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  1. 茶叶水浸液对部分肠道致病菌的抑菌作用%BACTERIOSTATIC ACTION OF TEA INFUSION ON SOME ENTEROPATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王韵阳; 张超英; 闫志勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the bacteriostasis of infusions of different kinds of tea. Methods Incubating plate with foveolae was used to study the inhibition of tea infusions to Staphylococcus aureus, E. Coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio parahemolyticus. Results The primary infusions of ordinary green tea, black tea, chrysanthemum tea, Wulong tea, dark tea, black tea produced in Sri Lanka and brick tea showed bacteriostatic action on Vibrio parahemolyticus; that of ordinary green tea, black tea, Wulong tea, dark tea, black tea produced in Sri Lanka, and brick tea on Salmonella typhimurium; and ordinary green tea, black tea, Wulong tea, dark tea, black tea of Sri Lanka, and brick tea on Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion Tea has a bacteriostatic action on enteropathogenic bacteria.%目的 了解普通绿茶、红茶、菊花茶、乌龙茶、黑茶、斯里兰卡红茶和砖茶水浸液对肠道致病菌的抑菌作用.方法 采用平板孔穴法检测茶叶水浸液对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、鼠伤寒沙门菌、副溶血性弧菌的抑制作用.结果 普通绿茶、红茶、菊花茶、乌龙茶、黑茶、斯里兰卡红茶和砖茶水浸液对副溶血性弧菌有抑菌作用;普通绿茶、黑茶、斯里兰卡红茶和砖茶水浸液对大肠杆菌有抑菌作用;普通绿茶、红茶、乌龙茶、黑茶、斯里兰卡红茶和砖茶水浸液对鼠伤寒沙门菌、金黄色葡萄球菌有抑菌作用.结论 茶叶对肠道致病菌有抑菌作用.

  2. Ação bacteriostática do biofertilizante Agrobio in vitro Bacteriostatic action of biofertilizer Agrobio in vitro

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    Cláudia S.R. Deleito

    2005-06-01

    . Agrobio was tested in three preparation stages (35, 85 and 115 days of fermentation and applied raw, filtered (0,22 µm or autoclaved (120ºC/20 minutes. The effect of the treatments was assessed by the diameter of the inhibition growth halo on Petri dishes. Agrobio presented bacteriostatic effect on X. euvesicatoria regardless of the sample age or pre-treatment. Growth inhibition occurred above 5% concentration, indicating the feasibility of Agrobio, as a bacterial leaf spot control agent, in early fermentation stages (35 days. Field experiments are necessary to confirm these results.

  3. 一清胶囊对痤疮丙酸杆菌及表皮葡萄球菌的体外抑菌作用研究%Bacteriostatic Action of Yiqing Capsule against Propionibacterium Aches and Staphylococcus Epidermidis in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋献; 何燕; 李利

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the bacteriostatic action of Yiqing capsule against propionibacterium acnes and staphyl-ococcus epiderrnidis in vitro. METHODS: Propionibacterium aches and staphylococcus epidermidis were cultured by mi-croplating method and routine plating, and the bacteriostatic action of different concentration of Yiqing capsule and its main components against propionibacterium aches and staphylococcus epidermidis were determined by measuring their MICs. RE-SULTS: The MICs of Yiqing capsule and Scutellaria baicalensis extractum against propionibacterium acnes and staphylococ-cus epiderrnidis were 0.98 mg·mL~(-1) and 1 mg·mL~(-1),respectively, whereas the MICs of Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and Rhizoma Coptidis Scutellaria extractum against propionibacterium acnes and staphylococcus epidermidis were 1.96 mg·mL~(-1) and 1 mg·mL~(-1),respectively. CONCLUSION: Yiqing capsule showed satisfactory bacteriostatic action against the major pathogenic bacteria of acne.%目的:研究一清胶囊对痤疮丙酸杆菌及表皮葡萄球菌的体外抑菌作用.方法:采用微量板、常规平皿法分别对痤疮丙酸杆菌、表皮葡萄球菌进行培养并观察不同浓度一清胶囊及其主要成分的抑菌效果,分别求出其最小抑菌浓度(MIC).结果:一清胶囊对痤疮丙酸杆菌及表皮葡萄球菌的MIC分别为0.98、1 mg·mL~(-1),黄芩浸膏的MIC分别为0.98、1 mg·mL~(-1),而大黄黄连浸膏的MIC分别为1.96、1 mg·mL~(-1).结论:一清胶囊对痤疮主要致病菌有较好的体外抑菌效果.

  4. Study on anti-inflammatory, eliminating phlegm and bacteriostatic action of Yuxuan granule%玉玄颗粒抗炎、祛痰及抑菌作用研究

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    谢暕; 牟欣; 王爱武

    2013-01-01

    Objective To reveal the mechanism of Yuxuan granule(YXG) in treating pharyngitis from anti-inflammatory,expectorant,and antibacterial actions.Methods Xylene-induced ear edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma mice models were adopted to observe the anti-inflammatory effects of YXG Phenol red secretion in mice test was adopted to observe the expectorant activity of YXG Five bacteria by tube dilution method was adopted to observe antimicrobial action of YXG Besides,the changes of routine indexes in blood and tumor necrosis factor (TNF),interleukin-1 (IL-1) in serum were measured in acute pharyngitis models.Results YXG has shown a dose-dependent of its anti-inflammatory action.In the test of xylene induced mice ear swelling and cotton ball induced granuloma,the swelling degree of the control group,positive control groupand YXG high (6.14g/kg),medium (3.07g/kg) and low (1.53g/kg) concentration group were (9.00± 1.50) mg,(3.50±0.10)mg,(4.25±1.08)mg,(5.54±0.97)mg,(8.05±0.08)mg and (1.22±1.50)mg,(0.50±0.10)ag,(0.45± 0.08) mg,(0.75± 0.97) mg,(0.70 ± 0.08) mg respectively.YXG also had obviously expectorant effect to the golden staphylocoecus ameus,hemolytic streptococcus,streptococcus pneumoniae,salmonella typhi and corynebacterium diphtheriae,with the minimum inhibition concentration of 55,100,68 and 35 mg/ml respectively; YXG also reduced leukocyte count [percentage of leukocyte was (9.88± 1.22) × 109/L,(7.50± 1.58) ×109/L,(6.02± 1.05) × 109/L,(8.38± 1.13) × 109/L,(8.75 ± 1.08) × 109/L in the five groups respectively],neutrophils [the value was (35.62±5.00)×109/L,(28.49±3.40)×109/L,(28.89±5.22)× 109/L,(29.34±4.83)×109/L,(33.43 ± 4.27) × 109/L in the five groups respectively],lymphocytes [the value was (70.72± 5.04) %,(67.89 ±4.37)%,(60.14±3.88)%,(65.38±4.45)%,(65.65±4.28)% in the five groups respectively],TNF in blood serum [the value was (90.25±2.29)ng/ml,(80.23 ± 0.60) ng/ml,(76.83±0.33)ng/ml,(78.00 ± 0.34) ng/ml,(80

  5. In-vitro and In-vivo Activities of Phenolic Compounds A gainst Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Lianet Monzote

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds (PCs are well-known phytochemicals found in plants that have been studied for their pharmacological properties. In particular, the potentialities of PCs as anti-leishmanial agents have been reported. In the present study, we evaluated 10 PCs for in-vitro anti-leishmanial activity and two PCs, p-coumaric acid (CA and gentisic acid (GA against experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice infected with L. amazonensis. Five doses of each pure compound were administrated every 4 days at 30 mg/kg by intralesional route and disease progression was compared with animals treated with glucantime (GTM. All tested compounds inhibited intracellular amastigotes growing, with IC50 values between 4.4 and 25.5 µM. Treated animals with GA showed a significant reduction (p 0.05 parasite burden as control and GTM treated animals. The present findings established that CA and GA have significant anti-leishmanial effects. Further experiments on formulation design, mechanism of action and probably anti-inflammatory / immune-modulator activity of GA could be encouraged.

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BACTERIOSTATIC ACTIVITY OF SYNTHETIC HYDROXYLATED FLAVONOIDS

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    Olivella Mónica S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Among other properties, flavonoids present a notable bacteriostatic activity. In this paper, minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (naringenin, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone and 2',4',4- trihydroxychalcone (isoliquitirigenin against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25 923 were determined and compared to values obtained for other chalcones and flavanones previously investigated. Specific growth rates and MICs were determined by a turbidimetric kinetic method. The observed sequence MICflavanone (inactive >MIC7-hidroxyflavanone (197.6 µgml-1>MIC5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (120 µgml-1 showed that the introduction of an electron donating group (-OH causes an increase in bioactivity. On the other hand, the comparisons MIC5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (120 µgml-1 >>> MIC2',4',4-trihydroxychalcone (29 µgml-1 and MIC5,7-dihydroxyflavone (105 µgml-1 >>> MIC2',4'-dihydroxychalcone (28.8 µgml-1 indicated that the chalcone structure is the most favourable for bacteriostatic activity within the flavonoid family.

  7. INVESTIGATION OF BACTERIOSTATIC PROPERTIES OF CHLORINATED COMPOUNDS FOR BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY

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    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. One of the major causes of decline in the quality of granulated sugar is bacterial contamination of sugar beet. This is due to the fact that the beet-sugar industry is a good object for the development of different groups of microorganisms. The main sources of infection of products of sugar manufacture can be soil, water, air, packaging, packaging materials, vehicles, clothing, equipment. The higher the beet contamination with the microorganisms, the more they decompose sucrose and secrete metabolic byproducts. In this regard, there is a need to reduce the negative impact of various groups of microorganisms and to minimize the loss of sucrose from decomposition. In accordance with the problem given the studies to determine the bacteriostatic properties of chlorinated compounds for sugar production were carried out. We used the cultivated fluid colonized with a pure culture of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and reagent treated as an object of study. In the experiments, we determined the accumulation of biomass of L. mesenteroides with nephelometric method by measuring the optical density of bacterial suspension. It was found out that after 24 hours of bacterial culturing the level of optical density in the control and active acidity were considerably higher compared with the sample treated with germicide. The number of microorganisms in the nutrient medium was determined by Vinogradsky-Shulgina-Brid’s. According to the study in the control is 1,7*10^16, in experiment with the introduction of the chlorinated compound it is 5,8*10^14. The experimental results show that the investigated chlorinated compound has bacteriostatic action against grampositive cocci saprophytic of L. mesenteroides and can be recommended for use in a sugar beet production.

  8. A serine proteinase inhibitor from frog eggs with bacteriostatic activity.

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    Han, Yaoping; Yu, Haining; Yang, Xinbo; Rees, Huw H; Liu, Jingze; Lai, Ren

    2008-01-01

    By Sephadex G-50 gel filtration, Resource Q anionic exchange and C4 reversed phase liquid high performance liquid chromatography, a proteinase inhibitor protein (Ranaserpin) was identified and purified from the eggs of the odour frog, Rana grahami. The protein displayed a single band adjacent to the molecular weight marker of 14.4 kDa analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The inhibitor protein homogeneity and its molecular weight were confirmed again by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. The MALDI-TOF mass spectrum analysis gave this inhibitor protein an m/z of 14422.26 that was matched well with the result from SDS-PAGE. This protein is a serine proteinase inhibitor targeting multiple proteinases including trypsin, elastase, and subtilisin. Ranaserpin inhibited the proteolytic activities of trypsin, elastase, and subtilisin. It has an inhibitory constant (K(i)) of 6.2 x 10(-8) M, 2.7 x 10(-7) M and 2.2 x 10(-8) M for trypsin, elastase, and subtilisin, respectively. This serine proteinase inhibitor exhibited bacteriostatic effect on Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633). It was suggested that ranaserpin might act as a defensive role in resistance to invasion of pests or pathogens. This is the first report of serine proteinase inhibitor and its direct defensive role from amphibian eggs.

  9. 化妆品抗粉刺(祛痘)的抑菌效果评价%Evaluation on Bacteriostatic Effect of Anti Acne Cosmetics (Acne)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宇华

    2015-01-01

    Vitro antibacterial activity on acne pathogens with 10 kinds of acne cosmetics was studied.Randomly choose two classes with a total of 10 kinds of acne cosmetics, antibacterial activity of acne propionic acid bacillus and staphylococcus aureus were quantitative tested by suspension method and bacteriostatic ring.Results showed that with 3 kinds of acne removing cleanser in 5 kinds of the samples, bacteriostatic rates were greater than 50%, had good bacteriostatic action.With 3 kinds of acne cream in 5 kinds of the samples, bacteriostatic ring diameter were greater than 7 mm, had good antibacterial effect.These two products had the pass rate with 60%.%研究了10种祛痘类化妆品对痤疮致病菌的体外抑菌活性。随机选用两类共10种祛痘类化妆品,根据使用方法选用悬液法定量和抑菌环法定性检测化妆品对金黄色葡萄球菌和痤疮丙酸杆菌的抑菌活性。结果表明:5种祛痘洁面乳中有3种洁面乳的抑菌率大于50%,有较好的抑菌作用;5种祛痘膏霜中有3种的抑菌环直径大于7 mm,有较好的抑菌效果,两类产品的合格率均为60%。

  10. Bacteriostatic antimicrobial combination: antagonistic interaction between epsilon-viniferin and vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Xian, Lee Wee; Abdul Shukor, Nur Indah; Latip, Jalifah

    2014-01-01

    Stilbenoids have been considered as an alternative phytotherapeutic treatment against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. The combined effect of ε-viniferin and johorenol A with the standard antibiotics, vancomycin and linezolid, was assessed against MRSA ATCC 33591 and HUKM clinical isolate. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of the individual tested compounds and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) value of the combined agents were, respectively, determined using microbroth dilution test and microdilution checkerboard (MDC) method. Only synergistic outcome from checkerboard test will be substantiated for its rate of bacterial killing using time-kill assay. The MIC value of ε -viniferin against ATCC 33591 and johorenol A against both strains was 0.05 mg/mL whereas HUKM strain was susceptible to 0.1 mg/mL of ε-viniferin. MDC study showed that only combination between ε-viniferin and vancomycin was synergistic against ATCC 33591 (FICI 0.25) and HUKM (FICI 0.19). All the other combinations (ε-viniferin-linezolid, johorenol A-vancomycin, and johorenol A-linezolid) were either indifferent or additive against both strains. However, despite the FICI value showing synergistic effect for ε-viniferin-vancomycin, TKA analysis displayed antagonistic interaction with bacteriostatic action against both strains. As conclusion, ε-viniferin can be considered as a bacteriostatic stilbenoid as it antagonized the bactericidal activity of vancomycin. These findings therefore disputed previous report that ε-viniferin acted in synergism with vancomycin but revealed that it targets similar site in close proximity to vancomycin's action, possibly at the bacterial membrane protein. Hence, this combination has a huge potential to be further studied and developed as an alternative treatment in combating MRSA in future.

  11. [Preparation and antimicrobial effect of aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care].

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    Gao, Su-Hua; Zhao, Guo-Xiang; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Ling-Ling

    2013-06-01

    To prepare the aromatic, natural and bacteriostatic foot wash with skin care and research the inhibition effect on the different bacteria and pathogenic fungus which cause dermatophytosis. It was prepared by using Sophoraflavescens and Dictamnus dasycarpus as materials with the addition of Aloe extract, essential oil, surfactant, etc. The antifungal and antibacterial activity was researched by the levitation liquid quantitative method. The foot wash smelled faintly scent. The use of this product can produce a rich foam. The inhibitory rate were all more than 90%. The preparation process of the foot wash was simple. It has obviously bacteriostatic and fungistatic effect.

  12. [Bacteriostatic behavior of the tissue adhesive Fimomed (n-butyl-alpha-cyanoacrylate].

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    Willenberg, E; Morenz, J; Krumbholz, S; Barthel, G; Herrmann, M

    1978-01-01

    The tissue adhesive Fimomed (made in GDR), which is supplied in a non-sterilised form, was tested for its bacteriostatic behaviour. No such behaviour was found for Gram-negative bacteria, so that in view of the typical microorganisme occurring in hospitals sterilisation of the adhesive by means of gamma rays or an aseptic filling by the manufacturers is suggested.

  13. Study of the Chemical Space of Selected Bacteriostatic Sulfonamides from an Information Theory Point of View.

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    López-Rosa, Sheila; Molina-Espíritu, Moyocoyani; Esquivel, Rodolfo O; Soriano-Correa, Catalina; Dehesa, Jésus S

    2016-12-05

    The relative structural location of a selected group of 27 sulfonamide-like molecules in a chemical space defined by three information theory quantities (Shannon entropy, Fisher information, and disequilibrium) is discussed. This group is composed of 15 active bacteriostatic molecules, 11 theoretically designed ones, and para-aminobenzoic acid. This endeavor allows molecules that share common chemical properties through the molecular backbone, but with significant differences in the identity of the chemical substituents, which might result in bacteriostatic activity, to be structurally classified and characterized. This is performed by quantifying the structural changes on the electron density distribution due to different functional groups and number of electrons. The macroscopic molecular features are described by means of the entropy-like notions of spatial electronic delocalization, order, and uniformity. Hence, an information theory three-dimensional space (IT-3D) emerges that allows molecules with common properties to be gathered. This space witnesses the biological activity of the sulfonamides. Some structural aspects and information theory properties can be associated, as a result of the IT-3D chemical space, with the bacteriostatic activity of these molecules. Most interesting is that the active bacteriostatic molecules are more similar to para-aminobenzoic acid than to the theoretically designed analogues. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Effect of feeding poultry manure treated with antibiotic, bacteriostat, and lime on the performance of chicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadagopan, V.R.; Rao, P.V.; Reddy, V.R.

    1977-01-01

    A 4-week experiment was conducted with 5-week-old New Hampshire chicks employing treated and untreated dried poultry manure (DPM) at 15% level in the diet. Treating the fresh manure either with antibiotic, bacteriostat, or lime did not show any beneficial effect over untreated manure. DPM at 15% of the feed showed a nonsignificant beneficial effect on weight gain.

  15. 墨旱莲水提物的抑菌活性研究%Study on the Bacteriostatic Activity of Aqueous Extracted from Herba Ecliptae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵锦慧; 周琳; 赖颖

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriostatic activities of aqueous extracts from herba ecliptae were studied with Escherichia coli and Staphylococ-cus aureus. The liquid medium with aqueous extracts from herba ecliptae at different mass concentrations was prepared, and the liquid medium inoculated with E. coli and S. aureus at 37℃, and then the bacteriostatic effects at different time were determined. The results showed that aqueous extracts from herba ecliptae had slight inhibitory action to E. coli and obvious inhibitory action to S. aureus.%以大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli和金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)为供试菌,研究墨旱莲水提物的抑菌活性.制备不同含量的墨旱莲水提物的培养基,接种大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌,测定不同培养时间的抑菌效果.结果表明,墨旱莲水提物对大肠杆菌有轻微的抑制作用,抑菌活性较弱;对金黄色葡萄球菌有明显的抑制作用,抑菌活性较强.

  16. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoof, R; Gordts, B; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1980-07-01

    The bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents were tested with the Dynatech MIC 2000 system against 86 strains of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from human sources. The penicillins (penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin) had poor activity. Ampicillin and amoxycillin were equally active. Cefotaxime revealed a rather good activity. Erythromycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and furazolidone were the most active compounds. Two strains (2.3%) were resistant to erythromycin. One strain (1.2%) was completely resistant to tobramycin. The tetracyclines (tetracyline, doxycycline, minocycline) were generally effective, but 8% of the strains were totally resistant to them. Minocycline was the most active. Chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, and clindamycin had good activity. The bacteriostatic and bactericidal distributions for colistin, nalidixic acid, and metronidazole were broad.

  17. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni.

    OpenAIRE

    Vanhoof, R.; Gordts, B; Dierickx, R; Coignau, H; Butzler, J P

    1980-01-01

    The bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities of 24 antimicrobial agents were tested with the Dynatech MIC 2000 system against 86 strains of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni from human sources. The penicillins (penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxycillin, carbenicillin) had poor activity. Ampicillin and amoxycillin were equally active. Cefotaxime revealed a rather good activity. Erythromycin, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and furazolidone were the most active compounds. Two strains (2.3%) wer...

  18. Bacteriostatics of volatile organic compounds of Crimean pine and environmental meteorological conditions

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    Chalaya, Elena; Slepykh, Victor; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotckaia, Nina

    2015-04-01

    Sanitary and hygienic properties of air saturated with volatile organic compounds of plants (VOC) have a fundamental importance for the biosphere. In particular, they make such a feature as the freshness of the air. The energy contained in VOC and made by Earth vegetation can be compared with the energy of lightning discharges in the atmosphere during the year [1]. The influence of natural environment on the dynamics of VOC developed by plants is also of current interest and is, in particular, important for resort study because VOC produced by the vegetation of the resort regions can be seen as a self-contained resort resource [2]. Dynamics of VOC evolution by Crimean pine (Pinus Pallasiana D.Don.) that is the forest forming breed of the resort region Caucasus Mineral Waters (Russia) has been studied by a microbiological method [1]. Dynamics of bacteriostatics was qualified by the extent of oppression of the VOC test- culture (Staphylococcus aureus 209p) of the pine in % in comparison with control. The needles for the experience were selected at noon in the middle of the summer. At the time of the needle selection meteorological indicators were fixed. As the result of the researches we got an empirical equation of dynamics of VOC bacteriostatics of the Crimean pine under the influence of total solar radiation (kW/m2) and relative air humidity (%). The coefficient of the multiple correlation of the VOC bacteriostatics of the Crimean pine, total solar radiation and relative air humidity makes: R=0,83 at the importance of F=7,53>F0 05=3,49. The coefficient of the multiple determination is R2=0,69. The equation is: y = - 35,1020 + 1,7193x + 175,6638p- 0,0181x2 + 0,6054 (xp) - 191,1319p2, where Y - is bacteriostatics (%); x - is relative humidity (%); p - is total solar radiation (kW/m2). The fixed parameters of the equation are: air humidity - 90-30%; total solar radiation - 0.20-1.0 kW/m2; bacteriostatics - 0-61%. The obtained results can be used in the resort study

  19. Bacteriostatic effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts on dental plaque bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathilah, A R; Rahim, Z H A; Othman, Y; Yusoff, M

    2009-03-15

    In this study, the bacteriostatic effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts on selected early dental plaque bacteria was investigated based on changes in the doubling time (g) and specific growth rates (micro). Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis and Actinomyces sp. were cultured in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) in the presence and absence of the extracts. The growth of bacteria was monitored periodically every 15 min over a period of 9 h to allow for a complete growth cycle. Growth profiles of the bacteria in the presence of the extracts were compared to those in the absence and deviation in the g and micro were determined and analyzed. It was found that the g and mu were affected by both extracts. At 4 mg mL(-1) of P. betle the g-values for S. sanguinis and S. mitis were increased by 12.0- and 10.4-fold, respectively (p betle and P. guajava extracts have bacteriostatic effect on the plaque bacteria by creating a stressed environment that had suppressed the growth and propagation of the cells. Within the context of the dental plaque, this would ensure the attainment of thin and healthy plaque. Thus, decoctions of these plants would be suitable if used in the control of dental plaque.

  20. Methylglyoxal is associated with bacteriostatic activity of high fructose agave syrups.

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    Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Gomez Ojeda, Armando; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Magana, Armando Alcazar; Wrobel, Katarzyna

    2014-12-15

    Three α-ketoaldehydes, potentially present in high fructose agave syrups (HFASs) as intermediates of the Maillard reaction, were determined. A previously reported HPLC-FLD procedure based on pre-column derivatisation with 4-methoxy-o-phenylenediamine was adopted, yielding the method quantification limits 0.11 mg/kg, 0.10mg/kg, 0.09 mg/kg for glyoxal, methylglyoxal (MGo) and diacetyl, respectively. The obtained results revealed high concentrations of methylglyoxal in HFASs (average 102 ± 91 mg/kg, range 15.6-315 mg/kg) as compared to commercial Mexican bee honeys or corn syrups. Hydrogen peroxide was generated in all HFASs upon dilution, yet to less extent than in bee honeys. HFASs presented bacteriostatic activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli; catalase addition had minimum effect on the assay results in syrups with elevated MGo. Principal component analysis revealed direct association between growth inhibition and MGo. It is concluded that elevated concentration of MGo in HFASs is at least in part responsible for their non-peroxide bacteriostatic activity.

  1. [Bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal extract of Aloe vera gel on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Mérida, Luis Guillermo; Morón de Salim, Alba; Catinella, Rosangela; Castillo, Luis

    2012-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacteria responsible for food borne diseases (FBD). The effect of Aloe vera gel extract as a possible bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal against Listeria monocytogenes, was checked by determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the time of minimum inhibition (TMI) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) solutions extract of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635. We applied the agar diffusion method, using solutions of extract of Aloe vera gel at concentrations of 0 to 100% for the MIC. The TMI was determined by growth curves in trypticase soy broth with an initial inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635 of 108 CFU/mL in each solution. It was determined that the MIC was 10% extract of Aloe vera gel and TMI was 5 hours at concentrations of 10%, 20% and 30% of Aloe vera, while concentrations of 50, 80, 90 and 100%, the time was 8 hours. It was found that indeed the Aloe vera gel is bacteriostatic power on Listeria monocytogenes (p < 0.001), but yet, no bactericidal effect was obtained in our study.

  2. Bacterial spore components which enhance the bacteriostatic effectiveness of S-nitrosothiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, S L; Hansen, J N

    1981-12-01

    Spore components exuded into the medium during outgrowth of Bacillus cereus T enhanced the bacteriostatic effectiveness of S-nitrosomercaptoethanol, an inhibitor which prevents outgrowth at low concentrations and germination at higher concentrations. The enhancement effect was slight with respect to outgrowth, but dramatic with respect to germination, in that the inhibitory effectiveness of nitrosothiols toward germination inhibition was enhanced by as much as 33-fold when nitrosothiols was in the presence of the exuded spore component. Exudate activity was freely dialyzable and was not measurably affected by a broad-spectrum protease (proteinase K), by autoclaving at 121 degrees C, or by freezing and thawing. Sephadex G-25 chromatography of the exudate indicated that two active species were present, a major component with a molecular weight of less than 1,000 and a minor component with a molecular weight of more than 5,000.

  3. Tannins Possessing Bacteriostatic Effect Impair Pseudomonas aeruginosa Adhesion and Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentin, Danielle S.; Silva, Denise B.; Amaral, Matheus W.; Zimmer, Karine R.; Silva, Márcia V.; Lopes, Norberto P.; Giordani, Raquel B.; Macedo, Alexandre J.

    2013-01-01

    Plants produce many compounds that are biologically active, either as part of their normal program of growth and development or in response to pathogen attack or stress. Traditionally, Anadenanthera colubrina, Commiphora leptophloeos and Myracrodruon urundeuva have been used by communities in the Brazilian Caatinga to treat several infectious diseases. The ability to impair bacterial adhesion represents an ideal strategy to combat bacterial pathogenesis, because of its importance in the early stages of the infectious process; thus, the search for anti-adherent compounds in plants is a very promising alternative. This study investigated the ability of stem-bark extracts from these three species to control the growth and prevent biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important opportunistic pathogen that adheres to surfaces and forms protective biofilms. A kinetic study (0–72 h) demonstrated that the growth of extract-treated bacteria was inhibited up to 9 h after incubation, suggesting a bacteriostatic activity. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy showed both viable and nonviable cells, indicating bacterial membrane damage; crystal violet assay and scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that treatment strongly inhibited biofilm formation during 6 and 24 h and that matrix production remained impaired even after growth was restored, at 24 and 48 h of incubation. Herein, we propose that the identified (condensed and hydrolyzable) tannins are able to inhibit biofilm formation via bacteriostatic properties, damaging the bacterial membrane and hindering matrix production. Our findings demonstrate the importance of this abundant class of Natural Products in higher plants against one of the most challenging issues in the hospital setting: biofilm resilience. PMID:23776646

  4. Evaluation of the Bacteriostatic Effects of Equisetum Arvense on Bacterias%问荆抑菌作用的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈燕飞

    2011-01-01

    The plant alcohol extract (PAE) of Equisetum arvense (E. arvense) and the plant water extract (PWE)of E. arvense have different inhibitory effects on different bacterias. The drugs should be used in a rational way to ensure the best treatment effect. The filter paper method was used to compare the bacteriostatic effect of the PAE of E. arvense and the PWE of E. arvense on Staphylococcus aureus and other two bacterias. The length of bacteriostatic belt indicated the bacteriostatic effect. In general, the PAE of E. arvense had stronger bacteriostatic effect than the PWE of E. arvense. Both the drugs had the strongest bacteriostatic effect on Staphylococcus aureus, weaker effect on Bacillus subtilis, and weakest effect on Escherichia coli. The PAE of E. arvense contains elements such as flavonoid, alkaloid, and silicon compounds. Different chemical substances have different mechanisms in bacteriostasis, which may lead to the different bacteriostatic effect.%中草药问荆的醇提液和水提液对不同细菌抑茵作用有所差别,要合理用药,以达到最佳的治疗效果.试验采用滤纸条法,测定了问荆的醇提液和水提液对金黄色葡萄球菌等3种细菌生长抑制作用的强弱,其抑茵作用的强弱可以通过测量抑菌带的长度而得知.结果表明,问荆醇提液相比水提液抑菌作用较强,二者都是对大肠杆菌抑制作用最弱,其次是枯草芽孢杆菌,对金黄色葡萄球菌抑制作用最强.问荆的醇提液中含黄酮类、三萜及甾体类、生物碱及大量硅的化合物,不同的化学物质对细菌生长抑制作用的机理不同,使得抑菌作用有所不同.

  5. Invitro Assessment of Bacteriostatic Potency of Egg Yolk Immunoglobulin against Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrama Chakravarthi. P1

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in commercial layer chickens to assess the bacteriostatic potency of egg yolk immunoglobulin IgY against food poisoning pathogen. The O antigen of food poisoning pathogen Escherichia coli was prepared and used to immunize commercial layer chickens. The eggs which contain anti-E.Coli IgY was collected on 30 th day of first injection and stored at 4 0 C. The antibacterial IgY was separated by water dilution method (10 times diluted with distilled water, pH 5.0 - 5.5, incubated at 4 0 C for 6 hrs and purified by 60 % ammonium sulphate. The recovery of IgY was in range of 57-62 %. The pathogens in Tryptic soya broth (approx. 6X108/ ml were cultured with anti-E.coli IgY @ 20 mg /ml and inhibitory effect was measured in UV spectrophotometer at 550 nm. The resultant growth curve indicated that the application of polyclonal antibodies (Ig Y on meat could be used to prevent the E.coli food poisoning. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(10.000: 460-462

  6. Metabolization of the bacteriostatic agent triclosan in edible plants and its consequences for plant uptake assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macherius, André; Eggen, Trine; Lorenz, Wilhelm; Moeder, Monika; Ondruschka, Jelka; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2012-10-02

    Persistent environmental contaminants may enter agricultural fields via the application of sewage sludge, by irrigation with treated municipal wastewater or by manuring. It has been shown that such contaminants can be incorporated into crop plants. The metabolism of the bacteriostatic agents triclocarban, triclosan, and its transformation product methyl triclosan was investigated after their uptake into carrot cell cultures. A fast metabolization of triclosan was observed and eight so far unknown phase II metabolites, conjugates with saccharides, disaccharides, malonic acid, and sulfate, were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Triclocarban and methyl triclosan lack a phenolic group and remained unaltered in the cell cultures. Phase I metabolization was not observed for any of the compounds. All eight triclosan conjugates identified in the cell cultures were also detected in extracts of intact carrot plants cultivated on triclosan contaminated soils. Their total amount in the plants was assessed to exceed the amount of the triclosan itself by a factor of 5. This study shows that a disregard of conjugates in studies on plant uptake of environmental contaminants may severely underestimates the extent of uptake into plants and, eventually, the potential human exposure to contaminants via food of plant origin.

  7. Bacteriostatic Substrate by Conductivity Method and Electric Spark Discharge Method Combined with Electrospinning for Silver Dressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Hsiung Tseng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study uses the conductivity method, Electric Spark Discharge Method, and the electrospinning technique to develop a better silver-based antibacterial agent. The preparation process is free of chemical substances and also conforms to the green energy-saving process. The silver iodide was prepared in an iodine agar medium by using the conductivity method. Multiple bacteriostasis experiments showed that the molds grew in the position with iodine of the culture medium after 6 days, as well as in the position with silver iodide after 10 days. The results prove that silver iodide has better bacteriostatic ability than povidone iodine. The nanosilver colloid was prepared in the PVA solution by using the Electric Spark Discharge Method. UV-Vis, Zetasizer, and SEM-EDX analyses proved that the PVA solution contained nanosilver colloid with good suspension stability. Finally, the electrospinning technique was used to spin the PVA solution with nanosilver colloid into the PVA nanofibrous membrane. According to UV-Vis analysis, the absorption peak of this nanofibrous membrane is about 415 nm, meaning this nanofibrous membrane contains nucleate nanosilver colloid, and is very suitable for antiseptic dressing.

  8. Verapamil increases the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of adriamycin on Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, Y; Aronovitch, J; Ramu, A

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of verapamil on adriamycin-resistant and -sensitive Escherichia coli bacterial strains. Two E. coli strains: B-SR9 and K12-KL16 were incubated with adriamycin in various concentrations in the presence or absence of verapamil. Growth and killing rates were measured using optical densities and colonogenic assays. Transmembrane transport capacity was evaluated by measuring radioactively labelled leucine uptake and intracellular potassium concentrations. While adriamycin (ADR) showed both bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects upon the two bacterial strains, the K12 strain was significantly more resistant to the drug than its peer. Subtoxic concentrations of verapamil augmented these effects in both strains. Verapamil affected bacterial transmembrane transport activity and caused potassium leakage through the cell membrane. Simultaneous exposure to adriamycin and verapamil resulted in rapid, massive damage to membrane functions, indicating accelerated killing rate. The authors concluded that verapamil acts as a potentiator of adriamycin's cytotoxicity in E. coli bacteria in a manner similar to that in multidrug resistant mammalian tumour cells. This observation suggests that the mechanisms of resistance to the drug may be similar in both species.

  9. [Use of Autobac system in the study of the bacteriostatic effect of combinations of antibiotics (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbas, H; Boyer, G; Cavadore, D

    1980-01-01

    After determining the LSI80 (light scattering index 80) concentration X and Y of two antibiotics for a given bacteria by an automated light scatter photometric method, we use the same process to test the bacteriostatic effect of all the combinations between the values 2X, X, X/2, X/4, X/8 and 2Y, Y, Y/2, Y/4, Y/8. The results read on the light scatter photometer are interpreted: --approximatealy by means of a simplified schematic diagram; --more precisely by drawing three curves: we begin with two inhibiton curves in order to determine the LSI50 concentrations (CLSI50) of each antibiotic, isolted and in the presence of defined concentrations of the complementary antibiotic; then from these CLSI50 we draw the bacteriostatic effect curve of the combination. When the LSI50 effect of the combination occurs with less than 50% of the CLSI50 of each isolated antibiotic, the combination is synergistic. It is antagonist if the bacteriostase is obtained with more than 100% of the CLSI50 of each isolated antibiotic. The intermediate percentages determine the indifferent effects. The additive effects come to an equilateral hyperbola passing through the points 50%-50%, 25%-75%. The Autobac system allows inoculum standardization, very simplified handlihg and automatic reading. It takes only 9 h to handle the complete process, including the determinations of the CLSI80 and the study of the combination. There is a high correlation between the results obtained and those given by the Patte and Chabbert "carre method".

  10. Antimycobacterial agents differ with respect to their bacteriostatic versus bactericidal activities in relation to time of exposure, mycobacterial growth phase, and their use in combination.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma); W. van Vianen (Wim); D. van Soolingen (Dick); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); M.A. Agtmael (Michiel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractA number of antimycobacterial agents were evaluated with respect to their bacteriostatic activity (growth inhibition) versus the bactericidal activity against a clinical isolate of Mycobacterium avium (Mycobacterium avium complex [MAC] strain 101) in relation to the time of exposure and

  11. [EVALUATION OF THE BACTERIOSTATIC EFFECT OF IMMOBILIZED ON COLLAGEN CARRIER ANTIBIOTICS AND SILVER IONS IN PROVISION OF THE ASEPTIC STATE OF THE TISSUE WOUNDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storublevtsev, S A; Popov, V I; Antipova, L V; Stukalo, O G; Bolgova, S B

    2015-01-01

    In the treatment of tissue wounds practically all the time there is necessary the establishment of aseptic conditions in the area of the damaged tissue. In modern medical practice quite a while the use of materials on the basis of collagen aroused widespread. The aim of the study was an assessment the bacteriostatic properties both of collagenic substance with the antibiotics immobilized on it, and ions of silver also. The presence on a surface of collagen of a large number of active functional groups allow to use it as a matrix for an immobilization of various biologically active and medicinal agents. Authors performed an assessment of possibility of an immobilization of antibiotics on the collagenic carrier. The purpose of an immobilization was in the prolongation of the impact of an active component--Polymyxin-M or Gentamycin. Besides aseptic effect, availability of specific amino acids of collagen will promote the acceleration of the reparative processes in a wound. There were performed investigations on determination of bacteriostatic effect of immobilized on the protein carrier (collagen of hydrobionts) antibiotics, and silver ions also. Bacteriostatic effect was estimated by the disco--a diffusive method with use of E. coli as test culture. Results of the studies showed that the delivered preparation had bacteriostatic effect on the test culture. At that the area of a zone of a growth inhibition in case of the of use--Polymyxin was 1.3 time more than, than in case of the use of a preparation of Gentamycin. The obtained collagenic substances of an origin with the immobilized bacteriostatic components and ions of silver have considerable prospects and real opportunity in the delivery of aseptic preparations of a domestic production. Taking into account the available data in further there is planned the development of aseptic preparations with the occluded biologically active agents and nanoparticles of metals for providing an aseptics and acceleration the

  12. Bacteriostatic suppression in Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) exposed to manganese or hypoxia under pressure of ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernroth, Bodil; Krång, Anna-Sara; Baden, Susanne

    2015-02-01

    Future ocean acidification (OA) and warming following climate change elicit pervasive stressors to the inhabitants of the sea. Previous experimental exposure to OA for 16 weeks at pH levels predicted for 2100 has shown to result in serious immune suppression of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus. The lobsters are currently affected by stressors such as periodical hypoxia inducing high levels of bioavailable manganese (Mn). Here, we aimed to investigate possible effects of interactions between OA and these stressors on total hemocyte counts (THCs) and on recovery of inoculated bacteria in the lobsters, measured as a proxy for bacteriostatic response. The effects were judged by following numbers of culturable Vibrio parahaemolyticus in hepatopancreas, 4 and 24h post inoculation in lobsters kept in replicate tanks with six different treatments: either ambient (pCO2∼500 μatm/pH∼8.1 U) or CO2-manipulated seawater (OA; pCO2∼1550 μatm/pH∼7.6 U) for 8 weeks. During the last 2 weeks, additional stress of either hypoxia (∼23% oxygen saturation) or Mn (∼9 mg L(-1)) was added except in control treatments. Our results showed clear effect on bacteriostatic response in Norway lobsters exposed to these stressors. In lobsters kept in ambient seawater without additional stressors, the number of culturable bacteria in hepatopancreas was reduced by ∼34%. In combined treatment of ambient seawater and hypoxia, the reduction was ∼23%, while in the Mn-exposed animals, there was no reduction at all. This was also the case in all OA treatments where mean numbers of culturable V. parahaemolyticus tended to increase. In lobsters from ambient seawater with or without hypoxia, the THC was not significantly different as was also the case in OA without additional stressors. However, in OA treatments combined with either hypoxia or Mn, THC was reduced by ∼35%. While the reduction of culturable V. parahaemolyticus in lobsters was clearly affected by these stressors, we

  13. Fluoroquinolone Action against Mycobacteria: Effects of C-8 Substituents on Growth, Survival, and Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuzhi; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Xilin; Domagala, John; Drlica, Karl

    1998-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones trap gyrase on DNA as bacteriostatic complexes from which lethal DNA breaks are released. Substituents at the C-8 position increase activities of N-1-cyclopropyl fluoroquinolones against several bacterial species. In the present study, a C-8-methoxyl group improved bacteriostatic action against gyrA (gyrase-resistant) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG. It also enhanced lethal action against gyrase mutants of M. bovis BCG. When cultures of M. smegmatis, M. bovis BCG, and M. tuberculosis were challenged with a C-8-methoxyl fluoroquinolone, no resistant mutant was recovered under conditions in which more than 1,000 mutants were obtained with a C-8-H control. A C-8-bromo substituent also increased bacteriostatic and lethal activities against a gyrA mutant of M. bovis BCG. When lethal activity was normalized to bacteriostatic activity, the C-8-methoxyl compound was more bactericidal than its C-8-H control, while the C-8-bromo fluoroquinolone was not. The C-8-methoxyl compound was also found to be more effective than the C-8-bromo fluoroquinolone at reducing selection of resistant mutants when each was compared to a C-8-H control over a broad concentration range. These data indicate that a C-8-methoxyl substituent, which facilitates attack of first-step gyrase mutants, may help make fluoroquinolones effective antituberculosis agents. PMID:9797236

  14. 论检察院与廉政公署的殊途同归%On reaching the same goal by different means for the Procuratorate and the Inde- pendent Commission Against Corruption OCAC) Thinking triggered by the investiga- tion of Hong Kong Chief Executive Don- ald Tsang by Independent Commission A- gainst Corruption (ICAC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭波

    2012-01-01

    As China's public prosecution, the procuratorate was given the power of investigation to the corruption, bribery and other crimes by the law, but in the judicial practice, the handling process of the procu- ratorate is often improperly interfered. For the lack of supporting system and working mechanism, the procuratorate can not be independent in the process of handling cases. The Independent Commission A- gainst Corruption (ICAC) with its detached independence contributed to the remark- able power of Hong Kong's legal process, which gave the procuratorate some thought of reform.%检察院作为我国的公诉机关,法律赋予了其对贪污贿赂等职务犯罪的自行侦查权,但是,在司法实务中,检察院的办案过程往往屡屡受到不当干涉。究其原因是因为缺乏相应的配套制度和工作机制致使检察院无法在办案过程中做到应有的独立性。而廉政公署却以其超然的独立性在香港的法制进程中贡献了举世瞩目的力量,这给了我们检察院某些改革的思考。

  15. The effect of digestive enzymes on the binding and bacteriostatic properties of lactoferrin and vitamin B12 binder in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, R R; Mirtle, C; McClelland, D B

    1980-07-01

    Human milk contains unsaturated lactoferrin and vitamin B12 binding protein. It has been suggested that these proteins may exert antibacterial effects in the intestine of the breast fed infant, but the effect of the intestinal environment on the antibacterial effect of these proteins has not been described. In this study human milk was treated with pepsin and trypsin and the influence of digestion on iron and vitamin B12 binding capacity, bacterial uptake of iron and vitamin B12 from milk and bacteriostatic effect was studied. Pepsin digestion had no effect on vitamin B12 binding capacity, or the ability of bacteria to take up vitamin B12, or the growth inhibitory effect on a vitamin B12 dependent strain. In contrast, trypsin digestion did not affect iron binding or bacteriostatic effects attributable to lactoferrin. The. findings support an in vivo bacteriostatic role for lactoferrin in the breast fed neonate's intestine but do not support a similar role for the vitamin B12 binding protein.

  16. 食品行业中常用消毒剂对食源性单核细胞增生李斯特菌的抑菌作用研究%Bacteriostatic effect of common disinfectants in food industry to food-borne Listeria monocytogenes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冬旸; 石磊; 曾晓敏; 何建华; 闫鹤

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bacteriostatic effect of common disinfectants in food industry to Listeria monocytogenes, an important food-borne pathogenic bacteria, were investigated, to obtain more knowledge of the tolerance of Listeria monocytogenes to various disinfectants, and to provides the basis for the scientific use of disinfectant. Methods The bacterial inhibition ring test was employed to detect the bacteriostatic effect of 5 common disinfectants in food industry to a total of 73 food-borne Listeria monocytogenes isolates. Results In general use concentration, peracetic acid, iodophor and chlorhexidine do not have antibacterial effect to food-borne Listeria monocytogenes, 84 disinfection and bromogeramine have antibacterial effect. Peracetic acid has the complete bacteriostatic action with the concentration of 0.9% or higher. Chlorhexidine with the concentration of 0.5% or higher also confers complete bacteriostatic action to Listeria monocytogenes. Conclusion 84 disinfection, bromogeramine, peracetic acid with the concentration of 0.9% or higher, and chlorhexidine with the concentration of 0.5% or higher have bacteriostatic effect to food-borne Listeria monocytogenes, and thus are suitable to be applied in sterilization in the prevention and control of food-borne Listeria monocytogenes.%目的 研究食品行业中常用消毒剂对重要食源性致病菌单核细胞增生李斯特菌的抑菌效果,明确食源性单核细胞增生李斯特菌对各种消毒剂的耐受情况,为消毒剂的科学使用提供依据.方法 选取5大类食品行业常用消毒剂,采用抑菌环试验检测其对73株食源性单核细胞增生李斯特菌的抑菌效果.结果 过氧乙酸、碘伏及洗必泰在常规使用浓度下对食源性单核细胞增生李斯特菌不具备有效抑菌作用,84消毒液及新洁尔灭在常规使用浓度下具备抑菌作用,过氧乙酸浓度达0.9%及以上,洗必泰浓度达0.5%及以上时,具有完全抑菌作用.结论 对于

  17. Cordyceps sinensis promotes immune regulation and enhances bacteriostatic activity of PA-824 via IL-10 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Li

    Full Text Available PA-824 is a novel bicyclic nitroimidazole anti-tuberculosis (TB drug. Cordyceps sinensis (Berk. Sacc. (CS was proven to be a good immunomodulatory compound. This research aimed to investigate the effect of CS on PA-824 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb infected mice (female CBA/J mice, 6 to 8 weeks of age and 20±2 g of weight. Mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups: PA-824, CS, PA-824+CS, and control. To verify the effect of PA-824 and CS on M.tb, after drug administration, mice lungs were harvested and bacterial colony formations were measured. Cells were isolated from infected lungs and spleens to analyze the percentage of CD4+ T cells (CD11a positive. Lung cells were cultured to detect the secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-10 (IL-10 by ELISA. IFN-γ and IL-10 double-positive CD4+ cells in peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. The expression levels of IL-2 and IL-10 in mice lungs were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. Results showed that PA-824 combined with CS led to the lowest lung colony-forming units (CFU counts among treated groups. Furthermore, this beneficial outcome might be associated with the decreased CD11a on CD4+ cells in mice lungs and spleens. Moreover, the suppressed secretion of IFN-γ and IL-10, and IL-10 expressions, as well as the decreased IFN-γ and IL-10 double-positive CD4+ cells in blood, could also be associated with the positive effect. However, no significant effect on IL-2 production was found. The combination of PA-824 and CS had more effective bacteriostatic and immunomodulatory effects on M.tb infected mice than PA-824 alone. In conclusion, CS has the potential to be an effective adjuvant in TB treatment.

  18. Cordyceps sinensis promotes immune regulation and enhances bacteriostatic activity of PA-824 via IL-10 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D G; Ren, Z X

    2017-08-07

    PA-824 is a novel bicyclic nitroimidazole anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug. Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. (CS) was proven to be a good immunomodulatory compound. This research aimed to investigate the effect of CS on PA-824 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infected mice (female CBA/J mice, 6 to 8 weeks of age and 20±2 g of weight). Mice were randomly assigned to 4 groups: PA-824, CS, PA-824+CS, and control. To verify the effect of PA-824 and CS on M.tb, after drug administration, mice lungs were harvested and bacterial colony formations were measured. Cells were isolated from infected lungs and spleens to analyze the percentage of CD4+ T cells (CD11a positive). Lung cells were cultured to detect the secretion of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) by ELISA. IFN-γ and IL-10 double-positive CD4+ cells in peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. The expression levels of IL-2 and IL-10 in mice lungs were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blot. Results showed that PA-824 combined with CS led to the lowest lung colony-forming units (CFU) counts among treated groups. Furthermore, this beneficial outcome might be associated with the decreased CD11a on CD4+ cells in mice lungs and spleens. Moreover, the suppressed secretion of IFN-γ and IL-10, and IL-10 expressions, as well as the decreased IFN-γ and IL-10 double-positive CD4+ cells in blood, could also be associated with the positive effect. However, no significant effect on IL-2 production was found. The combination of PA-824 and CS had more effective bacteriostatic and immunomodulatory effects on M.tb infected mice than PA-824 alone. In conclusion, CS has the potential to be an effective adjuvant in TB treatment.

  19. 红足蒿提取物抑菌活性的筛选%The Screening of the Bacteriostatic Activities of Artemisia rubripes Nakai Extractives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴小阳; 谢勉; 李霞; 董新荣; 莫俊锐; 周宝磊

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to study the bacteriostasis of the ethanol extracts from Hunan A. Rubripes branches and leaves. [ Methods] The ethanol extractives were extracted and separated from A. Rubripes branches and leaves by different solvents, and petroleum ether extracts, ethyl acetate extracts and aqueous solution were obtained. Then, each fraction was analyzed qualitatively using HPLC, and their bacte-riostatic activities on Escherichia coli, Bacillus sublilis and Staphylococcus aureus were studied using Oxford cup method. [ Result ] The bacteri-ostatic effects of the ethanol extracts on E. Coli and B. Subulis were obvious, and the bacteriostatic effects of the ethyl acetate extracts on the above three test organisms were better; however, petroleum ether extracts and aqueous solution had no obvious bacteriostatic effect on the a-bove three test organisms. [Conclusion] The major antibacterium active constituents in A. Rubripes were the semi-polar compounds, but polar compounds in water solution had synergetic effect for these antibacterium activities.%[目的]研究湖南红足蒿枝叶乙醇提取物的抑菌作用.[方法]将红足蒿枝叶的乙醇提取物以不同溶剂萃取,分离得到石油醚萃取物、乙酸乙酯萃取物和水溶液3个部分,然后采用高效液相(HPLC)指纹图谱对几个部分的物质进行定性分析,并采用牛津杯法研究各提取物对大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)、枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)和金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)的抑菌活性.[结果]乙醇提取物对大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli、枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)的抑菌效果明显;乙酸乙酯萃取物对3种试验菌的抑菌效果较好;石油醚萃取物和水溶液对3种试验菌均无明显的抑菌效果.[结论]红足蒿抑菌活性主要成分为中极性化合物群,但水溶性极性成分具有增效作用.

  20. Persimmon-derived tannin has bacteriostatic and anti-inflammatory activity in a murine model of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Yoko; Kitabatake, Masahiro; Ouji-Sageshima, Noriko; Yasui, Satsuki; Mochida, Naoko; Nakano, Ryuichi; Kasahara, Kei; Tomoda, Koichi; Yano, Hisakazu; Kayano, Shin-Ichi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), including Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), cause opportunistic chronic pulmonary infections. Notably, MAC susceptibility is regulated by various factors, including the host immune system. Persimmon (Ebenaceae Diospyros kaki Thunb.) tannin is a condensed tannin composed of a polymer of catechin groups. It is well known that condensed tannins have high antioxidant activity and bacteriostatic properties. However, it is hypothesized that condensed tannins might need to be digested and/or fermented into smaller molecules in vivo prior to being absorbed into the body to perform beneficial functions. In this study, we evaluated the effects of soluble persimmon-derived tannins on opportunistic MAC disease. Soluble tannins were hydrolyzed and evaluated by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. The ORAC value of soluble tannin hydrolysate was approximately five times greater than that of soluble tannin powder. In addition, soluble tannin hydrolysate exhibited high bacteriostatic activity against MAC in vitro. Furthermore, in an in vivo study, MAC infected mice fed a soluble tannin-containing diet showed significantly higher anti-bacterial activity against MAC and less pulmonary granuloma formation compared with those fed a control diet. Tumor necrosis factor α and inducible nitric oxide synthase levels were significantly lower in lungs of the soluble tannin diet group compared with the control diet group. Moreover, proinflammatory cytokines induced by MAC stimulation of bone marrow-derived macrophages were significantly decreased by addition of soluble tannin hydrolysate. These data suggest that soluble tannin from persimmons might attenuate the pathogenesis of pulmonary NTM infection.

  1. Bacteriostatic Action of Oregano Essential Off Adding to TMR%TMR中添加牛至精油抑菌作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨昭; 刘婷; 吴建平; 雷赵民; 万学瑞; 何冰

    2015-01-01

    在全混合日粮(TMR)中添加抗生素可以解决其变质问题,然而动物长期使用抗生素会产生药物残留等问题.牛至精油是一种天然无化学毒害且具有强抗菌作用的植物精油,可作为饲料添加剂.为研究牛至精油对TMR中霉菌、细菌、大肠菌群的抑制作用,并分析pH和温度对牛至精油抑菌作用的影响,将牛至精油添加到荷斯坦奶牛(约650kg)的TMR中,采用平板菌落计数法检测TMR中霉菌、细菌的菌落数;采用国标乳糖胆盐发酵法检测大肠菌群的最可能数.结果表明:牛至精油对TMR中的霉菌、细菌、大肠菌群均有抑制作用且差异显著(P<0.05),可作为饲料添加剂提高TMR的新鲜度.

  2. Studies on the Bacteriostatic Effects of Water Extraction liquid from Coriander%芫荽水提液对细菌的抑制作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霞

    2012-01-01

    To study the bacteriostatic effects of water extraction liquid from Coriander, fresh Coriander was washed,dried,and sterilized by UV exposure. E. coli and Bacillus subtilis were used as the tested strains and the experiment was performed by the method of filter patch. The results showed that the Coriander water extraction liquid had different degrees of bacteriostasis to the two tested strains and the bacteriostatic circle size of water extraction liquid from Coriander were different between the two tested strains. The bacteriostasis was enhanced accompanied with the increasing of Coriander water extraction liquid concentration.%为了明确芫荽水提液对细菌的抑制作用,将新鲜芫荽洗净、晾干,紫外线杀菌处理后研碎,以大肠杆菌和枯草芽孢杆菌为供试菌种,采用滤纸片贴片法对芫荽水提液的抑菌作用进行了研究,供试液分别为25%、50%、75%、100%的芫荽提取液.结果表明,芫荽水提液对以上2种供试菌种所产生的抑菌圈大小不同,不同体积分数的芫荽水提液对2种菌有不同程度的抑菌作用.随着芫荽水提液体积分数的增大,抑菌作用增强,这说明芫荽水提取液对细菌有抑菌活性.

  3. A three-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor exhibiting domain inhibitory and bacteriostatic activities from freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Cang; Wang, Xian-Wei; Wang, Zong-Heng; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2009-12-01

    In crustaceans, Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in hemolymph are believed to function as regulators of the host-defense reactions or inhibitors against proteinases from microorganisms. In this study, we report a Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor, named hcPcSPI1, from freshwater crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). We found that hcPcSPI1 is composed of a putative signal peptide, an RGD motif, and three tandem Kazal-type domains with the domain P1 residues L, L and E, respectively. Mainly, hcPcSPI1 was detected in hemocytes as well as in the heart, gills, and intestine at both the mRNA and protein levels. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that hcPcSPI1 in hemocytes was upregulated by the stimulation of Esherichia coli (8099) or became decreased after a white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. In addition, hcPcSPI1 and its three independent domains were overexpressed and purified to explore their potential functions. All four proteins inhibited subtilisin A and proteinase K, but not alpha-chymotypsin or trypsin. Recombinant hcPcSPI1 could firmly attach to Gram-negative bacteria E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae; Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis and Staphylococcus aureus; fungi Candida albicans and Saccharomyce cerevisiae, and only domain 1 was responsible for the binding to E. coli and S. aureus. In addition, recombinant hcPcSPI1 was also found to possess bacteriostatic activity against the B. subtilis and B. thuringiensis. Domains 2 and 3 contributed mainly to these bacteriostatic activities. All results suggested that hcPcSPI1 might play important roles in the innate immunity of crayfish.

  4. Study on bacteriostatic effect of lactic acid bacteria in the fermented products%发酵产品中乳酸菌抑菌效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玲; 张敏

    2011-01-01

    20 kinds of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermented products,and GL5 from cheese had the highest bacteriostatic activity against pathogenic bacteria such as Staphyloccocus aureus,Enterobacter sakazakii,and Salmonella typhimurium,et al.GL5 was homologous with Lactobacillus casei based on the morphological,physiological characteristics and Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology.%从发酵产品中分离出的20株乳酸菌中筛选得到1株乳酸菌菌株GL5,该乳酸菌对金黄色葡萄球菌、阪崎肠杆菌、鼠伤寒沙门氏菌等致病菌具有较强的抑制性,通过细菌形态学特征的观察,生理生化特征的鉴定,并参考《伯杰细菌鉴定手册》,该菌株与干酪乳杆菌最相似。

  5. Five novel lanthanide complexes with 2-chloroquinoline-4-carboxylic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline: Crystal structures, molecular spectra, thermal properties and bacteriostatic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Jin, Cheng-Wei; He, Shu-Mei; Ren, Ning; Zhang, Jian-Jun

    2016-12-01

    Five novel lanthanide complexes [Ln2(2-ClQL)6(phen)2(H2O)2]·2H2O (Ln = Pr(1), Sm(2), Eu(3), Ho(4), Er(5)); 2-ClQL: 2-chloroquinoline-4-carboxylate; phen: 1,10-phenanthroline; were synthesized by conventional solution method at room temperature and characterized via elemental analysis, powder x-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectrometry. The results indicate that complexes 1-5 are isostructural, and each Ln3+ ion is eight-coordinated adopting a distorted square antiprismatic molecular geometry. Binuclear complex 1 are stitched together via hydrogen bonding interactions to form 1D chains, and further to form 2D sheets by the π-π interactions. Luminescence investigation reveals that complex 3 displays strong red emission. TG/DTG-FTIR, reveal the thermal decomposition processes and products of title complexes. The bacteriostatic activities of the complexes were evaluated against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus.

  6. In situ fabrication of silver nanoparticle-filled hydrogen titanate nanotube layer on metallic titanium surface for bacteriostatic and biocompatible implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Sun, Yan; Wang, Dongzhou; Liu, Hong; Boughton, Robert I

    2013-01-01

    A silver nanoparticle (AgNP)-filled hydrogen titanate nanotube layer was synthesized in situ on a metallic titanium substrate. In the synthesis approach, a layer of sodium titanate nanotubes is first prepared on the titanium surface by using a hydrothermal method. Silver nitrate solution is absorbed into the nanotube channels by immersing a dried nanotube layer in silver nitrate solution. Finally, silver ions are reduced by glucose, leading to the in situ growth of AgNPs in the hydrogen titanate nanotube channels. Long-term silver release and bactericidal experiments demonstrated that the effective silver release and effective antibacterial period of the titanium foil with a AgNP-filled hydrogen titanate nanotube layer on the surface can extend to more than 15 days. This steady and prolonged release characteristic is helpful to promote a long-lasting antibacterial capability for the prevention of severe infection after surgery. A series of antimicrobial and biocompatible tests have shown that the sandwich nanostructure with a low level of silver loading exhibits a bacteriostatic rate as high as 99.99%, while retaining low toxicity for cells and possessing high osteogenic potential. Titanium foil with a AgNP-filled hydrogen titanate nanotube layer on the surface that is fabricated with low-cost surface modification methods is a promising implantable material that will find applications in artificial bones, joints, and dental implants.

  7. Effects of Light on Stability and Bacteriostatic Activity of Rutin%光照对芦丁稳定性及抑菌活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丹; 郝再彬; 胡淑田; 张永; 宋福平

    2011-01-01

    黄酮类化合物具有多羟基结构易被氧化,为了解其羟基被氧化后,是否还具有抑菌、抗癌等多种生物学活性,对芦丁光照处理前后的含量、抗氧化活性(清除DPPH和还原能力)、分子结构以及抑菌活性进行了比较研究.结果表明,随着光照时间的延长,芦丁含量和抗氧化活性均呈下降趋势,降解反应属于一级反应,半衰期为187.3 d.结构鉴定表明,光照处理芦丁母核结构没有降解,只是A环5、7-OH和B环3′、4′-OH氢解离,芦丁在溶液中以负离子或自由基形式存在.芦丁氧化前后的浓度与抑菌效果均成良好的量效关系,其相关系数分别为0.933 2和0.933 0.但氧化芦丁的EC50值(15.58 g/L)与对照(6.34g/L)相比差异显著(P<0.01).可见,氧化芦丁的抑菌活性明显降低.这进一步表明,芦丁分子结构的细微改变与体外的抗氧化活性和抑菌活性三者之间的构效关系基本一致.%Flavonoid is susceptible to be oxidized because of its multi-hydroxy structure.In order to observe the effects of oxidization on antibacterial, anti-cancer and other various biological activities, a comparative research was carried out on content, antioxidant activity (DPPH free radical scavenging activity and reducing power), molecular structure and bacteriostatic activity of rutin before and after light treatments.The results showed that content and antioxidant activity of rutin decreased with increase of illumination time.The degradation reaction was a first order reaction with a half-life of 187.3d.Structure identification demonstrated that there was no degradation in parent core structure of rutin after illumination,but the hydrogen of A ring 5, 7-OH and B ring 3', 4'-OH was dissociated and rutin existed in the form of negative ions or free radicals in solution.The concentrations of rutin yielded good dose-effect relationships with the antibacterial effects before and after oxidation, with correlation coefficients of 0

  8. Nitric oxide as a biomarker of intracellular Salmonella viability and identification of the bacteriostatic activity of protein kinase A inhibitor H-89.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqi He

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is one of the most prevalent Salmonella serovars in poultry and is often associated with human salmonellosis. S. Enteritidis is known to suppress nitric oxide (NO production in infected chicken macrophage HD11 cells, while dead S. Enteritidis stimulates a high level of NO production, suggesting a bacterial inhibitory effect on NO production. Based on these observations, the present study was conducted to evaluate whether NO production in S. Enteritidis-infected HD11 cells can be used as a biomarker to identify molecules that kill intracellular Salmonella. Since Salmonella are known to manipulate the host cell kinase network to facilitate intracellular survival, we screened a group of pharmaceutical inhibitors of various kinases to test our hypothesis. A protein kinase A inhibitor, H-89, was found to reverse the suppression of NO production in S. Enteritidis-infected HD11 cells. Production of NO in S. Enteritidis-infected HD11 cells increased significantly following treatment with H-89 at or above 20 µM. Inversely, the number of viable intracellular Salmonella decreased significantly in cells treated with H-89 at or above 30 µM. Furthermore, the growth rate of S. Enteritidis in culture was significantly inhibited by H-89 at concentrations from 20 to 100 µM. Our results demonstrate that NO-based screening using S. Enteritidis-infected HD11 cells is a viable tool to identify chemicals with anti-intracellular Salmonella activity. Using this method, we have shown H-89 has bacteriostatic activity against Salmonella, independent of host cell protein kinase A or Akt1 activity.

  9. cDNA and Gene Structure of MytiLec-1, A Bacteriostatic R-Type Lectin from the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Imtiaj; Gerdol, Marco; Fujii, Yuki; Rajia, Sultana; Koide, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Daiki; Kawsar, Sarkar M A; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    MytiLec is an α-d-galactose-binding lectin with a unique primary structure isolated from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The lectin adopts a β-trefoil fold that is also found in the B-sub-unit of ricin and other ricin-type (R-type) lectins. We are introducing MytiLec(-1) and its two variants (MytiLec-2 and -3), which both possess an additional pore-forming aerolysin-like domain, as members of a novel multi-genic "mytilectin family" in bivalve mollusks. Based on the full length mRNA sequence (911 bps), it was possible to elucidate the coding sequence of MytiLec-1, which displays an extended open reading frame (ORF) at the 5' end of the sequence, confirmed both at the mRNA and at the genomic DNA sequence level. While this extension could potentially produce a polypeptide significantly longer than previously reported, this has not been confirmed yet at the protein level. MytiLec-1 was revealed to be encoded by a gene consisting of two exons and a single intron. The first exon comprised the 5'UTR and the initial ATG codon and it was possible to detect a putative promoter region immediately ahead of the transcription start site in the MytiLec-1 genomic locus. The remaining part of the MytiLec-1 coding sequence (including the three sub-domains, the 3'UTR and the poly-A signal) was included in the second exon. The bacteriostatic activity of MytiLec-1 was determined by the agglutination of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which was reversed by the co-presence of α-galactoside. Altogether, these data support the classification of MytiLec-1 as a member of the novel mytilectin family and suggest that this lectin may play an important role as a pattern recognition receptor in the innate immunity of mussels.

  10. cDNA and Gene Structure of MytiLec-1, A Bacteriostatic R-Type Lectin from the Mediterranean Mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaj Hasan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MytiLec is an α-d-galactose-binding lectin with a unique primary structure isolated from the Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis. The lectin adopts a β-trefoil fold that is also found in the B-sub-unit of ricin and other ricin-type (R-type lectins. We are introducing MytiLec(-1 and its two variants (MytiLec-2 and -3, which both possess an additional pore-forming aerolysin-like domain, as members of a novel multi-genic “mytilectin family” in bivalve mollusks. Based on the full length mRNA sequence (911 bps, it was possible to elucidate the coding sequence of MytiLec-1, which displays an extended open reading frame (ORF at the 5′ end of the sequence, confirmed both at the mRNA and at the genomic DNA sequence level. While this extension could potentially produce a polypeptide significantly longer than previously reported, this has not been confirmed yet at the protein level. MytiLec-1 was revealed to be encoded by a gene consisting of two exons and a single intron. The first exon comprised the 5′UTR and the initial ATG codon and it was possible to detect a putative promoter region immediately ahead of the transcription start site in the MytiLec-1 genomic locus. The remaining part of the MytiLec-1 coding sequence (including the three sub-domains, the 3′UTR and the poly-A signal was included in the second exon. The bacteriostatic activity of MytiLec-1 was determined by the agglutination of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which was reversed by the co-presence of α-galactoside. Altogether, these data support the classification of MytiLec-1 as a member of the novel mytilectin family and suggest that this lectin may play an important role as a pattern recognition receptor in the innate immunity of mussels.

  11. 聚维酮碘对气单胞菌的抑菌杀菌效果研究%Research on Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal Efficacy of Povidone Iodine on Aeromonas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭凤霞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究聚维酮碘作为一种水产养殖上常用的消毒剂对气单胞菌的抑菌杀菌效果。[方法]以气单胞菌属标准株ATCC7966和分离自患病鱼及养殖环境的气单胞菌为试验菌株,通过肉汤二倍稀释法研究聚维酮碘的抑菌杀菌作用。[结果]聚维酮碘在低浓度时能抑制气单胞菌的生长增殖,高浓度时杀灭细菌,其对Aeromonas sp. T1、Aeromonas sp. T2、Aeromonas sp. T4菌株的最小抑菌浓度为125. 00mg/L,最小杀菌浓度为4.00g/L;其对ATCC7966、Aeromonas sp. T3、Aeromonas sp. T5、Aeromonas sp. T6菌株的最小抑菌浓度为250.00 mg/L,最小杀菌浓度为8.00 g/L。[结论]为聚维酮碘的合理使用提供了一定的依据。%[Objective] The aim of this study is to investigate the bacteriostatic and bactericidal efficacy of povidone iodine as one kind of disinfectants for aquaculture on Aeromonas.[Method] With the standard strain of Aeromonas ATCC7966 and the Aeromonas strains isolated from diseased fish or aquatic environment as the tested strains,the bacteriostatic and bactericidal efficacy of povidone iodine was studied by double broth dilution method.[Result] The povidone iodine could inhibit the growth of Aeromonas strains at lower concentration,and killed Aeromonas strains at higher concentration.The minimum bacteriostatic concentration(MIC) of povidone iodine on Aeromonas sp.T1,Aeromonas sp T2 and Aeromonas sp.T4 was 125.00 mg/L,and the minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC) was 4.00 g/L.Whereas,the minimum bacteriostatic concentration(MIC) of povidone iodine on ATCC7966,Aeromonas sp.T3,Aeromonas sp T5 and Aeromonas sp.T6 was 250.00 mg/L,and the minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC) was 8.00 g/L.[Conclusion] This study provides certain basis for reasonable application of povidone iodine.

  12. 聚维酮碘对气单胞菌的抑菌杀菌效果研究%Research on Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal Efficacy of Povidone Iodine on Aeromonas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭凤霞

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim of this study is to investigate the bacteriostatic and bactericidal efficacy of povidone iodine as one kind of disinfectants for aquaculture on Aeromonas. [ Method] With the standard strain of Aeromonas ATCC7966 and the Aeromonas strains isolated from diseased fish or aquatic environment as the tested strains, the bacteriostatic and bactericidal efficacy of povidone iodine was studied by double broth dilution method. [Result] The povidone iodine could inhibit the growth of Aeromonas strains at lower concentration, and killed Aeromonas strains at higher concentration. The minimum bacteriostatic concentration (MIC) of povidone iodine on Aeromonas sp. T1, Aeromonas sp. T2 and Aeromonas sp. T4 was 125.00 mg/L, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was4.00 g/L. Whereas, the minimum bacteriostatic concentration (MIC) of povidone iodine on ATCC7966, Aeromonas sp. T3, Aeromonas sp. T5 and Aeromonas sp. T6 was 250.00 mg/L, and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 8.00 g/L. [ Conclusion] This study provides certain basis for reasonable application of povidone iodine.%[目的]研究聚维酮碘作为一种水产养殖上常用的消毒剂对气单胞菌的抑菌杀菌效果.[方法]以气单胞菌属标准株ATCC7966和分离自患病鱼及养殖环境的气单胞菌为试验菌株,通过肉汤二倍稀释法研究聚维酮碘的抑菌杀菌作用.[结果]聚维酮碘在低浓度时能抑制气单胞菌的生长增殖,高浓度时杀灭细菌,其对Aeromonas sp.T1、Aeromonas sp.T2、Aeromonas sp.T4菌株的最小抑菌浓度为125.00 mg/L,最小杀菌浓度为4.00 g/L;其对ATCC7966、Aeromonas sp.T3、Aeromonas sp.T5、Aeromonas sp.T6菌株的最小抑菌浓度为250.00mg/L,最小杀菌浓度为8.00g/L.[结论]为聚维酮碘的合理使用提供了一定的依据.

  13. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  14. Action physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  15. 1株碱蓬内生芽孢杆菌的分离及抑菌活性测定%Isolation and Bacteriostatic Activity of an Endophytic Bacillus Strain from Suaeda glauca

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘诗扬; 马莲菊; 卜宁

    2011-01-01

    The morphology, colonial feature, growth characteristics and bacteriostatic activity of an endophytic bacillus strain (EB0901) isolated from healthy tissue of Suaeda glauca were studied to probe the biological control mechanism of endophytic bacteria. The results showed that the optimum temperature, pH and NaCl concentration for EB0901 growth was 35℃, 7 and 0.5%, EB0901 had certain inhibition effect on mycelium growth of 9 tested plant pathogenic fungi, the bacteriostatic rate of EB0901 against Exsserohilum turcicum , Sc ferotiniasc ferotiorm , Bipolarisi and Gloeosporium piperatum was above 60%, significantly higher than other five tested plant pathogenic fungi. The bacteriostatic rate of EB0901 against Exserohilum turcicum reached 64. 11%, which indicated that EB0901 with strong bacteriostatic activity should be developed and utilized further.%为进一步探究内生细菌的生防机制,采用NA固体倾注法培养从碱蓬健康组织中分离的菌株,并对分离菌株的个体形态、菌落特征和生长特性进行初步研究,同时采用平板对峙法对其抑菌活性进行了测定.结果表明:从碱蓬健康组织中分离出1株内生芽孢杆菌(EB0901);该菌的生长最适温度为35℃,初始pH6~8时出现生长高峰,以pH为7时生长最好;在NaCl浓度为0.5%时生长最佳,但在10%以上时仍可生长;对供试的9种植物病原真菌菌丝生长均有一定的抑制作用,对玉米大斑病菌、辣椒菌核病菌、平脐孺孢病菌、辣椒炭疽病菌的抑菌能力较强,抑菌率在60%以上,显著高于其他5种植物病原真菌(P<0.05),其中,对玉米大斑病菌的抑菌活性最强,抑菌率高达64.11%.碱蓬内生芽孢杆菌是一种具有明显抑菌活性的内生细菌,值得进一步开发利用.

  16. Study on Bacteriostatic Efficacy of Germall BP on Resident Microorganisms in Epidermis%杰马BP对皮肤表层常驻菌抑制作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈冠武; 蔡颖; 唐波; 陈双鹏; 郑子乔; 林宁静; 周广彪

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究新型化妆品防腐剂杰马BP对皮肤表层常驻菌疮疱丙酸杆菌、表皮葡萄球菌的抑制作用.方法 分别将皮肤常驻菌疮疱丙酸杆菌、表皮葡萄球菌的菌悬液与适当浓度的杰马BP的水溶液或添加杰马BP的化妆品混合均匀,作用4、8、24 h后进行菌落总数测定,以抑制的菌落总数对数值作为评价指标.结果 杰马BP水溶液对疮疱丙酸杆菌抑制作用较弱,需0.15%的浓度作用24h才表现出明显抑菌作用;对表皮葡萄球菌的抑常制作用稍强,0.10%的浓度作用8h就表现出明显抑菌效果;浓度提高到0.25%~0.75%并加入化妆品中后,对疮疱丙酸杆菌抑菌效果增强,但对表皮葡萄球菌的抑制作用下降.膏状和液状化妆品中杰马BP对表皮葡萄球菌的抑制作用基本相当.结论 杰马BP对皮肤常驻菌有一定抑制作用,缩短使用时间可减少这种不利影响.%Objective To explore the bacteriostatic efficacy of the cosmetic antiseptic Germall BP on resident microorganisms in epidermis -Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes. Methods The suspensions of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Propionibacterium acnes were added to aqueous solution of Germall BP or cosmetics containing this preservative of proper concentration respectively, then mixed thoroughly. After keeping in ambient temperature for 4, 8 and 24 h, the total bacterial counts of these mixtures were determined, and the killing logarithm was set as a parameter for evaluation of bacteriostatic efficacy. Results While in the form of aqueous solution, Germall BP demonstrated a weak inhibition on Propionibacterium acnes, that only up to 0.15% Germall BP exhibited significant inhibition effect after 24 h contacting. GPL in aqueous solution presented a little stronger inhibition effect on Staphylococcus epidermidis, that 0.10% Germall BP for 8 h interaction demonstrated significant inhibition effect. While added in cosmetics with

  17. Part II: crystalline fluorapatite-coated hydroxyapatite implant material: a dog study with histologic comparison of osteogenesis seen with FA-coated HA grafting material versus HA controls: potential bacteriostatic effect of fluoridated HA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordquist, William D; Okudera, Hajima; Kitamura, Yutaka; Kimoto, Kazunari; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Krutchkoff, David J

    2011-01-01

    Success of osteogenesis in bone graft procedures can be enhanced by inhibiting oral bacterial infections through the use of prophylactic bacteriostatic fluoride within the grafting environment. Ideally, the fluoride ion should be chemically sequestered and thus unavailable unless needed at times during the process of early infection. As fluoride within fluorapatite is tightly bound at neutral pH and becomes available only during acidic conditions, fluorapatite is an ideal store for the fluoride ion which becomes released for bacteriostasis only during an acidic environment found with incipient bacterial infection. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the histologic properties of new bone formed surrounding fluorapatite (FA)-coated microcrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) grafting material with comparable bone formed following the use of control HA material (OsteoGen, Impladent, Ltd, Holliswood, NY). The results of histologic analysis within dog studies here showed no detectable difference in new bone following therapeutic grafting procedures using each of the above 2 mineral coatings.

  18. Complementary Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa eSartori

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person. Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i to simulate another person’s movements, (ii to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  19. The mechanisms of action of nicotinamide and zinc in inflammatory skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fivenson, David P

    2006-01-01

    Nicotinamide (niacinamide), a physiologically active form of niacin (nicotinic acid), in combination with zinc is being assessed in clinical studies for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases such as acne vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid. The basis for these investigations is the variety of potential mechanisms of action of nicotinamide and zinc, including an anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of leukocyte chemotaxis, lysosomal enzyme release, lymphocytic transformation, mast cell degranulation, bacteriostatic effect against Propionibacterium acnes, inhibition of vasoactive amines, preservation of intracellular coenzyme homeostasis, and decreased sebum production. Other possible mechanisms involve suppression of vascular permeability and inflammatory cell accumulation, as well as protection against DNA damage. The goal of this paper is to review the pathophysiology of inflammatory skin diseases and discuss the role, mechanisms of action, and safety of nicotinamide and zinc as therapeutic options for these disorders.

  20. 不同漱口液对口腔白色假丝酵母菌的抑菌效果%Bacteriostatic effect of different gargles on oral Candida albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国权; 徐丽丽; 李丹; 吴琼; 何君; 翟红岩; 范静

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To discuss the effect of different gargles on oral care after radiotherapy or chemotherapy for the patients with tumors or hematologic disease. METHODS Candida albicans isolates, as the international standard strain ATCC 10231 were selected as the research object and were divided into the experimental group and the control group; the experimental group was treated with 0. 5% iodine solution, 0,02% scetic acid chloride solution, compound gargle solution chlorhexidine, and 0. 1% cetylpyridinium gargle liquid, respectively, while the control group was treated with the physiological saline, the bacteriostatic effects of the four gargle liquid were observed. RESULTS Different gargle liquids have different bacteriostatic effects on C. albicans, the bacteriostatic rate of the 0. 5% iodine solution was 99. 92% , 0. 02% acetic acid chloride solution 97. 41% , compound gargle solution chlorhexidine 99. 91%, 0. 1% cetylpyridinium gargle liquid 80. 38% , there was no statistical difference between 0.5% iodine solution and compound gargle solution chlorhexidine; as compared with both of the two kinds of gargle fluids and 0. 02% acetic acid chloride solution and 0. 1% cetylpyridinium gargle liquid, the difference was statistically significant (P<0. 01). CONCLUSION All of the four kinds of gargle liquids of the experimental group have bacteriostatic effects on C. albicans, among which the bacteriostatic effects of the 0. 5% iodine solution and the compound gargle solution chlorhexidine are most significant; as using for clinical oral care, it is necessary to select the proper gargle and master the correct rinse time, method and rinse interval, which are the keys to improve the quality of oral care.%目的 探讨不同含漱液对肿瘤、血液病患者放(化)疗后的口腔护理效果.方法 以白色假丝酵母菌国际标准菌株ATCC 10231为研究对象,将其分为试验组和对照组,试验组分别采用0.5%聚维酮碘溶液、0.02%醋酸氯己定溶

  1. Bacteriostatic effect of extract of Ginkgo Ailoba leaves on Porphyromonas gingivalisinvitro%银杏叶提取物对牙龈卟啉单胞菌的体外抑菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜迎春; 李含薇; 李咏梅; 曲莉; 黄相道

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the antibacterial activity of extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves on Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro ,and to provid pharmacological reference for developing a new type of antibacterial drugs in the treatment of periodontal disease.Methods This experiment was divided into negative control group,imipenem control group and different concentrations and forms of extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves groups.Solvent extraction method was used to extract the extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, punching method and test tube method were performed to detect the antibacterial activity of extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves in anaerobic environment invitro and compared with Staphylococcusaureus and E.coli.By observing the antibacterial ring diameter and determination of the minimum bacteriostasis concentration (MIC),the antibacterial activities of extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves in vitro were measured.Results In the experiment of bacteriostatic ring,Porphyromonas gingivalis was treated with extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves,Ginkgo biloba leaf tablet and Ginkgo biloba soft capsule concentrate and 1∶4 diluent,the bacteriostatic ring diameters were decreased with the decreasing of the concentration.The maximum bacteriostatic diameter of Ginkgo biloba extract was 1 6.5 mm,and the maximum bacteriostasis diameters of Ginkgo biloba leaf tablet and soft capsule were 15.3 and 14.5 mm,respectively;the bacteriostatic diameter of the exact of Ginkgo biloba leaves was bigger than those of Ginkgo biloba leaf tablet and Ginkgo biloba soft capsule (P 0.05);E.coli and Staphylococcusaureus groups get the same results.When the concentration of extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves was more than 1.95 mg·L-1 ,there was no growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis but E. coli and Staphylococcus aureusa still grew;only the concentrations of exact of Girkgo biloba leaves were more than 6.25 and 12.5 mg· L-1 ,E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus didn’t grow;the bacteriostatic effect of extract of Ginkgo

  2. Bacteriostatic action of 11 fluoroquinolones to bacterium Aeromonas hydrophila%动物专用喹诺酮类药物对嗜水气单胞菌体外抑菌作用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏振霞; 肖辉; 陈列欢; 张永立

    2011-01-01

    采用琼脂平板扩散法研究了乳酸恩诺杀星、盐酸恩诺沙星、氧氟沙星、盐酸沙拉沙星等11种抗生素对嗜水气单胞菌的体外抑菌作用,测定了抑茵圈大小;采用双倍试管稀释法测得了最小抑菌浓度(MIC)和最小杀菌浓度(MBc)。实验结果表明,盐酸左氧氟沙星、氧氟沙星、盐酸沙拉沙星对嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)的抑菌效果最好,其MIC分别为0.012,0.024,0.024mg/L。乳酸恩诺沙星,盐酸恩诺沙星,氧氟沙星对嗜水气单胞菌的杀菌活性最强,其MBC为1.563μg/mL。%In this experiment, agar diffusion method was used to study antibacterial effect of 11 fluoroquinolones(FQs)on Aeromonas hydrophila. The inhibition zone was measured, and the double tube dilution method was used to study minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The results showed that Levofloxacin hydrochloride, Ofloxacin, and Sarafloxacin hydrochloride had better antibacterial effect on A. hydrophila, and the MIC of the three medicines were 0.012, 0.024, 0.024mg/L, respectively. The Enrofloxacin lactate, Enrofloxacin hydrochloride, and Ofloxacin had the same MBC value of 1.563 mg/L.

  3. Phenylbutyrate Is Bacteriostatic against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Regulates the Macrophage Response to Infection, Synergistically with 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Coussens

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Adjunctive vitamin D treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis enhances resolution of inflammation but has modest effects on bacterial clearance. Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA is in clinical use for a range of conditions and has been shown to synergise with vitamin D metabolites to upregulate cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP expression. We investigated whether clinically attainable plasma concentrations of PBA (0.4-4 mM directly affect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb growth and human macrophage and PBMC response to infection. We also tested the ability of PBA to enhance the immunomodulatory actions of the vitamin D metabolite 25(OHD3 during infection and synergistically inhibit intracellular Mtb growth. PBA inhibited Mtb growth in broth with an MIC99 of 1 mM, which was reduced to 0.25 mM by lowering pH. During human macrophage infection, PBA treatment restricted Mtb uptake, phagocytic receptor expression and intracellular growth in a dose-dependent manner. PBA independently regulated CCL chemokine secretion and induced expression of the antimicrobial LTF (lactoferrin, the anti-inflammatory PROC (protein C and multiple genes within the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. PBA co-treatment with 25(OHD3 synergistically modulated expression of numerous vitamin D-response genes, including CAMP, CYP24A1, CXCL10 and IL-37. This synergistic effect was dependent on MAPK signalling, while the effect of PBA on LTF, PROC and NLRP3 was MAPK-independent. During PBA and 25(OHD3 co-treatment of human macrophages, in the absence of exogenous proteinase 3 (PR3 to activate cathelicidin, Mtb growth restriction was dominated by the effect of PBA, while the addition of PR3 enhanced growth restriction by 25(OHD3 and PBA co-treatment. This suggests that PBA augments vitamin D-mediated cathelicidin-dependent Mtb growth restriction by human macrophages and independently induces antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory action. Therefore through both host-directed and bacterial

  4. Action Emulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); J. Ruan; T. Sadzik

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe effects of public announcements, private communications, deceptive messages to groups, and so on, can all be captured by a general mechanism of updating multi-agent models with update action models, now in widespread use. There is a natural extension of the definition of

  5. China's Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country's policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China's efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by: (1)Rigorously checking the blind expansion of its energy-and pollution-intensive industries.

  6. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A.; Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mikhailov, A. M.

    2015-03-01

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ( YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability ( R work = 16.2, R free = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.

  7. Structure of a complex of uridine phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis with the modified bacteriostatic antibacterial drug determined by X-ray crystallography and computer analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balaev, V. V.; Lashkov, A. A., E-mail: alashkov83@gmail.com; Gabdoulkhakov, A. G.; Seregina, T. A.; Dontsova, M. V.; Mikhailov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Pseudotuberculosis and bubonic plague are acute infectious diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. These diseases are treated, in particular, with trimethoprim and its modified analogues. However, uridine phosphorylases (pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases) that are present in bacterial cells neutralize the action of trimethoprim and its modified analogues on the cells. In order to reveal the character of the interaction of the drug with bacterial uridine phosphorylase, the atomic structure of the unligated molecule of uridine-specific pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YptUPh) was determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.7 Å resolution with high reliability (R{sub work} = 16.2, R{sub free} = 19.4%; r.m.s.d. of bond lengths and bond angles are 0.006 Å and 1.005°, respectively; DPI = 0.107 Å). The atoms of the amino acid residues of the functionally important secondary-structure elements—the loop L9 and the helix H8—of the enzyme YptUPh were located. The three-dimensional structure of the complex of YptUPh with modified trimethoprim—referred to as 53I—was determined by the computer simulation. It was shown that 53I is a pseudosubstrate of uridine phosphorylases, and its pyrimidine-2,4-diamine group is located in the phosphate-binding site of the enzyme YptUPh.

  8. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  9. 4种漱口液对白色念珠菌抑制效果的实验研究及临床观察%Clinical Observation on Bacteriostatic Effect of Four Kinds of Gargles on Candida Albicans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽丽; 王国权; 葛永勤; 李雪芬; 刘敏; 吕亚; 何君

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bacteriostatic effect of four kinds of gargles on Candida albicans, and to observe clinical efficacy of gargles on cancer patients with oral Candida albicans infection undergoing chemoradiotherapy. Methods Four kinds of gargles including compound chlorhexidine mouthwash, 0.02%chlorhexidine acetate solution, 0.5%povidone-iodine solution, and 0.1%cetylpyridinium chloride were applied in experiment group while physiological saline was applied in control group then the antibacterial effect of four gargles was observed. The antibacterial gargles with obvious effect were applied among two groups involving 60 cases of cancer patients with oral Candida albicans infection undergoing chemoradiotherapy. R esults Good antibacterial effect was found in compound chlorhexidine mouthwash and 0.5% povidone -iodine solution when compared with that of 0.02%chlorhexidine acetate solution and 0.1% cetylpyridinium chloride and the difference was statistically significant ( P0.05). Clinically, 0.5% povidone-iodine solution group presented good effect in terms of duration of pain and average healing time when compared with compound chlorhexidine mouthwash, which indicated statistical significance ( P0.05)。临床观察:0.5%聚维酮碘溶液组患者在疼痛持续时间、平均愈合时间方面,与复方氯己定含漱液组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论基础实验的数据说明,复方氯己定含漱液与0.5%聚维酮碘溶液和对白色念珠菌的抑菌效果最明显。临床试验的数据说明,0.5%聚维酮碘溶液组患者在疼痛持续时间、平均愈合时间方面优于与复方氯己定含漱液组的患者。

  10. 金樱子茎提取物体外抑菌活性研究%Study on the in vitro Bacteriostatic Activity of Different Solvent Extracts from Caulis Rosae laevigatae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严寒静; 王振伟; 田素英

    2012-01-01

      Caulis Rosae laevigatae was extracted with different solvents to study the bacteriostatic activity of extracts from Caulis R. laevigatae. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Dysentery bacillus, Escherichia coli, Proteusbacillus vulgaris,Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureuswere used as the experimental strains. 80% ethanol Coptis extracts used as comparison. The diameters of inhibition zone were determined by agar plate diffusion method. Then the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) were observed to test dilution methods. The results show that the water solution has no bacteriostasis function to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Dysentery bacillus, Escherichia coli, Proteusbacillus vulgaris; The MIC to Salmonella typhi is 20 mg(crude drugs)/mL; The MIC to Staphylococcus aureus is 10 mg(crude drugs)/mL. 75% ethanol solution has no bacteriostasis function to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Dysentery bacillus, Escherichia coli, Proteusbacillus vulgaris. The MIC to Staphylococcus aureus is 10 mg(crude drugs)/mL. Ethyl acetate solution, chloroform solution, petroleum ether solution have no bacteriostasis function to all of the experimental strains. In Conclusion, the different solution of caulis R. laevigatae have indefinitely bacteriostasis function on common pathogenic bacteria.%  采用纸片扩散法和试管稀释法,研究金樱子茎不同溶剂粗提取物对临床常见病原细菌的抑菌活性.结果表明,金樱子茎水提取物对绿脓杆菌、痢疾杆菌、大肠杆菌、变形杆菌无抑菌活性;对伤寒杆菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)为20 mg(生药)/mL;对金黄色葡萄球菌的 MIC 为10 mg(生药)/mL.金樱子茎75%乙醇提取物对绿脓杆菌、伤寒杆菌、痢疾杆菌、大肠杆菌、变形杆菌无抑菌活性;对金黄色葡萄球菌 MIC 为10 mg (生药)/mL.金樱子茎乙酸乙酯、氯仿、石油醚提取物对绿脓杆菌、伤寒杆菌、痢疾杆菌、大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、变形杆菌无抑菌活性

  11. Research on Bacteriostatic and Bactericidal Effect of Chlorine Dioxide on Aeromonas%二氧化氯对气单胞菌的抑菌和杀菌效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭凤霞; 吴全超

    2012-01-01

    Aeromonas bacteria strains, including the standard bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila and the Aeromonas bacteria strains which isolated from the culture water or diseased fish, were used to investigate the bacteriostatic and bactericidal efficacy of chlorine dioxide to Aeromonas bacterium by double broth dilution method. The results showed that the chlorine dioxide could inhibit the growth of bacterium at the lower concentration, and killed the bacterium at the higher concentration. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of chlorine dioxide to seven Aeromonas bacterium are 12 mg/L to strians ATCC7966, Ti, T3, T4, T5; and T6, and 24 mg/L to strain T2; The minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of chlorine dioxide to Aeromonas are 96 mg/L to strians ATCC7966, T1, T3 and T4, and 384 mg/L to strains T2, T5 and T6. These results provided the scientific basis for reasonable application of chlorine dioxide.%以嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonas hydrophila)标准菌株ATCC7966和分离自养殖水环境及患病鲫鱼的气单胞菌(Aeromonas)为试验菌株,通过肉汤二倍稀释法研究二氧化氯的抑菌及杀菌效果.结果表明,二氧化氯在低浓度时能抑制气单胞菌的生长增殖,高浓度时能杀灭细菌,其对ATCC7966、T1、T3、T4、T5、T6菌株的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)为12 mg/L,对T2菌株的最小抑菌浓度为24 mg/L;二氧化氯对ATCC7966、T1、T3、T4菌株的最小杀菌浓度(MBC)为96 mg/L,对T2、T5、T6菌株的最小杀菌浓度为384 mg/L.研究结果能为二氧化氯在水产养殖上的合理使用提供一定的依据.

  12. Effect of the Glutaraldehyde on the Bacteriostatic and Bactericide of Aeromonas%戊二醛对气单胞菌的抑菌杀菌效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭凤霞; 陈和东; 叶聪

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究戊二醛对气单胞菌的杀菌效果,为戊二醛在水产养殖上的合理使用提供依据.[方法]以气单胞菌属标准株ATCC7966和分离自养殖环境及患病鱼的气单胞菌为试验菌株,通过肉汤二倍稀释法研究.[结果]戊二醛在低浓度时能抑制气单胞菌的生长增殖,高浓度杀灭细菌,其对7株气单胞菌的最小抑菌浓度(MIC)均为7.8mg/L,其最小杀菌浓度为62.5 mg/L( ATCC7966、Aeromonas sp.T3、Aeromonas sp.T5、Aeromonas sp.T6)和125 mg/L( Aeromonas sp.T1、Aeromonas sp.T2、Aeromonas sp.T4).[结论]为戊二醛的合理使用提供一定的依据.%[Objective] The basis of the reasonable utilization of glutaraldehyde in aquaculture production was provided through the research on its effect on the bactericide of Aeromonas. [Method] The standard strain of Aeromonas - - ATCC7966 and the Aeromonas strain isolated from fish - raising environment or from diseased fish was taken as the tested strain and the efficacy of the glutaraldehyde on the bacteriostatic and bactericide of Aeromonas was determined with the method of double broth dilution. [ Results ] The results showed that the glutaraldehyde could inhibit the growth of bacterium at the low concentration and kill the bacterium at the high concentration. The minimal inhibitory concentration ( MIC) of glutaraldehyde to 7 Aeromonas strains was 7. 8mg/l and the minimal bactericidal concentration( MBC) of glutaraldehyde to 4 Aeromonas strains including ATCC7966, Aeromonas sp. T3, Aeromonas sp. T5 and Aeromonas sp. T6 was 62.5 mg/1 and 3 Aeromonas strains including Aeromonas sp. Tl, Aeromonas sp. T2 and Aeromonas sp. T4 was 125mg/l. [ Conclusion] The experimental results could provide the scientific basis of the reasonable application of glutaraldehyde.

  13. Bacteriostatic mechanisms of plants antimicrobials and their applications in food preservation%植物抗菌剂抑菌机理及其在食品防腐中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓岑; 井晶; 于艳燕; 卢卫红; 王振宇

    2013-01-01

    This review covered recent trends on using plants antimicrobials in food and their functions and mechanisms on controlling food preservation.Bacteriostatic mechanisms of plants antimicrobials,the effect of food ingredients on antimicrobials activities of plants extracts,interactions of several plants extracts and their combinations with other technologies were summarized.In most cases,antimicrobials activities were decreased due to interactions with food ingredients.As the higher concentrations of plants extracts could lead to unfavorable taste and smell of food.The antimicrobials activities of extracts in in-vitro studies were quite different to their activities in food systems.These could be challenges in the utilization of plants antimicrobials.In conclusion,the author suggested that it was important to understand the effects of plants extracts on the behaviours of microbial population in food systems.Furthermore,scientists should conduct more advanced researches on the developments of plants resources and the utilizations of plants antimicrobials in the processing,packing and storage of food.%综述了植物抗菌剂在食品中的应用,控制食品腐败的作用和机理,及其发展趋势.通过总结前人在抑菌作用机理、食品成分对植物提取物的影响、植物提取物间的交互作用和植物提取物与其他技术相结合贮藏食品的研究成果,总结出植物抗菌剂与食品成分的相互作用会使其活性降低;较高的抗菌剂浓度会导致食品味道和香气的改变;体外条件下植物提取物的抗菌活性与其在食品体系中的活性有很大差别等影响植物抗菌剂使用的问题.这需要通过深入研究植物提取物与食品微生态的关系,加大力度开发有效植物资源,植物抗菌剂与食品加工、包装和贮藏技术相结合等才可能得到解决.

  14. 一种鞣酸小檗碱抑菌凝胶的抑菌效果及毒性试验研究%RESEARCH ON BACTERIOSTAT EFFECT AND TOXICITY OF A KIND OF ANTI-BACTERIA GEL WITH BERBERINE TANNATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晓宁; 石映祥; 张喜民; 任一杰; 董锟; 张慧敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the bacteriostatic effect and toxicity of a kind of anti - bacterial gel with Berberine tan-nate. Methods The concussion flask test and animal test were used to observe anti - bacterial effect and toxicity of this gel. Results The bacteriostatic rates of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans exposed to the gel with 33. 2% berberine tannate in concussion flask were 63. 96% ,41. 88% and 34. 28% respectively. All the D -value of bacteriostatic rates between treated and control were more than 26%. The score of irritant response of the rabbits eye for this gel was 0 and the index of colpo - mucous membrane of rabbit was 2. 32. Conclusion This gel with Berberine tannate has certain bacteriostatic effect and has minimal irritation for mucous.%目的 观察一种鞣酸小檗碱抑菌凝胶剂的抑菌效果及其毒性.方法 采用振荡烧瓶试验和动物试验方法,对该抑菌凝胶剂抑菌效果及其毒性进行了实验室观察.结果 含33.2%鞣酸小檗碱的该抑菌凝胶剂在振荡瓶内液体中,对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌和白色念珠菌的抑菌率依次为63.96%、41.88%和34.28%,各实验组抑菌率与阴性对照组抑菌率的差值均>26%.该抑菌凝胶剂对白兔眼刺激反应积分均值均为0,对白兔阴道粘膜刺激指数为2.32.结论 该抑菌凝胶剂有一定抑菌作用,对黏膜有极轻刺激.

  15. Diversity of epiphytic bacteria of three species of Gracilaria and their bacteriostatic activities%三种江蓠共附生细菌多样性及抑菌活性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃媚; 于清武; 竺利波; 李菲; 颜栋美; 余炼; 高程海

    2016-01-01

    Objective]The present study was conducted to explore the diversity of culturable epiphytic bacteria of three species of Gracilaria and bacteriostatic activities of their metabolits in sea area around Weizhoudao Island, Beibu Gulf, Guangxi, in order to provide reference for development of these epiphytic bacteria in the sea area and new biological fungicides. [Method]Dilution coating method was applied to observe colonial morphology and distribution of epiphytic bac-teria of three species of Gracilaria. Diversity of the epiphytic bacteria of Gracilaria was analyzed based on 16S rRNA se-quence and their bacteriostatic activities were screened by disc diffusion method. [Result]Twenty-eight strains were ex-tracted from Gracilaria verrucosa, Gracilaria textorii and Gracilaria glomerata in Beibu Gulf, Guangxi belonged to four subclasses, thirteen families and fifteen genuses(Bacillus sp.; Staphylococcus sp.; Vibrio sp.; Psychrobacter sp.; Al-teromonas sp.;Pseudoalteromonas sp.; Erythrobacter sp.; Paracoccus sp.; Kocuria sp.; Micrococcus sp.; Rhodopirellula sp.; Kytococcus sp.; Dermacoccus sp.; Maribacter sp.; Cobetia sp.). The metabolites of five strains showed obvious an-tagonistic effects against Colletrichum gloeosporiode M2 or C. gloeosporiodes Lz2. Metabolites of strains GXS0044, GXS0017 and GXS0035 showed sound inhibition effects towards C. gloeosporiodes Lz2(antibacterial circle diameters were 15.0, 14.5 and 15.5 mm, respectively). Metabolites of strains GXS0023 and GXS0031 showed obvious inhibition effects towards C. gloeosporiode M2(antibacterial circle diameters were 15.0 and 17.0 mm, respectively). [Conclusion]There are resource-ful epiphytic bacteria of Gracilaria and their metabolites activities are different. Therefore, searching for pathogens that are resistant to agricultural diseases from seaweeds will become a new direction in development of new pathogen fungicides that against agricultural diseases.%【目的】研究广西北部湾涠洲岛海域3种

  16. Inhibitory and bactericidal action of the biocorrosion agents «INCORGAS» and «AMDOR».

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsygankova, L E; Vigdorovich, V I; Esina, M N; Nazina, T N; Dubinskaya, E V

    2014-06-01

    Inhibiting action of A, B and M-X compositions against hydrosulfide corrosion of carbon steel, hydrogen diffusion through the steel membrane has been studied along with their bactericidal effect with respect to sulfate-reducing bacteria of Desulfomicrobium type. Bactericidal properties of the compositions have been studied in the Postgate medium. Corrosion tests have been made in the NACE medium saturated by hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide separately and together by methods of gravimetrical measurements and linear polarization resistance (LRP). Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical diffusion method have been used. Steel protection is determined in the inhibited solutions by combined action of corrosion products film and inhibitor. Presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in medium increases hydrogen diffusion flux through the steel membrane by 2-3 times and essentially stimulates effect of the inhibitors. The inhibiting compositions decrease quantity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by 95-98%. The obtained results testify about predominately bacteriostatic action of the inhibiting compositions, which has influence on the enzymatic systems of SRB cells responsible directly for the sulfate reduction because of substantially decreasing the biogenic hydrogen sulfide concentration in the system.

  17. Investigations to the Antibacterial Mechanism of Action of Kendomycin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser A Elnakady

    Full Text Available The emergence of bacteria that are resistant to many currently used drugs emphasizes the need to discover and develop new antibiotics that are effective against such multi-resistant strains. Kendomycin is a novel polyketide that has a unique quinone methide ansa structure and various biological properties. This compound exhibits strong antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Despite the promise of kendomycinin in several therapeutic areas, its mode of action has yet to be identified.In this study, we used a multidisciplinary approach to gain insight into the antibacterial mechanism of this compound.The antibacterial activity of kendomycin appears to be bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal. Kendomycin inhibited the growth of the MRSA strain COL at a low concentration (MIC of 5 μg/mL. Proteomic analysis and gene transcription profiling of kendomycin-treated cells indicated that this compound affected the regulation of numerous proteins and genes involved in central metabolic pathways, such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle (SdhA and gluconeogenesis (PckA and GapB, cell wall biosynthesis and cell division (FtsA, FtsZ, and MurAA, capsule production (Cap5A and Cap5C, bacterial programmed cell death (LrgA and CidA, the cellular stress response (ClpB, ClpC, ClpP, GroEL, DnaK, and GrpE, and oxidative stress (AhpC and KatA. Electron microscopy revealed that kendomycin strongly affected septum formation during cell division. Most kendomycin-treated cells displayed incomplete septa with abnormal morphology.Kendomycin might directly or indirectly affect the cell division machinery, protein stability, and programmed cell death in S. aureus. Additional studies are still needed to obtain deeper insight into the mode of action of kendomycin.

  18. Bacteriostatic Effect of Different Gargles on Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in Mouth%4种漱口液对铜绿假单胞菌抑制效果的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽丽; 王国权; 何君; 吴琼; 范静

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the bacteriostatic effect of different gargles on pseudomonas aeruginosa in the mouth, and to provide basis for selecting corresponding gargle and improve the quality of oral nursing. Methods Pseudomonas aeruginosa was chosen as the research subject in this experiment, which included experiment groups and the control group. In experiment groups, the 0.5% povidone -iodine solution, 0.02% chlorhexidine acetate solution, compound chlorhexidine mouthwash and 0.1% cetylpyridinium chloride gargle were applied respectively, while in control group, the physiological saline was used. The antibacterial effects of four gargle liquids were observed. Results The antibacterial effects of different mouthwashes indicated statistical differences at different time (P<0.05). The number of viable in experiment groups was significantly lower than that in control group (P<0.05). In the group with the 0.5% povidone-iodine solution, the number of viable was significantly lower than those in groups with other three kinds of mouthwashes (P<0.05). Conclusion Four kinds of gargle liquids in experiment groups all have antibacterial effects on pseudomonas aeruginosa within oral hygiene. Compared with other three, the 0.5% povidone-iodine solution is effective.%目的 探讨4种漱口液对铜绿假单胞菌的抑制效果,为肿瘤放化疗合并口腔铜绿假单胞菌感染患者更有针对性地选择漱口液提供依据.方法 实验以铜绿假单胞菌为研究对象,将其分成实验组和对照组,实验组采用临床常用4种漱口液:0.5%聚维酮碘溶液、0.02%醋酸氯己定溶液、复方氯己定含漱液、0.1%西吡氯铵含漱液,对照组采用生理盐水,观察4种漱口液的抑菌效果.结果 在不同时间点上4种漱口液的抑菌效果均不相同,差异均有统计意义(P<0.05).实验组4种漱口液作用后的活菌数量与对照组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);其中,实验组0.5%聚维酮碘

  19. 壳聚糖-聚乙烯醇复合凝胶基质抑菌性能的研究%Bacteriostatic effect of chitosan-polyving alcohol gel matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李微微; 程岚; 于炜婷; 赵姗; 宋慧一; 吕国军; 谢威扬; 马小军

    2012-01-01

    目的:制备壳聚糖-聚乙烯醇复合凝胶基质,考察不同相对分子质量,不同浓度的壳聚糖对复合凝胶的抗菌抑菌性能的影响.方法:采用一剂量法对不同相对分子质量不同浓度的壳聚糖凝胶、壳聚糖-聚乙烯醇复合凝胶对大肠杆菌的抑菌效果进行比较.结果:随壳聚糖浓度增大对大肠杆菌抑菌效果逐渐增强,随壳聚糖相对分子质量的减小抑菌效果增强,但相对分子质量小于5000时无抑菌圈.结论:明确了壳聚糖相对分子质量和浓度对壳聚糖-聚乙烯醇复合凝胶抗菌抑菌作用的影响.确定壳聚糖-聚乙烯醇复合凝胶中壳聚糖适宜的相对分子质量为60000、浓度为2%.壳聚糖作为一种新的药用材料与聚乙烯醇合用对大肠杆菌具有良好的抑菌作用,为新药开发奠定良好基础.%Objective: To prepare chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol gel matrix, and test the antimicrobial activity of chitosan with different molecular weights at various concentrations. Methods; The bacteriostatic effects of chi-tosan gel of different molecular weights at various concentrations and chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol gel were compared by one dosage technique using E. coli as the test microbial. Results: The antimicrobial activity against E. coli was strengthened with increasing concentrations of chitosan. In contrast, the antimicrolical activity against E. coli became weaker with increasing molecular weights of chitosan. The gel with molecular weight less than 5 000 had no antimicrobial effect. Conclusion; We determined the effects of the concentration and molecular weight of chitosan in chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol gel. The optimal concentration and molecular weight of chitosan in chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol gel are 60 000 and 2%. Chitosan, as a new kind of medicinal materials, combined with poly vinyl alcohol has an antimicrobial effect against E. coli, providing a reference for the development of new drugs.

  20. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  1. Mode of action of lactococcin R produced by Lactococcus lactis R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Zeliha; Yildirim, Metin; Johnson, Michael G

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the mode of action and factors affecting adsorption of lactoccocin R produced by Lactococcus lactis R. It was found that lactococcin R adsorbed to all Gram-positive but not to the Gram-negative bacteria tested and its adsorption was dependent on pH. It was observed that the binding of lactococcin R was prevented by anions of several salts (Cl-, PO4(-3)) and lipoteichoic acid. Pretreatments of sensitive cells and cell walls with detergents, organic solvents or enzymes did not reduce subsequent binding of lactococcin R. However, treatment of cell wall preparations with methanol:chloroform and hot 20% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) caused such walls to lose their ability to adsorb lactococcin R. Sensitive cells treated with lactococcin R lost high amounts of intracellular K+ ions, UV-absorbing materials and became more permeable to o-nitrophenol-beta-D-glactopyranoside (ONPG). In addition, different lactococcin R concentrations (0-2560 AU/mL) decreased the colony counts of Listeria monocytogenes by 99% and also a reduction in the absorbance values. These results show that the mode of action of lactococcin R is bactericidal rather than bacteriostatic.

  2. Andrographolide: antibacterial activity against common bacteria of human health concern and possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Malabika; Parai, Debaprasad; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Mukherjee, Samir Kumar

    2017-01-17

    Increasing bacterial resistance to common drugs is a major public health concern for the treatment of infectious diseases. Certain naturally occurring compounds of plant sources have long been reported to possess potential antimicrobial activity. This study was aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity and possible mechanism of action of andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone from a traditional medicinal herb Andrographis paniculata. Extent of antibacterial action was assessed by minimal bactericidal concentration method. Radiolabeled N-acetyl glucosamine, leucine, thymidine, and uridine were used to determine the effect of Andro on the biosyntheses of cell wall, protein, DNA, and RNA, respectively. In addition, anti-biofilm potential of this compound was also tested. Andro showed potential antibacterial activity against most of the tested Gram-positive bacteria. Among those, Staphylococcus aureus was found to be most sensitive with a minimal inhibitory concentration value of 100 μg/mL. It was found to be bacteriostatic. Specific inhibition of intracellular DNA biosynthesis was observed in a dose-dependent manner in S. aureus. Andro mediated inhibition of biofilm formation by S. aureus was also found. Considering its antimicrobial potency, Andro might be accounted as a promising lead for new antibacterial drug development.

  3. Experimental analysis on bacteriostatic efficacy and toxicity of grape seeds extract in hospital clinically isolated strain%葡萄籽提取物对医院临床分离菌株的抑菌作用及毒性试验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯春婷; 孟姿秀; 孟凡戈; 李志富; 胡作林; 邵伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the bacteriostatic efficacy and toxicity of grape seeds ethanol extract in hospital clini-cally isolated strain. Methods:Clinically isolated strain specimens were used to observe the bacteriostatic efficacy of grape seed ethanol extract via bacterial inhibition zone test and nutrient broth method;and animal test was employed to observe experimentally its toxicity. Results:The diameters of bacterial inhibition zones of clinically isolated microorganism strain and standard microorganism strain exposed to the ethanol containing grape seed crude drug 125 mg/ L were larger than 7 mm. The minimum inhibition concentration( MIC)of grape seed ethanol extract for C albicans was 25. 0 mg/ ml. The mouse acute oral LD50 was above 5000 mg/ kg,the rabbit skin irritation test index of grape seed stock solution was 0. 13, which belonged to mild irritation. Conclusion:Grape seed extract has good bacteriostatic efficacy and it belongs to practi-cally non-toxic class and was slightly irritative to skin.%目的:分析葡萄籽乙醇提取液对医院临床分离菌株的体外抑菌作用和毒性。方法以临床标本分离菌株为对象,采用抑菌环试验和营养肉汤稀释法对其抑菌效果进行了试验观察;采用动物试验对其进行了毒性试验观察。结果含葡萄籽生药125 g/ L 的乙醇提取液对临床分离菌株和标准菌株的抑菌环直径均大于7 mm。葡萄籽乙醇提取物对白色念球菌的最低抑菌浓度(MIC)为25.0 g/ L。小鼠急性经口 LD50值大于5000 mg/ kg,葡萄籽提取原液对家兔皮肤刺激试验指数为0.13,属于轻度刺激性。结论葡萄籽乙醇提取液具有良好的抑菌作用,属无毒、低刺激性物质。

  4. Impulsive action and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the way in which emotions are causal determinants of action. It argues that emotional events, as appraised by the individual, elicit changes in motive states (called states of action readiness), which in turn may (or may not) cause action. Actions can be elicited automatically,

  5. Action Research: Rethinking Lewin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)

  6. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, M.; Ravn, Anders Peter; Sere, K.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time-derivatives in modell......In this paper we investigate the use of action systems with differential actions in the specifcation of hybrid systems. As the main contribution we generalize the definition of a differential action, allowing the use of arbitrary relations over model variables and their time...... parallel composition. Moreover, as the strength of the action system formalism is the support for stepwise development by refinement, we investigate refinement involving a differential action. We show that, due to the predicate transformer semantics, standard action refinement techniques apply also...... to the differential action, thus, allowing stepwise development of hybrid systems Udgivelsesdato: JAN 1...

  7. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  8. DAPs: Deep Action Proposals for Action Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor

    2016-09-17

    Object proposals have contributed significantly to recent advances in object understanding in images. Inspired by the success of this approach, we introduce Deep Action Proposals (DAPs), an effective and efficient algorithm for generating temporal action proposals from long videos. We show how to take advantage of the vast capacity of deep learning models and memory cells to retrieve from untrimmed videos temporal segments, which are likely to contain actions. A comprehensive evaluation indicates that our approach outperforms previous work on a large scale action benchmark, runs at 134 FPS making it practical for large-scale scenarios, and exhibits an appealing ability to generalize, i.e. to retrieve good quality temporal proposals of actions unseen in training.

  9. All in action

    CERN Document Server

    Annila, Arto

    2010-01-01

    The principle of least action provides a holistic worldview in which nature in its entirety and every detail is pictured in terms of actions. Each and every action is ultimately composed of one or multiples of the most elementary action which corresponds to the Planck's constant. Elements of space are closed actions, known as fermions, whereas elements of time are open actions, known as bosons. The actions span energy landscape, the Universe which evolves irreversibly according to the 2nd law of thermodynamics by diminishing density differences in least time. During the step-by-step evolution densely-curled actions unfold by opening up and expelling one or multiple elementary actions to their surrounding sparser space. The manifold's varieties process from one symmetry group to another until the equivalence to their dual, i.e., the surrounding density has been attained. The scale-free physical portrayal of nature does not recognize any fundamental difference between fundamental particles and fundamental force...

  10. Recovery Action Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Recovery Action Mapping Tool is a web map that allows users to visually interact with and query actions that were developed to recover species listed under the...

  11. Various Actions for Pregeometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazawa, H.

    1991-08-01

    Various actions for pregeometry are presented and compared. The ``space-field identity'' which equates the n-beins to the derivatives of fundamental scalars is derived from a simple action but seems to be too restrictive to be practical.

  12. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  13. On Action Theory Change

    OpenAIRE

    Varzinczak, Ivan José

    2014-01-01

    As historically acknowledged in the Reasoning about Actions and Change community, intuitiveness of a logical domain description cannot be fully automated. Moreover, like any other logical theory, action theories may also evolve, and thus knowledge engineers need revision methods to help in accommodating new incoming information about the behavior of actions in an adequate manner. The present work is about changing action domain descriptions in multimodal logic. Its contribution is threefold: ...

  14. Action Theory Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Varzinczak, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Like any other logical theory, domain descriptions in reasoning about actions may evolve, and thus need revision methods to adequately accommodate new information about the behavior of actions. The present work is about changing action domain descriptions in propositional dynamic logic. Its contribution is threefold: first we revisit the semantics of action theory contraction that has been done in previous work, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of dis...

  15. Action and Interactiv research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Svensson, Lennart

    The text is written as a first version of editors introduction to a book about action research/interactive research in Nordic countries. You can read abouttrends and contradictions in the history of action research.The authors question the trends and demands a more explicit critical approach...... to actual action research/interactive research....

  16. Action Research for Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , to innovation policies combining Action Research with gender science. In the second part of the book epistemological and ontological dimensions of Action Research are discussed addressing questions of validity criteria related to Action Research, the transformation of knowledge institutions and the specific...

  17. Conservation Action Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  18. Putting Action in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  19. Understanding affirmative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Faye J; Iyer, Aarti; Sincharoen, Sirinda

    2006-01-01

    Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior.

  20. Differential Equations as Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    We extend a conventional action system with a primitive action consisting of a differential equation and an evolution invariant. The semantics is given by a predicate transformer. The weakest liberal precondition is chosen, because it is not always desirable that steps corresponding to differential...... actions shall terminate. It is shown that the proposed differential action has a semantics which corresponds to a discrete approximation when the discrete step size goes to zero. The extension gives action systems the power to model real-time clocks and continuous evolutions within hybrid systems....

  1. Action Theory Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Varzinczak, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Like any other logical theory, domain descriptions in reasoning about actions may evolve, and thus need revision methods to adequately accommodate new information about the behavior of actions. The present work is about changing action domain descriptions in propositional dynamic logic. Its contribution is threefold: first we revisit the semantics of action theory contraction that has been done in previous work, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of distance between Kripke-models. Second we give algorithms for syntactical action theory contraction and establish their correctness w.r.t. our semantics. Finally we state postulates for action theory contraction and assess the behavior of our operators w.r.t. them. Moreover, we also address the revision counterpart of action theory change, showing that it benefits from our semantics for contraction.

  2. All in Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Annila

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The principle of least action provides a holistic worldview in which Nature in its entirety and every detail is described in terms of actions. Each and every action is ultimately composed of one or multiple of the most elementary actions which relates to Planck’s constant. Elements of space are closed actions, known as fermions, whereas elements of time are open actions, known as bosons. The actions span an energy landscape, the Universe, which evolves irreversibly according to the 2nd law of thermodynamics by diminishing energy density differences in least time. During evolution densely-curled actions unfold step-by-step when opening up and expelling one or multiple elementary actions to their surrounding sparser space. The energy landscape will process from one symmetry group to another until the equivalence to its dual, i.e., the surrounding density has been attained. The scale-free physical portrayal of nature in terms of actions does not recognize any fundamental difference between fundamental particles and fundamental forces. Instead a plethora of particles and a diaspora of forces are perceived merely as diverse manifestations of a natural selection for various mechanisms and ways to decrease free energy in the least time.

  3. Antisymmetric string actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragone, C.

    1986-12-01

    An action is presented for the free bosonic string on external flat space in terms of an antisymmetric second-rank string background tensor which is classically equivalent to the Nambu-Goto action. Both action and field equations are entirely described in terms of 2D world-sheet forms, without any reference to a 2D metric tensor background. The analysis of its canonical formulation shows how the quadratic Virasoro constraints are generated in this case and what their connection with the Bianchi identities are. Since in the orthonormal gauge the reduced action coincides with the standard one, it has the same critical dimension D = 26. The existence of an interaction term of a purely geometric structure stemming in the extrinsic curvature is pointed out. Its action and the new string field equations are then derived. This polynomial antisymmetric string action is uniformly generalized in order to describe d Apartado 80659, Caracas 1080A, Venezuela.

  4. Action in Introductory Physics

    CERN Document Server

    McGinness, Lachlan P

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of classical physics in a first-year university class. Instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics through to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Student learning and misconceptions were studied with quantitative and qualitative techniques. In particular, an action concept inventory was developed through a process of expert consultation and student feedback. Students reported action physics to be accessible, interesting and valuable.

  5. Talk and Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between organizational talk and action. Focusing in particular on the temporal dimension of this relationship, that is, the potential for talk to become action over time, we put forward ideal types of organizational strategies for possible talk......-action relationships. While we illustrate our theoretical points with examples from both corporate and political contexts, we draw especially on the field of corporate social responsibility (as an extreme case) where expectations of consistency between talk and actions are most explicitly pronounced....

  6. Action principles in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.; Tipler, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Physical theories have their most fundamental expression as action integrals. This suggests that the total action of the universe is the most fundamental physical quantity, and hence finite. In this article it is argued that finite universal action implies that the universe is spatially closed. Further, the possible spatial topologies, the types of matter that can dominate the early universe dynamics, and the form of any quadratic additions to the lagrangian of general relativity are constrained. Initial and final cosmological curvature singularities are required to avoid a universal action singularity.

  7. Action principles in nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, J.D.; Tipler, F.J.

    1988-01-07

    Physical theories have their most fundamental expression as action integrals. This suggests that the total action of the Universe is the most fundamental physical quantity, and hence finite. In this article it is argued that finite universal action implies that the Universe is spatially closed. Further, the possible spatial topologies, the types of matter that can dominate the early universe dynamics, and the form of any quadratic additions to the lagrangian of general relativity are constrained. Initial and final cosmological curvature singularities are required to avoid a universal action singularity.

  8. Perception, Action, and Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety of interdi......What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety...

  9. CHAOTIC GROUP ACTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiEnhui; ZhouLizhen; ZhouYoucheng

    2003-01-01

    It is proved that there is no chaotic group actions on any topological space with free arc.In this paper the chaotic actions of the group like G×F,where F is a finite group,are studied.In particular,under a suitable assumption ,if F is a cyclic group,then the topological space which admits a chaotic action of Z×F must admit a chatotic homeomorphism.A topological space which admits a chaotic group action but admits no chaotic horneomorphism is constructed.

  10. Study on the in vitro Bacteriostatic Test of 17 Kinds of Traditional Chinese Herbs against Swine E.coli%18种中药对猪大肠杆菌的体外抑菌活性的测定方法比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊丽; 张要齐; 孙雪峰; 张新蕾; 陈静; 张妍; 张玲

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To compare the results of two in vitro antibacterial tests,and to screen out Chinese herbs with strong bacteriostatic activity and provide foundation for clinical medication and developing Chinese herbal medicine preparations. [Method] The water extracts of 18 kinds of Chinese herbs were prepared by water decoction method and the becteriostatic test in vitro against swine Escherichia coli was determined by tube double dilution method and cup-plate method. [Result] 18 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine showed a certain inhibitory effect in the tube double dilution method,but part of traditional Chinese medicine showed resistance in the plate method. Rheum officinale and Coptis chinensis had the strongest inhibitory effect in two methods,their MIC for Escherichia coli was both 7.82 mg/ml,and MBC values were relatively higher. The inhibition zone diameter was 25.28 and 22. 84 mm. Andrographis paniculata,Anemone chinensis ,Saposhnikovia divaricata,etc. ,bad inhibitory effect. [Conclusion] Different herbal medicines show different bacteriostatic effects against swine E. coli,the results of different determination methods show consistency as well as difference.%[目的]比较2种体外抑菌试验结果,筛选猪大肠杆菌的抑菌中药,为临床用药及开发中兽药制剂提供依据.[方法]采用水煎法制备18种中药水提物,分别通过试管二倍稀释法和管碟法进行体外抑菌试验.[结果]试管二倍稀释法中18种中药均表现出一定的抑菌效果,但管碟法测定部分中药表现出耐药性.2种测定方法中黄连、大黄抑菌效果最强,对猪大肠杆菌的MIC均为7.82 mg/ml,MBC值也相对较高,抑菌圈直径分别为25.28和22.84 mm,而穿心莲、白头翁、防风等抑菌效果相对较差.[结论]不同中药对猪大肠杆菌的抑菌活性不同,采用不同的测定方法所得试验结果既有一致性又有差异性.

  11. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  12. An Action Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Brand, Mark; Iversen, Jørgen; Mosses, Peter David

    2004-01-01

    constructs underlying Core ML. The paper also describes the Action Environment, a new environment supporting use and validation of ASDF descriptions. The Action Environment has been implemented on top of the ASF+SDF Meta-Environment, exploiting recent advances in techniques for integration of different...

  13. Validity in Action Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Karen E.

    Emerging criteria are reported for judging the trustworthiness of action research studies as compared to the criteria established for judging the trustworthiness of other forms of naturalistic inquiry set forth by Y. S. Lincoln and E. Guba (1985). Differing conceptions of the nature of action research are delineated, and their accompanying…

  14. On action theory change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Varzinczak, IJ

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available revisit the semantics of action theory contraction proposed in previous work, giving more robust operators that express minimal change based on a notion of distance between Kripke-models. Second we give algorithms for syntactical action theory contraction...

  15. Action Learning and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Today's leaders perform the following roles: systems thinker, change agent, innovator, servant, polychronic coordinator, teacher-mentor, and visionary. The elements of action learning (real problems, teams, reflective inquiry, commitment to action, focus on learning) contribute to the development of these critical skills. (Author/SK)

  16. Critical Utopian Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birger Steen; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    The specific concept of critical utopian action research is presented and discussed, as to its origin, use and potentials. The inspiration from Robert Jungk and his future creating workshops is elaborated.......The specific concept of critical utopian action research is presented and discussed, as to its origin, use and potentials. The inspiration from Robert Jungk and his future creating workshops is elaborated....

  17. Action Learning in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  18. Renormalized action improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references.

  19. Creativity as action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lubart, Todd; Bonnardel, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The present paper outlines an action theory of creativity and substantiates this approach by investigating creative expression in five different domains. We propose an action framework for the analysis of creative acts built on the assumption that creativity is a relational, inter......-subjective phenomenon. This framework, drawing extensively from the work of Dewey (1934) on art as experience, is used to derive a coding frame for the analysis of interview material. The article reports findings from the analysis of 60 interviews with recognized French creators in five creative domains: art, design......, science, scriptwriting, and music. Results point to complex models of action and inter-action specific for each domain and also to interesting patterns of similarity and differences between domains. These findings highlight the fact that creative action takes place not “inside” individual creators but “in...

  20. Action spectra again?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates

  1. The Evaluation of Teat Dipping Coating Agent for Cow Mastitis Pathogens Bactericidal and Bacteriostatic Test in Vitro%聚维酮碘乳头药浴涂膜剂对奶牛乳房炎致病菌体外抑菌效果评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆民; 冯万宇; 徐馨; 侯美如; 黄健

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand in vitro bacteriostasis effectiveness(MIC and MBC)of the teat dipping coating agent on major pathogens(Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiaeand Streptococcus dysgalactiae)andprovideacertainofscientiifcevidence.Utilizing10timesmicrodilutionmethod, we determine in vitro effectiveness of the teat dipping coating agent on clinical isolates strain of the major cows mastitis. In order to compare bacteriostasis effectiveness of the teat dipping coating agent and antibiotics,we design the control group-ceftiofur and penicillin. The results show that in vitro the agent has signiifcant bacteriostasis effects on four major pathogens of cow mastitis, and the bactericidal and bacteriostatic concentration is lower than ceftiofur and penicillin.%本试验采用10倍稀释法进行了乳头药浴涂膜剂对奶牛乳房炎临床分离菌株(大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、无乳链球菌及停乳链球菌)的体外抑菌效果测定。结果显示,乳头药浴涂膜剂对四种致病菌有良好的体外抑菌和杀菌作用,其抑杀菌浓度低于头孢噻呋和青霉素。

  2. Talk and Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Morsing, Mette; Thyssen, Ole

    of organizational talk and their associated activities, the paper discusses the different ways time shape the relationship between talk and action. Acknowledging that talk gives rise to different expectations over time, we put forward ideal types of organizational strategies for possible talk-action relationships....... While we illustrate our theoretical points with examples from both corporate and political contexts, we draw especially on the field of corporate social responsibility (as an extreme case) where expectations of consistency between talk and actions are most explicitly pronounced....

  3. Actions for Curved Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Abou-Zeid, M

    2000-01-01

    The nondeterminantal forms of the Born-Infeld and related brane actions in which the gauge fields couple to both an induced metric and an intrinsic metric are generalised by letting either or both metrics be dynamical. The resulting actions describe ` brane world' and cosmological scenarios in which the gauge fields are confined to the brane, while gravity propagates in both the world-volume and the bulk. In particular, for actions involving a nonsymmetric ` metric', nonsymmetric gravity propagates on the worldvolume. For 3-branes with a symmetric metric, conformal (Weyl) gravity propagates on the worldvolume and has conformally invariant couplings to the gauge fields.

  4. Violence as Situational Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle H. Treiber

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Violence comes in many forms and occurs in many different circumstances for many different reasons. Is it really possible to develop a single theory that can explain all these disparate acts? In this paper, we argue it is. We make the case that acts of violence are essentially moral actions and therefore can, and should, be analysed and explained as such. We maintain that all acts of violence can be explained within the general framework of a theory of moral action. We present just such a theory – Situational Action Theory – and demonstrate how it can be applied to the explanation and study of violence.

  5. Reasoning about Unreliable Actions

    CERN Document Server

    White, Graham

    2012-01-01

    We analyse the philosopher Davidson's semantics of actions, using a strongly typed logic with contexts given by sets of partial equations between the outcomes of actions. This provides a perspicuous and elegant treatment of reasoning about action, analogous to Reiter's work on artificial intelligence. We define a sequent calculus for this logic, prove cut elimination, and give a semantics based on fibrations over partial cartesian categories: we give a structure theory for such fibrations. The existence of lax comma objects is necessary for the proof of cut elimination, and we give conditions on the domain fibration of a partial cartesian category for such comma objects to exist.

  6. Action Investment Energy Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...... budgets for each player. We ask the question whether for any Player 2 investment there exists a Player 1 investment such that Player 1 wins the resulting energy game. We study the action investment energy game for energy intervals with both upper and lower bounds, and with a lower bound only, and give...... a complexity results overview for the problem of deciding the winner in the game....

  7. Spacelike brane actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koji; Ho, Pei-Ming; Wang, John E

    2003-04-11

    We derive effective actions for "spacelike branes" (S-branes) and find a solution describing the formation of fundamental strings in the rolling tachyon background. The S-brane action is a Dirac-Born-Infeld action for Euclidean world volumes defined in the context of time-dependent tachyon condensation of non-BPS (Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield) branes. It includes gauge fields and, in particular, a scalar field associated with translation along the time direction. We show that the BIon spike solutions constructed in this system correspond to the production of a confined electric flux tube (a fundamental string) at late time of the rolling tachyon.

  8. Existence, release, and antibacterial actions of silver nanoparticles on Ag–PIII TiO2 films with different nanotopographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Qiao, Yuqin; Zhu, Hongqin; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-01-01

    Nanotopographical TiO2 films (including nanorod, nanotip, and nanowire topographies) were successfully fabricated on the metallic Ti surface via hydrothermal treatment and then underwent Ag plasma immersion ion implantation to incorporate Ag with TiO2. The surface morphology, phase component, and chemical composition before and after Ag–PIII were characterized. In view of the potential clinical applications, both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus were used to estimate their antimicrobial effect. The nanostructured TiO2 films on a Ti surface exhibit a better bacteriostatic effect on both microbes compared to the pristine Ti. The nanotopographies of the TiO2 films affect the nucleation, growth, and distribution of Ag nanoparticles in the films during Ag–PIII process. The Ag nanoparticles are completely embedded into the nanorod film while partially exposed out of the nanotip and nanowire films, which account for the significant differences in the release behaviors of Ag ions in vitro. However, no significant difference exists in their antimicrobial activity against both microbes. The antimicrobial actions of the Ag@TiO2 system described here consist of two methods – the contact-killing action and the release-killing action. Nevertheless, based on the observed results, the contact-killing action should be regarded as the main method to destroy microbes for all the Ag plasma-modified TiO2 nanofilms. This study provides insight to optimize the surface design of Ti-based implants to acquire more effective antimicrobial surfaces to meet clinical applications. PMID:25075186

  9. Existence, release, and antibacterial actions of silver nanoparticles on Ag-PIII TiO₂ films with different nanotopographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhua; Qiao, Yuqin; Zhu, Hongqin; Meng, Fanhao; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-01-01

    Nanotopographical TiO₂ films (including nanorod, nanotip, and nanowire topographies) were successfully fabricated on the metallic Ti surface via hydrothermal treatment and then underwent Ag plasma immersion ion implantation to incorporate Ag with TiO₂. The surface morphology, phase component, and chemical composition before and after Ag-PIII were characterized. In view of the potential clinical applications, both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus were used to estimate their antimicrobial effect. The nanostructured TiO₂ films on a Ti surface exhibit a better bacteriostatic effect on both microbes compared to the pristine Ti. The nanotopographies of the TiO₂ films affect the nucleation, growth, and distribution of Ag nanoparticles in the films during Ag-PIII process. The Ag nanoparticles are completely embedded into the nanorod film while partially exposed out of the nanotip and nanowire films, which account for the significant differences in the release behaviors of Ag ions in vitro. However, no significant difference exists in their antimicrobial activity against both microbes. The antimicrobial actions of the Ag@TiO₂ system described here consist of two methods - the contact-killing action and the release-killing action. Nevertheless, based on the observed results, the contact-killing action should be regarded as the main method to destroy microbes for all the Ag plasma-modified TiO₂ nanofilms. This study provides insight to optimize the surface design of Ti-based implants to acquire more effective antimicrobial surfaces to meet clinical applications.

  10. Existence, release, and antibacterial actions of silver nanoparticles on Ag–PIII TiO2 films with different nanotopographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li J

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jinhua Li, Yuqin Qiao, Hongqin Zhu, Fanhao Meng, Xuanyong Liu State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanotopographical TiO2 films (including nanorod, nanotip, and nanowire topographies were successfully fabricated on the metallic Ti surface via hydrothermal treatment and then underwent Ag plasma immersion ion implantation to incorporate Ag with TiO2. The surface morphology, phase component, and chemical composition before and after Ag–PIII were characterized. In view of the potential clinical applications, both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus were used to estimate their antimicrobial effect. The nanostructured TiO2 films on a Ti surface exhibit a better bacteriostatic effect on both microbes compared to the pristine Ti. The nanotopographies of the TiO2 films affect the nucleation, growth, and distribution of Ag nanoparticles in the films during Ag–PIII process. The Ag nanoparticles are completely embedded into the nanorod film while partially exposed out of the nanotip and nanowire films, which account for the significant differences in the release behaviors of Ag ions in vitro. However, no significant difference exists in their antimicrobial activity against both microbes. The antimicrobial actions of the Ag@TiO2 system described here consist of two methods – the contact-killing action and the release-killing action. Nevertheless, based on the observed results, the contact-killing action should be regarded as the main method to destroy microbes for all the Ag plasma-modified TiO2 nanofilms. This study provides insight to optimize the surface design of Ti-based implants to acquire more effective antimicrobial surfaces to meet clinical applications. Keywords: silver, nanoparticles, titania, nanostructure, antibacterial, plasma

  11. Bactericidal Effects and Mechanism of Action of Olanexidine Gluconate, a New Antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagi, Akifumi; Iwata, Koushi; Nii, Takuya; Nakata, Hikaru; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Inoue, Yasuhide

    2015-08-01

    Olanexidine gluconate [1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate] (development code OPB-2045G) is a new monobiguanide compound with bactericidal activity. In this study, we assessed its spectrum of bactericidal activity and mechanism of action. The minimal bactericidal concentrations of the compound for 30-, 60-, and 180-s exposures were determined with the microdilution method using a neutralizer against 320 bacterial strains from culture collections and clinical isolates. Based on the results, the estimated bactericidal olanexidine concentrations with 180-s exposures were 869 μg/ml for Gram-positive cocci (155 strains), 109 μg/ml for Gram-positive bacilli (29 strains), and 434 μg/ml for Gram-negative bacteria (136 strains). Olanexidine was active against a wide range of bacteria, especially Gram-positive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and had a spectrum of bactericidal activity comparable to that of commercial antiseptics, such as chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine. In vitro experiments exploring its mechanism of action indicated that olanexidine (i) interacts with the bacterial surface molecules, such as lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid, (ii) disrupts the cell membranes of liposomes, which are artificial bacterial membrane models, (iii) enhances the membrane permeability of Escherichia coli, (iv) disrupts the membrane integrity of S. aureus, and (v) denatures proteins at relatively high concentrations (≥160 μg/ml). These results indicate that olanexidine probably binds to the cell membrane, disrupts membrane integrity, and its bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects are caused by irreversible leakage of intracellular components. At relatively high concentrations, olanexidine aggregates cells by denaturing proteins. This mechanism differs slightly from that of a similar biguanide compound, chlorhexidine.

  12. Perception, Action, and Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety of interdi......What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety...... of interdisciplinary perspectives, ranging from theoretical discussion of concepts to findings from recent scientific studies. It incorporates contributions from leading philosophers, psychologists, neuroscientists, and an artificial intelligence theorist. The contributions take a range of positions with respect...

  13. Call to Action

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in countries throughout Africa. Countries should take immediate action to decentralise postabortion care, .... used to provide care, specific activities (includ- ing management of .... a dynamic strategy for addressing unsafe abor- tions in diverse ...

  14. NSP Action Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — NSP Action Plans, also known as Substantial Amendments, contain a description of a grantee’s intended use for NSP funds. The plans contain information on the...

  15. Affirmative Action's Contradictory Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Madeline E.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses affirmative action's success at creating a more equal workplace. Explores some potential psychological costs of this policy--costs that paradoxically may undermine its objectives--and their implications for achieving the goal of workplace equality. (GR)

  16. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  17. Normative Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baboroglu, Oguz; Ravn, Ib

    1992-01-01

    /organizational research, the futures perspective implies that knowledge of the social/organizational world must be based upon images of desirable futures, so-called "futures theories", not causal descriptions of a problematic present. Futures theories identify ends and means for individual and organizational development......This paper presents an argument for an enrichment of action research methodology. To the current state of action research, we add a constructivist epistemological argument, as well as a crucial inspiration from some futures-oriented planning approaches. Within the domain of social....... They are generated jointly by the stakeholders of a system and the involved action researchers and are tested every time that the prescriptions for action contained in them are followed by a system's stakeholders....

  18. Normative Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baboroglu, Oguz; Ravn, Ib

    1992-01-01

    /organizational research, the futures perspective implies that knowledge of the social/organizational world must be based upon images of desirable futures, so-called "futures theories", not causal descriptions of a problematic present. Futures theories identify ends and means for individual and organizational development......This paper presents an argument for an enrichment of action research methodology. To the current state of action research, we add a constructivist epistemological argument, as well as a crucial inspiration from some futures-oriented planning approaches. Within the domain of social....... They are generated jointly by the stakeholders of a system and the involved action researchers and are tested every time that the prescriptions for action contained in them are followed by a system's stakeholders....

  19. Introducere in Action Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Søren Witzel

    In these years action learning has become an increasing aspect of qualifying in service training of teachers in Western European countries. In this article the model of action learning which has been developed by teachers at VIA University College and introduced to the teachers at the SCAN...... in service program will be described and the interaction and the learning aspects in the model will be analyzed....

  20. Institutional Logics in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lounsbury, Michael; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This double volume presents state-of-the-art research and thinking on the dynamics of actors and institutional logics. In the introduction, we briefly sketch the roots and branches of institutional logics scholarship before turning to the new buds of research on the topic of how actors engage ins...... prolific stream of research on institutional logics by deepening our insight into the active use of institutional logics in organizational action and interaction, including the institutional effects of such (inter)actions....

  1. Color Blind Affirmative Action

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the consequences of the widespread adoption of race-neutral alternatives' to conventional racial affirmative action policies in college admissions. A simple model of applicant competition with endogenous effort is utilized to show that, in comparison to color-conscious affirmative action, these color-blind alternatives can significantly lower the efficiency of the student selection process in equilibrium. We examine data on matricul...

  2. [Addictions and action systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J

    2000-01-01

    Generalizing from some previous analyses of addiction, and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focussed on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management", we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state". A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strongly significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria, and there were also strong correlations between both groups of variables. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system.

  3. Topological Lattice Actions

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W; Pepe, M; Wiese, U -J

    2010-01-01

    We consider lattice field theories with topological actions, which are invariant against small deformations of the fields. Some of these actions have infinite barriers separating different topological sectors. Topological actions do not have the correct classical continuum limit and they cannot be treated using perturbation theory, but they still yield the correct quantum continuum limit. To show this, we present analytic studies of the 1-d O(2) and O(3) model, as well as Monte Carlo simulations of the 2-d O(3) model using topological lattice actions. Some topological actions obey and others violate a lattice Schwarz inequality between the action and the topological charge $Q$. Irrespective of this, in the 2-d O(3) model the topological susceptibility $\\chi_t = \\l/V$ is logarithmically divergent in the continuum limit. Still, at non-zero distance the correlator of the topological charge density has a finite continuum limit which is consistent with analytic predictions. Our study shows explicitly that some cla...

  4. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 2-Year-Old What's an Asthma Action Plan? KidsHealth > For Parents > What's an Asthma Action Plan? ... normal everyday activities without having asthma symptoms. Action Plans Are Unique Each person's experience with asthma is ...

  5. 洗洁精抗菌效果比较%Comparison of Antibacterial Action of Two Detergents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江贵波; 吴练彬; 郑元滨

    2012-01-01

    采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取艾草和三裂叶蟛蜞菊地上部分的挥发油,研究了它们的挥发油和自制洗洁精复配制成的天然植物性抗菌洗洁精与市售洗洁精抑茵效果.结果表明,添加挥发油的天然植物性抗菌洗洁精比市售白猫洗洁精抑菌效果好,含挥发油的天然植物性抗菌洗洁精具有很好的开发和实用价值.%Volatile oils of plants generally have antibacterial effect. Volatile oil, extracted from the shoot of Artemisia lavandulaefolia DC.Prodr., and Wedelia trilobata L. by steam distillation, were compounded with homemade detergent, producing the natural vegetality-based washing detergent. Afterwards, a test was made on the sterilization effect of natural vegetality-based washing detergent and detergent on the market. The results show that the former is superior to the latter in term of bacteriostatic action. Therefore, vegetality-based washing detergent has great potential for commercial use, research, development because of its high practical value.

  6. Introducing Actions into Qualitative Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    include the effects of actions to form action-augmented envisionments . The action-augmented envisionment incorporates both the effects of an agent’s...procedure generation than any previous representation . This paper defines action- augmented envisionments and an algorithm for directly computing...Moving actions into the physics . The next section introduces a new representation, the action-augmented envisionment (or .fie), which inte- grates the

  7. Classifying Facial Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  8. Rethinking therapeutic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Glen O; Westen, Drew

    2003-08-01

    Like other core psychoanalytic constructs, the theory of therapeutic action is currently in flux, as theorists of differing persuasions propose different mechanisms. In this article, the authors attempt to integrate developments within and without psychoanalysis to provide a working model of the multifaceted processes involved in producing change in psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy. A theory of therapeutic action must describe both what changes (the aims of treatment) and what strategies are likely to be useful in facilitating those changes (technique). The authors believe that single-mechanism theories of therapeutic action, no matter how complex, are unlikely to prove useful at this point because of the variety of targets of change and the variety of methods useful in effecting change in those targets (such as techniques aimed at altering different kinds of conscious and unconscious processes). Interventions that facilitate change may be classified into one of three categories: those that foster insight, those that make use of various mutative aspects of the treatment relationship and a variety of secondary strategies that can be of tremendous importance. They propose that, in all forms of psychoanalytic treatment, we would be more accurate to speak of the therapeutic actions, rather than action.

  9. Immigration Enforcement Actions - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  10. Human Actions Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Caglio, Agnese; Jensen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    projects, it remains a challenge to investigate in detail how people interact with all of their body. Analysis of full-body movement is time consuming, notation techniques are rare, and findings are difficult to share between members of a design team. In this paper we propose tangible video analysis......, a method developed to engage people from different backgrounds in collaboratively analysing videos with the help of physical objects. We will present one of these tools, Action Scrabble, for analysing temporal organisation of human actions. We work with a case of skilled forklift truck driving....... By backtracking our design research experiments, we will unfold how and why the tangible tool succeeds in engaging designers with varied analysis experience to collaboratively focus on human action structures – and even find video analysis fun!...

  11. Theater and action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofteng, Ditte Maria Børglum; Husted, Mia

    2011-01-01

    difficulties reaching the public agenda or influencing structures of power. In this article we follow the creation of a play and of scenes that address the life, sufferings, and wishes of unemployed people. The skills of actors, writers, and producers are worked into a critical utopian action research project...... and used to highlight and enlarge both critique and dreams in life outside the labor market. The article also discusses some of the reactions the plays received and the formation of knowledge linked to these processes.......Action research on marginalization and exclusion often seeks to examine relations between recognition, respect, and inclusion, but addressing these topics is difficult. Theatre-based action research opens up a new way to communicate and make visible knowledge and experiences from below that have...

  12. Sustainability and Entrepreneurial Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Anderson, Alistair

    Abstract Objectives - This paper explores how entrepreneurial action can lead to environmental sustainability. It builds on the assumption that the creation of sustainble practices is one of the most important challenges facing the global society, and that entrepreneurial action is a vital...... instrument in the pursuit of sustainability.  Prior Work - Extant literature identifies two main approaches to sustainable entrepreneurship. (i) traditional exploitation of environmentally relevant opportunities and (ii) institutional entrepreneurship creating opportunities. We identify a novel form......: resource oriented sustainable entrepreneurial action.  Approach - The paper uses a case study approach to build deeper theoretical knowledge of environmentally sustainable entrepreneurship.  Results - The paper identifies and analyses a distinct form of sustainable entrepreneurship -  resource oriented...

  13. THE ACTION RESEARCH METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre GEORGIEVSKI

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available The effort in this work to elaborate an action research method as a central research problem considering the recent contemporary sociological and educa­tional literature. The author begins with the statement that the method is a complex notion, composed of three main components: approach to the research problem, data gathering procedures and data analysis procedures. This point of view is further applied and elaborated in the author's text, emphasizing the action research characteristics: interruption with the positive tradition in social research and the divided of the objective and subjective, application of the qualitative data. The sub­stantial difference between the action research in regard with the other kinds of research, is not only in getting to new knowledge's, but also in problem solving or a change in the situation in a concrete social context.

  14. Knowledge into Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Thorup

    between health knowledge and individual action. The book investigates what political rationality characterizes this new ambition in public health policies to put knowledge into action in the hands of individual citizens and how these policies adapt to the continuous experience that citizens often do...... not listen. Based on a Foucauldian framework, the genealogy demonstrates the new governmentality in Danish and American public health policy, which depends upon a specific politics of truth. Not only does public health policy build on a large amount of scientific knowledge. It also demands a change...... in the production and circulation of health knowledge, which attempts to replace the usual 'ifs, buts and maybes' of medical science with an action-minded public health knowledge just telling people what to do....

  15. Multimodal responsive action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae

    While a first pair part projects a limited set of second pair parts to be provided next, responders select different types and formats for second pair parts to assemble activities (Schegloff 2007). Accordingly, various ways of shaping responses have been extensively studied (e.g. Pomerantz 1984......; Raymond 2003; Schegloff and Lerner 2009), including those with multimodal actions (e.g. Olsher 2004; Fasulo & Monzoni 2009). Some responsive actions can also be completed with bodily behavior alone, such as: when an agreement display is achieved by using only nonvocal actions (Jarmon 1996), when...... both verbal and body-behavioral elements. This paper explores one such situation in professional-client interaction, during the event of evaluating a service outcome in a haircutting session. In general, a haircutting session is brought to its closure through the service-assessment sequence, in which...

  16. Controversies on affirmative action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Affirmative action was launched by American presidents J.F. Kennedy and L.B. Johnson, yet by ironic historical accident it attained its greatest expansion and most radical form during R. Nixon’s conservative administration. Affirmative action was originally a government programme aimed at improving the social position of Afro-Americans, mostly in the sphere of employment and education, as a kind of compensation for racial discrimination, and also other forms of social injustice suffered by minority and underprivileged groups. Its goal was to increase the proportion of Afro-Americans, and later members of other minorities, as well as women, in higher education institutions and in various types of employment. It was supported by many social researchers and activists. Law courts, namely their verdicts and explanations in the case of precedents, had an especially important role in the debate on affirmative action. Political conservatives attacked various affirmative action programmes (especially preferential enrolment quotas for minority students, basing their criticism on the American constitutional principles on equal rights for every citizen. Market conservatives, furthermore, claimed that the government’s policy of racial preference brought into question the very basis of the capital system (competition and at the same time was not in the interest of the Afro-American working class. Namely, the social strata that profited most was the relatively affluent segment of the Afro-American community, which only increased economic and social differences within the latter. Recently the debate on affirmative action in the US has not been limited only to two opposing sides (liberals and conservatives. More and more scientists and other participants have recognised the negative aspects and also the failures of affirmative action, while at the same time refuting conservative opinions and goals.

  17. Improvisation in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of extemporaneous action and bricolage in designing and implementing information systems in organizations. We report a longitudinal field study of design and implementation of a Web-based groupware application in a multinational corporation. We adopt a sensemaking...... perspective to analyze the dynamics of this process and show that improvisational action and bricolage (making do with the materials at hand) played a vital role in the development of the application. Finally, we suggest that this case study provides an occasion to reconsider how we conceptualize information...

  18. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Dani...... cases: Hafnia case (investment prospectus), and Danish Eternit (roof elements) where the existence of Danish provisions on class actions might have made a difference, and the article also deals with the delicate questions of opt-in and opt-out....

  19. Characterizations of proper actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biller, Harald

    2004-03-01

    Three kinds of proper actions of increasing strength are defined. We prove that the three definitions specialize to the definitions by Bourbaki, by Palais and by Baum, Connes and Higson in their respective settings. The third of these, which thus turns out to be the strongest, originally only concerns actions of second countable locally compact groups on metrizable spaces. In this situation, it is shown to coincide with the other two definitions if the total space locally has the Lindelöf property and the orbit space is regular.

  20. Action Programming Languages

    CERN Document Server

    Thielscher, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Artificial systems that think and behave intelligently are one of the most exciting and challenging goals of Artificial Intelligence. Action Programming is the art and science of devising high-level control strategies for autonomous systems which employ a mental model of their environment and which reason about their actions as a means to achieve their goals. Applications of this programming paradigm include autonomous software agents, mobile robots with high-level reasoning capabilities, and General Game Playing. These lecture notes give an in-depth introduction to the current state-of-the-ar

  1. 湿润烧伤膏联合阴道抑菌吸附器对宫颈Leep刀锥切术后创面愈合的影响%Effect of MEBO Combined with Vaginal Bacteriostatic Adsorber on Wound Healing after Cervi-cal Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建平; 李娟

    2014-01-01

    【目的】探讨宫颈病变行 Leep刀锥切术后采用云南白药+湿润烧伤膏+阴道吸附器促进创面愈合的临床疗效。【方法】回顾性分析2012年8月至2014年3月在吐鲁番地区中心医院妇科确诊为宫颈上皮内瘤变(CIN)行 Leep刀锥切术的120例患者临床资料。其中60例术后采用云南白药+湿润烧伤膏+阴道抑菌吸附器治疗(观察组),并与另60例术后只采用纱布压迫创面治疗者(对照组)的临床疗效进行比较。【结果】观察组术后阴道排液时间、脱痂出血时间、腰腹酸胀时间均短于对照组,而早期(<4周)创面愈合率高于对照组;创面感染、颈管粘连发生率低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05)。【结论】宫颈 Leep刀术后采用云南白药+湿润烧伤膏+阴道抑菌吸附器可明显减轻患者的术后并发症,术后患者恢复更快,具有重要的临床应用价值。%[Objective]To explore clinical efficacy of Yunnanbaiyao powder plus MEBO combined with va-ginal adsorber for promoting wound healing after cervical loop electrosurgical excision procedure (Leep ).[Methods]Clinical data of 120 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia(CIN)undergoing Leep in central hospital of the Turfan Basin from Aug.2012 to March 2014 were analyzed retrospectively.Among them,60 patients were given Yunnanbaiyao powder,MEBO and vaginal bacteriostatic adsorber(observation group),and other 60 patients were only given gauze oppression wound treatment(control group).Clinical efficacy between two groups was compared.[Results]The time of postoperative vaginal drainage,scab bleeding and acid bilges of waist in observation group were shorter than those in control group,but wound healing rate at early stage (less than 4 weeks)in observation group was higher than that in control group.The incidence of wound infec-tion and uterine neck adhesions in observational group was lower than

  2. China’s Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China’s National Development and Reform Commission publicized the country’s policies and actions for addressing climate change in a report released on November 26,2009.The report highlighted China’s efforts in cutting greenhouse gas emissions in 2009 by

  3. CANEGROWERS Action Research Toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, R.H.; Brouwer, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This toolkit contains a selection of tools to conduct action research, organized around four phases: Identify problems and possibilities; Analyze problems and possibilities; Search for solutions; and Reflection tools. The toolkit is customized for staff of Canegrowers in South Africa, who used the t

  4. Hope for Environmental Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Barbara J.; DeMoor, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Environmental consciousness-raising programs tend to emphasize the magnitude of imminent ecological disasters, if humans continue on their current trajectory. While these environmental literacy programs also call for action to avoid cataclysmic ecological changes, psychological research on "learned helplessness" suggests that information…

  5. Sustainability as Moral Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  6. Reconnecting Actions and Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Ludvigsen, Martin; Krogh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a brief critique of the current approach to the design of pervasive computing artifacts; claiming that this in itself promotes solutions that prevent end-users from accessing and understanding the consequences of their actions in terms of energy sustainability, specifical...

  7. Duality symmetric actions

    CERN Document Server

    Schwarz, J H; Schwarz, John H.; Sen, Ashoke

    1994-01-01

    It is frequently useful to construct dual descriptions of theories containing antisymmetric tensor fields by introducing a new potential whose curl gives the dual field strength, thereby interchanging field equations with Bianchi identities. We describe a general procedure for constructing actions containing both potentials at the same time, such that the dual relationship of the field strengths arises as an equation of motion. The price for doing this is the sacrifice of manifest Lorentz invariance or general coordinate invariance, though both symmetries can be realized nonetheless. There are various examples of global symmetries that have been realized as symmetries of field equations but not actions. These can be elevated to symmetries of the action by our method. The main example that we focus on is the low-energy effective action description of the heterotic string theory compactified on a six-torus to four dimensions. We show that the SL(2,R) symmetry, whose SL(2,Z) subgroup has been conjectured to be a...

  8. The Shape of Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard, Bridgette Martin; Recchia, Gabriel; Tversky, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How do people understand the everyday, yet intricate, behaviors that unfold around them? In the present research, we explored this by presenting viewers with self-paced slideshows of everyday activities and recording looking times, subjective segmentation (breakpoints) into action units, and slide-to-slide physical change. A detailed comparison of…

  9. Angels in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Xanthippi Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of the placement of action lines to show the direction of movement. The author shows some visuals of angels and discusses in details the texture of the wings, the hair and the clothing.

  10. Affirmative Action Fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Race-conscious affirmative action in higher education survived a close challenge in 2003 when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that race was a valid academic admission criteria in the "Grutter v. Bollinger" case. Two years later, a number of "pipeline" programs to help under-represented minorities gain admission to and complete graduate school have…

  11. Affirmative Action for Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2005-01-01

    If colleges are willing to consider "social engineering" and affirmative action to ensure the inclusion of White men, are they willing to do so for African Americans and other people of color? Will the Center for Individual Rights ride to the rescue of the White women who may be unfairly nudged out of positions for which they are "qualified" in…

  12. Being observed magnifies action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinmetz, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411851675; Xu, Q.; Fishbach, A.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that people, when observed, perceive their actions as more substantial because they add the audience’s perspective to their own perspective. We find that participants who were observed while eating (Study 1) or learned they were observed after eating (Study 2) recalled eating

  13. Classroom Assessment in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermis, Mark D.; DiVesta, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    "Classroom Assessment in Action" clarifies the multi-faceted roles of measurement and assessment and their applications in a classroom setting. Comprehensive in scope, Shermis and Di Vesta explain basic measurement concepts and show students how to interpret the results of standardized tests. From these basic concepts, the authors then…

  14. Cognitive framing in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition.

  15. Collective Action under Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    Collective action in the form of industrial conflict has declined dramatically since the high tide in the 1970s in Europe. This article argues that this decline is the result of significant changes in both economic and institutional factors, influencing the calculations of employees and of their ...

  16. Classroom Assessment in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermis, Mark D.; DiVesta, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    "Classroom Assessment in Action" clarifies the multi-faceted roles of measurement and assessment and their applications in a classroom setting. Comprehensive in scope, Shermis and Di Vesta explain basic measurement concepts and show students how to interpret the results of standardized tests. From these basic concepts, the authors then…

  17. Sensemaking from Actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Rekom (Johan); C.B.M. van Riel (Cees); B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis study presents a method to establish empirically what drives organization members in their day-to-day behavior. The method starts from the sense employees make of their own actions. The approach consists of two steps: qualitative laddering interviews to determine the most central me

  18. CANEGROWERS Action Research Toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, R.H.; Brouwer, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This toolkit contains a selection of tools to conduct action research, organized around four phases: Identify problems and possibilities; Analyze problems and possibilities; Search for solutions; and Reflection tools. The toolkit is customized for staff of Canegrowers in South Africa, who used the

  19. The Body in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2008-01-01

    This article is about how to describe an agent's awareness of her bodily movements when she is aware of executing an action for a reason. Against current orthodoxy, I want to defend the claim that the agent's experience of moving has an epistemic place in the agent's awareness of her own intentio...

  20. Reconnecting Actions and Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Martin; Krogh, Peter; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a brief critique of the current approach to the design of pervasive computing artifacts; claiming that this in itself promotes solutions that prevent end-users from accessing and understanding the consequences of their actions in terms of energy sustainability, specifically...

  1. Justifying Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helskog, Guro Hansen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I use a general philosophy of science perspective in looking at the problem of justifying action research. First I try to clarify the concept of justification, by contrasting it with the concept of validity, which seems to be used almost as a synonym in some parts of the literature. I discuss the need for taking a stand in relation…

  2. The Constitution in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

  3. Learning Action Models: Qualitative Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolander, T.; Gierasimczuk, N.; van der Hoek, W.; Holliday, W.H.; Wang, W.-F.

    2015-01-01

    In dynamic epistemic logic, actions are described using action models. In this paper we introduce a framework for studying learnability of action models from observations. We present first results concerning propositional action models. First we check two basic learnability criteria: finite

  4. Partial Actions and Power Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Ávila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a partial action (X,α with enveloping action (T,β. In this work we extend α to a partial action on the ring (P(X,Δ,∩ and find its enveloping action (E,β. Finally, we introduce the concept of partial action of finite type to investigate the relationship between (E,β and (P(T,β.

  5. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia...... by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to renew itself without eroding its own foundation of existence, it argues that since sustainability cannot be invented but only supported (or eroded) by science, we need to reframe science in the role of sustaining sustain-ability. Through analyses of a three year action research programme, aiming...

  6. Knowledge into Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Thorup

    In the 1970s, most Western nations began to shift the emphasis of health care provision from treatment to prevention. While originally motivated by the rise of lifestyle diseases, the emergence of the new public health policy mainly involves a new way to understand and structure the relationship...... between health knowledge and individual action. The book investigates what political rationality characterizes this new ambition in public health policies to put knowledge into action in the hands of individual citizens and how these policies adapt to the continuous experience that citizens often do...... not listen. Based on a Foucauldian framework, the genealogy demonstrates the new governmentality in Danish and American public health policy, which depends upon a specific politics of truth. Not only does public health policy build on a large amount of scientific knowledge. It also demands a change...

  7. From Knowledge to Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmar, Ulf; Møller, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    of a greater process of bringing knowledge to action, encompassing the social and organisational contexts of research utilisation. The article concludes by stating that knowledge portals have the potential to be effective instruments in knowledge-to-action processes. The two main challenges, however......In recent years, focus has been on the utilisation of research-based knowledge and evidence in social work policy and practice in order to make it more effective. A part of this process has been the launch of knowledge portals to make use of knowledge from research. In this article, we investigate...... how knowledge portals about vulnerable children and youth present knowledge and evidence, and how they try to work as ?knowledge brokers? or intermediaries of evidence. We argue that knowledge portals are not merely channels for dissemination of knowledge. Knowledge portals could be considered as part...

  8. Mathematics in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    December 2004-November 2007 Denmark, Hungary, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain have cooperated in the project Mathematics in Action (MiA). The MiA project is supported by the Grundtvig action in the Socrates program of the European Commission. The aim of the project...... education.  Chapter 3 enlightens some relevant theory for MiA on what it means to be numerate, on learning in practice and on adult education, on transfer of knowledge and on six steps in problem solving. Here you will also find the MiA research questions on adults' learning, on teaching and on the role......A research questions and discusses implications for professional development for teachers in adult mathematics education....

  9. INFORM'ACTION

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    INFORM’ACTION Commission ! It’s all in the title ! At a time when one of the keywords is COMMUNICATE, the Staff Association has a duty to take it seriously. This is why, among other reasons, the youngest of the Staff Association internal commissions was created in 20005. As its name indicates, this commission is responsible for INFORMING, TRAINING (FORMER) and organizing ACTIONs. INFORMING : The members of this commission endeavour to work using all imaginable and known channels of information: articles, emails, alerts, posters, web site, organizing meetings, distributing flyers, banners, videos, etc. In 2009 a new web site (http://cern.ch/association) was put on line.   Since then this site has been continually updated to provide information regarding the latest news in the social domain (Pension Fund, CHIS, 5YR), and also special offers for our members, club news, and social and cultural activities. In 2009 and 2010, the Staff Association notice boards were ...

  10. Action Type Deontic Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Martin Mose

    2014-01-01

    A new deontic logic, Action Type Deontic Logic, is presented. To motivate this logic, a number of benchmark cases are shown, representing inferences a deontic logic should validate. Some of the benchmark cases are singled out for further comments and some formal approaches to deontic reasoning ar...... the benchmarks. Finally, possibilities for further research are indicated. In the appendix, decidability of the satisfiability of formulas is proved via a technique known from monadic First Order Logic....

  11. Students in Action Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Theresa; Mottiar, Ziene; Quinn, Bernadette; Gorman, Catherine; Griffin, Kevin; Craggs, Ruth; Quinn, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    The Students in Action Project in the School of Hospitality Management and Tourism was established in 2012 as a way of engaging students and working with stakeholders in a destination. The overall aim of the project was to immerse students in an active collaborative learning environment within the destination to identify ways in which tourism could be enhanced. In the 2014/2015 academic year the project involved over 300 students from a variety of programmes and modules working with local sta...

  12. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  13. Archetypes as action patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology.

  14. Finding minimal action sequences with a simple evaluation of actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashvin eShah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Animals are able to discover the minimal number of actions that achieves an outcome (the minimal action sequence. In most accounts of this, actions are associated with a measure of behavior that is higher for actions that lead to the outcome with a shorter action sequence, and learning mechanisms find the actions associated with the highest measure. In this sense, previous accounts focus on more than the simple binary signal of ``was the outcome achieved?''; they focus on ``how well was the outcome achieved?'' However, such mechanisms may not govern all types of behavioral development. In particular, in the process of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006, actions are reinforced if they simply lead to a salient outcome because biological reinforcement signals occur too quickly to evaluate the consequences of an action beyond an indication of the outcome's occurrence. Thus, action discovery mechanisms focus on the simple evaluation of ``was the outcome achieved?'' and not ``how well was the outcome achieved?'' Notwithstanding this impoverishment of information, can the process of action discovery find the minimal action sequence? We address this question by implementing computational mechanisms, referred to in this paper as no-cost learning rules, in which each action that leads to the outcome is associated with the same measure of behavior. No-cost rules focus on ``was the outcome achieved?'' and are consistent with action discovery. No-cost rules discover the minimal action sequence in simulated tasks and execute it for a substantial amount of time. Extensive training, however, results in extraneous actions, suggesting that a separate process (which has been proposed in action discovery must attenuate learning if no-cost rules participate in behavioral development. We describe how no-cost rules develop behavior, what happens when attenuation is disrupted, and relate the new mechanisms to wider computational and biological context.

  15. Learning Actions Models: Qualitative Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Gierasimczuk, Nina

    2015-01-01

    —they are identifiable in the limit.We then move on to a particular learning method, which proceeds via restriction of a space of events within a learning-specific action model. This way of learning closely resembles the well-known update method from dynamic epistemic logic. We introduce several different learning......In dynamic epistemic logic, actions are described using action models. In this paper we introduce a framework for studying learnability of action models from observations. We present first results concerning propositional action models. First we check two basic learnability criteria: finite...... identifiability (conclusively inferring the appropriate action model in finite time) and identifiability in the limit (inconclusive convergence to the right action model). We show that deterministic actions are finitely identifiable, while non-deterministic actions require more learning power...

  16. What good are actions? Accelerating learning using learned action priors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The computational complexity of learning in sequential decision problems grows exponentially with the number of actions available to the agent at each state. We present a method for accelerating this process by learning action priors that express...

  17. Rethinking actions: implementation and association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Lorna C; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    Action processing allows us to move through and interact with the world, as well as understand the movements performed by other people. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the semantics of actions as differentiated from the semantics of objects. However, as the understanding of action semantics has evolved, it is evident that the existing literature conflates two senses of the word 'action'-one that stems from studies of tool use and the other from event representation. In this paper, we suggest that this issue can be clarified by closely examining differences in how the human parietal and temporal cortices of the brain process action-related stimuli. By contrasting the posterior parietal cortex to the posterolateral temporal cortex, we characterize two complementary action systems in the human brain, each with its own specialization of function. We suggest that these two systems be referred to as the parietal Action Implementation System, and the posterolateral temporal Action Association System. While the frontoparietal system is concerned primarily with how we perform actions, and simulate others' actions, the temporal action system is more involved with processing actions from a third-person, conceptual standpoint. Recent work in cognitive neuroscience of perception and language, as well as the neuroanatomical organization of these brain regions support this distinction. We will discuss the implications of this work for cognition-, language-, and neuroscience-based action research. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Brane actions and string dualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyras, E; Lozano, Y; Ceresole, A; Kounnas, C; Lust, D; Theisen, S

    1999-01-01

    An effective action for the M9-brane is proposed. We study its relation with other branes via dualities. Among these, we find actions for branes which are not suggested by the central charges of the Type II superalgebras.

  19. Digital computers in action

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, A D

    1965-01-01

    Digital Computers in Action is an introduction to the basics of digital computers as well as their programming and various applications in fields such as mathematics, science, engineering, economics, medicine, and law. Other topics include engineering automation, process control, special purpose games-playing devices, machine translation and mechanized linguistics, and information retrieval. This book consists of 14 chapters and begins by discussing the history of computers, from the idea of performing complex arithmetical calculations to the emergence of a modern view of the structure of a ge

  20. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    by analysing processes of social learning. The book addresses the need to move towards sustainability at societal level as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By conceptualising sustain-ability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously...... to provide local citizens with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, this book shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia...

  1. Action Research for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egmose, Jonas

    on urban sustainability the need to move towards sustainability at societal level is conceptualised as a democratic challenge questioning the way we live on planet earth. By understanding sustainability as an immanent and emergent ability of ecological and social life, continuously to renew itself without...... with a greater say in the future of urban sustainability research, the work shows how action research can make important methodological contributions to processes of social learning between citizens and scientists by enabling free spaces in peoples everyday life and within academia, where aspects...

  2. Complexity Equals Action

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adam R; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We conjecture that the quantum complexity of a holographic state is dual to the action of a certain spacetime region that we call a Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We illustrate and test the conjecture in the context of neutral, charged, and rotating black holes in AdS, as well as black holes perturbed with static shells and with shock waves. This conjecture evolved from a previous conjecture that complexity is dual to spatial volume, but appears to be a major improvement over the original. In light of our results, we discuss the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  3. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  4. ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BACTERIOSTATIC ACTIVITY OF TAGETES SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya, R.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Present study was carried out to investigate the antimicrobial effect of ethanolic extracts of leaves and flowers of Tagetes erecta Linn and Tagetes patula Linn. After performing preliminary phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography, antimicrobial efficacy of the extracts was evaluated through agar well diffusion method using the bacterial species, viz Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The study has demonstrated highest anti-bacterial activity of the flower extract of T. erecta among all the four extracts tested.

  5. Bacteriostatic effect of simvastatin on selected oral streptococci in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene J Whitaker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context and Objective: Simvastatin is a widely used cholesterol-lowering drug, which has been found to have a number of pleiotropic effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of simvastatin against selected oral streptococci as determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. Methods: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus anginosus, and Streptococcus salivarius were the test microorganisms. The serial dilution method was used to determine the MIC of simvastatin against these organisms. The MIC was defined as the lowest concentration of simvastatin that completely inhibited growth of the test organisms. Results: The data indicate that simvastatin inhibits the growth of the test organisms, with MIC's ranging from 7.8 to 15.6 μg/ml. Conclusions: Simvastatin has MIC's against the selected bacteria that compare favorably with reported values for topical agents such as essential oil, chlorhexidine gluconate, and triclosan. The levels of simvastatin required to inhibit bacterial growth of oral bacteria exceed the reported levels of the drug found in plasma or crevicular fluid of patients who are treated with this cholesterol-lowering drug. However, clinical studies are warranted to investigate the potential use of simvastatin as a novel antiplaque agent that could be used in local drug delivery to the oral cavity of those patients who are prescribed this cholesterol-lowering drug.

  6. Isolation and Identification of a Bacillus Strain with Bacteriostatic Ability and Detection on Its Characters of Producing Bacteriocin%一株抑菌芽胞杆菌的分离鉴定及产细菌素性能检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛国芹; 徐海燕; 武香玉; 汪孟娟; 谢全喜; 谷巍

    2012-01-01

    A strain BX-6 with good bacteriostatic activity was isolated from fresh chicken manure by routine microbiological method. Based on the means of colony morphological characteristics, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence phylogeny analysis, the strain was identified and classified. And the antimicrobial characters of bacteriocin produced by BX-6 was detected by cylinder-plate method. The results showed that strain BX-6 was identified as Bacillus subtilis. Some antibacterial substance of H202 was produced in the fermentation process of BX-6. The bacteriocin had a good thermal stability,pH tolerance and it was sensitive to most proteases. And it had better antibacterial effects on Salmonella pullorum C79-13 ,chicken Escherichia coil O1 and Staphylococcus aureus C56011. So it had the potential to be used as feed additive of livestock and poultry.%采用常规微生物学方法从新鲜鸡粪中分离得到1株抑菌效果较好的菌株BX-6。结合菌落形态特征、生理生化特性及菌株特异性序列分析等手段,确定其分类归属,并采用管碟法对所产细菌素的抑菌特性进行了检测。结果表明,菌株BX-6为枯草芽胞杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)。菌株在发酵过程中产生一定量的H2O2类抑菌物质,其所产细菌素具有较好的热稳定性、pH值耐受性,对大部分蛋白酶敏感,对鸡白痢沙门氏菌C79—13、鸡大肠杆菌01和金黄色葡萄球菌C56011有较好的抑菌效果,具有作为畜禽饲料添加剂的潜力。

  7. Action Research: Some basic issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2003-01-01

    The article introduces the main characteristica of action research as well as its origin. In addition the epistmological criteria are presented and discussed. Finally power relationships and ethical concerns are reflected in relation to the practice of action research.......The article introduces the main characteristica of action research as well as its origin. In addition the epistmological criteria are presented and discussed. Finally power relationships and ethical concerns are reflected in relation to the practice of action research....

  8. Action Research and Interactive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, lennart; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2006-01-01

    The authors present trends in Nordic action research. They ask critical questions in the development towards mode 2 and points out alternative roads for a scientific consolidation of action research and interactive research.......The authors present trends in Nordic action research. They ask critical questions in the development towards mode 2 and points out alternative roads for a scientific consolidation of action research and interactive research....

  9. Action Research and Interactive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, lennart; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2006-01-01

    The authors present trends in Nordic action research. They ask critical questions in the development towards mode 2 and points out alternative roads for a scientific consolidation of action research and interactive research.......The authors present trends in Nordic action research. They ask critical questions in the development towards mode 2 and points out alternative roads for a scientific consolidation of action research and interactive research....

  10. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    CERN Document Server

    McGinness, Lachlan P

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multi-stage iterative development cycle for incorporating expert and student feedback into successive revisions of the ACI. The student feedback, including think-aloud interviews, enabled us to identify their misconceptions about action physics.

  11. 76 FR 80847 - Enforcement Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... into compliance before an enforcement action is taken by the Chair. Voluntary compliance is the goal of... existing compliance issues. The amendment retains the Chair's authority to issue an enforcement action at... compliance. In the Preliminary draft, the second action was called a ``non-compliance notice.''...

  12. Unsupervised Learning of Action Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker; Kragic, Danica

    2010-01-01

    Action representation is a key issue in imitation learning for humanoids. With the recent finding of mirror neurons there has been a growing interest in expressing actions as a combination meaningful subparts called primitives. Primitives could be thought of as an alphabet for the human actions. ...

  13. Collaborative Action Research: Historical Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulyan, Lisa

    This paper presents a historical overview of the use of action research in education and describes the basic assumptions and expectations that continue to characterize collaborative research projects today. Action research was initiated in the 1930's by Kurt Lewin and adapted by educators in the 1940's. Interest in action research declined between…

  14. Learning to Avoid Risky Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Malfaz, María; Miguel A. Salichs

    2011-01-01

    When a reinforcement learning agent executes actions that can cause frequent damage to itself, it can learn, by using Q-learning, that these actions must not be executed again. However, there are other actions that do not cause damage frequently but only once in a while, for example, risky actions such as parachuting. These actions may imply punishment to the agent and, depending on its personality, it would be better to avoid them. Nevertheless, using the standard Q-learning algorithm, the a...

  15. Learning Actions Models: Qualitative Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolander, Thomas; Gierasimczuk, Nina

    2015-01-01

    identifiability (conclusively inferring the appropriate action model in finite time) and identifiability in the limit (inconclusive convergence to the right action model). We show that deterministic actions are finitely identifiable, while non-deterministic actions require more learning power......—they are identifiable in the limit.We then move on to a particular learning method, which proceeds via restriction of a space of events within a learning-specific action model. This way of learning closely resembles the well-known update method from dynamic epistemic logic. We introduce several different learning...

  16. Action feedback affects the perception of action-related objects beyond actual action success

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Successful object-oriented action typically increases the perceived size of aimed target objects. This phenomenon has been assumed to reflect an impact of an actor's current action ability on visual perception. The actual action ability and the explicit knowledge of action outcome, however, were confounded in previous studies. The present experiments aimed at disentangling these two factors. Participants repeatedly tried to hit a circular target varying in size with a stylus movement under re...

  17. Controlling Attention through Action: Observing Actions Primes Action-Related Stimulus Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Hommel, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that planning an action "backward-primes" perceptual dimension related to this action: planning a grasp facilitates the processing of visual size information, while planning a reach facilitates the processing of location information. Here we show that dimensional priming of perception through action occurs even in the…

  18. The minimalist grammar of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-12

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common 'syntax', an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too.

  19. Unsupervised Learning of Action Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker; Kragic, Danica

    2010-01-01

    and scale, the use of the object can provide a strong invariant for the detection of motion primitives. In this paper we propose an unsupervised learning approach for action primitives that makes use of the human movements as well as the object state changes. We group actions according to the changes......Action representation is a key issue in imitation learning for humanoids. With the recent finding of mirror neurons there has been a growing interest in expressing actions as a combination meaningful subparts called primitives. Primitives could be thought of as an alphabet for the human actions....... In this paper we observe that human actions and objects can be seen as being intertwined: we can interpret actions from the way the body parts are moving, but as well from how their effect on the involved object. While human movements can look vastly different even under minor changes in location, orientation...

  20. Viewpoint Manifolds for Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvenir Richard

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Action recognition from video is a problem that has many important applications to human motion analysis. In real-world settings, the viewpoint of the camera cannot always be fixed relative to the subject, so view-invariant action recognition methods are needed. Previous view-invariant methods use multiple cameras in both the training and testing phases of action recognition or require storing many examples of a single action from multiple viewpoints. In this paper, we present a framework for learning a compact representation of primitive actions (e.g., walk, punch, kick, sit that can be used for video obtained from a single camera for simultaneous action recognition and viewpoint estimation. Using our method, which models the low-dimensional structure of these actions relative to viewpoint, we show recognition rates on a publicly available dataset previously only achieved using multiple simultaneous views.

  1. Viewpoint Manifolds for Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Souvenir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Action recognition from video is a problem that has many important applications to human motion analysis. In real-world settings, the viewpoint of the camera cannot always be fixed relative to the subject, so view-invariant action recognition methods are needed. Previous view-invariant methods use multiple cameras in both the training and testing phases of action recognition or require storing many examples of a single action from multiple viewpoints. In this paper, we present a framework for learning a compact representation of primitive actions (e.g., walk, punch, kick, sit that can be used for video obtained from a single camera for simultaneous action recognition and viewpoint estimation. Using our method, which models the low-dimensional structure of these actions relative to viewpoint, we show recognition rates on a publicly available dataset previously only achieved using multiple simultaneous views.

  2. Networks for Collective Action

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    A significant challenge is to explain how people cooperate for public goods. The problem is more difficult for people when their public good and its benefits are unclear at the outset and its timing and costs are uncertain. However, history shows that even under adverse conditions, people can cooperate. As a prelude to cooperation, people can establish (or reinforce) social ties through communication. Consequently, individuals' cognitive states may synchronize, so that they can depend on like-minded people rather than on a situation beyond their control. Whether this succeeds largely depends on the network that is formed (or used), which should also help them to overcome misunderstandings and to synchronize relatively fast. From a well-known model of social influence it is inferred that network patterns with high algebraic connectivity, featuring multiple independent connections, are optimal for collective action.

  3. CLICing into action

    CERN Multimedia

    Barbara Warmbein

    2015-01-01

    Putting its acronym into action, the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) collaboration is testing its first compact accelerator module in the CTF3 test facility. Fed by high-power waveguides, cables and cooling tubes, the module has all the functions of future CLIC modules and allows the experts to test all the features, including frequency, losses, damping, acceleration and deceleration.   The new CLIC module in the CTF3 test facility. CLIC is one of the potential follow-up projects to the LHC, alongside the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Future Circular Collider (FCC) studies. Instead of smashing protons into protons, it is designed to collide electrons with positrons. Following the publication of its CDR in 2012, the CLIC collaboration entered the project preparation phase - testing its unique technology, making improvements and taking a closer look at the cost of the individual components. This is where the new module comes in. While many of the techniques and technologies neede...

  4. Structure learning in action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Daniel A.; Mehring, Carsten; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    ‘Learning to learn’ phenomena have been widely investigated in cognition, perception and more recently also in action. During concept learning tasks, for example, it has been suggested that characteristic features are abstracted from a set of examples with the consequence that learning of similar tasks is facilitated—a process termed ‘learning to learn’. From a computational point of view such an extraction of invariants can be regarded as learning of an underlying structure. Here we review the evidence for structure learning as a ‘learning to learn’ mechanism, especially in sensorimotor control where the motor system has to adapt to variable environments. We review studies demonstrating that common features of variable environments are extracted during sensorimotor learning and exploited for efficient adaptation in novel tasks. We conclude that structure learning plays a fundamental role in skill learning and may underlie the unsurpassed flexibility and adaptability of the motor system. PMID:19720086

  5. The Quench Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-06-01

    We give a pedagogical introduction to the methodology of the Quench Action, which is an effective representation for the calculation of time-dependent expectation values of physical operators following a generic out-of-equilibrium state preparation protocol (for example a quantum quench). The representation, originally introduced in Caux and Essler (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 257203), is founded on a mixture of exact data for overlaps together with variational reasonings. It is argued to be quite generally valid and thermodynamically exact for arbitrary times after the quench (from short times all the way up to the steady state), and applicable to a wide class of physically relevant observables. Here, we introduce the method and its language, give an overview of some recent results, suggest a roadmap and offer some perspectives on possible future research directions.

  6. Testing Fractional Action Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Shchigolev, V K

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests that gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.

  7. Testing fractional action cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchigolev, V. K.

    2016-08-01

    The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests, which gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.

  8. Guam Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    Describes the four near-term strategies selected by the Guam Energy Task Force during action planning workshops conducted in March 2013, and outlines the steps being taken to implement those strategies. Each strategy addresses one of the energy sectors identified in the earlier Guam strategic energy plan as being an essential component of diversifying Guam's fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020. The four energy strategies selected are: (1) expanding public outreach on energy efficiency and conservation, (2) establishing a demand-side management revolving loan program, (3) exploring waste-to-energy options, and (4) influencing the transportation sector via anti-idling legislation, vehicle registration fees, and electric vehicles.

  9. Entrepreneurial learning requires action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2014-01-01

    apply in industry. The findings of this study show that SME managers employ a practice-shaped holistic multi- and cross-disciplinary approach to learning. This learning approach is supported by theory dissemination, business challenge applications, and organisational prerequisites. Diversified learning......This paper reveals how managers of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can utilise their participation in research-based training. Empirical research from a longitudinal study of 10 SMEs managers in the wind turbine industry is provided to describe a learning approach that SME managers can...... that is enhanced by essential large-scale industry players and other SME managers are required to create action and value in learning. An open-mindedness to new learning approaches by SME managers and an open-mindedness to multi- and cross-disciplinary collaboration with SME managers by facilitators is required....

  10. An agenda for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Participants at the 1985 Maseru Seminar on Another Development for Southern African Development Coordination Conference (SADCC) Countries developed an agenda for action aimed at ending the exploitation of people in the region. Another Development, a concept first introduced into the worldwide debate about economic development in 1975, is based on 5 premises: development should be need-oriented, self-reliant, endogenous, ecologically sound, and based on structural transformations. It should be viewed as an integrated socioeconomic, political, and cultural process. Participants noted that conventional development policies are becoming increasingly incapable of satisfying the basic needs of people in the SADCC region for food, health, housing, education, and employment. The Agenda for Action recognizes that the problems of dependency cannot be solved by the more intensive application of development strategies that created the problems in the first place. Needed, instead, is: 1) effective popular participation in all decision-making processes; 2) the transformation of social structures to facilitate effective participation in decision-making; 3) the full exercise of human rights; 4) the establishment of local, district, and national papers and publishing houses dedicated to the right to be informed; 5) the gearing of agricultural production primarily to the growing of food for domestic markets, with exports limited to surpluses; 6) the production of raw materials for manufactured goods that meet local needs; 7) land reform; 8) the coordinated development of both light and heavy industry and mining, with an emphasis on decentralization of industries to rural areas; 9) the allocation of higher priority to resources for housing; 10) the integration of meaningful productive work into the educational system at every level; 11) the development of an endogenous science and technology base; and 12) the allocation of the resources needed for a primary health care system.

  11. Everyday robotic action: Lessons from human action control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eDe Kleijn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Robots are increasingly capable of performing everyday human activities such as cooking, cleaning, and doing the laundry. This requires the real-time planning and execution of complex, temporally-extended sequential actions under high degrees of uncertainty, which provides many challenges to traditional approaches to robot action control. We argue that important lessons in this respect can be learned from research on human action control. We provide a brief overview of available psychological insights into this issue and focus on four principles that we think could be particularly beneficial for robot control: the integration of symbolic and subsymbolic planning of action sequences, the integration of feedforward and feedback control, the clustering of complex actions into subcomponents, and the contextualization of action-control structures through goal representations.

  12. Action-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-09-01

    Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.

  13. Tracking in Object Action Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker; Herzog, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the joint problem of tracking humans and recognizing human action in scenarios such as a kitchen scenario or a scenario where a robot cooperates with a human, e.g., for a manufacturing task. In these scenarios, the human directly interacts with objects physically by using....../manipulating them or by, e.g., pointing at them such as in “Give me that…”. To recognize these types of human actions is difficult because (a) they ought to be recognized independent of scene parameters such as viewing direction and (b) the actions are parametric, where the parameters are either object...... tracking and action recognition should be seen as an intertwined problem that is primed by the objects on which the actions are applied. In this paper, we are looking at human body tracking and action recognition from a object-driven perspective. Instead of the space of human body poses we consider...

  14. Is credit for early action credible early action?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolfe, C. [West Coast Environmental Law Research Foundation, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Michaelowa, A.; Dutschke, M. [Hamburg Institute for Economic Research, Hamburg, (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    Credit for early action as a tool for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is compared with various market instruments as a means of narrowing the gap between projected emssions and those of the Kyoto Protocol. Market instruments work by creating a market price for emissions and use the market to encourage reductions at the lowest price, which is done by placing limits on greenhouse gas emissions and allowing the market to decide where reductions occur, or by imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge. While they can be applied within a sector, they are usually used to encourage reductions throughout the economy or across large sectors. Credit for early action also creates an incentive for emissions reductions throughout the economy or at least across many sectors. Credit for early action tools do not work by either imposing a carbon tax or emissions charge or placing limits on emissions, rather they promise that entities that take action against greenhouse gases prior to the imposition of a carbon tax or emissions limits will receive a credit against future taxes or limits. An overview is provided of the Kyoto Protocol and the rationale for taking early action, and a review is included of the theory and specific proposals for market instruments and credit for early action. A comparative analysis is provided of these approaches by examining their relative efficiency, environmental effectiveness, and impacts on the redistribution of wealth. Credit for early action is viewed as problematic on a number of counts and is seen as an interim strategy for imposition while political support for market instruments develop. The environmental effectiveness of credit for early action is very difficult to predict, and credit for early action programs do not yield the lowest cost emissions reductions. Credit for early action programs will not achieve compliance with the Kyoto Protocol at the lowest cost, and credits for early action will increase the compliance costs for those who

  15. Numbers in Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Rosa; Sartori, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Humans show a remarkable tendency to describe and think of numbers as being placed on a mental number line (MNL), with smaller numbers located on the left and larger ones on the right. Faster responses to small numbers are indeed performed on the left side of space, while responses to large numbers are facilitated on the right side of space (spatial-numerical association of response codes, SNARC effect). This phenomenon is considered the experimental demonstration of the MNL and has been extensively replicated throughout a variety of paradigms. Nevertheless, the majority of previous literature has mainly investigated this effect by means of response times and accuracy, whereas studies considering more subtle and automatic measures such as kinematic parameters are rare (e.g., in a reaching-to-grasp movement, the grip aperture is enlarged in responding to larger numbers than in responding to small numbers). In this brief review we suggest that numerical magnitude can also affect the what and how of action execution (i.e., temporal and spatial components of movement). This evidence could have large implications in the strongly debated issue concerning the effect of experience and culture on the orientation of MNL.

  16. Solr in action

    CERN Document Server

    Grainger, Trey

    2014-01-01

    Whether handling big data, building cloud-based services, or developing multi-tenant web applications, it's vital to have a fast, reliable search solution. Apache Solr is a scalable and ready-to-deploy open-source full-text search engine powered by Lucene. It offers key features like multi-lingual keyword searching, faceted search, intelligent matching, and relevancy weighting right out of the box. Solr in Action is the definitive guide to implementing fast and scalable search using Apache Solr 4. It uses well-documented examples ranging from basic keyword searching to scaling a system for billions of documents and queries. Readers will gain a deep understanding of how to implement core Solr capabilities such as faceted navigation through search results, matched snippet highlighting, field collapsing and search results grouping, spell checking, query auto-complete, querying by functions, and more. RETAIL SELLING POINTS Clearly-written comprehensive guide In-depth coverage of Solr 4 Uses real-world examples ba...

  17. [Antimicrobial mechanisms of action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Jorge; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2009-01-01

    A large number of families and groups of antimicrobial agents are of clinical interest. The mechanisms by which compounds with antibacterial activity inhibit growth or cause bacterial death are varied and depend on the affected targets. The bacterial cell wall-a unique structure in most bacteria that is absent in eukaryotic cells-can be affected in several ways: at different stages of synthesis (fosfomycin, cycloserine) or transport (bacitracin, mureidomycins) of its metabolic precursors, or by a direct action on its structural organization (beta-lactams, glycopeptides). The main drugs affecting the cytoplasmic membrane are polymyxins and daptomycin. Protein synthesis can be blocked by a large variety of compounds that affect any of the phases of this process, including activation (mupirocin), initiation (oxazolidinones, aminoglycosides), binding of the tRNA amino acid complex to ribosomes (tetracyclines, glycylcyclines) and elongation (amphenicols, lincosamides, macrolides, ketolides, streptogramins, fusidic acid). The metabolism of nucleic acids can be altered at the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase or in the process of DNA coiling (quinolones); some compounds affect DNA directly (nitroimidazoles, nitrofurans). Trimethoprim and sulfamides (often used in combination) are examples of antimicrobial agents that block bacterial metabolic pathways. Some compounds are unable to inhibit or kill bacteria in themselves, but can block bacterial mechanisms of resistance, enhancing the activity of other antimicrobials administered in combination. Among this group of agents, only certain beta-lactamase inhibitors are currently in clinical use.

  18. Action as ejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Daisy

    2006-01-01

    The systematic analysis of acting-out episodes can be used in assessing analytic progress. Variables to be considered are the nature of the wish, the type of defense, and the degree of concreteness (versus symbolization) of the mental processes used in attempting actualization (as distinct from the resort to action). Two acting-out episodes of a borderline patient who acted out as a character trait, both occurring outside the analytic setting, are presented as illustrations. In the first one, occurring relatively early in the analysis, when split-off negative and positive self-images had to be rigidly maintained, ejection of the negative self-image was actualized via the regressive use of a symbolic equation and the mechanism of displacement, obliterating the distinction between an internal feeling and an external thing that here was literally thrown out. The later episode, occurring after the split was healed and within the context of a frustrating heterosexual involvement, contained an acted-out allusion to identification and competition with the mother. As in a dream, via associations, an unconscious wish for oedipal victory was revealed. Whereas in the first episode the goal of ejection was central, with splitting and denial the underlying defenses, it was absent from the second, in which an attempt was made to actualize a repressed infantile wish and made greater use of symbolization. It is concluded that acting-out episodes at different periods of the analysis, when systematically analyzed, can serve in assessing a patient's progress.

  19. Affirmative Action at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack McKillip

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available IMGIP and ICEOP are minority graduate fellowship programs sponsored by the State of Illinois in order to increase the number of minority faculty and professional staff at Illinois institutions of higher education through graduate fellowships, networking and mentoring support. Nearly 850 fellowships have been awarded since 1986. A performance audit examined immediate (areas of graduate study, ethnicity of awards, intermediate (graduation areas and rates, and long-range results (academic job placement. The primary source for the audit was the database maintained by the programs' administrative office. These data were compared with data sets maintained by the Illinois Board of Higher Education and with national benchmarks (NSF and Ford Foundation Minority Graduate Fellowships. Findings revealed: (a the IMGIP and ICEOP programs led to major diversification of minority doctoral study in Illinois; (b a high percentage of all fellows graduated, both absolutely and in relation to national benchmarks, and fellows made up a large percentage of doctoral degrees awarded to minorities by Illinois institutions (e.g., 46% of doctorates in the hard sciences awarded to African Americans from 1988-1998; and (c fellows made up an important proportion of all minority faculty in Illinois (9%. Most ICEOP doctoral fellows and many other fellows have taken academic positions. The audit revealed outcomes-based evidence of a successful affirmative action program in higher education—evidence that is not otherwise available.

  20. Grails in action

    CERN Document Server

    Ledbrook, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Web apps shouldn't be hard to build, right? The developers of Grails agree. This hyper-productive open-source web framework offers "code by convention", leaving developers to focus on what makes their app special. Through its use of Groovy, it gives a powerful, Java-like language and full access to all Java libraries. Grails in Action is a comprehensive guide to the Grails framework. First, it covers the basics: the domain model, controllers, views, and services. Then, the fun! It dives into a Twitter-style app with features like AJAX/JSON, animation, search, wizards-even messaging and Jabber integration. It also offers loads of great plugins that'll make apps shine. RETAIL SELLING POINTS Fast track to super productivity Covers Grails 2.1 from the ground up Tons of tips and tricks from the trenches AUDIENCE No Java or Groovy background is required, but it is helpful for readers to have a background in web development and knowledge of an object-oriented language. ABOUT THE TECHNOLOGY Grails is an open source w...

  1. Less chalk more action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitriceski Andelkovic, Bojana; Jovic, Sladjana

    2016-04-01

    Less chalk more action Education should not be a mechanical system that operates according to the principles of the orders and implementation. Education should respect the basic laws of the develop and progress. Curiosity is the engine of achievement and children spontaneously and happily learn only if they get interested, if teacher wake up and stimulate their creativity and individuality. We would like to present classes that are realized as thematic teaching with several subjects involved: chemistry, geography, math, art and biology. Classes were organized for students at age from 10 to 13 years, every month during autumn and winter 2015. Better students identified themselves as teachers and presented peer education .Teachers were monitoring the process of teaching and help to develop links between younger and older students, where older students were educators to younger students. Also one student with special needs was involved in this activities and was supported by other students during the workshops The benefit from this project will be represented with evaluation marks. Evaluation table shows that group of ten students(age 10 to13 years) which are selected in October as children with lack of motivation for learning, got better marks, at the end of January , then they had it in the beginning of the semester.

  2. Nonclassical Vitamin D Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Zittermann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure. Since the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high throughout the world, there is a need to improve vitamin D status in the general adult population. However, the currently recommended daily vitamin D intake of 5–15 µg is too low to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in individuals with only modest skin synthesis. Thus, there is a need to recommend a vitamin D intake that is effective for achieving adequate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L.

  3. Action-Specific Effects Underwater

    OpenAIRE

    Witt, Jessica; Schuck, Donald M; Taylor, J. Eric T.

    2011-01-01

    Action-specific effects on perception are apparent in terrestrial environments. For example, targets that require more effort to walk, jump, or throw to look farther away than when the targets require less effort. Here, we examined whether action-specific effects would generalize to an underwater environment. Instead, perception might be geometrically precise, rather than action-specific, in an environment that is novel from an evolutionary perspective. We manipulated ease to swim by giving p...

  4. Least Action Principle in Gait

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Fan, Yubo; Xu, Zongxiang; Li, Zhiyu; Luo, Donglin

    2009-01-01

    We apply the laws of human gait vertical ground reaction force and discover the existence of the phenomenon of least action principle in gait. Using a capacitive mat transducer system, we obtain the variations of human gait vertical ground reaction force and establish a structure equation for the resultant of such a force. Defining the deviation of vertical force as an action function, we observe from our gait optimization analysis the least action principle at half of the stride time. We develop an evaluation index of mechanical energy consumption based upon the least action principle in gait. We conclude that these observations can be employed to enhance the accountability of gait evaluation.

  5. Compliance and Enforcement Actions (CEA) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Compliance and Enforcement Actions application provides process assistance / improvements for conducting investigation and enforcement activities. The Compliance and...

  6. Perfect Actions for Scalar Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W

    1998-01-01

    We construct an optimally local perfect lattice action for free scalars of arbitrary mass, and truncate its couplings to a unit hypercube. Spectral and thermodynamic properties of this ``hypercube scalar'' are drastically improved compared to the standard action. We also discuss new variants of perfect actions, using anisotropic of triangular lattices, or applying new types of RGTs. Finally we add a $\\lambda \\phi^{4}$ term and address perfect lattice perturbation theory. We report on a lattice action for the anharmonic oscillator, which is perfect to $O(\\lambda)$.

  7. From movements to actions: two mechanisms for learning action sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Wood, Justin N

    2011-11-01

    When other individuals move, we interpret their movements as discrete, hierarchically-organized, goal-directed actions. However, the mechanisms that integrate visible movement features into actions are poorly understood. Here, we consider two sequence learning mechanisms - transitional probability-based (TP) and position-based encoding computations - that have been studied extensively in the domain of language learning, and investigate their potential for integrating movements into actions. If these learning mechanisms integrate movements into actions, then they should create memory units that contain (i) movement information, (ii) information about the order in which movements occurred, and (iii) information allowing actions to be recognized from different viewpoints. We show that both mechanisms retain movement information. However, only the position-based mechanism creates movement representations that are view-invariant and contain order information. The TP-based mechanism creates movement representations that are view-dependent and contain no order information. We therefore suggest that the TP-based mechanism is unlikely to play an important role for integrating movements into actions. In contrast, the position-based mechanism retains some of the types of information needed to represent goal-directed actions, which makes it an attractive target for further research to explore what, if any, role it plays in the perception of goal-directed actions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Images in Action: Preservice Teachers' Action Researcher Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address the gap that exists in the knowledge base for understanding the repertoire of images that preservice teachers gain as they engage in action research. Data were collected using a variety of qualitative methods: journals, metaphors, narratives, action research reports, and focus group interviews. Data were…

  9. From Movements to Actions: Two Mechanisms for Learning Action Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Wood, Justin N.

    2011-01-01

    When other individuals move, we interpret their movements as discrete, hierarchically-organized, goal-directed actions. However, the mechanisms that integrate visible movement features into actions are poorly understood. Here, we consider two sequence learning mechanisms--transitional probability-based (TP) and position-based encoding…

  10. The Action in Action Research: Mediating and Developing Inclusive Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Andrew; Frankham, Jo; Ainscow, Mel; Farrell, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The authors of this article reflect on their experiences as facilitators of an action research network aiming to provide a context for participating schools to identify and address barriers to pupils' learning and participation. Within the network, action research is seen to have different meanings for individuals within and between schools in…

  11. The Development of Action Planning in a Joint Action Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The ability to act jointly with another person is a fundamental requirement for participation in social life. The current study examines the development of action planning in a joint action context. In 4 experiments, 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children as well as a group of adults (n = 196) interacted with another person to operate a novel apparatus.…

  12. 含2-氨甲基苯并咪唑铜(Ⅱ)配合物的合成、表征、抑菌活性及与 DNA 作用的研究%Syntheses,characteristics,bacteriostatic activities and their interaction with DNA of copper(Ⅱ) complexes containing 2-aminomethylbenzimidazole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王璐; 段冉冉; 赵盼; 周晓华

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]In order to design and find specific recognition and cleavage agent of DNA , two copper(Ⅱ) complexes,[Cu(AMB)2Cl]Cl· 4H2O(complex 1)and[Cu(AMB)(phen)Cl]Cl· 2H2O (complex 2)(AMB =2-aminomethylbenzimidazole, phen =1,10-phenanthroline), were synthesized.[Method]The two complexes were characterized by elemental analysis , IR, UV and molar conductivity . The complex 1 and complex 2 were assayed against gram-positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus and Ba-cillus subtilis) and gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coil and Salmonella typhi) by a double dilution method, and the interaction with ct-DNA was investigated by electronic absorption spectroscopy , fluores-cence spectroscopy , viscosity measurements and agarose gel electrophoresis .[Result and conclusion]The complex 2 could interact with DNA by non-intercalation, while complex 1 by non-intercalation, and they cleave pBR322 DNA assisted by vitamin C involving the hydroxyl radical oxidation mechanism .The order of combination ability with ct-DNA and cleaving pBR322 DNA of the two complexes is complex 2>com-plex 1, which is in accordance with the bacteriostatic activity .%[目的]为了设计和寻找 DNA 的特异性识别剂和断裂剂,合成了2-氨甲基苯并咪唑铜(Ⅱ)配合物:[Cu(AMB)2Cl]Cl·4H2O(配合物1)和[Cu(AMB)(phen)Cl]Cl·2H2O(配合物2)(AMB=2-氨甲基苯并咪唑, phen=1,10-邻菲咯啉).[方法]通过元素分析、IR、UV和摩尔电导率对配合物进行了表征.用二倍稀释法测试了配合物对大肠埃希菌Escherichia coil( G-)、沙门杆菌Salmonella typhi( G-)、金黄色葡萄球菌Staphylococcus aureus (G+)和枯草芽孢杆菌Bacillus subtilis(G+)的最小抑菌浓度(MIC).采用电子吸收光谱、荧光光谱、相对黏度及琼脂糖凝胶电泳法测试了2个配合物与ct-DNA的结合作用.[结果和结论]配合物1以非插入方式、配合物2以插入方式与ct

  13. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fantoni & Gerbino (2014 showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP, they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015 would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions, in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top

  14. Philosophy, Methodology and Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Wilfred

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of methodology in action research. It begins by showing how, as a form of inquiry concerned with the development of practice, action research is nothing other than a modern 20th century manifestation of the pre-modern tradition of practical philosophy. It then draws in Gadamer's powerful vindication of…

  15. Decision Taking versus Action Determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Decision taking is discussed in the context of the role it may play for various types of agents, and it is contrasted with action determination. Some remarks are made about the role of decision taking and action determination in the ongoing debate concerning the reverse polder development of the

  16. War: Will, Action, and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    mutually assured destruction ) far exceeded what was deemed acceptable by both parties. Actions – The actions by both the United States and the Soviet...attacks USS Cole U.S. pursues criminal charges Al Qaeda attacks the WTC on 9/11 U.S. attacks Al Qaeda in Afghanistan Al Qaeda attacks Madrid, Algiers

  17. American Samoa: Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ness, J. Erik [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Conrad, Misty [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document outlines actions being taken to reduce American Samoa's petroleum consumption. It describes the four near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee during action-planning workshops conducted in May 2016, and describes the steps that will need to be taken to implement those strategies.

  18. Integrating CHAT and Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    The question as to how action research (AR) is related to cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) is not answerable in categorical terms. Both CHAT and AR have been variously interpreted and much depends on the individual biographies of those who pronounce on their relationship. The aim of this paper is to show how action research, conducted…

  19. Mode of Action of Glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although glyphosate is the most used and studied herbicide in the world, the available information is not enough to fully understand its mode of action. The molecular site of action of glyphosate is the enzyme 5-enolpyruvlyshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). It is the only known compound that ...

  20. Action Emulation between Canonical Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J.N. van Eijck (Jan); F.A.G. Sietsma (Floor)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we investigate Kripke models, used to model knowledge or belief in a static situation, and action models, used to model communicative actions that change this knowledge or belief. The appropriate notion for structural equivalence between modal structures such as Kr

  1. Class-Based Affirmative Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    Discusses class-based, or economic, affirmative action, touted by the Bush administration as a race-neutral alternative to race-conscious affirmative action in college admissions. Explores whether such policies will result in fewer minority admissions and considers the "fairness" of the approach. (SLD)

  2. Coordinating talk and practical action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Streeck, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    . Our analysis of four examples reveals that there is no fixed relationship between the organization of talk and practical action. Instead, people manipulate this relationship on a moment-by-moment basis, often coordinating the two into a single, integral package, or relying on one stream of action...

  3. Philosophy, Methodology and Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Wilfred

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of methodology in action research. It begins by showing how, as a form of inquiry concerned with the development of practice, action research is nothing other than a modern 20th century manifestation of the pre-modern tradition of practical philosophy. It then draws in Gadamer's powerful vindication of…

  4. Action Research Empowers School Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Successful school library programs occur through careful planning and reflection. This reflective process is improved when it is applied in a systematic way through action research. The action research described in this paper enabled school librarians to reflect based on evidence, using data they had collected. This study presents examples of the…

  5. Collective action: mistakes of interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria de Araújo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the collective action as a category of analysis and a controversial phenomenon in the contemporary society. It uses basis in the history and sociological theory, from concepts of social action, social class, and the nature of the tense report between individual and society.

  6. Motion Primitives for Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...... the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize...... different temporal actions using a probabilistic Edit Distance method. The method is tested on different actions with and without noise and the results show recognition rates of 88.7% and 85.5%, respectively....

  7. Collective action and its interpreters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Alfredo Costa de Campos Melo Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article intention is to give the theorical and intellectual map production regarding collective actions. For such, we will analyze the propositions of five thinkers who have work for the better understanding of this question. We will discuss the contributions of the Chicago School, especially psic-sociology, and Herbert Blumer symbolic interactionism; the classical Marxists approaches on collective actions; Claus Offe and the Marxist point of view on the new models of collective actions; Charles Tilly and his social-historic perspective analysis about social movements; and finally Mancur Olson and collective action from a rational perspective. What we intend is to present comparatively the theorical and practical similarities and exclusions of these contemporary authors who contribute with collective actions today.

  8. Decision Making in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relations between leadership, communication, decision making and overall crew performance. Implications of these findings for spaceflight and training for offshore installations will be discussed.

  9. THE RELATION BETWEEN THE CRIMINAL ACTION AND THE CIVIL ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOGDAN FLORIN MICU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the free access to the law is considered a fundamental human right, enriched by the Constitution itself. In practice, the committing of an illegal act may cause prejudice, being described as a civil offense, but at the same time may create a report of criminal law, attracting the criminal liability, in which case it is called offense. This is how we find in the jurisprudence, both civil action and criminal action, so that, in this study we try to present some singularities of these two types of actions, and of the relation between them.

  10. THE RELATION BETWEEN THE CRIMINAL ACTION AND THE CIVIL ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Florin MICU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the free access to the law is considered a fundamental human right, enriched by the Constitution itself. In practice, the committing of an illegal act may cause prejudice, being described as a civil offense, but at the same time may create a report of criminal law, attracting the criminal liability, in which case it is called offense. This is how we find in the jurisprudence, both civil action and criminal action, so that, in this study we try to present some singularities of these two types of actions, and of the relation between them.

  11. Terminology versus action (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available I have heard it said, as many of us have, that evidence based library and information practice is an area dominated and led by librarians in the health sciences. It is a logical leap to say that medical librarians may be more familiar with the evidence based model of practice because of their need to be familiar, on some level, with evidence based medicine. The idea of making a decision based on the appropriate evidence is as familiar to a medical librarianas is how to effectively search PubMed. How pervasive is the influence of the medical profession on this area? Being a librarian looking for quick information, I turned to Google. The results on the first two pages from a Google search for evidence based practice are 100% health/medicine related. Being a good librarian, I refined my search to see how the results would differ, and I added the term library to the search. This time there were 75% health/medicine results and 5% representing evidence based library and information practice (eblip. Note that a high percentage of the health/medicine hits were library webpages on evidence based medicine. Being an obsessive‐compulsive librarian, I changed my search strategy again by replacing library with librarianship. This time there were 30% health/medicine results and 65% eblip. A final search for evidence based information had this journal as the top hit. Being a busy librarian with a lot of work to do, I stopped right there. OK, so the terminology appears to point strongly in one direction and weighs heavily on the health sciences penetration. Let’s leave terminology aside for a moment and look at action. Since Evidence Based Library and Information Practice is the first journal on this topic, the list of contributors and their backgrounds should give an indication on whether or not there is a concentration of medical librarians. Approximately two thirds of the articles that we have published are non‐health/medicine related. Only 29% of our

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This document summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period of January-June 1996. The report includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violations sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to the enforcement actions.

  13. Introduction. Modelling natural action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Tony J; Bryson, Joanna J; Seth, Anil K

    2007-09-29

    Action selection is the task of resolving conflicts between competing behavioural alternatives. This theme issue is dedicated to advancing our understanding of the behavioural patterns and neural substrates supporting action selection in animals, including humans. The scope of problems investigated includes: (i) whether biological action selection is optimal (and, if so, what is optimized), (ii) the neural substrates for action selection in the vertebrate brain, (iii) the role of perceptual selection in decision-making, and (iv) the interaction of group and individual action selection. A second aim of this issue is to advance methodological practice with respect to modelling natural action section. A wide variety of computational modelling techniques are therefore employed ranging from formal mathematical approaches through to computational neuroscience, connectionism and agent-based modelling. The research described has broad implications for both natural and artificial sciences. One example, highlighted here, is its application to medical science where models of the neural substrates for action selection are contributing to the understanding of brain disorders such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

  14. Action Research / La recherche-action / La ricerca-intervento

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    After an historical overview on the reflection about the relationship between researcher and “research object” in action research, the paper proposes a typology, based on the different epistemological views, to interpret the different methodological proposals.

  15. American Samoa Energy Action Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Herdrich, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bodell, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Visser, Charles [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Describes the five near-term strategies selected by the American Samoa Renewable Energy Committee (ASREC) during action planning workshops conducted in May 2013, and outlines the actions being taken to implement those strategies. Each option is tied to a priority identified in the earlier draft American Samoa Strategic Energy Plan as being an essential component of reducing American Samoa'spetroleum energy consumption. The actions described for each strategy provide a roadmap to facilitate the implementation of each strategy. This document is intended to evolve along with the advancement of the projects, and will be updated to reflect progress.

  16. The Neurobiology of Collective Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Joseph Zak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay introduces a neurologically-informed mathematical model of collective action that reveals the role for empathy and distress in motivating costly helping behaviors. We report three direct tests of model with a key focus on the neuropeptide oxytocin as well as a variety of indirect tests. These studies, from our lab and other researchers, show support for the model. Our findings indicate that empathic concern, via the brain's release of oxytocin, is a trigger for collective action. We discuss the implications from this model for our understanding why human beings engage in costly collective action.

  17. Action Recognition using Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Thomas B.; Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft

    The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...... the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize...

  18. [Humanitarian action threatened by standardization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamou, J

    2002-01-01

    The author analyses the new international context in which humanitarian action is being undertaken. He raises the problem caused by the diverging objectives of impartial, neutral humanitarianism and politically motivated actions that implement strategies of prevention and conflict resolution. He reviews the criticism that humanitarian has come under in recent years and that has resulted in establishment of codes of conduct. However he points out the threat that the concepts of control and "jurisdiction" over humanitarian action represent and analyzes discrepancies between minimal standards and universal principles. The article concludes with a presentation of an alternative solution based on the "Quality" platform being developed by several French NGOs.

  19. Action Between Plot and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2007-01-01

    , these narrated actions disrupt the theoretical divisions, on the one hand, between the narrated story and the narrating discourse, and on the other hand, between plot-narratology and discourse-narratology. As narrated actions, they seem to belong to the domain of plot-narratology, but insofar as they serve...... an important visualizing function, these narrated actions have a communicative function and, as such, they can be said to belong to the domain of discourse-narratology. In the first part of the article, I argue that a certain type of plot-narratology, due to its retrospective epistemology and abstract...

  20. Typological Analysis of Buying Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Teodorescu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The typology of buyers and buying actions contracts are specific categories of consumer behaviour, determining group buyers and buying actions in classes, to fragment the markets. Market fragmentation through buyer typoligy and/or segmentation is presently characterized by a multitude of theoretical approaches and are especially generated by the common practice in the respective business. These two concepts are used for the same purpose, the essential difference being their starting point: the segmentation fragments the markets as a whole, while the typology of the buyer and of buying actions generate classifications starting from individual cases.

  1. Learning ActionScript 30

    CERN Document Server

    Shupe, Rich

    2010-01-01

    If you're new to ActionScript 3.0, or want to enhance your skill set, this bestselling book is the ideal guide. Designers, developers, and programmers alike will find Learning ActionScript 3.0 invaluable for navigating ActionScript 3.0's learning curve. You'll learn the language by getting a clear look at essential topics such as logic, event handling, displaying content, classes, and much more. Updated for Flash Professional CS5, this revised and expanded edition delivers hands-on exercises and full-color code samples to help you increase your abilities as you progress through the book. Top

  2. Supergravity actions with integral forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, L.; Catenacci, R.; Grassi, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Integral forms provide a natural and powerful tool for the construction of supergravity actions. They are generalizations of usual differential forms and are needed for a consistent theory of integration on supermanifolds. The group geometrical approach to supergravity and its variational principle are reformulated and clarified in this language. Central in our analysis is the Poincaré dual of a bosonic manifold embedded into a supermanifold. Finally, using integral forms we provide a proof of Gates' so-called "Ectoplasmic Integration Theorem", relating superfield actions to component actions.

  3. Supergravity Actions with Integral Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Castellani, L; Grassi, P A

    2014-01-01

    Integral forms provide a natural and powerful tool for the construction of supergravity actions. They are generalizations of usual differential forms and are needed for a consistent theory of integration on supermanifolds. The group geometrical approach to supergravity and its variational principle are reformulated and clarified in this language. Central in our analysis is the Poincare' dual of a bosonic manifold embedded into a supermanifold. Finally, using integral forms we provide a proof of Gates' so-called "Ectoplasmic Integration Theorem", relating superfield actions to component actions.

  4. Supergravity actions with integral forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Castellani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Integral forms provide a natural and powerful tool for the construction of supergravity actions. They are generalizations of usual differential forms and are needed for a consistent theory of integration on supermanifolds. The group geometrical approach to supergravity and its variational principle are reformulated and clarified in this language. Central in our analysis is the Poincaré dual of a bosonic manifold embedded into a supermanifold. Finally, using integral forms we provide a proof of Gates' so-called “Ectoplasmic Integration Theorem”, relating superfield actions to component actions.

  5. Supergravity actions with integral forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellani, L., E-mail: leonardo.castellani@mfn.unipmn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Catenacci, R., E-mail: roberto.catenacci@mfn.unipmn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Grassi, P.A., E-mail: pietro.grassi@mfn.unipmn.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Innovazione Tecnologica, Università del Piemonte Orientale, Viale T. Michel, 11, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Integral forms provide a natural and powerful tool for the construction of supergravity actions. They are generalizations of usual differential forms and are needed for a consistent theory of integration on supermanifolds. The group geometrical approach to supergravity and its variational principle are reformulated and clarified in this language. Central in our analysis is the Poincaré dual of a bosonic manifold embedded into a supermanifold. Finally, using integral forms we provide a proof of Gates' so-called “Ectoplasmic Integration Theorem”, relating superfield actions to component actions.

  6. Action Between Plot and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2007-01-01

    , these narrated actions disrupt the theoretical divisions, on the one hand, between the narrated story and the narrating discourse, and on the other hand, between plot-narratology and discourse-narratology. As narrated actions, they seem to belong to the domain of plot-narratology, but insofar as they serve...... an important visualizing function, these narrated actions have a communicative function and, as such, they can be said to belong to the domain of discourse-narratology. In the first part of the article, I argue that a certain type of plot-narratology, due to its retrospective epistemology and abstract...

  7. Pulling out the Intentional Structure of Action: The Relation between Action Processing and Action Production in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, Jessica A.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2005-01-01

    Adults and children readily construct action representations organized with respect to an ultimate goal. These representations allow one to predict the consequences of action, interpret and describe actions, and categorize action sequences. In this paper, we explore the ontogeny of hierarchically organized action representations, and its relation…

  8. Durability of radon remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    In the UK, approximately 3600 householders are believed to have taken action to reduce high radon concentrations in their homes. In 1993 a number of those householders who had taken successful remedial actions were invited to participate in a study of durability of radon remedial actions. This involved the radon concentration being remeasured annually. Results for 26 such homes where a complete set of data are available and a further 32 with incomplete data are discussed here. All remedial actions were shown to remain durable during a period of 5 years. The largest variation in effectiveness was found in houses with natural ventilation of the underfloor void. The failure rate for all remedial measures was found to be 4.0% per annum, but in most cases the problems were noticed by the householder and corrected. The frequency of failures which were not noticed until a remeasurement was carried out was 0.4% per annum. (Author).

  9. Durability of radon remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    It is estimated that at least 3600 householders in the UK have taken remedial action to reduce radon concentrations found to be above the government Action Level. A study has been carried out on the durability of these remedial actions. It involved annual reassessment of the radon levels in a number of homes. The results for 26 of these homes where data over five years are available show that in general the remedial actions remained effective. The remedy with the largest variation in efficacy was natural ventilation of the underfloor void. The failure rate was found to be 4.0% per annum for all measures, but in the majority of cases the failure was discovered by the householder and rectified. The rate of failures not noticed by the householders was 0.4% per annum. (UK).

  10. InterAction Database (IADB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterAction Database includes demographic and prescription information for more than 500,000 patients in the northern and middle Netherlands and has been integrated with other systems to enhance data collection and analysis.

  11. The Challenge to Affirmative Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, James W.

    1978-01-01

    The Bakke case is the latest and most serious challenge to the constitutionality of voluntary affirmative action programs. If Bakke is upheld, it could virtually wipe out efforts to include minorities in most professional schools and some government employment. (Author)

  12. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  13. Formulation of Complex Action Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Nagao, Keiichi; Nielsen, Holger Bech

    2011-01-01

    We formulate a complex action theory which includes operators of coordinate and momentum $\\hat{q}$ and $\\hat{p}$ being replaced with non-hermitian operators $\\hat{q}_{new}$ and $\\hat{p}_{new}$, and their eigenstates ${}_m

  14. Eicosanoid actions in insect immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter we review eicosanoid actions in insect immunity. Eicosanoids are oxygenated metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA) and two other C20 polyunsaturated polyunsaturated fatty acids. Groups of eicosanoids include prostaglandins, lipoxygenase products and epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. These ...

  15. Toluene Diisocyanates (TDI) Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Action Plan addresses the use of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and related compounds in products that may result in consumer and general population exposures, particularly in or around buildings, including homes and schools.

  16. Taking Action for Healthy Kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jill E.

    2003-01-01

    Summarizes research on relationship between physical activity, good nutrition, and academic performance. Offers several recommendations for how schools can take action to improve the nutrition and fitness of students. (PKP)

  17. Interference, reduced action, and trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichroma...

  18. The centre of the action

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The CERN Control Centre (CCC) has all the ingredients of an action movie control room: hundreds of screens, technicians buzzing in and out, huge floor-to-ceiling windows revealing the looming vista of a mountain range, flashing lights, microphones… This is the place where not just the LHC, but the whole of CERN’s accelerator complex and technical support is based - truly the centre of the action at CERN.

  19. Sustainability Actions in Higher Education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-13

    This brochure details common sustainability actions taken by universities to reduce their energy consumption. Some of the most common actions include energy efficiency (existing building commissioning; lighting; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning upgrades; plug loads) and renewable energy (RE) (on-site or off-site solar deployment, RE procurement). We focus on the costs and benefits of energy efficiency measures and RE through the brochure while highlighting resources where readers can find more information.

  20. Mindset theory of action phases

    OpenAIRE

    Gollwitzer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Mindset theory of action phases is based on the distinction between motivation and volition as proposed by the Rubicon model which claims that prior to crossing the Rubicon (i.e., making a goal decision) motivational principles apply whereas thereafter volitional principles set in. The latter are concerned with goal implementation, whereas the former relate to the choosing of goals. Mindset theory of action phases proposes that different cognitive procedures are activated when people tackle t...

  1. Complexity, Action, and Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adam; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Our earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the `Wheeler-DeWitt' patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are fastest computers in nature.

  2. Complexity, action, and black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Our earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the "Wheeler-DeWitt" patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  3. Tactile perception during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vastano, Roberta; Inuggi, Alberto; Vargas, Claudia D; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Jacono, Marco; Pozzo, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    It has been suggested that tactile perception becomes less acute during movement to optimize motor control and to prevent an overload of afferent information generated during action. This empirical phenomenon, known as "tactile gating effect," has been associated with mechanisms of sensory feedback prediction. However, less attention has been given to the tactile attenuation effect during the observation of an action. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how the observation of a goal-directed action influences tactile perception as during overt action. In a first experiment, we recorded vocal reaction times (RTs) of participants to tactile stimulations during the observation of a reach-to-grasp action. The stimulations were delivered on different body parts that could be either congruent or incongruent with the observed effector (the right hand and the right leg, respectively). The tactile stimulation was contrasted with a no body-related stimulation (an auditory beep). We found increased RTs for tactile congruent stimuli compared to both tactile incongruent and auditory stimuli. This effect was reported only during the observation of the reaching phase, whereas RTs were not modulated during the grasping phase. A tactile two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task was then conducted in order to quantify the changes in tactile sensitivity during the observation of the same goal-directed actions. In agreement with the first experiment, the tactile perceived intensity was reduced only during the reaching phase. These results suggest that tactile processing during action observation relies on a process similar to that occurring during action execution.

  4. Perfect Actions with Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W

    1998-01-01

    We show how to include a chemical potential \\mu in perfect lattice actions. It turns out that the standard procedure of multiplying the quark fields \\Psi, an example, the case of free fermions with chemical potential is worked out explicitly. Even after truncation, cut-off effects in the pressure and the baryon density are small. Using a (quasi-)perfect action, numerical QCD simulations for non-zero chemical potential become more powerful, because coarse lattices are sufficient for extracting continuum physics.

  5. Action understanding as inverse planning

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Christopher Lawrence; Saxe, Rebecca R.; Joshua B Tenenbaum

    2009-01-01

    Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents’ actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents’ behavior based on the principle of rationality: the expectation that agents will plan approximately rationally to achieve their goals, given their beliefs about the world. ...

  6. Action representation: crosstalk between semantics and pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Marc Jeannerod pioneered a representational approach to movement and action. In his approach, motor representations provide both, declarative knowledge about action and procedural knowledge for action (action semantics and action pragmatics, respectively). Recent evidence from language comprehension and action simulation supports the claim that action pragmatics and action semantics draw on common representational resources, thus challenging the traditional divide between declarative and procedural action knowledge. To account for these observations, three kinds of theoretical frameworks are discussed: (i) semantics is grounded in pragmatics, (ii) pragmatics is anchored in semantics, and (iii) pragmatics is part and parcel of semantics.

  7. Action description using point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenping; Jiang, Yongfeng; Wang, Haili; Zhang, Liang

    2017-06-01

    An action description method named as Motion History Point Cloud (MHPC) is proposed in this paper. MHPC compresses an action into a three-dimensional point cloud in which depth information is required. In MHPC, the spatial coordinate channels are used to record the motion foreground, and the color channels are used to record the temporal variation. Due to containing depth information, MHPC can depict an action more meticulous than Motion History Image (MHI). MHPC can serve as a pre-processed input for various classification methods, such as Bag of Words and Deep Learning. An action recognition scheme is provided as an application example of MHPC. In this scheme, Harris3D detector and Fast Point Feature Histogram (FPFH) are used to extract and describe features from MHPC. Then, Bag of Words and multiple classification Support Vector Machine (SVM) are used to do action recognition. The experiments show that rich features can be extracted from MHPC to support the subsequent action recognition even after downsampling. The feasibility and effectiveness of MHPC are also verified by comparing the above scheme with two similar methods.

  8. Segmenting Dynamic Human Action via Statistical Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Dare; Andersson, Annika; Saffran, Jenny; Meyer, Meredith

    2008-01-01

    Human social, cognitive, and linguistic functioning depends on skills for rapidly processing action. Identifying distinct acts within the dynamic motion flow is one basic component of action processing; for example, skill at segmenting action is foundational to action categorization, verb learning, and comprehension of novel action sequences. Yet…

  9. Primitive Based Action Representation and Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    There has been a recent interest in segmenting action sequences into   meaningful parts (action primitives) and to model actions on a   higher level based on these action primitives. Unlike previous works where action primitives are defined    a-priori and search is made for them later, we presen...

  10. Primitive Based Action Representation and Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baby, Sanmohan; Krüger, Volker

    2009-01-01

    There has been a recent interest in segmenting action sequences into   meaningful parts (action primitives) and to model actions on a   higher level based on these action primitives. Unlike previous works where action primitives are defined    a-priori and search is made for them later, we presen...

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1997--June 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January - June 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individuals actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1996) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to-these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  13. O'Hanlon actions by Noether symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Darabi, F.

    2015-01-01

    By using the conformal symmetry between Brans-Dicke action with $\\omega=-\\frac{3}{2}$ and O'Hanlon action, we seek the O'Hanlon actions in Einstein frame respecting the Noether symmetry. Since the Noether symmetry is preserved under conformal transformations, the existence of Noether symmetry in the Brans-Dicke action asserts the Noether symmetry in O'Hanlon action in Einstein frame. Therefore, the potentials respecting Noether symmetry in Brans-Dicke action give the corresponding potentials ...

  14. Rowing sportswomen motor actions formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bogush

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the formation of motor action sportswomen different ages depending on the level of sportsmanship. Material and Methods: girls which are specialized in a boat-racing in age groups 13–14 years inspected, 15–16 years, 17–18 years, in every group was for 20–25 persons, in all 72 sportswomen. Motive actions were probed on the method of measuring of training effect developed by us an action, and also the functional state was determined by methods: measuring of sensorimotor reaction is on sound and light irritants, speed of current of air, exactness of implementation of the set muscular effort. Results: testing showed the dynamics of forming motive, namely technique of mastering of receptions and actions, reliability, presence of errors, efficiency of active voice of consciousness in correct implementation of motion in a biomechanics relation. Conclusions: application of this method in the process of sporting preparation will allow to define quality of mastering of technique of the proper motive actions, forming of abilities, subsequent learning and becoming of more difficult motive skills

  15. Efficient computation of optimal actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Emanuel

    2009-07-14

    Optimal choice of actions is a fundamental problem relevant to fields as diverse as neuroscience, psychology, economics, computer science, and control engineering. Despite this broad relevance the abstract setting is similar: we have an agent choosing actions over time, an uncertain dynamical system whose state is affected by those actions, and a performance criterion that the agent seeks to optimize. Solving problems of this kind remains hard, in part, because of overly generic formulations. Here, we propose a more structured formulation that greatly simplifies the construction of optimal control laws in both discrete and continuous domains. An exhaustive search over actions is avoided and the problem becomes linear. This yields algorithms that outperform Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning, and thereby solve traditional problems more efficiently. Our framework also enables computations that were not possible before: composing optimal control laws by mixing primitives, applying deterministic methods to stochastic systems, quantifying the benefits of error tolerance, and inferring goals from behavioral data via convex optimization. Development of a general class of easily solvable problems tends to accelerate progress--as linear systems theory has done, for example. Our framework may have similar impact in fields where optimal choice of actions is relevant.

  16. The functional neuroanatomy of actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christine E; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2011-04-19

    Our current understanding of the neural basis of semantic memory is informed primarily by studies of concrete objects. However, conceptual knowledge encompasses many other, albeit less concrete, domains. This article reviews evidence from neuroimaging and patient studies that speaks to the neural basis of action concepts and the words that refer to them. These data highlight 2 important principles governing the neural instantiation of semantic knowledge. First, the organization of conceptual representations in the brain parallels perception and action. Action concepts are at least partially represented within modality-specific areas responsible for the perception and execution of dynamic actions. Second, unimodal sensory and motor cortices act as "points of entry" for more abstract action knowledge. Increasingly abstract conceptual knowledge derived from these modalities is represented in brain areas located anterior and centripetal to modality-specific regions. Extending research on the neural basis of semantics to include dynamic and relational aspects of the world gives us a more complete appreciation of the range of cognitive and communication impairments that may be experienced by patients with neurologic disease.

  17. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  18. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  19. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  20. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  1. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  2. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  3. Immigration Enforcement Actions: Fiscal Year 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Each year, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) undertakes immigration enforcement actions involving hundreds of thousands of foreign nationals. These actions...

  4. 49 CFR 27.11 - Remedial action, voluntary action and compliance planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial action, voluntary action and compliance....11 Remedial action, voluntary action and compliance planning. (a) Remedial action. (1) If the... activity in violation of this part, the recipient shall take such remedial action as the...

  5. Gravitational action with null boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Lehner, Luis; Poisson, Eric; Sorkin, Rafael D

    2016-01-01

    We present a complete discussion of the boundary term in the action functional of general relativity when the boundary includes null segments in addition to the more usual timelike and spacelike segments. We confirm that ambiguities appear in the contribution from a null segment, because it depends on an arbitrary choice of parametrization for the generators. We also show that similar ambiguities appear in the contribution from a codimension-two surface at which a null segment is joined to another (spacelike, timelike, or null) segment. The parametrization ambiguity can be tamed by insisting that the null generators be affinely parametrized; this forces each null contribution to the boundary action to vanish, but leaves intact the fredom to rescale the affine parameter by a constant factor on each generator. Once a choice of parametrization is made, the ambiguity in the joint contributions can be eliminated by formulating well-motivated rules that ensure the additivity of the gravitational action. Enforcing t...

  6. Emergence of Cognition from Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzsáki, György; Peyrache, Adrien; Kubie, John

    2014-01-01

    Theories of brain function have evolved through multiple stages. The first proposition was that brain networks support a set of reflex responses, with current sensory inputs producing immediate motor outputs. The behaviorist paradigm suggested that actions can always be explained as a response to immediate external cues. In response to these views, the cognitive paradigm argued that behavior cannot be understood simply as input-output functions because the hidden layers of brain generate unpredictability. The central processing was termed "cognition." Here we propose a neuroscience-based model of cognition. Our core hypothesis is that cognition depends on internal models of the animal and its world, where internally generated sequences can serve to perform "what if" scenarios and anticipate the possible consequences of alternative actions without actually testing them, and aid in the decisions of overt actions. We support our hypotheses by several examples of recent experimental findings and show how externally guided cell assembly sequences become internalized to support cognitive functions.

  7. Remedial Action Contacts Directory - 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This document, which was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), is a directory of 2628 individuals interested or involved in environmental restoration and/or remedial actions at radioactively contaminated sites. This directory contains a list of mailing addresses and phone numbers of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor offices; an index of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor office sorted by state; a list of individuals, presented by last name, facsimile number, and e-mail address; an index of affiliations presented alphabetically, with individual contacts appearing below each affiliation name; and an index of foreign contacta sorted by country and affiliation. This document was generated from the Remedial Action Contacts Database, which is maintained by the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC).

  8. Action Research for English Teachers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩秋实

    2014-01-01

    As a reflective approach to teacher development,Action Research (AR)is gaining significance in education and is especially credited as providing an opportunity for professionals including both teachers and teacher educators to investigate their own classroom practice and improve it,and hopefully bring favorable changes to their classrooms.It emphasizes the role of critical reflection and always involves a problem→hypothesis→resolution cycle or spiral during which teacher researchers exert efforts to explore teaching and learning.By doing action research,language teachers can not only apply theories into practice but also be more reflective,more critical and more open to change in teach-ing approaches and methods.Despite the difficulties that teachers may have in doing action research in their busy life,it is beneficial for teach-ers to be researchers in the long run.

  9. Flyby Anomaly via Least Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annila, A.

    2017-04-01

    The observed but unexpected changes in velocity during spacecraft flybys of Earth are examined using the principle of least action in its original dissipative form. In general, the spacecraft's momentum will change when it travels through an energy density gradient of space that is enfolding a gravitating, orbiting and rotating body. When space is understood as a physical substance that embodies quanta of actions, rather than being modeled by a mere metric, it becomes apparent that the changes in momentum couple with flux of quanta from the local system of bodies to the universal surroundings or vice versa. In this way the original least-action principle accounts also for the 'anomalous' change in velocity by an equation of motion which complies with the empirical relation that has been deduced from Earth-flybys.

  10. Aspects of dramatic communication: action, non-action, interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelleman, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at describing the dramatic means of important transitional (in the sense of innovative) Russian dramas, such as Chekhovian, Symbolist (Blok) and Absurdist (D. Charms) Drama. The reduction of action and plot, the 'disturbed' communication, the alienation of man and the conveying o

  11. Action Learning in ActionAid Nepal: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Patricia; Rai, Deep Ranjani

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an example of how action learning was used as a framework for an organisational intervention to fundamentally change the organisational culture over a period of time. It also identifies our learning over that period of time and what worked well (and not so well) in an International Non-Governmental Organisation in Nepal.

  12. Its All Action, Its All Learning: Action Learning in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jean; Thorpe, Richard; Anderson, Lisa; Gold, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that action learning (AL) may provide a means of successfully developing small to medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Design/methodology/approach: The literature around SME learning suggests a number of processes are important for SME learning which similarity, it is argued, are encompassed in AL. AL may…

  13. Crossing the Boulevard: The Action of Genre as Social Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the author's first encounter with Carolyn Miller's "Genre as Social Action," and how the article opened the genre scholarship in rhetoric and communication, and led the author to integrate previous knowledge of linguistics and composition studies with communication studies and rhetoric more generally. Miller's…

  14. Action Learning in ActionAid Nepal: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Patricia; Rai, Deep Ranjani

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an example of how action learning was used as a framework for an organisational intervention to fundamentally change the organisational culture over a period of time. It also identifies our learning over that period of time and what worked well (and not so well) in an International Non-Governmental Organisation in Nepal.

  15. Aspects of dramatic communication: action, non-action, interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelleman, J.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at describing the dramatic means of important transitional (in the sense of innovative) Russian dramas, such as Chekhovian, Symbolist (Blok) and Absurdist (D. Charms) Drama. The reduction of action and plot, the 'disturbed' communication, the alienation of man and the conveying

  16. Interference, Reduced Action, and Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Edward R.

    2007-09-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the trajectories of the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichromatic wave function’s trajectory. The quantum effective mass renders insight into the behavior of the trajectory. The trajectory in turn renders insight into quantum nonlocality.

  17. Interference, reduced action, and trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Floyd, E R

    2006-01-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichromatic wave function's trajectory. The quantum effective mass renders insight into the behavior of the trajectory. The trajectory in turn renders insight into quantum nonlocality.

  18. Collective action, clientelism and connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shami, Mahvish

    are in short supply, the few that exist are generally pessimistic. This paper argues, however, that clientelist relations are highly context-specific, which matters a great deal for their implications for collective action. Making use of a natural experiment in rural Punjab, Pakistan, the paper finds...... that the unequal relationship between landlords and peasants does not, in and by itself, block peasant collective action. Rather, it is the interaction between clientelism and isolation that allow patrons to block community based projects. Despite still relying on powerful landlords, peasants in connected villages...

  19. Geometry, rigidity, and group actions

    CERN Document Server

    Farb, Benson; Zimmer, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    The study of group actions is more than a hundred years old but remains to this day a vibrant and widely studied topic in a variety of mathematic fields. A central development in the last fifty years is the phenomenon of rigidity, whereby one can classify actions of certain groups, such as lattices in semi-simple Lie groups. This provides a way to classify all possible symmetries of important spaces and all spaces admitting given symmetries. Paradigmatic results can be found in the seminal work of George Mostow, Gergory Margulis, and Robert J. Zimmer, among others.The p

  20. Action information from classification learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Brian H; Wang, Ranxiao Frances; Kramer, Arthur F; Simons, Daniel J; Crowell, James A

    2007-06-01

    Much of our learning comes from interacting with objects. Two experiments investigated whether or not arbitrary actions used during category learning with objects might be incorporated into object representations and influence later recognition judgments. In a virtual-reality chamber, participants used distinct arm movements to make different classification responses. During a recognition test phase, these same objects required arm movements that were consistent or inconsistent with the classification movement. In both experiments, consistent movements were facilitated relative to inconsistent movements, suggesting that arbitrary action information is incorporated into the representations.

  1. Action feedback affects the perception of action-related objects beyond actual action success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Wladimir; Königstein, Elisabeth; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Successful object-oriented action typically increases the perceived size of aimed target objects. This phenomenon has been assumed to reflect an impact of an actor's current action ability on visual perception. The actual action ability and the explicit knowledge of action outcome, however, were confounded in previous studies. The present experiments aimed at disentangling these two factors. Participants repeatedly tried to hit a circular target varying in size with a stylus movement under restricted feedback conditions. After each movement they were explicitly informed about the success in hitting the target and were then asked to judge target size. The explicit feedback regarding movement success was manipulated orthogonally to actual movement success. The results of three experiments indicated the participants' bias to judge relatively small targets as larger and relatively large targets as smaller after explicit feedback of failure than after explicit feedback of success. This pattern was independent of the actual motor performance, suggesting that the actors' evaluations of motor actions may bias perception of target objects in itself.

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation of the {sup 60} Co on antimicrobial action of plant extracts of bark and leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi; Efeitos da radiacao gama do {sup 60} Co sobre a acao antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais de cascas e folhas de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edvane Borges da; Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus [Universidade Federal da Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Lima, Jeniffer Maiza de Souza [Universidade Federal da Pernambuco (CAV/UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Xisto, Kesia; Araujo, Rosilma de Oliveira [Universidade Federal da Pernambuco (DA/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential for antimicrobial activity in vitro of extracts of bark and leaves of S. terebinthifolius treated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. 5,0 doses were used; 7.5 and 10 kGy, being held non-irradiated controls. To determine the antimicrobial activity was applied to the disc diffusion technique to evaluate the diameter of the inhibition zones against Gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, alcohol-acid-resistant and yeast. Antimicrobial activity was considered significant for halos ≥ 15 mm. The results indicate an intensification of antimicrobial action of bark extracts, the 5.0 kGy, against S. aureus. Was held the micro dilution in broth to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of peels extracts, compared to eight clinical isolates of S. aureus. The MBC values showed that ionizing radiation did not produce the increased of anti bacteriostatic action of S. terebinthifolius, but the results indicated that S. terebinthifolius bark extracts can be used as an antimicrobial agent and ionizing radiation as an important alternative in this conservation feature.

  3. Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Confucianism Becomes Major Brand of China's Cultural Exports孔子成中国文化出口大品牌China has the reputation of being the world's factory, due to all of the goods that it produces and exports. Now, a new brand has emerged on the list of exports:

  4. Affirmative Action: Opportunity or Obstacle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Ellen; Promis, Patricia

    Data about managerial positions and applicants were collected in an attempt to draw conclusions about the extent to which gender and ethnicity relate to the outcomes of the search and screen process for middle and senior management positions in academic libraries, and to determine any effects of affirmative action on promotion from within.…

  5. Team Challenge and Action Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how action learning can be accompanied by a project to encourage shared learning about organisation culture, the external environment, political context and team dynamics, while allowing space for personal issues. It drives forward reflective practice and encourages sets to deliver a tangible pay-back to the organisation.…

  6. Talent Management: Emphasis on Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Recent discussions among HR practitioners in higher education have focused on talent management; specifically, the concept of developing a college or university talent management approach balanced between planning and action. Talent management as a planning tool looks very similar to workforce planning, but where HR will experience a real…

  7. Action Learning Enabled Strategy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, John

    2008-01-01

    Action learning encourages individual reflection, insightful questioning and assumption breaking that result in changes in attitude and behaviour. This learning process provides the potential to explore and solve complex organizational problems such as the question of how to develop a future business strategy. Existing literature on the process of…

  8. On integrability of infinitesimal actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moerdijk, I.; Mrcun, J.

    2007-01-01

    We use foliations and connections on principal Lie groupoid bundles to prove various integrability results for Lie algebroids. In particular, we show, under quite general assumptions, that the semi-direct product associated to an infinitesimal action of one integrable Lie algebroid on another is int

  9. Talent Management: Emphasis on Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Recent discussions among HR practitioners in higher education have focused on talent management; specifically, the concept of developing a college or university talent management approach balanced between planning and action. Talent management as a planning tool looks very similar to workforce planning, but where HR will experience a real…

  10. Action research and Care Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Anette

    The paper is a about planning and empowerment in care work at public nursing homes and the role of action research. It is based on ongoing work in the “Center for Demokratisk Samfundsudvikling og Aktionsforskning” at Roskilde University and the transnational research network KATARSIS, which works...

  11. Rank Pooling for Action Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Basura; Gavves, Efstratios; Oramas M, Jose Oramas; Ghodrati, Amir; Tuytelaars, Tinne

    2017-04-01

    We propose a function-based temporal pooling method that captures the latent structure of the video sequence data - e.g., how frame-level features evolve over time in a video. We show how the parameters of a function that has been fit to the video data can serve as a robust new video representation. As a specific example, we learn a pooling function via ranking machines. By learning to rank the frame-level features of a video in chronological order, we obtain a new representation that captures the video-wide temporal dynamics of a video, suitable for action recognition. Other than ranking functions, we explore different parametric models that could also explain the temporal changes in videos. The proposed functional pooling methods, and rank pooling in particular, is easy to interpret and implement, fast to compute and effective in recognizing a wide variety of actions. We evaluate our method on various benchmarks for generic action, fine-grained action and gesture recognition. Results show that rank pooling brings an absolute improvement of 7-10 average pooling baseline. At the same time, rank pooling is compatible with and complementary to several appearance and local motion based methods and features, such as improved trajectories and deep learning features.

  12. Collective action and network change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takacs, Karoly; Janky, Bela; Flache, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Network models of collective action commonly assume fixed social networks in which ties influence participation through social rewards. This implies that only certain ties are beneficial from the view of individual actors. Accordingly, in this study we allow that actors strategically revise their re

  13. An Extented Wave Action Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左其华

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Navier-Stokes equation, an average wave energy equation and a generalized wave action conservation equation are presented in this paper. The turbulence effects on water particle velocity ui and wave surface elavation ξ as well as energy dissipation are included. Some simplified forms are also given.

  14. Gravitational action with null boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Luis; Myers, Robert C.; Poisson, Eric; Sorkin, Rafael D.

    2016-10-01

    We present a complete discussion of the boundary term in the action functional of general relativity when the boundary includes null segments in addition to the more usual timelike and spacelike segments. We confirm that ambiguities appear in the contribution from a null segment, because it depends on an arbitrary choice of parametrization for the generators. We also show that similar ambiguities appear in the contribution from a codimension-two surface at which a null segment is joined to another (spacelike, timelike, or null) segment. The parametrization ambiguity can be tamed by insisting that the null generators be affinely parametrized; this forces each null contribution to the boundary action to vanish, but leaves intact the fredom to rescale the affine parameter by a constant factor on each generator. Once a choice of parametrization is made, the ambiguity in the joint contributions can be eliminated by formulating well-motivated rules that ensure the additivity of the gravitational action. Enforcing these rules, we calculate the time rate of change of the action when it is evaluated for a so-called "Wheeler-DeWitt patch" of a black hole in asymptotically anti de Sitter space. We recover a number of results cited in the literature, obtained with a less complete analysis.

  15. Voice, Citizenship, and Civic Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the world has experienced a resurgence in practices of bottom-up communication for social change, a plethora of agency in which claims for voice and citizenship through massive civic action have conquered center stage in the public debate. This resurgence has sparked a series...

  16. Antimicrobial peptide action on parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Marc; Pulido, David; Rivas, Luis; Andreu, David

    2012-08-01

    Diseases caused by protozoan parasites can pose a severe thread to human health and are behind some serious neglected tropical diseases like malaria and leishmaniasis. Though several different drugs have been developed in order to eradicate these diseases, a successful candidate has not yet been discovered. Among the most active compounds tested, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are particularly appealing because of their wide spectrum of action. AMPs have been described to perturb protozoan homeostasis by disrupting the cellular membranes but also by interfering with key processes in the parasite metabolism. In this review we describe the diverse mechanisms of action of AMPs on protozoan targets and how they can be exploited to treat diseases. Moreover, we describe with detail the antimicrobial action of AMPs on two major parasitical infections: leishmaniasis and malaria. All the features reviewed here show that AMPs are promising drugs to target protozoan parasites and that further understanding of the mechanism of action of these compounds will lead to improved drugs that could be worth to test in a clinical phase.

  17. Action Research and Reflective Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阿莉

    2008-01-01

    Reflection is an impontant core of professional development and action research in which the teachers reflect through the Systematic collection and analym of data is a form of srrucured reflection.The teachers can be provided with powerful means of professional development.

  18. The Challenge of Affirmative Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Valerie Ooka; Strom, David; Young, Russell L.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the challenges of using affirmative action programs when competing groups of underrepresented people vie for limited school resources. The case study of a San Francisco (California) high school illustrates the difficulties of balancing competing goals when affirming diversity and addressing patterns of discrimination conflict with equal…

  19. Tracking in Object Action Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Volker; Herzog, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the joint problem of tracking humans and recognizing human action in scenarios such as a kitchen scenario or a scenario where a robot cooperates with a human, e.g., for a manufacturing task. In these scenarios, the human directly interacts with objects physically by using...

  20. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  1. Groundwater: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to be a guide for community action, this booklet examines issues and trends related to groundwater contamination. Basic concepts about groundwater and information about problems affecting it are covered under the categories of (1) what is groundwater? (2) availability and depletion; (3) quality and contamination; (4) public health…

  2. Semantic activation in action planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindemann, Oliver; Stenneken, Prisca; van Schie, Hein T.; Bekkering, Harold

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments investigated activation of semantic information in action preparation. Participants either prepared to grasp and use an object (e.g., to drink from a cup) or to lift a finger in association with the object's position following a go/no-go lexical-decision task. Word stimuli were cons

  3. [Modes of action of IUDs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaud, A

    1982-05-01

    There are between 14-17 million women in the world, excluding China, who wear an IUD, or about 3-5% of all married women younger than 45. Studies on the mode of action of IUDs have been conducted mostly on laboratory animals; they show that ovulation and fecundation are not inhibited by the presence of an IUD. Contrary to what was generally believed, the latest studies have shown that the principle mode of action of the IUD is not its anti-implantation effect, but it depends on the adjustment inside the uterine cavity between the size of the uterine cavity itself, and the size and shape of the device. Endometrial modifications caused by IUDs include inflammatory phenomena, and inhibition of endometrial maturation. Moreover, copper IUDs act directly on spermatozoa and on endometrial steroid receptors. It is still not clear what role prostaglandins play in the mechanism of action of IUDs. Incidence of ectopic pregnancy is not greater in IUD wearers than in women who do not use contraception. Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels also are comparable in IUD wearers and in nonwearers. IUD wearers have a shorter luteal phase, which entails an earlier menstrual bleeding due to the antifibrinolytic action of the IUD; progesterone levels are identical in users and in nonusers of IUDs.

  4. Action research in pharmacy practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Sørensen, Ellen Westh

    2015-01-01

    -based study. Concepts related to AR are described; in addition, the multifaceted role of the action researcher is described, along with a set of data quality criteria for evaluating the quality of an AR-based study. Then follows a thorough description of a Danish AR-based pharmacy practice study. The chapter...

  5. Action Research and Interactive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    First part of the book is written by senior researchers on specific issues like validity, gender, new forms of organisations, methodologies and methods, earlier and new trends. - The second part of the book is written by doctoral students reporting experiences doing action research in their PhD-projects....

  6. FINAL REPORT FOR ACTION RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionAction research is a form of research undertaken by teachers in the classroom.It follows basically aspiral of research steps:1.identifying a problem2.making a hypothesis3.deciding on a solution4.implementing the solution5.collection data6.reflecting on and analysing the effects7.identifying a new problem-and the research continues like a spiral.

  7. John Rawls and Affirmative Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the philosophy of John Rawls, asserting that although Rawls never wrote about affirmative action, his ideas are relevant to the issue. Rawls concentrated on "ideal theory," which he believed was the theory of what constituted a truly just society. He considered slavery and racial segregation paradigms of injustice. His ideal…

  8. Coordinating talk and practical action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshima, Sae; Streeck, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how talk and practical action are coordinated during one type of activity involving professional communication: the service-assessment sequence in hair salons. During this activity, a practical inspection of the haircut must be coupled with sequentially produced verbal act...

  9. Action Research and Interactive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    First part of the book is written by senior researchers on specific issues like validity, gender, new forms of organisations, methodologies and methods, earlier and new trends. - The second part of the book is written by doctoral students reporting experiences doing action research in their PhD-projects....

  10. Simulation of Floaters in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Eggert; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard; Damkilde, Lars

    This report is the first in a series of three, which altogether documents: 1. theory 2. numerical implementation 3. application for Simulation of Floaters in Action (SOFIA), which is a structural analysis tool for slender offshore structures, such as monopiles, jacket structures and floating space...

  11. Algebras with actions and automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Kühnel

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we want to give a common structure theory of left action, group operations, R-modules and automata of different types defined over various kinds of carrier objects: sets, graphs, presheaves, sheaves, topological spaces (in particular: compactly generated Hausdorff spaces. The first section gives an axiomatic approach to algebraic structures relative to a base category B, slightly more powerful than that of monadic (tripleable functors. In section 2 we generalize Lawveres functorial semantics to many-sorted algebras over cartesian closed categories. In section 3 we treat the structures mentioned in the beginning as many-sorted algebras with fixed “scalar” or “input” object and show that they still have an algebraic (or monadic forgetful functor (theorem 3.3 and hence the general theory of algebraic structures applies. These structures were usually treated as one-sorted in the Lawvere-setting, the action being expressed by a family of unary operations indexed over the scalars. But this approach cannot, as the one developed here, describe continuity of the action (more general: the action to be a B-morphism, which is essential for the structures mentioned above, e.g. modules for a sheaf of rings or topological automata. Finally we discuss consequences of theorem 3.3 for the structure theory of various types of automata. The particular case of algebras with fixed “natural numbers object” has been studied by the authors in [23].

  12. CORRECTIVE ACTION IN CAR MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rohne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In this paper the important .issues involved in successfully implementing corrective action systems in quality management are discussed. The work is based on experience in implementing and operating such a system in an automotive manufacturing enterprise in South Africa. The core of a corrective action system is good documentation, supported by a computerised information system. Secondly, a systematic problem solving methodology is essential to resolve the quality related problems identified by the system. In the following paragraphs the general corrective action process is discussed and the elements of a corrective action system are identified, followed by a more detailed discussion of each element. Finally specific results from the application are discussed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Belangrike oorwegings by die suksesvolle implementering van korrektiewe aksie stelsels in gehaltebestuur word in hierdie artikel bespreek. Die werk is gebaseer op ondervinding in die implementering en bedryf van so 'n stelsel by 'n motorvervaardiger in Suid Afrika. Die kern van 'n korrektiewe aksie stelsel is goeie dokumentering, gesteun deur 'n gerekenariseerde inligtingstelsel. Tweedens is 'n sistematiese probleemoplossings rnetodologie nodig om die gehalte verwante probleme wat die stelsel identifiseer aan te spreek. In die volgende paragrawe word die algemene korrektiewe aksie proses bespreek en die elemente van die korrektiewe aksie stelsel geidentifiseer. Elke element word dan in meer besonderhede bespreek. Ten slotte word spesifieke resultate van die toepassing kortliks behandel.

  13. Induced Rigid String Action From Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarathy, R

    1999-01-01

    From the Dirac action on the world sheet, an effective action is obtained by integrating over the 4-dimensional fermion fields pulled back to the world sheet. This action consists of the Nambu-Goto area term with right dimensionful constant in front, extrinsic curvature action and the topological Euler characteristic term.

  14. 36 CFR 72.13 - Action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Assessment is to provide background and justification for an Action Plan. The Action Plan, which.... Goals will clearly relate to the needs and issues identified in the Assessment and must be projected for... complete Action Program, including both improvements needed in the Assessment and the Action Plan....

  15. 29 CFR 1607.13 - Affirmative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Affirmative action. 1607.13 Section 1607.13 Labor... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.13 Affirmative action. A. Affirmative action... relieve users of any obligations they may have to undertake affirmative action to assure equal...

  16. Action Learning in Undergraduate Engineering Thesis Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbelt, Brad

    2017-01-01

    In the present action learning implementation, twelve action learning sets were conducted over eight years. The action learning sets consisted of students involved in undergraduate engineering research thesis work. The concurrent study accompanying this initiative investigated the influence of the action learning environment on student approaches…

  17. Developing an Action Learning Design Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Hyeon-Cheol; Cho, Yonjoo; Kim, Hyung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    As the number of organizations implementing action learning increases, both successful and failed cases also increase in action learning practice in South Korea. Existing studies on action learning have listed key success factors of action learning at the program level or at the team level but have not paid sufficient attention to the program…

  18. Swart perspektiewe op affirmative action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobus Smit

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Affirmative action embodies a model of compensatory justice which aims al counteracting Discrimination on account of race, colour, sex or creed. This article focuses on race because it has had a devastating effect on blacks in South Africa. The author tries to evaluate the moral merits of affirmative action. An analysis of the ideas of black American conservatives and a South African academic of a perhaps more liberal mind, is used as a means of questioning the widely prevalent liberal legacy. By highlighting its pretensions and inconsistencies a picture of the implications of affirmative action for South Africa emerges that is both a threat and a challenge. Equal opportunities d o not necessarily entail equal results. Other factors such as culture, world view and labour ethos should also be taken into account. The "legacy of dignity" (King is incompatible with the victim-status some blacks exploit. Much was done in South Africa before Julv 1991 that could be labelled affirmative action. The scrapping of the Population Registration A ct as the last pillar of apartheid has tremendous implications for the dignity of blacks. But history promises yet a number of traumatic decades of democratization of the South African community. Positively, affirmative action in South Africa will have tofocus on quality education, bridging courses to enable black students to compete on equal footing for admission, on training employees to qualify for special jobs, community upliftment, housing programmes and the improvement of health services. The most urgent need is the cultivation of a common value system.

  19. Grounded action: Achieving optimal and sustainable change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Grounded action is the application and extension of grounded theory for the purpose of designing and implementing practical actions such as interventions, program designs, action models, social and organizational policies, and change initiatives. Grounded action is grounded theory with an added action component in which actions are systematically derived from a systematically derived explanatory grounded theory. Actions are grounded in the grounded theory in the same way that grounded theories are grounded in data. Grounded actionwas designed by the authors to address complex, multi-dimensionalorganizational and social problems and issues.

  20. Pythagorean quantization, action(s) and the arrow of time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuch, Dieter, E-mail: schuch@em.uni-frankfurt.d [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-06-01

    Searching for the first well-documented attempts of introducing some kind of 'quantization' into the description of nature inevitably leads to the ancient Greeks, in particular Plato and Pythagoras. The question of finding the so-called Pythagorean triples, i.e., right-angled triangles with integer length of all three sides, is, surprisingly, connected with complex nonlinear Riccati equations that occur in time-dependent quantum mechanics. The complex Riccati equation together with the usual Newtonian equation of the system, leads to a dynamical invariant with the dimension of an action. The relation between this invariant and a conserved 'angular momentum' for the motion in the complex plane will be determined. The 'Pythagorean quantization' shows similarities with the quantum Hall effect and leads to an interpretation of Sommerfeld's fine structure constant that involves another quantum of action, the 'least Coulombic action' e{sup 2}/c. Since natural evolution is characterized by irreversibility and dissipation, the question of how these aspects can be incorporated into a quantum mechanical description arises. Two effective approaches that also both possess a dynamical invariant (like the one mentioned above) will be discussed. One uses an explicitly time-dependent (linear) Hamiltonian, whereas the other leads to a nonlinear Schroedinger equation with complex logarithmic nonlinearity. Both approaches can be transformed into each other via a non-unitary transformation that involves Schroedinger's original definition of a (complex) action via the wave function.

  1. Improved Lattice Actions with Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W

    1998-01-01

    We give a prescription how to include a chemical potential \\mu into a general lattice action. This inclusion does not cause any lattice artifacts. Hence its application to an improved - or even perfect - action at \\mu =0 yields an improved resp. perfect action at arbitrary \\mu. For short-ranged improved actions, a good scaling behavior holds over a wide region, and the upper bound for the baryon density - which is known for the standard lattice actions - can be exceeded.

  2. Lincosamides: Chemical structure, biosynthesis, mechanism of action, resistance, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spížek, Jaroslav; Řezanka, Tomáš

    2017-06-01

    Lincomycin and its derivatives are antibiotics exhibiting biological activity against bacteria, especially Gram-positive ones, and also protozoans. Lincomycin and its semi-synthetic chlorinated derivative clindamycin are widely used in clinical practice. Both antibiotics are bacteriostatic, inhibiting protein synthesis in sensitive bacteria; however, at higher concentrations, they may be bactericidal. Clindamycin is usually much more active than lincomycin in the treatment of bacterial infections, in particular those caused by anaerobic species; it can also be used for the treatment of important protozoal diseases, e.g. malaria, most effectively in combination with other antibiotic or non-antibiotic antimicrobials (primaquine, fosfidomycin, benzoyl peroxide). Chemical structures of lincosamide antibiotics and the biosynthesis of lincomycin and its genetic control have been summarized and described. Resistance to lincomycin and clindamycin may be caused by methylation of 23S ribosomal RNA, modification of the antibiotics by specific enzymes or active efflux from the bacterial cell. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Collective action and rationality models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Miller Moya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Olsonian theory of collective action (Olson, 1965 assumes a model of economic rationality, based on a simple calculus between costs and benefits, that can be hardly hold at present, given the models of rationality proposed recently by several fields of research. In relation to these fields, I will concentrate in two specific proposals, namely: evolutionary game theory and, over all, the theory of bounded rationality. Both alternatives are specially fruitful in order to propose models that do not need a maximizing rationality, or environments of complete and perfect information. Their approaches, based on the possibility of individual learning over the time, have contributed to the analysis of the emergence of social norms, which is something really necessary to the resolution of problems related to cooperation. Thus, this article asserts that these two new theoretical contributions make feasible a fundamental advance in the study of collective action.

  4. Caffeine's Vascular Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darío Echeverri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulating substance in the world. It is found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, and many medications. Caffeine is a xanthine with various effects and mechanisms of action in vascular tissue. In endothelial cells, it increases intracellular calcium stimulating the production of nitric oxide through the expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme. Nitric oxide is diffused to the vascular smooth muscle cell to produce vasodilation. In vascular smooth muscle cells its effect is predominantly a competitive inhibition of phosphodiesterase, producing an accumulation of cAMP and vasodilation. In addition, it blocks the adenosine receptors present in the vascular tissue to produce vasoconstriction. In this paper the main mechanisms of action of caffeine on the vascular tissue are described, in which it is shown that caffeine has some cardiovascular properties and effects which could be considered beneficial.

  5. Hungarian climate change action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molnar, S.; Takacs, T. [Systemexpert Consulting Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Arpasi, M. [MOL, Budapest (Hungary); Farago, T.; Palvoelgyi, T. [Ministry for Environment and Regional Policy, Budapest (Hungary); Harnos, Z. [Univ. of Horticulture, Budapest (Hungary); Lontay, Z. [EGI-Contracting Engineering Co. Ltd., Budapest (Hungary); Somogyi, Z. [Forest Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary); Tajthy, T. [Univ. of Technology, Budapest (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    In 1994--1996, within the framework of the US Country Studies Program, the Hungarian Country Study Team developed the national greenhouse gas emission inventory, and elaborated the mitigation options for the different sectors of the economy. In 1997, the development of a National Action Plan was begun as the continuation of this work. Results of the inventory study showed that greenhouse gas emissions decreased from the selected base level (i.e., from the yearly average emissions of 1985--1987) until 1994 by cca. 25%. However, this decrease was primarily caused by the deep economic recession. Therefore the policy makers have to face the problem of economic recovery without a relevant increase of greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. This is the main focus of the mitigation analysis and the National Action Plan.

  6. Solidarity, synchronization and collective action

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggeman, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    For people to act collectively in actual situations -- in contrast to public goods experiments -- goal ambiguity, diversity of interests, and uncertain costs and benefits stand in their way. Under such conditions, people seem to have few reasons to cooperate, yet the Arab revolutions, as conspicuous examples, show that collective action can take place despite the odds. I use the Kuramoto model to show how people in a cohesive network topology can synchronize their salient traits (emotions, interests, or other), and that synchronization happens in a phase transition, when group solidarity passes a critical threshold. This yields more precise predictions of outbursts of collective action under adverse conditions, and casts a new light on different measures of social cohesion.

  7. Action Research as a Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus-Rødje, Nina

    2012-01-01

    and the different roles I occupied. To better understand the complex nature of collaboration found within action research projects, I propose conceptualizing action research as a network. The network framework directs our attention to the collective production and the conditions through which roles...... and interventions come to exist. Thus, interventions and roles can be seen as network effects—they are enacted and supported by the network. Accordingly, roles and interventions are neither simply static and fixed nor fluid and flexible; rather, these are products of past and present attachments. I demonstrate how...... the different attachments existing in the network at different points in time enable the configuration of particular actors with capacities to enact different roles and interventions in a diversity of contexts and settings. Finally, I illustrate what happens when these attachments are missing and how...

  8. Resolution of smooth group actions

    CERN Document Server

    Albin, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    A refined form of the `Folk Theorem' that a smooth action by a compact Lie group can be (canonically) resolved, by iterated blow up, to have unique isotropy type is proved in the context of manifolds with corners. This procedure is shown to capture the simultaneous resolution of all isotropy types in a `resolution structure' consisting of equivariant iterated fibrations of the boundary faces. This structure projects to give a similar resolution structure for the quotient. In particular these results apply to give a canonical resolution of the radial compactification, to a ball, of any finite dimensional representation of a compact Lie group; such resolutions of the normal action of the isotropy groups appear in the boundary fibers in the general case.

  9. Generalization of the Proca Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisenberg, Lavinia, E-mail: Lavinia.Heisenberg@unige.ch [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline St. N, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2014-05-01

    We consider the Lagrangian of a vector field with derivative self-interactions with a priori arbitrary coefficients. Starting with a flat space-time we show that for a special choice of the coefficients of the self-interactions the ghost-like pathologies disappear. This constitutes the Galileon-type generalization of the Proca action with only three propagating physical degrees of freedom. The longitudinal mode of the vector field is associated to the usual Galileon interactions for a specific choice of the overall functions. In difference to a scalar Galileon theory, the generalized Proca field has more free parameters. We then extend this analysis to a curved background. The resulting theory is the Horndeski Proca action with second order equations of motion on curved space-times.

  10. Generalization of the Proca Action

    CERN Document Server

    Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2014-01-01

    We consider the Lagrangian of a vector field with derivative self-interactions with a priori arbitrary coefficients. Starting with a flat space-time we show that for a special choice of the coefficients of the self-interactions the ghost-like pathologies disappear. This constitutes the Galileon-type generalization of the Proca action with only three propagating physical degrees of freedom. The longitudinal mode of the vector field is associated to the usual Galileon interactions. In difference to a scalar Galileon theory, the generalized Proca field has more free parameters. We then extend this analysis to a curved background. The resulting theory is the Horndeski Proca action with second order equations of motion on curved space-times.

  11. BENEFIT OF ASTHMA ACTION PLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagadpally

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of asthma action plan on asthma control, reducing unscheduled hospital visits of children with asthma. The study also was to know if the instructions regarding management are being documented in the patient notes. METHOD: It was a retrospective study. The data was collected from a random sample of 100 patients with asthma between Jan . 2012 to Dec . 2014 who were admitted as in - patients to the children’s ward in our hospital. RESULTS: Children who received asthma action plan had fewer exacerbations and fewer lost school days. Good documentation of symptoms led to better compliance and outcome in the child KEYWORDS: A sthma; A ction plan.

  12. The cardiovascular action of hexarelin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    wYuanjie MAO; Takeshi Tokudome; Ichiro Kishimoto

    2014-01-01

    Hexarelin, a synthetic growth hormone-releasing peptide, can bind to and activate the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) in the brain similar to its natural analog ghrelin. However, the peripheral distribution of GHSR in the heart and blood vessels suggests that hexarelin might have direct cardiovascular actions beyond growth hormone release and neuroendocrine effects. Furthermore, the non-GHSR CD36 had been demonstrated to be a specific cardiac receptor for hexarelin and to mediate its cardioprotective effects. When compared with ghrelin, hexarelin is chemically more stable and functionally more potent. Therefore, it may be a promising therapeutic agent for some car-diovascular conditions. In this concise review, we discuss the current evidence for the cardiovascular action of hexarelin.

  13. User Involvement And Entrepreneurial Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Heiskanen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Involving users in the innovation process is a subject of much research, experimentation, and debate. Less attention has been given to the limits to user involvement that ensue from specific organizational characteristics. This article explores barriers to the utilization of users’ input in two small companies developing interactive digital applications. We contrast our findings to earlier research involving large companies to identify features of entrepreneurial sensemaking and action that influence the utilization of users’ input. We find that the small companies follow a distinct action rationality, leading to rapid implementation of some user inputs, and defensiveness toward others. Both sets of data also reveal common features that are often overlooked in the literature. We reconceptualize user involvement as a form of interaction between users and innovating companies that is facilitated and constrained by micro-sociological processes, on the one hand, and the nature of the competitive environment, on the other.

  14. Knowledge in action in weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka Berggren Torell

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The project “Design, craft and culture” had the purpose of co-production of knowledge between the University of Borås and the small-scale enterprise Vävkompaniet (The weaving company. The practitioners’ wanted to get insights into competences previously “hidden” in their knowledge in action; competences that could be the base for development of products and ways to reach customers. From academic point of view the main goal was to produce films aimed shedding light on knowledge in action. The result is four educational films aimed at students.This article is based on interpretations of films and interviews from places where the handweavers produce their products. A researcher and a weaving teacher studied their work, while the photographer filmed the artisans’ body movements. Questions and words, in a language which fits the events of the practice, can make practitioners sharpen their attention and direct it at critical points in the practice that they accomplish. By interviews done in a conversation-like way during observations, a space for such reflections was created. The weavers shared meanings on their position in the field of craft and detailed descriptions of crafting practices with the research team. Regarding the design process, because of their material rather than conceptual approach to craftwork, the weavers brought up the importance of sample weaving. While work with dressing the looms and weaving then continued many empirical examples of aspects of knowledge in action could be observed. The importance of routine, rhythm, bodily skills, senses, judgement and experience are brought up in the text.Key words: textile craft, weaving, tacit knowledge, knowledge in action, senses, visual ethnography

  15. Principle extremum of full action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon I. Khmelnik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new variational principle extremum of full action is proposed, which extends the Lagrange formalism on dissipative systems. It is shown that this principle is applicable in electrical engineering, electrodynamics, mechanics and hydrodynamics, taking into account the friction forces. The proposed variational principle may be considered as a new formalism used as an universal method of physical equations derivation, and also as a method for solving these equations.

  16. Vacuum effective action: semiclassical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, I L [Departamento de Fisica, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    We present a brief review of quantum corrections to the action of gravity. The main attention is concentrated on the quantum theory of matter fields (QFT) on classical metric background. The list of most interesting possible applications of quantum corrections includes inflation and the Dark Energy problem. We show that both problems can be, in principle, resolved within the semiclassical theory, without invoking quantum gravity or string theory.

  17. Information, uncertainty and holographic action

    CERN Document Server

    Dikken, Robbert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this short note we show through simple derivation the explicit relation between information flow and the theories of the emergence of space-time and gravity, specifically for Newton's second law of motion. Next, in a rather straightforward derivation the Heisenberg uncertainty relation is uncovered from the universal bound on information flow. A relation between the universal bound on information flow and the change in bulk action is also shown to exist.

  18. Duality group actions on fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantev, Tony; Sharpe, Eric

    2016-11-01

    In this short paper we look at the action of T-duality and string duality groups on fermions, in maximally-supersymmetric theories and related theories. Briefly, we argue that typical duality groups such as SL(2 , ℤ) have sign ambiguities in their actions on fermions, and propose that pertinent duality groups be extended by ℤ2, to groups such as the metaplectic group. Specifically, we look at duality groups arising from mapping class groups of tori in M theory compactifications, T-duality, ten-dimensional type IIB S-duality, and (briefly) four-dimensional N = 4 super Yang-Mills, and in each case, propose that the full duality group is a nontrivial ℤ2 extension of the duality group acting on bosonic degrees of freedom, to more accurately describe possible actions on fermions. We also walk through U-duality groups for toroidal compactifications to nine, eight, and seven dimensions, which enables us to perform cross-consistency tests of these proposals.

  19. Duality group actions on fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Pantev, T

    2016-01-01

    In this short paper we look at the action of T-duality and string duality groups on fermions, in maximally-supersymmetric theories and related theories. Briefly, we argue that typical duality groups such as SL(2,Z) have sign ambiguities in their actions on fermions, and propose that pertinent duality groups be extended by Z_2, to groups such as the metaplectic group. Specifically, we look at duality groups arising from mapping class groups of tori in M theory compactifications, T-duality, ten-dimensional type IIB S-duality, and (briefly) four-dimensional N=4 super Yang-Mills, and in each case, propose that the full duality group is a nontrivial Z_2 extension of the duality group acting on bosonic degrees of freedom, to more accurately describe possible actions on fermions. We also walk through U-duality groups for toroidal compactifications to nine, eight, and seven dimensions, which enables us to perform cross-consistency tests of these proposals.

  20. Human action analysis with randomized trees

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Gang; Liu, Zicheng

    2014-01-01

    This book will provide a comprehensive overview on human action analysis with randomized trees. It will cover both the supervised random trees and the unsupervised random trees. When there are sufficient amount of labeled data available, supervised random trees provides a fast method for space-time interest point matching. When labeled data is minimal as in the case of example-based action search, unsupervised random trees is used to leverage the unlabelled data. We describe how the randomized trees can be used for action classification, action detection, action search, and action prediction.

  1. Study on Pharmacological Action of Aqueous Extract from Melaleuca Ahemifolia%互叶白千层水提物药理作用研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕婧; 钟正贤; 林霄; 刘布鸣

    2013-01-01

      目的:观察互叶白千层水提物的药理作用。方法:采用巴豆油致小鼠耳廓肿胀法、微量2倍稀释法、小鼠热板法、小鼠被动皮肤过敏试验、豚鼠磷酸组胺致痒试验等试验方法观察互叶白千层水提物的药理作用,并对其进行急性毒性试验。结果:互叶白千层水提物能抑制巴豆油引起小鼠耳廓肿胀;提高小鼠热刺激疼痛的痛阈值;对金黄色葡萄球菌、表皮葡萄球菌、大肠埃希杆菌、白色念珠菌有较强抑菌作用;抑制小鼠被动皮肤通透性;增加豚鼠耐受磷酸组胺的致痒阈;互叶白千层水提物的最大给药量为225.62 g生药/kg。结论:互叶白千层水提物具有抗炎、镇痛、抗菌、抗过敏、止痒等药理作用,且毒性小。%Objective: To observe the pharmacological action of aqueous extract from Melaleuca Ahemifolia. Methods: The experiments concluded mice ear-swollen induced by croton oil, double broth dilution method, hot plate test, passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA)in mouse, cavy itch test by histamine phosphate and acute toxicity test to observe the pharmacological action of aqueous extract from Melaleuca Ahemifolia. Results: Aqueous Extract from Melaleuca Ahemifolia can inhibit the mice ear-swollen induced by croton oil, enhance the threshold of pain in mice due to hot stimulation, provide obvious bacteriostatic ac-tion on staphylococcus aureus, staphylococcus epidermidis, bacillus coli and albicans Saccharomyces, reduce the PCA and im-prove cavy itch-threshold by histamine phosphate. The acute toxicity test showed that maximum tolerance of water extract of melaleuca alternifolia was 225.62 g crude drug/kg. Conclusion: Aqueous Extract from Melaleuca Ahemifolia can provide obvious anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-allergic and antipruritic effects, with low toxicity.

  2. 28 CFR 544.44 - Disciplinary action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.44 Disciplinary action. As with any other mandatory programs, such as work assignments, staff may take disciplinary action against an inmate... mandatory ESL program....

  3. Modelling the control of interceptive actions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    P. J. Beek; J. C. Dessing; C. E. Peper; D. Bullock

    2003-01-01

    .... We call these short–route models as they do not address how perception–action patterns might be constrained by the dynamical properties of the sensory, neural and musculoskeletal subsystems of the human action system...

  4. Action Theory, Control and Motivation: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckensberger, L. H.; Meacham, J. A., Eds.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the symposium on action theory presented at the 1983 meeting of the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development in Munich. The symposium included reactions to action theory from a variety of theoretical perspectives. (Author/RH)

  5. Supporting Educational Management through Action Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Maggie; Nunes, Jose Miguel Baptista

    2002-01-01

    Presents the Educational Management Action Research model, which is intended to support action research into issues relating to the management of distance learning programs. Describes its successful use in a particular information technology course. (EV)

  6. Risk, responsibility and political action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov Jensen, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    . It is argued that an application of the Toulmin model is useful for eliciting systematic overall repre-sentations of responsibility and agency in environmental crises such as the mad cow crisis as well as for revealing relationships between social domains such as moral, politics, economics and science...... action was transformed into a moral respon-sibility on the part of the national and European politicians, constrained by economic and technical-scientific reality and represented as taking place only in the public sphere. KEY WORDS: CDA, World Risk Society, argumentation, media discourse, argumentation...

  7. Entrepreneurial action, sustainability and bricolage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.

    This paper explores the relation between entrepreneurship and sustainability. It is explored whether bricolage, a specific form of entrepreneurial action, is particularly conducive to the creation of sustainable solutions. This question is investigated through a case study of an entrepreneur who...... has a long history of sustainable entrepreneurship in which bricolage plays a central role. The study identifies six distinct forms of bricolage practised by the entrepreneur. Furthermore, it is found that, while there is no direct link between bricolage and sustainability, the two concepts have...... a potentially synergetic relationship between them so that bricolage skills may enhance a sustainable mindset, and vice versa....

  8. Holographic Complexity Equals Bulk Action?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-05-01

    We conjecture that the quantum complexity of a holographic state is dual to the action of a certain spacetime region that we call a Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We illustrate and test the conjecture in the context of neutral, charged, and rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime, as well as black holes perturbed with static shells and with shock waves. This conjecture evolved from a previous conjecture that complexity is dual to spatial volume, but appears to be a major improvement over the original. In light of our results, we discuss the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  9. Communication (action with communicative content).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term Communication generally designate the transmission of a message of concepts, feelings or needs from a speaker to a receiver by means of verbal or no verbal language. The pragmatic approach to human communication has put in evidence a further implication of this concept: every behaviour therefore has a value even when it is not intentional. Recently, a more dynamic concept of communication has been elaborated where communication means communicative action. This interpretation is the starting point for the theory of the "communicative acting" and subsequently of the so called discourse ethic elaborated by J. Habermas.

  10. Child overweight - mothers' competence to take action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Anne; Wagner, Lis; Peitersen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We investigated mothers' possession and display of action competence to counteract or prevent overweight and eventual obesity in their children. Action competence is defined as a personal resource where the most important aspect is the individual's wish to take action and to believe...... interview about action competence, lifestyle, and their 7- to 9-year-old children. Results: Compared to MNC, MOC considered it more important to change habits, both for themselves (p = 0.003) and their children (p

  11. Whither the common law derivative action

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, JL

    2009-01-01

    The common law derivative action was developed as a result of decades of case law in common law jurisdictions. Hong Kong and Singapore continue to retain the common law derivative action within their respective legal frameworks, despite both having enacted statutory derivative actions. This paper considers the situations in which the common law derivative action continues to have practical application in each of these jurisdictions. It then considers whether the common law derivative acti...

  12. Reliability of Search and Rescue Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burciu, Zbigniew

    2012-06-01

    Determination of the reliability of Search and Rescue action system allows the SAR Mission Coordinator to increase the effectiveness of the action through the proper selection of operational characteristics of the system elements, in particular the selection of the rescue units and auxiliary units. The paper presents the example of the influence of water temperature and time of the action on the reliability of search and rescue action in the case of rescuing a survivor in the water.

  13. Maude Object-Oriented Action Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Maidl, André Murbach; Carvilhe, Cláudio,; Musicante, Martin A.

    2013-01-01

    MAIDL, André Murbach; CARVILHE, Claudio; MUSICANTE, Martin A. Maude Object-Oriented Action Tool. Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science. [S.l:s.n], 2008. Object-Oriented Action Semantics (OOAS) incorporates object-oriented concepts to the Action Semantics formalism. Its main goal is to obtain more readable and reusable semantics specifications. Moreover, it supports syntax-independent specifications, due to the way classes are written. Maude Object-Oriented Action Tool (MOOAT)...

  14. Action observation: Inferring intentions without mirror neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Kilner, James M

    2008-01-01

    A recent study has shown, using fMRI, that the mirror neuron system does not mediate action understanding when the observed action is novel or when it is hard to understand.......A recent study has shown, using fMRI, that the mirror neuron system does not mediate action understanding when the observed action is novel or when it is hard to understand....

  15. Supermembrane actions for Gaiotto-Maldacena backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefański, Bogdan

    2014-06-01

    We write down the supermembrane actions for M-theory backgrounds dual to general N=2 four-dimensional superconformal field theories. The actions are given to all orders in fermions and are in a particular κ-gauge. When an extra U(1) isometry is present, our actions reduce to κ-gauge fixed Green-Schwarz actions for the corresponding Type IIA backgrounds.

  16. Supermembrane actions for Gaiotto–Maldacena backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefański, Bogdan, E-mail: Bogdan.Stefanski.1@city.ac.uk

    2014-06-15

    We write down the supermembrane actions for M-theory backgrounds dual to general N=2 four-dimensional superconformal field theories. The actions are given to all orders in fermions and are in a particular κ-gauge. When an extra U(1) isometry is present, our actions reduce to κ-gauge fixed Green–Schwarz actions for the corresponding Type IIA backgrounds.

  17. Action-effect bindings and ideomotor learning in intention- and stimulus-based actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid eHerwig

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available According to ideomotor theory, action-effect associations are crucial for voluntary action control. Recently, a number of studies started to investigate the conditions that mediate the acquisition and application of action-effect associations by comparing actions carried out in response to exogenous stimuli (stimulus-based with actions selected endogenously (intention-based. There is evidence that the acquisition and/or application of action-effect associations is boosted when acting in an intention-based action mode. For instance, bidirectional action-effect associations were diagnosed in a forced choice test phase if participants previously experienced action-effect couplings in an intention-based but not in a stimulus-based action mode. The present study aims at investigating effects of the action mode on action-effect associations in more detail. In a series of experiments, we compared the strength and durability of short-term action-effect associations (binding immediately following intention- as well as stimulus-based actions. Moreover, long-term action-effect associations (learning were assessed in a subsequent test phase. Our results show short-term action-effect associations of equal strength and durability for both action modes. However, replicating previous results, long-term associations were observed only following intention-based actions. These findings indicate that the effect of the action mode on long-term associations cannot merely be a result of accumulated short-term action-effect bindings. Instead, only those episodic bindings are selectively perpetuated or retrieved that integrate action-relevant aspects of the processing event, i.e., in case of intention-based actions, the link between action and ensuing effect.

  18. Participatory Action Research and the Public Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmis, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Some action research today lacks a critical edge. This article identifies five inadequate forms of action research, and argues that action research must be capable of "telling unwelcome truths" against schooling in the interests of education. It reasserts a connection between education and emancipatory ideals that allow educators to address…

  19. 15 CFR 904.322 - Interim action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim action. 904.322 Section 904... Sanctions and Denials Permit Sanction for Violations § 904.322 Interim action. (a) To protect marine...) The Judge will order interim action under paragraph (a) of this section, only after finding that...

  20. The Mirror Neuron System and Action Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, Giovanni; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Riggio, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Mirror neurons, first described in the rostral part of monkey ventral premotor cortex (area F5), discharge both when the animal performs a goal-directed hand action and when it observes another individual performing the same or a similar action. More recently, in the same area mirror neurons responding to the observation of mouth actions have been…

  1. Action priors for learning domain invariances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rosman, Benjamin S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available , defined as distributions over the action space, conditioned on environment state, and show how these can be learnt from a set of value functions. We apply action priors in the setting of reinforcement learning, to bias action selection during exploration...

  2. The Affirmative Action Debate: A Critical Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Berte

    2010-01-01

    In this article I contend that we cannot divorce affirmative action from issues about race and racism. Further, debates on affirmative action have to acknowledge the power of words/concepts/definitions and how they can be constructed and used for the purposes of domination or liberation. I argue that, in debating affirmative action, we have to…

  3. Action Research Methods: Plain and Simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sheri R., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action Research Methods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…

  4. ECOWindS Joint Action Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The Joint Action Plan (JAP) is a deliverable of the ECOWindS project Work Package 4 (WP4) “Joint Action Plan”. It presents a plan of action or a roadmap for research, development, and innovation (RDI) for the Offshore Wind Service (OWS) industry. The objective of the JAP is to be an international...

  5. Habits, action sequences and reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W

    2012-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquired and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary, and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions.

  6. The Mirror Neuron System and Action Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, Giovanni; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Riggio, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Mirror neurons, first described in the rostral part of monkey ventral premotor cortex (area F5), discharge both when the animal performs a goal-directed hand action and when it observes another individual performing the same or a similar action. More recently, in the same area mirror neurons responding to the observation of mouth actions have been…

  7. Using Action Learning to Consolidate Coaching Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Clare; Powell, Anne

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to answer the questions: (1) How can action learning aid in strategic change?; (2) What are the benefits of using action learning as part of a broader learning intervention?; (3) What are the issues to consider when introducing action learning into a corporate environment?; and (4) How can you engage people in reflection as a…

  8. 7 CFR 3565.257 - Procurement actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement actions. 3565.257 Section 3565.257... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.257 Procurement actions. All construction procurement actions, whether by sealed bid or by negotiation, must be conducted in a manner...

  9. Action Research Methods: Plain and Simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sheri R., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action Research Methods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…

  10. Conservation of wave action under multisymplectic discretizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the conservation of wave action under numerical discretization by variational and multisymplectic methods. Both the abstract wave action conservation defined with respect to a smooth, periodic, one-parameter ensemble of flow realizations and the specific wave action based on

  11. Switches and Jumps in Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rönnkö, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1998-01-01

    An action system framework is a predicate transformer based method for modelling and analysing distributed and reactive systems. The actions are statements in Dijkstra's guarded command language, and their semantics is given by predicate transformers. We extend conventional action systems with a ...

  12. Action Research: Its Origins and Early Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stuart W.

    This paper contains informal remarks on action research in social psychology from its post World War II origins to its current status. Kurt Lewin first described action research in the 1946 article, "Action Research and Minority Problems," as a three-step process of program planning, program execution, and follow-up evaluation. Ronald Lippitt and…

  13. Municipal actions to reduce mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    This paper presented proper management practices for products containing mercury. The measures can help reduce mercury releases, occupational exposure and mercury spills, thereby preventing impacts on human health and the environment. Despite mercury's toxic nature, many common products that contain mercury are commercially available. These include thermostats, thermometers, fluorescent lamps, pressure measuring devices, electrical switches and relays, and dental amalgam. Mercury emissions are also associated with base metal smelting, waste incineration and coal-fired power generation. Mercury in the environment is a global issue, because it can travel in the atmosphere on wind currents. The actions taken by municipalities to address the issue include reducing or eliminating mercury releases from internal municipal operations and sources within the community. This document provided guidance on how to develop a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan that will help reduce mercury releases. It presented information and case studies that will help municipalities manage mercury-containing products found in municipal buildings and street lighting. Information on sources of mercury from within the community was presented along with case studies that can help municipalities determine where community action is needed to reduce mercury releases. The 5 modules of this document were intended to help municipalities identify priorities, timelines and budget requirements for mercury initiatives. It was emphasized that municipalities that adopt a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan formally commit to reducing and eliminating mercury from the environment. tabs., figs.

  14. Interweaving reason, action, and perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennema, Claude L., Jr.

    1992-11-01

    In an attempt to understand and emulate intelligent behavior Artificial Intelligence researchers have, for the most part, taken a reductionist approach and divided their investigation into separate studies of reason, perception, and action. As a consequence, intelligent robots have been constructed using a coarse grained architecture; reasoning, perception, and action have been implemented as separate modules that interact infrequently. This paper describes an investigation into the effect of reducing this architecture granularity on the computational efficiency of the overall system. It demonstrates that introducing a fine grained integration or `interweaving' of these functions can result in significant complexity reduction. This paper introduces the `reason a little, move a little, look a little,' or RML paradigm, describes an RML navigation system, and discusses analytical and experimental results that quantify complexity reduction for planning and vision. The system details illustrate novel approaches to representation, planning, and vision. The environment is represented as a network that provides mechanisms for coping with positional uncertainty and focusing reasoning activities. Plans are constructed in three dimensions using a geometry-induced hierarchical decomposition. The approach to vision takes its lead from the way a blind man uses his cane: to verity that reason is consistent with reality.

  15. Actions and mode of actions of FGF19 subfamily members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Seiji

    2008-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are humoral factors with diverse biological functions. While most FGFs were shown to work as local factors regulating cell growth and differentiation, recent investigations indicated that FGF19 subfamily members, FGF15/19, FGF21 and FGF23 work as systemic factors. FGF15/19 produced by intestine inhibits bile acid synthesis and FGF21from liver is involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In addition, FGF23 was shown to be produced by bone and regulate phosphate and vitamin D metabolism. Furthermore, these FGFs require klotho or betaklotho for their actions in addition to canonical FGF receptors. It is possible that these FGFs together with their receptor systems might be targets for novel therapeutic measures in the future.

  16. Classical Loop Actions of Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Armand-Ugon, D; Griego, J R; Setaro, L; Armand-Ugon, Daniel; Gambini, Rodolfo; Griego, Jorge; Setaro, Leonardo

    1994-01-01

    Since the first attempts to quantize Gauge Theories and Gravity in the loop representation, the problem of the determination of the corresponding classical actions has been raised. Here we propose a general procedure to determine these actions and we explicitly apply it in the case of electromagnetism. Going to the lattice we show that the electromagnetic action in terms of loops is equivalent to the Wilson action, allowing to do Montecarlo calculations in a gauge invariant way. In the continuum these actions need to be regularized and they are the natural candidates to describe the theory in a ``confining phase''.

  17. Numerical Tests of the Improved Fermilab Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detar, C.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Oktay, M.B.

    2010-11-01

    Recently, the Fermilab heavy-quark action was extended to include dimension-six and -seven operators in order to reduce the discretization errors. In this talk, we present results of the first numerical simulations with this action (the OK action), where we study the masses of the quarkonium and heavy-light systems. We calculate combinations of masses designed to test improvement and compare results obtained with the OK action to their counterparts obtained with the clover action. Our preliminary results show a clear improvement.

  18. An Action Compiler Targeting Standard ML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    We present an action compiler that can be used in connection with an action semantics based compiler generator. Our action compiler produces code with faster execution times than code produced by other action compilers, and for some non-trivial test examples it is only a factor two slower than th...... the code produced by the Gnu C Compiler. Targeting Standard ML makes the description of the code generation simple and easy to implement. The action compiler has been tested on a description of the Core of Standard ML and a subset of C....

  19. [Pharmacological action of bromazepam suppository].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasama, T; Fujii, Y; Aida, Y; Mayuzumi, K; Mayuzumi, Y; Goto, M; Gomita, Y; Moriyama, M; Ichimaru, Y

    1983-02-01

    Differences between the pharmacological effects of bromazepam given by oral and rectal administration were investigated in mice and rats. 1) Bromazepam dose-dependently prolonged the sleeping time induced by thiopental-Na, ethanol and ether by both administration routes. 2) The analgesic action of bromazepam was recognized by the hot-plate method and the algolytic test. In the hot-plate test, analgesic actions of morphine and pentazocine were potentiated by bromazepam in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg by both routes. 3) The muscle relaxant effect of bromazepam administered rectally was more potent than that administered orally in the inclined screen test and the rotarod test. This effect of bromazepam by rectal administration was approximately 2 times as potent as that by oral administration. 4) Bromazepam inhibited the convulsion induced by maximum electric shock, pentylenetetrazol and picrotoxin. In pentylenetetrazol-induced convulsion, the inhibitory effect of bromazepam administered rectally was 2 times as potent as that administered orally. In the other convulsion test, no significant differences between oral and rectal administration could be recognized. 5) Hyperemotionality and muricide (mouse-killing behaviour) of rats with bilateral olfactory bulb ablations (OB rat) were reduced by oral and rectal administrations of bromazepam in a dose-dependent manner. The effects by rectal administration were more potent than that by oral administration. Bromazepam was approximately 20 times as potent as diazepam administered by the same route. Fighting behaviour in mice subjected to footshock was suppressed by rectal administration of bromazepam, and this effect was as same as that by oral administration. 6) The rate of lever pressing response in the lateral hypothalamic self-stimulation test in the Skinner box was markedly increased by rectal administration of 0.2 mg/kg bromazepam. 7) Methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity of mice was significantly suppressed only by bromazepam

  20. Developmental perception of the self and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegusa, Ryo; Metta, Giorgio; Sandini, Giulio; Natale, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a developmental framework for action-driven perception in anthropomorphic robots. The key idea of the framework is that action generation develops the agent's perception of its own body and actions. Action-driven development is critical for identifying changing body parts and understanding the effects of actions in unknown or nonstationary environments. We embedded minimal knowledge into the robot's cognitive system in the form of motor synergies and actions to allow motor exploration. The robot voluntarily generates actions and develops the ability to perceive its own body and the effect that it generates on the environment. The robot, in addition, can compose this kind of learned primitives to perform complex actions and characterize them in terms of their sensory effects. After learning, the robot can recognize manipulative human behaviors with cross-modal anticipation for recovery of unavailable sensory modality, and reproduce the recognized actions afterward. We evaluated the proposed framework in the experiments with a real robot. In the experiments, we achieved autonomous body identification, learning of fixation, reaching and grasping actions, and developmental recognition of human actions as well as their reproduction.

  1. Binding Action and Emotion in Social Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Francesca; Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Costantini, Marcello; Salone, Anatolia; Arciero, Giampiero; Mazzola, Viridiana; Ferro, Filippo Maria; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    In social life actions are tightly linked with emotions. The integration of affective- and action-related information has to be considered as a fundamental component of appropriate social understanding. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at investigating whether an emotion (Happiness, Anger or Neutral) dynamically expressed by an observed agent modulates brain activity underlying the perception of his grasping action. As control stimuli, participants observed the same agent either only expressing an emotion or only performing a grasping action. Our results showed that the observation of an action embedded in an emotional context (agent’s facial expression), compared with the observation of the same action embedded in a neutral context, elicits higher neural response at the level of motor frontal cortices, temporal and occipital cortices, bilaterally. Particularly, the dynamic facial expression of anger modulates the re-enactment of a motor representation of the observed action. This is supported by the evidence that observing actions embedded in the context of anger, but not happiness, compared with a neutral context, elicits stronger activity in the bilateral pre-central gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, besides the pre-supplementary motor area, a region playing a central role in motor control. Angry faces not only seem to modulate the simulation of actions, but may also trigger motor reaction. These findings suggest that emotions exert a modulatory role on action observation in different cortical areas involved in action processing. PMID:23349792

  2. Observing joint action: Coordination creates commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, John; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that interpersonal coordination enhances pro-social attitudes and behavior. Here, we extend this research by investigating whether the degree of coordination observed in a joint action enhances the perception of individuals' commitment to the joint action. In four experiments, participants viewed videos of joint actions. In the low coordination condition, two agents made independent individual contributions to a joint action. In the high coordination condition, the individual contributions were tightly linked. Participants judged whether and for how long the observed agents would resist a tempting outside option and remain engaged in the joint action. The results showed that participants were more likely to expect agents to resist outside options when observing joint actions with a high degree of coordination. This indicates that observing interpersonal coordination is sufficient to enhance the perception of commitment to joint action. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Action learning in undergraduate engineering thesis supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Stappenbelt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present action learning implementation, twelve action learning sets were conducted over eight years. The action learning sets consisted of students involved in undergraduate engineering research thesis work. The concurrent study accompanying this initiative, investigated the influence of the action learning environment on student approaches to learning and any accompanying academic, learning and personal benefits realised. The influence of preferred learning styles on set function and student adoption of the action learning process were also examined. The action learning environment implemented had a measurable significant positive effect on student academic performance, their ability to cope with the stresses associated with conducting a research thesis, the depth of learning, the development of autonomous learners and student perception of the research thesis experience. The present study acts as an addendum to a smaller scale implementation of this action learning approach, applied to supervision of third and fourth year research projects and theses, published in 2010.

  4. Promoting Quality for Teacher Action Research: Lessons Learned from Science Teachers' Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Feldman, Allan

    2006-01-01

    In this article we explore the concept of quality in teacher action research by re-examining our participation with science teachers in several different collaborative action research projects. We conducted second-order action research and generated a series reflexive conditions for promoting and ensuring quality action research. We assert that a…

  5. The Action Event (Notes on the Development of Object-Oriented Actions II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkonin, B. D.

    2015-01-01

    The article critically rethinks and refashions conceptions of object-oriented actions. The author introduces the concept of an action event, which relies on the work of D. B. Elkonin. The essence of an action event lies in its transition to a new form of activity, that is, an action mediated by a pattern that is given to a child by an adult. An…

  6. 47 CFR 11.13 - Emergency Action Notification (EAN) and Emergency Action Termination (EAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Emergency Action Termination (EAT). 11.13 Section 11.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Action Termination (EAT). (a) The Emergency Action Notification (EAN) is the notice to all EAS... Emergency Action Termination (EAT) is the notice to all EAS Participants and to the general public that...

  7. Mechanisms of action of angiogenin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangwei Gao; Zhengping Xu

    2008-01-01

    Angiogenin induces angiogenesis by activating vessel endothelial and smooth muscle cells and triggering a number of biological processes,including cell migration,invasion,proliferation,and formation of tubular structures.It has been reported that angiogenin plays its functions mainly through four pathways:(1) exerting its ribonucleolytic activity;(2)binding to membrane actin and then inducing basement membrane degradation;(3) binding to a putative 170-kDa protein and subsequently transducing signal into cytoplasm;and (4) transiocating into the nucleus of target cells directly and then enhancing ribosomal RNA transcription.Angiogenin can also translocate into the nucleus of cancer cells and induces the corresponding cell proliferation.Furthermore,angiogenin has neuroprotective activities in the central nervous system and the loss of its function may be related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.This review intends to conclude the mechanisms underlying these actions of angiogenin and give a perspective on future research.

  8. Downscattering of Diocotron Wave Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerdyakov, K.; Mattor, Nathan; Mitchell, Travis B.

    1996-11-01

    Here we present a quantitative theory of resonant downscattering of diocotron waves in a non-neutral plasma (or Kelvin waves in a 2D fluid), in which wave action is transferred between two normal modes via a resonance of the beat wave with the ambient fluid. This phenomenon is a fluid analogue of nonlinear wave-particle-wave scattering in a plasma. (J. D. Crawford and T. M. O'Neil, Phys. Fluids 30,) 2076 (1987), and T. S. Hahm Phys. Fluids B, 4, 2801 (1992). The analytic treatment consists of a weak turbulence expansion of the 2D Euler equation, which results in a wave kinetic equation. The principal new result is a quantitative prediction of the scattering rate, which is compared with the rates measured in a recent experiment which observed this phenomenon. (T. B. Mitchell and C. F. Driscoll, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73,) 2196 (1994).

  9. From Disunited to Joint Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaarina Mönkkönen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Inter-organizational collaboration can be understood as a product of sets of conversations that draw on existing discourses. This article examines one public organization going through a fundamental organizational change. We describe the process of construction of organizational identity after a merger by using a model describing identified forms of interaction: (a formally together, (b unidirectional interaction, (c juxtapositions, (d construction of commonality, and (e the state of joint action. There is a link between the construction of a more collectively interpreted identity and the way in which people communicate, create relationships, and network. This article highlights the relevance and meaning of conscious identity work in the process: The management’s ability and willingness to create forums for dialogue and social interaction creates potential for construction of a collectively interpreted organizational identity and promotes cooperation and collaboration.

  10. Action Research as a Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulus-Rødje, Nina

    2012-01-01

    and interventions come to exist. Thus, interventions and roles can be seen as network effects—they are enacted and supported by the network. Accordingly, roles and interventions are neither simply static and fixed nor fluid and flexible; rather, these are products of past and present attachments. I demonstrate how......This paper explores roles and interventions in IS action research. I draw upon a four-year research project about electronic medical records, conducted in close collaboration with a community partner. Following a self-reflexive stance, I trace the trajectory of the research engagement...... the different attachments existing in the network at different points in time enable the configuration of particular actors with capacities to enact different roles and interventions in a diversity of contexts and settings. Finally, I illustrate what happens when these attachments are missing and how...

  11. Path integrals for awkward actions

    CERN Document Server

    Amdahl, David

    2016-01-01

    Time derivatives of scalar fields occur quadratically in textbook actions. A simple Legendre transformation turns the lagrangian into a hamiltonian that is quadratic in the momenta. The path integral over the momenta is gaussian. Mean values of operators are euclidian path integrals of their classical counterparts with positive weight functions. Monte Carlo simulations can estimate such mean values. This familiar framework falls apart when the time derivatives do not occur quadratically. The Legendre transformation becomes difficult or so intractable that one can't find the hamiltonian. Even if one finds the hamiltonian, it usually is so complicated that one can't path-integrate over the momenta and get a euclidian path integral with a positive weight function. Monte Carlo simulations don't work when the weight function assumes negative or complex values. This paper solves both problems. It shows how to make path integrals without knowing the hamiltonian. It also shows how to estimate complex path integrals b...

  12. Consciousness: individuated information in action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Adam Jonkisz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness – the main aim of this article –into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside, hierarchically referential (semantically ordered, bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system and useful in action (pragmatically functional, is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. A gradational approach, however, despite its explanatory advantages, can lead to some counterintuitive consequences and theoretical problems. In most such conceptions consciousness is extended globally (attached to primitive organisms or artificial systems, but also locally (connected to certain lower-level neuronal and bodily processes. For example, according to information integration theory (as introduced recently by Tononi and Koch, even such simple artificial systems as photodiodes possess miniscule amounts of consciousness. The major challenge for this article, then, is to establish reasonable, empirically justified constraints on how extended the range of a graded consciousness could be. It is argued that conscious systems are limited globally by the ability to individuate information (where individuated information is understood as evolutionarily embedded, socially altered and private, whereas local limitations should be determined on the basis of a hypothesis about the action-oriented nature of the processes that select states of consciousness. Using these constraints, an abstract concept of consciousness is arrived at, hopefully contributing to a more unified state of play within consciousness studies itself.

  13. Consciousness: individuated information in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkisz, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness - the main aim of this article -into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside), hierarchically referential (semantically ordered), bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system), and useful in action (pragmatically functional), is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. A gradational approach, however, despite its explanatory advantages, can lead to some counterintuitive consequences and theoretical problems. In most such conceptions consciousness is extended globally (attached to primitive organisms or artificial systems), but also locally (connected to certain lower-level neuronal and bodily processes). For example, according to information integration theory (as introduced recently by Tononi and Koch, 2014), even such simple artificial systems as photodiodes possess miniscule amounts of consciousness. The major challenge for this article, then, is to establish reasonable, empirically justified constraints on how extended the range of a graded consciousness could be. It is argued that conscious systems are limited globally by the ability to individuate information (where individuated information is understood as evolutionarily embedded, socially altered, and private), whereas local limitations should be determined on the basis of a hypothesis about the action-oriented nature of the processes that select states of consciousness. Using these constraints, an abstract concept of consciousness is arrived at, hopefully contributing to a more unified state of play within consciousness studies itself.

  14. Biological actions of formoterol isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Dean A; Senanayake, Chris H; Dutczak, William; Benovic, Jeffrey L; Walle, Thomas; Penn, Raymond B; Wilkinson, H Scott; Tanoury, Gerald J; Andersson, Rolf G G; Johansson, Fredrik; Morley, John

    2002-01-01

    Racemic beta(2) agonists, composed of equal amounts of (R)- and (S)-isomers, can display anomalous actions that compromise their effectiveness as asthma therapies. Loss of efficacy during regular use is characteristic of isoprenaline, albuterol and terbutaline and has in part been attributed to the biological effects of the (S)-isomer. This hypothesis was applied to the (R,R)- and (S,S)-isomers of formoterol. (R,R)-formoterol had 1000-times greater affinity (2.9 nm) to the human beta(2) adrenoceptor than (S,S)-formoterol (3100 nm), with receptor binding modulating intracellular cAMP levels. The minimum lethal intravenous (IV) dose was determined to be 100 mg/kg for (R,R)- and 50 mg/kg for (S,S)-formoterol, suggesting that the toxicity of (S,S)-formoterol may not be related to the binding of beta(2) adrenoceptors. In tissues pretreated with (S,S)-formoterol but not with (R,R)- or racemic formoterol contractions to high concentrations of carbachol were exaggerated. In vivo experiments with sensitized guinea pigs demonstrated that (R,R)-formoterol inhibited both histamine and antigen-induced bronchoconstriction with greater potency than (R,R/S,S)-formoterol while (S,S)-formoterol was ineffective. Metabolic radiolabeling experiments of (R,R)-, (S,S)- or (R,R/S,S)-formoterol with crude human liver phenolsulfotransferase (PST) determined the V(max)/K(m) values to be (0.151), (0.74) and (0.143), respectively. The reciprocal plot illustrates a 2-fold reduction in sulfation rate when (R,R)-formoterol is present as a single isomer. The data presented here suggest that (R,R)-formoterol binds to the beta(2) adrenoceptor and inhibits the contraction of bronchial tissues by spasmogens. However, (S,S)-formoterol exhibits properties inconsistent as an asthma therapeutic and may antagonize the actions of (R,R)-formoterol. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. On Construction of Global Actions of Finite Partial Group Actions on Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Ram Parkash; Meenakshi

    2016-01-01

    A generalization of G-sets, called partial G-sets, are the sets that admit an action of partial maps on their subsets. Partial actions are a powerful tool to generalize many results of group actions. These generalizations are obtained by using global actions when they exist. The main objective of this paper is to construct the global action of a given finite partial group action on a set. For this, first we generalize orbit-stabilizer theorem for partial group actions and use it to know the e...

  16. Status of funded actions; Bilan des actions soutenues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The GEDEPEON workshop is organised to review the GEDEPEON research actions, which have been funded in 2003. Presentations are made by research teams actively involved in GEDEPEON research areas. Speakers were invited to show how the presented research data are related to the general goals of transmutation, for which 2006 is an important milestone, and innovative systems. document gathers the slides of 9 presentations among the 19 given at this workshop: 1 - nuclear and physical data: the TRADE experiment (Steckmeyer J.C.); actinides incineration - Mini-Inca (Chabod S.); NTOF: measurement of capture cross-sections (Gunsing F.); 2 - systems: analysis of uncertainties and sensitivity factors of nuclear data in molten salt reactor concepts (Mastrangelo V.); 3 - targets and corrosion: diffusion-controlled intergranular penetration and embrittlement of metals by liquid bismuth (Wolski K.), behaviour of T91 steel under cyclic loading in the liquid Pb-Bi alloy (Verleene A.); 4 - materials for future systems: helium impurities corrosion resistance of high temperature resistant materials for gas-cooled reactors (Cabet, C.); 5 - accelerators: Spoke cavities R and D and their role in the driver of an accelerator-driven system (ADS) (Junquera T.); 6 - Gedeon-Gedepeon 2001-2004 synthesis: spallation and nuclear data (Tassan-Got L., Barreau G. and Leray S.). (J.S.)

  17. Playing Action Video Games Improves Visuomotor Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The findings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be beneficial training tools for driving.

  18. Use of Action Research in Nursing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehler, Shelley-Rae; Stombaugh, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this article is to describe action research in nursing education and to propose a definition of action research for providing guidelines for research proposals and criteria for assessing potential publications for nursing higher education. Methods. The first part of this project involved a search of the literature on action research in nursing higher education from 1994 to 2013. Searches were conducted in the CINAHL and MEDLINE databases. Applying the criteria identified, 80 publications were reviewed. The second part of the project involved a literature review of action research methodology from several disciplines to assist in assessing articles in this review. Results. This article summarizes the nursing higher education literature reviewed and provides processes and content related to four topic areas in nursing higher education. The descriptions assist researchers in learning more about the complexity of both the action research process and the varied outcomes. The literature review of action research in many disciplines along with the review of action research in higher education provided a framework for developing a nursing-education-centric definition of action research. Conclusions. Although guidelines for developing action research and criteria for publication are suggested, continued development of methods for synthesizing action research is recommended. PMID:28078138

  19. Deriving motor primitives through action segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeren, Paul E; Thill, Serge

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment is to further understand the effect of levels of processing (top-down vs. bottom-up) on the perception of movement kinematics and primitives for grasping actions in order to gain insight into possible primitives used by the mirror system. In the present study, we investigated the potential of identifying such primitives using an action segmentation task. Specifically, we investigated whether or not segmentation was driven primarily by the kinematics of the action, as opposed to high-level top-down information about the action and the object used in the action. Participants in the experiment were shown 12 point-light movies of object-centered hand/arm actions that were either presented in their canonical orientation together with the object in question (top-down condition) or upside down (inverted) without information about the object (bottom-up condition). The results show that (1) despite impaired high-level action recognition for the inverted actions participants were able to reliably segment the actions according to lower-level kinematic variables, (2) segmentation behavior in both groups was significantly related to the kinematic variables of change in direction, velocity, and acceleration of the wrist (thumb and finger tips) for most of the included actions. This indicates that top-down activation of an action representation leads to similar segmentation behavior for hand/arm actions compared to bottom-up, or local, visual processing when performing a fairly unconstrained segmentation task. Motor primitives as parts of more complex actions may therefore be reliably derived through visual segmentation based on movement kinematics.

  20. Deriving Motor Primitives through Action Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Hemeren

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present experiment is to further understand the effect of levels of processing (top-down vs. bottom-up on the perception of movement kinematics and primitives for grasping actions in order to gain insight into possible primitives used by the mirror system. In the present study, we investigated the potential of identifying such primitives using an action segmentation task. Specifically, we investigated whether or not segmentation was driven primarily by the kinematics of the action, as opposed to high-level top-down information about the action and the object used in the action. Participants in the experiment were shown twelve point-light movies of object-centered hand/arm actions that were either presented in their canonical orientation together with the object in question or upside-down (inverted without information about the object. The results show that (1 despite impaired high-level action recognition for the inverted actions participants were able to reliably segment the actions according to lower-level kinematic variables, (2 segmentation behavior in both groups was significantly related to the kinematic variables of change in direction, velocity and acceleration of the wrist (thumb and finger tips for most of the included actions. This indicates that top-down activation of an action representation leads to similar segmentation behavior for hand/arm actions compared to bottom-up, or local, visual processing when performing a fairly unconstrained segmentation task. Motor primitives as parts of more complex actions may therefore be reliably derived through visual segmentation based on movement kinematics.

  1. Enkele nieuwe aminosulfonamiden en aminosulfonen en hun 'sulfonamide activiteit'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buisman, Jan Anne Keverling

    1946-01-01

    A number of compounds was synthesized and tested on suphon-amide-activity. By this is meant a bacteriostatic action in vitro, which is annihilated by 4-aminobenzoic acid (vitamin H'). The bacteriostatic activity of a compound was measured by the time, in which a culture of pneumococs in ascites-brot

  2. Research to Action: an evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Alder, Rob; MacKenzie, Adrian; Cook, Amanda; Maddalena, Victor

    2012-03-01

    The evaluation of the Research to Action project was conducted using an Outcome Mapping (OM) methodology (Earl et al. 2001) with a mixed-methods, repeat survey (before/after) study design. This design uses concurrent measurement of process and outcome indicators at baseline and follow-up. The RTA project proved effective at improving work environments and thereby promoting the retention and recruitment of nurses. Nurses involved in the RTA initiatives had a higher perception of leadership and support in their units, improved job satisfaction, increased empowerment and occupational commitment, and a greater intention to stay on the job.The pilot projects were most successful when there were clearly stated objectives, buy-in from nurses, support from the steering committee and management, and adequate communication among stakeholders. Committed coordination and leadership, both locally and nationally, were central to success.Considerable evidence has documented the challenges facing Canada's nursing human resources and their workplaces, such as high levels of turnover, excessive use of overtime and persistent shortages. There is a growing imperative to translate this research into action, and much of the available evidence presents viable policy alternatives for consideration. For example, a recent national synthesis report (Maddalena and Crupi 2008) recommended that, in consultation with stakeholders, processes should be put in place to share knowledge and best practices in nursing management, practice, staffing models and innovations in workplace health and well-being.Nurses across the country report a desire to be more involved in decisions affecting them and their patients (Wortsman and Janowitz 2006). A recent study on the shortage of registered nurses in Canada (Tomblin Murphy et al. 2009) highlighted the need for collaboration among governments, employers, unions and other stakeholders to improve working conditions for nurses. Another report notes the

  3. Climate Literacy: Springboard to Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, B.; Bader, D.

    2011-12-01

    Research indicates that the public views zoos and aquariums as reliable and trusted sources for information on conservation (Ocean Project, 2009). The Aquarium of the Pacific is using NOAA's Science on a Sphere (SOS)° and linked flat screens to convey climate concepts to the public and serve as a model for how aquariums can promote climate literacy. The Ocean Science Center houses the SOS and is designed to immerse our visitors in an experience that extends from the sphere, to our live animals, and to our public programming. The first SOS exhibit, the sea level rise story, opened as the cornerstone of an aquarium-wide climate literacy strategy. Large panels next to the SOS prompts visitors to pledge actions to reduce their personal carbon footprint. The exhibit objectives were to provide a visual presentation that conveys a dramatic story about sea level rise, and to engage the audience in confronting the impact of sea level rise, and the local implications. The Aquarium utilized Yale's Six Americas survey instrument during summer 2010 to measure our audience interpretations of and responses to climate change. The survey showed that 78% of visitors categorized themselves as either alarmed or concerned about climate change, greater than the national average. Thus our climate literacy programs do not focus on convincing visitors of climate change and its causes, but on encouraging adaptive responses to varying scenarios. University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Hall of Science Center for Research Evaluation and Assessment (REA) conducted a pre-opening evaluation of the exhibit's impact. The participants, 58% of whom were families with children, did not want to know more about climate change, but wanted tangible activities they could engage in to mitigate human induced effects, and more details about the impact of climate change on marine animals. REA stated that, "the sea level rise programs (both facilitated and non-facilitated) are well positioned to be

  4. Fluorescence High-Throughput Screening for Inhibitors of TonB Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nairn, Brittany L; Eliasson, Olivia S; Hyder, Dallas R; Long, Noah J; Majumdar, Aritri; Chakravorty, Somnath; McDonald, Peter; Roy, Anuradha; Newton, Salete M; Klebba, Phillip E

    2017-05-15

    .IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has spurred efforts to find novel compounds against new targets. The CRE/ESKAPE pathogens are resistant bacteria that include Acinetobacter baumannii, a common cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia and sepsis. We performed fluorescence high-throughput screening (FLHTS) against Escherichia coli to find inhibitors of TonB-dependent iron transport, tested them against A. baumannii, and then adapted the FLHTS technology to allow direct screening against A. baumannii This methodology is expandable to other drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. Compounds that block TonB action may interfere with iron acquisition from eukaryotic hosts and thereby constitute bacteriostatic antibiotics that prevent microbial colonization of human and animals. The FLHTS method may identify both species-specific and broad-spectrum agents against Gram-negative bacteria. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  5. Elastic sequence correlation for human action analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Cheng, Li; Wang, Liang

    2011-06-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automatically analyzing and understanding human actions from video footage. An "action correlation" framework, elastic sequence correlation (ESC), is proposed to identify action subsequences from a database of (possibly long) video sequences that are similar to a given query video action clip. In particular, we show that two well-known algorithms, namely approximate pattern matching in computer and information sciences and dynamic time warping (DTW) method in signal processing, are special cases of our ESC framework. The proposed framework is applied to two important real-world applications: action pattern retrieval, as well as action segmentation and recognition, where, on average, its run time speed (in matlab) is about 3.3 frames per second. In addition, comparing with the state-of-the-art algorithms on a number of challenging data sets, our approach is demonstrated to perform competitively.

  6. Connective Versus Collective Action in Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard, Daniel; Razmerita, Liana

    ). This process is influenced by two dynamics; the logic of collective action and the logic of connective action (Bennett & Segerberg, 2012). The logic of collective action is defined by formal organizational control, stronger commitment and collective identity framing (Bennett & Segerberg 2012). The logic...... of connective action is are sult of mediating technologies especially web 2.0 that inspire and affords emergent digitally networked action, based on large‐scale self‐organized, fluid and weak‐tied networks (Ibid.). These logics are investigated in three different social media movements; #YesAllWomen, #Black......LivesMatter and the #IceBucketChallenge by analyzing Twitter and Facebook data from key periods of these movements,through a net nographic study. In particular, this study has investigated the following research questions: How are the logics of collective and connective action reflected in online social media interactions...

  7. Dynamic Nigrostriatal Dopamine Biases Action Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Christopher D; Li, Hao; Geddes, Claire E; Jin, Xin

    2017-03-22

    Dopamine is thought to play a critical role in reinforcement learning and goal-directed behavior, but its function in action selection remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that nigrostriatal dopamine biases ongoing action selection. When mice were trained to dynamically switch the action selected at different time points, changes in firing rate of nigrostriatal dopamine neurons, as well as dopamine signaling in the dorsal striatum, were found to be associated with action selection. This dopamine profile is specific to behavioral choice, scalable with interval duration, and doesn't reflect reward prediction error, timing, or value as single factors alone. Genetic deletion of NMDA receptors on dopamine or striatal neurons or optogenetic manipulation of dopamine concentration alters dopamine signaling and biases action selection. These results unveil a crucial role of nigrostriatal dopamine in integrating diverse information for regulating upcoming actions, and they have important implications for neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease and substance dependence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Global and local aspects of spectral actions

    CERN Document Server

    Iochum, Bruno; Vassilevich, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    The principal object in noncommutatve geometry is the spectral triple consisting of an algebra A, a Hilbert space H, and a Dirac operator D. Field theories are incorporated in this approach by the spectral action principle, that sets the field theory action to Tr f(D^2/\\Lambda^2), where f is a real function such that the trace exists, and \\Lambda is a cutoff scale. In the low-energy (weak-field) limit the spectral action reproduces reasonably well the known physics including the standard model. However, not much is known about the spectral action beyond the low-energy approximation. In this paper, after an extensive introduction to spectral triples and spectral actions, we study various expansions of the spectral actions (exemplified by the heat kernel). We derive the convergence criteria. For a commutative spectral triple, we compute the heat kernel on the torus up the second order in gauge connection and consider limiting cases.

  9. From Voluntary Collective Action to Organized Collaboration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hattke, Fabian; Blaschke, Steffen; Frost, Jetta

    2016-01-01

    internationalization. Based on our results, we suggest that, depending on the field of action, voluntary collective action and organized collaboration are substitutes with regard to performance. Our study contributes to the literature on collective action and to research on public organizations in pluralistic......Our study examines the relationship between voluntary collective action, organized collaboration, and the provision of public goods in pluralistic organizations. Using German higher education as a context, we investigate whether specialized central support structures contribute to performance...... in three fields of action: the training of young scientists, internationalization, and gender diversity. The findings indicate that organized collaboration may lead to improved performance in the training of young scientists and gender diversity. Conversely, voluntary collective action enhances...

  10. Solar heating action plan; Solvarme handlingsplan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Jan Erik

    2011-10-15

    This solar action plan should be seen as a follow-up to the Danish Energy Agency's solar heating strategy from 2007, which showed great potential and opportunities for exploitation and use of solar heat in Denmark. In relation to the strategy from 2007, this action plan adjusted the distribution of solar heat from district heating plants and individual plants, but it is still the objective of this action plan to achieve the strategy's overall goal for 2030. With the implementation of the Action Plan in early 2012, it is estimated that in 2030 there will be about. 10 million m2 of solar collectors in operation, 8 million m2 for district heating and 2 million m2 for individual heating, equivalent to an installed capacity totaling 7 GW. The budget for actions in the Action Plan is about 80 million DKK annually over the next 5 years to initiate and ensure this development. (LN)

  11. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Affirmative Action Program. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Affirmative Action Program (AAP) serves as a working document that describes current policies, practices, and results in the area of affirmative action. It represents the Laboratory`s framework for an affirmative approach to increasing the representation of people of color and women in segments of our work force where they have been underrepresented and taking action to increase the employment of persons with disabilities and special disabled and Vietnam era veterans. The AAP describes the hierarchy of responsibility for Laboratory affirmative action, the mechanisms that exist for full Laboratory participation in the AAP, the policies and procedures governing recruitment at all levels, the Laboratory`s plan for monitoring, reporting, and evaluating affirmative action progress, and a description of special affirmative action programs and plans the Laboratory has used and will use in its efforts to increase the representation and retention of groups historically underrepresented in our work force.

  12. Status of funded actions; Bilan des actions soutenues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The GEDEPEON status workshop is organised to review the GEDEPEON research actions, which have been funded in 2003. Presentations are made by research teams actively involved in GEDEPEON research areas. Speakers were invited to show how the presented research data are related to the general goals of transmutation, for which 2006 is an important milestone, and innovative systems. This document gathers 18 presentations (slides) among the 32 given at this workshop and dealing with: 1 - nuclear data: measurement of cross-sections of neutron induced reactions at the nTof time of flight facilities of CERN and of Gelina at Geel (F. Gunsing), study of (n,xn) reactions thanks to prompt gamma spectroscopy (M. Kerveno), iodine 129 cross-sections (G. Noguere); 2 - reactor physics/cycles: CEA-CNRS scenarios (F. Varaine, D. Heuer), analysis of uncertainties and sensitivity factors of nuclear data on innovative systems (molten-salt reactors) (A. Bidaud); 3 - materials: contribution to the study of T91 steel fatigue by lead-bismuth (D. Gorse), kinetics and mechanisms of fatigue by liquid metals (V. Laporte), studies of molten salts corrosion in future reactors (S. Sanchez), stress-induced fatigue by liquid metal (A. Verleene), thermodynamic study of the Bi-Fe-Hg-O-Pb quinary system (A. Maitre), synchrotron imaging study of fatigue by liquid metals (D. Bellet); 4 - future systems: molten salts reprocessing strategy - impact on the molten salt reactors neutronics (L. Mathieu), microscopy technique for the characterization of the thermal properties of inert materials for gas-cooled reactors (L. David), modeling and application of sub-atomic phenomena (J. Maillard), forecasting of the chemical compatibility between fissile compounds and inert materials in future high temperature reactors using a thermodynamical approach (A. Maitre), hydrogen production by thermochemical cycles (S. Colette), development of Ni-W refractory alloys for high temperature and molten salts reactors (J

  13. Rulison Site corrective action report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Project Rulison was a joint US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and Austral Oil Company (Austral) experiment, conducted under the AEC`s Plowshare Program, to evaluate the feasibility of using a nuclear device to stimulate natural gas production in low-permeability gas-producing geologic formations. The experiment was conducted on September 10, 1969, and consisted of detonating a 40-kiloton nuclear device at a depth of 2,568 m below ground surface (BGS). This Corrective Action Report describes the cleanup of petroleum hydrocarbon- and heavy-metal-contaminated sediments from an old drilling effluent pond and characterization of the mud pits used during drilling of the R-EX well at the Rulison Site. The Rulison Site is located approximately 65 kilometers (40 miles) northeast of Grand Junction, Colorado. The effluent pond was used for the storage of drilling mud during drilling of the emplacement hole for the 1969 gas stimulation test conducted by the AEC. This report also describes the activities performed to determine whether contamination is present in mud pits used during the drilling of well R-EX, the gas production well drilled at the site to evaluate the effectiveness of the detonation in stimulating gas production. The investigation activities described in this report were conducted during the autumn of 1995, concurrent with the cleanup of the drilling effluent pond. This report describes the activities performed during the soil investigation and provides the analytical results for the samples collected during that investigation.

  14. Neuroprotective Actions of Dietary Choline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krzysztof Blusztajn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Choline is an essential nutrient for humans. It is a precursor of membrane phospholipids (e.g., phosphatidylcholine (PC, the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and via betaine, the methyl group donor S-adenosylmethionine. High choline intake during gestation and early postnatal development in rat and mouse models improves cognitive function in adulthood, prevents age-related memory decline, and protects the brain from the neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD, and neurological damage associated with epilepsy, fetal alcohol syndrome, and inherited conditions such as Down and Rett syndromes. These effects of choline are correlated with modifications in histone and DNA methylation in brain, and with alterations in the expression of genes that encode proteins important for learning and memory processing, suggesting a possible epigenomic mechanism of action. Dietary choline intake in the adult may also influence cognitive function via an effect on PC containing eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids; polyunsaturated species of PC whose levels are reduced in brains from AD patients, and is associated with higher memory performance, and resistance to cognitive decline.

  15. Formulation of Complex Action Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, Keiichi

    2011-01-01

    We formulate the complex action theory from a fundamental level so that we can deal with a complex coordinate $q$ and a complex momentum $p$. We extend $| q >$ and $| p>$ to complex $q$ and $p$ by utilizing coherent states of harmonic oscillators. Introducing a philosophy to keep the analyticity in parameter variables of Feynman path integral, we define a modified set of complex conjugate, real and imaginary parts, hermitian conjugates and bras. They enable us to have both orthogonality and completeness relations for $|q >$ and $|p >$ with complex $q$ and $p$. We also pose a theorem on the relation between functions and operators to make it clear to some extent. Furthermore, extending our previous work \\cite{Nagao:2010xu} to the complex coordinate case, we study a system defined by a diagonalizable non-hermitian bounded Hamiltonian, and show that a hermitian Hamiltonian is effectively obtained after a long time development by introducing a proper inner product. If the hermitian Hamiltonian is given in a local...

  16. The waterpipe: time for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziak, Wasim

    2008-11-01

    The waterpipe, known in many cultures under different shapes and names (e.g. hookah, shisha, narghile), is a centuries-old tobacco use method that is witnessing a world-wide surge in popularity. This popularity is most noticeable among youths, and is surpassing cigarette smoking among this group in some societies. Many factors may have contributed to the recent waterpipe spread, including the introduction of sweetened/flavored waterpipe tobacco (known as Maassel), its reduced-harm perception, the thriving café culture, mass media and the internet. The passage of smoke through water on its way to the smoker underlies much of the common misperception that waterpipe use is less harmful than cigarettes. The health/addictive profile of waterpipe compared to cigarettes is largely unresearched and is likely to be influenced by the properties of smoke, duration and frequency of use, type of tobacco used, volume of smoke inhaled and the contribution of charcoal. However, the accumulation of evidence about the harmful and addictive potential of waterpipe use is outpacing the public health response to this health risk. A timely public health and policy action is needed in order to curb the emerging waterpipe smoking epidemic.

  17. Developing Ethics and Standards in Action Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Boog

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a globalizing world, what role can social science research – particularly action research – play in order to address the risks of exclusion, poverty, social and physical insecurity and environmental deprivation? More specifically, how can this type of research be conducted in a participatory, responsible, transparent and scientific way? In other words: what about the ethics and standards in action research? This was the main focus of the World Congress on Action Research and Action Learning (August 2006 organized by the University of Groningen and the Higher Education Group of the Northern Netherlands. We begin by discussing the core characteristics of action research with reference to theory and practice. Reflection and action are key constituents of the process through the enactment of action research. The middle section draws upon the research findings presented at the congress and published in a book [B. Boog, J. Preece, M. Slagter and J. Zeelen (Eds. (2008 Towards Quality Improvement of Action Research. Developing Ethics and Standards, Rotterdam/Taipei: Sense Publishers]. Citing authors who contributed chapters to the book mentioned above, we analyze four important subthemes: ‘participation, power and rapport’; ‘quality of research and quality management’; ‘learning to solve your own problems in complex responsive social systems, and ‘heuristics (rules of thumb for action research practice’. Finally, we comment on possible quality improvements for action research. Our remarks relate to the problems of implementing the concept of participation, the ambition of action research to contribute to both knowledge production and social change and the need for systematic reconstruction (scientific validation of action research.

  18. String effective actions, dualities, and generating solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chemissany, Wissam Ali

    2008-01-01

    This thesis covers in general two separate topics: the string e®ective actions and the geodesic motion of brane solutions. The main theme of the ¯rst topic, i.e., the string e®ective actions, is the construction of the abelian D-brane e®ective action. In the limit of constant ¯eld strengths this act

  19. African primary care research: Participatory action research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Mash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their research proposal.

  20. Covariant action for type IIB supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2016-07-01

    Taking clues from the recent construction of the covariant action for type II and heterotic string field theories, we construct a manifestly Lorentz covariant action for type IIB supergravity, and discuss its gauge fixing maintaining manifest Lorentz invariance. The action contains a (non-gravitating) free 4-form field besides the usual fields of type IIB supergravity. This free field, being completely decoupled from the interacting sector, has no physical consequence.

  1. Perfect Lattice Actions for Staggered Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, W; Chandrasekharan, S; Wiese, U J

    1996-01-01

    We construct a perfect lattice action for staggered fermions by blocking from the continuum. The locality, spectrum and pressure of such perfect staggered fermions are discussed. We also derive a consistent fixed point action for free gauge fields and discuss its locality as well as the resulting static quark-antiquark potential. This provides a basis for the construction of (classically) perfect lattice actions for QCD using staggered fermions.

  2. Grounded action: achieving optimal and sustainable change

    OpenAIRE

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.; Toni A. Gregory, Ed. D.

    2005-01-01

    Grounded Action ist eine Anwendung und Erweiterung der Grounded Theory mit dem Ziel, Interventionen, Programme, Handlungsmodelle etc. zu entwerfen und zu implementieren. Der Grounded Action-Ansatz wurde konzipiert, um der Komplexität und Multidimensionalität von organisatorischen und sozialen Problemstellungen angemessen begegnen zu können. Die Grounded Theory als Strategie der datengegründeten Theorieentwicklung wird insoweit ausgeweitet, als es im Rahmen von Grounded Action um das Entwickel...

  3. New procedure of generation of action scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniszewski, Michał; Wereszczyński, Kamil; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Fernes, Daniel; Segen, Jakub; Kulbacki, Marek; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2017-07-01

    Algorithms of tracking and action recognition are still under development and many problems still have to be solved. New methods are usually tested on available benchmarks with defined actions and human behavior however such approach has many limitations. For that reason the authors proposed new procedure of generating random action instances using on graph-based scenarios. Such idea can be applied in creation of different datasets as well as in simulations.

  4. Novel fat-link fermion actions

    CERN Document Server

    Zanotti, J M; Bonnet, F D R; Coddington, P D; Leinweber, D B; Williams, A G; Zhang, J B; Melnitchouk, W; Lee, F X

    2002-01-01

    The hadron mass spectrum is calculated in lattice QCD using a novel fat-link clover fermion action in which only the irrelevant operators of the fermion action are constructed using smeared links. The simulations are performed on a 16^3 X 32 lattice with a lattice spacing of a=0.125 fm. We compare actions with n=4 and 12 smearing sweeps with a smearing fraction of 0.7. The n=4 Fat Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) action provides scaling which is superior to mean-field improvement, and offers advantages over nonperturbative O(a) improvement.

  5. Action research als relevante vorm van interventieonderzoek: Verslag van het World Congress on Action Learning and Action Research & Participatory Action Research 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyan Tromp

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Eind augustus 2006 vond in Groningen het gecombineerde internationale congress over Action Learning and Action Research/Participatory Action Research (ALARPM 7th/PAR 11th plaats. Onderzoekers van over de hele wereld namen deel om te luisteren naar key-note speakers, om een workshop te geven of bij te wonen en om ervaringen uit te wisselen. De 290 deelnemers hadden een ruime keus: naast de zeven centrale lezingen was er een scala aan workshops over thema’s uit vijf verschillende stromingen (Standards/Ethics, Education/Action Learning, Organizational Development, Rural Development/Developmental Cooperation/Social Innovation, Health. Een impressie van het congres.

  6. ActionScript 3.0 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Braunstein, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The updated edition on all the latest features and capabilities of ActionScript 3.0 and Flash Player 10. ActionScript is a popular programming language used primarily for the development of Web sites and software. This update to the successful previous version introduces you to all the exciting new capabilities of ActionScript 3.0. You'll see how ActionScript 3.0 goes beyond its primary use of scripting Flash animations and is now an object-oriented evolution that runs ten times faster than previous versions and can be used in Adobe's new platforms, including Flex and AIR. Hands-on instruction

  7. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  8. The action operator for continuous time histories

    CERN Document Server

    Savvidou, K N

    1999-01-01

    We define the action operator for the History Projection Operator consistent histories theory, as the quantum analogue of the classical action functional, for the simple harmonic oscillator in one dimention. We conclude that the action operator is the generator of time transformations, and is associated with the two types of time-evolution of the standard quantum theory: the wave-packet reduction and the Heisenberg time-evolution. We construct corresponding classical histories and demonstrate the relevance with the quantum histories. Finally, we show the appearance of the action operator in the expression for the decoherence functional.

  9. QCD Thermodynamics with an Improved Lattice Action

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, C W; DeGrand, T A; Wingate, M; DeTar, C E; Gottlieb, S; Heller, U M; Rummukainen, K; Toussaint, D; Sugar, R L; Bernard, Claude; Hetrick, James E.; Grand, Thomas De; Wingate, Matthew; Tar, Carleton De; Gottlieb, Steven; Heller, Urs M.; Rummukainen, Kari; Toussaint, Doug; Sugar, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated QCD with two flavors of degenerate fermions using a Symanzik-improved lattice action for both the gauge and fermion actions. Our study focuses on the deconfinement transition on an $N_t=4$ lattice. Having located the thermal transition, we performed zero temperature simulations nearby in order to compute hadronic masses and the static quark potential. We find that the present action reduces lattice artifacts present in thermodynamics with the standard Wilson (gauge and fermion) actions. However, it does not bring studies with Wilson-type quarks to the same level as those using the Kogut--Susskind formulation.

  10. A deformation of the Curtright action

    CERN Document Server

    Hörtner, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    We present a deformation of the action principle for a free tensor field of mixed symmetry (2,1) --the Curtright action, a dual formulation of five-dimensional linearized gravity. It is constructed as the dual theory of the Einstein-Hilbert action linearized around a de Sitter background, and its derivation relies on the use of the two-potential formalism as an intermediate step. The resulting action principle is spatially non-local and space-time covariance is not manifest, thus overcoming previous no-go results.

  11. Detecting Emotions from Connected Action Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Daniel; Robinson, Peter

    In this paper we deal with the problem of detecting emotions from the body movements produced by naturally connected action sequences. Although action sequences are one of the most common forms of body motions in everyday scenarios their potential for emotion recognition has not been explored in the past. We show that there are fundamental differences between actions recorded in isolation and in natural sequences and demonstrate a number of techniques which allow us to correctly label action sequences with one of four emotions up to 86% of the time. Our results bring us an important step closer to recognizing emotions from body movements in natural scenarios.

  12. Orbit equivalence and actions of F

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Törnquist, Asger Dag

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we show that there are "E many" orbit inequivalent free actions of the free groups F, 2 ≤ n ≤ ∞ by measure preserving transformations on a standard Borel probability space. In particular, there are uncountably many such actions.......In this paper we show that there are "E many" orbit inequivalent free actions of the free groups F, 2 ≤ n ≤ ∞ by measure preserving transformations on a standard Borel probability space. In particular, there are uncountably many such actions....

  13. Action orientation overcomes the ego depletion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Junhua; Xiao, Shanshan; Shi, Yucai; Mao, Lihua

    2015-04-01

    It has been consistently demonstrated that initial exertion of self-control had negative influence on people's performance on subsequent self-control tasks. This phenomenon is referred to as the ego depletion effect. Based on action control theory, the current research investigated whether the ego depletion effect could be moderated by individuals' action versus state orientation. Our results showed that only state-oriented individuals exhibited ego depletion. For individuals with action orientation, however, their performance was not influenced by initial exertion of self-control. The beneficial effect of action orientation against ego depletion in our experiment results from its facilitation for adapting to the depleting task.

  14. A comparison of the RCRA Corrective Action and CERCLA Remedial Action Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traceski, Thomas T.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a comprehensive side-by-side comparison of the RCRA corrective action and the CERCLA remedial action processes. On the even-numbered pages a discussion of the RCRA corrective action process is presented and on the odd-numbered pages a comparative discussion of the CERCLA remedial action process can be found. Because the two programs have a difference structure, there is not always a direct correlation between the two throughout the document. This document serves as an informative reference for Departmental and contractor personnel responsible for oversight or implementation of RCRA corrective action and CERCLA remedial action activities at DOE environmental restoration sites.

  15. The time between intention and action affect the experience of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel C. Vinding

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a study investigating how the delay between the intention to act and the following action, influenced the experience of action. In experiments investigating sense of agency and experience of action, the contrast is most often between voluntary and involuntary actions. It is rarely asked whether different types of intentions influence the experience of action differently. To investigate this we distinguished between proximal intentions (i.e. intentions for immediate actions and delayed intentions (i.e. intentions with a temporal delay between intention and action. The distinction was implemented in an intentional binding paradigm, by varying the delay between the time where participants formed the intention to act and the time at which they performed the action. The results showed that delayed intentions were followed by a stronger binding effect for the tone following the action compared to proximal intentions. The actions were reported to have occurred earlier for delayed intentions than for proximal intentions. This effect was independent of the binding effect usually found in intentional binding experiments. This suggests that two perceptual shifts occurred in the contrast between delayed intentions and proximal intentions: The first being the binding effect, the second a general shift in the perceived time of action. Neither the stronger binding effect for tone, nor the earlier reports of action, differed across delays for delayed intentions. The results imply that delayed intentions and proximal intentions have a different impact on the experience of action.

  16. Freedom and enforcement in action a study in formal action theory

    CERN Document Server

    Czelakowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Action theory is the object of growing attention in a variety of scientific disciplines, and this is the first volume to offer a synthetic view of the range of approaches possible in the topic. The volume focuses on the nexus of formal action theory with a startlingly diverse set of subjects, which range from logic, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and automata theory to jurisprudence, deontology, and economics. It covers semantic, mathematical and logical aspects of action, showing how the problem of action breaks the boundaries of traditional branches of logic located in syntactics and semantics and now lies on lies on the borderline between logical pragmatics and praxeology.   The chapters here focus on specialized tasks in formal action theory, beginning with a thorough description and formalization of the language of action, and moving through material on the differing models of action theory to focus on probabilistic models, the relations of formal action theory to deontic logic, and its key appl...

  17. Mechanisms underlying selecting objects for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie eWulff

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the factors which affect the selection of objects for action, focusing on the role of action knowledge and its modulation by distracters. 14 neuropsychological patients and 10 healthy aged-matched controls selected pairs of objects commonly used together among distracters in two contexts: with real objects and with pictures of the same objects presented sequentially on a computer screen. Across both tasks, semantically related distracters led to slower responses and more errors than unrelated distracters and the object actively used for action was selected prior to the object that would be passively held during the action. We identified a sub-group of patients (N=6 whose accuracy was 2SD below the controls performances in the real object task. Interestingly, these impaired patients were more affected by the presence of unrelated distracters during both tasks than intact patients and healthy controls. Note the impaired had lesions to left parietal, right anterior temporal and bilateral pre-motor regions. We conclude that: (1 motor procedures guide object selection for action, (2 semantic knowledge affects action-based selection, (3 impaired action decision is associated with the inability to ignore distracting information and (4 lesions to either the dorsal or ventral visual stream can lead to deficits in making action decisions. Overall, the data indicate that impairments in everyday tasks can be evaluated using a simulated computer task. The implications for rehabilitation are discussed.

  18. 16 CFR 1209.37 - Corrective actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION Certification § 1209.37 Corrective actions. (a) Test failure... change in the product specification and a new cellulose insulation product (see § 1209.34(b)), the... insulation product itself. Corrective action may consist of equipment adjustment, equipment repair, equipment...

  19. Uncovering the architecture of action semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christine E; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2014-10-01

    Despite research suggesting that stored sensorimotor information about tool use is a component of the semantic representations of tools, little is known about the action features or organizing principles that underlie this knowledge. We used methods similar to those applied in other semantic domains to examine the "architecture" of action semantic knowledge. In Experiment 1, participants sorted photographs of tools into groups according to the similarity of their associated "use" actions and rated tools on dimensions related to action. The results suggest that the magnitude of arm movement, configuration of the hand, and manner of motion during tool use play a role in determining how tools cluster in action "semantic space." In Experiment 2, we validated the architecture uncovered in Experiment 1 using an implicit semantic task for which tool use knowledge was not ostensibly relevant (blocked cyclic word-picture matching). Using stimuli from Experiment 1, we found that participants performed more poorly during blocks of trials containing tools used with similar versus unrelated actions, and the amount of semantic interference depended on the magnitude of action similarity among tools. Thus, the degree of featural overlap between tool use actions plays a role in determining the overall semantic similarity of tools.

  20. Joint action: Neurocognitive mechanisms supporting human interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkering, H.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de; Cuijpers, R.H.; Newman-Norlund, R.D.; Schie, H.T. van; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are experts in cooperating with each other when trying to accomplish tasks they cannot achieve alone. Recent studies of joint action have shown that when performing tasks together people strongly rely on the neurocognitive mechanisms that they also use when performing actions individually, th