning approach results in networks which are recognized for their noise tolerance and ability to generalize meaningful responses for novel stimuli. It is these properties of ANNs which make them appealing for applications to bioinfo...

  1. Genes expressed by the biological control bacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 on seed surfaces under the control of the global regulators GacA and RpoS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The GacA/Rsm signal transduction system and the stationary phase sigma factor RpoS have both been shown to affect secondary metabolite production and biological control in Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 and related strains. Microarray analysis of Pf-5 grown on pea seed surfaces showed that 595 genes ar...

  2. Bio-inspired vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, C.

    2012-01-01

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980`s, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ``neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  3. Bio-inspired vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nature still outperforms the most powerful computers in routine functions involving perception, sensing and actuation like vision, audition, and motion control, and is, most strikingly, orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than its artificial competitors. The reasons for the superior performance of biological systems are subject to diverse investigations, but it is clear that the form of hardware and the style of computation in nervous systems are fundamentally different from what is used in artificial synchronous information processing systems. Very generally speaking, biological neural systems rely on a large number of relatively simple, slow and unreliable processing elements and obtain performance and robustness from a massively parallel principle of operation and a high level of redundancy where the failure of single elements usually does not induce any observable system performance degradation. In the late 1980's, Carver Mead demonstrated that silicon VLSI technology can be employed in implementing ''neuromorphic'' circuits that mimic neural functions and fabricating building blocks that work like their biological role models. Neuromorphic systems, as the biological systems they model, are adaptive, fault-tolerant and scalable, and process information using energy-efficient, asynchronous, event-driven methods. In this paper, some basics of neuromorphic electronic engineering and its impact on recent developments in optical sensing and artificial vision are presented. It is demonstrated that bio-inspired vision systems have the potential to outperform conventional, frame-based vision acquisition and processing systems in many application fields and to establish new benchmarks in terms of redundancy suppression/data compression, dynamic range, temporal resolution and power efficiency to realize advanced functionality like 3D vision, object tracking, motor control, visual feedback loops, etc. in real-time. It is argued that future artificial vision systems

  4. Melanin from the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum: a spectroscopic characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulie Banerjee

    Full Text Available Melanins, the ubiquitous hetero-polymer pigments found widely dispersed among various life forms, are usually dark brown/black in colour. Although melanins have variety of biological functions, including protection against ultraviolet radiation of sunlight and are used in medicine, cosmetics, extraction of melanin from the animal and plant kingdoms is not an easy task. Using complementary physicochemical techniques (i.e. MALDI-TOF, FTIR absorption and cross-polarization magic angle spinning solid-state (13C NMR, we report here the characterization of melanins extracted from the nitrogen-fixing non-virulent bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum, a safe viable source. Moreover, considering dihydroxyindole moiety as the main constituent, an effort is made to propose the putative molecular structure of the melanin hetero-polymer extracted from the bacterium. Characterization of the melanin obtained from Azotobacter chroococcum would provide an inspiration in extending research activities on these hetero-polymers and their use as protective agent against UV radiation.

  5. Retina-inspired Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Doutsi, Effrosyni; Fillatre, Lionel; Antonini, Marc; Gaulmin, Julien

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel filter which is inspired by the human retina. The human retina consists of three different layers: the Outer Plexiform Layer (OPL), the inner plexiform layer and the ganglionic layer. Our inspiration is the linear transform which takes place in the OPL and has been mathematically described by the neuroscientific model “virtual retina”. This model is the cornerstone to derive the non-separable spatiotemporal OPL retina-inspired filter, briefly renamed retina- insp...

  6. Nature-inspired computing for control systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The book presents recent advances in nature-inspired computing, giving a special emphasis to control systems applications. It reviews different techniques used for simulating physical, chemical, biological or social phenomena at the purpose of designing robust, predictive and adaptive control strategies. The book is a collection of several contributions, covering either more general approaches in control systems, or methodologies for control tuning and adaptive controllers, as well as exciting applications of nature-inspired techniques in robotics. On one side, the book is expected to motivate readers with a background in conventional control systems to try out these powerful techniques inspired by nature. On the other side, the book provides advanced readers with a deeper understanding of the field and a broad spectrum of different methods and techniques. All in all, the book is an outstanding, practice-oriented reference guide to nature-inspired computing addressing graduate students, researchers and practi...

  7. Bio-inspired flapping UAV design: a university perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jae-Hung; Lee, Jun-Seong; Kim, Dae-Kwan

    2009-03-01

    Bio-inspired design to make artificial flappers fly does not just imitate biological systems as closely as possible, but also transferring the flappers' own functionalities to engineering solutions. This paper summarizes some key technical issues and the states-of-art of bio-inspired design of flapping UAVs with an introduction to authors' recent research results in this field.

  8. Nature inspired algorithms and artificial intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Valentina Onet; Ecaterina Vladu

    2008-01-01

    Artificial intelligence has been very muchinterested in studying the characteristics ofintelligent agent, mainly planning, learning,reasoning (making decisions) and perception.Biological processes and methods have beeninfluencing science from many decades. Naturalsystems have many properties that inspiredapplications - self-organisation, simplicity of basicelements, dynamics, flexibility. This paper is a surveyof nature inspired algorithms, like Particle SwarmOptimization (PSO), Ant Colony Op...

  9. Physicists get INSPIREd

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Particle physicists thrive on information. They first create information by performing experiments or elaborating theoretical conjectures and then they share it through publications and various web tools. The INSPIRE service, just released, will bring state of the art information retrieval to the fingertips of researchers.   Keeping track of the information shared within the particle physics community has long been the task of libraries at the larger labs, such as CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, as well as the focus of indispensible services like arXiv and those of the Particle Data Group. In 2007, many providers of information in the field came together for a summit at SLAC to see how physics information resources could be enhanced, and the INSPIRE project emerged from that meeting. The vision behind INSPIRE was built by a survey launched by the four labs to evaluate the real needs of the community. INSPIRE responds to these directives from the community by combining the most successful aspe...

  10. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  11. Nature as Inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, Kristina; Moore, Tamara; Strnat, Meg

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the final lesson within a seven-day STEM and literacy unit that is part of the Picture STEM curriculum (pictureSTEM. org) and uses engineering to integrate science and mathematics learning in a meaningful way (Tank and Moore 2013). For this engineering challenge, students used nature as a source of inspiration for designs to…

  12. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  13. An Ark of Inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project suitable for middle and high school students in which they either combine identifiable parts from different animals to create one creature or take one animal and creatively distort it. Explains that this lesson enables students to be satisfied with their animal-inspired artwork. (CMK)

  14. Biologically Inspired Optimization Methods An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Wahde, M

    2008-01-01

    The advent of rapid, reliable and cheap computing power over the last decades has transformed many, if not most, fields of science and engineering. The multidisciplinary field of optimization is no exception. First of all, with fast computers, researchers and engineers can apply classical optimization methods to problems of larger and larger size. In addition, however, researchers have developed a host of new optimization algorithms that operate in a rather different way than the classical ones, and that allow practitioners to attack optimization problems where the classical methods are either

  15. Ants as Fluids: Physics-Inspired Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Streiff, Micah; Shinotsuka, Sho; Alexeev, Alex; Hu, David

    2010-01-01

    Fire ants use their claws to grip diverse surfaces, including each other. As a result of their mutual adhesion and large numbers, ant colonies flow like inanimate fluids. In this sequence of films, we demonstrate how ants behave similarly to the spreading of drops, the capillary rise of menisci, and gravity-driven flow down a wall. By emulating the flow of fluids, ant colonies can remain united under stressful conditions.

  16. Biologically inspired technologies using artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2005-01-01

    One of the newest fields of biomimetics is the electroactive polymers (EAP) that are also known as artificial muscles. To take advantage of these materials, efforts are made worldwide to establish a strong infrastructure addressing the need for comprehensive analytical modeling of their response mechanism and develop effective processing and characterization techniques. The field is still in its emerging state and robust materials are still not readily available however in recent years significant progress has been made and commercial products have already started to appear. This paper covers the current state of- the-art and challenges to making artificial muscles and their potential biomimetic applications.

  17. Biologically Inspired Vision for Indoor Robot Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Saleiro, Mário; Tersic, K.; Lobato, D.; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic, infrared, laser and other sensors are being applied in robotics. Although combinations of these have allowed robots to navigate, they are only suited for specific scenarios, depending on their limitations. Recent advances in computer vision are turning cameras into useful low-cost sensors that can operate in most types of environments. Cameras enable robots to detect obstacles, recognize objects, obtain visual odometry, detect and recognize people and gestures, a...

  18. Learning from nature: biologically-inspired sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicaksono, D.H.B.

    2008-01-01

    New emerging sensing applications demand novel sensors in micro-/nano-scale to enable integration and embedding into higher level structures or systems. Downsizing the structure will usually decrease the sensitivity of the sensors, since the sensitivity is a function of geometrical parameters, e.g.

  19. From Cellular Mechanotransduction to Biologically Inspired Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Donald E.

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on a lecture I presented as the recipient of the 2009 Pritzker Distinguished Lecturer Award at the Biomedical Engineering Society annual meeting in October 2009. Here, I review more than thirty years of research from my laboratory, beginning with studies designed to test the theory that cells use tensegrity (tensional integrity) architecture to stabilize their shape and sense mechanical signals, which I believed to be critical for control of cell function and tissue development. Although I was trained as a cell biologist, I found that the tools I had at my disposal were insufficient to experimentally test these theories, and thus I ventured into engineering to find critical solutions. This path has been extremely fruitful as it has led to confirmation of the critical role that physical forces play in developmental control, as well as how cells sense and respond to mechanical signals at the molecular level through a process known as cellular mechanotransduction. Many of the predictions of the cellular tensegrity model relating to cell mechanical behaviors have been shown to be valid, and this vision of cell structure led to discovery of the central role that transmembrane adhesion receptors, such as integrins, and the cytoskeleton play in mechanosensing and mechanochemical conversion. In addition, these fundamental studies have led to significant unexpected technology fallout, including development of micromagnetic actuators for non-invasive control of cellular signaling, microfluidic systems as therapeutic extracorporeal devices for sepsis therapy, and new DNA-based nanobiotechnology approaches that permit construction of artificial tensegrities that mimic properties of living materials for applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:20140519

  20. A biologically inspired model for pattern recognition*

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Eduardo; Liljenström, Hans; Ruiz, Yusely; Li, Guang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel bionic model and its performance in pattern recognition are presented and discussed. The model is constructed from a bulb model and a three-layered cortical model, mimicking the main features of the olfactory system. The olfactory bulb and cortex models are connected by feedforward and feedback fibers with distributed delays. The Breast Cancer Wisconsin dataset consisting of data from 683 patients divided into benign and malignant classes is used to demonstrate the capa...

  1. Biologically inspired hairy surfaces for liquid repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shu-Hau

    Owing to remarkable features, such as self-cleaning, anti-biofouling and drag reduction, interest on rendering surfaces water-repellent has significantly grown within this decade. Attempts on making surfaces "superhydrophobic", where high water contact angle (θc >150°) accompanied with only few degrees of roll-off angle, have been extensively demonstrated through the mimicking of the surface chemistry and morphology of lotus leaves. This appealing phenomenon also exists on another structure from nature: surfaces comprising soft hairs. Although the role of this piliferous integument has long been recognized for providing life, arthropods in particular, waterrepellency, the synthetic superhydrophobic surfaces based on this structure are still very limited. In this study, the goal was to develop a novel liquid-repellent surface by mimicking the hairy exterior of species. The artificial hairy surfaces were prepared by means of pressurized membrane casting, in which thermoplastic sheets were forced to flow into porous membranes at elevated temperature. The G-shaped pillars on the membrane cast polypropylene substrate are particularly similar to the conformation of natural hairs. The principle of this fabrication technique is relatively accessible and is expected to be compatible with large-area fabrication of superhydrophobic interfaces. The artificial hairy surface features perfectly hydrophobic response where no contact angle hysteresis was observed from video assessment. Thus the artificial hairy surface of the current work appears to be the first report to have such extreme hydrophobicity with only structural modification from the original substrate. This ultralow adhesion to water droplet is believed to be attributed to the hydrophobic methyl groups and the mechanical response of the artificial hairs. Liquid repellency of the hairy surfaces was further enhanced by coating with fluorocarbon (CF) layers via deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). The contact angle of water-methanol mixture (gamma < 35.2 mN/m) was raised from 60° to around 140°. The surface energy of coated samples, however, was still not low enough to repel non-polar liquids. Moreover, the hairy structure is not favorable for maintaining the low surface tension liquid in Cassie-Baxter state.

  2. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  3. Nature inspired algorithms and artificial intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Valentina Onet

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial intelligence has been very muchinterested in studying the characteristics ofintelligent agent, mainly planning, learning,reasoning (making decisions and perception.Biological processes and methods have beeninfluencing science from many decades. Naturalsystems have many properties that inspiredapplications - self-organisation, simplicity of basicelements, dynamics, flexibility. This paper is a surveyof nature inspired algorithms, like Particle SwarmOptimization (PSO, Ant Colony Optimization (ACOand Artificial Bee Colony(ABC.

  4. Neurobiologically inspired mobile robot navigation and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Quoy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available After a short review of biologically inspired navigation architectures, mainly relying on modeling the hippocampal anatomy, or at least some of its functions, we present a navigation and planning model for mobile robots. This architecture is based on a model of the hippocampal and prefrontal interactions. In particular, the system relies on the definition of a new cell type “transition cells” that encompasses traditional “place cells”.

  5. Neurobiologically inspired mobile robot navigation and planning

    OpenAIRE

    Mathias Quoy

    2007-01-01

    After a short review of biologically inspired navigation architectures, mainly relying on modeling the hippocampal anatomy, or at least some of its functions, we present a navigation and planning model for mobile robots. This architecture is based on a model of the hippocampal and prefrontal interactions. In particular, the system relies on the definition of a new cell type “transition cells” that encompasses traditional “place cells”.

  6. Neurobiologically Inspired Mobile Robot Navigation and Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Cuperlier, Nicolas; Quoy, Mathias; Gaussier, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    After a short review of biologically inspired navigation architectures, mainly relying on modeling the hippocampal anatomy, or at least some of its functions, we present a navigation and planning model for mobile robots. This architecture is based on a model of the hippocampal and prefrontal interactions. In particular, the system relies on the definition of a new cell type “transition cells” that encompasses traditional “place cells”.

  7. Swarm intelligence in bio-inspired robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Jannik; Karud, Camilla Haukenes

    2011-01-01

    In this report, we have explored swarm intelligence through a box-pushing taskwith physical robots called e-pucks. Research on social insects has been presentedtogether with dierent ways of controlling autonomous robots, where combiningthis knowledge has been essential in our quest to make a biological plausible antretrieving system.Inspired by ants and behavior-based robotics, we have created the system CRABS.It is based on Brooks' subsumption architecture to control six dierent behavio...

  8. Data specifications for INSPIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portele, Clemens; Woolf, Andrew; Cox, Simon

    2010-05-01

    In Europe a major recent development has been the entering in force of the INSPIRE Directive in May 2007, establishing an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe to support Community environmental policies, and policies or activities which may have an impact on the environment. INSPIRE is based on the infrastructures for spatial information established and operated by the 27 Member States of the European Union. The Directive addresses 34 spatial data themes needed for environmental applications, with key components specified through technical implementing rules. This makes INSPIRE a unique example of a legislative "regional" approach. One of the requirements of the INSPIRE Directive is to make existing spatial data sets with relevance for one of the spatial data themes available in an interoperable way, i.e. where the spatial data from different sources in Europe can be combined to a coherent result. Since INSPIRE covers a wide range of spatial data themes, the first step has been the development of a modelling framework that provides a common foundation for all themes. This framework is largely based on the ISO 19100 series of standards. The use of common generic spatial modelling concepts across all themes is an important enabler for interoperability. As a second step, data specifications for the first set of themes has been developed based on the modelling framework. The themes include addresses, transport networks, protected sites, hydrography, administrative areas and others. The data specifications were developed by selected experts nominated by stakeholders from all over Europe. For each theme a working group was established in early 2008 working on their specific theme and collaborating with the other working groups on cross-theme issues. After a public review of the draft specifications starting in December 2008, an open testing process and thorough comment resolution process, the draft technical implementing rules for these themes have been

  9. Inspiral into Gargantua

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Samuel E; Warburton, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact object into a more massive black hole rotating very near the theoretical maximum. We find that once the body enters the near-horizon regime the gravitational radiation is characterized by a constant frequency, equal to (twice) the horizon frequency, with an exponentially damped profile. This contrasts with the usual "chirping" behavior and, if detected, would constitute a "smoking gun" for a near-extremal black hole in nature.

  10. Inspiring a generation

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The motto of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games is ‘Inspire a generation’ so it was particularly pleasing to see science, the LHC and Higgs bosons featuring so strongly in the opening ceremony of the Paralympics last week.   It’s a sign of just how far our field has come that such a high-profile event featured particle physics so strongly, and we can certainly add our support to that motto. If the legacy of London 2012 is a generation inspired by science as well as sport, then the games will have more than fulfilled their mission. Particle physics has truly inspiring stories to tell, going well beyond Higgs and the LHC, and the entire community has played its part in bringing the excitement of frontier research in particle physics to a wide audience. Nevertheless, we cannot rest on our laurels: maintaining the kind of enthusiasm for science we witnessed at the Paralympic opening ceremony will require constant vigilance, and creative thinking about ways to rea...

  11. Perceptually-Inspired Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human sensory systems allow individuals to see, hear, touch, and interact with the surrounding physical environment. Understanding human perception and its limit enables us to better exploit the psychophysics of human perceptual systems to design more efficient, adaptive algorithms and develop perceptually-inspired computational models. In this talk, I will survey some of recent efforts on perceptually-inspired computing with applications to crowd simulation and multimodal interaction. In particular, I will present data-driven personality modeling based on the results of user studies, example-guided physics-based sound synthesis using auditory perception, as well as perceptually-inspired simplification for multimodal interaction. These perceptually guided principles can be used to accelerating multi-modal interaction and visual computing, thereby creating more natural human-computer interaction and providing more immersive experiences. I will also present their use in interactive applications for entertainment, such as video games, computer animation, and shared social experience. I will conclude by discussing possible future research directions.

  12. Quantum-Inspired Maximizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses an algorithm for a new kind of dynamics based on a quantum- classical hybrid-quantum-inspired maximizer. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen 'computational' potential. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables, using classical methods. Such optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired computing. As an application, an algorithm for global maximum of an arbitrary integrable function is proposed. The idea of the proposed algorithm is very simple: based upon the Quantum-inspired Maximizer (QIM), introduce a positive function to be maximized as the probability density to which the solution is attracted. Then the larger value of this function will have the higher probability to appear. Special attention is paid to simulation of integer programming and NP-complete problems. It is demonstrated that the problem of global maximum of an integrable function can be found in polynomial time by using the proposed quantum- classical hybrid. The result is extended to a constrained maximum with applications to integer programming and TSP (Traveling Salesman Problem).

  13. Lactococcus lactis - a diploid bacterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Ole; Hansen, Flemming G.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    In contrast to higher eukaryotes, bacteria are haploid, i.e. they store their genetic information in a single chromosome, which is then duplicated during the cell cycle. If the growth rate is sufficiently low, the bacterium is born with only a single copy of the chromosome, which gets duplicated...... before the bacterium divides. Fast-growing bacteria have overlapping rounds of replication, and can contain DNA corresponding to more than four genome equivalents. However, the terminus region of the chromosome is still present in just one copy after division, and is not duplicated until right before...... the next division. Thus, the regions of the chromosome that are the last to be replicated are haploid even in fast-growing bacteria. In contrast to this general rule for bacteria, we found that Lactococcus lactis, a bacterium which has been exploited for thousands of years for the production of fermented...

  14. Combining Bio-inspired Sensing with Bio-inspired Locomotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaikh, Danish; Hallam, John; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model that modula......In this paper we present a preliminary Braitenberg vehicle–like approach to combine bio-inspired audition with bio-inspired quadruped locomotion in simulation. Locomotion gaits of the salamander–like robot Salamandra robotica are modified by a lizard’s peripheral auditory system model...

  15. #IWD2016 Academic Inspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Ninna

    2016-01-01

    What academics or books have inspired you in your writing and research, or helped to make sense of the world around you? In this feature essay, Ninna Meier returns to her experience of reading Hannah Arendt as she sought to understand work and how it relates to value production in capitalist...... economies. Meier recounts how Arendt’s book On Revolution (1963) forged connective threads between the ‘smallest parts’ and the ‘largest wholes’ and showed how academic work is never fully relegated to the past, but can return in new iterations across time....

  16. A tissue-inspired amorphous photonic metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Dapeng

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by how cells pack in dense biological tissues, we design an amorphous material which possesses a complete photonic band gap. A physical parameter inspired by how cells adhere with one another and regulate their shapes can continuously tune the photonic band gap size as well as the bulk mechanical property of the material. The material can be further tuned to undergo a solid-fluid phase transition during which the shear modulus vanishes yet the photonic band gap persists, hence giving rise to a photonic fluid that is robust to flow and rearrangements. Experimentally this design should lead to the engineering of self-assembled non-rigid photonic structures with photonic band gaps that can be controlled in real time.

  17. When science inspires art

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    On Tuesday 18 January 2011, artist Pipilotti Rist came to CERN to find out how science could provide her with a source of inspiration for her art and perhaps to get ideas for future work. Pipilotti, who is an eclectic artist always on the lookout for an original source of inspiration, is almost as passionate about physics as she is about art.   Ever Is Over All, 1997, audio video installation by Pipilotti Rist.  View of the installation at the National Museum for Foreign Art, Sofia, Bulgaria. © Pipilotti Rist. Courtesy the artist and Hauser & Wirth. Photo by Angel Tzvetanov. Swiss video-maker Pipilotti Rist (her real name is Elisabeth Charlotte Rist), who is well-known in the international art world for her highly colourful videos and creations, visited CERN for the first time on Tuesday 18 January 2011.  Her visit represented a trip down memory lane, since she originally studied physics before becoming interested in pursuing a career as an artist and going on to de...

  18. The chemical formula of a magnetotactic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, Mohit; Das, Sayoni; Mishra, Prashant; Mittal, Aditya

    2012-05-01

    Elucidation of the chemical logic of life is one of the grand challenges in biology, and essential to the progress of the upcoming field of synthetic biology. Treatment of microbial cells explicitly as a "chemical" species in controlled reaction (growth) environments has allowed fascinating discoveries of elemental formulae of a few species that have guided the modern views on compositions of a living cell. Application of mass and energy balances on living cells has proved to be useful in modeling of bioengineering systems, particularly in deriving optimized media compositions for growing microorganisms to maximize yields of desired bio-derived products by regulating intra-cellular metabolic networks. In this work, application of elemental mass balance during growth of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense in bioreactors has resulted in the discovery of the chemical formula of the magnetotactic bacterium. By developing a stoichiometric equation characterizing the formation of a magnetotactic bacterial cell, coupled with rigorous experimental measurements and robust calculations, we report the elemental formula of M. gryphiswaldense cell as CH(2.06)O(0.13)N(0.28)Fe(1.74×10(-3)). Remarkably, we find that iron metabolism during growth of this magnetotactic bacterium is much more correlated individually with carbon and nitrogen, compared to carbon and nitrogen with each other, indicating that iron serves more as a nutrient during bacterial growth rather than just a mineral. Magnetotactic bacteria have not only invoked some interest in the field of astrobiology for the last two decades, but are also prokaryotes having the unique ability of synthesizing membrane bound intracellular organelles. Our findings on these unique prokaryotes are a strong addition to the limited repertoire, of elemental compositions of living cells, aimed at exploring the chemical logic of life.

  19. The scientific study of inspiration in the creative process: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria C. Oleynick

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration is a motivational state that compels individuals to bring ideas into fruition. Creators have long argued that inspiration is important to the creative process, but until recently, scientists have not investigated this claim. In this article, we review challenges to the study of creative inspiration, as well as solutions to these challenges afforded by theoretical and empirical work on inspiration over the past decade. First, we discuss the problem of definitional ambiguity, which has been addressed through an integrative process of construct conceptualization. Second, we discuss the challenge of how to operationalize inspiration. This challenge has been overcome by the development and validation of the Inspiration Scale, which may be used to assess trait or state inspiration. Third, we address ambiguity regarding how inspiration differs from related concepts (creativity, insight, positive affect by discussing discriminant validity. Next, we discuss the preconception that inspiration is less important than perspiration (effort, and we review empirical evidence that inspiration and effort both play important—but different—roles in the creative process. Finally, with many challenges overcome, we argue that the foundation is now set for a new generation of research focused on neural underpinnings. We discuss potential challenges to and opportunities for the neuroscientific study of inspiration. A better understanding of the biological basis of inspiration will illuminate the process through which creative ideas fire the soul, such that individuals are compelled to transform ideas into products and solutions that may benefit society.

  20. Geophysics in INSPIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sőrés, László

    2013-04-01

    INSPIRE is a European directive to harmonize spatial data in Europe. Its' aim is to establish a transparent, multidisciplinary network of environmental information by using international standards and OGC web services. Spatial data themes defined in the annex of the directive cover 34 domains that are closely bundled to environment and spatial information. According to the INSPIRE roadmap all data providers must setup discovery, viewing and download services and restructure data stores to provide spatial data as defined by the underlying specifications by 2014 December 1. More than 3000 institutions are going to be involved in the progress. During the data specification process geophysics as an inevitable source of geo information was introduced to Annex II Geology. Within the Geology theme Geophysics is divided into core and extended model. The core model contains specifications for legally binding data provisioning and is going to be part of the Implementation Rules of the INSPIRE directives. To minimize the work load of obligatory data transformations the scope of the core model is very limited and simple. It covers the most essential geophysical feature types that are relevant in economic and environmental context. To fully support the use cases identified by the stake holders the extended model was developed. It contains a wide range of spatial object types for geophysical measurements, processed and interpreted results, and wrapper classes to help data providers in using the Observation and Measurements (O&M) standard for geophysical data exchange. Instead of introducing the traditional concept of "geophysical methods" at a high structural level the data model classifies measurements and geophysical models based on their spatial characteristics. Measurements are classified as geophysical station (point), geophysical profile (curve) and geophysical swath (surface). Generic classes for processing results and interpretation models are curve model (1D), surface

  1. VI International Workshop on Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Otero, Fernando; Masegosa, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Biological and other natural processes have always been a source of inspiration for computer science and information technology. Many emerging problem solving techniques integrate advanced evolution and cooperation strategies, encompassing a range of spatio-temporal scales for visionary conceptualization of evolutionary computation. This book is a collection of research works presented in the VI International Workshop on Nature Inspired Cooperative Strategies for Optimization (NICSO) held in Canterbury, UK. Previous editions of NICSO were held in Granada, Spain (2006 & 2010), Acireale, Italy (2007), Tenerife, Spain (2008), and Cluj-Napoca, Romania (2011). NICSO 2013 and this book provides a place where state-of-the-art research, latest ideas and emerging areas of nature inspired cooperative strategies for problem solving are vigorously discussed and exchanged among the scientific community. The breadth and variety of articles in this book report on nature inspired methods and applications such as Swarm In...

  2. Recent Advances in Skin-Inspired Sensors Enabled by Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kenneth J.; Azhari, Faezeh

    2012-07-01

    The highly optimized performance of nature's creations and biological assemblies has inspired the development of their bio-inspired artificial counterparts that can potentially outperform conventional systems. In particular, the skin of humans, animals, and insects exhibits unique functionalities and properties and has subsequently led to active research in developing skin-inspired sensors. This paper presents a summary of selected work related to skin-inspired tactile, distributed strain, and artificial hair cell flow sensors, with a particular focus on technologies enabled by recent advancements in the nanotechnology domain. The purpose is not to present a comprehensive review on this broad subject matter but rather to use selected work to outline the diversity of current research activities.

  3. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Pseudomonas viridiflava, a Bacterium Species Pathogenic to Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Lefort, Francois; Calmin, Gautier; Crovadore, Julien; Osteras, Magne; Farinelli, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    We report here the first whole-genome shotgun sequence of Pseudomonas viridiflava strain UASWS38, a bacterium species pathogenic to the biological model plant Arabidopsis thaliana but also usable as a biological control agent and thus of great scientific interest for understanding the genetics of plant-microbe interactions.

  4. Inspired by CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Art students inspired by CERN will be returning to show their work 9 to 16 October in Building 500, outside the Auditorium. Seventeen art students from around Europe visited CERN last January for a week of introductions to particle physics and astrophysics, and discussions with CERN scientists about their projects. A CERN scientist "adopted"each artist so they could ask questions during and after the visit. Now the seeds planted during their visit have come to fruition in a show using many media and exploring varied concepts, such as how people experience the online world, the sheer scale of CERN's equipment, and the abstractness of the entities scientists are looking for. "The work is so varied, people are going to love some pieces and detest others," says Andrew Charalambous, the project coordinator from University College London who is also curating the exhibition. "It's contemporary modern art, and that's sometimes difficult to take in." For more information on this thought-provoking show, see: htt...

  5. Microflyers: inspiration from nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Jayant

    2013-04-01

    Over the past decade, there has been considerable interest in miniaturizing aircraft to create a class of extremely small, robotic vehicles with a gross mass on the order of tens of grams and a dimension on the order of tens of centimeters. These are collectively refered to as micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) or microflyers. Because the size of microflyers is on the same order as that of small birds and large insects, engineers are turning to nature for inspiration. Bioinspired concepts make use of structural or aerodynamic mechanisms that are observed in insects and birds, such as elastic energy storage and unsteady aerodynamics. Biomimetic concepts attempt to replicate the form and function of natural flyers, such as flapping-wing propulsion and external appearance. This paper reviews recent developments in the area of man-made microflyers. The design space for microflyers will be described, along with fundamental physical limits to miniaturization. Key aerodynamic phenomena at the scale of microflyers will be highlighted. Because the focus is on bioinspiration and biomimetics, scaled-down versions of conventional aircraft, such as fixed wing micro air vehicles and microhelicopters will not be addressed. A few representative bioinspired and biomimetic microflyer concepts developed by researchers will be described in detail. Finally, some of the sensing mechanisms used by natural flyers that are being implemented in man-made microflyers will be discussed.

  6. 海洋细菌AiL3菌株防治香蕉枯萎病研究%Biological Control of Banana Fusarium Wilt by Marine Bacterium AiL3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萌; 唐桢强; 何红; 谢江辉

    2013-01-01

    The indoor experiment and field test of Marine bacterium AiL3 were carried out to study the effect on the suppression of the banana Fusarium-wilt disease and the growth of banana seedlings. The results showed that the number of leaves, the plant height, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of the tested banana plants were promoted significantly after innoculated with strain AiL3 in indoor and field tests compared to the control treatment. The control efficacies of AiL3 against Fusarium Wilt was 100% with the test indoor for six months. The control efficacies were 72.71% and 46.32% after 8 months with the indoor test and field test, respectively. It was suggested that the bacterial strain AiL3 could control the banana Fusarium wilt and promote growth of banana.%采用室内盆栽和大田小区试验对海洋细菌AiL3菌株防治香蕉枯萎病作用及对香蕉的促生效果进行测定.结果表明:菌株处理后盆栽试验和大田试验中的香蕉苗叶片数、株高、光合速率和蒸腾速率等均明显高于对照;AiL3菌株盆栽试验处理6个月后对香蕉枯萎病的防治效果达100%,大田小区试验菌株处理8个月后对香蕉枯萎病的防治效果分别为72.71%和46.32%.表明AiL3菌株对香蕉植株有一定的防病促生作用.

  7. eDNA: A Bio-Inspired Reconfigurable Hardware Cell Architecture Supporting Self-organisation and Self-healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Michael Reibel; Madsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the concept of a biological inspired reconfigurable hardware cell architecture which supports self-organisation and self-healing. Two fundamental processes in biology, namely fertilization-to-birth and cell self-healing have inspired the development of this cell architecture. ...

  8. A nature-inspired approach to reactor and catalysis engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Coppens, M-O

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms used by biology to solve fundamental problems, such as those related to scalability, efficiency and robustness could guide the design of innovative solutions to similar challenges in chemical engineering. Complementing progress in bioinspired chemistry and materials science, we identify three methodologies as the backbone of nature-inspired reactor and catalysis engineering. First, biology often uses hierarchical networks to bridge scales and facilitate transport, leading to broadl...

  9. Inspiration, anyone? (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available I have to admit that writing an editorial for this issue was a struggle. Trying to sit down and write when the sun was shining outside and most of my colleagues were on vacation was, to say the least, difficult. Add to that research projects and conferences…let’s just say that I found myself less than inspired. A pitiful plea for ideas to a colleague resulted in the reintroduction to a few recent evidence based papers and resources which inspired further searching and reading. Though I generally find myself surrounded (more like buried in research papers and EBLIP literature, somehow I had missed the great strides that have been made of late in the world of evidence based library and information practice. I realize now that I am inspired by the researchers, authors and innovators who are putting EBLIP on the proverbial map. My biggest beef with library literature in general has been the plethora of articles highlighting what we should be doing. Take a close look at the evidence based practitioners in the information professions: these are some of the people who are actively practicing what has been preached for the past few years. Take, for example, the about‐to‐be released Libraries using Evidence Toolkit by Northern Sydney Central Coast Health and The University of Newcastle, Australia (see their announcement in this issue. An impressive advisory group is responsible for maintaining the currency and relevancy of the site as well as promoting the site and acting as a steering committee for related projects. This group is certainly doing more than “talking the talk”: they took their experience at the 3rd International Evidence Based Librarianship Conference and did something with the information they obtained by implementing solutions that worked in their environment. The result? The creation of a collection of tools for all of us to use. This toolkit is just what EBLIP needs: a portal to resources aimed at supporting the information

  10. Nature-inspired optimization algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2014-01-01

    Nature-Inspired Optimization Algorithms provides a systematic introduction to all major nature-inspired algorithms for optimization. The book's unified approach, balancing algorithm introduction, theoretical background and practical implementation, complements extensive literature with well-chosen case studies to illustrate how these algorithms work. Topics include particle swarm optimization, ant and bee algorithms, simulated annealing, cuckoo search, firefly algorithm, bat algorithm, flower algorithm, harmony search, algorithm analysis, constraint handling, hybrid methods, parameter tuning

  11. Immuno-inspired robotic applications: a review

    CERN Document Server

    Raza, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Artificial immune systems primarily mimic the adaptive nature of biological immune functions. Their ability to adapt to varying pathogens makes such systems a suitable choice for various robotic applications. Generally, AIS-based robotic applications map local instantaneous sensory information into either an antigen or a co-stimulatory signal, according to the choice of representation schema. Algorithms then use relevant immune functions to output either evolved antibodies or maturity of dendritic cells, in terms of actuation signals. It is observed that researchers, in an attempt to solve the problem in hand, do not try to replicate the biological immunity but select necessary immune functions instead, resulting in an ad-hoc manner these applications are reported. Authors, therefore, present a comprehensive review of immuno-inspired robotic applications in an attempt to categorize them according to underlying immune definitions. Implementation details are tabulated in terms of corresponding mathematical expr...

  12. Building Blocks Propagation in Quantum-Inspired Genetic Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Nowotniak, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of building blocks propagation in Quantum-Inspired Genetic Algorithm, which belongs to a new class of metaheuristics drawing their inspiration from both biological evolution and unitary evolution of quantum systems. The expected number of quantum chromosomes matching a schema has been analyzed and a random variable corresponding to this issue has been introduced. The results have been compared with Simple Genetic Algorithm. Also, it has been presented how selected binary quantum chromosomes cover a domain of one-dimensional fitness function.

  13. Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, Jukka; Iwaszkiewicz, Jan

    2011-12-01

    INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

  14. Physicists Get INSPIREd: INSPIRE Project and Grid Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INSPIRE is the new high-energy physics scientific information system developed by CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. INSPIRE combines the curated and trusted contents of SPIRES database with Invenio digital library technology. INSPIRE contains the entire HEP literature with about one million records and in addition to becoming the reference HEP scientific information platform, it aims to provide new kinds of data mining services and metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. Grid and cloud computing provide new opportunities to offer better services in areas that require large CPU and storage resources including document Optical Character Recognition (OCR) processing, full-text indexing of articles and improved metrics. D4Science-II is a European project that develops and operates an e-Infrastructure supporting Virtual Research Environments (VREs). It develops an enabling technology (gCube) which implements a mechanism for facilitating the interoperation of its e-Infrastructure with other autonomously running data e-Infrastructures. As a result, this creates the core of an e-Infrastructure ecosystem. INSPIRE is one of the e-Infrastructures participating in D4Science-II project. In the context of the D4Science-II project, the INSPIRE e-Infrastructure makes available some of its resources and services to other members of the resulting ecosystem. Moreover, it benefits from the ecosystem via a dedicated Virtual Organization giving access to an array of resources ranging from computing and storage resources of grid infrastructures to data and services.

  15. Inspiring to inspire: Developing teaching in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Williams

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Following a three-year staff development initiative within one faculty in a UK university, the authors reflected on inspiring teaching and the role that staff development can play in enhancing individual practice. Teaching is a core component of Higher Education and is complex and multi-faceted both theoretically and in practice. Through individual reflections to a set of pre-determined questions, a group of Higher Education teachers (n = 5 with a responsibility for the development of learning, teaching and assessment, share their thoughts, feelings and beliefs on inspiring teaching. The interpretive analysis of the data shows from a staff perspective that the notion of inspiring teaching has three main components which are all interrelated, those being; the actual teaching and learning experience; the design of the curriculum and the teacher/student relationship. Staff development initiatives were found to help people explore and develop their own teaching philosophy, to develop new practices and to share and learn from others. However, individual’s mindset, beliefs and attitudes were found to be a challenge. Teachers can frame their development around the different aspects of inspiring teaching and with support from senior leadership as well as a positive culture, teaching communities can work together towards inspiring teaching.

  16. Nursing Ways to Inspire Hope

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis was to search for nursing ways to inspire hope in acute care patients. There was an abundance of general material found on the theme of hope, but research articles specifically on hope inspiration and hope maintenance in acute care were limited, especially from the nursing point of view. This theme of hope is in itself a fluctuating value throughout one’s lifespan, and so it has been difficult to measure. And lastly, finding evidence based research result...

  17. Inspiration: One Percent and Rising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Donovan R.

    2009-01-01

    Inventor Thomas Edison once famously declared, "Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine percent perspiration." If that's the case, then the students the author witnessed at the International Student Media Festival (ISMF) last November in Orlando, Florida, are geniuses and more. The students in the ISMF pre-conference workshop had much to…

  18. Inversion exercises inspired by mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groetsch, C. W.

    2016-02-01

    An elementary calculus transform, inspired by the centroid and gyration radius, is introduced as a prelude to the study of more advanced transforms. Analysis of the transform, including its inversion, makes use of several key concepts from basic calculus and exercises in the application and inversion of the transform provide practice in the use of technology in calculus.

  19. Toxicity of herbicides used in the sugarcane crop to diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio de Oliveira Procópio; Marcelo Ferreira Fernandes; Daniele Araújo Teles; José Guedes Sena Filho; Alberto Cargnelutti Filho; Marcelo Araújo Resende; Leandro Vargas

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to identify herbicides used in the sugarcane crop that affects neither the growth, the development, of nor the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by the diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae. Eighteen herbicides (paraquat, ametryne, tebuthiuron, amicarbazone, diuron, metribuzin, [hexazinone + diuron], [hexazinone + clomazone], clomazone, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, imazapic, imazapyr, [trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametryne], gly...

  20. 一株反硝化光合细菌的生物学特性及系统发育分析%Biological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of a denitrifying photosynthetic bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧; 张德民; 王龙刚; 潘志崇

    2011-01-01

    [目的]养殖水体中亚硝酸盐的过量积累会对养殖生物产生毒害作用,应用脱氮细菌去除亚硝酸盐是养殖水质调控的重要手段之一,本文意在得到一株高效去除亚硝酸盐的光合细菌.[方法]采用软琼脂稀释法分离纯化光合细菌菌株,通过电镜观察、生理生化试验研究其生物学特性、依据16S rDNA和光合反应中心M亚基基因(Gene coding for photosynthetic reaction center subunit M,pufM)序列对其做系统发育分析.[结果]从淡水养殖塘中分离筛选到一株高效还原亚硝氮的光合细菌菌株wps.该菌株为革兰氏阴性菌,细胞杆状,大小为0.4-0.6μm×1.5-4.0 μm,极生丛生鞭毛,片层状光合内膜,兼性厌氧光照条件生长,单菌落及液体培养物呈红色,含细菌叶绿素a和类胡萝卜素.最适生长pH范围为5.5-8.5,最适生长盐度范围为0-2%,最适生长温度范围为25℃-38℃.菌株wps与Rhodopseudomonas palustris的16S rDNA序列相似性为98.9%,光合反应中心M亚基基因序列的相似性为94.9%,但是二者在生物学性质上有较大差异,如菌株wps在pH5.5生长,不能光自养生长,不利用柠檬酸盐、甲酸盐进行光异养生长,需盐酸硫胺素和泛酸钙做生长因子等.[结论]菌株wps可能为Rhodopseudomonas属的一个新种,且在养殖水体水质调控中具有重要应用前景.%[Objective]Nitrite accumulation in aquaculture water is toxic to reared animals.One of the solutions to this problem is to apply denitrifying bacteria.This paper is intended to get a strain of phototrophic bacteria for efficient removal of nitrite from aquaculture water.[Methods]We used soft agar to isolate and purify phototrophic bacteria.We investigated biological characteristics of the isolate by means of light and electronic observations, physical and chemical tests.We analyzed its phylogenetical position based on the sequences of 16S rDNA and the gene that codes for photosynthetic reaction center subunit M

  1. Mapping biological systems to network systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rathore, Heena

    2016-01-01

    The book presents the challenges inherent in the paradigm shift of network systems from static to highly dynamic distributed systems – it proposes solutions that the symbiotic nature of biological systems can provide into altering networking systems to adapt to these changes. The author discuss how biological systems – which have the inherent capabilities of evolving, self-organizing, self-repairing and flourishing with time – are inspiring researchers to take opportunities from the biology domain and map them with the problems faced in network domain. The book revolves around the central idea of bio-inspired systems -- it begins by exploring why biology and computer network research are such a natural match. This is followed by presenting a broad overview of biologically inspired research in network systems -- it is classified by the biological field that inspired each topic and by the area of networking in which that topic lies. Each case elucidates how biological concepts have been most successfully ...

  2. A Tony Thomas-Inspired Guide to INSPIRE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, Heath B.; /Fermilab

    2010-04-01

    The SPIRES database was created in the late 1960s to catalogue the high energy physics preprints received by the SLAC Library. In the early 1990s it became the first database on the web and the first website outside of Europe. Although indispensible to the HEP community, its aging software infrastructure is becoming a serious liability. In a joint project involving CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, a new database, INSPIRE, is being created to replace SPIRES using CERN's modern, open-source Invenio database software. INSPIRE will maintain the content and functionality of SPIRES plus many new features. I describe this evolution from the birth of SPIRES to the current day, noting that the career of Tony Thomas spans this timeline.

  3. Cooperation of Nature and Physiologically Inspired Mechanism in Visualisation

    OpenAIRE

    al-Rifaie, Mohammad Majid; Aber, Ahmed; Bishop, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach of integrating two swarm intelligence algorithms is considered, one simulating the behaviour of birds flocking (Particle Swarm Optimisation) and the other one (Stochastic Diffusion Search) mimics the recruitment behaviour of one species of ants – Leptothorax acervorum. This hybrid algorithm is assisted by a biological mechanism inspired by the behaviour of blood flow and cells in blood vessels, where the concept of high and low blood pressure is utilised. The performance of t...

  4. Polysaccharide degradation systems of the saprophytic bacterium Cellvibrio japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jeffrey G

    2016-07-01

    Study of recalcitrant polysaccharide degradation by bacterial systems is critical for understanding biological processes such as global carbon cycling, nutritional contributions of the human gut microbiome, and the production of renewable fuels and chemicals. One bacterium that has a robust ability to degrade polysaccharides is the Gram-negative saprophyte Cellvibrio japonicus. A bacterium with a circuitous history, C. japonicus underwent several taxonomy changes from an initially described Pseudomonas sp. Most of the enzymes described in the pre-genomics era have also been renamed. This review aims to consolidate the biochemical, structural, and genetic data published on C. japonicus and its remarkable ability to degrade cellulose, xylan, and pectin substrates. Initially, C. japonicus carbohydrate-active enzymes were studied biochemically and structurally for their novel polysaccharide binding and degradation characteristics, while more recent systems biology approaches have begun to unravel the complex regulation required for lignocellulose degradation in an environmental context. Also included is a discussion for the future of C. japonicus as a model system, with emphasis on current areas unexplored in terms of polysaccharide degradation and emerging directions for C. japonicus in both environmental and biotechnological applications. PMID:27263016

  5. Neural networks and neuroscience-inspired computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David Daniel; Dean, Thomas

    2014-09-22

    Brains are, at a fundamental level, biological computing machines. They transform a torrent of complex and ambiguous sensory information into coherent thought and action, allowing an organism to perceive and model its environment, synthesize and make decisions from disparate streams of information, and adapt to a changing environment. Against this backdrop, it is perhaps not surprising that computer science, the science of building artificial computational systems, has long looked to biology for inspiration. However, while the opportunities for cross-pollination between neuroscience and computer science are great, the road to achieving brain-like algorithms has been long and rocky. Here, we review the historical connections between neuroscience and computer science, and we look forward to a new era of potential collaboration, enabled by recent rapid advances in both biologically-inspired computer vision and in experimental neuroscience methods. In particular, we explore where neuroscience-inspired algorithms have succeeded, where they still fail, and we identify areas where deeper connections are likely to be fruitful.

  6. Decrypting $SO(10)$-inspired leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Di Bari, Pasquale; Fiorentin, Michele Re

    2014-01-01

    Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of $SO(10)$-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH) neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry $N^{\\rm p,i}_{B-L}$, the strong thermal (ST) condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the {\\rm ST}-$SO(10)$-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analy...

  7. Jellyfish inspired underwater unmanned vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Alex; Bresser, Scott; Chung, Sanghun; Tadesse, Yonas; Priya, Shashank

    2009-03-01

    An unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV) was designed inspired by the form and functionality of a Jellyfish. These natural organisms were chosen as bio-inspiration for a multitude of reasons including: efficiency of locomotion, lack of natural predators, proper form and shape to incorporate payload, and varying range of sizes. The structure consists of a hub body surrounded by bell segments and microcontroller based drive system. The locomotion of UUV was achieved by shape memory alloy "Biometal Fiber" actuation which possesses large strain and blocking force with adequate response time. The main criterion in design of UUV was the use of low-profile shape memory alloy actuators which act as artificial muscles. In this manuscript, we discuss the design of two Jellyfish prototypes and present experimental results illustrating the performance and power consumption.

  8. Systematization of the protein sequence diversity in enzymes related to secondary metabolic pathways in plants, in the context of big data biology inspired by the KNApSAcK motorcycle database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shun; Abe, Takashi; Nakamura, Yukiko; Kibinge, Nelson; Hirai Morita, Aki; Nakatani, Atsushi; Ono, Naoaki; Ikemura, Toshimichi; Nakamura, Kensuke; Altaf-Ul-Amin, Md; Kanaya, Shigehiko

    2013-05-01

    Biology is increasingly becoming a data-intensive science with the recent progress of the omics fields, e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. The species-metabolite relationship database, KNApSAcK Core, has been widely utilized and cited in metabolomics research, and chronological analysis of that research work has helped to reveal recent trends in metabolomics research. To meet the needs of these trends, the KNApSAcK database has been extended by incorporating a secondary metabolic pathway database called Motorcycle DB. We examined the enzyme sequence diversity related to secondary metabolism by means of batch-learning self-organizing maps (BL-SOMs). Initially, we constructed a map by using a big data matrix consisting of the frequencies of all possible dipeptides in the protein sequence segments of plants and bacteria. The enzyme sequence diversity of the secondary metabolic pathways was examined by identifying clusters of segments associated with certain enzyme groups in the resulting map. The extent of diversity of 15 secondary metabolic enzyme groups is discussed. Data-intensive approaches such as BL-SOM applied to big data matrices are needed for systematizing protein sequences. Handling big data has become an inevitable part of biology.

  9. Issues in Applying Bio-Inspiration, Cognitive Critical Mass and Developmental-Inspired Principles to Advanced Intelligent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Cross, Gary; Samsonovich, Alexei V.

    This Chapter summarizes ideas presented at the special PerMIS 2008 session on Biological Inspiration for Intelligent Systems. Bio-inspired principles of development and evolution are a special part of the bio-models and principles that can be used to improve intelligent systems and related artifacts. Such principles are not always explicit. They represent an alternative to incremental engineering expansion using new technology to replicate human intelligent capabilities. They are more evident in efforts to replicate and produce a “critical mass” of higher cognitive functions of the human mind or their emergence through cognitive developmental robotics (DR) and self-regulated learning (SRL). DR approaches takes inspiration from natural processes, so that intelligently engineered systems may create solutions to problems in ways similar to what we hypothesize is occurring with biologics in their natural environment. This Chapter discusses how an SRL-based approach to bootstrap a “critical mass” can be assessed by a set of cognitive tests. It also uses a three-level bio-inspired framework to illustrate methodological issues in DR research. The approach stresses the importance of using bio-realistic developmental principles to guide and constrain research. Of particular importance is keeping models and implementation separate to avoid the possible of falling into a Ptolemaic paradigm that may lead to endless tweaking of models. Several of Lungarella's design principles [36] for developmental robotics are discussed as constraints on intelligence as it emerges from an ecologically balanced, three-way interaction between an agents' control systems, physical embodiment, and the external environment. The direction proposed herein is to explore such principles to avoid slavish following of superficial bio-inspiration. Rather we should proceed with a mature and informed developmental approach using developmental principles based on our incremental understanding of how

  10. A Theoretical Characterization of Curvature Controlled Adhesive Properties of Bio-Inspired Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afferante, Luciano; Heepe, Lars; Casdorff, Kirstin;

    2016-01-01

    Some biological systems, such as the tree frog, Litoria caerulea, and the bush-cricket, Tettigonia viridissima, have developed the ability to control adhesion by changing the curvature of their pads. Active control systems of adhesion inspired by these biological models can be very attractive for...

  11. Commentary: "A systems view on the future of medicine: Inspiration from Chinese medicine?"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verpoorte, R.; Crommelin, D.; Danhof, M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Schuitmaker, H.; Greef, de J.; Witkamp, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    Chinese medicine could serve as a source of inspiration for drug development. Using systems biology in combination with reverse pharmacology is a novel way for the discovery of novel biological active compounds and targets as well as for proving the occurrence of synergy and prodrugs. A key factor f

  12. Bio-inspired functional surfaces for advanced applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malshe, Ajay; Rajurkar, Kamlakar; Samant, Anoop;

    2013-01-01

    surface strategies in order to learn clever surface architectures and implement those architectures to impart advanced functionalities into manufactured consumer products. This keynote paper delivers a critical review of such inspiring biological surfaces and their nonbiological product analogs, where...... such as sensing and actuation. These strategies collectively enable functional surfaces to deliver extraordinary adhesion, hydrophobicity, multispectral response, energy scavenging, thermal regulation, antibiofouling, and other advanced functions. Production industries have been intrigued with such biological...... manufacturing science and engineering have adopted such advanced functional surface architectures....

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF THE BACTERIUM TOMATO STEM CANKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goner A. Shaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseased tomato samples were collected from green house was evaluated for isolation, pathogenicity and biochemical tests. The symptoms of the infected tomato plants were as sudden wilting after curled on leaves and necrotic streak regions developed at the crown and base of the stem and the cavities deepen and expand up and down, brown discoloration and necrosis occurring on xylem and phloem vasculer. All of ages of tomato plant were susceptible to bacteria when the weather condition favorable and immediately, seen collapse symptom on tomato plant at once fail and die. The bacterium was isolated from diseased plant in all regions on nutrient Agar; a yellow bacterium was isolated from infected tomato plant in green houses and fields in Abu-Ghraib, Rashiedia and Qanat Al-Geiaysh nurseries in Baghdad provinces of Iraq. The bacterium was found gram positive, rod-shaped, non-motile and capable an aerobic growth and based on the morphological and biochemical characteristics revealed that this bacterium belongs to: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. (smith pathogenicity and hypersensitivity of the bacterium Cmm showed the disease index were 18.33, 6.66, 16.66, 5, 0% for tomato seedlings were inoculated treatments as the wounding roots, without wounding roots, crown of the stem, petiole and control respectively.

  14. Natural product-inspired rational design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 2,3-dihydropyrano[2,3-f]chromen-4(8H)-one based hybrids as potential mitochondrial apoptosis inducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, Palaniappan; Ilangovan, Andivelu; Kaushik, Mahabir Prasad

    2016-10-21

    Synthesis of novel pyranochromanone amide hybrids, by combining pyranochromanone pharmacophore and privileged scaffolds such as 2-amino-1,3,4-thiadiaole/2-aminothiazole/aminopyridine/aminonaphthalene and anti-cancer evaluation of a series led us to discover a series of new chemical entities (NCEs) showing broad spectrum of anti-cancer activity against three different human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, A549 and HeLa), at IC50 values ranging from 14.3 to 97.8 μM. Among them, some compounds such as 15b, 15d, 20a and 20b displayed excellent activity against breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Detailed biological studies such as AO/EB dual staining, Hoechst 33342 staining, FACS analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) using JC-1 dye and DNA fragmentation confirmed the apoptosis induced by the hybrids. Gene expression studies by Real time RT-PCR has shown that these compounds are efficient regulator of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. Western blot analysis also revealed that these compounds persuade apoptosis through intrinsic pathway by up-regulating the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and down-regulating the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Molecular docking studies reveal that compounds 15b and 20b binds efficiently with Bcl-2 promoter G-quadruplex.

  15. Fast Neutron Irradiation of the Highly Radioresistant Bacterium Deinococcus Radiodurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Diane Louise

    Fast neutron dose survival curves were generated for the bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, which is renowned for its unusually high resistance to gamma, x-ray, and ultraviolet radiation, but for which fast neutron response was unknown. The fast neutrons were produced by the University of Massachusetts Lowell 5.5-MV, type CN Van de Graaff accelerator through the ^7Li(p,n)^7 Be reaction by bombarding a thick metallic lithium target with a 4-MeV proton beam. The bacteria were uniformly distributed on 150-mm agar plates and were exposed to the fast neutron beam under conditions of charged particle equilibrium. The plates were subdivided into concentric rings of increasing diameter from the center to the periphery of the plate, within which the average neutron dose was calculated as the product of the precisely known neutron fluence at the average radius of the ring and the neutron energy dependent kerma factor. The neutron fluence and dose ranged from approximately 3 times 1013 n cm^ {-2} to 1 times 1012 n cm^ {-2}, and 200 kilorad to 5 kilorad, respectively, from the center to the periphery of the plate. Percent survival for Deinococcus radiodurans as a function of fast neutron dose was derived from the ability of the irradiated cells to produce visible colonies within each ring compared to that of a nonirradiated control population. The bacterium Escherichia coli B/r (CSH) was irradiated under identical conditions for comparative purposes. The survival response of Deinococcus radiodurans as a result of cumulative fast neutron exposures was also investigated. The quantification of the ability of Deinococcus radiodurans to survive cellular insult from secondary charged particles, which are produced by fast neutron interactions in biological materials, will provide valuable information about damage and repair mechanisms under extreme cellular stress, and may provide new insight into the origin of this bacterium's unprecedented radiation resistance.

  16. Natural photonics for industrial inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Andrew R

    2009-05-13

    There are two considerations for optical biomimetics: the diversity of submicrometre architectures found in the natural world, and the industrial manufacture of these. A review exists on the latter subject, where current engineering methods are considered along with those of the natural cells. Here, on the other hand, I will provide a modern review of the different categories of reflectors and antireflectors found in animals, including their optical characterization. The purpose of this is to inspire designers within the $2 billion annual optics industry.

  17. Towards Ecology Inspired Software Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Baudry, Benoit; Monperrus, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Les écosystèmes sont des systèmes complexes et dynamiques. Au cours de l'évolution, ils ont développé des capacités avancées pour fournir des fonctions stables, et ce malgré des changements constants dans l'environnement. Dans ce papier, nous discutons l'hypothèse que les lois dirigeant l'organisation et le développement des écosystèmes sont une source d'inspiration riche pour l'architecture et la construction des logiciels.

  18. Bio-Inspired Optimization of Sustainable Energy Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jun Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development always involves complex optimization problems of design, planning, and control, which are often computationally difficult for conventional optimization methods. Fortunately, the continuous advances in artificial intelligence have resulted in an increasing number of heuristic optimization methods for effectively handling those complicated problems. Particularly, algorithms that are inspired by the principles of natural biological evolution and/or collective behavior of social colonies have shown a promising performance and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. In this paper we summarize the recent advances in bio-inspired optimization methods, including artificial neural networks, evolutionary algorithms, swarm intelligence, and their hybridizations, which are applied to the field of sustainable energy development. Literature reviewed in this paper shows the current state of the art and discusses the potential future research trends.

  19. Biological Optimisation for Nurse Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Artificial immune systems (AISs) to date have generally been inspired by naive biological metaphors. This has limited the effectiveness of these systems. In this position paper two ways in which AISs could be made more biologically realistic are discussed. We propose that AISs should draw their inspiration from organisms which possess only innate immune systems, and that AISs should employ systemic models of the immune system to structure their overall design. An outline of plant and invertebrate immune systems is presented, and a number of contemporary research that more biologically-realistic AISs could have is also discussed.

  20. Microflora of urogenital tract in pregnancy with asymptomatic bacterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article contains results of research interrelationship from colonization of vagina and urinary tract diseases. E.coli one of the main factors in development asymptomatic bacterium. Presented high effects of penicillin medicaments and nitrofurans in treatment of asymptomatic bacterium

  1. Sundew-Inspired Adhesive Hydrogels Combined with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells for Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Leming; Huang, Yujian; Bian, Zehua; Petrosino, Jennifer; Fan, Zhen; Wang, Yongzhong; Park, Ki Ho; Yue, Tao; Schmidt, Michael; Galster, Scott; Ma, Jianjie; Zhu, Hua; Zhang, Mingjun

    2016-01-27

    The potential to harness the unique physical, chemical, and biological properties of the sundew (Drosera) plant's adhesive hydrogels has long intrigued researchers searching for novel wound-healing applications. However, the ability to collect sufficient quantities of the sundew plant's adhesive hydrogels is problematic and has eclipsed their therapeutic promise. Inspired by these natural hydrogels, we asked if sundew-inspired adhesive hydrogels could overcome the drawbacks associated with natural sundew hydrogels and be used in combination with stem-cell-based therapy to enhance wound-healing therapeutics. Using a bioinspired approach, we synthesized adhesive hydrogels comprised of sodium alginate, gum arabic, and calcium ions to mimic the properties of the natural sundew-derived adhesive hydrogels. We then characterized and showed that these sundew-inspired hydrogels promote wound healing through their superior adhesive strength, nanostructure, and resistance to shearing when compared to other hydrogels in vitro. In vivo, sundew-inspired hydrogels promoted a "suturing" effect to wound sites, which was demonstrated by enhanced wound closure following topical application of the hydrogels. In combination with mouse adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and compared to other therapeutic biomaterials, the sundew-inspired hydrogels demonstrated superior wound-healing capabilities. Collectively, our studies show that sundew-inspired hydrogels contain ideal properties that promote wound healing and suggest that sundew-inspired-ADSCs combination therapy is an efficacious approach for treating wounds without eliciting noticeable toxicity or inflammation. PMID:26731614

  2. Zymomonas mobilis: a bacterium for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratti, J.C.; Bu' Lock, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis is a facultative anaerobic gram negative bacterium first isolated in tropical countries from alcoholic beverages like the African palm wine, the Mexican pulque and also as a contaminant of cider (cider sickness) or beer in the European countries. It is one of the few facultative anaerobic bacteria degrading glucose by the Entner-Doudoroff pathway usually found in strictly aerobic microorganisms. Some work was devoted to this bacterium in the 50s and 60s and was reviewed by Swings and De Ley in their classical paper published in 1977. During the 70s there was very little work on the bacterium until 1979 and the first report by the Australian group of P.L. Rogers on the great potentialities of Z. mobilis for ethanol production. At that time the petroleum crisis had led the developed countries to search for alternative fuel from renewable resources. The Australian group clearly demonstrated the advantages of the bacterium compared to the yeasts traditionally used for the alcoholic fermentation. As a result, there was a considerable burst in the Zymomonas literature which started from nearly zero in the late 70s to attain 70 papers published in the field in 1984. In this article, papers published from 1982 to 1986 are reviewed.

  3. Structurally tuned iridescent surfaces inspired by nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deparis, Olivier; Rassart, Marie; Vandenbem, Cedric; Welch, Victoria; Vigneron, Jean Pol [Laboratoire de Physique du Solide, University of Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Lucas, Stephane [Laboratoire d' Analyses par Reactions Nucleaires, University of Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur (Belgium)], E-mail: olivier.deparis@fundp.ac.be

    2008-01-15

    Iridescent surfaces exhibit vivid colours which change with the angle of incidence or viewing due to optical wave interference in the multilayer structure present at the wavelength scale underneath the surface. In nature, one can find examples of iridescent Coleoptera for which the hue changes either greatly or slightly with the angle. Because these species typically make these structures from a single biological material (usually chitin) and air or water as the low refractive index component, they have evolved by adjusting the layer thicknesses in order to display quite different iridescent aspects. Taking inspiration from this proven strategy, we have designed and fabricated periodic TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} multilayer films in order to demonstrate the concept of structurally tuned iridescent surfaces. Titanium or silicon oxide layers were deposited on a glass substrate using dc reactive or RF magnetron sputtering techniques, respectively. Two structures were designed for which the period and the TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} layer thickness ratio were varied in such a way that the films displayed radically different iridescent aspects: a reddish-to-greenish changing hue and a stable bluish hue. The fabricated samples were characterized through specular reflectance/transmittance measurements. Modelling of transmittance spectra using standard multilayer film theory confirmed the high quality of the twelve-period Bragg reflectors. The chromaticity coordinates, which were calculated from measured reflectance spectra taken at different angles, were in accordance with theoretical predictions.

  4. Novel Waddlia Intracellular Bacterium in Artibeus intermedius Fruit Bats, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierlé, Sebastián Aguilar; Morales, Cirani Obregón; Martínez, Leonardo Perea; Ceballos, Nidia Aréchiga; Rivero, Juan José Pérez; Díaz, Osvaldo López; Brayton, Kelly A; Setién, Alvaro Aguilar

    2015-12-01

    An intracellular bacterium was isolated from fruit bats (Artibeus intermedius) in Cocoyoc, Mexico. The bacterium caused severe lesions in the lungs and spleens of bats and intracytoplasmic vacuoles in cell cultures. Sequence analyses showed it is related to Waddlia spp. (order Chlamydiales). We propose to call this bacterium Waddlia cocoyoc.

  5. [Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

    2013-01-16

    Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions. PMID:23307357

  6. Event Rates for Binary Inspiral

    CERN Document Server

    Kalogera, V

    2001-01-01

    Double compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) found in binaries with small orbital separations are known to spiral in and are expected to coalesce eventually because of the emission of gravitational waves. Such inspiral and merger events are thought to be primary sources for ground based gravitational-wave interferometric detectors (such as LIGO). Here, we present a brief review of estimates of coalescence rates and we examine the origin and relative importance of uncertainties associated with the rate estimates. For the case of double neutron star systems, we compare the most recent rate estimates to upper limits derived in a number of different ways. We also discuss the implications of the formation of close binaries with two non-recycled pulsars.

  7. [Nikola Tesla: flashes of inspiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo-Galende, Albero; Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro

    2013-01-16

    Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) was one of the greatest inventors in history and a key player in the revolution that led to the large-scale use of electricity. He also made important contributions to such diverse fields as x-rays, remote control, radio, the theory of consciousness or electromagnetism. In his honour, the international unit of magnetic induction was named after him. Yet, his fame is scarce in comparison with that of other inventors of the time, such as Edison, with whom he had several heated arguments. He was a rather odd, reserved person who lived for his inventions, the ideas for which came to him in moments of inspiration. In his autobiography he relates these flashes with a number of neuropsychiatric manifestations, which can be seen to include migraine auras, synaesthesiae, obsessions and compulsions.

  8. Collide@CERN: sharing inspiration

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Late last year, Julius von Bismarck was appointed to be CERN's first "artist in residence" after winning the Collide@CERN Digital Arts award. He’ll be spending two months at CERN starting this March but, to get a flavour of what’s in store, he visited the Organization last week for a crash course in its inspiring activities.   Julius von Bismarck, taking a closer look... When we arrive to interview German artist Julius von Bismarck, he’s being given a presentation about antiprotons’ ability to kill cancer cells. The whiteboard in the room contains graphs and equations that might easily send a non-scientist running, yet as Julius puts it, “if I weren’t interested, I’d be asleep”. Given his numerous questions, he must have been fascinated. “This ‘introduction’ week has been exhilarating,” says Julius. “I’ve been able to interact ...

  9. Decrypting SO(10-inspired leptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Di Bari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Encouraged by the recent results from neutrino oscillation experiments, we perform an analytical study of SO(10-inspired models and leptogenesis with hierarchical right-handed (RH neutrino spectrum. Under the approximation of negligible misalignment between the neutrino Yukawa basis and the charged lepton basis, we find an analytical expression for the final asymmetry directly in terms of the low energy neutrino parameters that fully reproduces previous numerical results. This expression also shows that it is possible to identify an effective leptogenesis phase for these models. When we also impose the wash-out of a large pre-existing asymmetry NB−Lp,i, the strong thermal (ST condition, we derive analytically all those constraints on the low energy neutrino parameters that characterise the ST-SO(10-inspired leptogenesis solution, confirming previous numerical results. In particular we show why, though neutrino masses have to be necessarily normally ordered, the solution implies an analytical lower bound on the effective neutrino-less double beta decay neutrino mass, mee≳8 meV, for NB−Lp,i=10−3, testable with next generation experiments. This, in combination with an upper bound on the atmospheric mixing angle, necessarily in the first octant, forces the lightest neutrino mass within a narrow range m1≃(10–30 meV (corresponding to ∑imi≃(75–125 meV. We also show why the solution could correctly predict a non-vanishing reactor neutrino mixing angle and requires the Dirac phase to be in the fourth quadrant, implying sin⁡δ (and JCP negative as hinted by current global analyses. Many of the analytical results presented (expressions for the orthogonal matrix, RH neutrino mixing matrix, masses and phases can have applications beyond leptogenesis.

  10. On the Cultivation of Students' Interests in Biology Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the importance of middle school students' interests in learning biology. Considering the psychological characteristics of middle school students, this paper suggests several practical ways for inspiring students' interests in learning biology.

  11. Business Inspiration: Small Business Leadership in Recovery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, David; Price, Liz; Bosworth, Gary; Parkinson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Business Inspiration was a short, action-centred leadership and innovation development programme designed for owners and managers of smaller firms to address business survival and repositioning needs arising from the UK's economic downturn. The article examines the design and delivery of Business Inspiration and the impact of the programme on…

  12. New Inspirations in Nature: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitesh Maganlal Sureja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, the studies on algorithms inspired by nature have shown that these methods can be efficiently used to eliminate most of the difficulties of classical methods. Nature inspired algorithms are widely used to solve optimization problems with complex nature. Various research works are carried out and algorithms are presented based on that during last few decades. Recently, some new algorithms inspired from nature are proposed to further improve the solutions obtained by the algorithms presented before. In this paper, a survey of five recently introduced Nature inspired algorithms is carried out. They include Firefly algorithm (FA, Cuckoo Search (CS, and Bat Inspired Algorithm (BA. Each of these algorithms are introduced and applied on various numerical optimization functions by various authors. We have tried to review and study the papers published by the authors and present a conclusion of this survey based on the results obtained.

  13. Biohydrogen Production by the Thermophilic Bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus: Current Status and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kengen, Servé W. M.; Verhaart, Marcel R. A.; John van der Oost; Abraham A. M. Bielen

    2013-01-01

    Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus is one of the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms known to date. This Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium ferments a broad spectrum of mono-, di- and polysaccharides to mainly acetate, CO2 and hydrogen. With hydrogen yields approaching the theoretical limit for dark fermentation of 4 mol hydrogen per mol hexose, this organism has proven itself to be an excellent candidate for biological hydrogen production. This review provides an overview of the resear...

  14. Bio-inspired nanomaterials and their applications as antimicrobial agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Sachin Zinjarde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the interdisciplinary field of nanotechnology has expanded extensively. A variety of nanoparticles (NPs have been used for a number of specialized applications. In this era facing a major problem of microorganisms developing antibiotic resistance, NPs are a lucrative option. Most physical and chemical processes of NP synthesis are associated with drawbacks and bio-inspired NPs have now become popular. This review summarizes the recent developments on the biosynthesis, characterization, and applications of NPs with particular reference to their use as antimicrobial agents. Reviewed here is the synthesis of gold and silver NPs (AgNPs by a variety of biological forms and biomolecules as well as their effectiveness toward different fungal and bacterial pathogens. The use of gold NPs (bio-inspired by plants, fungi, and bacteria and AgNPs, synthesized by carbohydrates (of plant, animal, and microbial origin, plant parts (bark, callus, leaves, peels, and tubers, fungi, and bacteria have been highlighted. In addition, the use of zinc oxide NPs (although not bio-inspired as novel antimicrobial agents have also been discussed.

  15. Biologically inspired omniphobic surfaces by reverse imprint lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, René; Finn, Andreas; Helbig, Ralf; Braun, Hans-Georg; Neinhuis, Christoph; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim; Werner, Carsten

    2014-04-01

    Springtail skin morphology is translated into robust omniphobic polymer membranes by reverse imprint lithography. The combination of overhanging cross-sections and their arrangement in a self-supporting comblike pattern are crucial for mechanically stable coatings that can be even applied to curved surfaces. PMID:24375518

  16. Low Power Microrobotics Utilizing Biologically Inspired Energy Generation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Description: building a small microrover that employs energy generated by a bacterial source Objective: investigate the usability of a microbial fuel cell to power...

  17. A new shoulder model with a biologically inspired glenohumeral joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quental, C; Folgado, J; Ambrósio, J; Monteiro, J

    2016-09-01

    Kinematically unconstrained biomechanical models of the glenohumeral (GH) joint are needed to study the GH joint function, especially the mechanisms of joint stability. The purpose of this study is to develop a large-scale multibody model of the upper limb that simulates the 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) of the GH joint and to propose a novel inverse dynamics procedure that allows the evaluation of not only the muscle and joint reaction forces of the upper limb but also the GH joint translations. The biomechanical model developed is composed of 7 rigid bodies, constrained by 6 anatomical joints, and acted upon by 21 muscles. The GH joint is described as a spherical joint with clearance. Assuming that the GH joint translates according to the muscle load distribution, the redundant muscle load sharing problem is formulated considering as design variables the 3 translational coordinates associated with the GH joint translations, the joint reaction forces associated with the remaining kinematic constraints, and the muscle activations. For the abduction motion in the frontal plane analysed, the muscle and joint reaction forces estimated by the new biomechanical model proposed are similar to those estimated by a model in which the GH joint is modeled as an ideal spherical joint. Even though this result supports the assumption of an ideal GH joint to study the muscle load sharing problem, only a 6 DOF model of the GH joint, as the one proposed here, provides information regarding the joint translations. In this study, the biomechanical model developed predicts an initial upward and posterior migration of the humeral head, followed by an inferior and anterior movement, which is in good agreement with the literature. PMID:27381499

  18. Biologically-Inspired Adaptive Obstacle Negotiation Behavior of Hexapod Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldschmidt, Dennis; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    these findings, we present an adaptive neural control mechanism for obstacle negotiation behavior in hexapod robots. It combines locomotion control, backbone joint control, local leg reflexes, and neural learning. While the first three components generate locomotion including walking and climbing, the...... neural learning mechanism allows the robot to adapt its behavior for obstacle negotiation with respect to changing conditions, e.g., variable obstacle heights and different walking gaits. By successfully learning the association of an early, predictive signal (conditioned stimulus, CS) and a late, reflex...... signal (unconditioned stimulus, UCS), both provided by ultrasonic sensors at the front of the robot, the robot can autonomously find an appropriate distance from an obstacle to initiate climbing. The adaptive neural control was developed and tested first on a physical robot simulation, and was then...

  19. Biologically-inspired data decorrelation for hyper-spectral imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghita Ovidiu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyper-spectral data allows the construction of more robust statistical models to sample the material properties than the standard tri-chromatic color representation. However, because of the large dimensionality and complexity of the hyper-spectral data, the extraction of robust features (image descriptors is not a trivial issue. Thus, to facilitate efficient feature extraction, decorrelation techniques are commonly applied to reduce the dimensionality of the hyper-spectral data with the aim of generating compact and highly discriminative image descriptors. Current methodologies for data decorrelation such as principal component analysis (PCA, linear discriminant analysis (LDA, wavelet decomposition (WD, or band selection methods require complex and subjective training procedures and in addition the compressed spectral information is not directly related to the physical (spectral characteristics associated with the analyzed materials. The major objective of this article is to introduce and evaluate a new data decorrelation methodology using an approach that closely emulates the human vision. The proposed data decorrelation scheme has been employed to optimally minimize the amount of redundant information contained in the highly correlated hyper-spectral bands and has been comprehensively evaluated in the context of non-ferrous material classification

  20. Controlled flight of a biologically inspired, insect-scale robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kevin Y; Chirarattananon, Pakpong; Fuller, Sawyer B; Wood, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    Flies are among the most agile flying creatures on Earth. To mimic this aerial prowess in a similarly sized robot requires tiny, high-efficiency mechanical components that pose miniaturization challenges governed by force-scaling laws, suggesting unconventional solutions for propulsion, actuation, and manufacturing. To this end, we developed high-power-density piezoelectric flight muscles and a manufacturing methodology capable of rapidly prototyping articulated, flexure-based sub-millimeter mechanisms. We built an 80-milligram, insect-scale, flapping-wing robot modeled loosely on the morphology of flies. Using a modular approach to flight control that relies on limited information about the robot's dynamics, we demonstrated tethered but unconstrained stable hovering and basic controlled flight maneuvers. The result validates a sufficient suite of innovations for achieving artificial, insect-like flight. PMID:23641114

  1. Biologically inspired path execution using SURF flow in robot navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Sala, Xavier; Angulo Bahón, Cecilio; Escalera, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    An exportable and robust system using only camera images is proposed for path execution in robot navigation. Motion information is extracted in the form of optical flow from SURF robust descriptors of consecutive frames, so the method is called SURF flow. This information is used to correct robot displacement when a straight forward path command is sent to the robot, but it is not really executed due to several robot and environmental concerns. The proposed system has been ...

  2. Biologically Inspired Vision Systems for Flying Robots – Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Fernández-Caballero

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have attracted considerable interest for a wide variety of applications, including meteorological observation, fire monitoring and patrolling, to military purposes such as reconnaissance, monitoring and communication [4]. In recent years, flying robots such as autonomous quadrocopters have gained increased interest in robotics and computer vision research. To navigate safely, these robots need the ability to localise themselves autonomously using their on-board...

  3. Biologically Inspired Behaviour Design for Autonomous Robotic Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Dong Liu; Huosheng Hu

    2006-01-01

    Behaviour-based approach plays a key role for mobile robots to operate safely in unknown or dynamically changing environments. We have developed a hybrid control architecture for our autonomous robotic fish that consists of three layers: cognitive, behaviour and swim pattern. In this paper, we describe some main design issues of the behaviour layer, which is the centre of the layered control architecture of our robotic fish. Fuzzy logic control (FLC) is adopted here to design individual behaviours. Simulation and real experiments are presented to show the feasibility and the performance of the designed behaviour layer.

  4. Bio-Inspired Search Strategies for Robot Swarms

    OpenAIRE

    Hereford, James M.; Siebold, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    We developed and tested two biologically inspired search strategies for robot swarms. The first search technique, which we call the physically embedded Particle Swarm Optimization (pePSO) algorithm, is based on bird flocking and the PSO. The pePSO is able to find single peaks even in a complex search space such as the Rastrigin function and the Rosenbrock function. We were also the first research team to show that the pePSO could be implemented in an actual suite of robots. Our experiments wi...

  5. Product and technology innovation: what can biomimicry inspire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie-Luke, Elena

    2014-12-01

    Biomimicry (bio- meaning life in Greek, and -mimesis, meaning to copy) is a growing field that seeks to interpolate natural biological mechanisms and structures into a wide range of applications. The rise of interest in biomimicry in recent years has provided a fertile ground for innovation. This review provides an eco-system based analysis of biomimicry inspired technology and product innovation. A multi-disciplinary framework has been developed to accomplish this analysis and the findings focus on the areas that have been most strikingly affected by the application of biomimicry and also highlight the emerging trends and opportunity areas. PMID:25316672

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma turonicum Tab4cT, a Bacterium Isolated from Horse Flies (Haematopota sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Gasparich, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    Spiroplasma turonicum Tab4cT was isolated from a horse fly (Haematopota sp.; probably Haematopota pluvialis) collected at Champchevrier, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France, in 1991. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology and the comparative genomics among Spiroplasma spp. PMID:27660788

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma turonicum Tab4cT, a Bacterium Isolated from Horse Flies (Haematopota sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wen-Sui; Gasparich, Gail E; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2016-01-01

    Spiroplasma turonicum Tab4c(T) was isolated from a horse fly (Haematopota sp.; probably Haematopota pluvialis) collected at Champchevrier, Indre-et-Loire, Touraine, France, in 1991. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of this bacterium to facilitate the investigation of its biology and the comparative genomics among Spiroplasma spp. PMID:27660788

  8. Genome Sequence of Virgibacillus pantothenticus DSM 26T (ATCC 14576), a Mesophilic and Halotolerant Bacterium Isolated from Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Ping; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-Hong; Chen, De-Ju; Zhu, Yu-Jing; Chen, Zheng; Che, Jian-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Virgibacillus pantothenticus DSM 26(T) is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, aerobic, mesophilic, and halotolerant bacterium. Here, we report its 4.76-Mb draft genome sequence, which is the first genome information of V. pantothenticus and will promote biological research and biotechnological application for the species. PMID:26383648

  9. Genome Sequence of Virgibacillus pantothenticus DSM 26T (ATCC 14576), a Mesophilic and Halotolerant Bacterium Isolated from Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jie-ping; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guo-hong; Chen, De-ju; Zhu, Yu-jing; Chen, Zheng; Che, Jian-mei

    2015-01-01

    Virgibacillus pantothenticus DSM 26T is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, aerobic, mesophilic, and halotolerant bacterium. Here, we report its 4.76-Mb draft genome sequence, which is the first genome information of V. pantothenticus and will promote biological research and biotechnological application for the species.

  10. Biology-Derived Algorithms in Engineering Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She

    2010-01-01

    Biology-derived algorithms are an important part of computational sciences, which are essential to many scientific disciplines and engineering applications. Many computational methods are derived from or based on the analogy to natural evolution and biological activities, and these biologically inspired computations include genetic algorithms, neural networks, cellular automata, and other algorithms.

  11. Computational Biology: A Programming Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue;

    2011-01-01

    identify some strengths and shortcomings from a programming perspective. To show concretely what one could see as programming in biocomputing, we outline (from recent work) a computation model and a small programming language that are biologically more plausible than existing silicon-inspired models....... Whether or not the model is biologically plausible in an absolute sense, we believe it sets a standard for a biological device that can be both universal and programmable....

  12. Inspired at a book fair

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    During the Frankfurt book fair last October, the CERN stand drew quite the crowd. Director-General Rolf Heuer was there to promote CERN’s mission and the "LHC: the Large Hadron Collider" book. He met a lot of visitors and for one of them there was also a nice follow-up…   Marcus and his father visiting the LINAC facility. Fifteen year-old Marcus lives in Lauterecken near Frankfurt. The popular book fair last autumn was for him a nice opportunity to get in touch with the CERN environment. Inspired by the stand and what the CERN people were describing, he started to ask more and more questions… So many, that Rolf Heuer decided to invite him to come to CERN and find out some of the answers for himself. A few weeks later, while recovering from an exciting visit to the ATLAS underground cavern and other CERN installations with a cup of tea in Restaurant 1, Marcus shared his enthusiasm about the Organization: “When I was younger, my moth...

  13. Fracture Mechanics: Inspirations from Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Taylor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Nature there are many examples of materials performing structural functions. Nature requires materials which are stiff and strong to provide support against various forces, including self-weight, the dynamic forces involved in movement, and external loads such as wind or the actions of a predator. These materials and structures have evolved over millions of years; the science of Biomimetics seeks to understand Nature and, as a result, to find inspiration for the creation of better engineering solutions. There has been relatively little fundamental research work in this area from a fracture mechanics point of view. Natural materials are quite brittle and, as a result, they have evolved several interesting strategies for preventing failure by crack propagation. Fatigue is also a major problem for many animals and plants. In this paper, several examples will be given of recent work in the Bioengineering Research Centre at Trinity College Dublin, investigating fracture and fatigue in such diverse materials as bamboo, the legs and wings of insects, and living cells.

  14. Nature Inspired Hay Fever Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrei P.Sommer; Dan Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The survival oriented adaptation of evolved biosystems to variations in their environment is a selective optimization process. Recognizing the optimised end product and its functionality is the classical arena of bionic engineering. In a primordial world, however, the molecular organization and functions of prebiotic systems were solely defined by formative processes in their physical and chemical environment, for instance, the interplay between interracial water layers on surfaces and solar light. The formative potential of the interplay between light (laser light) and interfacial water layers on surfaces was recently exploited in the formation of supercubane carbon nanocrystals. In evolved biosystems the formative potential of interracial water layers can still be activated by light. Here we report a case of hay fever, which was successfully treated in the course of a facial reju-venation program starting in November 2007. Targeting primarily interfacial water layers on elastin fibres in the wrinkled areas, we presumably also activated mast cells in the nasal mucosa, reported to progressively decrease in the nasal mucosa of the rabbit, when frequently irradiated. Hay fever is induced by the release of mediators, especially histamine, a process associated with the degranulation of mast cells. Decrease in mast cells numbers implies a decrease in the release of histamine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the treatment of hay fever with visible light. This approach was inspired by bionic thinking, and could help ameliorating the condition of millions of people suffering from hay fever world wide.

  15. Bio-inspired computation in telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xin-She; Ting, TO

    2015-01-01

    Bio-inspired computation, especially those based on swarm intelligence, has become increasingly popular in the last decade. Bio-Inspired Computation in Telecommunications reviews the latest developments in bio-inspired computation from both theory and application as they relate to telecommunications and image processing, providing a complete resource that analyzes and discusses the latest and future trends in research directions. Written by recognized experts, this is a must-have guide for researchers, telecommunication engineers, computer scientists and PhD students.

  16. Biomedical and Clinical Importance of Mussel-Inspired Polymers and Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Kaushik, Neha; Pardeshi, Sunil; Sharma, Jai Gopal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-11-11

    The substance secreted by mussels, also known as nature's glue, is a type of liquid protein that hardens rapidly into a solid water-resistant adhesive material. While in seawater or saline conditions, mussels can adhere to all types of surfaces, sustaining its bonds via mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs), a group of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and catecholic amino acid. Several aspects of this adhesion process have inspired the development of various types of synthetic materials for biomedical applications. Further, there is an urgent need to utilize biologically inspired strategies to develop new biocompatible materials for medical applications. Consequently, many researchers have recently reported bio-inspired techniques and materials that show results similar to or better than those shown by MAPs for a range of medical applications. However, the susceptibility to oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine poses major challenges with regard to the practical translation of mussel adhesion. In this review, various strategies are discussed to provide an option for DOPA/metal ion chelation and to compensate for the limitations imposed by facile 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine autoxidation. We discuss the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activity, and adhesive behaviors of mussel bio-products and mussel-inspired materials (MIMs) that make them attractive for synthetic adaptation. The development of biologically inspired adhesive interfaces, bioactive mussel products, MIMs, and arising areas of research leading to biomedical applications are considered in this review.

  17. Biomedical and Clinical Importance of Mussel-Inspired Polymers and Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Kumar Kaushik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The substance secreted by mussels, also known as nature’s glue, is a type of liquid protein that hardens rapidly into a solid water-resistant adhesive material. While in seawater or saline conditions, mussels can adhere to all types of surfaces, sustaining its bonds via mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs, a group of proteins containing 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA and catecholic amino acid. Several aspects of this adhesion process have inspired the development of various types of synthetic materials for biomedical applications. Further, there is an urgent need to utilize biologically inspired strategies to develop new biocompatible materials for medical applications. Consequently, many researchers have recently reported bio-inspired techniques and materials that show results similar to or better than those shown by MAPs for a range of medical applications. However, the susceptibility to oxidation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine poses major challenges with regard to the practical translation of mussel adhesion. In this review, various strategies are discussed to provide an option for DOPA/metal ion chelation and to compensate for the limitations imposed by facile 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine autoxidation. We discuss the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activity, and adhesive behaviors of mussel bio-products and mussel-inspired materials (MIMs that make them attractive for synthetic adaptation. The development of biologically inspired adhesive interfaces, bioactive mussel products, MIMs, and arising areas of research leading to biomedical applications are considered in this review.

  18. Role of Inspiration in Creating Textile Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtawer Sabir Malik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In design-making process, Source of inspiration has a vital role, both in defining the characteristics of a new design and in informing the creation of a distinct design. This study was based on the idea to promote creative and original textile designs by using a source of inspiration. The purpose of the study was to create some original and innovative designs for textiles by using natural paintings of William Morris as an inspiration and incorporating modern elements in the design. Several designs were made and three were selected that were innovative and suitable for textile designing. This study marks the significance of a source of inspiration in textile designing.

  19. Engaging Students through Astronomically Inspired Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a lesson outline in which astronomically inspired musical compositions are used to teach astronomical concepts via an introductory activity, close listening, and critical/creative reflection.

  20. Innovative Didactics in an International Internship - inspiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lembcke, Steen; Skibsted, Else Bengaard; Mølgaard, Niels;

    An inspiration handbook for the international team from the teacher education programme in VIA. Aimed to assist internship supervisors and students during international internships in regards to innovation, social entrepreneurship and development of the international teacher. Introduces why and h...

  1. Towards gecko-feet-inspired bandages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    2009-01-01

    A novel bandage inspired by gecko feet might one day be used during emergencies and internal surgeries. The bandage uses a combination of nanofabricated structures, biodegradable materials and adhesive surface chemistry that allows adhesion onto even wet, moving tissue.

  2. Biomimetics inspired surfaces for drag reduction and oleophobicity/philicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Bhushan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of biomimetics allows one to mimic biology or nature to develop nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes which provide desirable properties. Hierarchical structures with dimensions of features ranging from the macroscale to the nanoscale are extremely common in nature and possess properties of interest. There are a large number of objects including bacteria, plants, land and aquatic animals, and seashells with properties of commercial interest. Certain plant leaves, such as lotus (Nelumbo nucifera leaves, are known to be superhydrophobic and self-cleaning due to the hierarchical surface roughness and presence of a wax layer. In addition to a self-cleaning effect, these surfaces with a high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis also exhibit low adhesion and drag reduction for fluid flow. An aquatic animal, such as a shark, is another model from nature for the reduction of drag in fluid flow. The artificial surfaces inspired from the shark skin and lotus leaf have been created, and in this article the influence of structure on drag reduction efficiency is reviewed. Biomimetic-inspired oleophobic surfaces can be used to prevent contamination of the underwater parts of ships by biological and organic contaminants, including oil. The article also reviews the wetting behavior of oil droplets on various superoleophobic surfaces created in the lab.

  3. Inspirational Catalogue of Master Thesis Proposals 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren

    2015-01-01

    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project.......This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project....

  4. Voice Coil Controlled Inspiration and Expiration Valves

    OpenAIRE

    Bergqvist, Per; Kemmler, Linus

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis was performed at Maquet Critical Care located in Solna, Stockholm. Maquet Critical Care is a market leader in high performance medical ventilators. A ventilator is a medical device that helps patients to breathe. Two of the most vital components of a ventilator are the valves that are closest to the patient. These are the inspiration valve and the expiration valve. The main purpose with this thesis is to get, theoretical as well as practical insights into the inspiration an...

  5. Old Ohrid features - inspiration for contemporary exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The old architecture of Ohrid from the 18th century, is a strong inspiration that is associated with the location of the city (The Macedonian Pearl), and it is an artistic influence of architects, artists, esthetes in Macedonia and beyond. The coastal area of Lake Ohrid is the perfect place for arranging the cafe patio, which will be also a sample of past and a contemporary reflection of the present. The Inspiration of the folklore is incorporated in contemporary and appropriate materials to ...

  6. Voros product and noncommutative inspired black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

    2013-01-01

    We emphasize the importance of the Voros product in defining noncommutative inspired black holes. The computation of entropy for both the noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black holes show that the area law holds upto order $\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{\\theta}}e^{-M^2/\\theta}$. The leading correction to the entropy (computed in the tunneling formalism) is shown to be logarithmic. The Komar energy $E$ for these black holes is then obtained and a deviation from the standard id...

  7. A survey of bio-inspired compliant legged robot designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The roles of biological springs in vertebrate animals and their implementations in compliant legged robots offer significant advantages over the rigid legged ones in certain types of scenarios. A large number of robotics institutes have been attempting to work in conjunction with biologists and incorporated these principles into the design of biologically inspired robots. The motivation of this review is to investigate the most published compliant legged robots and categorize them according to the types of compliant elements adopted in their mechanical structures. Based on the typical robots investigated, the trade-off between each category is summarized. In addition, the most significant performances of these robots are compared quantitatively, and multiple available solutions for the future compliant legged robot design are suggested. Finally, the design challenges for compliant legged robots are analysed. This review will provide useful guidance for robotic designers in creating new designs by inheriting the virtues of those successful robots according to the specific tasks. (topical review)

  8. INSPIRE from the JRC Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlado Cetl

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises some recent developments in INSPIRE implementation from the JRC (Joint Research Centre point of view. The INSPIRE process started around 11 years ago and today, clear results and benefits can be seen. Spatial data are more accessible and shared more frequently between countries and at the European level. In addition to this, efficient, unified coordination and collaboration between different stakeholders and participants has been achieved, which is another great success. The JRC, as a scientific think-tank of the European Commission, has played a very important role in this process from the very beginning. This role is in line with its mission, which is to provide customer-driven scientific and technical support for the conception, development, implementation and monitoring of European Union (EU policies. The JRC acts as the overall technical coordinator of INSPIRE, but it also carries out the activities necessary to support the coherent implementation of INSPIRE, by helping member states in the implementation process. Experiences drawn from collaboration and negotiation in each country and at the European level will be of great importance in the revision of the INSPIRE Directive, which is envisaged for 2014. Keywords: spatial data infrastructure (SDI; INSPIRE; development; Joint Research Centre (JRC

  9. A method for fast pavement cracking detection based on the biological inspired model%一种快速的基于生物启发模型的路面裂缝特征提取与识别方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐奕奕; 唐培和; 倪志平

    2012-01-01

    路面裂缝形态复杂、表观差异较大,难以用明确的特征来表示,而通常的wavelet、Gabor变换及其函数都是预定义的,不能适应路面裂缝图像的特点,为此提出一种新颖的基于生物启发模型(BIM)特征的弹性领域联合最大化处理识别算法,采用弹性邻域,先对相邻四邻域或八邻域进行图像分割,并在每一区域引入Adaboost分类器选择,保留关键信息,去掉无用或负面信息.该算法获得的特征向量全面反映了原图像信息,且计算复杂度低,有利于实时应用.实验结果表明:本文所提出的方法在路面裂缝的总体识别率高达99.13%,且响应时间快,充分显示了本方法的有效性.%Due to the complexity of shape and apparent differences of pavement cracks, it is difficult to characterize them with definite features. The wavelet, Gabor transform and its functions are usually predefined and cannot adapt to the characteristics of the pavement crack images. This paper proposes a novel joint maximization recognition algorithm in the resilient area, which is based on the characteristics of biologically inspired model (BIM). The algorithm uses the elastic neighborhood, the first adjacent neighbors domain or eight neighborhood image segmentation. Adaboost classifier is introduced in each region to select and retain key information, get rid of unwanted or negative information. Its eigenvectors can reflect the information in the original image comprehensively and its low computational complexity is helpful in real-time applications. The experimental results show that the overall recognition rate of the proposed method in pavement cracks is up to 99.13%, and its fast response time fully demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  10. Observations and Measurements Design Patterns within INSPIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleidt, K.; Cox, S.; Grellet, S.; Lowe, D.; Lutz, M.; Portele, C.; Sarretta, A.; Ventouras, S.

    2012-04-01

    Several INSPIRE spatial data themes have been specified so that their scope, in addition to classical geographic information, includes measured, modelled or simulated data. The FprEN ISO 19156 standard on Observations and Measurements (O&M) was designed for the explicit purpose of creating application schemas for such data, and thus shall be used in INSPIRE as a basis for developing data models for these themes. The following INSPIRE themes have identified O&M as integrally relevant to their thematic domain and are including elements of O&M in their data specifications: • Geology • Oceanographic geographical features • Atmospheric conditions and Meteorological geographical features • Environmental monitoring facilities • Soil In addition to these themes, several other INSPIRE themes have been identified to which observational information, while not at the core of the data specification, is relevant. Some examples of this are the INSPIRE theme "Species distribution", where primary occurrence data could be provided together with the aggregate distribution, as well as "Industrial and production facilities", where the provision of emissions data on such facilities would be useful for various environmental reporting obligations. While the O&M standard provides a generic framework for the provision of measurement data, it is also kept very abstract, and there are many ways of implementing the core structures in specific application schemas. In order to assure the consistent application of the O&M classes and properties across different INSPIRE themes, a cross-thematic working group on the use of O&M in INSPIRE has been convened. This group has analysed the requirements towards O&M within INSPIRE, identified the types of O&M design patterns required in INSPIRE and developed both additional classes identified as necessary within INSPIRE as well as guidelines detailing how this standard is to be used within INSPIRE. Some examples for these additional classes are

  11. Isolation of a Bacterium Strain Degraded Agar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    One in 58 strains of bacteria isolated from the compost showed clear colonies after a few days of growth on the plates containing medium made of only agar and water.Water suspension contained only agar (2 and 8g·L -1 ) with two controls (normal saline,LB medium) was inoculated with the bacterium BR5-1 to see whether there was an increasement of the alive bacteria concentration after 48 h of the growth.The results showed that there was a significant rising of the alive bacteria concentration in the agar susp...

  12. Swimming Efficiency of Bacterium Escherichia Coli

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, S; Wu, X L; Yeung, C; Chattopadhyay, Suddhashil; Moldovan, Radu; Yeung, Chuck

    2005-01-01

    We use in vivo measurements of swimming bacteria in an optical trap to determine fundamental properties of bacterial propulsion. In particular, we determine the propulsion matrix, which relates the angular velocity of the flagellum to the torques and forces propelling the bacterium. From the propulsion matrix dynamical properties such as forces, torques, swimming speed and power can be obtained from measurements of the angular velocity of the motor. We find significant heterogeneities among different individuals even though all bacteria started from a single colony. The propulsive efficiency, defined as the ratio of the propulsive power output to the rotary power input provided by the motors, is found to be 0.2%.

  13. Economic Game Theory to Model the Attenuation of Virulence of an Obligate Intracellular Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tago, Damian; Meyer, Damien F

    2016-01-01

    Diseases induced by obligate intracellular pathogens have a large burden on global human and animal health. Understanding the factors involved in the virulence and fitness of these pathogens contributes to the development of control strategies against these diseases. Based on biological observations, a theoretical model using game theory is proposed to explain how obligate intracellular bacteria interact with their host. The equilibrium in such a game shows that the virulence and fitness of the bacterium is host-triggered and by changing the host's defense system to which the bacterium is confronted, an evolutionary process leads to an attenuated strain. Although, the attenuation procedure has already been conducted in practice in order to develop an attenuated vaccine (e.g., with Ehrlichia ruminantium), there was a lack of understanding of the theoretical basis behind this process. Our work provides a model to better comprehend the existence of different phenotypes and some underlying evolutionary mechanisms for the virulence of obligate intracellular bacteria.

  14. Economic Game Theory to Model the Attenuation of Virulence of an Obligate Intracellular Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tago, Damian; Meyer, Damien F.

    2016-01-01

    Diseases induced by obligate intracellular pathogens have a large burden on global human and animal health. Understanding the factors involved in the virulence and fitness of these pathogens contributes to the development of control strategies against these diseases. Based on biological observations, a theoretical model using game theory is proposed to explain how obligate intracellular bacteria interact with their host. The equilibrium in such a game shows that the virulence and fitness of the bacterium is host-triggered and by changing the host's defense system to which the bacterium is confronted, an evolutionary process leads to an attenuated strain. Although, the attenuation procedure has already been conducted in practice in order to develop an attenuated vaccine (e.g., with Ehrlichia ruminantium), there was a lack of understanding of the theoretical basis behind this process. Our work provides a model to better comprehend the existence of different phenotypes and some underlying evolutionary mechanisms for the virulence of obligate intracellular bacteria. PMID:27610355

  15. Economic Game Theory to Model the Attenuation of Virulence of an Obligate Intracellular Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tago, Damian; Meyer, Damien F

    2016-01-01

    Diseases induced by obligate intracellular pathogens have a large burden on global human and animal health. Understanding the factors involved in the virulence and fitness of these pathogens contributes to the development of control strategies against these diseases. Based on biological observations, a theoretical model using game theory is proposed to explain how obligate intracellular bacteria interact with their host. The equilibrium in such a game shows that the virulence and fitness of the bacterium is host-triggered and by changing the host's defense system to which the bacterium is confronted, an evolutionary process leads to an attenuated strain. Although, the attenuation procedure has already been conducted in practice in order to develop an attenuated vaccine (e.g., with Ehrlichia ruminantium), there was a lack of understanding of the theoretical basis behind this process. Our work provides a model to better comprehend the existence of different phenotypes and some underlying evolutionary mechanisms for the virulence of obligate intracellular bacteria. PMID:27610355

  16. Design considerations for an underwater soft-robot inspired from marine invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Michael; Sledge, Isaac; Mohseni, Kamran

    2015-12-01

    This article serves as an overview of the unique challenges and opportunities made possible by a soft, jellyfish inspired, underwater robot. We include a description of internal pressure modeling as it relates to propulsive performance, leading to a desired energy-minimizing volume flux program. Strategies for determining optimal actuator placement derived from biological body motions are presented. In addition a feedback mechanism inspired by the epidermal line sensory system of cephalopods is presented, whereby internal pressure distribution can be used to determine pertinent deformation parameters. PMID:26513603

  17. Bio-Inspired Metal-Coordination Dynamics: A Unique Tool for Engineering Soft Matter Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holten-Andersen, Niels

    Growing evidence supports a critical role of metal-coordination in soft biological material properties such as self-healing, underwater adhesion and autonomous wound plugging. Using bio-inspired metal-binding polymers, initial efforts to mimic these properties with metal-coordination crosslinked polymer materials have shown promise. In addition, with polymer network mechanics strongly coupled to coordinate crosslink dynamics material properties can be easily tuned from visco-elastic fluids to solids. Given their exploitation in desirable material applications in Nature, bio-inspired metal-coordinate complex crosslinking provides an opportunity to further advance synthetic polymer materials design. Early lessons from this pursuit are presented.

  18. Biodegradation of heavy oils by halophilic bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruixia Hao; Anhuai Lu

    2009-01-01

    A halophilic bacterial strain TM-1 was isolated from the reservoir of the Shengli oil field in East China. Strain TM-1, which was found to be able to degrade crude oils, is a gram-positive non-motile bacterium with a coccus shape that can grow at temperatures of up to 58 ℃ and in 18% NaCl solution. Depending on the culture conditions, the organism may occur in tetrads. In addition, strain TM-1 pro-duced acid from glucose without gas formation and was catalase-negative. Furthermore, strain TM-I was found to be a facultative aer-obe capable of growth under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, it produced butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid-bis ester and dibutyl phthalate and could use different organic substrates. Laboratory studies indicated that strain TM-1 affected different heavy oils by degrading various components and by changing the chemical properties of the oils. In addition, growth of the bacterium in heavy oils resulted in the loss of aromatic hydrocarbons, resins and asphaltenes, and enrichment with light hydrocarbons and an overall redistribution of these hydrocarbons.

  19. Highly eccentric inspirals into a black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Osburn, Thomas; Evans, Charles R

    2015-01-01

    We model the inspiral of a compact stellar-mass object into a massive non-rotating black hole including all dissipative and conservative first-order-in-the-mass-ratio effects on the orbital motion. The techniques we develop allow inspirals with initial eccentricities as high as $e\\sim0.8$ and initial separations as large as $\\sim 100M$ to be evolved through many thousands of orbits up to the onset of the plunge into the black hole. The inspiral is computed using an osculating elements scheme driven by a hybridized self-force model, which combines Lorenz-gauge self-force results with highly accurate flux data from a Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli code. The high accuracy of our hybrid self-force model allows the orbital phase of the inspirals to be tracked to within $\\sim0.1$ radians or better. The difference between self-force models and inspirals computed in the radiative approximation is quantified.

  20. Biological physics--origin and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackmann, Erich

    2002-03-12

    Biology and Physics share common ancestors. The two sciences have drifted apart during the last century, although they have often mutually fertilized each other. Often the discovery of a new physical method has triggered dramatic progresses in biology but there are also numerous examples of biology-inspired new developments in physics. In this special issue of ChemPhysChem, various facets and new developments of the interface between physics and biology are pointed out.

  1. String and string-inspired phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    López, J L

    1994-01-01

    In these lectures I review the progress made over the last few years in the subject of string and string-inspired phenomenology. I take a practical approach, thereby concentrating more on explicit examples rather than on formal developments. Topics covered include: introduction to string theory the free-fermionic formulation and its general features, generic conformal field theory properties, SU(5)\\times U(1) GUT and string model-building, supersymmetry breaking, the bottom-up approach to string-inspired models, radiative electroweak symmetry breaking, the determination of the allowed parameter space of supergravity models and the experimental constraints on this class of models, and prospects for direct and indirect tests of string-inspired models. (Lectures delivered at the XXII ITEP International Winter School of Physics, Moscow, Russia, February 22 -- March 2, 1994)

  2. Nature-inspired computation in engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This timely review book summarizes the state-of-the-art developments in nature-inspired optimization algorithms and their applications in engineering. Algorithms and topics include the overview and history of nature-inspired algorithms, discrete firefly algorithm, discrete cuckoo search, plant propagation algorithm, parameter-free bat algorithm, gravitational search, biogeography-based algorithm, differential evolution, particle swarm optimization and others. Applications include vehicle routing, swarming robots, discrete and combinatorial optimization, clustering of wireless sensor networks, cell formation, economic load dispatch, metamodeling, surrogated-assisted cooperative co-evolution, data fitting and reverse engineering as well as other case studies in engineering. This book will be an ideal reference for researchers, lecturers, graduates and engineers who are interested in nature-inspired computation, artificial intelligence and computational intelligence. It can also serve as a reference for relevant...

  3. Bio-inspired 3D microenvironments: a new dimension in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Chelsea M; Alge, Daniel L; Anseth, Kristi S

    2016-04-01

    Biomaterial scaffolds have been a foundational element of the tissue engineering paradigm since the inception of the field. Over the years there has been a progressive move toward the rational design and fabrication of bio-inspired materials that mimic the composition as well as the architecture and 3D structure of tissues. In this review, we chronicle advances in the field that address key challenges in tissue engineering as well as some emerging applications. Specifically, a summary of the materials and chemistries used to engineer bio-inspired 3D matrices that mimic numerous aspects of the extracellular matrix is provided, along with an overview of bioprinting, an additive manufacturing approach, for the fabrication of engineered tissues with precisely controlled 3D structures and architectures. To emphasize the potential clinical impact of the bio-inspired paradigm in biomaterials engineering, some applications of bio-inspired matrices are discussed in the context of translational tissue engineering. However, focus is also given to recent advances in the use of engineered 3D cellular microenvironments for fundamental studies in cell biology, including photoresponsive systems that are shedding new light on how matrix properties influence cell phenotype and function. In an outlook for future work, the need for high-throughput methods both for screening and fabrication is highlighted. Finally, microscale organ-on-a-chip technologies are highlighted as a promising area for future investment in the application of bio-inspired microenvironments. PMID:26942469

  4. Diffusion of magnetotactic bacterium in rotating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebers, A., E-mail: aceb@tesla.sal.l [Department of Physics, University of Latvia, Zellu 8, Ri-bar ga, LV-1002 (Latvia)

    2011-02-15

    Swimming trajectory of a magnetotactic bacterium in a rotating magnetic field is a circle. Random reversals of the direction of the bacterium motion induces a random walk of the curvature center of the trajectory. In assumption of the distribution of the switching events according to the Poisson process the diffusion coefficient is calculated in dependence on the frequency of the rotating field and the characteristic time between the switching events. It is confirmed by the numerical simulation of the random walk of the bacterium in the rotating magnetic field. - Research highlights: Random switching of the flagella leads to diffusion of a bacterium in the field. Mean square displacement of the curvature center is proportional to time. Diffusion coefficient depends on the period of a rotating field. At zero frequency diffusion coefficient is the same as for a tumbling bacterium.

  5. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haiyan; Liu, Ying; Sun, Guangdong; Gao, Xiyan; Zhang, Qingling; Liu, Zhipei

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium, strain S1-1, was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system. Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp. based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence, which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp. TSBY-70. Strain S1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite, and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%, respectively. The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low level accumulation of nitrite, suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S1-1 occurred mainly in this phase. The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1. Finally, factors affecting the growth of strain S1-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated. Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source, C/N ratio15, salinity 10 g/L NaCl, incubation temperature 20 degrees C and initial pH 6.5. PMID:22432315

  6. Denitrification characteristics of a marine origin psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Zheng; Ying Liu; Guangdong Sun; Xiyan Gao; Qingling Zhang; Zhipei Liu

    2011-01-01

    A psychrophilic aerobic denitrifying bacterium,strain S1-1,was isolated from a biological aerated filter conducted for treatment of recirculating water in a marine aquaculture system.Strain S1-1 was preliminarily identified as Psychrobacter sp.based on the analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence,which showed 100% sequence similarity to that of Psychrobacter sp.TSBY-70.Strain S 1-1 grew well either in high nitrate or high nitrite conditions with a removal of 100% nitrate or 63.50% nitrite,and the total nitrogen removal rates could reach to 46.48% and 31.89%,respectively.The results indicated that nitrate was mainly reduced in its logarithmic growth phase with a very low leve 1 accumulation of nitrite,suggesting that the aerobic denitrification process of strain S l-1 occurred mainly in this phase.The GC-MS results showed that N2O was formed as the major intermediate during the aerobic denitrifying process of strain S1-1.Finally,factors affecting the growth of strain Sl-1 and its aerobic denitrifying ability were also investigated.Results showed that the optimum aerobic denitrification conditions for strain S1-1 were sodium succinate as carbon source,C/N ratio15,salinity 10 g/L NaCl,incubation temperature 20℃ and initial pH 6.5.

  7. Quantum-inspired resonance for associative memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new kind of dynamics for simulations based upon quantum-classical hybrid is discussed. The model is represented by a modified Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced by different, specially chosen potentials. As a result, the dynamics attains both quantum and classical properties: it preserves superposition and entanglement of random solutions, while allowing one to measure its state variables using classical methods. Such an optimal combination of characteristics is a perfect match for quantum-inspired information processing. In this paper, the retrieval of stored items from an exponentially large unsorted database is performed by quantum-inspired resonance using polynomial resources due to quantum-like superposition effect.

  8. Innovation inspired by nature: capabilities, potentials, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2012-10-01

    Through evolution, nature came up with many effective solutions to its challenges and continually improving them. By mimicking, coping and being inspired, humans have been using Nature's solutions to address their own challenges. In recent years, the implementation of nature's capabilities has intensified with our growing understanding of the various biological and nastic mechanisms and processes. Successes include even the making of humanlike robots that perform such lifelike tasks as walking, talking, making eye-contact, interpreting speech and facial expressions, as well as many other humanlike functions. Generally, once humans are able to implement a function then, thru rapid advances in technology, capabilities are developed that can significantly exceed the original source of inspiration in Nature. Examples include flight where there is no species that can fly as high, carry so much mass, has so large dimensions and fly so fast, and operate at as such extreme conditions as our aircraft and other aerospace systems. However, using the capabilities of today's technology, there are many challenges that are not feasible to address in mimicking characteristics of species and plants. In this manuscript, state-of-the-art of biomimetic capabilities, potentials and challenges are reviewed.

  9. Innovation Inspired by Nature: Capabilities, Potentials and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2012-01-01

    Through evolution, nature came up with many effective solutions to its challenges and continually improving them. By mimicking, coping and being inspired, humans have been using Nature's solutions to address their own challenges. In recent years, the implementation of nature's capabilities has intensified with our growing understanding of the various biological and nastic mechanisms and processes. Successes include even the making of humanlike robots that perform such lifelike tasks as walking, talking, making eye-contact, interpreting speech and facial expressions, as well as many other humanlike functions. Generally, once humans are able to implement a function then, thru rapid advances in technology, capabilities are developed that can significantly exceed the original source of inspiration in Nature. Examples include flight where there is no species that can fly as high, carry so much mass, has so large dimensions and fly so fast, and operate at as such extreme conditions as our aircraft and other aerospace systems. However, using the capabilities of today's technology, there are many challenges that are not feasible to address in mimicking characteristics of species and plants. In this manuscript, state-of-the-art of biomimetic capabilities, potentials and challenges are reviewed.

  10. A bio-inspired image coder with temporal scalability

    CERN Document Server

    Masmoudi, Khaled; Kornprobst, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel bio-inspired and dynamic coding scheme for static images. Our coder aims at reproducing the main steps of the visual stimulus processing in the mammalians retina taking into account its time behavior. The main novelty of this work is to show how to exploit the time behavior of the retina cells to ensure, in a simple way, scalability and bit allocation. To do so, our main source of inspiration will be the biologically plausible retina model called Virtual Retina. Following a similar structure, our model has two stages. The first stage is an image transform which is performed by the outer layers in the retina. Here it is modelled by filtering the image with a bank of difference of Gaussians with time-delays. The second stage is a time-dependent analog-to-digital conversion which is performed by the inner layers in the retina. Thanks to its conception, our coder enables scalability and bit allocation across time. Also, compared to the JPEG standards, our decoded images do not show annoying art...

  11. Optimized bio-inspired stiffening design for an engine nacelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Neil; Vodenitcharova, Tania; Hoffman, Mark

    2015-12-01

    Structural efficiency is a common engineering goal in which an ideal solution provides a structure with optimized performance at minimized weight, with consideration of material mechanical properties, structural geometry, and manufacturability. This study aims to address this goal in developing high performance lightweight, stiff mechanical components by creating an optimized design from a biologically-inspired template. The approach is implemented on the optimization of rib stiffeners along an aircraft engine nacelle. The helical and angled arrangements of cellulose fibres in plants were chosen as the bio-inspired template. Optimization of total displacement and weight was carried out using a genetic algorithm (GA) coupled with finite element analysis. Iterations showed a gradual convergence in normalized fitness. Displacement was given higher emphasis in optimization, thus the GA optimization tended towards individual designs with weights near the mass constraint. Dominant features of the resulting designs were helical ribs with rectangular cross-sections having large height-to-width ratio. Displacement reduction was at 73% as compared to an unreinforced nacelle, and is attributed to the geometric features and layout of the stiffeners, while mass is maintained within the constraint. PMID:26531222

  12. Multi-objective optimization of aerostructures inspired by nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Adam C.

    The focus of this doctoral work is on the optimization of aircraft wing structures. The optimization was performed against the shape, size and topology of simple aircraft wing designs. A simple morphing wing actuator optimization is performed as well as a wing panel buckling topology optimization. This is done with biologically-inspired mathematical systems including a map L-system, a multi-objective genetic algorithm, and cellular structures represented by Voronoi diagrams. As with most aircraft optimizations, both studies aim to minimize the total weight of a wing while simultaneously meeting stiffness and strength requirements. Optimization is performed with the scripts developed in MATLAB as well as through the use of finite element codes, NASTRAN and LS-Dyna. The intent of this methodology is to develop unique designs inspired by nature and optimized through natural selection. The optimal designs are those with minimal weight as well as additional requirements specific to the problems. The designs and methodology have the potential to be of use in determining minimum weight designs in aircraft structures. A literature review of optimization techniques, methodology and method validation, and optimization comparisons is presented. The buckling panel optimization considered here also includes composite buckling failure and manufacturing assumptions for composite panels. The panels are optimized for mass and strength by controlling the laminate stacking sequence, stiffener size, and topology. The morphing wing is optimized for actuator loading and redundancy.

  13. Electronic and optoelectronic materials and devices inspired by nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, P.; Bettinger, C. J.; Irimia-Vladu, M.; Mostert, A. B.; Schwenn, P. E.

    2013-03-01

    Inorganic semiconductors permeate virtually every sphere of modern human existence. Micro-fabricated memory elements, processors, sensors, circuit elements, lasers, displays, detectors, etc are ubiquitous. However, the dawn of the 21st century has brought with it immense new challenges, and indeed opportunities—some of which require a paradigm shift in the way we think about resource use and disposal, which in turn directly impacts our ongoing relationship with inorganic semiconductors such as silicon and gallium arsenide. Furthermore, advances in fields such as nano-medicine and bioelectronics, and the impending revolution of the ‘ubiquitous sensor network’, all require new functional materials which are bio-compatible, cheap, have minimal embedded manufacturing energy plus extremely low power consumption, and are mechanically robust and flexible for integration with tissues, building structures, fabrics and all manner of hosts. In this short review article we summarize current progress in creating materials with such properties. We focus primarily on organic and bio-organic electronic and optoelectronic systems derived from or inspired by nature, and outline the complex charge transport and photo-physics which control their behaviour. We also introduce the concept of electrical devices based upon ion or proton flow (‘ionics and protonics’) and focus particularly on their role as a signal interface with biological systems. Finally, we highlight recent advances in creating working devices, some of which have bio-inspired architectures, and summarize the current issues, challenges and potential solutions. This is a rich new playground for the modern materials physicist.

  14. Fluctuation-Enhanced Sensing of Bacterium Odors

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Hung-Chih; King, Maria D; Kwan, Chiman

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore the possibility to detect and identify bacteria by sensing their odor via fluctuation-enhanced sensing with commercial Taguchi sensors. The fluctuations of the electrical resistance during exposure to different bacterial odors, Escherichia coli and anthrax-surrogate Bacillus subtilis, have been measured and analyzed. In the present study, the simplest method, the measurement and analysis of power density spectra was used. The sensors were run in the normal heated and the sampling-and-hold working modes, respectively. The results indicate that Taguchi sensors used in these fluctuation-enhanced modes are effective tools of bacterium detection and identification even when they are utilizing only the power density spectrum of the stochastic sensor signal.

  15. Bionics: Biological insight into mechanical design

    OpenAIRE

    Dickinson, Michael H

    1999-01-01

    When pressed with an engineering problem, humans often draw guidance and inspiration from the natural world (1). Through the process of evolution, organisms have experimented with form and function for at least 3 billion years before the first human manipulations of stone, bone, and antler. Although we cannot know for sure the extent to which biological models inspired our early ancestors, more recent examples of biomimetic designs are well documented. For example, birds and bats played a cen...

  16. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Materials formed by organisms, also known as biological materials, exhibit outstanding structural properties. The range of materials formed in nature is remarkable and their functions include support, protection, motion, sensing, storage, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. These complex...... materials are characterized by their hierarchical and composite design, where features with sizes ranging from nanometers to centimeters provide the basis for the functionality of the material. Understanding of biological materials is, while very interesting from a basic research perspective, also valuable...... as inspiration for the development of new materials for medical and technological applications. In order to successfully mimic biological materials we must first have a thorough understanding of their design. As such, the purpose of the characterization of biological materials can be defined as the establishment...

  17. Nature inspires sensors to do more with less.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Shawn P; Sheehan, Paul E

    2014-10-28

    The world is filled with widely varying chemical, physical, and biological stimuli. Over millennia, organisms have refined their senses to cope with these diverse stimuli, becoming virtuosos in differentiating closely related antigens, handling extremes in concentration, resetting the spent sensing mechanisms, and processing the multiple data streams being generated. Nature successfully deals with both repeating and new stimuli, demonstrating great adaptability when confronted with the latter. Interestingly, nature accomplishes these feats using a fairly simple toolbox. The sensors community continues to draw inspiration from nature's example: just look at the antibodies used as biosensor capture agents or the neural networks that process multivariate data streams. Indeed, many successful sensors have been built by simply mimicking natural systems. However, some of the most exciting breakthroughs occur when the community moves beyond mimicking nature and learns to use nature's tools in innovative ways.

  18. Bio-Inspired Extreme Wetting Surfaces for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sera Shin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological creatures with unique surface wettability have long served as a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers. More specifically, materials exhibiting extreme wetting properties, such as superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces, have attracted considerable attention because of their potential use in various applications, such as self-cleaning fabrics, anti-fog windows, anti-corrosive coatings, drag-reduction systems, and efficient water transportation. In particular, the engineering of surface wettability by manipulating chemical properties and structure opens emerging biomedical applications ranging from high-throughput cell culture platforms to biomedical devices. This review describes design and fabrication methods for artificial extreme wetting surfaces. Next, we introduce some of the newer and emerging biomedical applications using extreme wetting surfaces. Current challenges and future prospects of the surfaces for potential biomedical applications are also addressed.

  19. Inspirational catalogue of Master Thesis proposals 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This catalog presents different topics for master thesis projects. It is important to emphasize that the project descriptions only serves as an inspiration and that you always can discuss with the potential supervisors the specific contents of a project. If you have an idea for a project which...

  20. SUPPORTING SME'S THROUGH ISLAMIC FINANCE INSPIRED OPERATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Bradut-Vasile BOLOS; Hesham MAGD

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we attempt to model a moudaraba inspired financing system for SME support, especially for start-ups, using public funding as high-risk investments instead of grants. The model obtained suggests such an approach may prove to be more efficient, but further research is required.

  1. What is Mathematics? Perspectives inspired by anthropology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    The paper discusses the question “what is mathematics” from a point of view inspired by anthropology. In this perspective, the character of mathematical thinking and argument is strongly affected – almost essentially determined, indeed – by the dynamics of the specific social, mostly professional...

  2. Water Treatment Technologies Inspire Healthy Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Mike Johnson, a former technician at Johnson Space Center, drew on his expertise as a wastewater engineer to create a line of kombucha-based probiotic drinks. Unpeeled Inc., based in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota, employs 12 people and has sold more than 6 million units of its NASA-inspired beverage.

  3. Noncommutative geometry inspired dirty black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolini, Piero; Spallucci, Euro

    2009-01-01

    We provide a new exact solution of the Einstein equations which generalizes the noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild metric, we previously obtained. We consider here more general relations between the energy density and the radial pressure and find new a geometry describing a regular ``dirty black hole''. We discuss strong and weak energy condition violations and various aspects of the regular dirty black hole thermodynamics.

  4. Basket Weaving Inspired by the Gullah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rita

    2010-01-01

    Many different cultures created and used the basket not only for utilitarian purposes, but also for ceremonial uses. In this article, the author describes an eighth-grade project inspired by the basket making of the Gullah people, who live along the coast of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.

  5. Towards Ecology-Inspired Software Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Baudry, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystems are complex and dynamic systems. Over billions of years, they have developed advanced capabilities to provide stable functions, despite changes in their environment. In this paper, we argue that the laws of organization and development of ecosystems provide a solid and rich source of inspiration to lay the foundations for novel software construction paradigms that provide stability as much as openness.

  6. Pop Art--Inspired Self-Portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Donna J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art lesson that was inspired by Andy Warhol's mass-produced portraits. Warhol began his career as a graphic artist and illustrator. His artwork was a response to the redundancy of the advertising images put in front of the American public. Celebrities and famous people in magazines and newspapers were seen…

  7. Inspired by Athletes, Myths, and Poets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    Tales of love and hate, of athleticism, heroism, devotion to gods and goddesses that influenced myth and culture are a way of sharing ancient Greece's rich history. In this article, the author describes how her students created their own Greek-inspired clay vessels as artifacts of their study. (Contains 6 online resources.)

  8. BATMAV: a 2-DOF bio-inspired flapping flight platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunget, Gheorghe; Seelecke, Stefan

    2010-04-01

    Due to the availability of small sensors, Micro-Aerial Vehicles (MAVs) can be used for detection missions of biological, chemical and nuclear agents. Traditionally these devices used fixed or rotary wings, actuated with electric DC motortransmission, a system which brings the disadvantage of a heavier platform. The overall objective of the BATMAV project is to develop a biologically inspired bat-like MAV with flexible and foldable wings for flapping flight. This paper presents a flight platform that features bat-inspired wings which are able to actively fold their elbow joints. A previous analysis of the flight physics for small birds, bats and large insects, revealed that the mammalian flight anatomy represents a suitable flight platform that can be actuated efficiently using Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) artificial-muscles. A previous study of the flight styles in bats based on the data collected by Norberg [1] helped to identify the required joint angles as relevant degrees of freedom for wing actuation. Using the engineering theory of robotic manipulators, engineering kinematic models of wings with 2 and 3-DOFs were designed to mimic the wing trajectories of the natural flier Plecotus auritus. Solid models of the bat-like skeleton were designed based on the linear and angular dimensions resulted from the kinematic models. This structure of the flight platform was fabricated using rapid prototyping technologies and assembled to form a desktop prototype with 2-DOFs wings. Preliminary flapping test showed suitable trajectories for wrist and wingtip that mimic the flapping cycle of the natural flyer.

  9. A novel strategy for acetonitrile wastewater treatment by using a recombinant bacterium with biofilm-forming and nitrile-degrading capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Yue, Zhenlei; Feng, Fengzhao; Xi, Chuanwu; Zang, Hailian; An, Xuejiao; Liu, Keran

    2016-10-01

    There is a great need for efficient acetonitrile removal technology in wastewater treatment to reduce the discharge of this pollutant in untreated wastewater. In this study, a nitrilase gene (nit) isolated from a nitrile-degrading bacterium (Rhodococcus rhodochrous BX2) was cloned and transformed into a biofilm-forming bacterium (Bacillus subtilis N4) that expressed the recombinant protein upon isopropylthio-β-galactoside (IPTG) induction. The recombinant bacterium (B. subtilis N4-pHT01-nit) formed strong biofilms and had nitrile-degrading capability. Further testing demonstrated that biofilms formed by B. subtilis N4-pHT01-nit were highly resistant to loading shock from acetonitrile and almost completely degraded the initial concentration of acetonitrile (800 mg L(-1)) within 24 h in a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) after operation for 35 d. The bacterial composition of the biofilm, identified by high-throughput sequencing, in a reactor in which the B. subtilis N4-pHT01-nit bacterium was introduced indicated that the engineered bacterium was successfully immobilized in the reactor and became dominant genus. This work demonstrates that an engineered bacterium with nitrile-degrading and biofilm-forming capacity can improve the degradation of contaminants in wastewater. This approach offers a novel strategy for enhancing the biological oxidation of toxic pollutants in wastewater.

  10. Multi-AUV Hunting Algorithm Based on Bio-inspired Neural Network in Unknown Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqi Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The multi-AUV hunting problem is one of the key issues in multi-robot system research. In order to hunt the target efficiently, a new hunting algorithm based on a bio-inspired neural network has been proposed in this paper. Firstly, the AUV’s working environment can be represented, based on the biological-inspired neural network model. There is one-to-one correspondence between each neuron in the neural network and the position of the grid map in the underwater environment. The activity values of biological neurons then guide the AUV’s sailing path and finally the target is surrounded by AUVs. In addition, a method called negotiation is used to solve the AUV’s allocation of hunting points. The simulation results show that the algorithm used in the paper can provide rapid and highly efficient path planning in the unknown environment with obstacles and non-obstacles.

  11. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  12. The Inspiration of Hope in Substance Abuse Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Corinne; Cutcliffe, John R.

    2012-01-01

    This study used a grounded theory method to explore how counselors inspire hope in clients struggling with substance abuse. Findings from 10 participants revealed that hope inspiration occurred in 3 phases and consisted of several categories of hope-inspiring processes. Implications for counseling practice, counselor education, and research are…

  13. Evolving Transport Networks With Cellular Automata Models Inspired by Slime Mould.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsompanas, Michail-Antisthenis I; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch; Adamatzky, Andrew I

    2015-09-01

    Man-made transport networks and their design are closely related to the shortest path problem and considered amongst the most debated problems of computational intelligence. Apart from using conventional or bio-inspired computer algorithms, many researchers tried to solve this kind of problem using biological computing substrates, gas-discharge solvers, prototypes of a mobile droplet, and hot ice computers. In this aspect, another example of biological computer is the plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum (P. polycephalum), which is a large single cell visible by an unaided eye and has been proven as a reliable living substrate for implementing biological computing devices for computational geometry, graph-theoretical problems, and optimization and imitation of transport networks. Although P. polycephalum is easy to experiment with, computing devices built with the living slime mould are extremely slow; it takes slime mould days to execute a computation. Consequently, mapping key computing mechanisms of the slime mould onto silicon would allow us to produce efficient bio-inspired computing devices to tackle with hard to solve computational intelligence problems like the aforementioned. Toward this direction, a cellular automaton (CA)-based, Physarum-inspired, network designing model is proposed. This novel CA-based model is inspired by the propagating strategy, the formation of tubular networks, and the computing abilities of the plasmodium of P. polycephalum. The results delivered by the CA model demonstrate a good match with several previously published results of experimental laboratory studies on imitation of man-made transport networks with P. polycephalum. Consequently, the proposed CA model can be used as a virtual, easy-to-access, and biomimicking laboratory emulator that will economize large time periods needed for biological experiments while producing networks almost identical to the tubular networks of the real-slime mould. PMID

  14. Minimizing Human Intervention in the Development of Basal Ganglia-Inspired Robot Control

    OpenAIRE

    F. Montes-Gonzalez; Prescott, T.J; Negrete-Martinez, J.

    2007-01-01

    A biologically inspired mechanism for robot action selection, based on the vertebrate basal ganglia, has been previously presented (Prescott et al. 2006, Montes Gonzalez et al. 2000). In this model the task confronting the robot is decomposed into distinct behavioural modules that integrate information from multiple sensors and internal state to form ‘salience’ signals. These signals are provided as inputs to a computational model of the basal ganglia whose intrinsic processes cause the selec...

  15. Bio-inspired decision making system for an autonomous social robot: the role of fear

    OpenAIRE

    Castro González, Álvaro

    2012-01-01

    Robotics is an emergent field which is currently in vogue. In the near future, many researchers anticipate the spread of robots coexisting with humans in the real world. This requires a considerable level of autonomy in robots. Moreover, in order to provide a proper interaction between robots and humans without technical knowledge, these robots must behave according to the social and cultural norms. This results in social robots with cognitive capabilities inspired by biological organisms suc...

  16. Experimental evolution of aging in a bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stearns Stephen C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging refers to a decline in reproduction and survival with increasing age. According to evolutionary theory, aging evolves because selection late in life is weak and mutations exist whose deleterious effects manifest only late in life. Whether the assumptions behind this theory are fulfilled in all organisms, and whether all organisms age, has not been clear. We tested the generality of this theory by experimental evolution with Caulobacter crescentus, a bacterium whose asymmetric division allows mother and daughter to be distinguished. Results We evolved three populations for 2000 generations in the laboratory under conditions where selection was strong early in life, but very weak later in life. All populations evolved faster growth rates, mostly by decreasing the age at first division. Evolutionary changes in aging were inconsistent. The predominant response was the unexpected evolution of slower aging, revealing the limits of theoretical predictions if mutations have unanticipated phenotypic effects. However, we also observed the spread of a mutation causing earlier aging of mothers whose negative effect was reset in the daughters. Conclusion Our results confirm that late-acting deleterious mutations do occur in bacteria and that they can invade populations when selection late in life is weak. They suggest that very few organisms – perhaps none- can avoid the accumulation of such mutations over evolutionary time, and thus that aging is probably a fundamental property of all cellular organisms.

  17. Genome Sequence of the Soil Bacterium Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711

    OpenAIRE

    Shoemaker, William R.; Muscarella, Mario E.; Lennon, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    We present a draft genome of Janthinobacterium sp. KBS0711 that was isolated from agricultural soil. The genome provides insight into the ecological strategies of this bacterium in free-living and host-associated environments.

  18. Voros product and noncommutative inspired black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

    2013-01-01

    We emphasize the importance of the Voros product in defining noncommutative inspired black holes. The computation of entropy for both the noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black holes show that the area law holds upto order $\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{\\theta}}e^{-M^2/\\theta}$. The leading correction to the entropy (computed in the tunneling formalism) is shown to be logarithmic. The Komar energy $E$ for these black holes is then obtained and a deviation from the standard identity $E=2ST_H$ is found at the order $\\sqrt{\\theta}e^{-M^2/\\theta}$. This deviation leads to a nonvanishing Komar energy at the extremal point $T_{H}=0$ of these black holes. The Smarr formula is finally worked out for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole. Similar features also exist for a deSitter--Schwarzschild geometry.

  19. Voros Product and Noncommutative Inspired Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, Sunandan

    2013-03-01

    We emphasize the importance of the Voros product in defining the noncommutative (NC) inspired black holes. The computation of entropy for both the noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström (RN) black holes show that the area law holds up to order (1)/(√ {θ )}e-M2/θ . The leading correction to the entropy (computed in the tunneling formalism) is shown to be logarithmic. The Komar energy E for these black holes is then obtained and a deviation from the standard identity E = 2STH is found at the order √ {θ }e-M2/θ . This deviation leads to a nonvanishing Komar energy at the extremal point TH = 0 of these black holes. The Smarr formula is finally worked out for the NC Schwarzschild black hole. Similar features also exist for a de Sitter-Schwarzschild geometry.

  20. Shadow of noncommutative geometry inspired black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shao-Wen; Cheng, Peng; Zhong, Yi; Zhou, Xiang-Nan

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the shadow casted by the rotating black hole inspired by noncommutative geometry is investigated. In addition to the dimensionless spin parameter a/M0 with M0 black hole mass and inclination angle i, the dimensionless noncommutative parameter √vartheta/M0 is also found to affect the shape of the black hole shadow. The result shows that the size of the shadow slightly decreases with the parameter √vartheta/M0, while the distortion increases with it. Compared to the Kerr black hole, the parameter √vartheta/M0 increases the deformation of the shadow. This may offer a way to distinguish noncommutative geometry inspired black hole from Kerr one via astronomical instruments in the near future.

  1. Taxonomic etymology – in search of inspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Jozwiak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the etymology of zoological taxonomic names with emphasis on the most unusual examples. The names were divided into several categories, starting from the most common – given after morphological features – through inspiration from mythology, legends, and classic literature but also from fictional and nonfictional pop-culture characters (e.g., music, movies or cartoons, science, and politics. A separate category includes zoological names created using word-play and figures of speech such as tautonyms, acronyms, anagrams, and palindromes. Our intention was to give an overview of possibilities of how and where taxonomists can find the inspirations that will be consistent with the ICZN rules and generate more detail afterthought about the naming process itself, the meaningful character of naming, as well as the recognition and understanding of names.

  2. Taxonomic etymology - in search of inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwiak, Piotr; Rewicz, Tomasz; Pabis, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    We present a review of the etymology of zoological taxonomic names with emphasis on the most unusual examples. The names were divided into several categories, starting from the most common - given after morphological features - through inspiration from mythology, legends, and classic literature but also from fictional and nonfictional pop-culture characters (e.g., music, movies or cartoons), science, and politics. A separate category includes zoological names created using word-play and figures of speech such as tautonyms, acronyms, anagrams, and palindromes. Our intention was to give an overview of possibilities of how and where taxonomists can find the inspirations that will be consistent with the ICZN rules and generate more detail afterthought about the naming process itself, the meaningful character of naming, as well as the recognition and understanding of names. PMID:26257573

  3. Trichloroethylene Biodegradation by a Methane-Oxidizing Bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Little, C. Deane; Palumbo, Anthony V; Herbes, Stephen E.; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Tyndall, Richard L.; Gilmer, Penny J.

    1988-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE), a common groundwater contaminant, is a suspected carcinogen that is highly resistant to aerobic biodegradation. An aerobic, methane-oxidizing bacterium was isolated that degrades TCE in pure culture at concentrations commonly observed in contaminated groundwater. Strain 46-1, a type I methanotrophic bacterium, degraded TCE if grown on methane or methanol, producing CO2 and water-soluble products. Gas chromatography and 14C radiotracer techniques were used to determine...

  4. Spider-Web Inspired Mechanical Metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Miniaci, Marco; Krushynska, Anastasiia; Movchan, Alexander B.; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-01-01

    Spider silk is a remarkable example of bio-material with superior mechanical characteristics. Its multilevel structural organization of dragline and viscid silk leads to unusual and tunable properties, extensively studied from a quasi-static point of view. In this study, inspired by the Nephila spider orb web architecture, we propose a novel design for mechanical metamaterials based on its periodic repetition. We demonstrate that spider-web metamaterial structure plays an important role in th...

  5. Wormhole inspired by non-commutative geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Farook Rahaman; Sreya Karmakar; Indrani Karar; Saibal Ray

    2015-01-01

    In the present Letter we search for a new wormhole solution inspired by noncommutative geometry with the additional condition of allowing conformal Killing vectors (CKV). A special aspect of noncommutative geometry is that it replaces point-like structures of gravitational sources with smeared objects under Gaussian distribution. However, the purpose of this letter is to obtain wormhole solutions with noncommutative geometry as a background where we consider a point-like structure of gravitat...

  6. Detection Strategies for Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals

    OpenAIRE

    Cornish, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    The capture of compact stellar remnants by galactic black holes provides a unique laboratory for exploring the near horizon geometry of the Kerr spacetime, or possible departures from general relativity if the central cores prove not to be black holes. The gravitational radiation produced by these Extreme Mass Ratio Inspirals (EMRIs) encodes a detailed map of the black hole geometry, and the detection and characterization of these signals is a major scientific goal for the LISA mission. The w...

  7. Spider's web inspires fibres for industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacey, James

    2010-03-01

    Spiders may not be everybody's idea of natural beauty, but nobody can deny the artistry in the webs that they spin, especially when decorated with water baubles in the morning dew. Inspired by this spectacle, a group of researchers in China has mimicked the structural properties of the spider's web to create a fibre for industry that can manipulate water with the same skill and efficiency, writes James Dacey.

  8. Noncommutative geometry-inspired dirty black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We provide a new exact solution of the Einstein equations which generalize the noncommutative geometry-inspired Schwarzschild metric, we previously obtained. We consider here a more general relation between the energy density and the radial pressure and find new geometries describing a regular 'dirty black hole'. We discuss strong and weak energy condition violation and various aspects of the regular dirty black hole thermodynamics.

  9. Shadow of noncommutative geometry inspired black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Shao-Wen; Cheng, Peng; Zhong, Yi; Zhou, Xiang-Nan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the shadow casted by the rotating black hole inspired by noncommutative geometry is investigated. In addition to the dimensionless spin parameter $a/M_{0}$ with $M_{0}$ black hole mass and inclination angle $i$, the dimensionless noncommutative parameter $\\sqrt{\\vartheta}/M_{0}$ is also found to affect the shape of the black hole shadow. The result shows that the size of the shadow slightly decreases with the parameter $\\sqrt{\\vartheta}/M_{0}$, while the distortion increases wi...

  10. Noncommutative geometry-inspired dirty black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolini, Piero [Physics Department, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA 93740-8031 (United States); Spallucci, Euro, E-mail: nicolini@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.d, E-mail: spallucci@trieste.infn.i [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, and INFN, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy)

    2010-01-07

    We provide a new exact solution of the Einstein equations which generalize the noncommutative geometry-inspired Schwarzschild metric, we previously obtained. We consider here a more general relation between the energy density and the radial pressure and find new geometries describing a regular 'dirty black hole'. We discuss strong and weak energy condition violation and various aspects of the regular dirty black hole thermodynamics.

  11. InSpiRe - Intelligent Spine Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøg, Kasper Hafstrøm; Helms, Niels Henrik; Kjær, Per;

    InSpiRe er et projekt, der har haft omdrejningspunkt i etableringen af et nyt netværk indenfor intelligent genoptræning med særligt fokus på rygsmerter. Projektet er gennemført i perioden 1/3 2011 2011-1/3 2012, med støtte fra Syddansk Vækstforum, og er blevet drevet af projektparterne Knowledge...

  12. Bouncing cosmology inspired by regular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Neves, J C S

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present a bouncing cosmology inspired by a family of regular black holes. This scale-dependent cosmology deviates from the cosmological principle by means of a scale factor which depends on the time and the radial coordinate as well. The model is isotropic but not perfectly homogeneous. That is, this cosmology describes an universe almost homogeneous only for large scales, such as our observable universe.

  13. Autobiography: Inspiring new visions of teacher learning

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Simon

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: The purpose of this article is to broaden the tradition of autobiography by using it as a way in which teachers can identify sources of inspiration in their educational experience. In the process, my aim is to make explicit the links between autobiography, learning and meta learning. Extending autobiographical inquiry to include different levels at which learning takes place serves to highlight the importance not only of the individual context of learning (the private self), but als...

  14. Binary compact object inspiral: Detection expectations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vassiliki Kalogera

    2004-10-01

    We review the current estimates of binary compact object inspiral rates in particular in view of the recently discovered highly relativistic binary pulsar J0737-3039. One of the robust results is that, because of this discovery, the rate estimates for binary neutron stars have increased by a factor of 6-7 independent of any uncertainties related to the pulsar population properties. This rate increase has dramatic implications for gravitational wave detectors. For initial LIGO, the most probable detection rates for double neutron star (DNS) inspirals is 1 event/(5{250) yr; at 95% confidence we obtain rates up to 1/1.5 yr. For advanced LIGO, the most probable rates are 20-1000 events/yr. These predictions, for the first time, bring the expectations for DNS detections by initial LIGO to the astrophysically relevant regime. We also use our models to predict that the large-scale Parkes multibeam pulsar survey with acceleration searches could detect an average of three to four binary pulsars similar to those known at present. In comparison, rate estimates for binaries with black holes are derived based on binary evolution calculation, and based on the optimistic ends of the ranges, remain an important candidate for inspiral detection in the next few years. We also consider another aspect of the detectability of binary inspiral: the effect of precession on the detection efficiency of astrophysically relevant binaries. Based on our current astrophysical expectations, large tilt angles are not favored. As a result the decrease in detection rate varies rather slowly with black hole spin magnitude and is within 20-30% of the maximum possible values.

  15. Taxonomic characterization of the cellulose-degrading bacterium NCIB 10462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, C.; Ringleberg, D.; Scott, T.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Phelps, T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The gram negative cellulase-producing bacterium NCIB 10462 has been previously named Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. or var. cellulosa. Since there is renewed interest in cellulose-degrading bacteria for use in bioconversion of cellulose to chemical feed stocks and fuels, we re-examined the characteristics of this microorganism to determine its proper taxonomic characterization and to further define it`s true metabolic potential. Metabolic and physical characterization of NCIB 10462 revealed that this was an alkalophilic, non-fermentative, gram negative, oxidase positive, motile, cellulose-degrading bacterium. The aerobic substrate utilization profile of this bacterium was found to have few characteristics consistent with a classification of P. fluorescens with a very low probability match with the genus Sphingomonas. Total lipid analysis did not reveal that any sphingolipid bases are produced by this bacterium. NCIB 10462 was found to grow best aerobically but also grows well in complex media under reducing conditions. NCIB 10462 grew slowly under full anaerobic conditions on complex media but growth on cellulosic media was found only under aerobic conditions. Total fatty acid analysis (MIDI) of NCIB 10462 failed to group this bacterium with a known pseudomonas species. However, fatty acid analysis of the bacteria when grown at temperatures below 37{degrees}C suggest that the organism is a pseudomonad. Since a predominant characteristic of this bacterium is it`s ability to degrade cellulose, we suggest it be called Pseudomonas cellulosa.

  16. Nanoelectronic programmable synapses based on phase change materials for brain-inspired computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzum, Duygu; Jeyasingh, Rakesh G D; Lee, Byoungil; Wong, H-S Philip

    2012-05-01

    Brain-inspired computing is an emerging field, which aims to extend the capabilities of information technology beyond digital logic. A compact nanoscale device, emulating biological synapses, is needed as the building block for brain-like computational systems. Here, we report a new nanoscale electronic synapse based on technologically mature phase change materials employed in optical data storage and nonvolatile memory applications. We utilize continuous resistance transitions in phase change materials to mimic the analog nature of biological synapses, enabling the implementation of a synaptic learning rule. We demonstrate different forms of spike-timing-dependent plasticity using the same nanoscale synapse with picojoule level energy consumption. PMID:21668029

  17. A Bio-Inspired QoS-Oriented Handover Model in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxin Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a bio-inspired model for making handover decision in heterogeneous wireless networks. It is based on an extended attractor selection model, which is biologically inspired by the self-adaptability and robustness of cellular response to the changes in dynamic environments. The goal of the proposed model is to guarantee multiple terminals’ satisfaction by meeting the QoS requirements of those terminals’ applications, and this model also attempts to ensure the fairness of network resources allocation, in the meanwhile, to enable the QoS-oriented handover decision adaptive to dynamic wireless environments. Some numerical simulations are preformed to validate our proposed bio-inspired model in terms of adaptive attractor selection in different noisy environments. And the results of some other simulations prove that the proposed handover scheme can adapt terminals’ network selection to the varying wireless environment and benefits the QoS of multiple terminal applications simultaneously and automatically. Furthermore, the comparative analysis also shows that the bio-inspired model outperforms the utility function based handover decision scheme in terms of ensuring a better QoS satisfaction and a better fairness of network resources allocation in dynamic heterogeneous wireless networks.

  18. Communication analysis for feedback control of civil infrastructure using cochlea-inspired sensing nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckens, Courtney A.; Cook, Ireana; Lynch, Jerome P.

    2016-04-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have emerged as a reliable, low-cost alternative to the traditional wired sensing paradigm. While such networks have made significant progress in the field of structural monitoring, significantly less development has occurred for feedback control applications. Previous work in WSNs for feedback control has highlighted many of the challenges of using this technology including latency in the wireless communication channel and computational inundation at the individual sensing nodes. This work seeks to overcome some of those challenges by drawing inspiration from the real-time sensing and control techniques employed by the biological central nervous system and in particular the mammalian cochlea. A novel bio-inspired wireless sensor node was developed that employs analog filtering techniques to perform time-frequency decomposition of a sensor signal, thus encompassing the functionality of the cochlea. The node then utilizes asynchronous sampling of the filtered signal to compress the signal prior to communication. This bio-inspired sensing architecture is extended to a feedback control application in order to overcome the traditional challenges currently faced by wireless control. In doing this, however, the network experiences high bandwidths of low-significance information exchange between nodes, resulting in some lost data. This study considers the impact of this lost data on the control capabilities of the bio-inspired control architecture and finds that it does not significantly impact the effectiveness of control.

  19. Bio-inspired strategies for designing antifouling biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Vinod B; Murthy, N Sanjeeva

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of biomedical devices in a biological medium, biofouling, is a major cause of infection and is entirely avoidable. This mini-review will coherently present the broad range of antifouling strategies, germicidal, preventive and cleaning using one or more of biological, chemical and physical techniques. These techniques will be discussed from the point of view of their ability to inhibit protein adsorption, usually the first step that eventually leads to fouling. Many of these approaches draw their inspiration from nature, such as emulating the nitric oxide production in endothelium, use of peptoids that mimic protein repellant peptides, zwitterionic functionalities found in membrane structures, and catechol functionalities used by mussel to immobilize poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). More intriguing are the physical modifications, creation of micropatterns on the surface to control the hydration layer, making them either superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic. This has led to technologies that emulate the texture of shark skin, and the superhyprophobicity of self-cleaning textures found in lotus leaves. The mechanism of antifouling in each of these methods is described, and implementation of these ideas is illustrated with examples in a way that could be adapted to prevent infection in medical devices. PMID:27326371

  20. Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeiton, V. S.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Georgilas, I. P.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Adamatzky, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned

  1. Demonstrations of bio-inspired perching landing gear for UAVs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieu, Mindy; Michael, Duncan M.; Pflueger, Jeffery B.; Sethi, Manik S.; Shimazu, Kelli N.; Anthony, Tatiana M.; Lee, Christopher L.

    2016-04-01

    Results are presented which demonstrate the feasibility and performance of two concepts of biologically-inspired landing-gear systems that enable bird-sized, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV's) to land, perch, and take-off from branchlike structures and/or ledges. The first concept follows the anatomy of birds that can grasp ahold of a branch and perch as tendons in their legs are tensioned. This design involves a gravity-activated, cable-driven, underactuated, graspingfoot mechanism. As the UAV lands, its weight collapses a four-bar linkage pulling a cable which curls two opposing, multi-segmented feet to grasp the landing target. Each foot is a single, compliant mechanism fabricated by simultaneouly 3D-printing a flexible thermo-plastic and a stiffer ABS plastic. The design is optimized to grasp structures over a range of shapes and sizes. Quasi-static and flight tests of this landing gear affixed to RC rotorcraft (24 cm to 550 cm in diameter) demonstrate that the aircraft can land, perch, and take-off from a tree branch, rectangular wood board, PVC pipe, metal hand rail, chair armrest, and in addition, a stone wall ledge. Stability tests show that perching is maintained under base and wind disturbances. The second design concept, inspired by roosting bats, is a two-material, 3D-printed hooking mechanism that enables the UAV to stably suspend itself from a wire or small-diameter branch. The design balances structural stiffness for support and flexibility for the perching process. A flight-test demonstrates the attaching and dis-engaging of a small, RC quadcopter from a suspended line.

  2. Stingray-inspired robot with simply actuated intermediate motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Lincoln; Gaiennie, Jack; Noble, Nick; Erickson, Jonathan C.

    2016-04-01

    Batoids, or rays, utilize unique forms of locomotion that may offer more efficient techniques of motorized propulsion in various marine environments. We present a novel biomimetic engineering design and assembly of a stingray-inspired robot swimmer. The robots locomotion mimics the Dasyatis americana, or southern stingray, whose distinction among rays is its intermediate motion, characterized by sweeping strokes that propagate between 1/2-1 wavelength of the fin profile in the posterior direction. Though oscillatory ( wavelengths) ray-based robots have been created, this project demonstrates new engineering possibilities in what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first intermediately propelled batoid-based robot. The robots fins were made of silicone rubber, cast in a 3-D printed mold, with wingspan of 42 cm (1/2 - 1/5 scale for males and females, respectively, scale of model organism). Two anteriorly placed servomotors per fin were used, all controlled by one wirelessly enabled Arduino microcontroller. Each servomotor oscillated a flexible rod with cylindrical joint, whose frequency, speed, and front-back phase delay were user-programmed over wireless connection. During free-swimming tests, the fin profile developed about 0.8 wavelength, qualifying for successful mimicry of its biological inspiration. The robot satisfactorily maintained straight-line motion, reaching average peak velocity of 9.4+/-1.0 cm/s (0.27-0.03 body lengths/second) at its optimum flapping frequency of 1.4 Hz. This is in the same order of magnitude of speed normalized to body length achieved by others in two recent batoid-based projects. In summary, our robot performed intermediate stingray locomotion with relatively fewer components, which reveals robust potential for innovation of the simple intermediate batoid-based robot swimmer.

  3. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerson, M.D.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-06-30

    Overall mass transfer coefficients for CO have been determined in a continuous stirred-tank reactor at agitation rates of 300--700 rpm using a biological system with the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. A non-steady state approach was employed in order to separate mass transfer and kinetic limited regions of the fermentation. As a result, a kinetic model could be developed for specific CO uptake by the culture including the apparent CO inhibition. The maximum specific CO uptake rate found matched the earlier results obtained in batch culture and by other investigators. CO inhibition was more predominant in CSTR culture than in batch culture, perhaps due to CO acclimation. The growth of the photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum on CO[sub 2] has been studied at light intensities ranging from 27-1723 lux in batch culture. Modeling results indicate that growth is dependent upon light intensity according to a Monod type relationship.

  4. Development of Biomimetic Squid-Inspired Suckers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping Hou; Edward Wright; Richard H. C. Bonser; George Jeronimidis

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanical properties of squid suckers were studied to provide inspiration for the development of sucker artefacts for a robotic octopus.Mechanical support of the rings found inside squid suckers was studied by bending tests.Tensile tests were carried out to study the maximum possible sucking force produced by squid suckers based on the strength of sucker stalks,normalized by the sucking areas.The squid suckers were also directly tested to obtain sucking forces by a special testing arrangement.Inspired by the squid suckers,three types of sucker artefacts were developed for the arm skin of an octopus inspired robot.The first sucker artefact made of knitted nylon sheet reinforced silicone rubber has the same shape as the squid suckers.Like real squid suckers,this type of artefact also has a stalk that is connected to the arm skin and a ring to give radial support.The second design is a straight cylindrical structure with uniform wall thickness made of silicone rubber.One end of the cylinder is directly connected to the arm skin and the other end is open.The final design of the sucker has a cylindrical base and a concave meniscus top.The meniscus was formed naturally using the surface tension of silicone gel,which leads to a higher level of the liquid around the edge of a container.The wall thickness decreases towards the tip of the sucker opening.Sucking forces of all three types of sucker artefacts were measured.Advantages and disadvantages of each sucker type were discussed.The final design of suckers has been implemented to the arm skin prototypes.

  5. Bio-inspired approaches to sensing for defence and security applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Peter D E; Kusterbeck, Anne; Hiltz, John A

    2008-05-01

    Interdisciplinary research in biotechnology and related scientific areas has increased tremendously over the past decade. This rapid pace, in conjunction with advances in microfabricated systems, computer hardware, bioengineering and the availability of low-powered miniature components, has now made it feasible to design bio-inspired materials, sensors and systems with tremendous potential for defence and security applications. To realize the full potential of biotechnology and bio-inspiration, there is a need to define specific requirements to meet the challenges of the changing world and its threats. One approach to assisting the defence and security communities in defining their requirements is through the use of a conceptual model. The distributed or intelligent autonomous sensing (DIAS) system is one such model. The DIAS model is not necessarily aimed at a single component, for instance a sensor, but can include a system, or even a system of systems in the same way that a single organism, a multi-cellular organism or group of organisms is configured. This paper provides an overview of the challenges to and opportunities for bio-inspired sensors and systems together with examples of how they are being implemented. Examples focus on both learning new things from biological organisms that have application to the defence and security forces and adapting known discoveries in biology and biochemistry for practical use by these communities. PMID:18427675

  6. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis EB-28, an endophytic bacterium strain displaying biocontrol activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shutong WANG; Tongle HU; Yanling JIAO; Jianjian WEI; Keqiang CAO

    2009-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea Pers. causes severe rotting on tomato fruits during storage and shelf life. As a biological control agent, endophytic bacterium was regarded as an effective alternative to chemical control. Out of 238 endophytic bacterial isolates, three strains (EB-15, EB-28, and EB-122) isolated from Lycopersicum esculentum Mill., Speranskia tuberculata (Bge.) Baill, and Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. respectively were found to be strongly antagonistic to the pathogen in vitro and were selected for further in vivo tests. One endophytic bacterium strain, encoded EB-28, was selected from the three in vivo tested isolates. The inhibitive rate of EB-28 reached 71.1% in vitro and 52.4% in vivo. EB-28 was identified as Bacillus subtilis according to its morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

  7. A Supramolecular Hydrogel Inspired by Elastin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁磊; 王淑芳; 武文洁; 胡月晗; 杨翠红; 谭鸣; 孔德领; 杨志谋

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembly prevails in nature and learning from nature will lead to biofunctional materials. Inspired by the protein of elastin, we reported in this study on a supramolecular hydrogel beating the elastin repeating peptide of VPGAG. The visco-elasticity property, morphology of the nanostructures, and aromatic stacking in the self-assembled nanostructure were characterized by a rheometry, transmission electron microscope (TEM), and fluorescence microscope, respectively. The biocompatibility of the gelator was also proved by an MTT assay. Though the supramolecular hydrogel failed to exhibit a high elasticity like elastin, the thixotropic hydrogel might have potentials for the applications in fields of cell culture, controlled-drug release, etc.

  8. Oil Price Trackers Inspired by Immune Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, WIlliam; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    We outline initial concepts for an immune inspired algorithm to evaluate and predict oil price time series data. The proposed solution evolves a short term pool of trackers dynamically, with each member attempting to map trends and anticipate future price movements. Successful trackers feed into a long term memory pool that can generalise across repeating trend patterns. The resulting sequence of trackers, ordered in time, can be used as a forecasting tool. Examination of the pool of evolving trackers also provides valuable insight into the properties of the crude oil market.

  9. Wormhole inspired by non-commutative geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farook Rahaman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present Letter we search for a new wormhole solution inspired by noncommutative geometry with the additional condition of allowing conformal Killing vectors (CKV. A special aspect of noncommutative geometry is that it replaces point-like structures of gravitational sources with smeared objects under Gaussian distribution. However, the purpose of this letter is to obtain wormhole solutions with noncommutative geometry as a background where we consider a point-like structure of gravitational object without smearing effect. It is found through this investigation that wormhole solutions exist in this Lorentzian distribution with viable physical properties.

  10. Price Trackers Inspired by Immune Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we outline initial concepts for an immune inspired algorithm to evaluate price time series data. The proposed solution evolves a short term pool of trackers dynamically through a process of proliferation and mutation, with each member attempting to map to trends in price movements. Successful trackers feed into a long term memory pool that can generalise across repeating trend patterns. Tests are performed to examine the algorithm's ability to successfully identify trends in a small data set. The influence of the long term memory pool is then examined. We find the algorithm is able to identify price trends presented successfully and efficiently.

  11. Wormhole inspired by non-commutative geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook, E-mail: rahaman@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Karmakar, Sreya, E-mail: sreya.karmakar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Calcutta Institute of Engineering and Management, Kolkata 700040, West Bengal (India); Karar, Indrani, E-mail: indrani.karar08@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Saroj Mohan Institute of Technology, Guptipara, West Bengal (India); Ray, Saibal, E-mail: saibal@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Government College of Engineering & Ceramic Technology, Kolkata 700010, West Bengal (India)

    2015-06-30

    In the present Letter we search for a new wormhole solution inspired by noncommutative geometry with the additional condition of allowing conformal Killing vectors (CKV). A special aspect of noncommutative geometry is that it replaces point-like structures of gravitational sources with smeared objects under Gaussian distribution. However, the purpose of this letter is to obtain wormhole solutions with noncommutative geometry as a background where we consider a point-like structure of gravitational object without smearing effect. It is found through this investigation that wormhole solutions exist in this Lorentzian distribution with viable physical properties.

  12. Development of multifunctional materials exhibiting distributed sensing and actuation inspired by fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philen, Michael

    2011-04-01

    This manuscript is an overview of the research that is currently being performed as part of a 2009 NSF Office of Emerging Frontiers in Research and Innnovation (EFRI) grant on BioSensing and BioActuation (BSBA). The objectives of this multi-university collaborative research are to achieve a greater understanding of the hierarchical organization and structure of the sensory, muscular, and control systems of fish, and to develop advanced biologically-inspired material systems having distributed sensing, actuation, and intelligent control. New experimental apparatus have been developed for performing experiments involving live fish and robotic devices, and new bio-inspired haircell sensors and artificial muscles are being developed using carbonaceous nanomaterials, bio-derived molecules, and composite technology. Results demonstrating flow sensing and actuation are presented.

  13. New ways of scientific publishing and accessing human knowledge inspired by transdisciplinary approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Gebeshuber, I C

    2010-01-01

    Inspired by interdisciplinary work touching biology and microtribology, the authors propose a new, dynamic way of publishing research results, the establishment of a tree of knowledge and the localisation of scientific articles on this tree. 'Technomimetics' is proposed as a new method of knowledge management in science and technology: it shall help find and organise information in an era of over-information. Such ways of presenting and managing research results would be accessible by people with different kinds of backgrounds and levels of education, and allow for full use of the ever- increasing number of scientific and technical publications. This approach would dramatically change and revolutionize the way we are doing science, and contribute to overcoming the three gaps between the world of ideas, inventors, innovators and investors as introduced by Gebeshuber, Gruber and Drack in 2009 for accelerated scientific and technological breakthroughs to improve the human condition. Inspiration for the developme...

  14. Biophysics and Thermodynamics: The Scientific Building Blocks of Bio-inspired Drug Delivery Nano Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, Costas

    2015-06-01

    Biophysics and thermodynamics are considered as the scientific milestones for investigating the properties of materials. The relationship between the changes of temperature with the biophysical variables of biomaterials is important in the process of the development of drug delivery systems. Biophysics is a challenge sector of physics and should be used complementary with the biochemistry in order to discover new and promising technological platforms (i.e., drug delivery systems) and to disclose the 'silence functionality' of bio-inspired biological and artificial membranes. Thermal analysis and biophysical approaches in pharmaceuticals present reliable and versatile tools for their characterization and for the successful development of pharmaceutical products. The metastable phases of self-assembled nanostructures such as liposomes should be taken into consideration because they represent the thermal events can affect the functionality of advanced drug delivery nano systems. In conclusion, biophysics and thermodynamics are characterized as the building blocks for design and development of bio-inspired drug delivery systems.

  15. Bone regeneration strategy inspired by the study of calcification behavior in deer antler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haishan; Yu, Tao; Li, Zhaoyang; Lu, William; Zhang, Ming; Ye, Jiandong

    2015-12-01

    Bone regeneration has attracted much attention from various researchers and inspired numerous strategies for bone formation. In this study, rapid calcification of deer antlers was studied to unravel bone biology by investigating mineral composition, morphology and microstructure. Calcification model was hypothesized and preliminarily established by in vitro experiments. In our model, mineral deposition and phase conversions in the gel matrix were mimicked. Results revealed that mineral metabolism including deposition and phase conversion plays key roles in calcification in vivo, which inspired the bone regeneration strategy with three main components, i.e. enhanced mineral nucleation, mineral ions sources and crystals habits. Rapid mineral metabolism of implant apatite biomaterials was supposed as the critical aspect of bone regeneration. This study will provide a relatively ideal model for peer bone regeneration studies.

  16. Achieving Small World Properties using Bio-Inspired Techniques in Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Rachit; Gauthier, Vincent; Becker, Monique; Yeo, Chai Kiat; Lee, Bu Sung

    2011-01-01

    Self-Organization properties of the nodes play an important role in an autonomous wireless sensor environment in achieving network wide characteristics. Self-Organization can be used to achieve small world characteristics in a network. In real networks, however, where there is non-uniform distribution of nodes and overall connectivity of the network is less, achieving small world properties while increasing connectivity must be studied. We believe that network connectivity can be increased and small world properties can be achieved with the help of beamforming, biologically inspired algorithms and using local information. Most of the researches performed in direction of achieving above mentioned goals in wireless networks assume knowledge of network with either heterogeneous or hybrid uniform deployment. We propose that without the knowledge of the global environment or introduction of any special features in the network, we can achieve our goal with the help of inspirations from the nature in a non-uniform n...

  17. Nature-Inspired Design: Strategies for Sustainable Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    De Pauw, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Product designers can apply different strategies, methods, and tools for sustainable product development. Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) offer designers a distinct class of strategies that use ‘nature’ as a guiding source of knowledge and inspiration for addressing sustainability. Biomimicry and Cradle to Cradle, two Nature-Inspired Design Strategies, have already been implemented in product design practice and in curricula of higher education. But how are these strategies applied, ...

  18. Biomimetic multifunctional surfaces inspired from animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhiwu; Mu, Zhengzhi; Yin, Wei; Li, Wen; Niu, Shichao; Zhang, Junqiu; Ren, Luquan

    2016-08-01

    Over millions of years, animals have evolved to a higher intelligent level for their environment. A large number of diverse surface structures on their bodies have been formed to adapt to the extremely harsh environment. Just like the structural diversity existed in plants, the same also applies true in animals. Firstly, this article provides an overview and discussion of the most common functional surface structures inspired from animals, such as drag reduction, noise reduction, anti-adhesion, anti-wear, anti-erosion, anti-fog, water capture, and optical surfaces. Then, some typical characteristics of morphologies, structures, and materials of the animal multifunctional surfaces were discussed. The adaptation of these surfaces to environmental conditions was also analyzed. It mainly focuses on the relationship between their surface functions and their surface structural characteristics. Afterwards, the multifunctional mechanisms or principles of these surfaces were discussed. Models of these structures were provided for the development of structure materials and machinery surfaces. At last, fabrication techniques and existing or potential technical applications inspired from biomimetic multifunctional surfaces in animals were also discussed. The application prospects of the biomimetic functional surfaces are very broad, such as civil field of self-cleaning textile fabrics and non-stick pots, ocean field of oil-water separation, sports field of swimming suits, space development field of lens arrays. PMID:27085632

  19. Brain-inspired Stochastic Models and Implementations

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Shedivat, Maruan

    2015-05-12

    One of the approaches to building artificial intelligence (AI) is to decipher the princi- ples of the brain function and to employ similar mechanisms for solving cognitive tasks, such as visual perception or natural language understanding, using machines. The recent breakthrough, named deep learning, demonstrated that large multi-layer networks of arti- ficial neural-like computing units attain remarkable performance on some of these tasks. Nevertheless, such artificial networks remain to be very loosely inspired by the brain, which rich structures and mechanisms may further suggest new algorithms or even new paradigms of computation. In this thesis, we explore brain-inspired probabilistic mechanisms, such as neural and synaptic stochasticity, in the context of generative models. The two questions we ask here are: (i) what kind of models can describe a neural learning system built of stochastic components? and (ii) how can we implement such systems e ̆ciently? To give specific answers, we consider two well known models and the corresponding neural architectures: the Naive Bayes model implemented with a winner-take-all spiking neural network and the Boltzmann machine implemented in a spiking or non-spiking fashion. We propose and analyze an e ̆cient neuromorphic implementation of the stochastic neu- ral firing mechanism and study the e ̄ects of synaptic unreliability on learning generative energy-based models implemented with neural networks.

  20. Autobiography: Inspiring new visions of teacher learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Simon

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this article is to broaden the tradition of autobiography by using it as a way in which teachers can identify sources of inspiration in their educational experience. In the process, my aim is to make explicit the links between autobiography, learning and meta learning. Extending autobiographical inquiry to include different levels at which learning takes place serves to highlight the importance not only of the individual context of learning (the private self, but also the possibility of learning and constructing meaning from autobiography in dialogue with others. This article identifies four levels of learning-how-to-learn from autobiography. These levels are: 1. learning from autobiographical writing; 2. learning through intergenerational dialogues; 3. developmental learning through the career stages; and 4. whole group co-constructive learning. My ultimate goal is two fold. Firstly, to use these levels of learning to identify operational definitions of inspiration based on significant events and experiences in teacher’s personal stories. Secondly to identify a meta research orientation for linking autobiography with learning and meta-learning.

  1. Hydrogen Production by the Thermophilic Bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirakar Pradhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As the only fuel that is not chemically bound to carbon, hydrogen has gained interest as an energy carrier to face the current environmental issues of greenhouse gas emissions and to substitute the depleting non-renewable reserves. In the last years, there has been a significant increase in the number of publications about the bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana that is responsible for production yields of H2 that are among the highest achievements reported in the literature. Here we present an extensive overview of the most recent studies on this hyperthermophilic bacterium together with a critical discussion of the potential of fermentative production by this bacterium. The review article is organized into sections focused on biochemical, microbiological and technical issues, including the effect of substrate, reactor type, gas sparging, temperature, pH, hydraulic retention time and organic loading parameters on rate and yield of gas production.

  2. Kinds of inspiration in interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the role of sources of inspiration in interaction design. We identify four strategies for relating sources of inspiration to emerging ideas: selection; adaptation; translation; and combination. As our starting point, we argue that sources of inspiration are a form...... of knowledge crucial to creativity. Our research is based on empirical findings arising from the use of Inspiration Card Workshops, which are collaborative design events in which domain and technology insight are combined to create design concepts. In addition to the systematically introduced sources...

  3. Economic game theory to model the attenuation of virulence of an obligate intracellular bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Tago

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by obligate intracellular pathogens have a large burden on global human and animal health. Understanding the factors involved in the virulence and fitness of these pathogens contributes to the development of control strategies against these diseases. Based on biological observations, a theoretical model using game theory is proposed to explain how obligate intracellular bacteria interact with their host. The equilibrium in such a game shows that the virulence and fitness of the bacterium is host-triggered and by changing the host’s defense system to which the bacterium is confronted, an evolutionary process leads to an attenuated strain. Although, the attenuation procedure has already been conducted in practice in order to develop an attenuated vaccine (e.g. with Ehrlichia ruminantium, there was a lack of understanding of the theoretical basis behind this process. Our work provides a model to better comprehend the existence of different phenotypes and some underlying evolutionary mechanisms for the virulence of obligate intracellular bacteria.

  4. Microfabrication of patterns of adherent marine bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens using soft lithography and scanning probe lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan; Burchardt, Malte; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Beardsley, Christine; Simon, Meinhard; Wittstock, Gunther

    2010-06-01

    Two lithographic approaches have been explored for the microfabrication of cellular patterns based on the attachment of marine bacterium Phaeobacter inhibens strain T5. Strain T5 produces a new antibiotic that makes this bacterium potentially interesting for the pharmaceutical market and as a probiotic organism in aquacultures and in controlling biofouling. The microcontact printing (microCP) method is based on the micropatterning of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) terminated with adhesive end groups such as CH(3) and COOH and nonadhesive groups (e.g., short oligomers of ethylene glycol (OEG)) to form micropatterned substrates for the adhesion of strain T5. The scanning probe lithographic method is based on the surface modification of OEG SAM by using a microelectrode, the probe of a scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM). Oxidizing agents (e.g., Br(2)) were electrogenerated in situ at the microelectrodes from Br(-) in aqueous solution to remove OEG SAMs locally, which allows the subsequent adsorption of bacteria. Various micropatterns of bacteria could be formed in situ on the substrate without a prefabricated template. The fabricated cellular patterns may be applied to a variety of marine biological studies that require the analysis of biofilm formation, cell-cell and cell-surface interactions, and cell-based biosensors and bioelectronics. PMID:20397716

  5. Effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in maximal inspiration CT images of subjects without airflow limitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Wille, Mathilde M.W.; Raket, Lars Lau;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in voluntary inspiration breath-hold examinations. METHODS: 961 subjects with normal spirometry were selected from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. Subjects were examined annually for five years with low-dose CT. ...... • The effect of inspiration is greater in higher-generation (more peripheral) airways • Airways of generation 5 and beyond are as distensible as lung parenchyma • Airway dimensions measured from CT should be adjusted for inspiration level....

  6. Dielectric elastomer actuators for octopus inspired suction cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follador, M; Tramacere, F; Mazzolai, B

    2014-09-25

    Suction cups are often found in nature as attachment strategy in water. Nevertheless, the application of the artificial counterpart is limited by the dimension of the actuators and their usability in wet conditions. A novel design for the development of a suction cup inspired by octopus suckers is presented. The main focus of this research was on the modelling and characterization of the actuation unit, and a first prototype of the suction cup was realized as a proof of concept. The actuation of the suction cup is based on dielectric elastomer actuators. The presented device works in a wet environment, has an integrated actuation system, and is soft. The dimensions of the artificial suction cups are comparable to proximal octopus suckers, and the attachment mechanism is similar to the biological counterpart. The design approach proposed for the actuator allows the definition of the parameters for its development and for obtaining a desired pressure in water. The fabricated actuator is able to produce up to 6 kPa of pressure in water, reaching the maximum pressure in less than 300 ms.

  7. Honey Bees Inspired Optimization Method: The Bees Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Mastrocinque

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimization algorithms are search methods where the goal is to find an optimal solution to a problem, in order to satisfy one or more objective functions, possibly subject to a set of constraints. Studies of social animals and social insects have resulted in a number of computational models of swarm intelligence. Within these swarms their collective behavior is usually very complex. The collective behavior of a swarm of social organisms emerges from the behaviors of the individuals of that swarm. Researchers have developed computational optimization methods based on biology such as Genetic Algorithms, Particle Swarm Optimization, and Ant Colony. The aim of this paper is to describe an optimization algorithm called the Bees Algorithm, inspired from the natural foraging behavior of honey bees, to find the optimal solution. The algorithm performs both an exploitative neighborhood search combined with random explorative search. In this paper, after an explanation of the natural foraging behavior of honey bees, the basic Bees Algorithm and its improved versions are described and are implemented in order to optimize several benchmark functions, and the results are compared with those obtained with different optimization algorithms. The results show that the Bees Algorithm offering some advantage over other optimization methods according to the nature of the problem.

  8. Honey Bees Inspired Optimization Method: The Bees Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Baris; Packianather, Michael S; Mastrocinque, Ernesto; Pham, Duc Truong; Lambiase, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Optimization algorithms are search methods where the goal is to find an optimal solution to a problem, in order to satisfy one or more objective functions, possibly subject to a set of constraints. Studies of social animals and social insects have resulted in a number of computational models of swarm intelligence. Within these swarms their collective behavior is usually very complex. The collective behavior of a swarm of social organisms emerges from the behaviors of the individuals of that swarm. Researchers have developed computational optimization methods based on biology such as Genetic Algorithms, Particle Swarm Optimization, and Ant Colony. The aim of this paper is to describe an optimization algorithm called the Bees Algorithm, inspired from the natural foraging behavior of honey bees, to find the optimal solution. The algorithm performs both an exploitative neighborhood search combined with random explorative search. In this paper, after an explanation of the natural foraging behavior of honey bees, the basic Bees Algorithm and its improved versions are described and are implemented in order to optimize several benchmark functions, and the results are compared with those obtained with different optimization algorithms. The results show that the Bees Algorithm offering some advantage over other optimization methods according to the nature of the problem. PMID:26462528

  9. Bio-inspired interfacial strengthening strategy through geometrically interlocking designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuming; Yao, Haimin; Ortiz, Christine; Xu, Jinquan; Dao, Ming

    2012-11-01

    Many biological materials, such as nacre and bone, are hybrid materials composed of stiff brittle ceramics and compliant organic materials. These natural organic/inorganic composites exhibit much enhanced strength and toughness in comparison to their constituents and inspires enormous biomimetic endeavors aiming to synthesize materials with superior mechanical properties. However, most current synthetic composites have not exhibited their full potential of property enhancement compared to the natural prototypes they are mimicking. One of the key issues is the weak junctions between stiff and compliant phases, which need to be optimized according to the intended functions of the composite material. Motivated by the geometrically interlocking designs of natural biomaterials, here we propose an interfacial strengthening strategy by introducing geometrical interlockers on the interfaces between compliant and stiff phases. Finite element analysis (FEA) shows that the strength of the composite depends strongly on the geometrical features of interlockers including shape, size, and structural hierarchy. Even for the most unfavorable scenario when neither adhesion nor friction is present between stiff and compliant phases, the tensile strength of the composites with proper interlocker design can reach up to 70% of the ideal value. The findings in this paper would provide guidelines to the improvement of the mechanical properties of current biomimetic composites. PMID:23032427

  10. Natural Scene Classification Inspired by Visual Perception and Cognition Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui

    2011-01-01

    The process of human natural scene categorization consists of two correlated stages: visual perception and visual cognition of natural scenes. Inspired by this fact, we propose a biologically plausible approach for natural scene image classification. This approach consists of one visual perception model and two visual cognition models. The visual perception model, composed of two steps, is used to extract discriminative features from natural scene images. In the first step, we mimic the oriented and bandpass properties of human primary visual cortex by a special complex wavelets transform, which can decompose a natural scene image into a series of 2D spatial structure signals. In the second step, a hybrid statistical feature extraction method is used to generate gist features from those 2D spatial structure signals. Then we design a cognitive feedback model to realize adaptive optimization for the visual perception model. At last, we build a multiple semantics based cognition model to imitate human cognitive mode in rapid natural scene categorization. Experiments on natural scene datasets show that the proposed method achieves high efficiency and accuracy for natural scene classification.

  11. Dielectric elastomer actuators for octopus inspired suction cups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suction cups are often found in nature as attachment strategy in water. Nevertheless, the application of the artificial counterpart is limited by the dimension of the actuators and their usability in wet conditions. A novel design for the development of a suction cup inspired by octopus suckers is presented. The main focus of this research was on the modelling and characterization of the actuation unit, and a first prototype of the suction cup was realized as a proof of concept. The actuation of the suction cup is based on dielectric elastomer actuators. The presented device works in a wet environment, has an integrated actuation system, and is soft. The dimensions of the artificial suction cups are comparable to proximal octopus suckers, and the attachment mechanism is similar to the biological counterpart. The design approach proposed for the actuator allows the definition of the parameters for its development and for obtaining a desired pressure in water. The fabricated actuator is able to produce up to 6 kPa of pressure in water, reaching the maximum pressure in less than 300 ms. (paper)

  12. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  13. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  14. Motif Detection Inspired by Immune Memory

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, William; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The search for patterns or motifs in data represents an area of key interest to many researchers. In this paper we present the Motif Tracking Algorithm, a novel immune inspired pattern identification tool that is able to identify variable length unknown motifs which repeat within time series data. The algorithm searches from a completely neutral perspective that is independent of the data being analysed and the underlying motifs. In this paper we test the flexibility of the motif tracking algorithm by applying it to the search for patterns in two industrial data sets. The algorithm is able to identify a population of motifs successfully in both cases, and the value of these motifs is discussed.

  15. Hamiltonian Hydrodynamics and Irrotational Binary Inspiral

    CERN Document Server

    Markakis, Charalampos M

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational waves from neutron-star and black-hole binaries carry valuable information on their physical properties and probe physics inaccessible to the laboratory. Although development of black-hole gravitational-wave templates in the past decade has been revolutionary, the corresponding work for double neutron-star systems has lagged. Neutron stars can be well-modelled as simple barotropic fluids during the part of binary inspiral most relevant to gravitational wave astronomy, but the crucial geometric and mathematical consequences of this simplification have remained computationally unexploited. In particular, Carter and Lichnerowicz have described barotropic fluid motion via classical variational principles as conformally geodesic. Moreover, Kelvin's circulation theorem implies that initially irrotational flows remain irrotational. Applied to numerical relativity, these concepts lead to novel Hamiltonian or Hamilton-Jacobi schemes for evolving relativistic fluid flows. Hamiltonian methods can conserve ...

  16. A Physiologically Inspired Method for Audio Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Anderson

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore the use of physiologically inspired auditory features with both physiologically motivated and statistical audio classification methods. We use features derived from a biophysically defensible model of the early auditory system for audio classification using a neural network classifier. We also use a Gaussian-mixture-model (GMM-based classifier for the purpose of comparison and show that the neural-network-based approach works better. Further, we use features from a more advanced model of the auditory system and show that the features extracted from this model of the primary auditory cortex perform better than the features from the early auditory stage. The features give good classification performance with only one-second data segments used for training and testing.

  17. Spider web-inspired acoustic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniaci, Marco; Krushynska, Anastasiia; Movchan, Alexander B.; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-08-01

    Spider silk is a remarkable example of bio-material with superior mechanical characteristics. Its multilevel structural organization of dragline and viscid silk leads to unusual and tunable properties, extensively studied from a quasi-static point of view. In this study, inspired by the Nephila spider orb web architecture, we propose a design for mechanical metamaterials based on its periodic repetition. We demonstrate that spider-web metamaterial structure plays an important role in the dynamic response and wave attenuation mechanisms. The capability of the resulting structure to inhibit elastic wave propagation in sub-wavelength frequency ranges is assessed, and parametric studies are performed to derive optimal configurations and constituent mechanical properties. The results show promise for the design of innovative lightweight structures for tunable vibration damping and impact protection, or the protection of large scale infrastructure such as suspended bridges.

  18. The periodic table: icon and inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakoff, Martyn; Tang, Samantha

    2015-03-13

    To start this discussion meeting on the new chemistry of the elements held on 12 May 2014, Martyn Poliakoff, Foreign Secretary of the Royal Society, was invited to give the opening remarks. As a chemist and a presenter of the popular online video channel 'The periodic table of videos', Martyn communicates his personal and professional interest in the elements to the public, who in turn use these videos both as an educational resource and for entertainment purposes. Ever since Mendeleev's first ideas for the periodic table were published in 1869, the table has continued to grow as new elements have been discovered, and it serves as both icon and inspiration; its form is now so well established that it is recognized the world over as a symbol for science. This paper highlights but a few of the varied forms that the table can take, such as an infographic, which can convey the shortage of certain elements with great impact. PMID:25666072

  19. Climate change in EIA - Inspiration from practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    2013-01-01

    taking place. For exploring the praxis of integrating climate change in practice a document study of 100 Danish EIA reports is carried out. From these reports, statistics and examples are drawn. The study shows an emphasis on integration of climate change mitigation, using various quantitative tools......Climate change integration has been a topic of much interest in the field of impact assessment for a period, and thus far quite some emphasis has been put on discussions of purpose, relevance and overall approaches in both Environmental Impact Assessment of projects (EIA) and Strategic...... Environmental Assessments of plans and programmes (SEA). However, EIAs and SEAs are already being made, which integrate climate change, and for some aspects this practice has evolved over a long period. This paper seeks to explore this practice and find inspiration from the work with climate change already...

  20. A skin-inspired organic digital mechanoreceptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Chortos, Alex; Berndt, Andre; Nguyen, Amanda Kim; Tom, Ariane; McGuire, Allister; Lin, Ziliang Carter; Tien, Kevin; Bae, Won-Gyu; Wang, Huiliang; Mei, Ping; Chou, Ho-Hsiu; Cui, Bianxiao; Deisseroth, Karl; Ng, Tse Nga; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-10-01

    Human skin relies on cutaneous receptors that output digital signals for tactile sensing in which the intensity of stimulation is converted to a series of voltage pulses. We present a power-efficient skin-inspired mechanoreceptor with a flexible organic transistor circuit that transduces pressure into digital frequency signals directly. The output frequency ranges between 0 and 200 hertz, with a sublinear response to increasing force stimuli that mimics slow-adapting skin mechanoreceptors. The output of the sensors was further used to stimulate optogenetically engineered mouse somatosensory neurons of mouse cortex in vitro, achieving stimulated pulses in accordance with pressure levels. This work represents a step toward the design and use of large-area organic electronic skins with neural-integrated touch feedback for replacement limbs.

  1. Metamaterial-Inspired Efficient Electrically Small Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erentok, Aycan; Ziolkowski, R. W.

    2008-01-01

    high overall efficiencies. The reported 2D and 3D EZ antenna designs are linearly scalable to a wide range of frequencies and yet maintain their easy-to-build characteristics. Several versions of the 2D EZ antennas were fabricated and tested. The measurement results confirm the performance predictions......Planar two-dimensional (2D) and volumetric three-dimensional (3D) metamaterial-inspired efficient electrically-small antennas that are easy to design; are easy and inexpensive to build; and are easy to test; are reported, i.e., the EZ antenna systems. The proposed 2D and 3D electrical- and magnetic......-based EZ antennas are shown to be naturally matched to a 50 source, i.e., without the introduction of a matching network. It is demonstrated numerically that these EZ antennas have high radiation efficiencies with very good impedance matching between the source and the antenna and, hence, that they have...

  2. Inspiration Today: Music, Astronomy, and Popular Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, A.

    2016-01-01

    We explore a variety of examples of music inspired by serious astronomy (as opposed to simply an astronomical title or quick allusion to spooning in June to the light of the Moon). The examples are drawn from my recently published catalog of 133 such pieces, including both classical and popular genres of music. We discuss operas based on the life and work of astronomers, six songs based on a reasonable understanding of the properties of black holes, constellation pieces written by composers from around the world who are or were active amateur astronomers, the song that compares walking on the Moon to being in love, the little-known rock song that became a reference in the Astrophysical Journal, pieces that base the patterns of the music on the rhythms of astronomical phenomena, and a number of others.

  3. Tree-inspired piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, William B.; Hu, David L.

    2012-01-01

    We design and test micro-watt energy-harvesters inspired by tree trunks swaying in the wind. A uniform flow vibrates a linear array of four cylinders affixed to piezoelectric energy transducers. Particular attention is paid to measuring the energy generated as a function of cylinder spacing, flow speed, and relative position of the cylinder within the array. Peak power is generated using cylinder center-to-center spacings of 3.3 diameters and flow speeds in which the vortex shedding frequency is 1.6 times the natural frequency of the cylinders. Using these flow speeds and spacings, the power generated by downstream cylinders can exceed that of leading cylinders by more than an order of magnitude. We visualize the flow in this system by studying the behavior of a dynamically matched flowing soap film with imbedded styrofoam disks. Our qualitative visualizations suggest that peak energy harvesting occurs under conditions in which vortices have fully detached from the leading cylinder.

  4. Fall Meeting abstract submission inspires science poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    When the 4 August deadline for submitting Fall Meeting abstracts passed, AGU had received more than 20,000 abstracts, a record-breaking number. The submission process had an unexpected by-product: It inspired some scientists to write haiku on Twitter. (Haiku is a form of Japanese poetry typically having three lines, the first with five syllables, the second with seven, and the third with five.) The following are examples of the haiku tweets, with the hashtag #AGU11AbstractHaiku. (For those who want to keep updated about the Fall Meeting on Twitter, the hashtag is #AGU11.) For more information about the meeting, including registration and housing, visit http://sites.agu.org/fallmeeting/.

  5. NASA Missions Inspire Online Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Fast forward to 2035. Imagine being part of a community of astronauts living and working on the Moon. Suddenly, in the middle of just another day in space, a meteorite crashes into the surface of the Moon, threatening life as you know it. The support equipment that provides oxygen for the entire community has been compromised. What would you do? While this situation is one that most people will never encounter, NASA hopes to place students in such situations - virtually - to inspire, engage, and educate about NASA technologies, job opportunities, and the future of space exploration. Specifically, NASA s Learning Technologies program, part of the Agency s Office of Education, aims to inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) disciplines through interactive technologies. The ultimate goal of these educational programs is to support the growth of a pool of qualified scientific and technical candidates for future careers at places like NASA. STEM education has been an area of concern in the United States; according to the results of the 2009 Program for International Student Assessment, 23 countries had higher average scores in mathematics literacy than the United States. On the science literacy scale, 18 countries had higher average scores. "This is part of a much bigger picture of trying to grow skilled graduates for places like NASA that will want that technical expertise," says Daniel Laughlin, the Learning Technologies project manager at Goddard Space Flight Center. "NASA is trying to increase the number of students going into those fields, and so are other government agencies."

  6. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience.

  7. Bio-inspired nano tools for neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suradip; Carnicer-Lombarte, Alejandro; Fawcett, James W; Bora, Utpal

    2016-07-01

    Research and treatment in the nervous system is challenged by many physiological barriers posing a major hurdle for neurologists. The CNS is protected by a formidable blood brain barrier (BBB) which limits surgical, therapeutic and diagnostic interventions. The hostile environment created by reactive astrocytes in the CNS along with the limited regeneration capacity of the PNS makes functional recovery after tissue damage difficult and inefficient. Nanomaterials have the unique ability to interface with neural tissue in the nano-scale and are capable of influencing the function of a single neuron. The ability of nanoparticles to transcend the BBB through surface modifications has been exploited in various neuro-imaging techniques and for targeted drug delivery. The tunable topography of nanofibers provides accurate spatio-temporal guidance to regenerating axons. This review is an attempt to comprehend the progress in understanding the obstacles posed by the complex physiology of the nervous system and the innovations in design and fabrication of advanced nanomaterials drawing inspiration from natural phenomenon. We also discuss the development of nanomaterials for use in Neuro-diagnostics, Neuro-therapy and the fabrication of advanced nano-devices for use in opto-electronic and ultrasensitive electrophysiological applications. The energy efficient and parallel computing ability of the human brain has inspired the design of advanced nanotechnology based computational systems. However, extensive use of nanomaterials in neuroscience also raises serious toxicity issues as well as ethical concerns regarding nano implants in the brain. In conclusion we summarize these challenges and provide an insight into the huge potential of nanotechnology platforms in neuroscience. PMID:27107796

  8. Rnf Genes in Purple Sulfur Bacterium Allochromatium vinosum

    OpenAIRE

    DİNÇTÜRK, H. Benan; DEMİR, Volkan

    2006-01-01

    Allochromatium vinosum is a photosynthetic, diazotrophic purple sulfur bacterium that oxidizes reduced sulfur compounds hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur and thiosulfide. In this article, we report the presence of rnf genes in Allochromatium vinosum, some of which have been reported to take part in nitrogen fixation in some species.

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Oral Bacterium Streptococcus mutans JH1140

    OpenAIRE

    Escano, Jerome; Deng, Peng; Lu, Shi-En; Smith, Lief

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans JH1140 is an oral bacterium known to produce the bacteriocin mutacin 1140, and the strain has been genetically engineered to combat dental caries. Here, we report the 2.0-Mb draft genome of S. mutans JH1140. This genome provides new insights into the strain’s superior colonization properties and its utility in replacement therapy.

  10. Genome of a mosquito-killing bacterium decoded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Researchers with the CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology (WHIOV) recently completed the genome sequencing of a mosquitocidal bacterium Bacillus shaericus C3-41. The feat, first of its kind in China, is expected to further promote the bio-control studies of mosquitoes.

  11. Design principles in biological networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sidhartha

    Much of biology emerges from networks of interactions. Even in a single bacterium such as Escherichia coli, there are hundreds of coexisting gene and protein networks. Although biological networks are the outcome of evolution, various physical and biological constraints limit their functional capacity. The focus of this thesis is to understand how functional constraints such as optimal growth in mircoorganisms and information flow in signaling pathways shape the metabolic network of bacterium E. coli and the quorum sensing network of marine bacterium Vibrio harveyi, respectively. Metabolic networks convert basic elemental sources into complex building-blocks eventually leading to cell's growth. Therefore, typically, metabolic pathways are often coupled both by the use of a common substrate and by stoichiometric utilization of their products for cell growth. We showed that such a coupled network with product-feedback inhibition may exhibit limit-cycle oscillations which arise via a Hopf bifurcation. Furthermore, we analyzed several representative metabolic modules and find that, in all cases, simple product-feedback inhibition allows nearly optimal growth, in agreement with the predicted growth-rate by the flux-balance analysis (FBA). Bacteria have fascinating and diverse social lives. They display coordinated group behaviors regulated by quorum sensing (QS) systems. The QS circuit of V. harveyi integrates and funnels different ecological information through a common phosphorelay cascade to a set of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) that enables collective behavior. We analyzed the signaling properties and information flow in the QS circuit, which provides a model for information flow in signaling networks more generally. A comparative study of post-transcriptional and conventional transcriptional regulation suggest a niche for sRNAs in allowing cells to transition quickly yet reliably between distinct states. Furthermore, we develop a new framework for analyzing signal

  12. Supporting STEM Teachers to Inspire through Everyday Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowski, Marie; Shechtman, Nicole; Remold, Julie; Knudsen, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Science teachers inspire in part by their constant adaptation to the learning needs of their students and to evolving content, curriculum, technology, and student populations. Innovation--bringing novel things to a situation to confer a benefit--is an integral part of teaching overall, and in especially inspired science teaching. While innovation…

  13. Nature-Inspired Design: Strategies for Sustainable Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Product designers can apply different strategies, methods, and tools for sustainable product development. Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) offer designers a distinct class of strategies that use ‘nature’ as a guiding source of knowledge and inspiration for addressing sustainability. Biomimic

  14. An adaptive gaze stabilization controller inspired by the vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, A; Balakrishnan, T; Pipe, A G; Melhuish, C

    2008-09-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex stabilizes vision in many vertebrates. It integrates inertial and visual information to drive the eyes in the opposite direction to head movement and thereby stabilizes the image on the retina. Its adaptive nature guarantees stable vision even when the biological system undergoes dynamic changes (due to disease, growth or fatigue etc), a characteristic especially desirable in autonomous robotic systems. Based on novel, biologically plausible neurological models, we have developed a robotic testbed to qualitatively evaluate the performance of these algorithms. We show how the adaptive controller can adapt to a time varying plant and elaborate how this biologically inspired control architecture can be employed in general engineering applications where sensory feedback is very noisy and/or delayed. PMID:18583732

  15. An adaptive gaze stabilization controller inspired by the vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, A; Balakrishnan, T; Pipe, A G; Melhuish, C

    2008-09-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex stabilizes vision in many vertebrates. It integrates inertial and visual information to drive the eyes in the opposite direction to head movement and thereby stabilizes the image on the retina. Its adaptive nature guarantees stable vision even when the biological system undergoes dynamic changes (due to disease, growth or fatigue etc), a characteristic especially desirable in autonomous robotic systems. Based on novel, biologically plausible neurological models, we have developed a robotic testbed to qualitatively evaluate the performance of these algorithms. We show how the adaptive controller can adapt to a time varying plant and elaborate how this biologically inspired control architecture can be employed in general engineering applications where sensory feedback is very noisy and/or delayed.

  16. Antimicrobial activity against Xanthomonas albilineans and fermentation kinetics of a lactic acid bacterium isolated from the sugar cane crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Serna-Cock

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas albilineans is a pathogen that causes leaf scald disease in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. This disease causes the death of seedlings and consequently results in economic losses for sugarcane growers. The objective of this work was to isolate a lactic acid bacterium with antimicrobial activity against X. albilineans from sugarcane crops and to evaluate its antimicrobial activity and its lactic acid production kinetics, biomass yield, and substrate consumption in three different fermentation substrates. To isolate the lactic acid bacterium, samples were collected from different parts of infected and non-infected sugarcane plants of var. CC85-92. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis was isolated from the leaves of healthy crops, and showed in vitro antimicrobial activity against the pathogen. Batch fermentations of this isolate (at 32 °C, agitation of 100 rpm, and pH 6 were performed using a commercial substrate (MRS, a commercial substrate supplemented with glucose (MRSG, and a substrate produced from agricultural crop residues (ACR. The highest antimicrobial activity was 5.83 mm in the ACR substrate after 6 h of fermentation. The maximum biomass production of 3.37 g L-1 and the maximum lactic acid production of 12.1 g L-1 were obtained in the MRSG substrate. The lactic acid production did not show any significant differences between the substrates. This lactic acid bacterium showed antimicrobial activity against X. albilineans and is thus a biological alternative for the control of leaf scald disease in sugarcane.

  17. Identification of a denitrifying bacterium and verification of its anaerobic ammonium oxidation ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Baolan; ZHENG; Ping; LI; Jinye; XU; Xiangyang; JIN; Rencun

    2006-01-01

    A strain D3 of denitrifying bacterium was isolated from an anammox reactor, and identified as Pseudomonas mendocina based on the morphological and physiological assay, Vitek test,Biolog test, (G+C) mol% content, and 16S rDNA phylogenetic analysis. As a typical denitrifying bactration of 88.5 mg N/L. The optimal pH and growth temperature were 7.84 and 34.9℃, respectively.Strain D3 was able to oxidize ammonia under anaerobic condition. The maximum nitrate and ammoof ammonia to nitrate was 1:1.91. Electron microscopic observation revealed peculiar cell inclusions in strain D3. Because of its relation to anammox activity, strain D3 was presumed to be anammoxosome.The present investigation proved that denitrifying bacteria have the anammox ability, and the results have engorged the range of anammox populations.

  18. Extraction and physicochemical characteristics of a red pigment produced by marine bacterium strain S-9801

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田黎; 何培青; 刘晨临; 边际; 苗金来

    2002-01-01

    -- A red pigment that has better biological properties is produced by marine bacterium strain S- 9801. The extraction methods, physicochemical and toxicity of the pigment have been studied.Dissolubility of pigment in the five organic solvent has been tested, and ethanol is optimally chosen for extraction. Physicochemical characteristics of this pigment was stable. The absorbance of the pigment solution was no losing when put under natural light for 10 days or treated by UV for 30 minutes, color of the pigment unchanged after 100 ℃ hythere for 1 h or 80 ℃ xerother for 2 h. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the rat by celiac injection was 670.04 mg/kg and minimum lethal dose of oral was greater than 2 000 mg/kg.

  19. Bio-inspired routes for synthesizing efficient nanoscale platinum electrocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jennifer N. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Wang, Joseph [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The overall objective of the proposed research is to use fundamental advances in bionanotechnology to design powerful platinum nanocrystal electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. The new economically-viable, environmentally-friendly, bottom-up biochemical synthetic strategy will produce platinum nanocrystals with tailored size, shape and crystal orientation, hence leading to a maximum electrochemical reactivity. There are five specific aims to the proposed bio-inspired strategy for synthesizing efficient electrocatalytic platinum nanocrystals: (1) isolate peptides that both selectively bind particular crystal faces of platinum and promote the nucleation and growth of particular nanocrystal morphologies, (2) pattern nanoscale 2-dimensional arrays of platinum nucleating peptides from DNA scaffolds, (3) investigate the combined use of substrate patterned peptides and soluble peptides on nanocrystal morphology and growth (4) synthesize platinum crystals on planar and large-area carbon electrode supports, and (5) perform detailed characterization of the electrocatalytic behavior as a function of catalyst size, shape and morphology. Project Description and Impact: This bio-inspired collaborative research effort will address key challenges in designing powerful electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications by employing nucleic acid scaffolds in combination with peptides to perform specific, environmentally-friendly, simultaneous bottom-up biochemical synthesis and patterned assembly of highly uniform and efficient platinum nanocrystal catalysts. Bulk synthesis of nanoparticles usually produces a range of sizes, accessible catalytic sites, crystal morphologies, and orientations, all of which lead to inconsistent catalytic activities. In contrast, biological systems routinely demonstrate exquisite control over inorganic syntheses at neutral pH and ambient temperature and pressures. Because the orientation and arrangement of the templating biomolecules can be precisely

  20. Insect-Inspired Flight Control for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Stange, G.; Srinivasan, M.; Chahl, Javaan; Hine, Butler; Zornetzer, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Flight-control and navigation systems inspired by the structure and function of the visual system and brain of insects have been proposed for a class of developmental miniature robotic aircraft called "biomorphic flyers" described earlier in "Development of Biomorphic Flyers" (NPO-30554), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 11 (November 2004), page 54. These form a subset of biomorphic explorers, which, as reported in several articles in past issues of NASA Tech Briefs ["Biomorphic Explorers" (NPO-20142), Vol. 22, No. 9 (September 1998), page 71; "Bio-Inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems" (NPO-21142), Vol. 27, No. 5 (May 2003), page 54; and "Cooperative Lander-Surface/Aerial Microflyer Missions for Mars Exploration" (NPO-30286), Vol. 28, No. 5 (May 2004), page 36], are proposed small robots, equipped with microsensors and communication systems, that would incorporate crucial functions of mobility, adaptability, and even cooperative behavior. These functions are inherent to biological organisms but are challenging frontiers for technical systems. Biomorphic flyers could be used on Earth or remote planets to explore otherwise difficult or impossible to reach sites. An example of an exploratory task of search/surveillance functions currently being tested is to obtain high-resolution aerial imagery, using a variety of miniaturized electronic cameras. The control functions to be implemented by the systems in development include holding altitude, avoiding hazards, following terrain, navigation by reference to recognizable terrain features, stabilization of flight, and smooth landing. Flying insects perform these and other functions remarkably well, even though insect brains contains fewer than 10(exp -4) as many neurons as does the human brain. Although most insects have immobile, fixed-focus eyes and lack stereoscopy (and hence cannot perceive depth directly), they utilize a number of ingenious strategies for perceiving, and navigating in, three dimensions. Despite

  1. Shotgun Genome Sequence of the Large Purple Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodospirillum photometricum DSM122

    OpenAIRE

    Duquesne, K.; Sturgis, James N.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we present the shotgun genome sequence of the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum photometricum DSM122. The photosynthetic apparatus of this bacterium has been particularly well studied by microscopy. The knowledge of the genome of this oversize bacterium will allow us to compare it with the other purple bacterial organisms to follow the evolution of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  2. Pushing the lipid envelope: using bio-inspired nanocomposites to understand and exploit lipid membrane limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, Gabriel

    Lipids serve as the organizing matrix material for biological membranes, the site of interaction of cells with the external environment. . As such, lipids play a critical role in structure/function relationships of an extraordinary number of critical biological processes. In this talk, we will look at bio-inspired membrane assemblies to better understand the roles of lipids in biological systems as well as attempt to generate materials that can mimic and potentially advance upon biological membrane processes. First, we will investigate the response of lipids to adverse conditions. In particular, I will present data that demonstrates the response of lipids to harsh conditions and how such responses can be exploited to generate nanocomposite rearrangements. I will also show the effect of adding the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to lipid bilayer assemblies and describe implications on our understanding of LPS organization in biological systems as well as describe induced lipid modifications that can be exploited to organize membrane composites with precise, two-dimensional geometric control. Lastly, I will describe the use of amphiphilic block copolymers to create membrane nanocomposites capable of mimicking biological systems. In particular, I will describe the use of our polymer-based membranes in creating artificial photosynthetic assemblies that rival biological systems in function in a more flexible, dynamic matrix.

  3. Amoeba-inspired nanoarchitectonic computing: solving intractable computational problems using nanoscale photoexcitation transfer dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Masashi; Naruse, Makoto; Kim, Song-Ju; Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Hori, Hirokazu; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Hara, Masahiko

    2013-06-18

    Biologically inspired computing devices and architectures are expected to overcome the limitations of conventional technologies in terms of solving computationally demanding problems, adapting to complex environments, reducing energy consumption, and so on. We previously demonstrated that a primitive single-celled amoeba (a plasmodial slime mold), which exhibits complex spatiotemporal oscillatory dynamics and sophisticated computing capabilities, can be used to search for a solution to a very hard combinatorial optimization problem. We successfully extracted the essential spatiotemporal dynamics by which the amoeba solves the problem. This amoeba-inspired computing paradigm can be implemented by various physical systems that exhibit suitable spatiotemporal dynamics resembling the amoeba's problem-solving process. In this Article, we demonstrate that photoexcitation transfer phenomena in certain quantum nanostructures mediated by optical near-field interactions generate the amoebalike spatiotemporal dynamics and can be used to solve the satisfiability problem (SAT), which is the problem of judging whether a given logical proposition (a Boolean formula) is self-consistent. SAT is related to diverse application problems in artificial intelligence, information security, and bioinformatics and is a crucially important nondeterministic polynomial time (NP)-complete problem, which is believed to become intractable for conventional digital computers when the problem size increases. We show that our amoeba-inspired computing paradigm dramatically outperforms a conventional stochastic search method. These results indicate the potential for developing highly versatile nanoarchitectonic computers that realize powerful solution searching with low energy consumption.

  4. Amoeba-inspired nanoarchitectonic computing: solving intractable computational problems using nanoscale photoexcitation transfer dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Masashi; Naruse, Makoto; Kim, Song-Ju; Wakabayashi, Masamitsu; Hori, Hirokazu; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Hara, Masahiko

    2013-06-18

    Biologically inspired computing devices and architectures are expected to overcome the limitations of conventional technologies in terms of solving computationally demanding problems, adapting to complex environments, reducing energy consumption, and so on. We previously demonstrated that a primitive single-celled amoeba (a plasmodial slime mold), which exhibits complex spatiotemporal oscillatory dynamics and sophisticated computing capabilities, can be used to search for a solution to a very hard combinatorial optimization problem. We successfully extracted the essential spatiotemporal dynamics by which the amoeba solves the problem. This amoeba-inspired computing paradigm can be implemented by various physical systems that exhibit suitable spatiotemporal dynamics resembling the amoeba's problem-solving process. In this Article, we demonstrate that photoexcitation transfer phenomena in certain quantum nanostructures mediated by optical near-field interactions generate the amoebalike spatiotemporal dynamics and can be used to solve the satisfiability problem (SAT), which is the problem of judging whether a given logical proposition (a Boolean formula) is self-consistent. SAT is related to diverse application problems in artificial intelligence, information security, and bioinformatics and is a crucially important nondeterministic polynomial time (NP)-complete problem, which is believed to become intractable for conventional digital computers when the problem size increases. We show that our amoeba-inspired computing paradigm dramatically outperforms a conventional stochastic search method. These results indicate the potential for developing highly versatile nanoarchitectonic computers that realize powerful solution searching with low energy consumption. PMID:23565603

  5. Superhydrophobic gecko feet with high adhesive forces towards water and their bio-inspired materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kesong; Du, Jiexing; Wu, Juntao; Jiang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Functional integration is an inherent characteristic for multiscale structures of biological materials. In this contribution, we first investigate the liquid-solid adhesive forces between water droplets and superhydrophobic gecko feet using a high-sensitivity micro-electromechanical balance system. It was found, in addition to the well-known solid-solid adhesion, the gecko foot, with a multiscale structure, possesses both superhydrophobic functionality and a high adhesive force towards water. The origin of the high adhesive forces of gecko feet to water could be attributed to the high density nanopillars that contact the water. Inspired by this, polyimide films with gecko-like multiscale structures were constructed by using anodic aluminum oxide templates, exhibiting superhydrophobicity and a strong adhesive force towards water. The static water contact angle is larger than 150° and the adhesive force to water is about 66 μN. The resultant gecko-inspired polyimide film can be used as a ``mechanical hand'' to snatch micro-liter liquids. We expect this work will provide the inspiration to reveal the mechanism of the high-adhesive superhydrophobic of geckos and extend the practical applications of polyimide materials.

  6. A Fluid-solid Numerical Model for the Analysis of Bio-inspired UUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Santanu; Krishnamurthy, Nagendra; Tafti, Danesh; Priya, Shashank

    2012-11-01

    This research will describe how a biology-inspired approach to engineering has placed jellyfish at the center of efforts to build next-generation underwater vehicles. In order to swim, jellyfish contract the circular muscles that line the undersurface of their bell. The motion of the bell from the relaxed position to the fully contracted position results in the mesoglea interacting with the surrounding water in such a way that causes the jellyfish to move forward. The present method uses two-dimensional fluid elements and plain strain hyperelastic structural elements for the numerical simulation of the problem. The equations of motion of the fluid are expressed as full N-S equation. A new type of bio-inspired boundary condition has been proposed. A prototype of the jellyfish setup has been developed for the experimental validation of the simulation results. The solution of the coupled system is accomplished by solving the two systems separately with the interaction effects using immersed boundary method. This study will be useful in accurate calculation of pressure distribution, maximum blocking stress, strain rate and actuator system for submerged autonomous vehicle. This study will also help in designing efficient propulsion and thruster mechanism for unmanned underwater vehicle. It is believed that the research presented in this paper advances the understanding of the dynamic behavior of bio-inspired UUV.

  7. Bio-inspired Trajectory Generation for UAV Perching Movement Based on Tau Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a bio-inspired trajectory generation method for UAV/MAV perching (i.e., the final approach to, and landing on, a target. The method is based on tau theory, which was established based on the study of the natural motion patterns of animals (including humans when they approach a fixed or moving object for perching or capturing prey. In our research, tau theory is applied to the trajectory generation problem of an air vehicle for perching on a target object. Three bio-inspired strategies, namely the tau in the action gap strategy, the tau coupling strategy and the intrinsic tau gravity strategy are studied for perching tasks. A key parameter of the method inspired by biological systems is discussed. Two perching scenarios, one from a flight state (with non-zero initial velocity and one from a hovering state (with zero initial velocity, are studied. Numerical simulations with a rotary vehicle are presented as examples to demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach. The simulation results show that the resulting flight trajectories meet all the desired requirements for the vehicle in perching on an object.

  8. Hair flow sensors: from bio-inspiration to bio-mimicking—a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Junliang; (Bill Yu, Xiong

    2012-11-01

    A great many living beings, such as aquatics and arthropods, are equipped with highly sensitive flow sensors to help them survive in challenging environments. These sensors are excellent sources of inspiration for developing application-driven artificial flow sensors with high sensitivity and performance. This paper reviews the bio-inspirations on flow sensing in nature and the bio-mimicking efforts to emulate such sensing mechanisms in recent years. The natural flow sensing systems in aquatics and arthropods are reviewed to highlight inspirations at multiple levels such as morphology, sensing mechanism and information processing. Biomimetic hair flow sensors based on different sensing mechanisms and fabrication technologies are also reviewed to capture the recent accomplishments and to point out areas where further progress is necessary. Biomimetic flow sensors are still in their early stages. Further efforts are required to unveil the sensing mechanisms in the natural biological systems and to achieve multi-level bio-mimicking of the natural system to develop their artificial counterparts.

  9. Biological materials: a materials science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Marc A; Chen, Po-Yu; Lopez, Maria I; Seki, Yasuaki; Lin, Albert Y M

    2011-07-01

    The approach used by Materials Science and Engineering is revealing new aspects in the structure and properties of biological materials. The integration of advanced characterization, mechanical testing, and modeling methods can rationalize heretofore unexplained aspects of these structures. As an illustration of the power of this methodology, we apply it to biomineralized shells, avian beaks and feathers, and fish scales. We also present a few selected bioinspired applications: Velcro, an Al2O3-PMMA composite inspired by the abalone shell, and synthetic attachment devices inspired by gecko.

  10. Visual Attention: from Bio-Inspired Modeling to Real-Time Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Ouerhani, Nabil; Hügli, Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Visual Attention: From Bio-Inspired Modeling to Visual attention is the ability of a vision system, be it biological or artificial, to rapidly select the most salient and thus the most relevant data about the environment in which the system is operating. The main goal of this visual mechanism is to drastically reduce the amount of visual information that must be processed by high level and thus complex tasks, such as object recognition, which leads to a considerable speed up of the entire vis...

  11. A bio-inspired infrared imager with on chip object computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarley, Paul L.; Caulfield, John T.

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses a Biologically Inspired Shortwave Infrared (SWIR) imager that performs on chip object detection using temporal and spatial processing embedded in the imager's readout integrated circuit (ROIC). The sensor circuit is designed to detect pixel level intensity changes and correlate the change with nearby intensity changes using multiple thresholding criteria to output object exceedances. The sensor is capable of automatically outputting both normal video and also a reduced data set of binarized exceedances. Therefore this SWIR sensor with onboard temporal spatial sensing should be well suited to both manned and unmanned sensing scenarios which could benefit from automated object detection and reduced data sets.

  12. Development of new smart materials and spinning systems inspired by natural silks and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    Silks produced by spiders and silkworms are charming natural biological materials with highly optimized hierarchical structures and outstanding physicomechanical properties. The superior performance of silks relies on the integration of a unique protein sequence, a distinctive spinning process, and complex hierarchical structures. Silks have been prepared to form a variety of morphologies and are widely used in diverse applications, for example, in the textile industry, as drug delivery vehicles, and as tissue engineering scaffolds. This review presents an overview of the organization of natural silks, in which chemical and physical functions are optimized, as well as a range of new materials inspired by the desire to mimic natural silk structure and synthesis.

  13. Lunabotics Mining Competition: Inspiration Through Accomplishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Lunabotics Mining Competition is designed to promote the development of interest in space activities and STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) fields. The competition uses excavation, a necessary first step towards extracting resources from the regolith and building bases on the moon. The unique physical properties of lunar regolith and the reduced 1/6th gravity, vacuum environment make excavation a difficult technical challenge. Advances in lunar regolith mining have the potential to significantly contribute to our nation's space vision and NASA space exploration operations. The competition is conducted annually by NASA at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex. The teams that can use telerobotic or autonomous operation to excavate a lunar regolith geotechnical simulant, herein after referred to as Black Point-1 (or BP-1) and score the most points (calculated as an average of two separate 10-minute timed competition attempts) will eam points towards the Joe Kosmo Award for Excellence and the scores will reflect ranking in the on-site mining category of the competition. The minimum excavation requirement is 10.0 kg during each competition attempt and the robotic excavator, referred to as the "Lunabot", must meet all specifications. This paper will review the achievements of the Lunabotics Mining Competition in 2010 and 2011, and present the new rules for 2012. By providing a framework for robotic design and fabrication, which culminates in a live competition event, university students have been able to produce sophisticated lunabots which are tele-operated. Multi-disciplinary teams are encouraged and the extreme sense of accomplishment provides a unique source of inspiration to the participating students, which has been shown to translate into increased interest in STEM careers. Our industrial sponsors (Caterpillar, Newmont Mining, Harris, Honeybee Robotics) have all stated that there is a strong need for skills in the workforce related

  14. A Bio-inspired Collision Avoidance Model Based on Spatial Information Derived from Motion Detectors Leads to Common Routes

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Olivier J. N.; Lindemann, Jens P.; Martin Egelhaaf

    2015-01-01

    Avoiding collisions is one of the most basic needs of any mobile agent, both biological and technical, when searching around or aiming toward a goal. We propose a model of collision avoidance inspired by behavioral experiments on insects and by properties of optic flow on a spherical eye experienced during translation, and test the interaction of this model with goal-driven behavior. Insects, such as flies and bees, actively separate the rotational and translational optic flow components via ...

  15. INSPIRE: A new scientific information system for HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of high-energy physics (HEP) information systems has been jointly analyzed by the libraries of CERN, DESY, Fermilab and SLAC. As a result, the four laboratories have started the INSPIRE project - a new platform built by moving the successful SPIRES features and content, curated at DESY, Fermilab and SLAC, into the open-source CDS Invenio digital library software that was developed at CERN. INSPIRE will integrate current acquisition workflows and databases to host the entire body of the HEP literature (about one million records), aiming to become the reference HEP scientific information platform worldwide. It will provide users with fast access to full text journal articles and preprints, but also material such as conference slides and multimedia. INSPIRE will empower scientists with new tools to discover and access the results most relevant to their research, enable novel text- and data-mining applications, and deploy new metrics to assess the impact of articles and authors. In addition, it will introduce the 'Web 2.0' paradigm of user-enriched content in the domain of sciences, with community-based approaches to scientific publishing. INSPIRE represents a natural evolution of scholarly communication built on successful community-based information systems, and it provides a vision for information management in other fields of science. Inspired by the needs of HEP, we hope that the INSPIRE project will be inspiring for other communities.

  16. CERN Inspires Art in Major New Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition inspired by CERN, opened at the Atlantis Gallery in London on Thursday, 1 March before going on a world tour. The fruit of a close collaboration between CERN and the London Institute, the exhibition brings together works from many leading European contemporary artists. White wooden boxes on a grey floor... the lids opened, unveiling brilliant white light from a bunch of optical fibres carefully stuck together in the shape of a square. Another holds a treasure of lead glass surrounded by enigmatic black mirrors. What's it all about? Signatures of the Invisible, that's what, a joint project organised by the London Institute, one of the world's largest college of art, and our Laboratory. Damien Foresy from the EST workshop putting finishing touches to the spinning tops of French artist Jérôme Basserode. Monica Sand's boxes are just one of the many works based around materials used in particle detection at CERN that was admired at the opening o...

  17. E6 inspired composite Higgs model

    CERN Document Server

    Nevzorov, R

    2015-01-01

    We consider a composite Higgs model embedded into a Grand Unified Theory(GUT) based on the E_6 gauge group. The phenomenological viability of this E_6 inspired composite Higgs model (E6CHM) implies that standard model (SM) elementary fermions with different baryon or lepton number should stem from different 27 representations of E_6. We present a six-dimensional orbifold GUT model in which the E_6 gauge symmetry is broken to the SM gauge group so that the appropriate splitting of the bulk 27-plets takes place. In this model the strongly coupled sector is localised on one of the branes and possesses an SU(6) global symmetry that contains the SU(3)_C\\times SU(2)_W\\times U(1)_Y subgroup. In this case the approximate gauge coupling unification can be attained if the right-handed top quark is a composite state and the elementary sector involves extra exotic matter beyond the SM which ensures anomaly cancellation. The breakdown of the approximate SU(6) symmetry at low energies in this model results in a set of the ...

  18. The nanotechnology of life-inspired systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Bartosz A.; Huck, Wilhelm T. S.

    2016-07-01

    For some decades now, nanotechnology has been touted as the 'next big thing' with potential impact comparable to the steam, electricity or Internet revolutions -- but has it lived up to these expectations? While advances in top-down nanolithography, now reaching 10-nm resolution, have resulted in devices that are rapidly approaching mass production, attempts to produce nanoscale devices using bottom-up approaches have met with only limited success. We have been inundated with nanoparticles of almost any shape, material and composition, but their societal impact has been far from revolutionary, with growing concerns over their toxicity. Despite nebulous hopes that making hierarchical nanomaterials will lead to new, emergent properties, no breakthrough applications seem imminent. In this Perspective, we argue that the time is ripe to look beyond individual nano-objects and their static assemblies, and instead focus on systems comprising different types of 'nanoparts' interacting and/or communicating with one another to perform desired functions. Such systems are interesting for a variety of reasons: they can act autonomously without external electrical or optical connections, can be dynamic and reconfigurable, and can act as 'nanomachines' by directing the flow of mass, energy or information . In thinking how this systems nanoscience approach could be implemented to design useful -- as opposed to toy-model -- nanosystems, our choice of applications and our nanoengineering should be inspired by living matter.

  19. String field theory inspired phantom model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An exact solution to the Friedmann equations with a stringy inspired phantom field is constructed. The Universe is considered as a slowly decaying D3-brane, which is described in the string field theory framework. The notable features of the concerned exactly solvable stringy dark energy (DE) model are a ghost sign of the kinetic term and a special polynomial form of the effective tachyon potential. Cosmological consequences of adding the cold dark matter (CDM) to this model are investigated as well. Solutions with large initial value of the CDM energy density attracted by the exact solution without the CDM are constructed numerically. In contrast to the ACDM model the Hubble parameter in our model is not a monotonic function of time. For specific initial data the DE state parameter UJDE is also not monotonic function of time. For these cases there are two separate domains of time where U'DE being less than - 1 is close to - 1. Stability conditions, under which the constructed solution is stable with respect to small fluctuations of the initial conditions, including the CDM energy density, are found. Keywords: string field theory, cosmology, tachyon, phantom, dark energy, cold dark matter, Big Rip (authors)

  20. String-Inspired Gravity through Symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Belinchón

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We study a string-inspired cosmological model from the symmetries point of view. We start by deducing the form that each physical quantity must take so that the field equations, in the string frame, admit self-similar solutions. In the same way, we formalize the use of power-law solutions (less restrictive than the self-similar ones by studying the wave equation for the dilaton through the Lie group method. Furthermore, we show how to generate more solutions by using this approach. As examples, we calculate exact solutions to several cosmological models in the four-dimensional NS-NS (Neveu-Schwarz-Neveu-Schwarz sector of low-energy effective string theory coupled to a dilaton and an axion-like H-field within the string frame background, with FRW and the Bianchi Type II metrics. We also study the existence of Noether symmetries, which allow us to determine the form of the physical quantities in the framework of FRW geometry and to find exact cosmological solutions.

  1. Catalytic applications of bio-inspired nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacardo, Dennis Kien Balaong

    The biomimetic synthesis of Pd nanoparticles was presented using the Pd4 peptide, TSNAVHPTLRHL, isolated from combinatorial phage display library. Using this approach, nearly monodisperse and spherical Pd nanoparticles were generated with an average diameter of 1.9 +/- 0.4 nm. The peptide-based nanocatalyst were employed in the Stille coupling reaction under energy-efficient and environmentally friendly reaction conditions of aqueous solvent, room temperature and very low catalyst loading. To this end, the Pd nanocatalyst generated high turnover frequency (TOF) value and quantitative yields using ≥ 0.005 mol% Pd as well as catalytic activities with different aryl halides containing electron-withdrawing and electron-donating groups. The Pd4-capped Pd nanoparticles followed the atom-leaching mechanism and were found to be selective with respect to substrate identity. On the other hand, the naturally-occurring R5 peptide (SSKKSGSYSGSKGSKRRIL) was employed in the synthesis of biotemplated Pd nanomaterials which showed morphological changes as a function of Pd:peptide ratio. TOF analysis for hydrogenation of olefinic alcohols showed similar catalytic activity regardless of nanomorphology. Determination of catalytic properties of these bio-inspired nanomaterials are important as they serve as model system for alternative green catalyst with applications in industrially important transformations.

  2. Marvel and DC Characters Inspired by Arachnids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiomar Ribeiro Da-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares arachnid-based Marvel and DC comics characters. The composition of a comic book character often has interesting ‘real-life’ influences. Given the strong connection between arachnids (especially spiders, scorpions and mites, all belonging to the zoological class 'Arachnida' and human beings it is not surprising that they have inspired many fictional characters. We recorded 84 Marvel Comics characters and 40 DC Comics characters, detailed in the dataset that accompanies the article (Da-Silva 2014. Most characters have been created recently, since the 1990s. Marvel has significantly more arachnid characters than DC. As for taxonomic classification, the characters were based mostly on spiders (zoological order 'Araneae'. Of the total characters, the majority are human beings, but an overwhelming number have at least some typical arachnid features. Villains (60.91% of total are significantly more numerous, considering the sum of the two publishers. Arachnids have bad reputation for being dangerous (Thorp and Woodson 1976; Ruppert and Barnes 1996. Since the public usually considers spiders, scorpions and mites “harmful” in general, we expected a larger contingent of villains. However, there was no statistical difference between the amount of villains and heroes in Marvel characters. It did not happen probably due to the success of one character: the Amazing Spider-Man.

  3. Noncommutative inspired black holes in extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a recent string theory motivated paper, Nicolini, Smailagic and Spallucci (NSS) presented an interesting model for a noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like black hole solution in 4-dimensions. The essential effect of having noncommutative co-ordinates in this approach is to smear out matter distributions on a scale associated with the turn-on of noncommutativity which was taken to be near the 4-d Planck mass. In particular, NSS took this smearing to be essentially Gaussian. This energy scale is sufficiently large that in 4-d such effects may remain invisible indefinitely. Extra dimensional models which attempt to address the gauge hierarchy problem, however, allow for the possibility that the effective fundamental scale may not be far from ∼ 1 TeV, an energy regime that will soon be probed by experiments at both the LHC and ILC. In this paper we generalize the NSS model to the case where flat, toroidally compactified extra dimensions are accessible at the Terascale and examine the resulting modifications in black hole properties due to the existence of noncommutativity. We show that while many of the noncommutativity-induced black hole features found in 4-d by NSS persist, in some cases there can be significant modifications due the presence of extra dimensions. We also demonstrate that the essential features of this approach are not particularly sensitive to the Gaussian nature of the smearing employed by NSS

  4. Noncommutative Inspired Black Holes in Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Thomas G.

    2006-06-07

    In a recent string theory motivated paper, Nicolini, Smailagic and Spallucci (NSS) presented an interesting model for a noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like black hole solution in 4-dimensions. The essential effect of having noncommutative co-ordinates in this approach is to smear out matter distributions on a scale associated with the turn-on of noncommutativity which was taken to be near the 4-d Planck mass. In particular, NSS assumed that this smearing was essentially Gaussian. This energy scale is sufficiently large that in 4-d such effects may remain invisible indefinitely. Extra dimensional models which attempt to address the gauge hierarchy problem, however, allow for the possibility that the effective fundamental scale may not be far from {approx} 1 TeV, an energy regime that will soon be probed by experiments at both the LHC and ILC. In this paper we generalize the NSS model to the case where flat, toroidally compactified extra dimensions are accessible at the TeV-scale and examine the resulting modifications in black hole properties due to the existence of noncommutativity. We show that while many of the noncommutativity-induced black hole features found in 4-d by NSS persist, in some cases there can be significant modifications due the presence of extra dimensions. We also demonstrate that the essential features of this approach are not particularly sensitive to the Gaussian nature of the smearing assumed by NSS.

  5. Viscous pumping inspired by flexible propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Arco, Roger M; Lauga, Eric; Zenit, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Fluid-suspended microorganisms have evolved different swimming and feeding strategies in order to cope with an environment dominated by viscous effects. For instance ciliated organisms rely on the collective motion of flexible appendices to move and feed. By performing a non-reciprocal motion, flexible filaments can produce a net propulsive force, or pump fluid, in the absence of inertia. Inspired by such fundamental concept, we propose a strategy to produce macroscopic pumping and mixing in creeping flow. We measure experimentally the net motion of a Newtonian viscous fluid induced by the reciprocal motion of a flapper. When the flapper is rigid no net motion is induced. In contrast, when the flapper is made of a flexible material, a net fluid pumping is measured. We quantify the effectiveness of this pumping strategy and show that optimal pumping is achieved when the length of the flapper is on the same order as the elasto-hydrodynamic penetration length. We finally discuss the possible applications of flex...

  6. A locust-inspired miniature jumping robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Valentin; Gvirsman, Omer; Ben Hanan, Uri; Weiss, Avi; Ayali, Amir; Kosa, Gabor

    2015-11-25

    Unmanned ground vehicles are mostly wheeled, tracked, or legged. These locomotion mechanisms have a limited ability to traverse rough terrain and obstacles that are higher than the robot's center of mass. In order to improve the mobility of small robots it is necessary to expand the variety of their motion gaits. Jumping is one of nature's solutions to the challenge of mobility in difficult terrain. The desert locust is the model for the presented bio-inspired design of a jumping mechanism for a small mobile robot. The basic mechanism is similar to that of the semilunar process in the hind legs of the locust, and is based on the cocking of a torsional spring by wrapping a tendon-like wire around the shaft of a miniature motor. In this study we present the jumping mechanism design, and the manufacturing and performance analysis of two demonstrator prototypes. The most advanced jumping robot demonstrator is power autonomous, weighs 23 gr, and is capable of jumping to a height of 3.35 m, covering a distance of 1.37 m.

  7. Metamaterial Inspired Microstrip Antenna Investigations Using Metascreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tauseef Asim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual layer periodically patterned metamaterial inspired antenna on a low cost FR4 substrate is designed, simulated, fabricated, and tested. The eigenmode dispersion simulations are performed indicating the left handed metamaterial characteristics and are tunable with substrate permittivity. The same metamaterial unit cell structure is utilized to fabricate a metascreen. This metascreen is applied below the proposed metamaterial antenna and next used as superstrate above a simple patch to study the effects on impedance bandwidth, gain, and radiation patterns. The experimental results of these antennas are very good and closely match with the simulations. More importantly, the resonance for the proposed metamaterial antenna with metascreen occurs at the left handed (LH eigenfrequency of the metamaterial unit cell structure. The measured −10 dB bandwidths are 14.56% and 22.86% for the metamaterial antenna with single and double metascreens, respectively. The metascreens over the simple patch show adjacent dual band response. The first and second bands have measured −10 dB bandwidths of 9.6% and 16.66%. The simulated peak gain and radiation efficiency are 1.83 dBi and 74%, respectively. The radiation patterns are also very good and could be useful in the UWB wireless applications.

  8. Ant- and Ant-Colony-Inspired ALife Visual Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Gary; Machado, Penousal

    2015-01-01

    Ant- and ant-colony-inspired ALife art is characterized by the artistic exploration of the emerging collective behavior of computational agents, developed using ants as a metaphor. We present a chronology that documents the emergence and history of such visual art, contextualize ant- and ant-colony-inspired art within generative art practices, and consider how it relates to other ALife art. We survey many of the algorithms that artists have used in this genre, address some of their aims, and explore the relationships between ant- and ant-colony-inspired art and research on ant and ant colony behavior. PMID:26280070

  9. A data model for Cultural Heritage within INSPIRE.

    OpenAIRE

    Farjas Abadía, Mercedes; Fernández Freire, Carlos; Parcero-Oubiña, César; Uriarte González, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Esta monografía presenta los fundamentos, contexto y detalles técnicos de un Esquema de Aplicación para la incorporación de datos espaciales relativos al patrimonio cultural en el marco definido por la directiva europea INSPIRE sobre información geográfica. Abstract: This monograph presents the background, context and technical details of an Application Schema for the inclusion of cultural heritage spatial data into the INSPIRE framework. Nowadays, INSPIRE provides the most relevant frame...

  10. Bio-inspired computational techniques based on advanced condition monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Liangcheng; He Shan; Li Xiaoli; Li Xinglin

    2011-01-01

    The application of bio-inspired computational techniques to the field of condition monitoring is addressed.First, the bio-inspired computational techniques are briefly addressed; the advantages and disadvantages of these computational methods are made clear. Then, the roles of condition monitoring in the predictive maintenance and failures prediction and the development trends of condition monitoring are discussed. Finally, a case study on the condition monitoring of grinding machine is described, which shows the application of bio-inspired computational technique to a practical condition monitoring system.

  11. Advances in bio-inspired computing for combinatorial optimization problems

    CERN Document Server

    Pintea, Camelia-Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Bio-inspired Combinatorial Optimization Problems' illustrates several recent bio-inspired efficient algorithms for solving NP-hard problems.Theoretical bio-inspired concepts and models, in particular for agents, ants and virtual robots are described. Large-scale optimization problems, for example: the Generalized Traveling Salesman Problem and the Railway Traveling Salesman Problem, are solved and their results are discussed.Some of the main concepts and models described in this book are: inner rule to guide ant search - a recent model in ant optimization, heterogeneous sensitive a

  12. Rock Phosphate Solubilization Mechanisms of One Fungus and One Bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qi-mei; ZHAO Xiao-rong; ZHAO Zi-juan; LI Bao-guo

    2002-01-01

    Many microorganisms can dissolve the insoluble phosphates like apatite. However, the mechanisms are still not clear. This study was an attempt to investigate the mechanisms of rock phosphate solubilization by an Aspergillus 2TCiF2 and an Arthrobacter1TCRi7. The results indicated that the fungus produced a large amount of organic acids, mainly oxalic acid. The total quantity of the organic acids produced by the fungus was 550 times higher than that by the bacterium. Different organic acids had completely different capacities to solubilize the rock. Oxalic acid and citric acid had stronger capacity to dissolve the rock than malic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, malonic acid and succinic acid. The fungus solubilized the rock through excreting both proton and organic acids. The rock solubilization of the bacterium depended on only proton.

  13. A Streamlined Strategy for Biohydrogen Production with an Alkaliphilic Bacterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, Dwayne A [ORNL; Wall, Judy D. [University of Missouri; Mormile, Dr. Melanie R. [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Begemann, Matthew B [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are anticipated to enable a shift from fossil fuels for renewable transportation and manufacturing fuels, with biohydrogen considered attractive since it could offer the largest reduction of global carbon budgets. Currently, biohydrogen production remains inefficient and heavily fossil fuel-dependent. However, bacteria using alkali-treated biomass could streamline biofuel production while reducing costs and fossil fuel needs. An alkaliphilic bacterium, Halanaerobium strain sapolanicus, is described that is capable of biohydrogen production at levels rivaling neutrophilic strains, but at pH 11 and hypersaline conditions. H. sapolanicus ferments a variety of 5- and 6- carbon sugars derived from hemicellulose and cellulose including cellobiose, and forms the end products hydrogen and acetate. Further, it can also produce biohydrogen from switchgrass and straw pretreated at temperatures far lower than any previously reported and in solutions compatible with growth. Hence, this bacterium can potentially increase the efficiency and efficacy of biohydrogen production from renewable biomass resources.

  14. A physical map of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus chromosome.

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Z; Mages, W; Schmitt, R.

    1994-01-01

    A genomic map of the hyperthermophilic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Aquifex pyrophilus was established with NotI (GC/GGCCGC), SpeI (A/CTAGT), and XbaI (T/CTAGA). Linking clones and cross-hybridization of restriction fragments revealed a single circular chromosome of 1.6 Mbp. A single flagellin gene and six rRNA gene units were located on this map by Southern hybridization.

  15. Isolation of a Bacterium Capable of Degrading Peanut Hull Lignin

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Thomas J.; Kerr, Robert D.; Benner, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter sp., was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose and [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the...

  16. Growth of a Strictly Anaerobic Bacterium on Furfural (2-Furaldehyde)

    OpenAIRE

    Brune, Gerhard; Schoberth, Siegfried M.; Sahm, Hermann

    1983-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic bacterium was isolated from a continuous fermentor culture which converted the organic constituents of sulfite evaporator condensate to methane and carbon dioxide. Furfural is one of the major components of this condensate. This furfural isolate could degrade furfural as the sole source of carbon and energy in a defined mineral-vitamin-sulfate medium. Acetic acid was the major fermentation product. This organism could also use ethanol, lactate, pyruvate, or fumarate and c...

  17. A deep-sea bacterium with unique nitrifying property

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.

    cember 2000 A deep - sea bacterium with unique n i trifying property A. S. Pradeep Ram, P. A. Loka Bharathi*, Shanta Nair and D. Chandramohan Department of Microbiology, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004..., nitrite oxidizers have been shown to augment chemolithotrophic lifestyle with heterotrophic me tab o lism of simple carbon substrate 17 . Retaining both the traits enables them to exploit unique niches several centimetres bsf, where carbon or energy...

  18. An on-bacterium flow cytometric immunoassay for protein quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wen-Jun; Lan, Wei; Wang, Hai-Yan; Yan, Lei; Wang, Zhe-Li

    2013-09-01

    The polystyrene bead-based flow cytometric immunoassay has been widely reported. However, the preparation of functional polystyrene bead is still inconvenient. This study describes a simple and easy on-bacterium flow cytometric immunoassay for protein quantification, in which Staphylococcus aureus (SAC) is used as an antibody-antigen carrier to replace the polystyrene bead. The SAC beads were prepared by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) labeling, paraformaldehyde fixation and antibody binding. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin-19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1) proteins were used as models in the test system. Using prepared SAC beads, biotinylated proteins, and streptavidin-phycoerythrin (SA-PE), the on-bacterium flow cytometric immunoassay was validated by quantifying CEA and CYFRA 21-1 in sample. Obtained data demonstrated a concordant result between the logarithm of the protein concentration and the logarithm of the PE mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). The limit of detection (LOD) in this immunoassay was at least 0.25 ng/ml. Precision and accuracy assessments appeared that either the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) or the relative error (R.E.) was CYFRA 21-1. In conclusion, the on-bacterium flow cytometric immunoassay may be of use in the quantification of serum protein. PMID:23739299

  19. Inspiring future experimental scientists through questions related to colour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Mark D.; Melgosa, Manuel

    2014-07-01

    In general, it can be stated that unfortunately in most countries the number of students interested in traditional scientific disciplines (e.g. physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, etc.) for his/her future professional careers has considerably decreased during the past years. It is likely that among the reasons of this trend we can find that many students feel that these disciplines are particularly difficult, complex, abstract, and even boring, while they consider applied sciences (e.g. engineering) as much more attractive options to them. Here we aim to attract people of very different ages to traditional scientific disciplines, and promote scientific knowledge, using a set of colour questions related to everyday experiences. From our answers to these questions we hope that people can understand and learn science in a rigorous, relaxed and amusing way, and hopefully they will be inspired to continue exploring on their own. Examples of such colour questions can be found at the free website http://whyiscolor.org from Mark D. Fairchild. For a wider dissemination, most contents of this website have been recently translated into Spanish language by the authors, and published in the book entitled "La tienda de las curiosidades sobre el color" (Editorial University of Granada, Spain, ISBN: 9788433853820). Colour is certainly multidisciplinary, and while it can be said that it is mainly a perception, optics is a key discipline to understand colour stimuli and phenomena. The classical first approach in colour science as the result of the interaction of light, objects, and the human visual system will be also reviewed.

  20. Bio-inspired aquatic robotics by untethered piezohydroelastic actuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, L; Erturk, A

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates fish-like aquatic robotics using flexible bimorphs made of macro-fiber composite (MFC) piezoelectric laminates for carangiform locomotion. In addition to noiseless and efficient actuation over a range of frequencies, geometric scalability, and simple design, bimorph propulsors made of MFCs offer a balance between the actuation force and velocity response for performance enhancement in bio-inspired swimming. The experimental component of the presented work focuses on the characterization of an elastically constrained MFC bimorph propulsor for thrust generation in quiescent water as well as the development of a robotic fish prototype combining a microcontroller and a printed-circuit-board amplifier to generate high actuation voltage for untethered locomotion. From the theoretical standpoint, a distributed-parameter electroelastic model including the hydrodynamic effects and actuator dynamics is coupled with the elongated-body theory for predicting the mean thrust in quiescent water. In-air and underwater experiments are performed to verify the incorporation of hydrodynamic effects in the linear actuation regime. For electroelastically nonlinear actuation levels, experimentally obtained underwater vibration response is coupled with the elongated-body theory to predict the thrust output. The measured mean thrust levels in quiescent water (on the order of ∼10 mN) compare favorably with thrust levels of biological fish. An untethered robotic fish prototype that employs a single bimorph fin (caudal fin) for straight swimming and turning motions is developed and tested in free locomotion. A swimming speed of 0.3 body-length/second (7.5 cm s⁻¹ swimming speed for 24.3 cm body length) is achieved at 5 Hz for a non-optimized main body-propulsor bimorph combination under a moderate actuation voltage level. PMID:23348365

  1. Bio-inspired homogeneous multi-scale place recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zetao; Lowry, Stephanie; Jacobson, Adam; Hasselmo, Michael E; Milford, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Robotic mapping and localization systems typically operate at either one fixed spatial scale, or over two, combining a local metric map and a global topological map. In contrast, recent high profile discoveries in neuroscience have indicated that animals such as rodents navigate the world using multiple parallel maps, with each map encoding the world at a specific spatial scale. While a number of theoretical-only investigations have hypothesized several possible benefits of such a multi-scale mapping system, no one has comprehensively investigated the potential mapping and place recognition performance benefits for navigating robots in large real world environments, especially using more than two homogeneous map scales. In this paper we present a biologically-inspired multi-scale mapping system mimicking the rodent multi-scale map. Unlike hybrid metric-topological multi-scale robot mapping systems, this new system is homogeneous, distinguishable only by scale, like rodent neural maps. We present methods for training each network to learn and recognize places at a specific spatial scale, and techniques for combining the output from each of these parallel networks. This approach differs from traditional probabilistic robotic methods, where place recognition spatial specificity is passively driven by models of sensor uncertainty. Instead we intentionally create parallel learning systems that learn associations between sensory input and the environment at different spatial scales. We also conduct a systematic series of experiments and parameter studies that determine the effect on performance of using different neural map scaling ratios and different numbers of discrete map scales. The results demonstrate that a multi-scale approach universally improves place recognition performance and is capable of producing better than state of the art performance compared to existing robotic navigation algorithms. We analyze the results and discuss the implications with respect to

  2. Bio-inspired homogeneous multi-scale place recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zetao; Lowry, Stephanie; Jacobson, Adam; Hasselmo, Michael E; Milford, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Robotic mapping and localization systems typically operate at either one fixed spatial scale, or over two, combining a local metric map and a global topological map. In contrast, recent high profile discoveries in neuroscience have indicated that animals such as rodents navigate the world using multiple parallel maps, with each map encoding the world at a specific spatial scale. While a number of theoretical-only investigations have hypothesized several possible benefits of such a multi-scale mapping system, no one has comprehensively investigated the potential mapping and place recognition performance benefits for navigating robots in large real world environments, especially using more than two homogeneous map scales. In this paper we present a biologically-inspired multi-scale mapping system mimicking the rodent multi-scale map. Unlike hybrid metric-topological multi-scale robot mapping systems, this new system is homogeneous, distinguishable only by scale, like rodent neural maps. We present methods for training each network to learn and recognize places at a specific spatial scale, and techniques for combining the output from each of these parallel networks. This approach differs from traditional probabilistic robotic methods, where place recognition spatial specificity is passively driven by models of sensor uncertainty. Instead we intentionally create parallel learning systems that learn associations between sensory input and the environment at different spatial scales. We also conduct a systematic series of experiments and parameter studies that determine the effect on performance of using different neural map scaling ratios and different numbers of discrete map scales. The results demonstrate that a multi-scale approach universally improves place recognition performance and is capable of producing better than state of the art performance compared to existing robotic navigation algorithms. We analyze the results and discuss the implications with respect to

  3. Cooperativity to increase Turing pattern space for synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Diambra, Luis; Senthivel, Vivek Raj; Menendez, Diego Barcena; Isalan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    It is hard to bridge the gap between mathematical formulations and biological implementations of Turing patterns, yet this is necessary for both understanding and engineering these networks with synthetic biology approaches. Here, we model a reaction–diffusion system with two morphogens in a monostable regime, inspired by components that we recently described in a synthetic biology study in mammalian cells.1 The model employs a single promoter to express both the activator and inhibitor genes...

  4. Bio-inspired computation in unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Bio-inspired Computation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles focuses on the aspects of path planning, formation control, heterogeneous cooperative control and vision-based surveillance and navigation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) from the perspective of bio-inspired computation. It helps readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of control-related problems in UAVs, presenting the latest advances in bio-inspired computation. By combining bio-inspired computation and UAV control problems, key questions are explored in depth, and each piece is content-rich while remaining accessible. With abundant illustrations of simulation work, this book links theory, algorithms and implementation procedures, demonstrating the simulation results with graphics that are intuitive without sacrificing academic rigor. Further, it pays due attention to both the conceptual framework and the implementation procedures. The book offers a valuable resource for scientists, researchers and graduate students in the field of Control, Aeros...

  5. Méthodes inspirées de la robotique pour la simulation des changements conformationnels des protéines

    OpenAIRE

    Al Bluwi, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Proteins are biological macromolecules that play essential roles in living organisms. Un- derstanding the relationship between protein structure, dynamics and function is indis- pensable for advances in fields such as biology, pharmacology and biotechnology. Study- ing this relationship requires a combination of experimental and computational methods, whose development is the object of very active interdisciplinary research. In such a context, this thesis presents a robotics-inspired modeling...

  6. Salt-inducible promoter derivable from a lactic acid bacterium, and its use in a lactic acid bacterium for production of a desired protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Jan Willem; Kok, Jan; Venema, Gerard; Ledeboer, Adrianus Marinus

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a salt-inducible promoter present in SEQ ID NO: 10 and derivable from a lactic acid bacterium in isolation from the coding sequence normally controlled by said promoter in a wild-type lactic acid bacterium, with modifications and important parts thereof. Also provided are a re

  7. Metabolism of Kaempferia parviflora polymethoxyflavones by human intestinal bacterium Bautia sp. MRG-PMF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mihyang; Kim, Nayoung; Han, Jaehong

    2014-12-24

    Poylmethoxyflavones (PMFs) are major bioactive flavonoids, which exhibit various biological activities, such as anticancer effects. The biotransformation of PMFs and characterization of a PMF-metabolizing human intestinal bacterium were studied herein for the first time. Hydrolysis of aryl methyl ether functional groups by human fecal samples was observed from the bioconversion of various PMFs. Activity-guided screening for PMF-metabolizing intestinal bacteria under anaerobic conditions resulted in the isolation of a strict anaerobic bacterium, which was identified as Blautia sp. MRG-PMF1. The isolated MRG-PMF1 was able to metabolize various PMFs to the corresponding demethylated flavones. The microbial conversion of bioactive 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF) and 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (5,7,4'-TMF) was studied in detail. 5,7-DMF and 5,7,4'-TMF were completely metabolized to 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (chrysin) and 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone (apigenin), respectively. From a kinetics study, the methoxy group on the flavone C-7 position was found to be preferentially hydrolyzed. 5-Methoxychrysin, the intermediate of 5,7-DMF metabolism by Blautia sp. MRG-PMF1, was isolated and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Apigenin was produced from the sequential demethylation of 5,7,4'-TMF, via 5,4'-dimethoxy-7-hydroxyflavone and 7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavone (thevetiaflavone). Not only demethylation activity but also deglycosylation activity was exhibited by Blautia sp. MRG-PMF1, and various flavonoids, including isoflavones, flavones, and flavanones, were found to be metabolized to the corresponding aglycones. The unprecedented PMF demethylation activity of Blautia sp. MRG-PMF1 will expand our understanding of flavonoid metabolism in the human intestine and lead to novel bioactive compounds. PMID:25437273

  8. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  9. Biological trade and markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other ‘commodities’. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten ‘terms of contract’ that ‘self-stabilize’ trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models—often called ‘Walrasian’ markets—are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying ‘principal–agent’ problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists

  10. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  11. Toxicity of herbicides used in the sugarcane crop to diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio de Oliveira Procópio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to identify herbicides used in the sugarcane crop that affects neither the growth, the development, of nor the process of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF by the diazotrophic bacterium Herbaspirillum seropedicae. Eighteen herbicides (paraquat, ametryne, tebuthiuron, amicarbazone, diuron, metribuzin, [hexazinone + diuron], [hexazinone + clomazone], clomazone, isoxaflutole, sulfentrazone, oxyfluorfen, imazapic, imazapyr, [trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametryne], glyphosate, MSMA e 2,4-D were tested in their respective commercial doses regarding their impact on the growth of the bacteria in liquid medium DIGs. For this, we determined the duration of lag phase, generation time and maximum cell density of H. seropedicae, calculated from optical density data obtained at regular intervals during the incubation of cultures for 33 h at 32oC. We also evaluated the impact of herbicides on nitrogenase activity of H. seropedicae grown in semi-solid N-free JNFb medium. The effects of herbicides on the growth variables and the ARA were compared with the untreated control by Dunnett test. A completely randomized design was used. The herbicides paraquat, imazapyr, ametryne, glyphosate and oxyfluorfen inhibited the growth of H. seropedicae in vitro. Ametryne, oxyfluorfen and glyphosate caused a small reduction in the duration of the lag phase of diazotrophic bacteria H. seropedicae. Oxyfluorfen, ametryne and imazapyr resulted in increased the generation time by H. seropedicae. Glyphosate promoted drastic reduction in biological nitrogen fixation in vitro by H. seropedicae. The other tested herbicides did not affect the growth or the same BNF by H. seropedicae.

  12. Effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in maximal inspiration CT images of subjects without airflow limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Jens; Raket, Lars Lau; Nielsen, Mads [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Wille, Mathilde M.W.; Dirksen, Asger [University of Copenhagen, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup (Denmark); Feragen, Aasa [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems and Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tuebingen (Germany); Pedersen, Jesper H. [Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery RT, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bruijne, Marleen de [University of Copenhagen, Department of Computer Science, Copenhagen (Denmark); Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Departments of Medical Informatics and Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15

    To study the effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in voluntary inspiration breath-hold examinations. 961 subjects with normal spirometry were selected from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. Subjects were examined annually for five years with low-dose CT. Automated software was utilized to segment lungs and airways, identify segmental bronchi, and match airway branches in all images of the same subject. Inspiration level was defined as segmented total lung volume (TLV) divided by predicted total lung capacity (pTLC). Mixed-effects models were used to predict relative change in lumen diameter (ALD) and wall thickness (AWT) in airways of generation 0 (trachea) to 7 and segmental bronchi (R1-R10 and L1-L10) from relative changes in inspiration level. Relative changes in ALD were related to relative changes in TLV/pTLC, and this distensibility increased with generation (p < 0.001). Relative changes in AWT were inversely related to relative changes in TLV/pTLC in generation 3-7 (p < 0.001). Segmental bronchi were widely dispersed in terms of ALD (5.7 ± 0.7 mm), AWT (0.86 ± 0.07 mm), and distensibility (23.5 ± 7.7 %). Subjects who inspire more deeply prior to imaging have larger ALD and smaller AWT. This effect is more pronounced in higher-generation airways. Therefore, adjustment of inspiration level is necessary to accurately assess airway dimensions. (orig.)

  13. Effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in maximal inspiration CT images of subjects without airflow limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the effect of inspiration on airway dimensions measured in voluntary inspiration breath-hold examinations. 961 subjects with normal spirometry were selected from the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial. Subjects were examined annually for five years with low-dose CT. Automated software was utilized to segment lungs and airways, identify segmental bronchi, and match airway branches in all images of the same subject. Inspiration level was defined as segmented total lung volume (TLV) divided by predicted total lung capacity (pTLC). Mixed-effects models were used to predict relative change in lumen diameter (ALD) and wall thickness (AWT) in airways of generation 0 (trachea) to 7 and segmental bronchi (R1-R10 and L1-L10) from relative changes in inspiration level. Relative changes in ALD were related to relative changes in TLV/pTLC, and this distensibility increased with generation (p < 0.001). Relative changes in AWT were inversely related to relative changes in TLV/pTLC in generation 3-7 (p < 0.001). Segmental bronchi were widely dispersed in terms of ALD (5.7 ± 0.7 mm), AWT (0.86 ± 0.07 mm), and distensibility (23.5 ± 7.7 %). Subjects who inspire more deeply prior to imaging have larger ALD and smaller AWT. This effect is more pronounced in higher-generation airways. Therefore, adjustment of inspiration level is necessary to accurately assess airway dimensions. (orig.)

  14. Lunabotics Mining Competition: Inspiration through Accomplishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Space Mining for resources such as water ice, and regolith, which contain many elements in the form of metals, minerals, volatiles and other compounds, is a necessary step in Space Resource Utilization. One of the primary goals is to extract propellants from the regolith such as oxygen and hydrogen which could then be used for in-space transportation. In addition, the space mining system can be used for various construction tasks that can benefit human and robotic exploration as well as scientific investigations based on the exposed topography. The National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) Lunabotics Mining Competition is a university-level competition designed to engage and retain students in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). NASA will directly benefit from the competition by encouraging the development of innovative lunar excavation concepts from universities which may result in clever ideas and solutions which could be applied to an actual lunar excavation device or payload. The challenge is for students to design and build a remote controlled or autonomous excavator, called a lunabot, that can collect and deposit a minimum of 10 kilograms of lunar simulant within 15 minutes. The complexities of the challenge include the abrasive characteristics of the lunar simulant, the weight and size limitations of the lunabot, and the ability to control the lunabot from a remote control center or operate autonomously. This paper will present an update of the results and lessons learned during the first and second annual Lunabotics Mining Competitions held in May 2010 and May 2011. It will also preview the 2012 competition with a review of the revised rules. In 2010,22 United States (US) universities competed, and in May 2011 the competition was opened to international participation. In 2011, 36 teams actually competed from 26 USA states and 4 foreign countries (India, Bangladesh, Colombia and Canada). This combined total directly inspired an

  15. Research Progress and Perspectives of Nitrogen Fixing Bacterium, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, in Monocot Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Eskin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen fixing bacterium originally found in monocotyledon sugarcane plants in which the bacterium actively fixes atmosphere nitrogen and provides significant amounts of nitrogen to plants. This bacterium mainly colonizes intercellular spaces within the roots and stems of plants and does not require the formation of the complex root organ like nodule. The bacterium is less plant/crop specific and indeed G. diazotrophicus has been found in a number of unrelated plant species. Importantly, as the bacterium was of monocot plant origin, there exists a possibility that the nitrogen fixation feature of the bacterium may be used in many other monocot crops. This paper reviews and updates the research progress of G. diazotrophicus for the past 25 years but focuses on the recent research development.

  16. Phosphate enhances levan production in the endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    OpenAIRE

    Idogawa, Nao; Amamoto, Ryuta; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a gram-negative and endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that has several beneficial effects in host plants; thus, utilization of this bacterium as a biofertilizer in agriculture may be possible. G. diazotrophicus synthesizes levan, a D-fructofuranosyl polymer with β-(2→6) linkages, as an exopolysaccharide and the synthesized levan improves the stress tolerance of the bacterium. In this study, we found that phosphate enhances levan production by G. diazotro...

  17. A Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium That Decreases Nickel Toxicity in Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Burd, Genrich I.; Dixon, D. George; Glick, Bernard R.

    1998-01-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and CrO4−, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride w...

  18. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  19. Language Based Techniques for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik

    calculi have similarly been used for the study of bio-chemical reactive systems. In this dissertation it is argued that techniques rooted in the theory and practice of programming languages, language based techniques if you will, constitute a strong basis for the investigation of models of biological......Process calculus is the common denominator for a class of compact, idealised, domain-specific formalisms normally associated with the study of reactive concurrent systems within Computer Science. With the rise of the interactioncentred science of Systems Biology a number of bio-inspired process...... systems as formalised in a process calculus. In particular it is argued that Static Program Analysis provides a useful approach to the study of qualitative properties of such models. In support of this claim a number of static program analyses are developed for Regev’s BioAmbients – a bio-inspired variant...

  20. Magnetic guidance of the magnetotactic bacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, Johannes; Pfeiffer, Daniel; Schüler, Dirk; Fischer, Thomas M

    2016-04-21

    Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense is a magnetotactic bacterium with a permanent magnetic moment capable of swimming using two bipolarly located flagella. In their natural environment these bacteria swim along the field lines of the homogeneous geomagnetic field in a typical run and reversal pattern and thereby create non-differentiable trajectories with sharp edges. In the current work we nevertheless achieve stable guidance along curved lines of mechanical instability by using a heterogeneous magnetic field of a garnet film. The successful guidance of the bacteria depends on the right balance between motility and the magnetic moment of the magnetosome chain. PMID:26972517

  1. Intracellular iron minerals in a dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasauer, Susan; Langley, Sean; Beveridge, Terry J

    2002-01-01

    Among prokaryotes, there are few examples of controlled mineral formation; the formation of crystalline iron oxides and sulfides [magnetite (Fe3O4) or greigite (Fe3S4)] by magnetotactic bacteria is an exception. Shewanella putrefaciens CN32, a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium that is capable of dissimilatory iron reduction, produced microscopic intracellular grains of iron oxide minerals during growth on two-line ferrihydrite in a hydrogen-argon atmosphere. The minerals, formed at iron concentrations found in the soil and sedimentary environments where these bacteria are active, could represent an unexplored pathway for the cycling of iron by bacteria. PMID:11778045

  2. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  3. Immunodominance and clonal selection inspired multiobjective clustering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenping Ma; Licheng Jiao; Maoguo Gong

    2009-01-01

    The biological immune system is a highly parallel and distributed adaptive system. The information processing abilities of the immune system provide important insights into the field of computation. Based on immunodominance in the biological immune system and the clonal selection mechanism, a novel data mining method, Immune Dominance Clonal Multiobjective Clustering algorithm (IDCMC), is presented. The algorithm divides an individual population into three sub-populations according to three different measurements, and adopts different evolution and selection strategies for each sub-population. The update of each sub-population, however, is not carried out in isolation. The periodic combination operation of the analysis of the three sub-populations represents considerable advantages in its global search ability. The clustering task is a multiobjective optimization problem, which is more robust with respect to the variety of cluster structures of different datasets than a single-objective clustering algorithm. In addition, the new algorithm can determine the num-ber of clusters automatically, which should identify the most promising clustering solutions in the candidate set. The experimental results, using artificial datasets with different manifold structure and handwritten digit datasets, show that the IDCMC outperforms the PESA-ll-based clustering method, the genetic algorithm-based clustering technique and the original K-Means algorithm in solving most of the problems tested.

  4. Biotemplating of Luffa cylindrica sponges to self-supporting hierarchical zeolite macrostructures for bio-inspired structured catalytic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomorphic self-supporting MFI-type zeolite frameworks with hierarchical porosity and complex architecture were prepared using a 2-step (in-situ seeding and secondary crystal growth) hydrothermal synthesis in the presence of a biological template (Luffa sponge), employed as a macroscale sacrificial structure builder. The bio-inspired zeolitic replica inherited the complex spongy morphology and the intricate open-porous architecture of the biotemplate. Moreover, it exhibited reasonable mechanical stability in order to study the applicability of the biomorphic catalyst in a technical catalytic process. A bio-inspired catalytic reactor utilising the self-supporting ZSM-5 scaffold in monolithic configuration was developed in order to test the catalytic performance of the material

  5. Mobile Robots for Localizing Gas Emission Sources on Landfill Sites: Is Bio-Inspiration the Way to Go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor eHernandez Bennetts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators or algorithms that control the behaviour of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odour plume. In particular the task of tracking an odour plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behaviour of moths, dungbeetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro drone in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is at the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behaviour of animals, can be usefully translated into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically-inspired algorithms.

  6. Mobile robots for localizing gas emission sources on landfill sites: is bio-inspiration the way to go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez Bennetts, Victor; Lilienthal, Achim J; Neumann, Patrick P; Trincavelli, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Roboticists often take inspiration from animals for designing sensors, actuators, or algorithms that control the behavior of robots. Bio-inspiration is motivated with the uncanny ability of animals to solve complex tasks like recognizing and manipulating objects, walking on uneven terrains, or navigating to the source of an odor plume. In particular the task of tracking an odor plume up to its source has nearly exclusively been addressed using biologically inspired algorithms and robots have been developed, for example, to mimic the behavior of moths, dung beetles, or lobsters. In this paper we argue that biomimetic approaches to gas source localization are of limited use, primarily because animals differ fundamentally in their sensing and actuation capabilities from state-of-the-art gas-sensitive mobile robots. To support our claim, we compare actuation and chemical sensing available to mobile robots to the corresponding capabilities of moths. We further characterize airflow and chemosensor measurements obtained with three different robot platforms (two wheeled robots and one flying micro-drone) in four prototypical environments and show that the assumption of a constant and unidirectional airflow, which is the basis of many gas source localization approaches, is usually far from being valid. This analysis should help to identify how underlying principles, which govern the gas source tracking behavior of animals, can be usefully "translated" into gas source localization approaches that fully take into account the capabilities of mobile robots. We also describe the requirements for a reference application, monitoring of gas emissions at landfill sites with mobile robots, and discuss an engineered gas source localization approach based on statistics as an alternative to biologically inspired algorithms.

  7. Visual Cortex Inspired CNN Model for Feature Construction in Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hongping; Niu, Zhendong; Zhang, Chunxia; Ma, Jing; Chen, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Recently, biologically inspired models are gradually proposed to solve the problem in text analysis. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) are hierarchical artificial neural networks, which include a various of multilayer perceptrons. According to biological research, CNN can be improved by bringing in the attention modulation and memory processing of primate visual cortex. In this paper, we employ the above properties of primate visual cortex to improve CNN and propose a biological-mechanism-driven-feature-construction based answer recommendation method (BMFC-ARM), which is used to recommend the best answer for the corresponding given questions in community question answering. BMFC-ARM is an improved CNN with four channels respectively representing questions, answers, asker information and answerer information, and mainly contains two stages: biological mechanism driven feature construction (BMFC) and answer ranking. BMFC imitates the attention modulation property by introducing the asker information and answerer information of given questions and the similarity between them, and imitates the memory processing property through bringing in the user reputation information for answerers. Then the feature vector for answer ranking is constructed by fusing the asker-answerer similarities, answerer's reputation and the corresponding vectors of question, answer, asker, and answerer. Finally, the Softmax is used at the stage of answer ranking to get best answers by the feature vector. The experimental results of answer recommendation on the Stackexchange dataset show that BMFC-ARM exhibits better performance. PMID:27471460

  8. Visual cortex inspired CNN model for feature construction in text analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongping Fu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, biologically inspired models are gradually proposed to solve the problem in text analysis. Convolutional neural networks (CNN are hierarchical artificial neural networks, which include a various of multilayer perceptrons. According to biological research, CNN can be improved by bringing in the attention modulation and memory processing of primate visual cortex. In this paper, we employ the above properties of primate visual cortex to improve CNN and propose a biological-mechanism-driven-feature-construction based answer recommendation method (BMFC-ARM, which is used to recommend the best answer for the corresponding given questions in community question answering. BMFC-ARM is an improved CNN with four channels respectively representing questions, answers, asker information and answerer information, and mainly contains two stages: biological mechanism driven feature construction (BMFC and answer ranking. BMFC imitates the attention modulation property by introducing the asker information and answerer information of given questions and the similarity between them, and imitates the memory processing property through bringing in the user reputation information for answerers. Then the feature vector for answer ranking is constructed by fusing the asker-answerer similarities, answerer's reputation and the corresponding vectors of question, answer, asker and answerer. Finally, the Softmax is used at the stage of answer ranking to get best answers by the feature vector. The experimental results of answer recommendation on the Stackexchange dataset show that BMFC-ARM exhibits better performance.

  9. Bio-inspired fabrication of stimuli-responsive photonic crystals with hierarchical structures and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Peng, Wenhong; Zhu, Shenmin; Zhang, Di

    2016-03-01

    When the constitutive materials of photonic crystals (PCs) are stimuli-responsive, the resultant PCs exhibit optical properties that can be tuned by the stimuli. This can be exploited for promising applications in colour displays, biological and chemical sensors, inks and paints, and many optically active components. However, the preparation of the required photonic structures is the first issue to be solved. In the past two decades, approaches such as microfabrication and self-assembly have been developed to incorporate stimuli-responsive materials into existing periodic structures for the fabrication of PCs, either as the initial building blocks or as the surrounding matrix. Generally, the materials that respond to thermal, pH, chemical, optical, electrical, or magnetic stimuli are either soft or aggregate, which is why the manufacture of three-dimensional hierarchical photonic structures with responsive properties is a great challenge. Recently, inspired by biological PCs in nature which exhibit both flexible and responsive properties, researchers have developed various methods to synthesize metals and metal oxides with hierarchical structures by using a biological PC as the template. This review will focus on the recent developments in this field. In particular, PCs with biological hierarchical structures that can be tuned by external stimuli have recently been successfully fabricated. These findings offer innovative insights into the design of responsive PCs and should be of great importance for future applications of these materials.

  10. Screening, identification and desilication of a silicate bacterium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong-bo; ZENG Xiao-xi; LIU Fei-fei; QIU Guan-zhou; HU Yue-hua

    2006-01-01

    The strain Lv1-2 isolated from the Henan bauxite was characterized by morphological observation, biochemical and physiological identification, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The influences of temperature, initial pH value, the volume of medium, shaking speed and illite concentration on the desilicating ability of the strain Lv1-2 were investigated. The results show that the bacterium is a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium with oval endspores and thick capsule, but without flagellum. The biochemical and physiological tests indicate that the strain Lv1-2 is similar to Bacillus mucilaginosus. In GenBank the 16S rDNA sequence similarity of the strain Lv1-2 and the B. mucilaginosus YNUCC0001 (AY571332) is more than 99 %. Based on the above results, the strain Lv1-2 is identified as B. mucilaginosus. The optimum conditions for the strain Lv1-2 to remove silicon from illite are as follows: temperature is 30℃ ;initial pH value is 7.5; medium volume in 200 mL bottle is 60 mL; shaking speed of rotary shaker is 220 r/m; illite concentration is 1%.

  11. Bio-inspired nanotechnology from surface analysis to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the use of bio-inspired and biomimetic methods for the fabrication and activation of nanomaterials. This includes studies concerning the binding of the biomolecules to the surface of inorganic structures, structure/function relationships of the final materials, and extensive discussions on the final applications of such biomimetic materials in unique applications including energy harvesting/storage, biomedical diagnostics, and materials assembly. This book also: ·          Covers the sustainable features of bio-inspired nanotechnology ·          Includes studies on the unique applications of biomimetic materials, such as energy harvesting and biomedical diagnostics Bio-Inspired Nanotechnology: From Surface Analysis to Applications is an ideal book for researchers, students, nanomaterials engineers, bioengineers, chemists, biologists, physicists, and medical researchers.

  12. Improved Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm for Engineering Design Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinn-Tsong Tsai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm is proposed for solving mixed discrete-continuous nonlinear problems in engineering design. The proposed Latin square quantum-inspired evolutionary algorithm (LSQEA combines Latin squares and quantum-inspired genetic algorithm (QGA. The novel contribution of the proposed LSQEA is the use of a QGA to explore the optimal feasible region in macrospace and the use of a systematic reasoning mechanism of the Latin square to exploit the better solution in microspace. By combining the advantages of exploration and exploitation, the LSQEA provides higher computational efficiency and robustness compared to QGA and real-coded GA when solving global numerical optimization problems with continuous variables. Additionally, the proposed LSQEA approach effectively solves mixed discrete-continuous nonlinear design optimization problems in which the design variables are integers, discrete values, and continuous values. The computational experiments show that the proposed LSQEA approach obtains better results compared to existing methods reported in the literature.

  13. A survey of snake-inspired robot designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, James K; Spranklin, Brent W; Gupta, Satyandra K [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Institute for Systems Research, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)], E-mail: skgupta@umd.edu

    2009-06-01

    Body undulation used by snakes and the physical architecture of a snake body may offer significant benefits over typical legged or wheeled locomotion designs in certain types of scenarios. A large number of research groups have developed snake-inspired robots to exploit these benefits. The purpose of this review is to report different types of snake-inspired robot designs and categorize them based on their main characteristics. For each category, we discuss their relative advantages and disadvantages. This review will assist in familiarizing a newcomer to the field with the existing designs and their distinguishing features. We hope that by studying existing robots, future designers will be able to create new designs by adopting features from successful robots. The review also summarizes the design challenges associated with the further advancement of the field and deploying snake-inspired robots in practice. (topical review)

  14. Documentation of cultural heritage sites using the INSPIRE directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkadolou, Eleni; Prastacos, Poulicos

    2016-08-01

    The INSPIRE directive, adopted by the EC in 2007 provides the guidelines for the organization of all geographic data and is the basis for establishing a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). Documentation of cultural heritage sites such as archeological areas, historic places and others is not a thematic area addressed in the directive. However, as discussed in this paper the directive can be extended to cover the documentation of these sites as well. The location of an archaeological area and its monuments, its legal status, the surrounding physical environment (NATURA protected areas), the protection zones around the site and the permitted development can be documented following the INSPIRE directive. Additionally, results of research carried out in these sites such as geophysical surveys, use of satellite images or topographical surveys can be also organized using the INSPIRE guidelines.

  15. Difference of regional lung density in inspiration and expiration CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate differences in regional density of normal lung, as seen on CT, according to respiration and gravity. The subjects were 15 healthy volunteers, all non-smokers and without previous pulmonary disease. CT scans were obtained at three selected levels through the apex, middle and basal lung at the aortic arch, carina and just above the diaphragm, respectively at both full inspiration (FVC) and full expiration (RV). Within these regions of interest and at the three scanning levels, lung density was measured in the anterior, lateral, and posterior portions of the peripheral lung field. Attenuation of the anterior portion of the lung was lower than that of the posterior portion (p<0.005);average lung attenuation increase from the anterior to the posterior portion was significantly greater during full expiration than full inspiration (p<0.005), and was significantly greater at the base of the lung than at the apex (p<0.005 on expiration, p=0.006 on inspiration). Lung density during inspiration was lower than during expiration (p<0.005);average lung density increase from full inspiration to full expiration was significantly greater in the posterior portion than in the anterior (p<0.005). In the former, the average increase at the base of the lung was greater than at the apex (p=0.007), but in the latter, the average increase at the apex was greater than at the base (p<0.005). In normal lung, respiration and gravity cause regional density changes, as seen on CT, and result in difference of lung attenuation between dependent and nondependent portions and between the apex, middle and base of the lung, according to inspiration and expiration

  16. Difference of regional lung density in inspiration and expiration CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Min; Kwak, Byung Kook; Yang, Sang Kyu; Park, Hyun Sun; Yoon, Hye Ran; Jung, In Ju; Lee, Chang Joon [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    To evaluate differences in regional density of normal lung, as seen on CT, according to respiration and gravity. The subjects were 15 healthy volunteers, all non-smokers and without previous pulmonary disease. CT scans were obtained at three selected levels through the apex, middle and basal lung at the aortic arch, carina and just above the diaphragm, respectively at both full inspiration (FVC) and full expiration (RV). Within these regions of interest and at the three scanning levels, lung density was measured in the anterior, lateral, and posterior portions of the peripheral lung field. Attenuation of the anterior portion of the lung was lower than that of the posterior portion (p<0.005);average lung attenuation increase from the anterior to the posterior portion was significantly greater during full expiration than full inspiration (p<0.005), and was significantly greater at the base of the lung than at the apex (p<0.005 on expiration, p=0.006 on inspiration). Lung density during inspiration was lower than during expiration (p<0.005);average lung density increase from full inspiration to full expiration was significantly greater in the posterior portion than in the anterior (p<0.005). In the former, the average increase at the base of the lung was greater than at the apex (p=0.007), but in the latter, the average increase at the apex was greater than at the base (p<0.005). In normal lung, respiration and gravity cause regional density changes, as seen on CT, and result in difference of lung attenuation between dependent and nondependent portions and between the apex, middle and base of the lung, according to inspiration and expiration.

  17. Analytical development of a binuclear oxo-manganese complex bio-inspired on oxidase enzyme for doping control analysis of acetazolamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machini, Wesley B S; Teixeira, Marcos F S

    2016-05-15

    A bio-inspired electrochemical sensor using a binuclear oxo-manganese complex was evaluated and applied in the detection of a substance associated with doping in sports: acetazolamide (ACTZ). Investigation was made of the influence of different experimental variables on the electrocatalytic oxidation of ACTZ by the bio-inspired sensor, such as pH and interfering species. The bio-inspired sensor showed the best response in the range from 5.00×10(-9) to 7.00×10(-8) mol L(-1) ACTZ, with a linear range from 5.00×10(-9) to 2.50×10(-8) mol L(-1) and a detection limit of 4.76×10(-9) mol L(-1). The sensor exhibited characteristics similar to the Michaelis-Menten model of an enzymatic electrode, due to the use of a multinucleated complex of manganese with μ-oxo units, which was able to mimic the properties of enzymes with manganese as a cofactor in their composition, such as Mn-containing oxidase. The determination of ACTZ with the bio-inspired sensor was evaluated using three different synthetic biological fluids (plasma, saliva, and urine), demonstrating its viability for use with real samples. The analysis of ACTZ in real urine samples using the bio-inspired sensor, simulating the method adopted by the World Anti-Doping Agency, which revealed viable, suggesting a new and promising platform to be used in these analysis.

  18. White dwarfs in an ungravity-inspired model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Mariji, Hodjat

    2016-05-01

    An ungravity-inspired model is employed to examine the astrophysical parameters of white dwarf stars (WDs) using polytropic and degenerate gas approaches. Based on the observed properties such as mass, radius, and luminosity of selected WDs, namely, Sirius B and ɛ Reticulum, bounds on the characteristic length and scaling dimension of the ungravity (UG) model are estimated. The UG effect on the Chandrasekhar limit for WDs is shown. The UG model is examined in the study of ultramassive WDs, e.g., EUVE J1746-706. The UG-inspired model implies that a new location for some WDs on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is found.

  19. White dwarfs in an ungravity-inspired model

    CERN Document Server

    Bertolami, Orfeu

    2016-01-01

    An ungravity-inspired model is employed to examine the astrophysical parameters of white dwarf stars (WDs) using polytropic and degenerate gas approaches. Based on the observed properties such as mass, radius, and luminosity of selected WDs, namely, Sirius B and $\\epsilon$ Reticulum, bounds on the characteristic length and scaling dimension of the ungravity (UG) model are estimated. The UG effect on the Chandrasekhar limit for WDs is shown. The UG model is examined in the study of ultra-massive WDs, e.g., EUVE J1746-706. In the contact of UG inspired model, a new location for some WDs on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is found.

  20. NOVEL QUANTUM-INSPIRED GENETIC ALGORITHM BASED ON IMMUNITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Zhao Rongchun; Zhang Yanning; Jiao Licheng

    2005-01-01

    A novel algorithm, the Immune Quantum-inspired Genetic Algorithm (IQGA), is proposed by introducing immune concepts and methods into Quantum-inspired Genetic Algorithm (QGA). With the condition of preserving QGA's advantages, IQGA utilizes the characteristics and knowledge in the pending problems for restraining the repeated and ineffective operations during evolution, so as to improve the algorithm efficiency. The experimental results of the knapsack problem show that the performance of IQGA is superior to the Conventional Genetic Algorithm (CGA), the Immune Genetic Algorithm (IGA) and QGA.