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Sample records for bacteriophage lambda

  1. Replication of bacteriophage lambda DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper results of studies on the mechanism of bacteriophage lambda replication using molecular biological and biochemical approaches are reported. The purification of the initiator proteins, O and P, and the role of the O and P proteins in the initiation of lambda DNA replication through interactions with specific DNA sequences are described. 47 references, 15 figures

  2. Bacteriophage lambda: early pioneer and still relevant

    OpenAIRE

    Casjens, Sherwood R; Hendrix, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic research on bacteriophage lambda carried out during its golden age from the mid 1950's to mid 1980's was critically important in the attainment of our current understanding of the sophisticated and complex mechanisms by which the expression of genes is controlled, of DNA virus assembly and of the molecular nature of lysogeny. The development of molecular cloning techniques, ironically instigated largely by phage lambda researchers, allowed many phage workers to switch their ...

  3. The protein interaction map of bacteriophage lambda

    OpenAIRE

    Uetz Peter; Casjens Sherwood; Rajagopala Seesandra V

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Bacteriophage lambda is a model phage for most other dsDNA phages and has been studied for over 60 years. Although it is probably the best-characterized phage there are still about 20 poorly understood open reading frames in its 48-kb genome. For a complete understanding we need to know all interactions among its proteins. We have manually curated the lambda literature and compiled a total of 33 interactions that have been found among lambda proteins. We set out to find ou...

  4. Bacteriophage lambda: Early pioneer and still relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casjens, Sherwood R; Hendrix, Roger W

    2015-05-01

    Molecular genetic research on bacteriophage lambda carried out during its golden age from the mid-1950s to mid-1980s was critically important in the attainment of our current understanding of the sophisticated and complex mechanisms by which the expression of genes is controlled, of DNA virus assembly and of the molecular nature of lysogeny. The development of molecular cloning techniques, ironically instigated largely by phage lambda researchers, allowed many phage workers to switch their efforts to other biological systems. Nonetheless, since that time the ongoing study of lambda and its relatives has continued to give important new insights. In this review we give some relevant early history and describe recent developments in understanding the molecular biology of lambda's life cycle. PMID:25742714

  5. The protein interaction map of bacteriophage lambda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uetz Peter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriophage lambda is a model phage for most other dsDNA phages and has been studied for over 60 years. Although it is probably the best-characterized phage there are still about 20 poorly understood open reading frames in its 48-kb genome. For a complete understanding we need to know all interactions among its proteins. We have manually curated the lambda literature and compiled a total of 33 interactions that have been found among lambda proteins. We set out to find out how many protein-protein interactions remain to be found in this phage. Results In order to map lambda's interactions, we have cloned 68 out of 73 lambda open reading frames (the "ORFeome" into Gateway vectors and systematically tested all proteins for interactions using exhaustive array-based yeast two-hybrid screens. These screens identified 97 interactions. We found 16 out of 30 previously published interactions (53%. We have also found at least 18 new plausible interactions among functionally related proteins. All previously found and new interactions are combined into structural and network models of phage lambda. Conclusions Phage lambda serves as a benchmark for future studies of protein interactions among phage, viruses in general, or large protein assemblies. We conclude that we could not find all the known interactions because they require chaperones, post-translational modifications, or multiple proteins for their interactions. The lambda protein network connects 12 proteins of unknown function with well characterized proteins, which should shed light on the functional associations of these uncharacterized proteins.

  6. Initiation of bacteriophage lambda DNA replication in vitro with purified lambda replication proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, M S; Mallory, J B; Roberts, J D; LeBowitz, J H; McMacken, R

    1982-01-01

    We have developed a soluble enzyme system that replicates exogenously added plasmid DNA (lambda dv) bearing the replication origin of the bacteriophage lambda chromosome. The system contains pure phage lambda O and P replication proteins and a partially purified mixture of Escherichia coli replication proteins [the enzyme system of Fuller, R.S., Kaguni, J.M. & Kornberg, A. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78, 7370-7374). The features of lambda dv replication in this system closely resemble t...

  7. Recombination of bacteriophage phiX174 by the red function of bacteriophage lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recombination of bacteriophage phiX174 was effectively promoted when the Red function of lambda was supplied by either co-infection with lambda or induction of lambda lysogens. Mutations in redα and redβ genes of lambda abolished recombination nearly completely, whereas a mutation in gam gene reduced it only slightly. The Red-promoted recombination of phiX174 occurred in recA, recB, and polA mutants as well as in wild-type strains of Escherichia coli. It was further stimulated when phiX174 mutants were irradiated with uv light before infection

  8. Restriction alleviation by bacteriophages lambda and lambda reverse.

    OpenAIRE

    Toothman, P

    1981-01-01

    Deletion analysis indicated that the phage lambda restriction alleviation gene(s) ral resides between the cIII and N genes. The Ral+ phenotype was expressed only when lambda ral+ carried a modification such that it was resistant to restriction by the host specificity system. Under these conditions, Ral function protected superinfecting unmodified phages from restriction by EcoK or EcoB but not from restriction by EcoP1. Ral-protected phage DNA was not concomitantly K and B modified, but rathe...

  9. In vivo gene delivery and expression by bacteriophage lambda vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Lankes, HA; Zanghi, CN; Santos, K; Capella, C.; Duke, CMP; Dewhurst, S

    2007-01-01

    Aims Bacteriophage vectors have potential as gene transfer and vaccine delivery vectors because of their low cost, safety and physical stability. However, little is known concerning phage-mediated gene transfer in mammalian hosts. We therefore performed experiments to examine phage-mediated gene transfer in vivo. Methods and Results Mice were inoculated with recombinant lambda phage containing a mammalian expression cassette encoding firefly luciferase (luc). Efficient, dose-dependent in vivo...

  10. A second function of the S gene of bacteriophage lambda.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, D.B.; Okabe, A

    1982-01-01

    Infection of Escherichia coli by bacteriophage lambda caused an immediate inhibition of uptake by members of all three classes of E. coli active transport systems and made the inner membrane permeable to sucrose and glycine; however, infection stimulated alpha-methyl glucoside uptake. Phage infection caused a dramatic drop in the ATP pool of the cell, but the membrane did not become permeable to nucleotides. Infection by only one phage per cell was sufficient to cause transport inhibition. Ho...

  11. The DNA ejection process in bacteriophage lambda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Paul

    Bacteriophages have long served as model systems through which the nature of life may be explored. From a physical or mechanical point of view, phages are excellent examples of natural nanotechnology: they are nanometer-scale systems which depend critically on forces, pressures, velocities, and other fundamentally physical quantities for their biological functions. The study of the physical properties of phages has therefore provided an arena for application of physics to biology. In particular, recent studies of the motor responsible for packaging a phage gnome into a capsid showed a buildup of pressure within the capsid of tens of atmospheres. This thesis reports a combined theoretical and experimental study on various aspects of the genome ejection process, so that a comparison may be drawn with the packaging experiments. In particular, we examine various theoretical models of the forces within a phage capsid, deriving formulas both for the force driving genome ejection and for the velocity at which the genome is translocated into a host cell. We describe an experiment in which the force was measured as a function of the amount of genome within the phage capsid, and another where the genome ejection velocity was measured for single phages under the microscope. We make direct quantitative comparisons between the theory and experiments, stringently testing the extent to which we are able to model the genome ejection process.

  12. Identification of the N gene protein of bacteriophage lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The N gene protein, pN, of bacteriophage lambda stimulates early gene transcription by allowing mRNA chain elongation to proceed into genes distal to transcription termination sites normally recognized by the Escherichia coli transcription termination protein rho. pN has previously eluded detection on sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gels because of its small size, its instability, and the difficulty of distinguising pN itself both from host proteins and from other early lambda proteins whose synthesis depends on pN action. These problems have now been overcome and we find that the major form of pN present in crude cell extracts of infected cells has an apparent molecular weight of 13,500. Lambda bio256, a deletion-substitution mutant terminating in N, codes for a shorter pN of molecular weight 12,500. A nonsense fragment of 10,500 molecular weight coded by lambda N/sub am7/ has also been identified. These conclusions are based on examination of the electrophoretic profiles of the proteins synthesized after infection of UV-irradiated E. coli by various lambda N- temperature-sensitive, nonsense, and deletion-substitution mutants. It has also been possible to distinguish pN itself from other early lambda polypeptides by infecting ron- cells with either lambda N/sub mar/ phage allowing pN synthesis but not pN action or lambda N/sub am/ phage defective in pN synthesis and pN action. Our results together with previous data are discussed with respect to the possible existence of multiple molecular weight forms of pN and the location of the coding sequences in the N gene region

  13. Minimal gene regulatory circuits that can count like bacteriophage lambda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avlund, M; Dodd, Ian B; Sneppen, K; Krishna, S

    2009-12-11

    The behavior of living systems is dependent on large dynamical gene regulatory networks (GRNs). However, the functioning of even the smallest GRNs is difficult to predict. The bistable GRN of bacteriophage lambda is able to count to make a decision between lysis and lysogeny on the basis of the number of phages infecting the cell, even though replication of the phage genome eliminates this initial difference. By simulating the behavior of a large number of random transcriptional GRNs, we show that a surprising variety of GRNs can carry out this complex task, including simple CI-Cro-like mutual repression networks. Thus, our study extends the repertoire of simple GRNs. Counterintuitively, the major effect of the addition of CII-like regulation, generally thought to be needed for counting by lambda, was to improve the ability of the networks to complete a simulated prophage induction. Our study suggests that additional regulatory mechanisms to decouple Cro and CII levels may exist in lambda and that infection counting could be widespread among temperate bacteriophages, many of which contain CI-Cro-like circuits. PMID:19796646

  14. Study of the reactivation of X-ray inactivated lambda bacteriophages by irradiated Escherichia coli bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacteriophages lambda and E.coli cells were exposed to X-rays in LB medium. Host cells exposed to a dose of 85 to 765 Gy had a reactivation factor 1.3 to 3.0 for bacteriophages inactivated by X-rays. The capacity of the bacteria for bacteriophage mutliplication remained apparently unchanged in this dose range. After UV-irradiation of the host cells, only a reactivation factor of 1.3 was found for bacteriophages exposed to X-radiation. The comparatively low Weigle reactivation of bacteriophages exposed to X-radiation - as compared with bacteriophages exposed to UV radiation was analyzed by counting free, non-adsorbed bacteriophages determined by filtration of radioactively labelled bacteriophage-host complexes, it was found to be due to a reduced adsorptivity. Reactivation experiments with bacteriophages exposed to X-rays and host bacterias with different degrees of radiosensitivity proved this assumption to be correct. (orig.)

  15. Effect of ultrashort laser irradiation on bacteriophage lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacteriophage lambda was irradiated by picosecond and nanosecond laser UV pulses with high intensity (105 - 109 W/cm2) at a wavelength of 266 nm. It was found that the photoreactivation in the phages decreased from 85% (continuous irradiation with low intensity 10-5 W/cm2) to 27% (laser nanosecond irradiation with intensity 3 x 105 W/cm2) and to 20% (laser picosecond irradiation with intensity 109 W/cm2), resp. Furthermore the ratio of D37 for phage lambda upon the infection of wild type (AB 1157) and uvrA-mutant E. coli K12 (AB 1886) is diminished from 6.2 (continuous irradiation with intensity 10-5 W/cm2) to 2.0 (pico- and nanosecond irradiation with intensity 7 x 107 W/cm2 and 3 x 105 W/cm2, resp.). It is supposed that high intensity DNA irradiation by UV laser pulses leads mainly to the formation of photoproducts, which do not correspond to cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers. (author)

  16. The Viral DNA Packaging Motor of Bacteriophage Lambda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Carlos E.

    2007-03-01

    Terminase enzymes are common to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic double-stranded DNA viruses. These enzymes, which serve as molecular motors that selectively ``package'' viral DNA into a pre-formed procapsid structure, are among the most powerful biological motors characterized to date. Bacteriophage lambda terminase is a heteroligomer composed of gpA and gpNu1 subunits. The smaller gpNu1 subunit is required for specific recognition of viral DNA, a process that is modulated by ATP. The gpA subunit possesses site-specific nuclease and helicase activities that ``mature'' the viral genome prior to packaging. The subunit further possesses a DNA translocase activity that is central to the packaging motor complex. Discrete ATPase sites in gpA modulate the DNA maturation reactions and fuel the DNA packaging reaction. Kinetic characterization of lambda terminase indicates significant interaction between the multiple catalytic sites of the enzyme and has led to a minimal kinetic model describing the assembly of a catalytically-competent packaging motor complex. Biophysical studies demonstrate that purified lambda terminase forms a homogenous, heterotrimeric structure consisting of one gpA subunit in association with two gpNu1 proteins. Four heterotrimers further assemble into a ring-like structure of sufficient size to encircle duplex DNA. The ensemble of data suggests that the ring tetramer represents the biologically relevant, catalytically-competent motor complex responsible for genome processing and packaging reactions. We present a model for the functional DNA packaging motor complex that finds general utility in our global understanding of the enzymology of virus assembly.

  17. Bacteriophage lambda DNA packaging: scanning for the terminal cohesive end site during packaging.

    OpenAIRE

    Feiss, M; Widner, W

    1982-01-01

    Bacteriophage lambda packages the DNA of the related phage 21 poorly [Hohn, B. (1975) J. Mol. Biol. 98, 93--106]. To understand the nature of the packaging defect, the interaction of the cohesive end site (cos) specific for phage 21 (cos phi 21) with phage lambda terminase has been investigated. The ability of lambda terminase to cleave cos phi 21 was studied in vitro; lambda terminase cleaved cos phi 21 only 1% as well as it cleaved the phage lambda cohesive end site (cos lambda). In vitro p...

  18. Simultaneous display of two large proteins on the head and tail of bacteriophage lambda

    OpenAIRE

    Pavoni, Emiliano; Vaccaro, Paola; D’Alessio, Valeria; De Santis, Rita; Minenkova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Background Consistent progress in the development of bacteriophage lambda display platform as an alternative to filamentous phage display system was achieved in the recent years. The lambda phage has been engineered to display efficiently multiple copies of peptides or even large protein domains providing a powerful tool for screening libraries of peptides, proteins and cDNA. Results In the present work we describe an original method for dual display of large proteins on the surface of lambda...

  19. The role of template superhelicity in the initiation of bacteriophage lambda DNA replication.

    OpenAIRE

    Alfano, C; McMacken, R

    1988-01-01

    The prepriming steps in the initiation of bacteriophage lambda DNA replication depend on the action of the lambda O and P proteins and on the DnaB helicase, single-stranded DNA binding protein (SSB), and DnaJ and DnaK heat shock proteins of the E. coli host. The binding of multiple copies of the lambda O protein to the phage replication origin (ori lambda) initiates the ordered assembly of a series of nucleoprotein structures that form at ori lambda prior to DNA unwinding, priming and DNA syn...

  20. Molecular cloning of unintegrated Moloney mouse sarcoma virus DNA in bacteriophage lambda.

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, I M; Lai, M.H.; Bosselman, R A; McKennett, M. A.; Fan, H.; Berns, A

    1980-01-01

    The covalently closed circular forms of unintegrated viral DNA obtained from cells infected with Moloney mouse sarcoma virus was cloned in bacteriophage lambda. The viral DNA was cleaved with restriction endonuclease HindIII and inserted in the unique HindIII site of lambda Charon 21A DNA. Recombinant clones containing virus-reactive DNA sequences were analyzed by restriction endonuclease mapping, R-loop formation, and infectivity assays. Two of eight genome-length recombinant clones characte...

  1. Induction of genetic recombination in the lambda bacteriophage by ultraviolet radiation of the Escherichia Coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work there are reported the results that show that although the stimulation of the recombination of the Lambda bacteriophage, by UV irradiation of the cells of Escherichia Coli, it looks to be the result of the high expression of the functions of the SOS system, doesn't keep some relationship with the high concentration of protein reached RecA. (Author)

  2. Specialized nucleoprotein structures at the origin of replication of bacteriophage lambda: complexes with lambda O protein and with lambda O, lambda P, and Escherichia coli DnaB proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson, M; Roberts, J.; McMacken, R; Echols, H

    1985-01-01

    The O protein of bacteriophage lambda is required for initiation of DNA replication at the lambda replicative origin designated ori lambda. The binding sites for O protein are four direct repeats, each of which is an inverted repeat. By means of electron microscopy, we have found that phage lambda O protein utilizes these multiple binding sites to form a specific nucleoprotein structure in which the origin DNA is inferred to be folded or wound. The phage lambda O and P proteins and host DnaB ...

  3. Radiochemical identification of the kil gene product of bacteriophage lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coliphage lambda kil gene product has been identified using a differential labeling technique . The kil gene polypeptide has a molecular weight of about 16,000, as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel filtration of the kil protein indicates that it may exist as a tetramer in native form

  4. Fc receptor-mediated, antibody-dependent enhancement of bacteriophage lambda-mediated gene transfer in mammalian cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sapinoro, Ramil; Volcy, Ketna; Shanaka, W.W.; Rodrigo, I.; Schlesinger, Jacob J.; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Lambda phage vectors mediate gene transfer in cultured mammalian cells and in live mice, and in vivo phage-mediated gene expression is increased when mice are pre-immunized with bacteriophage lambda. We now show that, like eukaryotic viruses, bacteriophage vectors are subject to Fc receptor-mediated, antibody-dependent enhancement of infection in mammalian cells. Antibody-dependent enhancement of phage gene transfer required FcγRI, but not its associated γ chain, and was not supported by othe...

  5. Proteasome Inhibitors Enhance Bacteriophage Lambda (λ) Mediated Gene Transfer in Mammalian Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Volcy, Ketna; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Bacteriophage lambda vectors can transfer their genomes into mammalian cells, resulting in expression of phage-encoded genes. However, this process is inefficient. Experiments were therefore conducted to delineate the rate limiting step(s) involved, using a phage vector that contains a mammalian luciferase reporter gene cassette. The efficiency of phage-mediated gene transfer in mammalian cells was quantitated, in the presence or absence of pharmacologic inhibitors of cell uptake and degradat...

  6. The protein interaction network of bacteriophage lambda with its host Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Blasche, Sonja; Wuchty, Stefan; Rajagopala, Seesandra V.; Uetz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although most of the 73 open reading frames (ORFs) in bacteriophage λ have been investigated intensively, the function of many genes in host-phage interactions remains poorly understood. Using yeast two-hybrid screens of all lambda ORFs for interactions with its host Escherichia coli, we determined a raw data set of 631 host-phage interactions resulting in a set of 62 high-confidence interactions after multiple rounds of retesting. These links suggest novel regulatory interactions between the...

  7. Correlation between UV dose requirement for lambda bacteriophage induction and lambda repressor concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escherichia coli K-12 wild type and a uvrA mutant derivative were used to construct isogenic strains bearing one, two, three, or more phage lambda cI genomes and containing increasing concentrations of lambda repressor as measured by in vitro operator DNA-binding assays. The survival and phage induction in response to uv irradiation were determined. In both strains, dose-response relationships were obtained as a function of the cellular repressor concentration. The uvrA lysogens required one-tenth the uv fluence of the wild-type counterparts for induction. Lysogenic strains containing plasmids that overproduce the lambda ind+ repressor and the same lysogens with plasmids overproducing the lambda ind- repressor displayed the same suvival curves as the nonlysogenic parental strain; however, only the former produced infectious centers (at a frequency of 2 x 10-3 to 5 x 10-4) in response to radiation

  8. Translesion synthesis is the main component of SOS repair in bacteriophage lambda DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agents that interfere with DNA replication in Escherichia coli induce physiological adaptations that increase the probability of survival after DNA damage and the frequency of mutants among the survivors (the SOS response). Such agents also increase the survival rate and mutation frequency of irradiated bacteriophage after infection of treated bacteria, a phenomenon known as Weigle reactivation. In UV-irradiated single-stranded DNA phage, Weigle reactivation is thought to occur via induced, error-prone replication through template lesions. Weigle reactivation occurs with higher efficiency in double-stranded DNA phages such as lambda, and we therefore asked if another process, recombination between partially replicated daughter molecules, plays a major role in this case. To distinguish between translesion synthesis and recombinational repair, we studied the early replication of UV-irradiated bacteriophage lambda in SOS-induced and uninduced bacteria. To avoid complications arising from excision of UV lesions, we used bacterial uvrA mutants, in which such excision does not occur. Our evidence suggests that translesion synthesis is the primary component of Weigle reactivation of lambda phage in the absence of excision repair. The greater efficiency in Weigle reactivation of double-stranded DNA phage could thus be attributed to some inducible excision repair unable to occur on single-stranded DNA. In addition, after irradiation, lambda phage replication seems to switch prematurely from the theta mode to the rolling circle mode

  9. Picosecond laser UV inactivation of lambda bacteriophage and various Escherichia coli strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the authors studied inactivation of bacteriophage lambda11 and three strains of Escherichia coli K12 under high-intensity picosecond laser UV irradiation. With the rise of UV irradiation intensity from 1010 W/m2 to 1013 W/m2 the photoresistance of these objects sharply increased: for lambda11 phage by 33-67 times depending on host-cell strain chosen, for different strains of E. coli by 13-476 times. Under picosecond UV irradiation of lambda11 the single-quantum and two-quantum photolesions made comparable contributions to the total lethal photoproduct. In the case of E. coli it was mainly two-quantum photolesions that brought about picosecond UV inactivation. (Auth.)

  10. Site-specificity of abnormal excision: the mechanism of formation of a specialized transducing bacteriophage lambda plac5.

    OpenAIRE

    Shpakovski, G V; Berlin, Y A

    1984-01-01

    Molecular mechanism of the specialized transducing bacteriophage lambda plac5 formation has been studied. Phage-bacterial DNA junctions in lambda plac5 DNA are localized and primary structure of regions of the abnormal excisional recombination leading to the phage formation is elucidated; the crossover region proved to be comparable with the central part of attP and attB sites (the core and the adjacent tetranucleotide) in length and degree of homology. Bacterial insert in lambda plac5 DNA is...

  11. Extension of bacteriophage lambda host range: selection, cloning, and characterization of a constitutive lambda receptor gene.

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, G E; Raymond, C K; Ludwig, R A

    1984-01-01

    A set of plasmids has been constructed that carry a constitutive lamB gene (LamBc phenotype) from Escherichia coli and that confer functional phage lambda receptors to bacteria other than E. coli. This E. coli LamBc strain has been selected to escape both maltose-inducible and glucose-repressible control. Constitutivity results from an IS-3 insertion, carrying a mobile promoter, proximal to lamB. The LamBc DNA has been cloned into both broad and narrow host-range plasmids, and the resulting p...

  12. Transposable lambda placMu bacteriophages for creating lacZ operon fusions and kanamycin resistance insertions in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Bremer, E; Silhavy, T J; Weinstock, G M

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed several derivatives of bacteriophage lambda that translocate by using the transposition machinery of phage Mu (lambda placMu phages). Each phage carries the c end of Mu, containing the Mu cIts62, ner (cII), and A genes, and the terminal sequences from the Mu S end (beta end). These sequences contain the Mu attachment sites, and their orientation allows the lambda genome to be inserted into other chromosomes, resulting in a lambda prophage flanked by the Mu c and S sequence...

  13. Lambda placMu: a transposable derivative of bacteriophage lambda for creating lacZ protein fusions in a single step.

    OpenAIRE

    Bremer, E; Silhavy, T J; Weisemann, J M; Weinstock, G M

    1984-01-01

    We isolated a plaque-forming derivative of phage lambda, lambda placMu1 , that contains sequences from bacteriophage Mu enabling it to integrate into the Escherichia coli chromosome by means of the Mu transposition system. The Mu DNA carried by this phage includes both attachment sites as well as the cI, ner (cII), and A genes. Lambda placMu1 also contains the lacZ gene, deleted for its transcription and translation initiation signals, and the lacY gene of E. coli, positioned next to the term...

  14. Utilization of Lambda bacteriophage as an Apoptin effective delivery platform to the BT-474 human breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmin Ghaderi

    2014-02-01

    Conclusion: Utilization of recombinant Lambda bacteriophage as a safe expression vector has been confirmed. Apoptin was induced apoptosis specifically in the tumors in vivo. Use of such construct is a very safe way to treat cancer in human. The results presented here reveal important features of λ nanobioparticles to serve as safe delivery and expression platform for human cancer therapy.

  15. Direct positive selection for improved nitroreductase variants using SOS triggering of bacteriophage lambda lytic cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, C P; Grove, J I; Hyde, E I; Searle, P F

    2007-04-01

    Expression of prodrug-activating enzymes that convert non-toxic substrates to cytotoxic derivatives is a promising strategy for cancer gene therapy. However, their catalytic activity with unnatural, prodrug substrates is often suboptimal. Efforts to improve these enzymes have been limited by the inability to select directly for increased prodrug activation. We have focussed on developing variants of Escherichia coli (E. coli) nitroreductase (NTR) with improved ability to activate the prodrug 5-(aziridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide (CB1954), and describe here a novel, direct, positive selection for improved enzymes that exploits the alternative life cycles of bacteriophage lambda. In lambda lysogens of E. coli, the activation of the prodrug CB1954 by NTR triggers the SOS response to DNA damage, switching integrated lambda prophages into lytic cycle. This provides a direct, positive selection for phages encoding improved NTR variants, as, upon limiting exposure of lysogenized E. coli to CB1954, only those encoding the most active enzyme variants are triggered into lytic cycle, allowing their selective recovery. We exemplify the selection by isolating highly improved 'turbo-NTR' variants from a library of 6.8 x 10(5) clones, conferring up to 50-fold greater sensitivity to CB1954 than the wild type. Carcinoma cells infected with adenovirus expressing T41Q/N71S/F124T-NTR were sensitized to CB1954 concentrations 40- to 80-fold lower than required with WT-NTR. PMID:17301844

  16. The lambda red proteins promote efficient recombination between diverged sequences: implications for bacteriophage genome mosaicism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jann T Martinsohn

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Genome mosaicism in temperate bacterial viruses (bacteriophages is so great that it obscures their phylogeny at the genome level. However, the precise molecular processes underlying this mosaicism are unknown. Illegitimate recombination has been proposed, but homeologous recombination could also be at play. To test this, we have measured the efficiency of homeologous recombination between diverged oxa gene pairs inserted into lambda. High yields of recombinants between 22% diverged genes have been obtained when the virus Red Gam pathway was active, and 100 fold less when the host Escherichia coli RecABCD pathway was active. The recombination editing proteins, MutS and UvrD, showed only marginal effects on lambda recombination. Thus, escape from host editing contributes to the high proficiency of virus recombination. Moreover, our bioinformatics study suggests that homeologous recombination between similar lambdoid viruses has created part of their mosaicism. We therefore propose that the remarkable propensity of the lambda-encoded Red and Gam proteins to recombine diverged DNA is effectively contributing to mosaicism, and more generally, that a correlation may exist between virus genome mosaicism and the presence of Red/Gam-like systems.

  17. An open reading frame in the Escherichia coli bacteriophage lambda genome encodes a protein that functions in assembly of the long tail fibers of bacteriophage T4.

    OpenAIRE

    Montag, D.; Henning, U

    1987-01-01

    Assembly of the long tail fibers of the Escherichia coli bacteriophage T4 requires the catalytic action of two auxiliary proteins. It was found that a gene of the entirely unrelated phage lambda codes for a protein which can substitute for one of these T4 polypeptides, protein 38. The lambda gene was designated tfa (tail fiber assembly). Protein 38 consists of 183 residues, and the Tfa protein consists of 194 residues; the two polypeptides are about 40% homologous. Although the tfa gene is di...

  18. Host DNA replication or excision repair requirement for ultraviolet induction of bacteriophage lambda lysogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is stated that the mechanism for prophage induction by radiation, or chemical agents, is not known, although a variety of hypothesis have been advanced during recent years. Biochemical data have been described that seem to favour the suggestion that DNA intermediates in the repair of DNA damage compete with prophage operators for repressor binding. When sufficient repressor is bound none remains for prophage repression and induction occurs. If this is so the prediction may be made that induction should not occur in the absence of normal repair processes. Some experimental work is described with a view to testing and verifying this prediction. A bacteriophage lambda lysogen was used in the work. Irradiation was at 420C, and samples were removed at intervals and assayed for free plaque-forming units, little induction was observed over a wide range of UV doses in non-replicating non-excising lysogens, in contradiction with some earlier results. Competition between prophage operators and repair intermediates for lambda repressor appears to be the simplest way to account for the observed results, although other possibilities are discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Analysis of lambda insertions in the fucose utilization region of Escherichia coli K-12: use of lambda fuc and lambda argA transducing bacteriophages to partially order the fucose utilization genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Skjold, A C; Ezekiel, D H

    1982-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 strains have deletions for the normal lambda integration site were lysogenized with bacteriophage lambda at a site within the L-fucose utilization system (fuc). The frequency of lambda integration at this site is approximately 2 X 10(-8) to 5 X 10(-7). Studies of the lytic properties of these strains indicated very infrequent cell lysis with a relatively low phage burst size. Transductional ability of the phage lysates was found to be normal, comparable to that found in ...

  20. The OR control system of bacteriophage lambda. A physical-chemical model for gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M A; Ackers, G K

    1985-01-20

    A quantitative model has been developed for processes in the bacteriophage lambda that control the switchover from lysogenic to lytic modes of growth. These processes include the interactions of cI repressor and cro proteins at the three DNA sites of the right operator, OR, the binding of RNA polymerase at promoters PR and PRM, the synthesis of cI repressor and cro proteins, and the degradative action of recA during induction of lysis. The model is comprised of two major physical-chemical components: a statistical thermodynamic theory for relative probabilities of the various molecular configurations of the control system; and a kinetic model for the coupling of these probabilities to functional events, including synthesis of regulatory proteins cI and cro. Using independently evaluated interaction constants and rate parameters, the model was found capable of predicting essential physiological characteristics of the system over an extended time. Sufficiency of the model to predict known physiological properties lends credence to the physical-chemical assumptions used in its construction. Several major physiological characteristics were found to arise as "system properties" through the non-linear, time-dependent, feedback-modulated combinations of molecular interactions prescribed by the model. These include: maintenance of the lysogenic state in the absence of recA-mediated cI repressor degradation; induction of lysis and the phenomenon of subinduction; and autogenous negative control of cro. We have used the model to determine the roles, within the composite system, of several key molecular processes previously characterized by studies in vitro. These include: co-operativity in cI repressor binding to DNA; interactions between repressors and RNA polymerase (positive control); and the monomer-dimer association of cI repressor molecules. A major role of cI repressor co-operativity is found to be that of guaranteeing stability of the lysogenic state against minor

  1. In vivo and in vitro functional alterations of the bacteriophage lambda receptor in lamB missense mutants of Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Braun-Breton, C; Hofnung, M

    1981-01-01

    lamB is the structural gene for the bacteriophage lambda receptor in Escherichia coli K-12. In vivo and in vitro studies of the lambda receptor from lamB missence mutants selected as resistant to phage lambda h+ showed the following. (i) Resistance was not due to a change in the amount of lambda receptor protein present in the outer membrane but rather to a change in activity. All of the mutants were still sensitive to phage lambda hh*, a two-step host range mutant of phage lambda h+. Some (1...

  2. Initiation by bacteriophage T1 of DNA packaging at a site between the P and Q genes of bacteriophage lambda.

    OpenAIRE

    Drexler, H.

    1984-01-01

    The growth of phage T1 on cells tandemly lysogenic for heteroimmune lambdoid prophages leads to a nonrandom packaging of lambda DNA by T1. A site, called esp-lambda, is located between the P and Q genes of lambda and results in increased packaging to the left by T1. When cloned into pBR322, the esp-lambda site causes a significant increase in transduction of the plasmid by T1. The nin5 deletion inactivates esp-lambda.

  3. Sequence specificity of mutagenesis in the cI gene of bacteriophage lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of DNA base sequence alterations have shown that for every agent the mutagenic process is specific with respect to the types of base changes induced and the location of the changes in the DNA. Analysis of the types of mutations produced by mutagenic agents can provide insight into the mechanism of mutation and can suggest which DNA lesions may be involved in the actual mutagenic event. We have developed a system for the analysis of chemically induced base sequence alterations in the cI repressor gene of bacteriophage lambda using DNA sequencing techniques. To illustrate the utility of this type of analysis, we present the results obtained with ultraviolet light (UV). Irradiation of target DNA with UV alone, or UV followed by photoreactivating light (which removes dimers), produces mostly transitions at pyrimidine-pyrimidine sites. Conversely, irradiation with 313 nm light plus acetophenone (which produces only thymine dimers) produces mostly transversions at low efficiency. This and other evidence suggests that the actual premutagenic UV lesion in E. coli may not be pyrimidine-pyrimidine dimers, but rather pyr(6-4)pyo photoproducts

  4. Revisiting bistability in the lysis/lysogeny circuit of bacteriophage lambda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bednarz

    Full Text Available The lysis/lysogeny switch of bacteriophage lambda serves as a paradigm for binary cell fate decision, long-term maintenance of cellular state and stimulus-triggered switching between states. In the literature, the system is often referred to as "bistable." However, it remains unclear whether this term provides an accurate description or is instead a misnomer. Here we address this question directly. We first quantify transcriptional regulation governing lysogenic maintenance using a single-cell fluorescence reporter. We then use the single-cell data to derive a stochastic theoretical model for the underlying regulatory network. We use the model to predict the steady states of the system and then validate these predictions experimentally. Specifically, a regime of bistability, and the resulting hysteretic behavior, are observed. Beyond the steady states, the theoretical model successfully predicts the kinetics of switching from lysogeny to lysis. Our results show how the physics-inspired concept of bistability can be reliably used to describe cellular phenotype, and how an experimentally-calibrated theoretical model can have accurate predictive power for cell-state switching.

  5. Spontaneous lambda OR mutations suppress inhibition of bacteriophage growth by nonimmune exclusion phenotype of defective lambda prophage.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, S; Hayes, C.

    1986-01-01

    Survivor clones with defects in gene functions that participate in the replicative killing of thermally induced Escherichia coli constructs with integrated lambda N through P or cIII through P gene fragments were selected at a frequency of about 10(-6). Among the population of survivors, clones were identified that exhibited normal lambda immunity at 30 degrees C, as shown by their ability to prevent the plating of lambda wild type and to support the plating of a nearly identical heteroimmune...

  6. Role of RecA protein in untargeted UV mutagenesis of bacteriophage lambda: evidence for the requirement for the dinB gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Untargeted UV mutagenesis of bacteriophage lambda--i.e., the increased recovery of lambda mutants when unirradiated lambda infects UV-irradiated Escherichia coli--is thought to be mediated by a transient decrease in DNA replication fidelity, generating mutations in the newly synthesized strands. Using the bacteriophage lambda cI857----lambda c mutation system, we provide evidence that the RecA protein, shown previously to be required for this mutagenic pathway, is no longer needed when the LexA protein is inactivated by mutation. We suggest that the error-prone DNA replication responsible for UV-induced untargeted mutagenesis is turned on by the presence of replication-blocking lesions in the host cell DNA and that the RecA protein is required only to derepress the relevant din gene(s). This is in contrast to mutagenesis of irradiated bacteria or irradiated phage lambda, in which activated RecA protein has a second role in mutagenesis in addition to the cleavage of the LexA protein. Among the tested din genes, the dinB gene product (in addition to the uvrA and uvrB gene products) was found to be required for untargeted mutagenesis of bacteriophage lambda. To our knowledge, a phenotype associated with the dinB gene has not been reported previously

  7. The levanase operon of Bacillus subtilis expressed in Escherichia coli can substitute for the mannose permease in mannose uptake and bacteriophage lambda infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin-Verstraete, I; Michel, V. (Dr.); Charbit, A.

    1996-01-01

    Bacteriophage lambda adsorbs to its Escherichia coli K-12 host by interacting with LamB, a maltose- and maltodextrin-specific porin of the outer membrane. LamB also serves as a receptor for several other bacteriophages. Lambda DNA requires, in addition to LamB, the presence of two bacterial cytoplasmic integral membrane proteins for penetration, namely, the IIC(Man) and IID(Man) proteins of the E. coli mannose transporter, a member of the sugar-specific phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransf...

  8. RNA-primed initiation sites of DNA replication in the origin region of bacteriophage lambda genome.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoda, K.; Yasuda, H; Jiang, X W; Okazaki, T

    1988-01-01

    Using DNA molecules synthesized in the early stage of lambda phage infection, deoxynucleotides at the transition sites from primer RNA to DNA synthesis have been mapped in the 1.5 kbase area of the lambda phage genome containing the genetically defined replication origin (ori lambda). Sites in the 1-strand (the polarity of the 1-strand is 5' to 3' from the left to the right direction of the lambda phage genetic map) were distributed both inside and outside of the ori lambda, whereas the sites...

  9. Induction and repair of double- and single-strand DNA breaks in bacteriophage lambda superinfecting Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induction and repair of double-and single-strand DNA breaks have been measured after decays of 125I and 3H incorporated into the DNA and after external irradiation with 4 MeV electrons. For the decay experiments, cells of wild type Escherichia coli K-12 were superinfected with bacteriophage lambda DNA labelled with 5'-(125I)iodo-2'-deoxyuridine or with (methyl-3H)thymidine and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Aliquots were thawed at intervals and lysed at neutral pH, and the phage DNA was assayed for double- and single-strand breakage by neutral sucrose gradient centrifugation. The gradients used allowed measurements of both kinds of breaks in the same gradient. Decays of 125I induced 0.39 single-strand breaks per double-strand break. No repair of either break type could be detected. Each 3H disintegration caused 0.20 single-strand breaks and very few double-strand breaks. The single-strand breaks were rapidly rejoined after the cells were thawed. For irradiation with 4 MeV electrons, cells of wild type E. coli K-12 were superinfected with phage lambda and suspended in growth medium. Irradiation induced 42 single-strand breaks per double-strand break. The rates of break induction were 6.75 x 10-14 (double-strand breaks) and 2.82 x 10-12 (single-strand breaks) per rad and per dalton. The single-strand breaks were rapidly repaired upon incubation whereas the double-strand breaks seemed to remain unrepaired. It is concluded that double-strand breaks in superinfecting bacteriophage lambda DNA are repaired to a very small extent, if at all. (Author)

  10. Enhanced activity of the bacteriophage lambda PL promoter at low temperature.

    OpenAIRE

    Giladi, H; Goldenberg, D; Koby, S; Oppenheim, A B

    1995-01-01

    The response of the early phage lambda PL promoter to temperature was investigated. Experiments with lacZ reporter gene fusions demonstrated that the activity of the phage lambda PL promoter is inversely dependent on temperature. The bacterial DNA-binding protein integration host factor (IHF) further enhances lambda PL promoter activity at low temperature, although no apparent changes in the cellular level of IHF protein were observed at the different temperatures. IHF protein binds DNA in vi...

  11. Stimulation of groE synthesis in Escherichia coli by bacteriophage lambda infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Kochan, J; Murialdo, H

    1982-01-01

    We found that infection of Escherichia cell by lambda results in at least a twofold stimulation in the rate of synthesis of one of the products of groE. To determine what lambda-coded factors were responsible for this stimulation, numerous phage lambda mutants carrying bio substitutions were analyzed for their ability to stimulate groE synthesis. Our results revealed that the main factor(s) which is responsible for stimulating groE synthesis is located between the endpoints of the lambda bio6...

  12. W-reactivation and W-mutagenesis in bacteriophages lambda and T7: comparison of action of ultraviolet irradiation (254nm) and furocouma photosensitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When treating bacteriophage lambda with 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and light (lambda>320 nm), two types of photoproducts are formed in DNA: monoadducts and diadducts or interstrand linkings. If a wild-type strain of Escherichia coli is used as horst, W-reactivation and W-mutagenesis (clear-mutation), approximately equal in magnitude to those of UV-irradiated phage lambda, are observed in the bacteriophage lambda treated with 8-MOP plus light. If mutant strains E coli uvrA-, recA- and lexA- are used as host W-reactivation and W-mutagenesis practically do not occur in phage lambda. Using the method of ''reirradiation'', it is shown that clear-mutations in 8-MOP plus light treated phage lambda are induced in the process of W-mutagenesis mainly due to the formation of diadducts (interstrand linking) in DNA. In the phage monoadducts of derived furocoumarins also have a mutageneous character but their mutagenesis effectiveness (mutation probability calculating on one photo product) is significantly inferior to that of diadducts (approximately 15-20 times). It has been demonstrated in the experiments on the determination of W-mutagenesis of phage lambda photosensitized with angelisine - an angular derivative of furocoumarins - that mainly formi monoadducts in DNA. It is also shown that W-reactivation and W-mutagenesis effects are observed when sowing UV-irradiated (254 nm) phage lambda on E coli uvrA- and wild-type strains treated with 8-MOP plus light. As to bacteriophage T7 treated with 8-MOP plus light, W-reactivation is not observed even on a wild strain E coli. Preliminary infection of cells with phage T7 that has been strongly inactivated using photosensitizer 8-MOP decreases repair's effectiveness of interstrand linkings in DNA of phage lambda

  13. Effect of the mutation of recB21 of Escherichia coli on indirect recombinogenesis of bacteriophage lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work two undamaged amber lambda mutants were crossed in UV-irradiated Escherichia coli host cells and the total and recombinant λ + progenies scored after one lytic cycle. In a wild - type strain, such treatment produces an stimulation of 5-7 times in the production of recombinant λ + particles, accompanied by a variable but consistent increase in the total phage pro genie too. The effect has been designed as indirect recombinogenesis of bacteriophage lambda because it is elicited among undamaged λ genomes by the UV irradiation of host cells. Through the use of recB21 mutants we tested the role of the RecBCD enzyme as a whole in the effect just described and observed that in those hosts the effect is absent. The RecBCD enzyme of Escherichia coli has different activities, important for both the genetic recombination and recovery from DNA damage. Among those activities is that of ATP-dependent double-stranded DNA exonuclease, by means of which the enzyme digests the lineal molecules of viral DNA, produced during the late phase of lambda lytic cycle. To face such a destructive activity, λ encodes the Gam protein which inhibits all the activities of RecBCD; so the ability of RecBCD to act in the phage response, may be due either to a residual activity of the enzyme in lambda infected host cells or to an unknown Gam non-inhibited activity of the RecBCD enzyme. because the synthesis of the RecBCD is constitutive, the apparent inducibility of the λ response should be due to another reason such as an increase in the molecular substrates on which the enzyme acts. (Author)

  14. Translesion synthesis is the main component of SOS repair in bacteriophage lambda DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Defais, M; Lesca, C; Monsarrat, B.; Hanawalt, P

    1989-01-01

    Agents that interfere with DNA replication in Escherichia coli induce physiological adaptations that increase the probability of survival after DNA damage and the frequency of mutants among the survivors (the SOS response). Such agents also increase the survival rate and mutation frequency of irradiated bacteriophage after infection of treated bacteria, a phenomenon known as Weigle reactivation. In UV-irradiated single-stranded DNA phage, Weigle reactivation is thought to occur via induced, e...

  15. Isolation and analysis of Escherichia coli mutants that allow increased replication of bacteriophage lambda.

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, J A; Simon, L D

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli mutants were isolated that supported the growth of a lambda Ots and, in at least one case, a lambda Bts phage at the normally nonpermissive temperature of 39 degrees C. In one such strain, Ots and Bts suppression ability appeared to be a function of the guaB gene. Ots suppression by the mutant guaB strain was prevented if high levels of guanine or xanthine were present in the medium. No other base had any effect on Ots suppression in this strain. Other strains carrying sponta...

  16. Bacteriophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacteriophages or phages are bacterial viruses and are present in the rumen in large numbers. They are obligate pathogens of bacteria and are ubiquitous to the rumen ecosystem. Bacteriophages are capable of lysing their bacterial hosts within the rumen and are therefore regarded as contributing to protein recycling within the rumen, a process identified as reducing the efficiency of feed utilization. However, their presence may not be entirely detrimental to the ecosystem, and it has been argued that phages may also be involved in the maintenance of a balanced ecosystem and may play a role in recycling limiting nutrients within the rumen. Furthermore, phage therapy is enjoying a renaissance and the use of phages to control or eliminate detrimental or unwanted microbes from the gastro-intestinal tract, such as Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (food-borne disease), Streptococcus bovis (acidosis in grain-fed cattle) and methanogens (produce the greenhouse gas methane), is the focus of current investigation. In order to be able to study the interaction between individual bacteriophages and their bacterial hosts, it is necessary to: (a) isolate the phage of interest from other viruses in the source material; (b) to derive stock cultures of known phage concentration; (c) store the isolated phages; and (d) determine basic physical characteristics, such as morphology. These procedures are achieved using classical microbiological procedures and this will be the methodology described in this chapter. It is also necessary to determine nucleic acid characteristics of the phage genome and to fingerprint the phage population in the rumen using molecular biological techniques. These will be described and discussed in Chapter 4.2

  17. Effect of the mutations recB21, recD1013 and recJ284 of Escherichia Coli on the indirect recombinogenesis of the lambda bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report its are related the indirect recombinogenesis of the lambda bacteriophage which depends on it happens in the guest cell after the UV irradiation with those cellular responses to the DNA damages and with the bacterial genes that intervene in them (one of those is the SOS response, controlled by the genes lexA and recA). However it has not been possible to establish a precise relationship among those two phenomena because contradictory results exist. (Author)

  18. Embryonic stem cell gene targeting using bacteriophage lambda vectors generated by phage-plasmid recombination.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuzuki, T; Rancourt, D E

    1998-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis is an extremely useful experimental approach in molecular medicine, allowing the generation of specialized animals that are mutant for any gene of interest. Currently the rate determining step in any gene targeting experiment is construction of the targeting vector (TV). In order to streamline gene targeting methods and avoid problems encountered with plasmid TVs, we describe the direct application of lambda phage in targeted mutagenesis. The recombination-proficient phag...

  19. Stability of CII is a key element in the cold stress response of bacteriophage lambda infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Obuchowski, M; Shotland, Y; Koby, S; Giladi, H; Gabig, M; Wegrzyn, G; Oppenheim, A B

    1997-01-01

    Bacteria are known to adapt to environmental changes such as temperature fluctuations. It was found that temperature affects the lysis-lysogeny decision of lambda such that at body temperature (37 degrees C) the phage can select between the lytic and lysogenic pathways, while at ambient temperature (20 degrees C) the lytic pathway is blocked. This temperature-dependent discriminatory developmental pathway is governed mainly by the phage CII activity as a transcriptional activator. Mutations i...

  20. Bacteriophage lambda receptor site on the Escherichia coli K-12 LamB protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Gehring, K; Charbit, A; Brissaud, E; Hofnung, M

    1987-01-01

    We have analyzed eight new phage-resistant missense mutations in lamB. These mutations identify five new amino acid residues essential for phage lambda adsorption. Two mutations at positions 245 and 382 affect residues which were previously identified, but lead to different amino acid changes. Three mutations at residues 163, 164, and 250 enlarge and confirm previously proposed phage receptor sites. Two different mutations at residue 259 and one at 18 alter residues previously suggested as fa...

  1. Inactivation of bacteriophage lambda by near-ultraviolet irradiation in the presence of chlorpromazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacteriophage lambdasub(vir) was inactivated when it was irradiated with near-UV light in the presence of chlorpromazine. DNA strand breakage in the treated phage was indicated by alkaline sucrose gradient centrifugation. The number of the breaks was increased with increasing fluence. Although the inactivation rate was enhanced with a decreasing salt concentration in the reaction mixture and under a nitrogen atmosphere, the number of the strand breaks was not altered in either case. Therefore, the DNA strand breakage is not a sole lethal damage in the treated phage. The addition of NaN3 repressed the inactivation and the reaction in a D2O medium enhanced the inactivation even if the reaction mixture was irradiated under anaerobic conditions. Under anaerobic conditions, the inactivation occurs presumably via a radical mechanism. (author)

  2. Entropy Production Rate Changes in Lysogeny/Lysis Switch Regulation of Bacteriophage Lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the chemical kinetic model of lysogeny/lysis switch in Escherichia coli (E. coli) infected by bacteriophage λ, the entropy production rates of steady states are calculated. The results show that the lysogenic state has lower entropy production rate than lytic state, which provides an explanation on why the lysogenic state of λ phage is so stable. We also notice that the entropy production rates of both lysogenic state and lytic state are lower than that of saddle-point and bifurcation state, which is consistent with the principle of minimum entropy production for living organism in nonequilibrium stationary state. Subsequently, the relations between CI and Cro degradation rates at two bifurcations and the changes of entropy production rate with CI and Cro degradation are deduced. The theory and method can be used to calculate entropy change in other molecular network. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  3. uv-induced alleviation of K-specific restriction of bacteriophage lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A partial release of K-specific restriction of phage lambda grown in Escherichia coli C was observed when E. coli K strains AB1157 (having wild-type repair of uv-produced DNA damage) and AB1886 (uvrA) were irradiated with uv light before infection. The effect occurred in AB1886 at lower uv fluences than it did in AB1157. Little or no release of restriction was observed when AB2463 (recA) or AB2494 (lex-1) was used. Such release of restriction appears to be another of the uv-induced phenomena associated with ''SOS'' repair

  4. Inactivation of bacteriophage lambda by combined X-ray and U.V.-light exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracellular phage lambda has been successively exposed to X-rays and U.V. light. The plaque-forming ability of the irradiated phages was determined on host cells with different repair capacities. No change in sensitivity was found with a pre-treatment of one type of radiation to lethal damage inflicted by the other. This indicates that a prerequisite for an interaction of different types of radiation is either an active metabolism or repair process occurring during the two radiation exposures. (author)

  5. Analysis of the viral progeny during the indirect recombinogenesis of the lambda bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the effect of the UV irradiation on the number of cells that follow the lytic via of the phage is determined, as well as the production of total particles and recombinants in irradiated individual cells and not irradiated with light UV. The results show that the indirect recombinogenesis of lambda is caused by a so much increment in the number of recombinant phages for cells like in the number of cells in those that happen events of viral recombination, without any significant effect on the number of bacteria that follow the lytic via of viral development. (Author)

  6. A CI-independent form of replicative inhibition: turn off of early replication of bacteriophage lambda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Hayes

    Full Text Available Several earlier studies have described an unusual exclusion phenotype exhibited by cells with plasmids carrying a portion of the replication region of phage lambda. Cells exhibiting this inhibition phenotype (IP prevent the plating of homo-immune and hybrid hetero-immune lambdoid phages. We have attempted to define aspects of IP, and show that it is directed to repλ phages. IP was observed in cells with plasmids containing a λ DNA fragment including oop, encoding a short OOP micro RNA, and part of the lambda origin of replication, oriλ, defined by iteron sequences ITN1-4 and an adjacent high AT-rich sequence. Transcription of the intact oop sequence from its promoter, p(O is required for IP, as are iterons ITN3-4, but not the high AT-rich portion of oriλ. The results suggest that IP silencing is directed to theta mode replication initiation from an infecting repλ genome, or an induced repλ prophage. Phage mutations suppressing IP, i.e., Sip, map within, or adjacent to cro or in O, or both. Our results for plasmid based IP suggest the hypothesis that there is a natural mechanism for silencing early theta-mode replication initiation, i.e. the buildup of λ genomes with oop(+oriλ(+ sequence.

  7. Effect of umuC mutations on targeted and untargeted ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteriophage lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutagenesis of phage lambda towards clear-plaque (c+ → c) results in two classes of mutants that can be distinguished genetically and morphologically. Indirect mutagenesis, i.e. mutagenesis of unirradiated phage lambdac+ stimulated by the ultraviolet irradiation of the Escherichia coli host, results in mixed bursts (c/c+) of turbid wild-type and clear=plaque mutant phages. Pure bursts of lambdac mutants are induced by irradiation of the phage genome. Irradiation of both phages and host bacteria stimulates the production of the two classes of mutant clones. It is shown that three different mutant alleles of the E. coli umuC gene only prevent the appearance of pure bursts of clear-plaque mutants, while mixed bursts are produced at least as frequently in umuC mutants as in the umuC+ parent. (author)

  8. Lambda bacteriophage gene products and x-ray sensitivity of Escherichia coli: comparison of red-dependent and gam-dependent radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When gene products of lambda bacteriophage are introduced into a cell by transient induction of a lysogen, increased resistance of the cells to x rays results. This phenomenon has been called phage-induced radioresistance. Genetic studies show at least two classes of induced radioresistance. The first type depends on the products of the lambda red genes and is observed in bacteria that are mutated in the recB gene. It is thought that the lambda red products compensate for the missing RecBC nuclease in the repair of x-ray damage. An optimal effect is obtained even when the lambda red products are supplied 1 h after irradiation. The lesions that are affected by the red-dependent process are probably not deoxyribonucleic acid strand breaks because the extent of deoxyribonucleic acid strand rejoining is not altered by the red products. The second type of phage-induced radioresistance requires the gam product of lambda and is observed in wild-type and polA strains. The lambda gam+ gene product must be present immediately after irradiation to exert its full effect. In its presence, DNA breakdown is decreased, and a greater fraction of DNA is converted back to high molecular weight. Strains carrying lex, recA, or certain other combinations of mutations do not show any detectable phage-induced radioresistance. (U.S.)

  9. Ion etching of bacteriophage lambda: evidence that the right end of the DNA is located at the outside of the phage DNA mass.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J.C.; Newcomb, W W

    1986-01-01

    Bacteriophage lambda was etched in an Ar+ plasma under conditions in which the capsid and some of the DNA were eroded (by sputtering) from the particle surface. Analysis of the DNA remaining in etched phage demonstrated an enrichment in sequences derived from the left end and middle of the genome; sequences from the right end were selectively lost. The results suggest that the DNA in the mature phage is arranged with its left end toward the center and its right end toward the exterior of the ...

  10. General method for fine mapping of the Escherichia coli K-12 lamB gene: localization of missense mutations affecting bacteriophage lambda adsorption.

    OpenAIRE

    Hofnung, M; Lepouce, E; Braun-Breton, C

    1981-01-01

    lamB is the structural gene for the bacteriophage lambda receptor, a multifunctional protein located in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli K-12. We present a method for deletion mapping of any lamB mutations with a recognizable pheno-type. This method involves a transducing phage constructed by in vitro recombination which can also be used for complementation, deoxyribonucleic acid sequence, and in vitro protein synthesis studies with the mutated lamB gene. Using this method, we mapped 18...

  11. Cloning and characterization of the c1 repressor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage D3: a functional analog of phage lambda cI protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We cloned the gene (c1) which encodes the repressor of vegetative function of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage D3. The cloned gene was shown to inhibit plating of D3 and the induction of D3 lysogens by UV irradiation. The efficiency of plating and prophage induction of the heteroimmune P. aeruginosa phage F116L were not affected by the presence of the cloned c1 gene of D3. When the D3 DNA fragment containing c1 was subcloned into pBR322 and introduced into Escherichia coli, it was shown to specifically inhibit the plating of phage lambda and the induction of the lambda prophage by mitomycin C. The plating of lambda imm434 phage was not affected. Analysis in minicells indicated that these effects correspond to the presence of a plasmid-encoded protein of 36,000 molecular weight. These data suggest the possibility that coliphage lambda and the P. aeruginosa phage D3 evolved from a common ancestor. The conservation of the functional similarities of their repressors may have occurred because of the advantage to these temperate phages of capitalizing on the potential of the evolutionarily conserved RecA protein to monitor the level of damage to the host genome

  12. Formation of a lambda (Tn10) tyrR+ specialized transducing bacteriophage from Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Cobbett, C S; Pittard, J

    1980-01-01

    The transposon Tn10, coding for resistance to tetracycline, was inserted close to the tyrR+ gene at min 28 on the Escherichia coli chromosome. The homology between this transposon and a lambda (Tn10) phage was employed to direct integration of lambda close to tyrR+ with subsequent isolation of a lambda (Tn10) tyrR+ transducing phage. Results of restriction endonuclease analysis of the transducing phage are presented.

  13. Effect of the psi B gene on the indirect recombinogenesis of the lambda bacteriophage; Efecto del gen psi B sobre la recombinogenesis indirecta del bacteriofago lambda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara D, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1993-10-15

    Presently work, we prove if the protein psi B suppresses the indirect recombinogenesis of lambda when inhibiting the induction of the system bacterial SOS. This experimental model's advantage is that it allows to exclude the activity of co protease of RecA selectively without affecting the activity of recombinases of the same one, making possible the analysis of the paper that play both functions in the phenomenon. The results show that the inhibition of the activity of co protease of RecA doesn't suppress the indirect recombinogenesis of lambda. (Author)

  14. Salt-Dependent DNA-DNA Spacings in Intact Bacteriophage lambda Reflect Relative Importance of DNA Self-Repulsion and Bending Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X Qiu; D Rau; V Parsegian; L Fang; C Knobler; W Gelbart

    2011-12-31

    Using solution synchrotron x-ray scattering, we measure the variation of DNA-DNA d spacings in bacteriophage {lambda} with mono-, di-, and polyvalent salt concentrations, for wild-type [48.5 x 10{sup 3} base pairs (bp)] and short-genome-mutant (37.8 kbp) strains. From the decrease in d spacings with increasing salt, we deduce the relative contributions of DNA self-repulsion and bending to the energetics of packaged phage genomes. We quantify the DNA-DNA interaction energies within the intact phage by combining the measured d spacings in the capsid with measurements of osmotic pressure in DNA assemblies under the same salt conditions in bulk solution. In the commonly used Tris-Mg buffer, the DNA-DNA interaction energies inside the phage capsids are shown to be about 1 kT/bp, an order of magnitude larger than the bending energies.

  15. Analysis of the viral progeny during the indirect recombinogenesis of the lambda bacteriophage; Analisis de la progenie viral durante la recombinogenesis indirecta del bacteriofago lambda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara D, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1993-12-15

    In this work the effect of the UV irradiation on the number of cells that follow the lytic via of the phage is determined, as well as the production of total particles and recombinants in irradiated individual cells and not irradiated with light UV. The results show that the indirect recombinogenesis of lambda is caused by a so much increment in the number of recombinant phages for cells like in the number of cells in those that happen events of viral recombination, without any significant effect on the number of bacteria that follow the lytic via of viral development. (Author)

  16. Isolation of point mutations in bacteriophage Mu attachment regions cloned in a lambda::mini-Mu phage.

    OpenAIRE

    Burlingame, R P; Obukowicz, M G; Lynn, D L; Howe, M M

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one derivatives of a lambda::mini-Mu phage containing point mutations in the Mu attachment regions were isolated after mutD mutagenesis and selection for relief from Mu-specific replicative interference of lambda growth. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the single left-end mutant had suffered a T----C transition at position 1 of the Mu sequence, while the remaining 20 right-end mutants contained single base-pair insertions or deletions within the terminal 19 base pairs. A genetic as...

  17. Specialized transducing bacteriophage lambda carrying the structural gene for a major outer membrane matrix protein of Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Mutoh, N; Nagasawa, T; Mizushima, S

    1981-01-01

    A specialized transducing phage lambda carrying the structural gene for the OmpF protein, an outer membrane matrix protein, was isolated. The phage carries the 20.5--21-min region of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome and carries asnS, ompF, and aspC genes.

  18. Novel tethered particle motion analysis of CI protein-mediated DNA looping in the regulation of bacteriophage lambda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tethered particle motion (TPM) technique has attracted great interest because of its simplicity and the wealth of information that it can provide on protein-induced conformational changes in nucleic acids. Here we present an approach to TPM methodology and analysis that increases the efficiency of data acquisition and facilitates interpretation of TPM assays. In particular, the statistical analysis that we propose allows fast data processing, minimal data selection and visual display of the distribution of molecular behaviour. The methodology proved useful in verifying CI protein-mediated DNA looping in bacteriophage λ and in differentiating between two different types of loops, stable and dynamic, whose relative occurrence seems to be a function of the distance between the operators as well as their relative angular orientation. Furthermore, the statistical analysis indicates that CI binding per se slightly shortens the DNA

  19. Effect of the mutations recB21, recD1013 and recJ284 of Escherichia Coli on the indirect recombinogenesis of the lambda bacteriophage; Efecto de las mutaciones recB21, recD1013 y recJ284 de Escherichia Coli sobre la recombinogenesis indirecta del bacteriofago lambda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara D, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1994-01-15

    In this report its are related the indirect recombinogenesis of the lambda bacteriophage which depends on it happens in the guest cell after the UV irradiation with those cellular responses to the DNA damages and with the bacterial genes that intervene in them (one of those is the SOS response, controlled by the genes lexA and recA). However it has not been possible to establish a precise relationship among those two phenomena because contradictory results exist. (Author)

  20. Structural studies of lambda transducing bacteriophage carrying bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid from the metBJLF region of the Escherichia coli chromosome.

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, J H; Johnson, J. R.; Greene, R C; Dresser, M

    1981-01-01

    The structures of several lambda dmet and related lambda darg transducing phage were studied by restriction fragment mapping and electron microscopic measurements of homoduplexes and heteroduplexes. A new transducing phage (lambda dmet141), in which metF is the only functional gene of the cluster, was isolated. In contrast, lambda dmet117, which expresses the entire metBJLF cluster, has only 3 kilobases more bacterial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) than lambda dmet141. An EcoRI restriction fragm...

  1. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE 'CL' REPRESSOR OF 'PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA' BACTERIOPHAGE D3: A FUNCTIONAL ANALOG OF PHAGE LAMBDA 'C'I PROTEIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors cloned the gene (c1) which encodes the repressor of vegetative function of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage D3. The cloned gene was shown to inhibit plating of D3 and the induction of D3 lysogens by UV irradiation. The efficiency of plating and prophage induction ...

  2. Deletion analysis of the expression of rRNA genes and associated tRNA genes carried by a lambda transducing bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transducing phage lambda ilv5 carries genes for rRNA's, spacer tRNA's (tRNA1/sup Ile/ and tRNA/sub 1B//sup Ala/), and two other tRNA's (tRNA1/sup Asp/ and tRNA/sup Trp/). We have isolated a mutant of lambda ilv5, lambda ilv5su7, which carries an amber suppressor mutation in the tRNA/sup Trp/ gene. A series of deletion mutants were isolated from the lambda ilv5su7 phage. Genetic and biochemical analyses of these deletion mutants have confirmed our previous conclusion that the genes for tRNA1/sup Asp/ and tRNA/sup Trp/ located at the distal end of the rRNA operon (rrnC) are cotranscribed with other rRNA genes in that operon. In addition, these deletions were used to define roughly the physical location of the promoter(s) of the rRNA operon carried by the lambda ilv5su7 transducing phage

  3. Deletion analysis of the expression of rRNA genes and associated tRNA genes carried by a lambda transducing bacteriophage. [uv radiation, Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, E.A.; Nomura, M.

    1979-01-01

    Transducing phage lambda ilv5 carries genes for rRNA's, spacer tRNA's (tRNA/sub 1//sup Ile/ and tRNA/sub 1B//sup Ala/), and two other tRNA's (tRNA/sub 1//sup Asp/ and tRNA/sup Trp/). We have isolated a mutant of lambda ilv5, lambda ilv5su7, which carries an amber suppressor mutation in the tRNA/sup Trp/ gene. A series of deletion mutants were isolated from the lambda ilv5su7 phage. Genetic and biochemical analyses of these deletion mutants have confirmed our previous conclusion that the genes for tRNA/sub 1//sup Asp/ and tRNA/sup Trp/ located at the distal end of the rRNA operon (rrnC) are cotranscribed with other rRNA genes in that operon. In addition, these deletions were used to define roughly the physical location of the promoter(s) of the rRNA operon carried by the lambda ilv5su7 transducing phage.

  4. Synthesis of recA protein and induction of bacteriophage lambda in single-strand deoxyribonucleic acid-binding protein mutants of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Baluch, J; Chase, J W; Sussman, R

    1980-01-01

    We investigated the capacity of Escherichia coli mutants defective in the single-strand deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-binding protein to amplify the synthesis of the recA protein, induce prophage lambda, and degrade their DNA after treatment with ultraviolet radiation, mitomycin C, or bleomycin. The thermosensitive ssbA1 strain induced recA protein and lambda phage normally at 30 degrees C, but no induction was observed at 42 degrees C when ultraviolet radiation or mitomycin C was used. The lex...

  5. Cloning and characterization of the c1 repressor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage D3: a functional analog of phage lambda cI protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R V; Kokjohn, T. A.

    1987-01-01

    We cloned the gene (c1) which encodes the repressor of vegetative function of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage D3. The cloned gene was shown to inhibit plating of D3 and the induction of D3 lysogens by UV irradiation. The efficiency of plating and prophage induction of the heteroimmune P. aeruginosa phage F116L were not affected by the presence of the cloned c1 gene of D3. When the D3 DNA fragment containing c1 was subcloned into pBR322 and introduced into Escherichia coli, it was shown t...

  6. A mutant form of maltose-binding protein of Escherichia coli deficient in its interaction with the bacteriophage lambda receptor protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Bavoil, P; Wandersman, C; Schwartz, M; Nikaido, H

    1983-01-01

    In one malE mutant known to be deficient in the transport of maltose and maltodextrins across the outer membrane, the altered MalE protein was shown to be defective in its interaction with the phage lambda receptor, or LamB protein, of the outer membrane.

  7. Deletion mutations of bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resolution of mutation mechanism with structural changes of DNA was discussed through the studies using bacteriophage lambda. One of deletion mutations inductions of phage lambda is the irradiation of ultraviolet ray. It is not clear if the inductions are caused by errors in reparation of ultraviolet-induced damage or by the activation of int gene. Because the effective site of int gene lies within the regions unnecessary for existing, it is considered that int gene is connected to deletion mutations induction. A certain system using prophage complementarity enables to detect deletion mutations at essential hereditary sites and to solve the relations of deletion mutations with other recombination system, DNA reproduction and repairment system. Duplication and multiplication of hereditary elements were discussed. If lambda deletion mutations of the system, which can control recombination, reproduction and repairment of added DNA, are constructed, mutations mechanism with great changes of DNA structure can be solved by phage lambda. (Ichikawa, K.)

  8. Effect of the mutations recB21, recD1013 and recJ284 of Escherichia coli on the indirect recombinogenesis of the lambda bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protein RecBCD of Escherichia coli is of those more important, so much in the genetic recombination as in the repair of the genetic damage. Due to their importance in the genetic recombination in general and to that the enzyme is not completely inactivated in cells infected with lambda, it was decided to prove their participation in the indirect viral recombinogenesis. The obtained data indicated that RecBCD plays a central role in the indirect recombinogenesis of lambda, since in the mutants recB21 and recD1013 the response is not presented or it decreases drastically. Also it was proven that RecBCD cannot be substituted by the double band DNA exonuclease, coded by the recJ gene. (Author)

  9. Induction of genetic recombination in the lambda bacteriophage by ultraviolet irradiation of the Escherichia Coli cells. III. Role of the ruvA and recN genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work is to determine the paper of the genes ruvA and recN in the stimulation of the recombination of Lambda for UV irradiation of Escherichia Coli, taking into account that both genes are inducible, they belong to the group of genes that participate in the SOS response and that a deficiency in its expression reduces the capacity to repair and recombiner the DNA. (Author)

  10. Effect of ssbA1 and lexC113 mutations on lambda prophage induction, bacteriophage growth, and cell survival.

    OpenAIRE

    Vales, L D; Chase, J W; Murphy, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains containing mutations (ssbA1 and lexC113) which affect single-strand deoxyribonucleic acid binding protein have been examined. Among the properties studied were: sensitivity to ultraviolet irradiation and methyl methane sulfonate, temperature sensitivity, induction of prophage lambda by ultraviolet light, temperature, and mitomycin C, and deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. Strains containing the ssbA1 and lexC113 mutations differ significantly in several of these propert...

  11. Interdisciplinary Physics and Related Areas of Science and Technology Entropy Production Rate Changes in Lysogeny/Lysis Switch Regulation of Bacteriophage Lambda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hui; Luo, Liao-Fu; Lin, Hao

    2011-02-01

    According to the chemical kinetic model of lysogeny/lysis switch in Escherichia coli (E. coli) infected by bacteriophage λ, the entropy production rates of steady states are calculated. The results show that the lysogenic state has lower entropy production rate than lytic state, which provides an explanation on why the lysogenic state of λ phage is so stable. We also notice that the entropy production rates of both lysogenic state and lytic state are lower than that of saddle-point and bifurcation state, which is consistent with the principle of minimum entropy production for living organism in nonequilibrium stationary state. Subsequently, the relations between CI and Cro degradation rates at two bifurcations and the changes of entropy production rate with CI and Cro degradation are deduced. The theory and method can be used to calculate entropy change in other molecular network.

  12. Effects of recB21, recF143, and uvrD152 on recombination in lambda bacteriophage-prophage and Hfr by F- crosses.

    OpenAIRE

    Howard-Flanders, P; Bardwell, E

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the mutation pairs recB21 recF143 and recB21 uvrD152 on the frequency of genetic recombination were investigated in lambda phage-prophage crosses under homoimmune conditions. To prevent recombinants from being formed by the phage red system, these experiments were performed with phages and prophages carrying red and gam mutations. Both spontaneous and damage-induced recombination was measured, the phages being either undamaged or treated with trimethylpsoralen and 360-nm light ...

  13. Dark repair in bacteriophage systems: overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on dark repair of DNA in bacteriophages T4 and lambda are reviewed. Some topics discussed are: uv sensitivity of phage mutants; effects of endonuclease on uv-irradiated phage DNA; pyrimidine dimers as substrate sites for endonuclease in DNA; electron microscopic studies of enzyme-treated uv-irradiated DNA; role of phage T4 genes in DNA repair; and host-cell reactivation, prophage reactivation, and uv reactivation in phase lambda

  14. Molecular Biology and Biotechnology of Bacteriophage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Kazukiyo

    The development of the molecular biology of bacteriophage such as T4, lambda and filamentous phages was described and the process that the fundamental knowledge obtained in this field has subsequently led us to the technology of phage display was introduced.

  15. Solitons and Collapse in the lambda-repressor protein

    OpenAIRE

    Krokhotin, Andrey; Lundgren, Martin; Niemi, Antti J.

    2012-01-01

    The enterobacteria lambda phage is a paradigm temperate bacteriophage. Its lysogenic and lytic life cycles echo competition between the DNA binding $\\lambda$-repressor (CI) and CRO proteins. Here we scrutinize the structure, stability and folding pathways of the $\\lambda$-repressor protein, that controls the transition from the lysogenic to the lytic state. We first investigate the super-secondary helix-loop-helix composition of its backbone. We use a discrete Frenet framing to resolve the ba...

  16. Energy-dependent degradation of lambda O protein in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Bejarano, I.; Klemes, Y; Schoulaker-Schwarz, R; Engelberg-Kulka, H

    1993-01-01

    Protein O of bacteriophage lambda is a short-lived protein which has a key role in the replication of the phage DNA in Escherichia coli. Here we present evidence that lambda O degradation is energy dependent: it is impaired by cyanide and alpha-methylglucoside, both of which inhibit cellular energy metabolism. Removal of these inhibitors restored the degradation of lambda O. Our experiments suggest that limited amounts of cellular energy are sufficient to support lambda O degradation. In addi...

  17. $\\lambda$-perfect maps

    OpenAIRE

    Namdari, M.; Siavoshi, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The $\\lambda$-perfect maps, a generalization of perfect maps (continuous closed maps with compact fibers) are presented. Using $P_\\lambda$-spaces and the concept of $\\lambda$-compactness some results regarding $\\lambda$-perfect maps will be investigated.

  18. Chlamydia bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwa-Dominiak, Joanna; Suszyńska, Ewa; Pawlikowska, Małgorzata; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2013-11-01

    Phages are called "good viruses" due to their ability to infect and kill pathogenic bacteria. Chlamydia are small, Gram-negative (G-) microbes that can be dangerous to human and animals. In humans, these bacteria are etiological agents of diseases such as psittacosis or respiratory tract diseases, while in animals, the infection may result in enteritis in cattle and chronic bowel diseases, as well as miscarriages in sheep. The first-known representative of chlamydiaphages was Chp1. It was discovered in Chlamydia psittaci isolates. Since then, four more species of chlamydiaphages have been identified [Chp2, Chp3, φCPG1 φCPAR39 (φCpn1) and Chp4]. All of them were shown to infect Chlamydia species. This paper described all known chlamydiaphages. They were characterised in terms of origin, host range, and their molecular structure. The review concerns the characterisation of bacteriophages that infects pathogenic and dangerous bacteria with unusual, intracellular life cycles that are pathogenic. In the era of antibiotic resistance, it is difficult to cure chlamydophilosis. Those bacteriophages can be an alternative to antibiotics, but before this happens, we need to get to know chlamydiaphages better. PMID:23903989

  19. Stochastic Cellular Fate Decision Making by Multiple Infecting Lambda Phage

    OpenAIRE

    Robb, Matthew L.; Shahrezaei, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Bacteriophage lambda is a classic system for the study of cellular decision making. Both experiments and mathematical models have demonstrated the importance of viral concentration in the lysis-lysogeny decision outcome in lambda phage. However, a recent experimental study using single cell and single phage resolution reported that cells with the same viral concentrations but different numbers of infecting phage (multiplicity of infection) can have markedly different rates of lysogeny. Thus t...

  20. Induction of genetic recombination in the lambda bacteriophage by ultraviolet irradiation of the Escherichia Coli cells. III. Role of the ruvA and recN genes; Induccion de recombinacion genetica en el bacteriofago lambda por irradiacion ultravioleta de las celulas de Escherichia Coli. III. Papel de los genes ruvA and recN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara D, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1987-05-15

    The objective of this work is to determine the paper of the genes ruvA and recN in the stimulation of the recombination of Lambda for UV irradiation of Escherichia Coli, taking into account that both genes are inducible, they belong to the group of genes that participate in the SOS response and that a deficiency in its expression reduces the capacity to repair and recombiner the DNA. (Author)

  1. Comparative genomics of Shiga toxin encoding bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Darren L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stx bacteriophages are responsible for driving the dissemination of Stx toxin genes (stx across their bacterial host range. Lysogens carrying Stx phages can cause severe, life-threatening disease and Stx toxin is an integral virulence factor. The Stx-bacteriophage vB_EcoP-24B, commonly referred to as Ф24B, is capable of multiply infecting a single bacterial host cell at a high frequency, with secondary infection increasing the rate at which subsequent bacteriophage infections can occur. This is biologically unusual, therefore determining the genomic content and context of Ф24B compared to other lambdoid Stx phages is important to understanding the factors controlling this phenomenon and determining whether they occur in other Stx phages. Results The genome of the Stx2 encoding phage, Ф24B was sequenced and annotated. The genomic organisation and general features are similar to other sequenced Stx bacteriophages induced from Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC, however Ф24B possesses significant regions of heterogeneity, with implications for phage biology and behaviour. The Ф24B genome was compared to other sequenced Stx phages and the archetypal lambdoid phage, lambda, using the Circos genome comparison tool and a PCR-based multi-loci comparison system. Conclusions The data support the hypothesis that Stx phages are mosaic, and recombination events between the host, phages and their remnants within the same infected bacterial cell will continue to drive the evolution of Stx phage variants and the subsequent dissemination of shigatoxigenic potential.

  2. The carboxy-terminal 14 amino acids of phage lambda N protein are dispensable for transcription antitermination.

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, N. C.

    1992-01-01

    The analogous N proteins encoded by lambdoid bacteriophages lambda, 21, and 22 are very different in amino acid sequence, except at their carboxy-terminal ends. Since N lambda remains functional despite the deletion of most of its terminal region of homology to N21, that region of homology cannot represent a region of conserved function.

  3. BACTERIOPHAGE: BIOLOGY AND GENETICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriophage are viruses that infect bacteria. Bacteriophage are very small and made up of a protein coat with an inner core containing their genetic material. They infect bacterium, by attaching to the bacterial cell and injecting their nucleic acids into the bacteria. The phages then use the bac...

  4. Solitons and Collapse in the lambda-repressor protein

    CERN Document Server

    Krokhotin, Andrey; Niemi, Antti J

    2012-01-01

    The enterobacteria lambda phage is a paradigm temperate bacteriophage. Its lysogenic and lytic life cycles echo competition between the DNA binding $\\lambda$-repressor (CI) and CRO proteins. Here we scrutinize the structure, stability and folding pathways of the $\\lambda$-repressor protein, that controls the transition from the lysogenic to the lytic state. We first investigate the super-secondary helix-loop-helix composition of its backbone. We use a discrete Frenet framing to resolve the backbone spectrum in terms of bond and torsion angles. Instead of four, there appears to be seven individual loops. We model the putative loops using an explicit soliton Ansatz. It is based on the standard soliton profile of the continuum nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. The accuracy of the Ansatz far exceeds the B-factor fluctuation distance accuracy of the experimentally determined protein configuration. We then investigate the folding pathways and dynamics of the $\\lambda$-repressor protein. We introduce a coarse-graine...

  5. Lambda polarization at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belostotski, S. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute RAS Gatchina, Leningrad district 188300 (Russian Federation); Naryshkin, Yu., E-mail: naryshk@mail.desy.d [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute RAS Gatchina, Leningrad district 188300 (Russian Federation); Veretennikov, D. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute RAS Gatchina, Leningrad district 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2011-01-15

    Transverse polarization of {Lambda} and {Lambda}-bar hyperons produced inclusively in quasi-real photon-nucleon scattering has been studied for several nuclear targets in a wide range of atomic-mass numbers A. A strong A-dependence of the {Lambda} polarization is observed.

  6. Lambda-dropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    Lambda-lifting a functional program transforms it into a set of recursive equations. We present the symmetric transformation: lambda-dropping. Lambda-dropping a set of recursive equations restores block structure and lexical scope.For lack of scope, recursive equations must carry around all the...... parameters that any of their callees might possibly need. Both lambda-lifting and lambda-dropping thus require one to compute a transitive closure over the call graph:• for lambda-lifting: to establish the Def/Use path of each free variable (these free variables are then added as parameters to each of...... the functions in the call path);• for lambda-dropping: to establish the Def/Use path of each parameter (parameters whose use occurs in the same scope as their definition do not need to be passed along in the call path).Without free variables, a program is scope-insensitive. Its blocks are then...

  7. Lambda-Display: A Powerful Tool for Antigen Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Gargano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in 1985, phage display technology has been successfully used in projects aimed at deciphering biological processes and isolating molecules of practical value in several applications. Bacteriophage lambda, representing a classical molecular cloning and expression system has also been exploited for generating large combinatorial libraries of small peptides and protein domains exposed on its capsid. More recently, lambda display has been consistently and successfully employed for domain mapping, antigen discovery and protein interaction studies or, more generally, in functional genomics. We show here the results obtained by the use of large libraries of cDNA and genomic DNA for the molecular dissection of the human B-cell response against complex pathogens, including protozoan parasites, bacteria and viruses. Moreover, by reviewing the experimental work performed in recent investigations we illustrate the potential of lambda display in the diagnostics field and for identifying antigens useful as targets for vaccine development.

  8. The Safe Lambda Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, William

    2009-01-01

    Safety is a syntactic condition of higher-order grammars that constrains occurrences of variables in the production rules according to their type-theoretic order. In this paper, we introduce the safe lambda calculus, which is obtained by transposing (and generalizing) the safety condition to the setting of the simply-typed lambda calculus. In contrast to the original definition of safety, our calculus does not constrain types (to be homogeneous). We show that in the safe lambda calculus, there is no need to rename bound variables when performing substitution, as variable capture is guaranteed not to happen. We also propose an adequate notion of beta-reduction that preserves safety. In the same vein as Schwichtenberg's 1976 characterization of the simply-typed lambda calculus, we show that the numeric functions representable in the safe lambda calculus are exactly the multivariate polynomials; thus conditional is not definable. We also give a characterization of representable word functions. We then study the ...

  9. Interference with phage lambda development by the small subunit of the phage 21 terminase, gp1.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, G.,; Widner, W; Xin, W N; Feiss, M

    1991-01-01

    Bacteriophage lambda development is blocked in cells carrying a plasmid that expresses the terminase genes of phage 21. The interference is caused by the small subunit of phage 21 terminase, gp1. Mutants of lambda able to form plaques in the presence of gp1 include sti mutants. One such mutation, sti30, is an A. T-to-G.C transition mutation at base pair 184 on the lambda chromosome. The sti30 mutation extends the length of the ribosome-binding sequence of the Nul gene that is complementary to...

  10. Bacteriophage therapy against Enterobacteriaceae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youqiang; Xu; Yong; Liu; Yang; Liu; Jiangsen; Pei; Su; Yao; Chi; Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The Enterobacteriaceae are a class of gram-negative facultative anaerobic rods, which can cause a variety of diseases, such as bacteremia, septic arthritis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, lower respiratory tract infections, skin and soft-tissue infections, urinary tract infections, intra-abdominal infections and ophthalmic infections, in humans, poultry, animals and fish. Disease caused by Enterobacteriaceae cause the deaths of millions of people every year, resulting in enormous economic loss. Drug treatment is a useful and efficient way to control Enterobacteriaceae infections. However, with the abuse of antibiotics, drug resistance has been found in growing number of Enterobacteriaceae infections and, as such, there is an urgent need to find new methods of control. Bacteriophage therapy is an efficient alternative to antibiotics as it employs a different antibacterial mechanism. This paper summarizes the history of bacteriophage therapy, its bacteriallytic mechanisms, and the studies that have focused on Enterobacteriaceae and bacteriophage therapy.

  11. $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interaction and hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Albertus, C; Nieves, J

    2013-01-01

    Data on $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ hypernuclei provide a unique method to learn details about the strangeness S =- 2 sector of the baryon-baryon interaction. From the free space Bonn-J\\"ulich potentials, determined from data on baryon-baryon scattering in the S = 0, -1 channels, we construct an interaction in the S =-2 sector to describe the experimentally known LL hypernuclei. After including short-range (Jastrow) and RPA correlations, we find masses for these LL hypernuclei in a reasonable agreement with data, taking into account theoretical and experimental uncertainties. Thus, we provide a natural extension, at low energies, of the Bonn-J\\"ulich one-boson exchange potentials to the S =-2 channel.

  12. HU and integration host factor function as auxiliary proteins in cleavage of phage lambda cohesive ends by terminase.

    OpenAIRE

    Mendelson, I; Gottesman, M; Oppenheim, A B

    1991-01-01

    HU and integration host factor (IHF) are small, basic heterodimeric DNA-binding proteins which participate in transcription initiation, DNA replication, and recombination. We constructed isogenic Escherichia coli strains in which HU, IHF, or both proteins were absent. Bacteriophage lambda did not grow in hosts lacking both HU and IHF. Phage DNA replication and late gene transcription were normal in the double mutants, but packaging of lambda DNA was defective. Mature phage DNA molecules were ...

  13. Phenomenological Lambda-Nuclear Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, R; Taib, B M; Sinha, Rita

    2002-01-01

    Variational Monte Carlo calculations for ${_{\\Lambda}^4}H$ (ground and excited states) and ${_{\\Lambda}^5}He$ are performed to decipher information on ${\\Lambda}$-nuclear interactions. Appropriate operatorial nuclear and ${\\Lambda}$-nuclear correlations have been incorporated to minimize the expectation values of the energies. We use the Argonne $\\upsilon_{18}$ two-body NN along with the Urbana IX three-body NNN interactions. The study demonstrates that a large part of the splitting energy in ${_{\\Lambda}^4}H$ ($0^+-1^+$) is due to the three-body ${\\Lambda}$ NN forces. $_{\\Lambda}^{17}O$ hypernucleus is analyzed using the {\\it s}-shell results. $\\Lambda$ binding to nuclear matter is calculated within the variational framework using the Fermi-Hypernetted-Chain technique. There is a need to correctly incorporate the three-body ${\\Lambda}$ NN correlations for $\\Lambda$ binding to nuclear matter.

  14. The nucleotide sequence of the bacteriophage T5 ltf gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliman, A V; Kulshin, V E; Shlyapnikov, M G; Ksenzenko, V N; Kryukov, V M

    1995-06-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the bacteriophage T5 Bg/II-BamHI fragment (4,835 bp in length) known to carry a gene encoding the LTF protein which forms the phage L-shaped tail fibers was determined. It was shown to contain an open reading frame for 1,396 amino acid residues that corresponds to a protein of 147.8 kDa. The coding region of ltf gene is preceded by a typical Shine-Dalgarno sequence. Downstream from the ltf gene there is a strong transcription terminator. Data bank analysis of the LTF protein sequence reveals 55.1% identity to the hypothetical protein ORF 401 of bacteriophage lambda in a segment of 118 amino acids overlap. PMID:7789514

  15. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studier, F.W.; Rosenberg, A.H.

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest. 1 fig.

  16. Bacteriophages and Biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, David R; Helena M. R. T. Parracho; James Walker; Richard Sharp; Gavin Hughes; Maria Werthén; Susan Lehman; Sandra Morales

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are an extremely common adaptation, allowing bacteria to colonize hostile environments. They present unique problems for antibiotics and biocides, both due to the nature of the extracellular matrix and to the presence within the biofilm of metabolically inactive persister cells. Such chemicals can be highly effective against planktonic bacterial cells, while being essentially ineffective against biofilms. By contrast, bacteriophages seem to have a greater ability to target this commo...

  17. $\\Lambda$ Scattering Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    The CHY representation of scattering amplitudes is based on integrals over the moduli space of a punctured sphere. We replace the punctured sphere by a double-cover version. The resulting scattering equations depend on a parameter $\\Lambda$ controlling the opening of a branch cut. The new representation of scattering amplitudes possesses an enhanced redundancy which can be used to fix, modulo branches, the location of four punctures while promoting $\\Lambda$ to a variable. Via residue theorems we show how CHY formulas break up into sums of products of smaller (off-shell) ones times a propagator. This leads to a powerful way of evaluating CHY integrals of generic rational functions, which we call the $\\Lambda$ algorithm.

  18. On the role of Cro in lambda prophage induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenningsen, Sine L; Costantino, Nina; Court, Donald L; Adhya, Sankar

    2005-03-22

    The lysogenic state of bacteriophage lambda is exceptionally stable yet the prophage is readily induced in response to DNA damage. This delicate epigenetic switch is believed to be regulated by two proteins; the lysogenic maintenance promoting protein CI and the early lytic protein Cro. First, we confirm, in the native configuration, the previous observation that the DNA loop mediated by oligomerization of CI bound to two distinct operator regions (O(L) and O(R)), increases repression of the early lytic promoters and is important for stable maintenance of lysogeny. Second, we show that the presence of the cro gene might be unimportant for the lysogenic to lytic switch during induction of the lambda prophage. We revisit the idea that Cro's primary role in induction is instead to mediate weak repression of the early lytic promoters. PMID:15728734

  19. Lambda-Lambda interaction from relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, Kenji; Ohnishi, Akira

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the two-particle intensity correlation function of $\\Lambda$ in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We find that the behavior of the $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ correlation function at small relative momenta is fairly sensitive to the interaction potential and collective flows. By comparing the results of different source functions and potentials, we explore the effect of intrinsic collective motions on the correlation function. We find that the recent STAR data gives a strong constraint on the scattering length and effective range of $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interaction as, $-1.8~\\mathrm{fm}^{-1} < 1/a_0 < -0.8~\\mathrm{fm}^{-1}$ and $3.5~\\mathrm{fm} < r_\\mathrm{eff} < 7~\\mathrm{fm}$, respectively. Implication for the signal of existence of $H$-dibaryon is discussed. Comparison with the scattering parameters obtained from the double $\\Lambda$ hypernucleus may reveal in-medium effects in the $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interaction.

  20. ${}_{\\Lambda\\Lambda}^{4}$H in halo effective field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ando, Shung-Ichi; Oh, Yongseok

    2013-01-01

    The ${}_{\\Lambda\\Lambda}^{\\ \\ 4}$H bound state and the $S$-wave hypertriton(${}_\\Lambda^{\\, 3}$H)-$\\Lambda$ scattering in spin singlet and triplet channels below the hypertriton breakup momentum scale are studied in halo/cluster effective field theory at leading order by treating the ${}_{\\Lambda\\Lambda}^{\\ \\ 4}$H system as a three-cluster ($\\Lambda$-$\\Lambda$-deuteron) system. In the spin singlet channel, we find that the scattering length and phase shift can be described by the effective range parameters of the $S$-wave deuteron-$\\Lambda$ scattering in the hypertriton channel. On the other hand, in the spin triplet channel, we find that the integral equations exhibit a limit-cycle and shows a sensitivity to the momentum cutoff parameter $\\Lambda_c$. We then introduce the three-body contact-interaction and investigate its role in the ${}_{\\Lambda\\Lambda}^{\\ \\ 4}$H system. Because of the lack of empirical information, we employ the potential model calculations to constrain the strength of the contact-interact...

  1. Probe $\\Lambda - \\overline{\\Lambda}$ oscillation in $J/\\psi \\rightarrow \\Lambda\\,\\overline\\Lambda$ decay at BES-III

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, X W; Lu, G R

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the possible searching for the oscillation by coherent $\\Lambda\\overline{\\Lambda}$ production in $J/\\psi \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\overline{\\Lambda}$ decay process. The sensitivity of measurement of $\\Lambda - \\overline{\\Lambda}$ oscillation in the external field at BES-III experiment is considered. These considerations indicate an alternative way to probe the $\\Delta B =2$ amplitude in addition to neutron oscillation experiments. Both coherent and time-dependent information can be used to extract $\\Lambda -\\overline{\\Lambda}$ oscillation parameter. With one year's luminosity at BES-III, we can set an upper limit of $\\delta m < 10^{-15}$ MeV at 90\\% confidence level, corresponding to about $10^{-6}$ s of $\\Lam-\\Lamb$ oscillation time.

  2. Reinvestigating the Lambda Boo Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Corbally, C. J.; Gray, R. O.; Murphy, S.; Neff, J. E.; Desai, A.; Newsome, I.; Steele, P.

    2014-01-01

    The peculiar nature of Lambda Bootis was first introduced in 1943. Subsequently, Lambda Boo stars have been slowly recognized as a group of A-type Population I dwarfs that show mild to extreme deficiencies of iron-peak elements, although C, N, O, and S can be near solar. MK classification criteria include broad hydrogen lines, a weak metallic-line spectrum compared to MK standards, coupled with a particularly weak Mg II 4481 line. This intriguing stellar class has recently regained the spotlight because of the directly imaged planets around a confirmed Lambda Boo star-HR 8799 and a probable Lambda Boo star-Beta Pictoris. The possible link between Lambda Boo stars and planet-bearing stars motivates us to study Lambda Boo stars systematically. However, Lambda Boo candidates published in the literature have been selected using widely different criteria. The Lambda Boo class has become somewhat of a "grab bag" for any peculiar A-type stars that didn't fit elsewhere. In order to determine the origin of Lambda Boo stars’ low abundances and to better discriminate between theories explaining the Lambda Boo phenomenon, a refined working definition of Lambda Boo stars is needed. We have re-evaluated all published Lambda Boo candidates and their existing spectra. After applying a consistent set of optical/UV classification criteria, we identified over 60 confirmed and over 20 probable Lambda Boo stars among all stars that have been suggested as Lambda Boo candidates. We are obtaining new observations for those probable Lambda Boo stars. We also have explored the possible link between debris disks and Lambda Boo Stars.

  3. Challenging packaging limits and infectivity of phage {\\lambda}

    CERN Document Server

    Nurmemmedov, Elmar; Medina, Elizabeth; Catalano, Carlos Enrique; Evilevitch, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The terminase motors of bacteriophages have been shown to be among the strongest active machines in the biomolecular world, being able to package several tens of kilobase pairs of viral genome into a capsid within minutes. Yet these motors are hindered at the end of the packaging process by the progressive build-up of a force resisting packaging associated with already packaged DNA. In this experimental work, we raise the issue of what sets the upper limit on the length of the genome that can be packaged by the terminase motor of phage {\\lambda} and still yield infectious virions, and the conditions under which this can be efficiently performed. Using a packaging strategy developed in our laboratory of building phage {\\lambda} from scratch, together with plaque assay monitoring, we have been able to show that the terminase motor of phage {\\lambda} is able to produce infectious particles with up to 110% of the wild-type (WT) {\\lambda}-DNA length. However, the phage production rate, and thus the infectivity, de...

  4. Effect of Escherichia coli nusG function on lambda N-mediated transcription antitermination.

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, S. L.; Ward, D F; Gottesman, M E

    1992-01-01

    The Escherichia coli Nus factors act in conjunction with the bacteriophage lambda N protein to suppress transcription termination on the lambda chromosome. NusA binds both N and RNA polymerase and may also interact with other Nus factors. To search for additional components of the N antitermination system, we isolated host revertants that restored N activity in nusA1 mutants. One revertant, nusG4, was mapped to the rif region of the E. coli chromosome and shown to represent a point mutation n...

  5. Host requirements for growth of lambda-P22 hybrid in Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, K.D.; Shizuya, H

    1981-01-01

    The requirements for growth of bacteriophage lambda containing the deoxyribonucleic acid replication region from Salmonella phage P22 were determined in a burst size experiment. The products of genes dnaE, dnaJ, dnaK, dnaY, dnaZ, and seg were required, but not the products of genes dnaA, dnaB, dnaC, and dnaX. This lambda-P22 hybrid phage was also dependent on polA for growth at 32 degrees C.

  6. Lambda Calculi: A Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankin, Chris

    One of the universal notions of programming languages is functional abstraction. The methods of Java and the functions defined and used in functional programming languages, such as Haskell, are instances of this general notion. The inspiration for this form of abstraction mechanism comes from Mathematical Logic; notably Church's λ(lambda)-calculi and Schönfinkel's and Curry's Combinatory Logic. A proper study of these foundations leads to a better understanding of some of the fundamental issues in Computer Science.

  7. Solitons and Physics of the Lysogenic to Lytic Transition in Enterobacteria Lambda Phage

    OpenAIRE

    Krokhotine, Andrei; Niemi, Antti J.

    2011-01-01

    The lambda phage is a paradigm temperate bacteriophage. Its lysogenic and lytic life cycles echo competition between the DNA binding CI and CRO proteins. Here we address the Physics of this transition in terms of an energy function that portrays the backbone as a multi-soliton configuration. The precision of the individual solitons far exceeds the B-factor accuracy of the experimentally determined protein conformations giving us confidence to conclude that three of the four loops are each com...

  8. Expression of the bacteriophage T4 denV structural gene in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression of the T4 denV gene, which previously had been cloned in plasmid constructs downstream of the bacteriophage lambda hybrid promoter-operator oLpR, was analyzed under a variety of growth parameters. Expression of the denV gene product, endonuclease V, was confirmed in DNA repair-deficient Escherichia coli (uvrA recA) by Western blot analyses and by enhancements of resistance to UV irradiation

  9. Repair of near (365 nm)- and far (254 nm)- UV damage to bacteriophage of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intact bacteriophages were irradiated at 365 nm or 254 nm and then analyzed for DNA photoproducts or injected into their bacterial host to test susceptibility of the damage to both phage and host-cell mediated repair systems. Both thymine dimers and single-strand breaks were induced in the phage DNA by 365 nm radiation. The dimers appeared to be the major lethal lesion in both repair deficient bacteriophage T4 and bacteriophage lambda after 254 nm or 365 nm irradiation. Damage induced in T4 by either wavelength was equally susceptible to x-gene reactivation. v-gene reactivation acted on a larger fraction of the near-UV damage. The host-cell mediated photo-reactivation system was only slightly less effective for near-UV damage but host-cell reactivation (survival of phage lambda on uvr+ and uvr- host) was effective against a far smaller section of near-UV damage than far-UV damage. Weigle-reactivation (far-UV induced) of near-UV damage to phage lambda was not observed. The results suggested that unless the near-UV damaged phage DNA is repaired immediately after injection, the lesions rapidly lose their susceptibility to repair with a consequent loss of activity of the phage particles. (author)

  10. Genetically modified bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, Antonia P; Grigonyte, Aurelija M; MacDonald, Paul R; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2016-04-18

    Phages or bacteriophages, viruses that infect and replicate inside bacteria, are the most abundant microorganisms on earth. The realization that antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to the world's health and global economy is revitalizing phage therapy as a potential solution. The increasing ease by which phage genomes can be modified, owing to the influx of new technologies, has led to an expansion of their natural capabilities, and a reduced dependence on phage isolation from environmental sources. This review will discuss the way synthetic biology has accelerated the construction of genetically modified phages and will describe the wide range of their applications. It will further provide insight into the societal and economic benefits that derive from the use of recombinant phages in various sectors, from health to biodetection, biocontrol and the food industry. PMID:26906932

  11. Bacteriophages of methanotrophic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyutikow, F.M. (All-Union Research Inst. for Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms, Moscow, USSR); Bespalova, I.A.; Rebentish, B.A.; Aleksandrushkina, N.N.; Krivisky, A.S.

    1980-10-01

    Bacteriophages of methanotrophic bacteria have been found in 16 out of 88 studied samples (underground waters, pond water, soil, gas and oil installation waters, fermentor cultural fluids, bacterial paste, and rumen of cattle) taken in different geographic zones of the Soviet Union. Altogether, 23 phage strains were isolated. By fine structure, the phages were divided into two types (with very short or long noncontractile tails); by host range and serological properties, they fell into three types. All phages had guanine- and cytosine-rich double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid consisting of common nitrogen bases. By all of the above-mentioned properties, all phages within each of the groups were completely identical to one another, but differed from phages of other groups.

  12. Circularity and Lambda Abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Thiemann, Peter; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    In this tribute to Doaitse Swierstra, we present the rst transformation between lazy circular programs a la Bird and strict cir- cular programs a la Pettorossi. Circular programs a la Bird rely on lazy recursive binding: they involve circular unknowns and make sense equa- tionally. Circular...... unknowns from what is done to them, which we lambda-abstract with functions. The circular unknowns then become dead variables, which we eliminate. The result is a strict circu- lar program a la Pettorossi. This transformation is reversible: given a strict circular program a la Pettorossi, we introduce...

  13. Longitudinal {lambda} and anti {lambda} polarization at the COMPASS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Donghee

    2007-09-15

    At the COMPASS experiment at CERN {lambda} and anti {lambda} particles are produced in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) processes with high statistics. The main focus of the research is the understanding of the spin transfer mechanism from quarks to hadrons through the fragmentation process by utilizing the longitudinal {lambda} and anti {lambda} polarization. The result of the spin transfer provides useful information to test different model predictions which describe spin effects in hyperon production and the quark-antiquark asymmetry of the nucleon and hyperon. The {lambda} and anti {lambda} polarization are determined by measuring the acceptance corrected angular distribution of its decay products. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to correct the acceptance of the COMPASS spectrometer. In this work, preliminary results from data collected in the current fragmentation region during 2002-2004 are presented. A significantly positive average spin transfer of anti {lambda} is found to be equal to C{sub LL}=+0.232{+-}0.039(stat.){+-}0.022(sys.), while the spin transfer of lambda is compatible with zero within the statistical accuracy. The dependences of the spin transfer on various kinematic variables are also presented. (orig.)

  14. Isolation of Escherichia coli rpoB mutants resistant to killing by lambda cII protein and altered in pyrE gene attenuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Karin; Jensen, Kaj Frank; Poulsen, Peter;

    1987-01-01

    Escherichia coli mutants simultaneously resistant to rifampin and to the lethal effects of bacteriophage lambda cII protein were isolated. The sck mutant strains carry alterations in rpoB that allow them to survive cII killing (thus the name sck), but that do not impair either the expression of c...

  15. Search for the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta^\\prime$ and $\\Lambda_b^0\\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta$ decays with the LHCb detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casanova Mohr, Raimon; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    A search is performed for the as yet unobserved baryonic $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta^\\prime$ and $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta$ decays with 3$fb^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment. The $B^0 \\rightarrow K_S^0 \\eta^\\prime$ decay is used as a normalisation channel. No significant signal is observed for the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta^\\prime$ decay. An upper limit is found on the branching fraction of $\\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta^\\prime)<3.1\\times10^{-6}$ at 90% confidence level. Evidence is seen for the presence of the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta$ decay at the level of $3\\sigma$ significance, with a branching fraction $\\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda \\eta)=(9.3^{+7.3}_{-5.3})\\times10^{-6}$.

  16. Lysogenic bacteriophage isolated from acidophilium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Thomas W.; Bruhn, Debby F.; Bulmer, Deborah K.

    1992-01-01

    A bacteriophage identified as .phi.Ac1 capable of infecting acidophilic heterotropic bacteria (such as Acidiphilium sp.) and processes for genetically engineering acidophilic bacteria for biomining or sulfur removal from coal are disclosed. The bacteriophage is capable of growth in cells existing at pH at or below 3.0. Lytic forms of the phage introduced into areas experiencing acid drainage kill the bacteria causing such drainage. Lysogenic forms of the phase having genes for selective removal of metallic or nonmetallic elements can be introduced into acidophilic bacteria to effect removal of the desired element form ore or coal.

  17. A one-step miniprep for the isolation of plasmid DNA and lambda phage particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lezin

    Full Text Available Plasmid DNA minipreps are fundamental techniques in molecular biology. Current plasmid DNA minipreps use alkali and the anionic detergent SDS in a three-solution format. In addition, alkali minipreps usually require additional column-based purification steps and cannot isolate other extra-chromosomal elements, such as bacteriophages. Non-ionic detergents (NIDs have been used occasionally as components of multiple-solution plasmid DNA minipreps, but a one-step approach has not been developed. Here, we have established a one-tube, one-solution NID plasmid DNA miniprep, and we show that this approach also isolates bacteriophage lambda particles. NID minipreps are more time-efficient than alkali minipreps, and NID plasmid DNA performs better than alkali DNA in many downstream applications. In fact, NID crude lysate DNA is sufficiently pure to be used in digestion and sequencing reactions. Microscopic analysis showed that the NID procedure fragments E. coli cells into small protoplast-like components, which may, at least in part, explain the effectiveness of this approach. This work demonstrates that one-step NID minipreps are a robust method to generate high quality plasmid DNA, and NID approaches can also isolate bacteriophage lambda particles, outperforming current standard alkali-based minipreps.

  18. Capstan friction model for DNA ejection from bacteriophages

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosal, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophages infect cells by attaching to the outer membrane and injecting their DNA into the cell.The phage DNA is then transcribed by the cell's transcription machinery.A number of physical mechanisms by which DNA can be translocated from the phage capsid into the cell have been identified. A fast ejection driven by the elastic and electrostatic potential energy of the compacted DNA within the viral capsid appears to be used by most phages, at least to initiate infection.In recent in vitro experiments, the speed of DNA translocation from a lambda phage capsid has been measured as a function of ejected length over the entire duration of the event.Here a mechanical model is proposed that is able to explain the observed dependence of exit velocity on ejected length, and that is also consistent with the accepted picture of the geometric arrangement of DNA within the viral capsid.

  19. Superdeformed $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei with antisymmetrized molecular dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Isaka, Masahiro; Kimura, Masaaki; Hiyama, Emiko; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    The response to the addition of a $\\Lambda$ hyperon is investigated for the deformed states such as superdeformation in $^{41}_\\Lambda$Ca, $^{46}_\\Lambda $Sc and $^{48}_\\Lambda$Sc. In the present study, we use the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) model. It is pointed out that many kinds of deformed bands appear in $^{45}$Sc and $^{47}$Sc. Especially, it is found that there exists superdeformed states in $^{45}$Sc. By the addition of a $\\Lambda$ particle to $^{40}$Ca, $^{45}$Sc and $^{47}$Sc, it is predicted, for the first time, that the superdeformed states exist in the hypernuclei $^{41}_\\Lambda$Ca and $^{46}_\\Lambda$Sc. The manifestation of the dependence of the $\\Lambda$-separation energy on nuclear deformation such as spherical, normal deformation and superdeformation is shown in the energy spectra of $^{41}_\\Lambda$Ca, $^{46}_\\Lambda $Sc and $^{48}_\\Lambda$Sc hypernuclei.

  20. Lambda polarization in association K+ -Lambda electro-production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The result of a feasibility study to measure the Lambda polarization in associated K+ -Lambda electro production is presented. This measurement was performed in the experimental Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The scattered electron was detected in the HMS spectrometer, and the electro-produced kaon and the proton from the Lambda -> ppi- decay were both detected in the SOS spectrometer. This quantity is very sensitive to the elementary p(e,e'K) [capital Lambda, Greek] process and gives information on resonance production, and Regge exchange, among others. The result presented was measured at Q2=1.50 (GeV/c)2 and cos [straight theta, small theta, Greek] K [small gamma, Greek] CM=14o. The limits of the [capital Lambda, Greek] polarization, with respect to the p [small gamma, Greek] x pK axis, were found to be -0.21 and +0.89 with a confidence level of 68%. The result is compared to theoretical predictions based on an effective hadronic field Lagrangian model and a Regge framework model

  1. Setup tuning using Lambda and anti-Lambda particles

    CERN Document Server

    Benelli, A

    2013-01-01

    In order to check the general geometry of the DIRAC experiment, we use the $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ particles that decay in our setup into $p\\pi^-$ and $\\pi^+\\bar{p}$. The Lambda mass is very well determined [1] and comparing the value reconstructed in our data with the published one we can be condent that our geometrical description is correct. The main factors that can influence the value of the Lambda mass are: the position of the Aluminum membrane and the opening angle of the two downstream arms, they will be discussed in this note in section 3. The width of the Lambda mass distribution is another tool that we use to evaluate the resolution of the momentum reconstruction of the particles. There are several factors that can contribute to the momentum reconstruction resolution. The most important are: the multiple scattering in the Aluminum membrane and in the Drift Chambers (DC), the resolution of the DC planes, the alignment of the DC downstream and the multiple scattering in the upstream detectors. ...

  2. Bacteriophage biocontrol of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Mustafa; Annapure, Uday S

    2016-03-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that only infect bacterial cells. Phages are categorized based on the type of their life cycle, the lytic cycle cause lysis of the bacterium with the release of multiple phage particles where as in lysogenic phase the phage DNA is incorporated into the bacterial genome. Lysogeny does not result in lysis of the host. Lytic phages have several potential applications in the food industry as biocontrol agents, biopreservatives and as tools for detecting pathogens. They have also been proposed as alternatives to antibiotics in animal health. Two unique features of phage relevant for food safety are that they are harmless to mammalian cells and high host specificity, keeping the natural microbiota undisturbed. However, the recent approval of bacteriophages as food additives has opened the discussion about 'edible viruses'. This article reviews in detail the application of phages for the control of foodborne pathogens in a process known as "biocontrol". PMID:27570260

  3. Stochastic cellular fate decision making by multiple infecting lambda phage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Robb

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage lambda is a classic system for the study of cellular decision making. Both experiments and mathematical models have demonstrated the importance of viral concentration in the lysis-lysogeny decision outcome in lambda phage. However, a recent experimental study using single cell and single phage resolution reported that cells with the same viral concentrations but different numbers of infecting phage (multiplicity of infection can have markedly different rates of lysogeny. Thus the decision depends on not only viral concentration, but also directly on the number of infecting phage. Here, we attempt to provide a mechanistic explanation of these results using a simple stochastic model of the lambda phage genetic network. Several potential factors including intrinsic gene expression noise, spatial dynamics and cell-cycle effects are investigated. We find that interplay between the level of intrinsic noise and viral protein decision threshold is a major factor that produces dependence on multiplicity of infection. However, simulations suggest spatial segregation of phage particles does not play a significant role. Cellular image processing is used to re-analyse the original time-lapse movies from the recent study and it is found that higher numbers of infecting phage reduce the cell elongation rate. This could also contribute to the observed phenomena as cellular growth rate can affect transcription rates. Our model further predicts that rate of lysogeny is dependent on bacterial growth rate, which can be experimentally tested. Our study provides new insight on the mechanisms of individual phage decision making. More generally, our results are relevant for the understanding of gene-dosage compensation in cellular systems.

  4. The algebraic lambda-calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Vaux, Lionel

    2009-01-01

    We introduce an extension of the pure lambda-calculus by endowing the set of terms with a structure of vector space, or more generally of module, over a fixed set of scalars. Terms are moreover subject to identities similar to usual point-wise definition of linear combinations of functions with values in a vector space. We then study a natural extension of beta-reduction in this setting: we prove it is confluent, then discuss consistency and conservativity over the ordinary lambda-calculus. W...

  5. Primary structure and functional analysis of the lysis genes of Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phi adh.

    OpenAIRE

    Henrich, B; Binishofer, B; Bläsi, U

    1995-01-01

    The lysis genes of the Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phi adh were isolated by complementation of a lambda Sam mutation in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing of a 1,735-bp DNA fragment revealed two adjacent coding regions of 342 bp (hol) and 951 bp (lys) in the same reading frame which appear to belong to a common transcriptional unit. Proteins corresponding to the predicted gene products, holin (12.9 kDa) and lysin (34.7 kDa), were identified by in vitro and in vivo expression of t...

  6. Study of Lambda/c+ Cabibbo Favored Decays Containing a Lambda Baryon in the Final State

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Castromonte, C; Machado, A A; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Polycarpo, E; Dos Reis, A C; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cuautle, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Agostino, L; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Segoni, I; Stenson, K; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chiodini, G; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Wang, M; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, F L; Pacetti, S; Zallo, A; Reyes, M; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Kryemadhi, A; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Cho, K; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Barberis, S; Boschini, M; Cerutti, A; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Edera, L; Erba, S; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Merlo, M M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Vitulo, P; Göbel, C; Hernández, H; López, A M; Méndez, H; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Ramírez, J E; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Handler, T; Mitchell, R; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Luiggi, E; Moore, J E; Nehring, M; Sheldon, P D; Vaandering, E W; Webster, M; Sheaff, M

    2005-01-01

    Using data from the FOCUS experiment (FNAL-E831), we study the decay of $\\Lambda^+_c$ baryons into final states containing a $\\Lambda$ hyperon. The branching fractions of $\\Lambda^+_c$ into $\\Lambda \\pi^+$, $\\Lambda \\pi^+ \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ and $\\Lambda \\bar{K} ^0 K^+$ relative to that into $pK^-\\pi^+$ are measured to be $0.217 \\pm 0.013 \\pm 0.020$, $0.508 \\pm 0.024 \\pm 0.024$ and $0.142 \\pm 0.018 \\pm 0.022$, respectively. We also report new measurements of $\\frac{\\Gamma(\\Lambda^+_c \\to \\Sigma^0 \\pi^+)}{\\Gamma(\\Lambda^+_c \\to \\Lambda \\pi^+)} = 1.09 \\pm 0.11 \\pm 0.19$, $\\frac{\\Gamma(\\Lambda^+_c \\to \\Sigma^0 \\pi^+\\pi^+ \\pi^-)}{\\Gamma(\\Lambda^+_c \\to \\Lambda \\pi^+ \\pi^+ \\pi^-)} = 0.26 \\pm 0.06 \\pm 0.09$ and $\\frac{\\Gamma(\\Lambda^+_c \\to \\Xi(1690)^0(\\Lambda \\bar{K} ^0) K^+)}{\\Gamma(\\Lambda^+_c \\to \\Lambda \\bar{K} ^0 K^+)} = 0.33 \\pm 0.10 \\pm 0.04$. Further, an analysis of the subresonant structure for the $\\Lambda^+_c \\to \\Lambda \\pi^+\\pi^+\\pi^-$ decay mode is presented.

  7. Single molecule studies of DNA packaging by bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Derek Nathan

    The DNA packaging dynamics of bacteriophages φ29, gamma, and T4 were studied at the single molecule level using a dual trap optical tweezers. Also, a method for producing long DNA molecules by PCR for optical tweezers studies of protein DNA interactions is presented and thoroughly characterized. This DNA preparation technique provided DNA samples for the φ29 and T4 studies. In the studies of φ29, the role of charge was investigated by varying the ionic conditions of the packaging buffer. Ionic conditions in which the DNA charge was highly screened due to divalent and trivalent cations showed the lowest resistance to packaging of the DNA to high density. This confirmed the importance of counterions in shielding the DNA interstrand repulsion when packaged to high density. While the ionic nature of the packaging buffer had a strong effect on packaging velocities, there was no clear trend between the counterion-screened charge of the DNA and the maximum packaging velocity. The packaging studies of lambda and T4 served as systems for comparative studies with φ29. Each system showed similarities to the φ29 system and unique differences. Both the lambda and T4 packaging motors were capable of generating forces in excess of 50 pN and showed remarkably high processivity, similar to φ29. However, dynamic structural transitions were observed with lambda that are not observed with φ29. The packaging of the lambda genome showed capsid expansion at approximately 30 percent of the genome packaged and capsid rupture at 90 percent of the genome packaged in the absence of capsid stabilizing protein gpD. Unique to the T4 packaging motor, packaging dynamics showed a remarkable amount of variability in velocities. This variability was seen both within individual packaging phages and from one phage to the next. This is possibly due to different conformational states of the packaging machinery. Additionally, lambda and T4 had average packaging velocities under minimal load of 600

  8. Changes in DNA sequence induced by gamma ray mutagenesis of lambda phage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forward mutations in the cI (repressor) gene of lambda bacteriophage were induced by irradiating the free phage in concentrated broth with gamma rays. The mutations were characterized by sequencing the DNA. About 20% were frameshifts, 50% were transversions and 30% transitions. In nearly all the transversions and transitions, either an A or a T had been substituted for the original base on the sequenced strand. The data are consistent with a roughly equal frequency of substitution at each base. Sequencing is now in progress of 100 forward mutations in the cI gene generated by irradiating lambda prophage integrated into the genome of E. coli host cells. These should be characteristic of mutations in the bacterial chromosome. Preliminary results suggest that the mutational spectrum may be different, with more gross DNA rearrangements

  9. Lambda-Lambda interaction from two-particle intensity correlation in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ohnishi, Akira; Furumoto, Takenori

    2015-01-01

    We investigate $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interaction dependence of the $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ intensity correlation in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. By analyzing the correlation data recently obtained by the STAR collaboration based on theoretically proposed $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interactions, we give a constraint on the $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ scattering length, $-1.25~\\text{fm} < a_0 < 0$, suggesting that $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interaction is weakly attractive and there is no loosely bound state. In addition to the fermionic quantum statistics and the $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ interaction, effects of collective flow, feed-down from $\\Sigma^0$, and the residual source are also found to be important to understand the data. We demonstrate that the correlation data favor negative $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ scattering length with the pair purity parameter $\\lambda=(0.67)^2$ evaluated by using experimental data on the $\\Sigma^0/\\Lambda$ ratio, while the positive scattering length could be favored when we regard $\\lambda$ as a free fitting parameter.

  10. Lambda-mu-calculus and Bohm's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    David, René; Py, Walter

    2001-01-01

    The lambda mu-calculus is an extension of the lambda-calculus that has been introduced by M. Parigot to give an algorithmic content to classical proofs. We show that Bohm's theorem fails in this calculus.

  11. Parity reversion in ^{12}_\\Lambda Be

    CERN Document Server

    Homma, H; Kimura, M

    2011-01-01

    The spectrum of $^{12}_\\Lambda$Be is studied by an extended version of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics for hypernuclei. The result predicts the positive-parity ground state of $^{12}_\\Lambda$Be that is reverted to the normal one by the impurity effect of $\\Lambda$ particle. The reversion of the parity is due to the difference of $\\Lambda$ binding energy in the positive- and negative-parity states that originates in the difference of $\\alpha$ clustering and deformation.

  12. Two bacteriophages of Clostridium difficile.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahony, D E; Bell, P D; Easterbrook, K. B.

    1985-01-01

    Two temperate bacteriophages of differing morphology and host range were isolated by screening 94 isolates of Clostridium difficile. Phage 41 had a 300-nm flexible tail, whereas phage 56 had a shorter tail with a contractile sheath. Electron microscopy of phage 56 lysates exposed to elevated magnesium concentrations showed small virus-like particles which were 21 nm in diameter. The addition of MgCl2 to semisolid agar overlays enhanced both the titer and plaque size of phage 56. Phage 56 was ...

  13. Charge symmetry breaking in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Gal, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    The large charge symmetry breaking (CSB) implied by the $\\Lambda$ binding energy difference $\\Delta B^{4}_{\\Lambda}(0^+_{\\rm g.s.})\\equiv B_{\\Lambda}(_{\\Lambda}^4$He)$-$$B_{\\Lambda}(_{\\Lambda}^4$H) = 0.35$\\pm$0.06 MeV of the $A=4$ mirror hypernuclei ground states, determined from emulsion studies, has defied theoretical attempts to reproduce it in terms of CSB in hyperon masses and in hyperon-nucleon interactions, including one pion exchange arising from $\\Lambda-\\Sigma^0$ mixing. Using a schematic strong-interaction $\\Lambda N\\leftrightarrow\\Sigma N$ coupling model developed by Akaishi and collaborators for $s$-shell $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei, we revisit the evaluation of CSB in the $A=4$ $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei and extend it to $p$-shell mirror $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei. The model yields values of $\\Delta B^{4}_{\\Lambda} (0^+_{\\rm g.s.})\\sim 0.25$ MeV. Smaller size and mostly negative $p$-shell binding energy differences are calculated for the $A=7-10$ mirror hypernuclei, in rough agreement with the few available dat...

  14. Lambda-lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, O.; Schultz, U.P.

    2004-01-01

    Lambda-lifting is a program transformation that is used in compilers, partial evaluators, and program transformers. In this article, we show how to reduce its complexity from cubic time to quadratic time, and we present a flow-sensitive lambda-lifter that also works in quadratic time. Lambda...

  15. Lambda-Lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2004-01-01

    Lambda-lifting is a program transformation that is used in compilers, partial evaluators, and program transformers. In this article, we show how to reduce its complexity from cubic time to quadratic time, and we present a flow-sensitive lambda-lifter that also works in quadratic time. Lambda...

  16. Lambda-Lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2003-01-01

    Lambda-lifting is a program transformation that is used in compilers, partial evaluators, and program transformers. In this article, we show how to reduce its complexity from cubic time to quadratic time, and we present a flow-sensitive lambda-lifter that also works in quadratic time. Lambda...

  17. Lambda-Lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2002-01-01

    Lambda-lifting is a program transformation that is used in compilers, partial evaluators, and program transformers. In this article, we show how to reduce its complexity from cubic time to quadratic time, and we present a flow-sensitive lambda-lifter that also works in quadratic time. Lambda...

  18. Graphic lambda calculus and knot diagrams

    OpenAIRE

    Buliga, Marius

    2012-01-01

    In arXiv:1207.0332 [cs.LO] was proposed a graphic lambda calculus formalism, which has sectors corresponding to untyped lambda calculus and emergent algebras. Here we explore the sector covering knot diagrams, which are constructed as macros over the graphic lambda calculus.

  19. The differential lambda-mu-calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Vaux, Lionel

    2007-01-01

    We define a differential lambda-mu-calculus which is an extension of both Parigot's lambda-mu-calculus and Ehrhard- Regnier's differential lambda-calculus. We prove some basic properties of the system: reduction enjoys Church-Rosser and simply typed terms are strongly normalizing.

  20. Discovery of new Mycoplasma pneumoniae antigens by use of a whole-genome lambda display library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Elisa; De Paolis, Francesca; Montagnani, Francesca; Cellesi, Carla; Gargano, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the leading cause of atypical pneumonia in children and young adults. Bacterial colonization can occur in both the upper and the lower respiratory tracts and take place both endemically and epidemically worldwide. Characteristically, the infection is chronic in onset and recovery and both humoral and cell-mediated mechanisms are involved in the response to bacterial colonization. To identify bacterial proteins recognized by host antibody responses, a whole-genome M. pneumoniae library was created and displayed on lambda bacteriophage. The challenge of such a library with sera from individuals hospitalized for mycoplasmal pneumonia allowed the identification of a panel of recombinant bacteriophages carrying B-cell epitopes. Among the already known M. pneumoniae B-cell antigens, our results confirmed the immunogenicity of P1 and P30 adhesins. Also, the data presented in this study localized, within their sequences, the immunodominant epitopes recognized by human immunoglobulins. Furthermore, library screening allowed the identification of four novel immunogenic polypeptides, respectively, encoded by fragments of the MPN152, MPN426, MPN456 and MPN-500 open reading frames, highlighting and further confirming the potential of lambda display technology in antigen and epitope discovery. PMID:18992837

  1. Molecular dissection of the human B cell response against cytomegalovirus infection by lambda display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghetto, Elisa; Paolis, Francesca De; Spadoni, Andrea; Del Porto, Paola; Buffolano, Wilma; Gargano, Nicola

    2008-07-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a ubiquitous herpesvirus, is the main cause of congenital abnormalities and mental retardation in newborns and is also responsible for severe life-threatening complications in immunocompromised individuals, including AIDS patients and transplant recipients. The disorders generated by cytomegalovirus are closely associated with the competence of the host immune system and both humoral and cell-mediated mechanisms are involved in the response to viral infection. To identify viral proteins recognized by host antibody responses, a cytomegalovirus genome library was created and displayed on lambda bacteriophage. The challenge of such a library with sera from individuals with congenital or acquired infection allowed the identification of a wide panel of recombinant bacteriophages carrying cytomegalovirus B cell epitopes. Epitope-containing fragments within the families of tegument proteins (pUL25, pUL32), structural proteins (pUL48, pUL56) and glycoproteins (pUL55) were identified. Moreover, library screening permitted isolation of phage clones carrying an antigenic region of an uncharacterized HCMV protein encoded by the UL71 open reading frame (ORF), highlighting the potential of lambda display technology in antigen and epitope discovery. PMID:18499273

  2. Propagating the missing bacteriophages: a large bacteriophage in a new class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardies Stephen C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of successful propagations/isolations of soil-borne bacteriophages is small in comparison to the number of bacteriophages observed by microscopy (great plaque count anomaly. As one resolution of the great plaque count anomaly, we use propagation in ultra-dilute agarose gels to isolate a Bacillus thuringiensis bacteriophage with a large head (95 nm in diameter, tail (486 × 26 nm, corkscrew-like tail fibers (187 × 10 nm and genome (221 Kb that cannot be detected by the usual procedures of microbiology. This new bacteriophage, called 0305φ8-36 (first number is month/year of isolation; remaining two numbers identify the host and bacteriophage, has a high dependence of plaque size on the concentration of a supporting agarose gel. Bacteriophage 0305φ8-36 does not propagate in the traditional gels used for bacteriophage plaque formation and also does not produce visible lysis of liquid cultures. Bacteriophage 0305φ8-36 aggregates and, during de novo isolation from the environment, is likely to be invisible to procedures of physical detection that use either filtration or centrifugal pelleting to remove bacteria. Bacteriophage 0305φ8-36 is in a new genomic class, based on genes for both structural components and DNA packaging ATPase. Thus, knowledge of environmental virus diversity is expanded with prospect of greater future expansion.

  3. Lambda-Strukturen und s-Strukturen

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Gunter

    2003-01-01

    In dieser Arbeit werden lambda-Strukturen und s-Strukturen eingeführt, und Funktionen S und Lambda entwickelt, die lambda-Strukturen auf s-Strukturen abbilden und umgekehrt. lambda-Strukturen sind eng verwandt mit den in von Jensen untersuchten Prämäusen (iterierbare Prämäuse dieser Art sind lambda-Strukturen), und s-Strukturen wurden in Anlehnung an die von Mitchell und Steel betrachteten Prämäuse definiert. Wieder sind iterierbare Prämäuse dieser Art auch s-Strukturen. Für die Definition d...

  4. First Observation of the Exclusive Decays Lambda_c to Lambda pi+pi+pi-pi0 and Lambda_c to Lambda omega pi+

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin-Hennessy, D.

    2002-01-01

    Using data recorded by the CLEO III detector at CESR, we report on the first measurements of the branching fractions for decays of the Lambda_c^+ charmed baryon into (Lambda pi+ pi+ pi- pi0) and (Lambda omega pi+). All rates are measured with respect to the p K- pi+ decay mode. The relative branching fractions are 0.39 +- 0.09(stat.) +- 0.09(syst.) and 0.24 +- 0.06(stat.) +- 0.06(syst.) for the (Lambda pi+ pi+ pi- pi0) and (Lambda omega pi+) modes, respectively. The data also suggest decays o...

  5. A Study of $\\left(\\lambda ,\\mu \\right)$ -Fuzzy Subgroups

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuying; Wang, Xuzhu; Yang, Liqiong

    2013-01-01

    We deal with topics regarding $\\left(\\lambda ,\\mu \\right)$ -fuzzy subgroups, mainly $\\left(\\lambda ,\\mu \\right)$ -fuzzy cosets and $\\left(\\lambda ,\\mu \\right)$ -fuzzy normal subgroups. We give basic properties of $\\left(\\lambda ,\\mu \\right)$ -fuzzy subgroups and present some results related to $\\left(\\lambda ,\\mu \\right)$ -fuzzy cosets and $\\left(\\lambda ,\\mu \\right)$ -fuzzy normal subgroups.

  6. The $a_0(980)$ and $\\Lambda(1670)$ in the $\\Lambda^+_c \\to \\pi^+ \\eta \\Lambda$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Ju-Jun

    2016-01-01

    We propose to study the $a_0(980)$ and the $\\Lambda(1670)$ resonances in the $\\Lambda^+_c \\to \\pi^+ \\eta \\Lambda$ decay via the final state interactions of the $\\pi^+ \\eta$ and $\\eta \\Lambda$ pairs. The weak interaction part proceeds through the $c$ quark decay process: $c(ud) \\to (s + u + \\bar d)(ud)$, while the hadronization part takes place in two different mechanisms. In the first mechanism, the $sud$ cluster picks up a $q\\bar{q}$ pair from the vacuum to form the $\\eta\\Lambda$ meson-baryon pair while the $u\\bar{d}$ pair from the weak decay hadronizes into a $\\pi^+$. In the second, the $sud$ cluster turns into a $\\Lambda$, while the $u\\bar{d}$ pair from the $c$ decay picks up a $q\\bar{q}$ pair and hadronizes into a meson-meson pair ($\\pi\\eta$ or $K\\bar{K}$). Because the final $\\pi^+ \\eta$ and $\\eta \\Lambda$ states are in pure isospin $I = 1$ and $I=0$ combinations, the $\\Lambda^+_c \\to \\pi^+ \\eta \\Lambda$ decay can be an ideal process to study the $a_0(980)$ and $\\Lambda(1670)$ resonances. Describing the f...

  7. A Measurement of the Product Branching Ratio $f(b \\to \\Lambda_{b}).BR (\\Lambda_{b} \\to \\Lambda X)$ in $Z^{0}$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Darling, C L; Davis, R; De Jong, S; de Roeck, A; Dervan, P J; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Graham, K; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hargrove, C K; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hobson, P R; Hoch, M; Höcker, Andreas; Hoffman, K; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mader, W F; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spagnolo, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Surrow, B; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    1999-01-01

    The product branching ratio, f(b->Lambda_b).BR(Lambda_b->Lambda X), where Lambda_b denotes any weakly-decaying b-baryon, has been measured using the OPAL detector at LEP. Lambda_b are selected by the presence of energetic Lambda particles in bottom events tagged by the presence of displaced secondary vertices. A fit to the momenta of the Lambda particles separates signal from B meson and fragmentation backgrounds. The measured product branching ratio is f(b->Lambda_b).BR(Lambda_b->Lambda X) = (2.67+-0.38(stat)+0.67-0.60(sy s))% Combined with a previous OPAL measurement, one obtains f(b->Lambda_b).BR(Lambda_b->Lambda X) = (3.50+-0.32(stat)+-0.35(sys ))%.

  8. Host receptors for bacteriophage adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertozzi Silva, Juliano; Storms, Zachary; Sauvageau, Dominic

    2016-02-01

    The adsorption of bacteriophages (phages) onto host cells is, in all but a few rare cases, a sine qua non condition for the onset of the infection process. Understanding the mechanisms involved and the factors affecting it is, thus, crucial for the investigation of host-phage interactions. This review provides a survey of the phage host receptors involved in recognition and adsorption and their interactions during attachment. Comprehension of the whole infection process, starting with the adsorption step, can enable and accelerate our understanding of phage ecology and the development of phage-based technologies. To assist in this effort, we have established an open-access resource--the Phage Receptor Database (PhReD)--to serve as a repository for information on known and newly identified phage receptors. PMID:26755501

  9. Measurement of $\\Lambda$ polarization from Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Büscher, V; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Aleppo, M; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    The polarization of \\Lambda baryons from Z decays is studied with the {\\sc Aleph} apparatus. Evidence of longitudinal polarization of s quarks from Z decay is observed for the first time. The measured longitudinal \\Lambda polarization is P^{\\Lambda}_{L} = -0.32 \\pm 0.07 for z = p/p_{\\mathrm{beam}} > 0.3. This agrees with the prediction of -0.39 \\pm 0.08 from the standard model and the constituent quark model, where the error is due to uncertainties in the mechanism for \\Lambda production. The observed \\Lambda polarization is diluted with respect to the primary s quark polarization by \\Lambda baryons without a primary s quark. Measurements of the \\Lambda forward-backward asymmetry and of the correlation between back-to-back \\Lambda \\bar{\\Lambda} pairs are used to check this dilution. In addition the transverse \\Lambda polarization is measured. An indication of transverse polarization, more than two standard deviations away from zero, is found along the normal to the plane defined by the thrust axis and the \\La...

  10. Is Weigle-mutagenesis in uv-irradiated bacteriophage lambda a myth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is argued that Weigle-mutagenesis, a higher mutation frequency observed when uv-irradiated are allowed to infect uv-irradiated bacteria, is often a trivial artifact rather than a manifestation of an error-prone bacterial DNA repair. It may occur due to the slower replication of irradiated phages which results in more replication taking place when a mutator polymerase activity has become induced and expressed than is the case with intact phages. The mutator polymerase activity is inducible in recA+ cells but it is not under the control of the lexA repressor. Weigle-mutagenesis under these conditions is untargeted and is not a good model for bacterial uv mutagenesis. 12 references

  11. Novel DNA packaging recognition in the unusual bacteriophage N15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phage lambda's cosB packaging recognition site is tripartite, consisting of 3 TerS binding sites, called R sequences. TerS binding to the critical R3 site positions the TerL endonuclease for nicking cosN to generate cohesive ends. The N15 cos (cosN15) is closely related to cosλ, but whereas the cosBN15 subsite has R3, it lacks the R2 and R1 sites and the IHF binding site of cosBλ. A bioinformatic study of N15-like phages indicates that cosBN15 also has an accessory, remote rR2 site, which is proposed to increase packaging efficiency, like R2 and R1 of lambda. N15 plus five prophages all have the rR2 sequence, which is located in the TerS-encoding 1 gene, approximately 200 bp distal to R3. An additional set of four highly related prophages, exemplified by Monarch, has R3 sequence, but also has R2 and R1 sequences characteristic of cosB–λ. The DNA binding domain of TerS-N15 is a dimer. - Highlights: • There are two classes of DNA packaging signals in N15-related phages. • Phage N15's TerS binding site: a critical site and a possible remote accessory site. • Viral DNA recognition signals by the λ-like bacteriophages: the odd case of N15

  12. Novel DNA packaging recognition in the unusual bacteriophage N15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiss, Michael [Department of Microbiology, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Geyer, Henriette, E-mail: henriettegeyer@gmail.com [Division of Viral Infections, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin (Germany); Division of Viral Infections, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin (Germany); Klingberg, Franco, E-mail: franco.klingberg@thermofisher.com [Flow Cytometry, Imaging & Microscopy, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Frankfurter Strasse 129B 64293 Darmstadt (Germany); Flow Cytometry, Imaging & Microscopy, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Frankfurter Strasse 129B 64293 Darmstadt (Germany); Moreno, Norma, E-mail: nmoreno@islander.tamucc.edu [Texas A& M University – Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Corpus Christi, TX 78412, United States. (United States); Texas A& M University – Corpus Christi, 6300 Ocean Drive, Corpus Christi, TX 78412, United States. (United States); Forystek, Amanda, E-mail: eamanda-forystek@uiowa.edu [Flow Cytometry, Imaging & Microscopy, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Frankfurter Strasse 129B 64293 Darmstadt (Germany); Room # 2911 JPP, Dept. of Psychiatry, The University of Iowa, 200 Hawkins Drive, Iowa City, Iowa, 52242 (United States); Maluf, Nasib Karl, E-mail: fKarl.Maluf@ap-lab.com [Flow Cytometry, Imaging & Microscopy, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Frankfurter Strasse 129B 64293 Darmstadt (Germany); Alliance Protein Laboratories, Inc. 6042 Cornerstone Court West, Suite ASan Diego, CA 92121, USA. (United States); Sippy, Jean [Department of Microbiology, Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Phage lambda's cosB packaging recognition site is tripartite, consisting of 3 TerS binding sites, called R sequences. TerS binding to the critical R3 site positions the TerL endonuclease for nicking cosN to generate cohesive ends. The N15 cos (cos{sup N15}) is closely related to cos{sup λ}, but whereas the cosB{sup N15} subsite has R3, it lacks the R2 and R1 sites and the IHF binding site of cosB{sup λ}. A bioinformatic study of N15-like phages indicates that cosB{sup N15} also has an accessory, remote rR2 site, which is proposed to increase packaging efficiency, like R2 and R1 of lambda. N15 plus five prophages all have the rR2 sequence, which is located in the TerS-encoding 1 gene, approximately 200 bp distal to R3. An additional set of four highly related prophages, exemplified by Monarch, has R3 sequence, but also has R2 and R1 sequences characteristic of cosB–λ. The DNA binding domain of TerS-N15 is a dimer. - Highlights: • There are two classes of DNA packaging signals in N15-related phages. • Phage N15's TerS binding site: a critical site and a possible remote accessory site. • Viral DNA recognition signals by the λ-like bacteriophages: the odd case of N15.

  13. An Extensional Characterization of Lambda-Lifting and Lambda-Dropping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    Lambda-lifting and lambda-dropping respectively transform a block-structured functional program into recursive equations and vice versa. Lambda-lifting was developed in the early 80’s, whereas lambda-dropping is more recent. Both are split into an analysis and a transformation. Published work......, however, has only concentrated on the analysis parts. We focus here on the transformation parts and more precisely on their correctness, which appears never to have been proven. To this end, we define extensional versions of lambda-lifting and lambda-dropping and establish their correctness with respect...

  14. First observation of $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda K^+\\pi^-$ and $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda K^+K^-$ decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    O'Hanlon, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The physics potential for $b$-baryon decays has been relatively unexplored until the advent of the LHC, and as such important questions still exist about their fundamental properties, such as whether their decays exhibit $C\\!P$ violation. Presented here are observations of the decays $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda K^+\\pi^-$ and $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\Lambda K^+K^-$, made at a significance level of 8.1 and 15.8 Gaussian standard deviations, respectively, and measurements of their branching fractions. The phase-space integrated $C\\!P$ asymmetries of these decays are also measured and found to be consistent with zero. Limits are set on the branching fractions of other $\\Lambda_b^0$ and $\\Xi_b^0$ decays to $\\Lambda h^+h^{\\prime -}$ (where $h$ is a kaon or pion).

  15. Observation of excited $\\Lambda^0_b$ baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hoballah, M; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; 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Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    Using $pp$ collision data corresponding to 1.0~fb^{-1} integrated luminosity collected by the LHCb detector, two narrow states are observed in the $\\Lambda_b^0\\pi^+\\pi^-$ spectrum with masses $5911.95\\pm 0.12(\\mbox{stat})\\pm 0.03(\\mbox{syst})\\pm 0.66(\\Lambda_b^0\\mbox{ mass})$ MeV/$c^2$ and $5919.76\\pm 0.07(\\mbox{stat})\\pm 0.02(\\mbox{syst})\\pm 0.66(\\Lambda_b^0\\mbox{ mass})$ MeV/$c^2$. The significances of the observations are 4.9 and 10.1 standard deviations, respectively. These states are interpreted as the orbitally-excited $\\Lambda_b^0$ baryons, $\\Lambda_b^{*0}(5912)$ and $\\Lambda_b^{*0}(5920)$.

  16. Ordered Models of the Lambda Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Salibra, Antonino; Carraro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Answering a question by Honsell and Plotkin, we show that there are two equations between lambda terms, the so-called subtractive equations, consistent with lambda calculus but not simultaneously satisfied in any partially ordered model with bottom element. We also relate the subtractive equations to the open problem of the order-incompleteness of lambda calculus, by studying the connection between the notion of absolute unorderability in a specific point and a weaker notion of subtractivity ...

  17. A litmus test for Lambda

    CERN Document Server

    Zunckel, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The critical issue in cosmology today lies in determining if the cosmological constant is the underlying ingredient of dark energy. Our profound lack of understanding of the physics of dark energy places severe constrains on our ability to say anything about its possible dynamical nature. Quoted errors on the equation of state, w(z), are so heavily dependent on necessarily over-simplified parameterisations they are at risk of being rendered meaningless. Moreover, the existence of degeneracies between the reconstructed w(z) and the matter and curvature densities weakens any conclusions still further. We propose consistency tests for the cosmological constant which provide a direct observational signal if Lambda is wrong, regardless of the densities of matter and curvature. As an example of its utility, our flat case test can warn of a small transition from w(z)=-1 of 20% from SNAP quality data at 4-sigma, even when direct reconstruction techniques see virtually no evidence for deviation from Lambda. It is show...

  18. Lambda_b -> Lambda l+ l- form factors and differential branching fraction from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Detmold, William; Meinel, Stefan; Wingate, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We present the first lattice QCD determination of the $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda$ transition form factors that govern the rare baryonic decays $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda l^+ l^-$ at leading order in heavy-quark effective theory. Our calculations are performed with 2+1 flavors of domain-wall fermions, at two lattice spacings and with pion masses down to 227 MeV. Three-point functions with a wide range of source-sink separations are used to extract the ground-state contributions. The form factors are extrapolated to the physical values of the light-quark masses and to the continuum limit. We use our results to calculate the differential branching fractions for $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda l^+ l^-$ with $l=e,\\mu,\\tau$ within the standard model. We find agreement with a recent CDF measurement of the $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ differential branching fraction.

  19. Search for \\bar{B}^0\\to\\Lambda_c^+\\bar{\\Lambda}_c^- decay at Belle

    OpenAIRE

    The Belle Collaboration; Abe, K

    2007-01-01

    We search for the doubly charmed baryonic decay $\\bar{B}^0\\to\\Lambda_c^+\\bar{\\Lambda}_c^-$, in a data sample of $520\\times10^6$ $B{\\bar B}$ events accumulated at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric e^+e^- collider. We find no significant signal and set an upper limit of ${\\cal B}(\\bar{B}^0\\to\\Lambda_c^+\\bar{\\Lambda}_c^-)

  20. Complete Genome Sequences of Five Bacteriophages That Infect Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardoni, Brooke; Bockman, Matthew R.; Miller, Brenda M.; Russell, Daniel A.; Delesalle, Veronique A.; Krukonis, Gregory P.; Hatfull, Graham F.; Cross, Madeline R.; Szewczyk, Marlena M.; Eppurath, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Five bacteriophages that infect the Rhodobacter capsulatus strain YW1 were isolated from stream water near Bloomington, Illinois, USA. Two distinct genome types are represented in the newly isolated bacteriophages. These genomes are different from other bacteriophage genomes previously described. PMID:27231352

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Bacteriophage BMBtp2

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Zhaoxia; Peng, Donghai; Wang, Yueying; Zhu, Lei; Ruan, Lifang; Sun, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is an insect pathogen which has been widely used for biocontrol. During B. thuringiensis fermentation, lysogenic bacteriophages cause severe losses of yield. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of a bacteriophage, BMBtp2, which is induced from B. thuringiensis strain YBT-1765, which may be helpful to clarify the mechanism involved in bacteriophage contamination.

  2. Lattice QCD calculation of form factors for $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda(1520) \\ell^+ \\ell^-$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Meinel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Experimental results for mesonic $b \\to s \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ decays show a pattern of deviations from Standard-Model predictions, which could be due to new fundamental physics or due to an insufficient understanding of hadronic effects. Additional information on the $b \\to s \\mu^+ \\mu^-$ transition can be obtained from $\\Lambda_b$ decays. This was recently done using the process $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda \\mu^+ \\mu^-$, where the $\\Lambda$ is the lightest strange baryon. A further interesting channel is $\\Lambda_b \\to p^+ K^- \\mu^+ \\mu^-$, where the $p^+ K^-$ final state receives contributions from multiple higher-mass $\\Lambda$ resonances. The narrowest and most prominent of these is the $\\Lambda(1520)$, which has $J^P=\\frac32^-$. Here we present an ongoing lattice QCD calculation of the relevant $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda(1520)$ form factors. We discuss the choice of interpolating field for the $\\Lambda(1520)$, and explain our method for extracting the fourteen $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda(1520)$ helicity form factors from corr...

  3. Transverse polarization of {Lambda} and {bar {Lambda}} hyperons in quasireal photoproduction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airapetian, A.; Akopov, N.; Amarian, M.; Ammosov, V. V.; Andrus, A.; Elalaoui-Moulay, A.; Hafidi, K.; Jackson, H. E.; Potterveld, D. H.; Reimer, P. E.; Sanjiev, I.; Physics; Yerevan Physics Inst.; Inst. Nazionaled di Fisica Nucleare; Inst. High Energy Physics

    2007-11-01

    The HERMES experiment has measured the transverse polarization of Lambda and {ovr Lambda} hyperons produced inclusively in quasireal photoproduction at a positron beam energy of 27.6 GeV. The transverse polarization P{sub n}{sup Lambda} of the Lambda hyperon is found to be positive while the observed {ovr Lambda} polarization is compatible with zero. The values averaged over the kinematic acceptance of HERMES are P{sub n}{sup Lambda} =0.078 {+-} 0.006(stat) {+-} 0.012(syst) and P{sub n}{sup {ovr Lambda}} = -0.025 {+-} 0.015(stat) {+-} 0.018(syst) for Lambda and {ovr Lambda}, respectively. The dependences of P{sub n}{sup Lambda} and P{sub n}{sup {ovr Lambda}} on the fraction zeta of the beam's light-cone momentum carried by the hyperon and on the hyperon's transverse momentum p{sub T} were investigated. The measured Lambda polarization rises linearly with p{sub T} and exhibits a different behavior for low and high values of zeta, which approximately correspond to the backward and forward regions in the center-of-mass frame of the gamma*N reaction.

  4. Mutagenesis of lambda phage by tif-expression or host-irradiation functions is largely independent of damage in the phage DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survival and mutagenesis of UV-irradiated phage lambda, as well as bacterial mutagenesis, are enhanced in tif mutants of Escherichia coli when these strains are grown at 430C (Castellazzi et al., 1972). This was interpreted on the basis of a hypothesis (the SOS hypothesis) according to which the UV-inducible phenomena connected with reactivation and mutagenesis of UV-irradiated bacteriophages (Weigle, 1953; Radman, 1975) are constitutively expressed in tif-bacteria at high temperature (Witkin, 1974). In unpublished experiments with phage T3 we found that the survival of UV-irradiated phage is also better at 430C than at 320C in tif + cells and this made us reexamine the significance and nature of tif expression and examine its effects on both unirradiated and UV-irradiated phage lambda. Our results indicate that tif-induced mutagenesis and possibly reactivation of UV-irradiated phage lambda should be reinterpreted. (orig./AJ)

  5. Neutron irradiation of bacteriophage λ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double strand breaks (DSB) are the most dangerous lesions in DNA caused by irradiation, but many other lesions, usually called mutations, have not been clearly identified. These lesions, like DSB, can be the source of serious chromosomal damages and finally - cell death. Growing interest in heavy particles for radiotherapy and radioprotection encourages the search of the molecular basis of their action. In this respect, we chose bacteriophage λ1390 as the model system for the study of consequences of neutron irradiation. This derivative of λ phage possesses an unique ability to reversibly reorganize their genome in response to various selective pressures. The phages were irradiated with 13 Gy of mixed neutrons (7.5 Gy from fast and 5.6 Gy from thermal neutrons) and phages genomes were tested to DSB and mutations. Additionally, the stability of λ capsid proteins were tested. After all tests, we can conclude that, under our conditions, low flux of neutrons does not induce neither DNA strand break or DNA mutation nor the stability of λ capsid proteins. (author)

  6. Lambda-Lifting in Quadratic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2002-01-01

    Lambda-lifting is a program transformation used in compilers and in partial evaluators and that operates in cubic time. In this article, we show how to reduce this complexity to quadratic time. Lambda-lifting transforms a block-structured program into a set of recursive equations, one for each...

  7. Another coincidence problem for $\\Lambda$CDM?

    CERN Document Server

    van Oirschot, Pim; Lewis, Geraint F

    2014-01-01

    Over the last nine years of cosmic microwave background observations, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe ($WMAP$) results were consistent with a $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model in which the age of the Universe is one Hubble time, and the time-averaged value of the deceleration parameter is consistent with zero. This curious observation has been put forward as a new coincidence problem for the $\\Lambda$CDM concordance cosmology, which is in fact a `greater' coincidence than the near equality of the density parameters of matter and the cosmological constant. At the moment of writing these conference proceedings, the Planck Collaboration has released its first cosmological data, which revealed a small shift in the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological parameters when compared to $WMAP$. We show that under the assumption of a spatially flat $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology, Planck's results remove this coincidence problem for $\\Lambda$CDM at greater than 99\\% confidence level.

  8. Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic inactivation (PDI has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process.

  9. Measurement of the {Lambda}{sub b} cross section and the {Lambda}{sup Macron }{sub b} to {Lambda}{sub b} ratio with J/{psi}{Lambda} decays in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A.M.; Tumasyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Eroe, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Fruehwirth, R.; Ghete, V.M.; Hammer, J.; Hoermann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knuenz, V.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der OeAW, Wien (Austria); and others

    2012-08-14

    The {Lambda}{sub b} differential production cross section and the cross section ratio {sigma}({Lambda}{sup Macron }{sub b})/{sigma}({Lambda}{sub b}) are measured as functions of transverse momentum p{sub T}{sup {Lambda}{sub b}} and rapidity |y{sup {Lambda}{sub b}}| in pp collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV using data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC. The measurements are based on {Lambda}{sub b} decays reconstructed in the exclusive final state J/{psi}{Lambda}, with the subsequent decays J/{psi}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and {Lambda}{yields}p{pi}, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.9 fb{sup -1}. The product {sigma}({Lambda}{sub b}) Multiplication-Sign B({Lambda}{sub b}{yields}J/{psi}{Lambda}) versus p{sub T}{sup {Lambda}{sub b}} falls faster than that of b mesons. The measured value of {sigma}({Lambda}{sub b}) Multiplication-Sign B({Lambda}{sub b}{yields}J/{psi}{Lambda}) for p{sub T}{sup {Lambda}{sub b}}>10 GeV and |y{sup {Lambda}{sub b}}|<2.0 is 1.16{+-}0.06{+-}0.12 nb, and the integrated {sigma}({Lambda}{sup Macron }{sub b})/{sigma}({Lambda}{sub b}) ratio is 1.02{+-}0.07{+-}0.09, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively.

  10. A forward-genetic screen and dynamic analysis of lambda phage host-dependencies reveals an extensive interaction network and a new anti-viral strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel D Maynard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Latently infecting viruses are an important class of virus that plays a key role in viral evolution and human health. Here we report a genome-scale forward-genetics screen for host-dependencies of the latently-infecting bacteriophage lambda. This screen identified 57 Escherichia coli (E. coli genes--over half of which have not been previously associated with infection--that when knocked out inhibited lambda phage's ability to replicate. Our results demonstrate a highly integrated network between lambda and its host, in striking contrast to the results from a similar screen using the lytic-only infecting T7 virus. We then measured the growth of E. coli under normal and infected conditions, using wild-type and knockout strains deficient in one of the identified host genes, and found that genes from the same pathway often exhibited similar growth dynamics. This observation, combined with further computational and experimental analysis, led us to identify a previously unannotated gene, yneJ, as a novel regulator of lamB gene expression. A surprising result of this work was the identification of two highly conserved pathways involved in tRNA thiolation-one pathway is required for efficient lambda replication, while the other has anti-viral properties inhibiting lambda replication. Based on our data, it appears that 2-thiouridine modification of tRNAGlu, tRNAGln, and tRNALys is particularly important for the efficient production of infectious lambda phage particles.

  11. Evidence for a lineage of virulent bacteriophages that target Campylobacter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings Nicola

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our understanding of the dynamics of genome stability versus gene flux within bacteriophage lineages is limited. Recently, there has been a renewed interest in the use of bacteriophages as 'therapeutic' agents; a prerequisite for their use in such therapies is a thorough understanding of their genetic complement, genome stability and their ecology to avoid the dissemination or mobilisation of phage or bacterial virulence and toxin genes. Campylobacter, a food-borne pathogen, is one of the organisms for which the use of bacteriophage is being considered to reduce human exposure to this organism. Results Sequencing and genome analysis was performed for two Campylobacter bacteriophages. The genomes were extremely similar at the nucleotide level (≥ 96% with most differences accounted for by novel insertion sequences, DNA methylases and an approximately 10 kb contiguous region of metabolic genes that were dissimilar at the sequence level but similar in gene function between the two phages. Both bacteriophages contained a large number of radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM genes, presumably involved in boosting host metabolism during infection, as well as evidence that many genes had been acquired from a wide range of bacterial species. Further bacteriophages, from the UK Campylobacter typing set, were screened for the presence of bacteriophage structural genes, DNA methylases, mobile genetic elements and regulatory genes identified from the genome sequences. The results indicate that many of these bacteriophages are related, with 10 out of 15 showing some relationship to the sequenced genomes. Conclusions Two large virulent Campylobacter bacteriophages were found to show very high levels of sequence conservation despite separation in time and place of isolation. The bacteriophages show adaptations to their host and possess genes that may enhance Campylobacter metabolism, potentially advantaging both the bacteriophage and its host

  12. Bacteriophages as Potential Treatment for Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybesma, Wilbert; Zbinden, Reinhard; Chanishvili, Nino; Kutateladze, Mzia; Chkhotua, Archil; Ujmajuridze, Aleksandre; Mehnert, Ulrich; Kessler, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most prevalent microbial diseases and their financial burden on society is substantial. The continuing increase of antibiotic resistance worldwide is alarming so that well-tolerated, highly effective therapeutic alternatives are urgently needed. Objective: To investigate the effect of bacteriophages on Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from the urine of patients suffering from UTIs. Material and methods: Forty-one E. coli and 9 K. pneumoniae strains, isolated from the urine of patients suffering from UTIs, were tested in vitro for their susceptibility toward bacteriophages. The bacteriophages originated from either commercially available bacteriophage cocktails registered in Georgia or from the bacteriophage collection of the George Eliava Institute of Bacteriophage, Microbiology and Virology. In vitro screening of bacterial strains was performed by use of the spot-test method. The experiments were implemented three times by different groups of scientists. Results: The lytic activity of the commercial bacteriophage cocktails on the 41 E. coli strains varied between 66% (Pyo bacteriophage) and 93% (Enko bacteriophage). After bacteriophage adaptation of the Pyo bacteriophage cocktail, its lytic activity was increased from 66 to 93% and only one E. coli strain remained resistant. One bacteriophage of the Eliava collection could lyse all 9 K. pneumoniae strains. Conclusions: Based on the high lytic activity and the potential of resistance optimization by direct adaption of bacteriophages as reported in this study, and in view of the continuing increase of antibiotic resistance worldwide, bacteriophage therapy is a promising treatment option for UTIs highly warranting randomized controlled trials.

  13. Biophysics and bioinformatics of transcription regulation in bacteria and bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Marko

    2005-11-01

    Due to rapid accumulation of biological data, bioinformatics has become a very important branch of biological research. In this thesis, we develop novel bioinformatic approaches and aid design of biological experiments by using ideas and methods from statistical physics. Identification of transcription factor binding sites within the regulatory segments of genomic DNA is an important step towards understanding of the regulatory circuits that control expression of genes. We propose a novel, biophysics based algorithm, for the supervised detection of transcription factor (TF) binding sites. The method classifies potential binding sites by explicitly estimating the sequence-specific binding energy and the chemical potential of a given TF. In contrast with the widely used information theory based weight matrix method, our approach correctly incorporates saturation in the transcription factor/DNA binding probability. This results in a significant reduction in the number of expected false positives, and in the explicit appearance---and determination---of a binding threshold. The new method was used to identify likely genomic binding sites for the Escherichia coli TFs, and to examine the relationship between TF binding specificity and degree of pleiotropy (number of regulatory targets). We next address how parameters of protein-DNA interactions can be obtained from data on protein binding to random oligos under controlled conditions (SELEX experiment data). We show that 'robust' generation of an appropriate data set is achieved by a suitable modification of the standard SELEX procedure, and propose a novel bioinformatic algorithm for analysis of such data. Finally, we use quantitative data analysis, bioinformatic methods and kinetic modeling to analyze gene expression strategies of bacterial viruses. We study bacteriophage Xp10 that infects rice pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae. Xp10 is an unusual bacteriophage, which has morphology and genome organization that most closely

  14. Predictions for nonleptonic Lambda_b and Theta_b

    CERN Document Server

    Leibovich, A K; Stewart, I W; Wise, M B; Leibovich, Adam K.; Ligeti, Zoltan; Stewart, Iain W.; Wise, Mark B.

    2003-01-01

    We study nonleptonic Lambda_b -> Lambda_c pi, Sigma_c pi and Sigma_c^* pi decays in limit m_b, m_c, E_pi >> Lambda_{QCD} using the soft-collinear effective theory. Here Sigma_c = Sigma_c(2455) and Sigma_c^* = Sigma_c(2520). At leading order the Lambda_b -> Sigma_c^{(*)} pi rates vanish, while the Lambda_b -> Lambda_c pi rate is related to Lambda_b -> Lambda_c\\ell\\bar\

  15. Involvement of Escherichia coli DNA Replication Proteins in Phage Lambda Red-Mediated Homologous Recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony R Poteete

    Full Text Available The Red recombination system of bacteriophage lambda is widely used for genetic engineering because of its ability to promote recombination between bacterial chromosomes or plasmids and linear DNA species introduced by electroporation. The process is known to be intimately tied to replication, but the cellular functions which participate with Red in this process are largely unknown. Here two such functions are identified: the GrpE-DnaK-DnaJ chaperone system, and DNA polymerase I. Mutations in either function are found to decrease the efficiency of Red recombination. grpE and dnaJ mutations which greatly decrease Red recombination with electroporated DNA species have only small effects on Red-mediated transduction. This recombination event specificity suggests that the involvement of GrpE-DnaJ-DnaK is not simply an effect on Red structure or stability.

  16. Running vacuum versus the $\\Lambda$CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Valent, Adrià; Pérez, Javier de Cruz

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that a constant $\\Lambda$-term is a traditional building block of the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM model. We show that this assumption is not necessarily the optimal one from the phenomenological point of view. The class of running vacuum models, with a possible running of the gravitational coupling G, are capable to fit the overall cosmological data SNIa+BAO+H(z)+LSS+BBN+CMB better than the $\\Lambda$CDM, namely at a level of $\\sim 3\\sigma$ and with Akaike and Bayesian information criteria supporting a strong level of statistical evidence on this fact. Here we report on the results of such analysis.

  17. Bacteriophages from the forestomachs of Australian marsupials.

    OpenAIRE

    Klieve, A V

    1991-01-01

    Bacteriophages were observed in forestomach contents from three species of Australian macropodoid marsupials possessing a foregut fermentative digestion: the eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), the eastern wallaroo (Macropus robustus robustus), and the rufous bettong (Aepyprymnus rufescens). Forty-six morphologically distinct phage types, representing the families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, and Podoviridae, were identified. The range of forms varied between host species. The greatest d...

  18. An Undergraduate Laboratory Activity Demonstrating Bacteriophage Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Allen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage are among the most diverse and numerous microbes inhabiting our planet. Yet many laboratory activities fail to engage students in meaningful exploration of their diversity, unique characteristics, and abundance. In this curriculum activity students use a standard plaque assay to enumerate bacteriophage particles from a natural sample and use the scientific method to address questions about host specificity and diversity. A raw primary sewage sample is enriched for bacteriophage using hosts in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Students hypothesize about host specificity and use quantitative data (serial dilution and plaque assay to test their hypotheses. Combined class data also help them answer questions about phage diversity. The exercise was field tested with a class of 47 students using pre- and posttests. For all learning outcomes posttest scores were higher than pretest scores at or below p = 0.01. Average individualized learning gain (G was also calculated for each learning outcome. Students’ use of scientific language in reference to bacteriophage and host interaction significantly improved (p = 0.002; G = 0.50. Improved means of expression helped students construct better hypotheses on phage host specificity (G = 0.31, p = 0.01 and to explain the plaque assay method (G = 0.33, p = 0.002. At the end of the exercise students also demonstrated improved knowledge and understanding of phage specificity as related to phage therapy in humans (p < 0.001; G = 51.

  19. Use of the lambda Red recombinase system to produce recombinant prophages carrying antibiotic resistance genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jofre Juan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Red recombinase system of bacteriophage lambda has been used to inactivate chromosomal genes in E. coli K-12 through homologous recombination using linear PCR products. The aim of this study was to induce mutations in the genome of some temperate Shiga toxin encoding bacteriophages. When phage genes are in the prophage state, they behave like chromosomal genes. This enables marker genes, such as antibiotic resistance genes, to be incorporated into the stx gene. Once the phages' lytic cycle is activated, recombinant Shiga toxin converting phages are produced. These phages can transfer the marker genes to the bacteria that they infect and convert. As the Red system's effectiveness decreased when used for our purposes, we had to introduce significant variations to the original method. These modifications included: confirming the stability of the target stx gene increasing the number of cells to be transformed and using a three-step PCR method to produce the amplimer containing the antibiotic resistance gene. Results Seven phages carrying two different antibiotic resistance genes were derived from phages that are directly involved in the pathogenesis of Shiga toxin-producing strains, using this modified protocol. Conclusion This approach facilitates exploration of the transduction processes and is a valuable tool for studying phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer.

  20. Simulation experiments of the effect of space environment on bacteriophage and DNA thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, A.; Ronto, Gy; Hegedus, M.; Modos, K.; Berces, A.; Kovacs, G.; Lammer, H.; Panitz, C.

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of PUR experiment (phage and uracil response) is to examine and quantify the effect of specific space conditions on nucleic acid models. To achieve this an improved method was elaborated for the preparation of DNA and bacteriophage thin films. The homogeneity of the films was controlled by UV spectroscopy and microscopy. To provide experimental evidence for the hypothesis that interplanetary transfer of the genetic material is possible, phage T7 and isolated T7 DNA thin films have been exposed to selected space conditions: intense UVC radiation (lambda=254 nm) and high vacuum (10(-4) Pa). The effects of DNA hydration, conformation and packing on UV radiation damage were examined. Characteristic changes in the absorption spectrum, in the electrophoretic pattern of DNA and the decrease of the amount of PCR products have been detected indicating the photodamage of isolated and intraphage DNA. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lambda foo: a lambda phage vector for the expression of foreign proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, I N; Maruyama, H I; Brenner, S

    1994-01-01

    This work describes a lambda phage expression system, lambda foo, that produces foreign proteins fused to the surface of the virus particle. The lambda foo vector has multiple cloning sites for the insertion of a foreign DNA fragment and color selection for recombinants. Foreign proteins are fused to the C terminus of a truncated phage tail protein, pV, by a peptide linker. Conditional chain termination allows the assembly and fusion of multisubunit proteins. We have attached the complete Esc...

  2. LambdaSa1 and LambdaSa2 Prophage Lysins of Streptococcus agalactiae▿

    OpenAIRE

    Pritchard, David G.; Dong, Shengli; Kirk, Marion C.; Cartee, Robert T.; Baker, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Putative N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase genes from LambdaSa1 and LambdaSa2 prophages of Streptococcus agalactiae were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes lysed the cell walls of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The peptidoglycan digestion products in the cell wall lysates were not consistent with amidase activity. Instead, the structure of the muropeptide digestion fragments indicated that both the LambdaSa1 and Lambd...

  3. {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology from matter only

    CERN Document Server

    Telkamp, Herman

    2015-01-01

    I discuss a matter-only interpretation of {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology, based on conservation of energy and assuming a Machian definition of inertia. {\\Lambda}CDM cosmology can be linked to a Newtonian cosmic potential, subject to a propagating gravitational horizon. In a matter-only universe where total energy is conserved, Machian inertia related to the evolving potential may cause both deceleration and acceleration of recession.

  4. Lambda Exonuclease Digestion of CGG Trinucleotide Repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Conroy, R. S.; Koretsky, A P; Moreland, J.

    2009-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome and other triplet repeat diseases are characterized by an elongation of a repeating DNA triplet. The ensemble-averaged lambda exonuclease digestion rate of different substrates, including one with an elongated FMR1 gene containing 120 CGG repeats, was measured using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Using magnetic tweezers sequence-dependent digestion rates and pausing was measured for individual lambda exonucleases. Within the triplet repeats a lower average and na...

  5. Lambda_b -> Lambda l+ l- form factors and differential branching fraction from lattice QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Detmold, William; Lin, C. -J. David; Meinel, Stefan; Wingate, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We present the first lattice QCD determination of the $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda$ transition form factors that govern the rare baryonic decays $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda l^+ l^-$ at leading order in heavy-quark effective theory. Our calculations are performed with 2+1 flavors of domain-wall fermions, at two lattice spacings and with pion masses down to 227 MeV. Three-point functions with a wide range of source-sink separations are used to extract the ground-state contributions. The form factors are e...

  6. Evolution and the complexity of bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serwer Philip

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genomes of both long-genome (> 200 Kb bacteriophages and long-genome eukaryotic viruses have cellular gene homologs whose selective advantage is not explained. These homologs add genomic and possibly biochemical complexity. Understanding their significance requires a definition of complexity that is more biochemically oriented than past empirically based definitions. Hypothesis Initially, I propose two biochemistry-oriented definitions of complexity: either decreased randomness or increased encoded information that does not serve immediate needs. Then, I make the assumption that these two definitions are equivalent. This assumption and recent data lead to the following four-part hypothesis that explains the presence of cellular gene homologs in long bacteriophage genomes and also provides a pathway for complexity increases in prokaryotic cells: (1 Prokaryotes underwent evolutionary increases in biochemical complexity after the eukaryote/prokaryote splits. (2 Some of the complexity increases occurred via multi-step, weak selection that was both protected from strong selection and accelerated by embedding evolving cellular genes in the genomes of bacteriophages and, presumably, also archaeal viruses (first tier selection. (3 The mechanisms for retaining cellular genes in viral genomes evolved under additional, longer-term selection that was stronger (second tier selection. (4 The second tier selection was based on increased access by prokaryotic cells to improved biochemical systems. This access was achieved when DNA transfer moved to prokaryotic cells both the more evolved genes and their more competitive and complex biochemical systems. Testing the hypothesis I propose testing this hypothesis by controlled evolution in microbial communities to (1 determine the effects of deleting individual cellular gene homologs on the growth and evolution of long genome bacteriophages and hosts, (2 find the environmental conditions that

  7. Observation of chi(cJ) decays to Lambda(Lambda)over-bar pi(+)pi(-)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ambrose, D. J.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; An, Z. H.; Bai, J. Z.; Ban, Y.; Becker, J.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bian, J. M.; Boger, E.; Bondarenko, O.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Bytev, V.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, Y. P.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; Ding, W. M.; Ding, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Feng, C. Q.; Ferroli, R. B.; Fu, C. D.; Fu, J. L.; Gao, Y.; Geng, C.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, Y. P.; Han, Y. L.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; He, M.; He, Z. Y.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y. P.; Hussain, T.; Ji, C. S.; Ji, Q.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. L.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Jing, F. F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kuehn, W.; Lai, W.; Lange, J. S.; Li, C. H.; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, Q. J.; Li, S. L.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, X. R.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Liao, X. T.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. L.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, C. Y.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H.; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, H. W.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, Kai; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, X. H.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lu, G. R.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Q. W.; Lu, X. R.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lv, M.; Ma, C. L.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, S.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. Y.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Malik, Q. A.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Min, T. J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Morales, C. Morales; Motzko, C.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nicholson, C.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Park, J. W.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prencipe, E.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Y.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Rong, G.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Schaefer, B. D.; Schulze, J.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shepherd, M. R.; Song, X. Y.; Spataro, S.; Spruck, B.; Sun, D. H.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Toth, D.; Ullrich, M.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, B. Q.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Q. J.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wei, D. H.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, Q. G.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, N.; Wu, S. X.; Wu, W.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L. G.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, G. M.; Xu, H.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Xu, Z. R.; Xue, F.; Xue, Z.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, H.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yu, S. P.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, S. H.; Zhang, X. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. S.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, H. S.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, K. X.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, X. H.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhu, C.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, X. W.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. M.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Werner, M.J.; Zheng, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Decays of the chi(cJ) states (J = 0, 1, 2) to Lambda(Lambda) over bar pi(+)pi(-), including processes with intermediate Sigma(1385), are studied through the E1 transition psi(1) -> gamma chi(cJ) using 106 x 10(6) psi(1) events collected with the BESIII detector at BEPCII. This is the first observati

  8. Asymmetries and observables for $\\Lambda_b\\rightarrow \\Lambda \\ell^+\\ell^-$

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Girish

    2015-01-01

    The semi-leptonic baryonic $b\\to s$ decay, $\\Lambda_b\\rightarrow \\Lambda \\ell^+\\ell^-$, has been studied and new angular observables and asymmetries have been proposed which can test the presence of new physics beyond the standard model.

  9. Measurement of the branching ratio $\\Gamma(\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\psi(2S)\\Lambda^0)/\\Gamma(\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi\\Lambda^0)$ with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    An observation of the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\psi(2S) \\Lambda^0$ decay and a comparison of its branching fraction with that of the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\Lambda^0$ decay has been made with the ATLAS detector in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8\\,$TeV at the LHC using an integrated luminosity of $20.6\\,$fb$^{-1}$. The $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi(2S)$ mesons are reconstructed in their decays to a muon pair, while the $\\Lambda^0\\rightarrow p\\pi^-$ decay is exploited for the $\\Lambda^0$ baryon reconstruction. The $\\Lambda_b^0$ baryons are reconstructed with transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}>10\\,$GeV and pseudorapidity $|\\eta|<2.1$. The measured branching ratio of the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\psi(2S) \\Lambda^0$ and $\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\Lambda^0$ decays is $\\Gamma(\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow \\psi(2S)\\Lambda^0)/\\Gamma(\\Lambda_b^0 \\rightarrow J/\\psi\\Lambda^0) = 0.501\\pm 0.033 ({\\rm stat})\\pm 0.019({\\rm syst})$, lower than the expectation from the covariant quark model.

  10. Possibility of \\Lambda\\Lambda pairing and its dependence on background density in relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model

    CERN Document Server

    Tanigawa, T; Chiba, S; Tanigawa, Tomonori; Matsuzaki, Masayuki; Chiba, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    We calculate a \\Lambda\\Lambda pairing gap in binary mixed matter of nucleons and \\Lambda hyperons within the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov model since a recent experiment suggests a weaker \\Lambda\\Lambda attraction than before, which has a significant impact on properties of neutron stars in various aspects. Lambda hyperons to be paired up are immersed in background nucleons in normal state. A phenomenological \\Lambda\\Lambda interaction, which is derived relativistically from the Lagrangian of the system, is adopted to the gap equation. It is found that at background density \\rho_{N}=2.5\\rho_{0} the \\Lambda\\Lambda pairing gap is very small, and that denser background makes it rapidly suppressed. This result suggests a mechanism, specific to mixed matter dealt with relativistic models, of its dependence on the nucleon density.

  11. Search for $\\bar{B}^0\\to\\Lambda_c^+\\Lambda_c^-$ decay at Belle

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Aihara, H; Arinstein, K; Aso, T; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Aziz, T; Bahinipati, S; Bakich, A M; Balagura, V; Ban, Y; Banerjee, S; Barberio, E; Bay, A; Bedny, I; Belous, K S; Bhardwaj, V; Bitenc, U; Blyth, S; Bondar, A; Bozek, A; Bracko, M; Brodzicka, J; Browder, T E; Chang, M C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, A; Chen, K F; Chen, W T; Cheon, B G; Chiang, C C; Chistov, R; Cho, I S; Choi, S K; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Cole, S; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Das, A; Dash, M; Dragic, J; Drutskoy, A; Eidelman, S; Epifanov, D; Fratina, S; Fujii, H; Fujikawa, M; Gabyshev, N; Garmash, A; Go, A; Gokhroo, G; Goldenzweig, P; Golob, B; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Guler, H; Ha, H; Haba, J; Hara, K; Hara, T; Hasegawa, Y; Hastings, N C; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hazumi, M; Heffernan, D; Higuchi, T; Hinz, L; Hoedlmoser, H; Hokuue, T; Horii, Y; Hoshi, Y; Hoshina, K; Hou, S; Hou, W S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Igarashi, Y; Iijima, T; Ikado, K; Inami, K; Ishikawa, A; Ishino, H; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, M; Iwasaki, Y; Jacoby, C; Joshi, N J; Kaga, M; Kah, D H; Kaji, H; Kajiwara, S; Kakuno, H; Kang, J H; Kapusta, P; Kataoka, S U; Katayama, N; Kawai, H; Kawasaki, T; Kibayashi, A; Kichimi, H; Kim, H J; Kim, H O; Kim, J H; Kim, S K; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Korpar, S; Kozakai, Y; Krizan, P; Krokovny, P; Kumar, R; Kurihara, E; Kusaka, A; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y J; Lange, J S; Leder, G; Lee, J; Lee, J S; Lee, M J; Lee, S E; Lesiak, T; Li, J; Limosani, A; Lin, S W; Liu, Y; Liventsev, D; MacNaughton, J; Majumder, G; Mandl, F; Marlow, D; Matsumura, T; Matyja, A; McOnie, S; Medvedeva, T; Mikami, Y; Mitaroff, W A; Miyabayashi, K; Miyake, H; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mizuk, R; Moloney, G R; Mori, T; Müller, J; Murakami, A; Nagamine, T; Nagasaka, Y; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, I; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Nakayama, H; Nakazawa, H; Natkaniec, Z; Neichi, K; Nishida, S; Nishimura, K; Nishio, Y; Nishizawa, I; Nitoh, O; Noguchi, S; Nozaki, T; Ogawa, A; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Okuno, S; Olsen, S L; Ono, S; Ostrowicz, W; Ozaki, H; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Palka, H; Park, C W; Park, H; Park, K S; Parslow, N; Peak, L S; Pernicka, M; Pestotnik, R; Peters, M; Piilonen, L E; Poluektov, A; Rorie, J; Rózanska, M; Sahoo, H; Sakai, Y; Sakamoto, H; Sakaue, H; Sarangi, T R; Satoyama, N; Sayeed, K; Schietinger, T; Schneider, O; Schonmeier, P; Schümann, J; Schwanda, C; Schwartz, A J; Seidl, R; Sekiya, A; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shang, L; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibuya, H; Shinomiya, S; Shiu, J G; Shwartz, B; Singh, J B; Sokolov, A; Solovieva, E; Somov, A; Stanic, S; Staric, M; Stypula, J; Sugiyama, A; Sumisawa, K; Sumiyoshi, T; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, S Y; Tajima, O; Takasaki, F; Tamai, K; Tamura, N; Tanaka, M; Taniguchi, N; Taylor, G N; Teramoto, Y; Tikhomirov, I; Trabelsi, K; Tse, Y F; Tsuboyama, T; Uchida, K; Uchida, Y; Uehara, S; Ueno, K; Uglov, T; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Urquijo, P; Ushiroda, Y; Usov, Yu; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Vervink, K; Villa, S; Vinokurova, A; Wang, C C; Wang, C H; Wang, J; Wang, M Z; Wang, P; Wang, X L; Watanabe, M; Watanabe, Y; Wedd, R; Wicht, J; Widhalm, L; Wiechczynski, J; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamaguchi, A; Yamamoto, H; Yamaoka, M; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Yuan, C Z; Yusa, Y; Zhang, C C; Zhang, L M; Zhang, Z P; Zhilich, V; Zhulanov, V; Zupanc, A; Zwahlen, N

    2007-01-01

    We search for the doubly charmed baryonic decay $\\bar{B}^0\\to\\Lambda_c^+\\Lambda_c^-$, in a data sample of 479 fb^{-1} accumulated at the $\\Upsilon(4S)$ resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric e^+e^- collider. We find no significant signal and set an upper limit of ${\\cal B}(\\bar{B}^0\\to\\Lambda_c^+\\Lambda_c^-)<6.2\\times10^{-5}$ at 90% confidence level. The result is significantly below a naive extrapolation from ${\\cal B}(B^-\\to\\Xi_c^0\\Lambda_c^)$ assuming a simple Cabibbo-suppression factor of $|V_{cd}/V_{cs}|^2$. The small branching fraction could be attributed to a suppression of the branching fraction due to the large Q value; a general trend observed in various charmed baryonic two-body B decays.

  12. Polarization observables in the $e^+ e^- \\rightarrow \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Lambda$ reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fäldt, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Cross-section, vector-polarization, and tensor-polarization distributions are calculated for the reactions $e^+ e^- \\rightarrow \\bar{p}p$ and $e^+ e^- \\rightarrow \\bar{\\Lambda} \\Lambda$. Each reaction requires six characteristic functions that are bilinear in the, possibly complex, electromagnetic form factors, denoted $G_E(P^2)$ and $G_M(P^2)$, of $p$ and $\\Lambda$. For the hyperon reaction also the joint-decay distributions of $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ are calculated. Their knowledge allow a complete determination of the hyperon electromagnetic form factors, without measuring hyperon spins. We explain how this is done in practice. For some tensor-polarization components our results are in conflict with previously repeatedly published distributions.

  13. Use of bacteriophages to control biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Sillankorva, Sanna

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica After several years of abandonment, the use of bacteriophages (phages) for killing bacteria has withdrawn recent attention and reappraisal. This has led to a vast phage research, in varied fields, with impressive outcomes and currently several studies are ongoing with animals, horticulture and agriculture products, and even with humans. Despite this enthusiasm, there is a lack of research conserning phage utilization to red...

  14. A new look at bacteriophage phylogenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Nóbrega, Franklin; Pinto, Graça; Azeredo, Joana; Kluskens, Leon

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophages or phages are viruses that only infect bacteria. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses classified these viruses in accordance with the morphology of their free virion particles and type and size of their genome. This system fails on the classification of several phages, which have their genome already sequenced. It also requires a morphological analysis by transmission electron microscopy, which is very expensive and time consuming [1]. In 2002 Rohwe...

  15. Long-circulating bacteriophage as antibacterial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    Merril, C.R.; B. Biswas; Carlton, R; Jensen, N C; Creed, G J; Zullo, S; Adhya, S

    1996-01-01

    The increased prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens motivated us to attempt to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of bacteriophages. The therapeutic application of phages as antibacterial agents was impeded by several factors: (i) the failure to recognize the relatively narrow host range of phages; (ii) the presence of toxins in crude phage lysates; and (iii) a lack of appreciation for the capacity of mammalian host defense systems, particularly the organs of the reticuloendothe...

  16. Bacteriophage biocontrol in animals and meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Atterbury, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Since their discovery almost a century ago, bacterial viruses (bacteriophages or ‘phages’) have been used to prevent and treat a multitude of bacterial infections (phage therapy: PT). In addition, they have been the basis for many advances in genetics and biochemistry. Phage therapy was performed on human subjects in the United States, Europe and Asia in the few decades following their discovery. However, Western countries largely abandoned PT in favour of antibiotics in the 1940s. Th...

  17. Bacteriophages for detection of bacterial pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The G. Eliava Institute of Bacteriophages, Microbiology and Virology (Tbilisi, Georgia) is one of the most famous institutions focused on bacteriophage research for the elaboration of appropriate phage methodologies for human and animal protection. The main direction of the institute is the study and production of bacteriophages against intestinal disorders (dysentery, typhoid, intesti) and purulent-septic infections (staphylococcus, streptococcus, pyophage, etc.). These preparations were successfully introduced during the Soviet era, and for decades were used throughout the former Soviet Union and in other Socialist countries for the treatment, prophylaxis, and diagnosis of various infectious diseases, including those caused by antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. Bacteriophages were widely used for identifying and detecting infections caused by the most dangerous pathogens and causative agents of epidemiological outbreaks. The specific topic of this presentation is the phage typing of bacterial species, which can be an important method for epidemiological diagnostics. Together with different genetic methodologies - such as PCR-based methods, PFGE, plasmid fingerprinting, and ribosomal typing - phage typing is one method for identifying bacterial pathogens. The method has a high percentage of determination of phage types, high specificity of reaction, and is easy for interpretation and use by health workers. Phage typing was applied for inter-species differentiation of different species of Salmonella, S. typhi, Brucella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, E. col,i Clostridium deficile, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia pestis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Lysteria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, plant pathogens, and other bacterial pathogens. In addition to addressing the utility and efficacy of phage typing, the paper will discuss the isolation and selection of diagnostic typing phages for interspecies differentiation of pathogens that is necessary

  18. Bacteriophages and bacteriophage-derived endolysins as potential therapeutics to combat Gram-positive spore forming bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonieczna, A; Cooper, C J; Gryko, R

    2015-09-01

    Since their discovery in 1915, bacteriophages have been routinely used within Eastern Europe to treat a variety of bacterial infections. Although initially ignored by the West due to the success of antibiotics, increasing levels and diversity of antibiotic resistance is driving a renaissance for bacteriophage-derived therapy, which is in part due to the highly specific nature of bacteriophages as well as their relative abundance. This review focuses on the bacteriophages and derived lysins of relevant Gram-positive spore formers within the Bacillus cereus group and Clostridium genus that could have applications within the medical, food and environmental sectors. PMID:26109320

  19. Global analysis of host response to induction of a latent bacteriophage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keasling Jay D

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition from viral latency to lytic growth involves complex interactions among host and viral factors, and the extent to which host physiology is buffered from the virus during induction of lysis is not known. A reasonable hypothesis is that the virus should be evolutionarily selected to ensure host health throughout induction to minimize its chance of reproductive failure. To address this question, we collected transcriptional profiles of Escherichia coli and bacteriophage lambda throughout lysogenic induction by UV light. Results We observed a temporally coordinated program of phage gene expression, with distinct early, middle and late transcriptional classes. Our study confirmed known host-phage interactions of induction of the heat shock regulon, escape replication, and suppression of genes involved in cell division and initiation of replication. We identified 728 E. coli genes responsive to prophage induction, which included pleiotropic stress response pathways, the Arc and Cpx regulons, and global regulators crp and lrp. Several hundred genes involved in central metabolism, energy metabolism, translation and transport were down-regulated late in induction. Though statistically significant, most of the changes in these genes were mild, with only 140 genes showing greater than two-fold change. Conclusion Overall, we observe that prophage induction has a surprisingly low impact on host physiology. This study provides the first global dynamic picture of how host processes respond to lambda phage induction.

  20. Genetically modified bacteriophages in applied microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bárdy, P; Pantůček, R; Benešík, M; Doškař, J

    2016-09-01

    Bacteriophages represent a simple viral model of basic research with many possibilities for practical application. Due to their ability to infect and kill bacteria, their potential in the treatment of bacterial infection has been examined since their discovery. With advances in molecular biology and gene engineering, the phage application spectrum has been expanded to various medical and biotechnological fields. The construction of bacteriophages with an extended host range or longer viability in the mammalian bloodstream enhances their potential as an alternative to conventional antibiotic treatment. Insertion of active depolymerase genes to their genomes can enforce the biofilm disposal. They can also be engineered to transfer various compounds to the eukaryotic organisms and the bacterial culture, applicable for the vaccine, drug or gene delivery. Phage recombinant lytic enzymes can be applied as enzybiotics in medicine as well as in biotechnology for pathogen detection or programmed cell death in bacterial expression strains. Besides, modified bacteriophages with high specificity can be applied as bioprobes in detection tools to estimate the presence of pathogens in food industry, or utilized in the control of food-borne pathogens as part of the constructed phage-based biosorbents. PMID:27321680

  1. Measurements of $\\Lambda^+_c$ Branching Fractions of Cabibbo-Suppressed Decay Modes involving $\\Lambda$ and $\\Sigma^{0}$

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, B; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, Roy; Allen, M T; Allison, J; Allmendinger, T; Altenburg, D; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Arnaud, N; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M; Back, J J; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, S; Barate, R; Bard, D J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Barrett, M; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Battaglia, M; Bauer, J M; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Benelli, G; Berger, N; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bhuyan, B; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Biesiada, J; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P C; Blount, N L; Bomben, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyarski, A M; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandenburg, G; Brandt, T; Brau, J E; Breon, A B; Brose, J; Brown, C L; Brown, C M; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Buchmüller, O L; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Bula, R; Bulten, H; Burchat, P R; Burke, J P; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Bóna, M; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Capra, R; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Cenci, R; Chai, X; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Chao, M; Charles, E; Charles, M J; Chauveau, J; Chavez, C A; Chen, A; Chen, C; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Cheng, C H; Chia, Y M; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Claus, R; Cochran, J; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Cossutti, F; Cottingham, W N; Couderc, F; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L; Cristinziani, M; Cunha, A; Curry, S; Côté, D; D'Orazio, A; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; Day, C T; De Groot, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; De Sangro, R; Del Buono, L; Del Re, D; Della Ricca, G; Di Lodovico, F; Di Marco, E; Dickopp, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dittongo, S; Dong, D; Dong, L; Dorfan, J; Druzhinin, V P; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Eckhart, E A; Eckmann, R; Edgar, C L; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eichenbaum, A M; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Eyges, V; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Fan, S; Feltresi, E; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flacco, C J; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K E; Ford, W T; Forster, I J; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Foulkes, S D; Franek, B; Frey, R; Fritsch, M; Fry, J R; Fulsom, B G; Gabathuler, E; Gaidot, A; Gaillard, J R; Galeazzi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gary, J W; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; George, K A; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Giroux, X; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Goetzen, K; Golubev, V B; Gopal, G P; Gowdy, S J; Gradl, W; Graham, M T; Grancagnolo, S; Graugès-Pous, E; Graziani, G; Green, M G; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Q H; Hadavand, H K; Hadig, T; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamano, K; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hartfiel, B L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hill, E J; Hirschauer, J F; Hitlin, D G; Hodgkinson, M C; Hollar, J J; Hong, T M; Honscheid, K; Hopkins, D A; Hrynóva, T; Hufnagel, D; Hulsbergen, W D; Hutchcroft, D E; Höcker, A; Igonkina, O; Innes, W R; Izen, J M; Jackson, P D; Jackson, P S; Jacobsen, R G; Jawahery, A; Jessop, C P; John, M J J; Johnson, J R; Judd, D; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kelly, M P; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Kitayama, I; Klose, V; Knecht, N S; Koch, H; Kocian, M L; Koeneke, K; Kofler, R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kravchenko, E A; Kreisel, A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kroseberg, J; Kukartsev, G; Kutter, P E; Kyberd, P; La Vaissière, C de; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Langenegger, U; Lankford, A J; Latham, T E; Latour, E; Lau, Y P; Lazzaro, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Lewandowski, B; Li Gioi, L; Li, H; Li, X; Libby, J; Lista, L; Liu, R; Lo Vetere, M; LoSecco, J M; Lockman, W S; Lombardo, V; London, G W; Long, O; Lou, X C; Lu, M; Luitz, S; Lund, P; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lü, C; Lüth, V; MacFarlane, D B; Macri, M M; Mader, W F; Majewski, S A; Malcles, J; Mallik, U; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marks, J; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mayer, B; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Meadows, B T; Mellado, B; Menges, W; Messner, R; Meyer, W T; Mihályi, A; Minamora, J S; Mir, L M; Mohanty, G B; Mohapatra, A K; Mommsen, R K; Monge, M R; Monorchio, D; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morgan, S E; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Naisbit, M T; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nesom, G; Nicholson, H; Nikolich, M B; Nogowski, R; Nugent, I M; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Oddone, P J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Otto, S; Oyanguren, A; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Pacetti, S; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, Y; Panduro-Vazquez, W; Panetta, J; Panvini, R S; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Pappagallo, M; Parry, R J; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Peters, K; Petersen, B A; Petersen, T C; Petzold, A; Piatenko, T; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Pioppi, M; Piredda, G; Plaszczynski, S; Playfer, S; Poireau, V; Polci, F; Pompili, A; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rahimi, A M; Rahmat, R; Rama, M; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Reidy, J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roat, C; Roberts, D A; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Rodier, S; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Roudeau, P; Rubin, A E; Ruddick, W O; Ryd, A; Röthel, W; Sacco, R; Saeed, M A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Samuel, A; Sanders, D A; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Satpathy, A; Schalk, T; Schenk, S; Schindler, R H; Schofield, K C; Schott, G; Schrenk, S; Schröder, T; Schröder, H; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Sharma, V; Shen, B C; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snoek, H L; Snyder, A; Sobie, R J; Soffer, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Spitznagel, M; Spradlin, P; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stocchi, A; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stängle, H; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Sundermann, J E; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Tan, P; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Telnov, A V; Teodorescu, L; Ter-Antonian, R; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, J M; Tisserand, V; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Ulmer, K A; Uwer, U; Van Bakel, N; Vasileiadis, G; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Verderi, M; Verkerke, W; Viaud, F B; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walsh, J; Wang, K; Wang, P; Wang, W F; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Weaver, M; Weidemann, A W; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Willocq, S Y; Wilson, F F; Wilson, J R; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Xie, Y; Yamamoto, R K; Yarritu, A K; Ye, S; Yi, J I; Yi, K; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yushkov, A N; Yéche, C; Zain, S B; Zallo, A; Zeng, Q; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Ziegler, V; Zito, M; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T

    2007-01-01

    We measure the branching ratios of the Cabibbo-suppressed decays $\\Lambda^+_c$ $\\to$ $\\Lambda$ $K^+$ and $\\Lambda^+_c$ $\\to$ $\\Sigma^{0}$ $K^+$ %(measured with improved accuracy). relative to the Cabibbo-favored decay modes $\\Lambda^+_c$ $\\to$ $\\Lambda$ $\\pi^+$ and $\\Lambda^+_c$ $\\to$ $\\Sigma^{0}$ $\\pi^+$ to be $ 0.044 \\pm 0.004 ~(\\textnormal{stat.})~ \\pm ~0.003 \\~(\\textnormal{syst.})$ and $ 0.039~ \\pm ~0.005 ~(\\textnormal{stat.})~ \\pm \\~0.003 ~(\\textnormal{syst.})$, respectively. We set an upper limit on the branching ratio at 90 % confidence level for $\\Lambda^+_c$ $\\to$ $\\Lambda$ $K^+ \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ to be $ 4.1 \\times ~10^{-2}$ relative to $\\Lambda^+_c$ $\\to$ $\\Lambda$ $\\pi^+$ and for $\\Lambda^+_c$ $\\to$ $\\Sigma^{0}$ $K^+ \\pi^+ \\pi^-$ to be $ 2.0 \\times ~10^{-2}$ relative to $\\Lambda^+_c$ $\\to$ $\\Sigma^{0}$ $\\pi^+$. We also measure the branching fraction for the Cabibbo-favored mode $\\Lambda^+_c$ $\\to$ $\\Sigma^{0}$ $\\pi^+$ relative to $\\Lambda^+_c$ $\\to$ $\\Lambda$ $\\pi^+$ to be $0.977~ \\pm ~0.015 ~(\\textnorm...

  2. Call for a dedicated European legal framework for bacteriophage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeken, Gilbert; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Lavigne, Rob; Jennes, Serge; De Vos, Daniel; Casteels, Minne; Huys, Isabelle

    2014-04-01

    The worldwide emergence of antibiotic resistances and the drying up of the antibiotic pipeline have spurred a search for alternative or complementary antibacterial therapies. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that have been used for almost a century to combat bacterial infections, particularly in Poland and the former Soviet Union. The antibiotic crisis has triggered a renewed clinical and agricultural interest in bacteriophages. This, combined with new scientific insights, has pushed bacteriophages to the forefront of the search for new approaches to fighting bacterial infections. But before bacteriophage therapy can be introduced into clinical practice in the European Union, several challenges must be overcome. One of these is the conceptualization and classification of bacteriophage therapy itself and the extent to which it constitutes a human medicinal product regulated under the European Human Code for Medicines (Directive 2001/83/EC). Can therapeutic products containing natural bacteriophages be categorized under the current European regulatory framework, or should this framework be adapted? Various actors in the field have discussed the need for an adapted (or entirely new) regulatory framework for the reintroduction of bacteriophage therapy in Europe. This led to the identification of several characteristics specific to natural bacteriophages that should be taken into consideration by regulators when evaluating bacteriophage therapy. One important consideration is whether bacteriophage therapy development occurs on an industrial scale or a hospital-based, patient-specific scale. More suitable regulatory standards may create opportunities to improve insights into this promising therapeutic approach. In light of this, we argue for the creation of a new, dedicated European regulatory framework for bacteriophage therapy. PMID:24500660

  3. Neutron hole states in /sup 6//sub Lambda /Li, /sup 7//sub Lambda /Li, /sup 9//sub Lambda /Be and /sup 12//sub Lambda /C hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Bertini, R; Birien, P; Braune, K; Brückner, W; Chaumeaux, A; Faessler, M A; Frey, R W; Garreta, D; Ketel, T; Kilian, K; Mayer, B; Niewisch, J; Pietrzyk, B; Povh, B; Ritter, H G; Uhrmacher, M

    1981-01-01

    Neutron hole states in the 1s shell have been studied in the n(K/sup - /, pi /sup -/) Lambda strangeness-exchange reaction on /sup 6/Li, /sup 7/Li, /sup 9/Be, and /sup 12/C targets at the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The excitation energy and the width of the states as well as the differential cross section have been determined. The clear similarity with the 1s proton hole states observed in (p,2p) reactions indicates that the presence of the Lambda -particle can be taken into account within the weak-coupling model. In this way the (K/sup -/, pi /sup -/) reaction can be used for the study of Lambda -states as well as for the investigation of neutron hole states produced at very low momentum transfer. (22 refs).

  4. Inhomogeneity of the $\\Lambda$LTB models

    CERN Document Server

    Sundell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Lema\\'itre-Toman-Bondi (LTB) models have reported to suffer from incompatibility with cosmological observations and fine-tuning of the observer's location. Further analysis of these issues indicates that they could be resolved by models that are compatible with the supernova Ia data, but less inhomogeneous than those that have been presented in the literature so far. We study if such models exist by employing the degrees of freedom of the LTB models in a novel manner. We discovered two scenarios which may meet the expectations, but extensive numerical and analytical investigation showed them inviable. We extended our studies to the $\\Lambda$LTB models, which generalizes the LTB models by including a non-zero cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ in Einsteins equations. This adds an additional degree of freedom for the earlier scenarios and introduces a new scenario capable of meeting the expectations. However, extensive numerical and analytical investigation reveals that inclusion of $\\Lambda$ does not enhance ...

  5. Nearest lambda_q-multiple fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Dieter; Mühlenbruch, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the nearest lambda_q--multiple continued fractions and their duals for lambda_q = 2 cos(pi/q) which are closely related to the Hecke triangle groups G_q, q=3,4,... . They have been introduced in the case q=3 by Hurwitz and for even q by Nakada. These continued fractions are generated by interval maps f_q respectively f_q^* which are conjugate to subshifts over infinite alphabets. We generalize to arbitrary q a result of Hurwitz concerning the G_q-- and f_q-equivalence of points on ...

  6. Complete Genome Sequences of Five Paenibacillus larvae Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheflo, Michael A; Gardner, Adam V; Merrill, Bryan D; Fisher, Joshua N B; Lunt, Bryce L; Breakwell, Donald P; Grose, Julianne H; Burnett, Sandra H

    2013-01-01

    Paenibacillus larvae is a pathogen of honeybees that causes American foulbrood (AFB). We isolated bacteriophages from soil containing bee debris collected near beehives in Utah. We announce five high-quality complete genome sequences, which represent the first completed genome sequences submitted to GenBank for any P. larvae bacteriophage. PMID:24233582

  7. Measurement of the mass of the $\\Lambda_{b}$ baryon

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Palla, Fabrizio; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Wildish, T; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Büscher, V; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    In a data sample of four million hadronic \\Z\\ decays collected with the ALEPH detector at LEP, four $\\Lambda_b$ baryon candidates are exclusively reconstructed in the $\\Lambda_b \\rightarrow \\Lambda_c^+ \\pi^-$ channel, with the $\\Lambda_c^+$ decaying into $pK^-\\pi^+$, $p\\bar{K^0}$, or $\\Lambda\\pi^+\\pi^+\\pi^-$. The probability of the observed signal to be due to a background fluctuation is estimated to be $4.2 \\times 10^{-4}$. The mass of the $\\Lambda_b$ is measured to be $5614 \\pm 21 \\, (stat.) \\pm 4 \\, (syst.)~\\mevcc$. %$5614\\pm 21\\,(stat.) \\pm 4\\,(syst.) \\mevcc$.

  8. Container structure of alpha alpha Lambda clusters in $_\\Lambda^9$Be

    OpenAIRE

    Funaki, Y.; T. Yamada; Hiyama, E.; Zhou, B.; Ikeda, K.

    2014-01-01

    New concept of clustering is discussed in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei using a new-type microscopic cluster model wave function, which has a structure that constituent clusters are confined in a container, whose size is a variational parameter and which we refer to as Hyper-Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-R\\"opke (Hyper-THSR) wave function. By using the Hyper-THSR wave function, $2\\alpha + \\Lambda$ cluster structure in ${^{9}_\\Lambda{\\rm Be}}$ is investigated. We show that full microscopic solutions in the ...

  9. Lambda Oscillations and the Conservation Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Widom, A.; Srivastava, Y.N.

    1996-01-01

    Lowe, Bassalleck, Burkhardt, Rusek, Stephenson, and Goldman assert, under the assumption of decays at fixed space-time points, that Kaon induced Lambda oscillations disappear. We find, under the same assumption, that energy conservation and momentum conservation also disappear. Ordinary particles can exhibit quantum oscillations.

  10. Faddeev calculation of 6 He Lambda Lambda using SU_6 quark-model baryon-baryon interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Miyagawa, K; Suzuki, Y; Sparenberg, J M

    2004-01-01

    Quark-model hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-hyperon interactions by the Kyoto-Niigata group are applied to the two-Lambda plus alpha system in a new three-cluster Faddeev formalism using two-cluster resonating-group method kernels. The model fss2 gives a reasonable two-Lambda separation energy Delta B_{Lambda Lambda}=1.41 MeV, which is consistent with the recent empirical value, Delta B^{exp}_{Lambda Lambda}=1.01 +/- 0.20 MeV, deduced from the Nagara event. Some important effects that are not taken into account in the present calculation are discussed.

  11. Observations of $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to \\Lambda K^+\\pi^-$ and $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to \\Lambda K^+K^-$ decays and searches for other $\\Lambda_b^0$ and $\\Xi_b^0$ decays to $\\Lambda h^+h^{\\prime -}$ final states

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    A search is performed for the charmless three-body decays of the $\\Lambda_b^0$ and $\\Xi_b^0$ baryons to the final states $\\Lambda h^+h^{\\prime -}$, where $h^{(\\prime)} = \\pi$ or $K$. The analysis is based on a data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3 \\rm fb^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions, collected by the LHCb experiment. The $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to \\Lambda K^+\\pi^-$ and $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to \\Lambda K^+K^-$ decays are observed for the first time and their branching fractions and $CP$ asymmetry parameters are measured. Evidence is seen for the $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to \\Lambda \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decay and limits are set on the branching fractions of $\\Xi_b^0$ baryon decays to the $\\Lambda h^+h^{\\prime -}$ final states.

  12. Measurement of K{sup 0}{sub S}, {lambda} and anti {lambda} production at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2006-12-15

    The production of the neutral strange hadrons K{sup 0}{sub S}, {lambda} and anti {lambda} has been measured in ep collisions at HERA using the ZEUS detector. Cross sections, baryon-to-meson ratios, relative yields of strange and charged light hadrons, {lambda} (anti {lambda}) asymmetry and polarization have been measured in three kinematic regions: Q{sup 2}>25 GeV{sup 2}; 5

  13. A Study of Parton Fragmentation in Hadronic $Z^{0}$ Decays Using $\\Lambda \\overline\\Lambda$ Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bird, S D; Blobel, Volker; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bobinski, M; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Burgard, C; Bürgin, R; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; del Pozo, L A; de Roeck, A; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Eatough, D; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Evans, H G; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fleck, I; Folman, R; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon, J; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Harder, K; Hargrove, C K; Hartmann, C; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hillier, S J; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Klier, A; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Koetke, D S; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lautenschlager, S R; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lazic, D; Lee, A M; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mader, W F; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Markopoulos, C; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menke, S; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, J; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mir, R; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nellen, B; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pálinkás, J; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharf, F; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, B; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, R E; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Surrow, B; Talbot, S D; Tanaka, S; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomson, M A; Von Törne, E; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turcot, A S; Turner-Watson, M F; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Yekutieli, G; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    2000-01-01

    The correlated production of Lambda and Lambdabar baryons has been studied using 4.3 million multihadronic Zo decays recorded with the OPAL detector at LEP. Di-lambda pairs were investigated in the full data sample and for the first time also in 2-jet and 3-jet events selected with the k_t algorithm. The distributions of rapidity differences from correlated Lambda-Lambdabar pairs exhibit short-range, local correlations and prove to be a sensitive tool to test models, particularly for 2-jet events. The JETSET model describes the data best but some extra parameter tuning is needed to improve agreement with the experimental results in the rates and the rapidity spectra simultaneously. The recently developed modification of JETSET, the MOdified Popcorn Scenarium (MOPS), and also HERWIG do not give satisfactory results. This study of di-lambda production in 2- and 3-jet events supports the short-range compensation of quantum numbers.

  14. $K^0 \\Lambda$ and $D^- \\Lambda_c^+$ production induced by pion beams off the nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang-Ho; Hosaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    We present a comparative study of the pion induced production of $K^0 \\Lambda$ and $D^- \\Lambda_c^+$ off the nucleon. A hybrid framework is utilized by combining an effective Lagrangian method with a Regge approach. We consider the $t$-channel process in a plannar diagram by vector-meson Reggeon exchanges and the $u$-channel one in a non-planar diagram by baryon Reggeon exchanges. The present model reproduces the $K^0 \\Lambda$ production data well with a few parameters. Having fixed them, we predict the $D^- \\Lambda_c^+$ production, which turns out to be about $10^4-10^6$ times smaller than the strangeness one, depending on the kinematical regions.

  15. Lambda_b -> Lambda l+ l- decay within family non-universal Z' model

    OpenAIRE

    Aliev, T. M.; Savci, M.

    2012-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the rare "Lambda_b -> Lambda l+ l-" decay in the framework of family non-universal Z' model. It is shown that Z' gives considerable contribution to the decay width. Zero positions of the forward-backward asymmetry and alpha_theta parameter are shifted to the left compared to the Standard Model result. The obtained results could be tested in near future at LHC-b.

  16. Study of the decay asymmetry parameter and CP violation parameter in the Lambda(c)+ ---> Lambda pi+ decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, J.M.; Yager, P.M.; /UC, Davis; Anjos, J.C.; Bediaga, I.; Castromonte, C.; Machado, A.A.; Magnin, J.; Massafferri, A.; de Miranda, J.M.; Pepe, I.M.; Polycarpo, E.; dos Reis, A.C.; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF; Carrillo, S.; Casimiro, E.; Cuautle, E.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Uribe, C.; Vazquez, F.; /CINVESTAV, IPN; Agostino, L.; Cinquini, L.; Cumalat,; /Colorado U. /Fermilab /Frascati /Guanajuato U. /Illinois U., Urbana /Indiana U. /Korea U. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /North Carolina U. /Pavia U. /INFN,

    2005-09-01

    Using data from the FOCUS (E831) experiment at Fermilab, we present a new measurement of the weak decay-asymmetry parameter a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} in {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} {Lambda}{pi}{sup +} decay. Comparing particle with antiparticle decays, we obtain the first measurement of the CP violation parameter {Alpha} {triple_bond} a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} + a{sub {ovr {Lambda}{sub c}}}/a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} - a{sub {ovr {Lambda}{sub c}}}. We obtain a{sub {Lambda}{sub c}} = -0.78 {+-} 0.16 {+-} 0.13 and {Alpha} = -0.07 {+-} 0.19 {+-} 0.12 where errors are statistical and systematic.

  17. Measurement of the Branching Fraction and Lambda-bar Polarization in B0 -> Lambda-par p pi-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, B.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Prencipe, E.; Prudent, X.; Tisserand, V.; /Annecy, LAPP; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; /Barcelona U., ECM; Martinelli, M.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; /INFN, Bari /Bari U.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Sun, L.; /Bergen U.; Battaglia, M.; Brown, D.N.; Kerth, L.T.; Kolomensky, Yu.G.; Lynch, G.; Osipenkov, I.L.; /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /INFN, Ferrara /Ferrara U. /Frascati /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /INFN, Genoa /Genoa U. /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Humboldt U., Berlin /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Mainz U., Inst. Kernphys. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /INFN, Milan /Milan U. /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /INFN, Naples /Naples U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Princeton U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /SLAC /South Carolina U. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tel Aviv U. /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /INFN, Turin /Turin U. /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U. /Valencia U., IFIC /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2009-08-03

    We present a measurement of the B{sup 0} {yields} {bar {Lambda}}p{pi}{sup -} branching fraction performed using the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. Based on a sample of 467 x 10{sup 6} B{bar B} pairs we measure {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {bar {Lambda}}p{pi}{sup -}) [3.07 {+-} 0.31(stat.) {+-} 0.23(syst.)] x 10{sup -6}. The measured differential spectrum as a function of the dibaryon invariant mass m({bar {Lambda}}p) shows a near-threshold enhancement similar to that observed in other baryonic B decays. We study the {bar {Lambda}} polarization as a function of {bar {Lambda}} energy in the B{sup 0} rest frame (E*{sub {bar {Lambda}}}) and compare it with theoretical expectations of fully longitudinally right-polarized {bar {Lambda}} at large E*{sub {bar {Lambda}}}.

  18. Immuno compatibility of Bacteriophages as Nano medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacteriophage-based medical research provides the opportunity to develop targeted nano medicines with heightened efficiency and safety profiles. Filamentous phages also can and have been formulated as targeted drug-delivery nano medicines, and phage may also serve as promising alternatives/complements to antibiotics. Over the past decade the use of phage for both the prophylaxis and the treatment of bacterial infection, has gained special significance in view of a dramatic rise in the prevalence of antibiotic resistance bacterial strains. Two potential medical applications of phages are the treatment of bacterial infections and their use as immunizing agents in diagnosis and monitoring patients with immunodeficiencies. Recently, phages have been employed as gene-delivery vectors (phage nano medicine), for nearly half a century as tools in genetic research, for about two decades as tools for the discovery of specific target-binding proteins and peptides, and for almost a decade as tools for vaccine development. As phage applications to human therapeutic development grow at an exponential rate, it will become essential to evaluate host immune responses to initial and repetitive challenges by therapeutic phage in order to develop phage therapies that offer suitable utility. This paper examines and discusses phage nano medicine applications and the immunomodulatory effects of bacteriophage exposure and treatment modalities.

  19. Bacteriophage recombination systems and biotechnical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafissi, Nafiseh; Slavcev, Roderick

    2014-04-01

    Bacteriophage recombination systems have been widely used in biotechnology for modifying prokaryotic species, for creating transgenic animals and plants, and more recently, for human cell gene manipulation. In contrast to homologous recombination, which benefits from the endogenous recombination machinery of the cell, site-specific recombination requires an exogenous source of recombinase in mammalian cells. The mechanism of bacteriophage evolution and their coexistence with bacterial cells has become a point of interest ever since bacterial viruses' life cycles were first explored. Phage recombinases have already been exploited as valuable genetic tools and new phage enzymes, and their potential application to genetic engineering and genome manipulation, vectorology, and generation of new transgene delivery vectors, and cell therapy are attractive areas of research that continue to be investigated. The significance and role of phage recombination systems in biotechnology is reviewed in this paper, with specific focus on homologous and site-specific recombination conferred by the coli phages, λ, and N15, the integrase from the Streptomyces phage, ΦC31, the recombination system of phage P1, and the recently characterized recombination functions of Yersinia phage, PY54. Key steps of the molecular mechanisms involving phage recombination functions and their application to molecular engineering, our novel exploitations of the PY54-derived recombination system, and its application to the development of new DNA vectors are discussed. PMID:24442504

  20. The lambda-mu-T-calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Geuvers, Herman; McKinna, James

    2012-01-01

    Calculi with control operators have been studied as extensions of simple type theory. Real programming languages contain datatypes, so to really understand control operators, one should also include these in the calculus. As a first step in that direction, we introduce lambda-mu-T, a combination of Parigot's lambda-mu-calculus and G\\"odel's T, to extend a calculus with control operators with a datatype of natural numbers with a primitive recursor. We consider the problem of confluence on raw terms, and that of strong normalization for the well-typed terms. Observing some problems with extending the proofs of Baba at al. and Parigot's original confluence proof, we provide new, and improved, proofs of confluence (by complete developments) and strong normalization (by reducibility and a postponement argument) for our system. We conclude with some remarks about extensions, choices, and prospects for an improved presentation.

  1. Recovery of phage lambda from ultraviolet damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recovery of phage lambda from ultraviolet damage can occur, in the dark, through three types of repair processes as defined by microbiological tests: host-cell reactivation, prophage reactivation, and uv reactivation. This paper reviews the properties of the three repair processes, analyzes their dependence on the functioning of bacterial and phage genes, and discusses their relationship. Progress in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the three repair processes has been relatively slow, particularly for uv reactivation. It has been shown that host-cell reactivation is due to pyrimidine dimer excision and that prophage reactivation is due to genetic recombination (prereplicative). We provide evidence showing that neither of these mechanisms accounts for uv reactivation of phage lambda. Furthermore, uv reactivation differs from the other repair processes in that it is inducible and error-prone. Whether uv-damaged bacterial DNA is subject to a similar repair process is still an open question

  2. The lambda calculus its syntax and semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Barendregt, Hendrick Pieter

    1984-01-01

    The revised edition contains a new chapter which provides an elegant description of the semantics. The various classes of lambda calculus models are described in a uniform manner. Some didactical improvements have been made to this edition. An example of a simple model is given and then the general theory (of categorical models) is developed. Indications are given of those parts of the book which can be used to form a coherent course.

  3. Measurement of $\\Lambda_{b}$ polarization in Z decays

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    The \\Lambda_{\\mathrm{b}} polarization in hadronic \\mathrm{Z} decays is measured in semileptonic decays from the average energies of the charged lepton and the neutrino. In a data sample of approximately 3 million hadronic \\mathrm{Z} decays collected by the ALEPH detector at LEP between 1991 and 1994, 462\\pm 31 \\Lambda_{\\mathrm{b}} candidates are selected using (\\Lambda \\pi^+)--lepton correlations. From this event sample, the \\Lambda_{\\m athrm{b}} polarization is measured to be \\cal P_{\\Lambda_{\\mathrm{b}}}=-0.23^{+0.24}_{-0.20}(\\m athrm{stat}.)^{+0.08}_{-0.07} (\\mathrm{syst.})\\,.

  4. Asymptotic behaviour of electro-$\\Lambda$ spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Saw, Vee-Liem

    2016-01-01

    We derive the asymptotic solutions for vacuum spacetimes with non-zero cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ coupled to Maxwell fields, using the Newman-Penrose formalism. This extends a recent work that dealt with the vacuum Einstein (Newman-Penrose) equations with $\\Lambda=0$. Using these asymptotic solutions, we discuss the mass-loss of an isolated electro-gravitating system with cosmological constant. In a universe with $\\Lambda>0$, the physics of electromagnetic (EM) radiation is relatively straightforward compared to those of gravitational radiation: 1) It is clear that outgoing EM radiation results in a decrease to the Bondi mass of the isolated system. 2) It is also perspicuous that if any incoming EM radiation from elsewhere is present, those beyond the isolated system's cosmological horizon would eventually arrive at the spacelike $\\mathcal{I}$ and increase the Bondi mass of the isolated system. Hence, the (outgoing and incoming) EM radiation fields do not couple with the Bondi mass-loss formula in any un...

  5. Spectroscopy of Lambda-9Li by electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Urciuoli, G M; Marrone, S; Acha, A; Ambrozewicz, P; Aniol, K A; Baturin, P; Bertin, P Y; Benaoum, H; Blomqvist, K I; Boeglin, W U; Breuer, H; Brindza, P; Bydzovsky, P; Camsonne, A; Chang, C C; Chen, J -P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E A; Cisbani, E; Colilli, S; Coman, L; Craver, B J; De Cataldo, G; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deur, A P; Ferdi, C; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Giuliani, F; Gomez, J; Gricia, M; Hansen, J O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T K; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L J; Kino, K; Kross, B; Lagamba, L; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Lucentini, M; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R W; Millener, D J; Miyoshi, T; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P A; Moteabbed, M; Camacho, C Munoz; Nanda, S; Nappi, E; Nelyubin, V V; Norum, B E; Okasyasu, Y; Paschke, K D; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Punjabi, V A; Qiang, Y; Reimer, P E; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Roche, R E; Rodriguez, V M; Saha, A; Santavenere, F; Sarty, A J; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Singh, J; Sirca, S; Snyder, R; Solvignon, P H; Sotona, M; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V A; Suzuki, T; Ueno, H; Ulmer, P E; Veneroni, P; Voutier, E; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Zheng, X; Zorn, C

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of accurate data on the free two-body hyperon-nucleon interaction, the spectra of hypernuclei can provide information on the details of the effective hyperon-nucleon interaction. Electroproduction of the hypernucleus Lambda-9Li has been studied for the first time with sub-MeV energy resolution in Hall A at Jefferson Lab on a 9Be target. In order to increase the counting rate and to provide unambiguous kaon identification, two superconducting septum magnets and a Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH) were added to the Hall A standard equipment. The cross section to low-lying states of Lambda-9Li is concentrated within 3 MeV of the ground state and can be fitted with four peaks. The positions of the doublets agree with theory while a disagreement could exist with respect to the relative strengths of the peaks in the doublets. A Lambda separation energy of 8.36 +- 0.08 (stat.) +- 0.08 (syst.) MeV was measured, in agreement with an earlier experiment.

  6. $\\Lambda_c-N$ interaction from lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Takaya

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the s-wave $\\Lambda_c-N$ interaction for spin singlet systems($^1S_0$) using the HAL QCD method. In our lattice QCD simulations, we employ gauge configurations generated by the PACS-CS Collaboration at $a = 0.0907(13)$ fm on a $32^3 \\times 64$ lattice ($La = 2.902(42)$ fm). We employ two ensembles, one at $m_\\pi = 700(1)$ MeV and the other at $m_\\pi = 570(1)$ MeV to study the quark mass dependence of the $\\Lambda_c-N$ interactions. We calculate a $^1S_0$ central potential not only for the $\\Lambda_c-N$ system but also for $\\Lambda-N$ system to understand the role of heavy charm quarks in $\\Lambda_c-N$ system. We find repulsion at short distance and attraction at mid-range for both the $\\Lambda_c-N$ and the $\\Lambda-N$ potentials. The short range repulsion of the $\\Lambda_c-N$ potential is smaller than that of the $\\Lambda-N$ potential, and the attraction of the $\\Lambda_c-N$ potential is small compared with the $\\Lambda-N$ potential. The phase shift and scattering length calculated with these p...

  7. Rare baryon decays Lambda_b -> Lambda l+ l- (l=e, mu, tau) and Lambda_b -> Lambda gamma : differential and total rates, lepton- and hadron-side forward-backward asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Gutsche, Thomas; Korner, Jurgen G; Lyubovitskij, Valery E; Santorelli, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Using the covariant constituent quark model previously developed by us we calculate the differential rate and the forward-backward asymmetries on the lepton and hadron side for the rare baryon decays Lambda_b -> Lambda l+ l- (l=e, mu, tau) and Lambda_b -> Lambda gamma. We use helicity methods to write down a three-fold joint angular decay distribution for the cascade decay Lambda_b -> Lambda (-> p pi-) + J_eff (-> l+ l-). Through appropriate angular integrations we obtain expressions for the rates, the lepton-side forward-backward (FB) asymmetry and the polarization of the daughter baryon Lambda leading to a hadron-side forward-backward asymmetry. We present numerical results on these observables using the covariant quark model and compare our results to the results of other calculations that have appeared in the literature.

  8. Measurement of the Lambda_b lifetime using semileptonic decays

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguiló, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Assis-Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benítez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Böhnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Bühler, M; Büscher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clément, C; Clement, B; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M C; Crepe-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; Da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; De Jong, S J; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; De Oliveira Martins, C; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; García, C; García-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Yu; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, P; Grivaz, J F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutíerrez, P; Gutíerrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Yu M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kothari, B; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kühl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G L; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lesne, V; Lévêque, J; Lewin, M; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajícek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Oteroy-Garzon, G J; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M E; Polozov, P; Pompo, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; Prado da Silva, W L; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S D; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F K; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A F S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, A D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sen-Gupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simák, V; Sirotenko, V I; Skubic, P L; Slattery, P F; Smirnov, D; Smith, R P; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, S; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; Van den Berg, P J; van Eijk, B; Van Kooten, R; Van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Séguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Törne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, G; Weerts, H; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yu, C; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-01-01

    We report a measurement of the Lambda_b lifetime using a sample corresponding to 1.3 fb$^{-1}$ of data collected by the D0 experiment in 2002--2006 during Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron collider. The Lambda_b baryon is reconstructed via the decay Lambda_b -> mu nu Lambda_c X. Using $4437 \\pm 329$ signal candidates, we measure the Lambda_b lifetime to be $\\tau(Lambda_b)$ = 1.290^{+0.119}_{-0.110}(stat) ^{+0.087}_{-0.091} (syst) ps, which is among the most precise measurements in semileptonic Lambda_b decays. This result is in good agreement with the world average value.

  9. Dynamical system approach to running $\\Lambda$ cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowski, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    We discussed the dynamics of cosmological models in which the cosmological constant term is a time dependent function through the scale factor $a(t)$, Hubble function $H(t)$, Ricci scalar $R(t)$ and scalar field $\\phi(t)$. We considered five classes of models; two non-covariant parametrization of $\\Lambda$: 1) $\\Lambda(H)$CDM cosmologies where $H(t)$ is the Hubble parameter, 2) $\\Lambda(a)$CDM cosmologies where $a(t)$ is the scale factor, and three covariant parametrization of $\\Lambda$: 3) $\\Lambda(R)$CDM cosmologies, where $R(t)$ is the Ricci scalar, 4) $\\Lambda(\\phi)$-cosmologies with diffusion, 5) $\\Lambda(X)$-cosmologies, where $X=\\frac{1}{2}g^{\\alpha\\beta}\

  10. Lambda0 polarization in p p ---> p Lambda0 K+ (pi+ pi-) at 27.5-GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, J.; Christian, D.C.; Church, M.D.; Forbush, M.; Gottschalk, E.E.; Gutierrez, G.; Hartouni, E.P.; Holmes, Stephen D.; Huson, F.R.; Jensen, D.A.; Knapp, B.C.; Kreisler, M.N.; Uribe, J.; Stern, B.J.; Wang, M.H.L.S.; Wehmann, A.; Wiencke, L.R.; White, J.T.; /Guanajuato U. /Fermilab /Nevis Labs, Columbia U. /Texas A-M /Massachusetts U.,

    2004-10-01

    The polarization of 1973 {Lambda}{sup 0}'s from the specific reaction pp {yields} p{Lambda}{sup 0}K{sup +}({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}){sup 5} created by 27.5 Gev incident protons on a liquid hydrogen target, as a function of {chi}{sub F}, P{sub T}, and M{sub {Lambda}{sup 0}K{sup +}}, is, within statistics, consistent with the polarization of {Lambda}{sup 0}'s from pp {yields} P{sub fast} {Lambda}{sup 0}K{sup +} at 800 GeV.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Croceibacter Bacteriophage P2559S

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Ilnam; Kang, Dongmin; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2012-01-01

    Croceibacter atlanticus HTCC2559T, a marine bacterium isolated from the Sargasso Sea, is a phylogenetically unique member of the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain HTCC2559T possesses genes related to interaction with primary producers, which makes studies on bacteriophages infecting the strain interesting. Here we report the genome sequence of bacteriophage P2559S, which was isolated off the coast of the Republic of Korea and lytically infects HTCC2559T. Many genes predicted in the P2559S geno...

  12. Targeting Antibacterial Agents by Using Drug-Carrying Filamentous Bacteriophages

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoby, Iftach; Shamis, Marina; Bar, Hagit; Shabat, Doron; Benhar, Itai

    2006-01-01

    Bacteriophages have been used for more than a century for (unconventional) therapy of bacterial infections, for half a century as tools in genetic research, for 2 decades as tools for discovery of specific target-binding proteins, and for nearly a decade as tools for vaccination or as gene delivery vehicles. Here we present a novel application of filamentous bacteriophages (phages) as targeted drug carriers for the eradication of (pathogenic) bacteria. The phages are genetically modified to d...

  13. Bacteriophage-based nanoprobes for rapid bacteria separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juhong; Duncan, Bradley; Wang, Ziyuan; Wang, Li-Sheng; Rotello, Vincent M.; Nugen, Sam R.

    2015-10-01

    The lack of practical methods for bacterial separation remains a hindrance for the low-cost and successful development of rapid detection methods from complex samples. Antibody-tagged magnetic particles are commonly used to pull analytes from a liquid sample. While this method is well-established, improvements in capture efficiencies would result in an increase of the overall detection assay performance. Bacteriophages represent a low-cost and more consistent biorecognition element as compared to antibodies. We have developed nanoscale bacteriophage-tagged magnetic probes, where T7 bacteriophages were bound to magnetic nanoparticles. The nanoprobe allowed the specific recognition and attachment to E. coli cells. The phage magnetic nanprobes were directly compared to antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoprobes. The capture efficiencies of bacteriophages and antibodies on nanoparticles for the separation of E. coli K12 at varying concentrations were determined. The results indicated a similar bacteria capture efficiency between the two nanoprobes.The lack of practical methods for bacterial separation remains a hindrance for the low-cost and successful development of rapid detection methods from complex samples. Antibody-tagged magnetic particles are commonly used to pull analytes from a liquid sample. While this method is well-established, improvements in capture efficiencies would result in an increase of the overall detection assay performance. Bacteriophages represent a low-cost and more consistent biorecognition element as compared to antibodies. We have developed nanoscale bacteriophage-tagged magnetic probes, where T7 bacteriophages were bound to magnetic nanoparticles. The nanoprobe allowed the specific recognition and attachment to E. coli cells. The phage magnetic nanprobes were directly compared to antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoprobes. The capture efficiencies of bacteriophages and antibodies on nanoparticles for the separation of E. coli K12 at varying

  14. Alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L.; Cummmings, Nicola J.; Connerton, Ian F.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cy...

  15. Novel Podoviridae Family Bacteriophage Infecting Weissella cibaria Isolated from Kimchi

    OpenAIRE

    Kleppen, Hans Petter; Holo, Helge; Jeon, Sang-Rok; Nes, Ingolf F.; Yoon, Sung-Sik

    2012-01-01

    The first complete genome sequence of a phage infecting Weissella cibaria (Weissella kimchii) is presented. The bacteriophage ϕYS61 was isolated from kimchi, a Korean fermented vegetable dish. Bacteriophages are recognized as a serious problem in industrial fermentations; however, ϕYS61 differed from many virulent phages associated with food fermentations since it was difficult to propagate and was very susceptible to resistance development. Sequence analysis revealed that ϕYS61 resembles Pod...

  16. Phage lambda CIII: a protease inhibitor regulating the lysis-lysogeny decision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Kobiler

    Full Text Available The ATP-dependent protease FtsH (HflB complexed with HflKC participates in post-translational control of the lysis-lysogeny decision of bacteriophage lambda by rapid degradation of lambda CII. Both phage-encoded proteins, the CII transcription activator and the CIII polypeptide, are required for efficient lysogenic response. The conserved CIII is both an inhibitor and substrate of FtsH. Here we show that the protease inhibitor CIII is present as oligomeric amphipathic alpha helical structures and functions as a competitive inhibitor of FtsH by preventing binding of the CII substrate. We identified single alanine substitutions in CIII that abolish its activity. We characterize a dominant negative effect of a CIII mutant. Thus, we suggest that CIII oligomrization is required for its function. Real-time analysis of CII activity demonstrates that the effect of CIII is not seen in the absence of either FtsH or HflKC. When CIII is provided ectopically, CII activity increases linearly as a function of the multiplicity of infection, suggesting that CIII enhances CII stability and the lysogenic response. FtsH function is essential for cellular viability as it regulates the balance in the synthesis of phospholipids and lipopolysaccharides. Genetic experiments confirmed that the CIII bacteriostatic effects are due to inhibition of FtsH. Thus, the early presence of CIII following infection stimulates the lysogenic response, while its degradation at later times ensures the reactivation of FtsH allowing the growth of the established lysogenic cell.

  17. Simulated hatchery system to assess bacteriophage efficacy against Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu Patil, J; Desai, Srividya Narayanamurthy; Roy, Panchali; Durgaiah, Murali; Saravanan, R Sanjeev; Vipra, Aradhana

    2014-12-01

    Vibriosis caused by luminous Vibrio harveyi commonly contributes to poor survival in shrimp hatcheries and aquaculture ponds. Lytic bacteriophages pathogenic for V. harveyi are currently being investigated as an alternative to antibiotics to prevent vibriosis. Here, 8 bacteriophages were isolated from oysters and clams using V. harveyi strains as baiting hosts. Among these bacteriophages, 1 strain (VHP6b) identified as broadly pathogenic for 27 V. harveyi strains examined was further characterized by electron microscopy and genome sequence analysis. Phage VHP6b possessed a tail and morphology consistent with it being a member of the family Siphoviridae, and its genome and proteome were most closely related to the Vibrio phages SSP02 and MAR10. An integrase gene essential for lysogeny was not evident. The ability of bacteriophage VHP6b to protect shrimp postlarvae against vibriosis caused by V. harveyi strain VH6 was demonstrated in a model system designed to simulate typical hatchery conditions. Bacteriophage treatment improved survival of postlarvae by 40 to 60% under these conditions, so therapies based on this or other bacteriophages may be useful in shrimp hatcheries. PMID:25449322

  18. Why Be Temperate: Lessons from Bacteriophage λ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandon, Sylvain

    2016-05-01

    Many pathogens have evolved the ability to induce latent infections of their hosts. The bacteriophage λ is a classical model for exploring the regulation and the evolution of latency. Here, I review recent experimental studies on phage λ that identify specific conditions promoting the evolution of lysogenic life cycles. In addition, I present specific adaptations of phage λ that allow this virus to react plastically to variations in the environment and to reactivate its lytic life cycle. All of these different examples are discussed in the light of evolutionary epidemiology theory to disentangle the different evolutionary forces acting on temperate phages. Understanding phage λ adaptations yield important insights into the evolution of latency in other microbes, including several life-threatening human pathogens. PMID:26946976

  19. Montmorillonite-induced Bacteriophage φ6 Disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusiak, A.; Gottlieb, P.; Katz, A.; Alimova, A.; Steiner, J. C.; Block, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    It is estimated that there are 1031 virus particles on Earth making viruses an order of magnitude more prevalent in number than prokaryotes with the vast majority of viruses being bacteriophages. Clays are a major component of soils and aquatic sediments and can react with RNA, proteins and bacterial biofilms. The clays in soils serve as an important moderator between phage and their host bacteria, helping to preserve the evolutionary balance. Studies on the effects of clays on viral infectivity have given somewhat contradictory results; possibly a consequence of clay-virus interactions being dependent on the unique structure of particular viruses. In this work, the interaction between montmorillonite and the bacteriophage φ6 is investigated. φ6 is a member of the cystovirus family that infects Pseudomonas syringe, a common plant pathogen. As a member of the cystovirus family with an enveloped structure, φ6 serves as a model for reoviruses, a human pathogen. Experiments were conducted with φ6 suspended in dilute, purified homoionic commercial-grade montmorillonite over a range of virus:clay ratios. At a 1:100000 virus:clay ratio, the clay reduced viral infectivity by 99%. The minimum clay to virus ratio which results in a measurable reduction of P. syringae infection is 1:1. Electron microscopy demonstrates that mixed suspensions of smectite and virus co-aggregate to form flocs encompassing virions within the smectite. Both free viral particles as well as those imbedded in the flocs are seen in the micrographs to be missing the envelope- leaving only the nucleocapsid (NC) intact; indicating that smectite inactivates the virus by envelope disassembly. These results have strong implications in the evolution of both the φ6 virus and its P. syringae host cells. TEM of aggregate showing several disassembled NCs.

  20. A Hypothesis for Bacteriophage DNA Packaging Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Serwer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis is presented that bacteriophage DNA packaging motors have a cycle comprised of bind/release thermal ratcheting with release-associated DNA pushing via ATP-dependent protein folding. The proposed protein folding occurs in crystallographically observed peptide segments that project into an axial channel of a protein 12-mer (connector that serves, together with a coaxial ATPase multimer, as the entry portal. The proposed cycle begins when reverse thermal motion causes the connector’s peptide segments to signal the ATPase multimer to bind both ATP and the DNA molecule, thereby producing a dwell phase recently demonstrated by single-molecule procedures. The connector-associated peptide segments activate by transfer of energy from ATP during the dwell. The proposed function of connector/ATPase symmetry mismatches is to reduce thermal noise-induced signaling errors. After a dwell, ATP is cleaved and the DNA molecule released. The activated peptide segments push the released DNA molecule, thereby producing a burst phase recently shown to consist of four mini-bursts. The constraint of four mini-bursts is met by proposing that each mini-burst occurs via pushing by three of the 12 subunits of the connector. If all four mini-bursts occur, the cycle repeats. If the mini-bursts are not completed, a second cycle is superimposed on the first cycle. The existence of the second cycle is based on data recently obtained with bacteriophage T3. When both cycles stall, energy is diverted to expose the DNA molecule to maturation cleavage.

  1. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  2. Primary structure and functional analysis of the lysis genes of Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phi adh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, B; Binishofer, B; Bläsi, U

    1995-02-01

    The lysis genes of the Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phi adh were isolated by complementation of a lambda Sam mutation in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing of a 1,735-bp DNA fragment revealed two adjacent coding regions of 342 bp (hol) and 951 bp (lys) in the same reading frame which appear to belong to a common transcriptional unit. Proteins corresponding to the predicted gene products, holin (12.9 kDa) and lysin (34.7 kDa), were identified by in vitro and in vivo expression of the cloned genes. The phi adh holin is a membrane-bound protein with structural similarity to lysis proteins of other phage, known to be required for the transit of murein hydrolases through the cytoplasmic membrane. The phi adh lysin shows homology with mureinolytic enzymes encoded by the Lactobacillus bulgaricus phage mv4, the Streptococcus pneumoniae phage Cp-1, Cp-7, and Cp-9, and the Lactococcus lactis phage phi LC3. Significant homology with the N termini of known muramidases suggests that phi adh lysin acts by a similar catalytic mechanism. In E. coli, the phi adh lysin seems to be associated with the total membrane fraction, from which it can be extracted with lauryl sarcosinate. Either one of the phi adh lysis proteins provoked lysis of E. coli when expressed along with holins or lysins of phage lambda or Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29. Concomitant expression of the combined holin and lysin functions of phi adh in E. coli, however, did not result in efficient cell lysis. PMID:7836307

  3. Measurement of the Lambda/b lifetime in Lambda/b to Lambda/c pi decays at the Collider Detector at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumford, Jonathan Reid; /Johns Hopkins U.

    2008-10-01

    The lifetime of the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} baryon (consisting of u, d and b quarks) is the theoretically most interesting of all b-hadron lifetimes. The lifetime of {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} probes our understanding of how baryons with one heavy quark are put together and how they decay. Experimentally however, measurements of the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} lifetime have either lacked precision or have been inconsistent with one another. This thesis describes the measurement of {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} lifetime in proton-antiproton collisions with center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV at Fermilab's Tevatron collider. Using 1070 {+-} 60pb{sup -1} of data collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF), a clean sample of about 3,000 fully-reconstructed {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays (with {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} subsequently decaying via {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +} {yields} p{sup +} K{sup -} {pi}{sup +}) is used to extract the lifetime of the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} baryon, which is found to be c{tau}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}) = 422.8 {+-} 13.8(stat) {+-} 8.8(syst){micro}m. This is the most precise measurement of its kind, and is even better than the current world average. It also settles the recent controversy regarding the apparent inconsistency between CDF's other measurement and the rest of the world.

  4. Dependence on the cross section of {Lambda} and anti-{Lambda} strange baryons production with the mass number; Dependencia da secao de choque de producao dos barions estranhos {Lambda} e anti-{Lambda} com o numero de massa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandelman, Miriam Mendes

    1992-07-01

    In this work the A dependence of the {lambda} and {lambda}{sup -} production cross sections is studied using the E769 data for the 250 GeV/c{pi}{sup -} beam interacting on Be, Cu, Al and W targets. The measured mean value of {alpha} in the region - 0.2 < x{sub f} < 0.3 and p{sub t} < 2 GeV/c is 1.03 {+-} 0.02 for the {lambda} baryon and 1.01 {+-} 0.02 for the {lambda}{sup -}. No difference is measured between the values of {alpha} for {lambda} and {lambda}{sup -}: {alpha} is a global decreasing function of x{sub f} and has no significant variation with p{sub t}. (author). 31 refs, 48 figs, 16 tabs.

  5. Spin and parity measurement of the Lambda(1405) baryon

    CERN Document Server

    Moriya, Kei

    2014-01-01

    A determination of the spin and parity of the $\\Lambda(1405)$ is presented using photoproduction data from the CLAS detector at Jefferson Lab. The reaction $\\gamma + p \\to K^+ + \\Lambda(1405)$ is analyzed in the decay channel $\\Lambda(1405) \\to \\Sigma^+ + \\pi^-$, where the decay distribution to $\\Sigma^+ \\pi^-$ and the variation of the $\\Sigma^+$ polarization with respect to the $\\Lambda(1405)$ polarization direction determines the parity. The $\\Lambda(1405)$ is produced, in the energy range $2.55 < W < 2.85$ GeV and for $0.6 < \\cos \\theta_{K^+} < 0.9$, with polarization $P = 0.45 \\pm 0.02 (\\text{stat}) \\pm 0.07 (\\text{syst})$. The analysis shows that the decays are in $S$ wave, with the $\\Sigma^+$ polarized such that the $\\Lambda(1405)$ has spin-parity $J^P = 1/2^-$, as expected by most theories.

  6. Protein-protein interactions in a higher-order structure direct lambda site-specific recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J F; de Vargas, L M; Skinner, S E; Landy, A

    1987-06-01

    The highly directional site-specific recombination of bacteriophage lambda is tightly regulated by the binding of three different proteins to a complex array of sites. The manner in which these reactions are both stimulated and inhibited by co-operative binding of proteins to specific sites on the P arm of attP and AttR has been elucidated by correlation of nuclease protection with recombination studies of both wild-type and mutant DNAs. In addition to co-operative forces, there is a specific competitive interaction that allows the protein-DNA complex to serve as a "biological switch". This switch does not depend upon the simple occlusion of DNA binding sites by neighboring proteins; but, rather, the outcome of this competition is dependent on long-range interactions that vary between the higher-order structures of attP and attR. These higher-order structures are dependent on cooperative interactions involving three proteins binding to five or more sites. PMID:2958633

  7. The radiative capture reaction rate from $\\Lambda \\Lambda$ to H dibaryon in the imaginary time method

    CERN Document Server

    Hikota, E; Hiyama, E; Oka, M

    2015-01-01

    Radiative capture rates of thermal $\\Lambda\\Lambda + \\Xi$N states into H dibaryon are calculated in the novel imaginary time method. The H dibaryon is assumed to be a bound state of $\\Xi $N with spin $J^{\\pi}= 0^+$, isospin $I=0$ and strangeness $-2$. We consider $E1$ transition to H from $\\Xi$N $(L=1)$ scattering states which mix with $\\Lambda\\Lambda (L=1)$. In order to calculate the transition rates, we formulate a coupled-channel imaginary time method by extending the one-channel formula originally proposed by Yabana and Funaki. The imaginary time method allows us to avoid the sum over all the excited thermal initial states, and thus to save computational time significantly. The transition rates are given as a function of temperature and the unknown binding energy of the H dibaryon, which we take as a parameter. It is found that the transition rate is not sensitive to the choices of the H binding energy or the strengths of the channel coupling for temperatures 3 MeV or higher.

  8. Predictions for the $\\Lambda_b \\to J/\\psi ~ \\Lambda(1405)$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Roca, Luis; Oset, Eulogio; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the shape of the $\\pi\\Sigma$ and $\\bar K N$ invariant mass distributions in the $\\Lambda_b \\to J/\\psi\\, \\pi\\Sigma$ and $\\Lambda_b \\to J/\\psi \\,\\bar K N$ decays that are dominated by the $\\Lambda(1405)$ resonance. The weak interaction part is the same for both processes and the hadronization into the different meson-baryon channels in the final state is related by SU(3) symmetry. The most important feature is the implementation of the meson-baryon final-state interaction using two chiral unitary models from different theoretical groups. Both approaches give a good description of antikaon-nucleon scattering data, the complex energy shift in kaonic hydrogen and the line shapes of $\\pi \\Sigma K$ in photoproduction, based on the two-pole scenario for the $\\Lambda (1405)$. We find that this reaction reflects more the higher mass pole and we make predictions of the line shapes and relative strength of the meson-baryon distributions in the final state.

  9. Quark mass dependence of H-dibaryon in $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    We study the quark mass dependence of the H-dibaryon in the strangeness $S=-2$ baryon-baryon scattering. A low-energy effective field theory is used to describe the coupled-channel scattering, in which the quark mass dependence is incorporated so as to reproduce the lattice QCD data in the SU(3) limit. We point out the existence of the Castillejo-Dalitz-Dyson (CDD) pole in the $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ scattering amplitude below the threshold in the SU(3) limit, which may cause the Ramsauer-Townsend effect near the $N\\Xi$ threshold at the physical point. The H-dibaryon is unbound at the physical point, and a resonance appears just below the $N\\Xi$ threshold. As a consequence of the coupled-channel dynamics, the pole associated with the resonance is not continuously connected to the bound state in the SU(3) limit. Through the extrapolation in quark masses, we show that the unitary limit of the $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ scattering is achieved between the physical point and the SU(3) limit. We discuss the possible realization of ...

  10. The interactome of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its bacteriophages show highly specific patterns of interactions among bacteria and their phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Rachelle; Wuchty, Stefan; Vizoso-Pinto, Maria G; Häuser, Roman; Uetz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Although an abundance of bacteriophages exists, little is known about interactions between their proteins and those of their bacterial hosts. Here, we experimentally determined the phage-host interactomes of the phages Dp-1 and Cp-1 and their underlying protein interaction network in the host Streptococcus pneumoniae. We compared our results to the interaction patterns of E. coli phages lambda and T7. Dp-1 and Cp-1 target highly connected host proteins, occupy central network positions, and reach many protein clusters through the interactions of their targets. In turn, lambda and T7 targets cluster to conserved and essential proteins in E. coli, while such patterns were largely absent in S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, targets in E. coli were mutually strongly intertwined, while targets of Dp-1 and Cp-1 were strongly connected through essential and orthologous proteins in their immediate network vicinity. In both phage-host systems, the impact of phages on their protein targets appears to extend from their network neighbors, since proteins that interact with phage targets were located in central network positions, have a strong topologically disruptive effect and touch complexes with high functional heterogeneity. Such observations suggest that the phages, biological impact is accomplished through a surprisingly limited topological reach of their targets. PMID:27103053

  11. The interactome of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its bacteriophages show highly specific patterns of interactions among bacteria and their phages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Rachelle; Wuchty, Stefan; Vizoso-Pinto, Maria G.; Häuser, Roman; Uetz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Although an abundance of bacteriophages exists, little is known about interactions between their proteins and those of their bacterial hosts. Here, we experimentally determined the phage-host interactomes of the phages Dp-1 and Cp-1 and their underlying protein interaction network in the host Streptococcus pneumoniae. We compared our results to the interaction patterns of E. coli phages lambda and T7. Dp-1 and Cp-1 target highly connected host proteins, occupy central network positions, and reach many protein clusters through the interactions of their targets. In turn, lambda and T7 targets cluster to conserved and essential proteins in E. coli, while such patterns were largely absent in S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, targets in E. coli were mutually strongly intertwined, while targets of Dp-1 and Cp-1 were strongly connected through essential and orthologous proteins in their immediate network vicinity. In both phage-host systems, the impact of phages on their protein targets appears to extend from their network neighbors, since proteins that interact with phage targets were located in central network positions, have a strong topologically disruptive effect and touch complexes with high functional heterogeneity. Such observations suggest that the phages, biological impact is accomplished through a surprisingly limited topological reach of their targets. PMID:27103053

  12. Extending the Lambda Calculus to Express Randomized and Quantumized Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Maymin, Philip

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces a formal metalanguage called the lambda-q calculus for the specification of quantum programming languages. This metalanguage is an extension of the lambda calculus, which provides a formal setting for the specification of classical programming languages. As an intermediary step, we introduce a formal metalanguage called the lambda-p calculus for the specification of programming languages that allow true random number generation. We demonstrate how selected randomized alg...

  13. Lambda-proton correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Fuqiang; Pratt, Scott

    1999-01-01

    The prospect of using lambda-proton correlations to extract source sizes in relativistic heavy ion collisions is investigated. It is found that the strong interaction induces a large peak in the correlation function that provides more sensitive source size measurements than two-proton correlations under some circumstances. The prospect of using lambda-proton correlations to measure the time lag between lambda and proton emissions is also studied.

  14. Inclusive Lambda Production in Two-Photon Collisions at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Achard, P; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alviggi, M G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Bajo, A; Baksay, G; Baksay, L; Baldew, S V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Bartalini, P; Basile, M; Batalova, N; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Bellucci, L; Berbeco, R; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Biasini, M; Biglietti, M; Biland, A; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bottai, S; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brochu, F; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada, M; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chiefari, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Clare, I; Clare, R; Coignet, G; Colino, N; Costantini, S; de la Cruz, B; Cucciarelli, S; van Dalen, J A; De Asmundis, R; Déglon, P L; Debreczeni, J; Degré, A; Dehmelt, K; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Delmeire, E; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; De Salvo, A; Diemoz, M; Dierckxsens, M; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, M; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duda, M; Echenard, B; Eline, A; El-Hage, A; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Extermann, P; Falagán, M A; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, M; Ferguson, T; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, F; Fisher, P H; Fisher, W; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gataullin, M; Gentile, S; Giagu, S; Gong, Z F; Grenier, G; Grimm, O; Grünewald, M W; Guida, M; van Gulik, R; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Haas, D; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Hirschfelder, J; Hofer, H; Hohlmann, M; Holzner, G; Hou, S R; Hu, Y; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, J K; Kirkby, Jasper; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopal, M; Koutsenko, V F; Kräber, M H; Krämer, R W; Krüger, A; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Levtchenko, M; Levchenko, P M; Li, C; Likhoded, S; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lü, Y S; Luci, C; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mans, J; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Mazumdar, K; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Mihul, A; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Mohanty, G B; Muanza, G S; Muijs, A J M; Musicar, B; Musy, M; Nagy, S; Natale, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Nisati, A; Novák, T; Nowak, H; Ofierzynski, R A; Organtini, G; Pal, I; Palomares, C; Paolucci, P; Paramatti, R; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Pedace, M; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Piccolo, D; Pierella, F; Pioppi, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Pothier, J; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Quartieri, J; Rahal-Callot, G; Rahaman, M A; Raics, P; Raja, N; Ramelli, R; Rancoita, P G; Ranieri, R; Raspereza, A V; Razis, P A; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosca, A; Rosemann, C; Rosenbleck, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Roth, S; Rubio, J A; Ruggiero, G; Rykaczewski, H; Sakharov, A; Saremi, S; Sarkar, S; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Sciacca, C; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Son, D; Souga, C; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Sushkov, S; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Szillási, Z; Tang, X W; Tarjan, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Tellili, B; Teyssier, D; Timmermans, C; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tung, K L; Ulbricht, J; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vásquez, R; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Vicinanza, D; Viertel, Gert M; Villa, S; Vivargent, M; Vlachos, S; Vodopyanov, I; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Wadhwa, M; Wang, Q; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, M; Wilkens, H; Wynhoff, S; Xia, L; Xu, Z Z; Yamamoto, J; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yang, H J; Yang, M; Yeh, S C; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, J; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B; Zöller, M

    2004-01-01

    The reactions e^+e^- -> e^+e^- Lambda X and e^+e^- -> e^+e^- Lambda X are studied using data collected at LEP with the L3 detector at centre-of-mass energies between 189 and 209 GeV. Inclusive differential cross sections are measured as a function of the lambda transverse momentum, p_t, and pseudo-rapidity, eta, in the ranges 0.4 GeV )$.

  15. First measurement of the ratio of branching fractions BR(Lambda(b) to Lambda(c) mu nu)/BR(Lambda(b) to Lambda(c) pi) at CDF II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Shin-shan

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation, we measure the properties of the lowest-mass beauty baryon, {Lambda}{sub b}. Baryons are the bound states of three quarks. Protons and neutrons, constituents of atomic nuclei, are the most common baryons. Other types of baryons can be produced and studied in the high-energy collider environment. Three-body dynamics makes baryons composed of low mass quarks difficult to study. On the other hand, baryons with one heavy quark simplify the theoretical treatment of baryon structure, since the heavy quark can be treated the same way as the nucleus in the atom. The {Lambda}{sub b} is composed of u, d, and b quarks, where the b quark is much heavier than the other two. Although, it is accessible, little is known about {Lambda}{sub b}. In 1991, UA1 [1] reconstructed 9 {+-} 1 {Lambda}{sub b} {yields} J/{Psi}{Lambda} candidates. In 1996, ALEPH and DELPHI reconstructed the decay {Lambda}{sub b} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and found only 3-4 candidates [2, 3]. ALEPH measured a {Lambda}{sub b} mass of 5614 {+-} 21 MeV/c{sup 2}, while DELPHI measured 5668 {+-} 18 MeV/c{sup 2}, about 2 {sigma} higher. Subsequently, CDF-I observed 20 {Lambda}{sub b} {yields} J/{Psi}{Lambda} events [4], confirmed the existence of {Lambda}{sub b} unambiguously and made a more precise measurement of {Lambda}{sub b} mass, 5621 {+-} 5 MeV/c{sup 2}. A recent CDF-II measurement by Korn [5] yields 5619.7 {+-} 1.7 MeV/c{sup 2}, which will significantly improve the current world average, 5624 {+-} 9 MeV/c{sup 2}, and resolve the discrepancy of ALEPH and DELPHI.

  16. A new recipe for $\\Lambda$CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Sahni, Varun

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a canonical scalar field is able to describe either dark matter or dark energy but not both. We demonstrate that a non-canonical scalar field can describe both dark matter and dark energy within a unified setting. We consider the simplest extension of the canonical Lagrangian ${\\cal L} \\propto X^\\alpha - \\Lambda$ with $\\alpha \\geq 1$. In this case the kinetic term in the Lagrangian behaves just like a perfect fluid, whereas the potential term is the cosmological constant. For very large values, $\\alpha \\gg 1$, the equation of state of the kinetic term drops to zero and the expansion rate of the universe mimicks $\\Lambda$CDM. The velocity of sound in this model, and the associated gravitational clustering, is sensitive to the value of $\\alpha$. For very large values of $\\alpha$ the clustering properties of our model resemble those of cold dark matter (CDM). But for smaller values of $\\alpha$, gravitational clustering on small scales is suppressed, and our model has properties resembling t...

  17. Anisotropic Cosmological Model with Variable G and Lambda

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathy, S K; Routray, T R

    2015-01-01

    Anisotropic Bianchi-III cosmological model is investigated with variable gravitational and cosmological constants in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. The shear scalar is considered to be proportional to the expansion scalar. The dynamics of the anisotropic universe with variable G and Lambda are discussed. Without assuming any specific forms for Lambda and the metric potentials, we have tried to extract the time variation of G and Lambda from the anisotropic model. The extracted G and Lambda are in conformity with the present day observation. Basing upon the observational limits, the behaviour and range of the effective equation of state parameter are discussed.

  18. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via dr...

  19. Labelled Lambda-calculi with Explicit Copy and Erase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Fernández

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We present two rewriting systems that define labelled explicit substitution lambda-calculi. Our work is motivated by the close correspondence between Levy's labelled lambda-calculus and paths in proof-nets, which played an important role in the understanding of the Geometry of Interaction. The structure of the labels in Levy's labelled lambda-calculus relates to the multiplicative information of paths; the novelty of our work is that we design labelled explicit substitution calculi that also keep track of exponential information present in call-by-value and call-by-name translations of the lambda-calculus into linear logic proof-nets.

  20. Expression of a cloned denV gene of bacteriophage T4 in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 713-base-pair Hae III fragment from bacteriophage T4 encompassing the denV gene with its preceding promoter has been cloned in a pBR322-derived positive-selection vector and introduced into a variety of DNA repair-deficient uvr and rec and uvr,rec Escherichia coli strains. The denV gene was found to be expressed, probably from its own promoter, causing pyrimidine dimer incision-deficient uvrA, uvrB, uvrC strains to be rescued by the denV gene. A uvrD (DNA helicase II) strain was also complemented, but to a lesser extent. A wild-type strain did not seem to be affected at the UV doses tested. Surprisingly, all recA, recB, and recC strains tested also showed an increased UV resistance, perhaps by reinforcement of the intact uvr system in these strains. Complementation of denV- T4 strains and host-cell reactivation of lambda phage was also observed in denV+ E. coli strains. Equilibrium sedimentation showed that DNA repair synthesis occurred in a UV-irradiated uvrA E. coli strain carrying the cloned denV gene. Southern blotting confirmed earlier results that the denV gene is located at 64 kilobases on the T4 map. Phage T2 (denV-) did not hybridize to a denV-specific probe

  1. Expression of a cloned denV gene of bacteriophage T4 in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie, K.; Henderson, E.E.; de Riel, J.K.

    1985-07-01

    A 713-base-pair Hae III fragment from bacteriophage T4 encompassing the denV gene with its preceding promoter has been cloned in a pBR322-derived positive-selection vector and introduced into a variety of DNA repair-deficient uvr and rec and uvr,rec Escherichia coli strains. The denV gene was found to be expressed, probably from its own promoter, causing pyrimidine dimer incision-deficient uvrA, uvrB, uvrC strains to be rescued by the denV gene. A uvrD (DNA helicase II) strain was also complemented, but to a lesser extent. A wild-type strain did not seem to be affected at the UV doses tested. Surprisingly, all recA, recB, and recC strains tested also showed an increased UV resistance, perhaps by reinforcement of the intact uvr system in these strains. Complementation of denV- T4 strains and host-cell reactivation of lambda phage was also observed in denV+ E. coli strains. Equilibrium sedimentation showed that DNA repair synthesis occurred in a UV-irradiated uvrA E. coli strain carrying the cloned denV gene. Southern blotting confirmed earlier results that the denV gene is located at 64 kilobases on the T4 map. Phage T2 (denV-) did not hybridize to a denV-specific probe.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato....

  3. First observation and measurement of the resonant structure of the lambda_b->lambda_c pi-pi+pi- decay mode

    OpenAIRE

    Azzurri, P.; Barria, P.; Ciocci, M.A.; Donati, S.; Vataga, E.; Collaboration, for the CDF

    2009-01-01

    We present the first observation of the lambda_b->lambda_c pi-pi+pi- decay using data from an integrated luminosity of approximately 2.4 fb-1 of ppbar collisions at ECM=1.96 TeV, collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. We also present the first observation of the resonant decays lambda_b->sigma_c(2455)0 pi+pi- ->lambda_c pi-pi+pi-, lambda_b->sigma_c(2455)++ pi-pi- ->lambda_c pi-pi+pi-, lambda_b->lambda_c(2595)+ pi- ->lambda_c pi-pi+pi- and lambda_b->lambda_c(2625)+ pi- ->...

  4. First observation and measurement of the resonant structure of the $\\Lambda ^0_b$ $\\to$ $\\Lambda^+_c$ $\\pi^- pi^+ pi^-$ decay mode

    OpenAIRE

    Azzurri, P.; Barria, P.; Ciocci, M.A.; Donati, S.; Vataga, E.; CDF Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    We present the first observation of the lambda_b->lambda_c pi-pi+pi- decay using data from an integrated luminosity of approximately 2.4 fb-1 of ppbar collisions at ECM=1.96 TeV, collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. We also present the first observation of the resonant decays lambda_b->sigma_c(2455)0 pi+pi- ->lambda_c pi-pi+pi-, lambda_b->sigma_c(2455)++ pi-pi- ->lambda_c pi-pi+pi-, lambda_b->lambda_c(2595)+ pi- ->lambda_c pi-pi+pi- and lambda_b->lambda_c(2625)+ pi- ->...

  5. Bacteriophage Infection of Model Metal Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K. A.; Bender, K. S.; Gandhi, K.; Coates, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Microbially-mediated metal reduction plays a significant role controlling contaminant mobility in aqueous, soil, and sedimentary environments. From among environmentally relevant microorganisms mediating metal reduction, Geobacter spp. have been identified as predominant metal-reducing bacteria under acetate- oxidizing conditions. Due to the significance of these bacteria in environmental systems, it is necessary to understand factors influencing their metabolic physiology. Examination of the annotated finished genome sequence of G. sulfurreducens PCA, G. uraniumreducens Rf4, G. metallireduceans GS-15 as well as a draft genome sequence of Geobacter sp. FRC-32 have identified gene sequences of putative bacteriophage origin. Presence of these sequences indicates that these bacteria are susceptible to phage infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primer sets designed tested for the presence of 12 of 25 annotated phage-like sequences in G. sulfurreducens PCA and 9 of 17 phage-like sequences in FRC- 32. The following genes were successfully amplified in G. sulfurreducens PCA: prophage type transcription regulator, phage-induced endonuclease, phage tail sheath, 2 phage tail proteins, phage protein D, phage base plate protein, phage-related DNA polymerase, integrase, phage transcriptional regulator, and Cro-like transcription regulator. Nine of the following sequences were present in FRC-32: 4 separate phage- related proteins, phage-related tail component, viron core protein, phage Mu protein, phage base plate, and phage tail sheath. In addition to the bioinformatics evidence, incubation of G. sulfurreducens PCA with 1 μg mL-1 mytomycin C (mutagen stimulating prophage induction) during mid-log phase resulted in significant cell lysis relative to cultures that remained unamended. Cell lysis was concurrent with an increase in viral like particles enumerated using epifluorescent microscopy. In addition, samples collected following this lytic event (~44hours) were

  6. The $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ Correlation Function in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=$ 200 GeV

    OpenAIRE

    STAR Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We present $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ correlation measurements in heavy-ion collisions for Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}= 200$ GeV using the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). The Lednick\\'{y}-Lyuboshitz analytical model has been used to fit the data to obtain a source size, a scattering length and an effective range. Implications of the measurement of the $\\Lambda\\Lambda$ correlation function and interaction parameters for di-hyperon searches are discussed.

  7. Lambda Lambda Correlation Function in Au+Au Collisions at sqrt{s_NN}= 200 GeV

    OpenAIRE

    STAR Collaboration; Adamczyi, L.; Schmitz, N.; Seyboth, P.; et al

    2015-01-01

    We present \\\\Lambda\\\\Lambda$ correlation measurements in heavy-ion collisions for Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_NN}= 200 GeV using the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). The Lednicky-Lyuboshitz analytical model has been used to fit the data to obtain a source size, a scattering length and an effective range. Implications of the measurement of the \\\\Lambda\\\\Lambda correlation function and interaction parameters for di-hyperon searches are discussed.

  8. Alternative bacteriophage life cycles: the carrier state of Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siringan, Patcharin; Connerton, Phillippa L; Cummings, Nicola J; Connerton, Ian F

    2014-01-01

    Members of the genus Campylobacter are frequently responsible for human enteric disease, often through consumption of contaminated poultry products. Bacteriophages are viruses that have the potential to control pathogenic bacteria, but understanding their complex life cycles is key to their successful exploitation. Treatment of Campylobacter jejuni biofilms with bacteriophages led to the discovery that phages had established a relationship with their hosts typical of the carrier state life cycle (CSLC), where bacteria and bacteriophages remain associated in equilibrium. Significant phenotypic changes include improved aerotolerance under nutrient-limited conditions that would confer an advantage to survive in extra-intestinal environments, but a lack in motility eliminated their ability to colonize chickens. Under these circumstances, phages can remain associated with a compatible host and continue to produce free virions to prospect for new hosts. Moreover, we demonstrate that CSLC host bacteria can act as expendable vehicles for the delivery of bacteriophages to new host bacteria within pre-colonized chickens. The CSLC represents an important phase in the ecology of Campylobacter bacteriophage. PMID:24671947

  9. Lambda-effect from forced turbulence simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Käpylä, P J

    2008-01-01

    Aims: We determine the components of the $\\Lambda$-effect tensor that quantifies the contributions to the turbulent momentum transport even for uniform rotation. Methods: Three-dimensional numerical simulations are used to study turbulent transport in triply periodic cubes under the influence of rotation and anisotropic forcing. Comparison is made with analytical results obtained via the so-called minimal tau-approximation. Results: In the case where the turbulence intensity in the vertical direction dominates, the vertical stress is always negative. This situation is expected to occur in stellar convection zones. The horizontal component of the stress is weaker and exhibits a maximum at latitude 30 degrees - regardless of how rapid the rotation is. The minimal tau-approximation captures many of the qualitative features of the numerical results, provided the relaxation time tau is close to the turnover time, i.e. the Strouhal number is of order unity.

  10. The weak decay of lambda hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental technique and results from a study of the weak decay modes of /sub Λ/5He are presented. The weak decay modes of lambda hypernuclei include the mesonic decays (Λ/→ p + π- and Λ → n + π0) and the nonmesonic decay modes (Λ + p → n + p and Λ + n → n + n) the /sub Λ/5He hypernuclei were produced with the K- + 6Li → π- +/sub Λ 6Li π- + Λ/6Li reaction followed by the strong decay /sub Λ/6Li → /sub Λ/5He + p. The incoming K- momentum was 800 MeV/c and the K-π angle was 100. The experiment was performed on the Low Energy Separated Beam (LESBI) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS. The protons from the nonmesonic decay branch and the negative pion from the mesonic decay branch were detected in a 14 element scintillator range spectrometer. The neutrons from the nonmesonic decay branch were detected in an 18 element time-of-flight neutron detector array. The partial rates for all four of the decay modes are measured in this experiment. The total decay rate is also measured. The result for the total decay rate is 1.03 +- 0.08 in units of the free lambda decay rate. The results are compared to several calculations of /sub Λ/5He nonmesonic weak decay rates. The results are also compared to /sub Λ/12C weak decay rates previously measured by the CMU-BNL-Houston-New Mexico-Vassar collaboration. 57 refs., 98 figs., 26 tabs

  11. Extracting $p\\Lambda$ scattering lengths from heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Shapoval, V M; Lednicky, R; Sinyukov, Yu M

    2015-01-01

    The $p-\\Lambda \\oplus \\bar{p}-\\bar{\\Lambda}$ and $\\bar{p}-\\Lambda \\oplus p-\\bar{\\Lambda}$ correlation functions for 10% most central Au+Au collisions at top RHIC energy $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV are modeled with Lednicky and Lyuboshitz analytical formula using the source radii extracted from the hydrokinetic model (HKM) simulations. For the baryon-antibaryon case the corresponding spin-averaged strong interaction scattering length is obtained by fitting the STAR correlation function. In contrast to the experimental results, where extracted $p\\bar{\\Lambda}$ source radius value was found $\\sim 2$ times smaller than the corresponding $p\\Lambda$ one, the calculations in HKM show both $p\\Lambda$ and $p\\bar{\\Lambda}$ effective source radii to be quite close, as expected from theoretical considerations. To obtain the satisfactory fit to the measured baryon-antibaryon correlation function at this large source radius value, the modified analytical approximation to the correlation function, effectively accounting for the...

  12. lambda-fuzzy approximate fixed point in fuzzy metric spaces

    OpenAIRE

    H. Mazaheri; S. A. M. Mohsenalhosseini

    2014-01-01

    In this paper $\\lambda$-fuzzy approximate fixed point for a map and $\\lambda$-fuzzy pair approximate fixed points for two maps in fuzzy metric spaces are defined. Instead of fuzzy numbers or real numbers are used to define fuzzy points. We also prove the existence theorems.

  13. Lambda production in the DIS target fragmentation region

    CERN Document Server

    Ceccopieri, Federico Alberto

    2015-01-01

    By using a recently obtained set of Lambda fracture functions, we present predictions for Lambda production in the target fragmentation region of Semi-Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering in CLAS@12 GeV kinematics. We discuss a number of observables sensitive to some of the assumptions adopted in the model and which could further constrain it.

  14. Observation of the $\\Lambda_b^0\\to\\Lambda\\phi$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The $\\Lambda_b^0\\to\\Lambda\\phi$ decay is observed using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0fb$^{-1}$ recorded by the LHCb experiment. The decay proceeds at leading order via a $b\\to s\\bar{s}s$ loop transition and is therefore sensitive to the possible presence of particles beyond the Standard Model. A first observation is reported with a significance of $5.9$ standard deviations. The value of the branching fraction is measured to be $(5.18\\pm1.04\\pm0.35\\,^{+0.67}_{-0.62})\\times10^{-6}$, where the first uncertainty is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is related to external inputs. Triple-product asymmetries are measured to be consistent with zero.

  15. Measurement of spin observables in exclusive $pp \\to \\Lambda \\Lambda$ production

    CERN Document Server

    Paschke, K

    2000-01-01

    The PS185 experiment at LEAR has produced a wealth of high precision measurements of cross-sections and final state polarization observables in near-threshold antihyperon-hyperon production from antiproton-proton annihilation. In its most recent run, PS185/3 extended its capabilities by utilizing a transversely polarized frozen spin target to measure exclusive Lambda Lambda production. This allows access to a broad set of spin observables involving initial state spin. Competing theoretical models for this reaction have differing predictions for some of these newly accessible spin observables, most notably the depolarization D/sub nn/. This data is expected to provide a rigorous test of these models. Current results from the analysis of this data are presented. (5 refs).

  16. The identified. Lambda. Lambda. -hypernuclei and the predicted H-particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalitz, R.H. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics); Davis, D.H. (University Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Fowler, P.H. (Bristol Univ. (UK). H.H. Wills Physics Lab.); Montwill, A. (University Coll., Dublin (Ireland). Dept. of Physics); Pniewski, J.; Zakrzewski, J.A. (Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Experimental Physics)

    1989-11-08

    The existence of the H particle, the dihyperon predicted by Jaffe, would bring into question the existence of double hypernuclei. We review the two double hypernucleus events published in the literature. We include an independent report, hitherto unpublished, which was made on the {sub {Lambda}{Lambda}}{sup 10}Be event in 1963 and clarifies the salient features of the event; this report reaffirms its published interpretation. We have made a simple calculation of the energy spectrum for {Xi}-hyperons produced with K{sup -} beams in past emulsion experiments, with a result which accounts adequately for the paucity of reported double hypernucleus events. We outline a hybrid emulsion experiment that would locate {Xi}-hyperon interactions efficiently and could thereby greatly improve our knowledge of double hypernuclei. (author).

  17. Properties of the Lambda(1405) Measured at CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kei Moriya, Reinhard Schumacher

    2012-04-01

    The nature of the {Lambda}(1405), and its place in the baryon spectrum has remained uncertain for decades. Theoretical studies have shown that it may possess strong dynamical components which are not seen in other well-known baryons. Using the CLAS detector system in Hall B at Jefferson Lab, we have measured the photoproduction reaction {gamma} + p {yields} K{sup +} {Lambda}(1405) with high statistics and over different {Sigma}{pi} decay channels. The reconstructed invariant mass distribution (lineshape) has been measured, as well as the differential cross sections for the {Lambda}(1405), {Sigma}(1385), and {Lambda}(1520). Our analysis method is discussed and our near-final results for the {Lambda}(1405) lineshape and differential cross section are presented.

  18. Comment on "Lattice determination of $\\Sigma$-$\\Lambda$ mixing"

    CERN Document Server

    Gal, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    A recent Lattice QCD (LQCD) calculation of $\\Sigma$-$\\Lambda$ mixing by the QCDSF-UKQCD Collaboration [Phys. Rev. D 91, 074512 (2015)] finds a mixing angle about half of that found from the Dalitz-Von Hippel (DvH) flavor SU(3) mass formula which relates the $\\Sigma$-$\\Lambda$ mixing matrix element to known octet baryon mass differences and which has been used widely to evaluate charge symmetry breaking effects in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei. We show that the LQCD-calculated $\\Sigma$-$\\Lambda$ mixing matrix element and octet baryon masses satisfy the DvH mass formula, concluding thereby that a good LQCD evaluation of $\\Sigma$-$\\Lambda$ mixing requires an equally good reproduction of octet baryon mass differences which is yet to be demonstrated.

  19. Superdeduction in Lambda-Bar-Mu-Mu-Tilde

    CERN Document Server

    Houtmann, Clément

    2011-01-01

    Superdeduction is a method specially designed to ease the use of first-order theories in predicate logic. The theory is used to enrich the deduction system with new deduction rules in a systematic, correct and complete way. A proof-term language and a cut-elimination reduction already exist for superdeduction, both based on Christian Urban's work on classical sequent calculus. However the computational content of Christian Urban's calculus is not directly related to the (lambda-calculus based) Curry-Howard correspondence. In contrast the Lambda bar mu mu tilde calculus is a lambda-calculus for classical sequent calculus. This short paper is a first step towards a further exploration of the computational content of superdeduction proofs, for we extend the Lambda bar mu mu tilde calculus in order to obtain a proofterm langage together with a cut-elimination reduction for superdeduction. We also prove strong normalisation for this extension of the Lambda bar mu mu tilde calculus.

  20. High Resolution Spectroscopy of 16N_Lambda by Electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusanno, Francesco; Urciuoli, Guido; Acha Quimper, Armando; Ambrozewicz, Pawel; Aniol, Konrad; Baturin, Pavlo; Bertin, Pierre; Benaoum, Hachemi; Blomqvist, Ingvar; Boeglin, Werner; Breuer, Herbert; Brindza, Paul; Bydzovsky, Petr; Camsonne, Alexandre; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chang, C.; Chang, C.C.; Chen, Jian-Ping; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, Eugene; Cisbani, Evaristo; Colilli, Stefano; Coman, Luminita; Craver, Brandon; de Cataldo, Giacinto; De Jager, Cornelis; De Leo, Raffaele; Deur, Alexandre; Ferdi, Catherine; Feuerbach, Robert; Folts, Edward; Frullani, Salvatore; Garibaldi, Franco; Gayou, Olivier; Giuliani, Fausto; Gomez, Javier; Gricia, Massimo; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Hayes, David; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmstrom, Timothy; Hyde, Charles; Ibrahim, Hassan; Iodice, Mauro; Jiang, Xiaodong; Kaufman, Lisa; Kino, Kouichi; Kross, Brian; Lagamba, Luigi; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Lucentini, Maurizio; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; Marrone, Stefano; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; McCormick, Kathy; Michaels, Robert; Millener, D.; Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Moffit, Bryan; Monaghan, Peter; Moteabbed, Maryam; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nanda, Sirish; Nappi, E.; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Norum, Blaine; Okasyasu, Y.; Paschke, Kent; Perdrisat, Charles; Piasetzky, Eliazer; Punjabi, Vina; Qiang, Yi; Raue, Brian; Reimer, Paul; Reinhold, Joerg; Reitz, Bodo; Roche, Rikki; Rodriguez, Victor; Saha, Arunava; Santavenere, Fabio; Sarty, Adam; Segal, John; Shahinyan, Albert; Singh, Jaideep; Sirca, Simon; Snyder, Ryan; Solvignon, Patricia; Sotona, M.; Sotona, Miloslav; Sotona, M.; Sotona, Miloslav; Sotona, M.; Sotona, Miloslav; Sotona, M.; Sotona, Miloslav; Subedi, Ramesh; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sulkosky, Vince; Sulkosky, Vincent; Suzuki, Tomokazu; Ueno, Hiroaki; Ulmer, Paul; Veneroni, P.P.; Voutier, Eric; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Zeng, X.; Zorn, Carl

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of the 16O(e, e'K+)16N_Lambda reaction has been performed at Jefferson Lab. A thin film of falling water was used as a target. This permitted a simultaneous measurement of the p(e, e'K+)Lambda,Sigma_0 exclusive reactions and a precise calibration of the energy scale. A ground-state binding energy of 13.76 ± 0.16 MeV was obtained for 16N_Lambda with better precision than previous measurements on the mirror hypernucleus 16O_Lambda. Precise energies have been determined for peaks arising from a Lambda in s and p orbits coupled to the p1/2 and p3/2 hole states of the 15N core nucleus.

  1. High Resolution Spectroscopy of 16N_Lambda by Electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Cusanno, F; Acha, A; Ambrozewicz, P; Aniol, K A; Baturin, P; Bertin, P Y; Benaoum, H; Blomqvist, K I; Böglin, W; Breuer, H; Brindza, P; Bydzovsky, P; Camsonne, A; Chang, C C; Chen, J -P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E A; Cisbani, E; Colilli, S; Coman, L; Craver, B J; De Cataldo, G; De Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deur, A P; Ferdi, C; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Giuliani, F; Gómez, J; Gricia, M; Hansen, J O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T K; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L J; Kino, K; Kross, B; Lagamba, L; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Lucentini, M; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R W; Millener, D J; Miyoshi, T; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P A; Moteabbed, M; Camacho, C Munoz; Nanda, S; Nappi, E; Nelyubin, V V; Norum, B E; Okasyasu, Y; Paschke, K D; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Punjabi, V A; Qiang, Y; Raue, B; Reimer, P E; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Roche, R E; Rodriguez, V M; Saha, A; Santavenere, F; Sarty, A J; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Singh, J; Sirca, S; Snyder, R; Solvignon, P H; Sotona, M; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V A; Suzuki, T; Ueno, H; Ulmer, P E; Veneroni, P; Voutier, E; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Zeng, X; Zorn, C

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study of the 16O(e,e'K^+)16N_Lambda reaction has been performed at Jefferson Lab. A thin film of falling water was used as a target. This permitted a simultaneous measurement of the p(e,e'K^+)Lambda,Sigma_0 exclusive reactions and a precise calibration of the energy scale. A ground-state binding energy of 13.76 +/- 0.16 MeV was obtained for 16N_Lambda with better precision than previous measurements on the mirror hypernucleus 16O_Lambda. Precise energies have been determined for peaks arising from a Lambda in s and p orbits coupled to the p_{1/2} and p_{3/2} hole states of the 15N core nucleus.

  2. Comments on \\Lambda and other repelling equations of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Hartmut

    DeSitter's (1917) cosmology of a universe devoid of matter but expanding due to a positive cosmological constant \\Lambda is commonly considered as a valid counterexample against a Machian interpretation of General Relativity. This view is conceptually questionable because of the mathematical equivalence of \\Lambda with a constant (`vacuum') energy density \\rho_{\\Lambda} (as e.g.\\ inflationists use it) implying an equation of state P=-\\rho_{\\Lambda} that leads to a `repelling force' in a standard universe. We discuss the reasons for this apparent antigravity extracted from the structure of the theory. Antigravitational effects can be produced by other equations of state as well, notably by proposed dark matter constituents. Such components plus matter and radiation lead to world models (we show examples) beyond the classical classification schemes for which we propose extensions in terms of `critical equations of state' rather than `critical \\Lambda'.

  3. High-resolution spectroscopy of Lambda16N by electroproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusanno, F; Urciuoli, G M; Acha, A; Ambrozewicz, P; Aniol, K A; Baturin, P; Bertin, P Y; Benaoum, H; Blomqvist, K I; Boeglin, W U; Breuer, H; Brindza, P; Bydzovský, P; Camsonne, A; Chang, C C; Chen, J-P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E A; Cisbani, E; Colilli, S; Coman, L; Craver, B J; De Cataldo, G; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deur, A P; Ferdi, C; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Giuliani, F; Gomez, J; Gricia, M; Hansen, J O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T K; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H F; Iodice, M; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L J; Kino, K; Kross, B; Lagamba, L; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Lucentini, M; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R W; Millener, D J; Miyoshi, T; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P A; Moteabbed, M; Muñoz Camacho, C; Nanda, S; Nappi, E; Nelyubin, V V; Norum, B E; Okasyasu, Y; Paschke, K D; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Punjabi, V A; Qiang, Y; Raue, B; Reimer, P E; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Roche, R E; Rodriguez, V M; Saha, A; Santavenere, F; Sarty, A J; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Singh, J; Sirca, S; Snyder, R; Solvignon, P H; Sotona, M; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V A; Suzuki, T; Ueno, H; Ulmer, P E; Veneroni, P; Voutier, E; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Zheng, X; Zorn, C

    2009-11-13

    An experimental study of the (16)O(e,e'K(+))(Lambda)(16)N reaction has been performed at Jefferson Lab. A thin film of falling water was used as a target. This permitted a simultaneous measurement of the p(e,e'K(+))Lambda, Sigma(0) exclusive reactions and a precise calibration of the energy scale. A ground-state binding energy of 13.76+/-0.16 MeV was obtained for (Lambda)(16)N with better precision than previous measurements on the mirror hypernucleus (Lambda)(16)O. Precise energies have been determined for peaks arising from a Lambda in s and p orbits coupled to the p(1/2) and p(3/2) hole states of the (15)N core nucleus. PMID:20365979

  4. Algebraic model for single-particle energies of $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Fortunato, L

    2016-01-01

    A model is proposed for the spectrum of $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei based on the $u(3)\\times u(2)$ Lie algebra, in which the internal degrees of freedom of the spin-1/2 $\\Lambda$ particle are treated in the Fermionic $u(2)$ scheme, while the motion of the hyperon inside a nucleus is described in the Bosonic $u(3)$ harmonic oscillator scheme. Within this model, a simple formula for single-particle energies of the $\\Lambda$ particle is obtained from the natural dynamical symmetry. The formula is applied to the experimental data on the reaction spectroscopy for the $^{89}_\\Lambda$Y and $^{51}_\\Lambda$V hypernuclei, providing a clear theoretical interpretation of the observed structures.

  5. Bacteriophages as potential treatment option for antibiotic resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Robert; van der Westhuizen, Wouter; Lee, Ji-Yun; Coetsee, Elke; Boucher, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The world is facing an ever-increasing problem with antibiotic resistant bacteria and we are rapidly heading for a post-antibiotic era. There is an urgent need to investigate alterative treatment options while there are still a few antibiotics left. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically target bacteria. Before the development of antibiotics, some efforts were made to use bacteriophages as a treatment option, but most of this research stopped soon after the discovery of antibiotics. There are two different replication options which bacteriophages employ. These are the lytic and lysogenic life cycles. Both these life cycles have potential as treatment options. There are various advantages and disadvantages to the use of bacteriophages as treatment options. The main advantage is the specificity of bacteriophages and treatments can be designed to specifically target pathogenic bacteria while not negatively affecting the normal microbiota. There are various advantages to this. However, the high level of specificity also creates potential problems, the main being the requirement of highly specific diagnostic procedures. Another potential problem with phage therapy includes the development of immunity and limitations with the registration of phage therapy options. The latter is driving research toward the expression of phage genes which break the bacterial cell wall, which could then be used as a treatment option. Various aspects of phage therapy have been investigated in studies undertaken by our research group. We have investigated specificity of phages to various avian pathogenic E. coli isolates. Furthermore, the exciting NanoSAM technology has been employed to investigate bacteriophage replication and aspects of this will be discussed. PMID:24619620

  6. Measurement of the production fraction times branching fraction $\\boldsymbol{ f(b\\to\\Lambda_{b})\\cdot \\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda_{b}\\to J/\\psi \\Lambda)}$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; /Nijmegen U. /Fermilab

    2011-05-01

    The {Lambda}{sub b}(udb) baryon is observed in the decay {Lambda}{sub b} {yields} J/{psi}{Lambda} using 6.1 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions collected with the D0 detector at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The production fraction multiplied by the branching fraction for this decay relative to that for the decay B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0} is measured to be 0.345 {+-} 0.034 (stat.) {+-} 0.033 (syst.) {+-} 0.003 (PDG). Using the world average value of f(b {yields} B{sup 0}) {center_dot} {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0}) = (1.74 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup -5}, they obtain f(b {yields} {Lambda}{sub b}) {center_dot} {Beta}({Lambda}{sub b} {yields} J/{psi}{Lambda}) = (6.01 {+-} 0.60 (stat.) {+-} 0.58 (syst.) {+-} 0.28 (PDG)) x 10{sup -5}. This measurement represents an improvement in precision by about a factor of three with respect to the current world average.

  7. Bacteriophages of Soft Rot Enterobacteriaceae-a minireview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp., formerly pectinolytic Erwinia spp.) are ubiquitous necrotrophic bacterial pathogens that infect a large number of different plant species worldwide, including economically important crops. Despite the fact that these bacteria have been studied for more than 50 years, little is known of their corresponding predators: bacteriophages, both lytic and lysogenic. The aim of this minireview is to critically summarize recent ecological, biological and molecular research on bacteriophages infecting Pectobacterium spp. and Dickeya spp. with the main focus on current and future perspectives in that field. PMID:26626879

  8. Complete genome sequence of Croceibacter bacteriophage P2559S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ilnam; Kang, Dongmin; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2012-08-01

    Croceibacter atlanticus HTCC2559(T), a marine bacterium isolated from the Sargasso Sea, is a phylogenetically unique member of the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain HTCC2559(T) possesses genes related to interaction with primary producers, which makes studies on bacteriophages infecting the strain interesting. Here we report the genome sequence of bacteriophage P2559S, which was isolated off the coast of the Republic of Korea and lytically infects HTCC2559(T). Many genes predicted in the P2559S genome had their homologs in Bacteroides phages. PMID:22843867

  9. Genetically engineered acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria by bacteriophage transduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, T.E.; Bruhn, D.F.; Bulmer, D.F.

    1989-05-10

    A bacteriophage capable of infecting acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria and processes for genetically engineering acidophilic bacteria for biomining or sulfur removal from coal are disclosed. The bacteriophage is capable of growth in cells existing at pH at or below 3.0. Lytic forms of the phage introduced into areas experiencing acid drainage kill the bacteria causing such drainage. Lysogenic forms of the phage having genes for selective removal of metallic or nonmetallic elements can be introduced into acidophilic bacteria to effect removal of the desired element from ore or coal. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Mechanism of bacteriophage conversion of lipase activity in Staphylococcus aureus.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C Y; Iandolo, J J

    1985-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus PS54 harbors two temperate bacteriophages and manifests no lipase activity on egg yolk agar. Curing of one of the resident prophages (L54a) restores lipase activity. To study the mechanism of bacteriophage conversion, the prophage was cured, and the gene encoding lipase activity was cloned into pBR322 in Escherichia coli on a 2.9-kilobase DNA fragment of the chromosome. The fragment was subcloned into a shuttle vector and subsequently transformed into S. aureus and Bacil...

  11. Observation of Spin-Dependent Charge Symmetry Breaking in $\\Lambda N$ Interaction: Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy of $^4_{\\Lambda }$He

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, T O; Akazawa, Y; Amano, N; Aoki, K; Botta, E; Chiga, N; Ekawa, H; Evtoukhovitch, P; Feliciello, A; Fujita, M; Gogami, T; Hasegawa, S; Hayakawa, S H; Hayakawa, T; Honda, R; Hosomi, K; Hwang, S H; Ichige, N; Ichikawa, Y; Ikeda, M; Imai, K; Ishimoto, S; Kanatsuki, S; Kim, M H; Kim, S H; Kinbara, S; Koike, T; Lee, J Y; Marcello, S; Miwa, K; Moon, T; Nagae, T; Nagao, S; Nakada, Y; Nakagawa, M; Ogura, Y; Sakaguchi, A; Sako, H; Sasaki, Y; Sato, S; Shiozaki, T; Shirotori, K; Sugimura, H; Suto, S; Suzuki, S; Takahashi, T; Tamura, H; Tanabe, K; Tanida, K; Tsamalaidze, Z; Ukai, M; Yamamoto, Y; Yang, S B

    2015-01-01

    The energy spacing between the ground-state spin doublet of $^4_\\Lambda $He(1$^+$,0$^+$) was determined to be $1406 \\pm 2 \\pm 2$ keV, by measuring $\\gamma$ rays for the $1^+ \\to 0^+$ transition with a high efficiency germanium detector array in coincidence with the $^4$He$(K^-,\\pi^-)$ $^4_\\Lambda $He reaction at J-PARC. In comparison to the corresponding energy spacing in the mirror hypernucleus $^4_\\Lambda $H, the present result clearly indicates the existence of charge symmetry breaking (CSB) in $\\Lambda N$ interaction. It is also found that the CSB effect is large in the $0^+$ ground state but is by one order of magnitude smaller in the $1^+$ excited state, demonstrating that the $\\Lambda N$ CSB interaction has spin dependence.

  12. Novel bacteriophages containing a genome of another bacteriophage within their genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud M Swanson

    Full Text Available A novel bacteriophage infecting Staphylococus pasteuri was isolated during a screen for phages in Antarctic soils. The phage named SpaA1 is morphologically similar to phages of the family Siphoviridae. The 42,784 bp genome of SpaA1 is a linear, double-stranded DNA molecule with 3' protruding cohesive ends. The SpaA1 genome encompasses 63 predicted protein-coding genes which cluster within three regions of the genome, each of apparently different origin, in a mosaic pattern. In two of these regions, the gene sets resemble those in prophages of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki str. T03a001 (genes involved in DNA replication/transcription, cell entry and exit and B. cereus AH676 (additional regulatory and recombination genes, respectively. The third region represents an almost complete genome (except for the short terminal segments of a distinct bacteriophage, MZTP02. Nearly the same gene module was identified in prophages of B. thuringiensis serovar monterrey BGSC 4AJ1 and B. cereus Rock4-2. These findings suggest that MZTP02 can be shuttled between genomes of other bacteriophages and prophages, leading to the formation of chimeric genomes. The presence of a complete phage genome in the genome of other phages apparently has not been described previously and might represent a 'fast track' route of virus evolution and horizontal gene transfer. Another phage (BceA1 nearly identical in sequence to SpaA1, and also including the almost complete MZTP02 genome within its own genome, was isolated from a bacterium of the B. cereus/B. thuringiensis group. Remarkably, both SpaA1 and BceA1 phages can infect B. cereus and B. thuringiensis, but only one of them, SpaA1, can infect S. pasteuri. This finding is best compatible with a scenario in which MZTP02 was originally contained in BceA1 infecting Bacillus spp, the common hosts for these two phages, followed by emergence of SpaA1 infecting S. pasteuri.

  13. Measurement of the $\\Lambda_{b}^{0}$ Decay Form Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crawley, B; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Ramler, L; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zupan, M

    2004-01-01

    The form factor of Lambda_b^0 baryons is estimated using 3.46 10^6 hadronic Z decays collected by the DELPHI experiment between 1992 and 1995. Charmed Lambda_c^+ baryons fully reconstructed in the pK-pi+, pK0_S, and Lambda pi+pi+pi- modes, are associated to a lepton with opposite charge in order to select Lambda_b^0 -> Lambda_c^+ l^- anti-nu_l decays. From a combined likelihood and event rate fit to the distribution of the Isgur-Wise variable w, and using the Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET), the slope of the b-baryon form factor is measured to be: rho-hat^2 = 2.03 +/- 0.46 (stat) ^{+0.72}_{-1.00} (syst). The exclusive semileptonic branching fraction Br(Lambda_b^0 -> Lambda_c^+ l^- anti-nu_l) can be derived from rho-hat^2 and is found to be (5.0^{+1.1}_{-0.8} (stat) ^{+1.6}_{-1.2} (syst))%. Limits on other branching fractions are also obtained.

  14. Mass and $K\\Lambda$ coupling of $N^*(1535)$

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, B C

    2006-01-01

    Using resonance isobar model and effective Lagrangian approach, from recent BES results on $J/\\psi\\to\\bar pp\\eta$ and $\\psi\\to\\bar pK^+\\Lambda$, we deduce the ratio between effective coupling constants of $N^*(1535)$ to $K\\Lambda$ and $p\\eta$ to be $R\\equiv g_{N^*(1535)K\\Lambda}/g_{N^*(1535)p\\eta} =1.3\\pm 0.3$. With previous known value of $g_{N^*(1535)p\\eta}$, the obtained new value of $g_{N^*(1535)K\\Lambda}$ is shown to reproduce recent $pp\\to pK^+\\Lambda$ near-threshold cross section data as well. Taking into account this large $N^*K\\Lambda$ coupling in the coupled channel Breit-Wigner formula for the $N^*(1535)$, its Berit-Wigner mass is found to be around 1400 MeV, much smaller than previous value of about 1535 MeV obtained without including its coupling to $K\\Lambda$. The implication on the nature of $N^*(1535)$ is discussed.

  15. Combined use of Bacteriophage K and a novel Bacteriophage to reduce Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, DR; Gaudion, A.; Bean, JE;

    2014-01-01

    Biofilms are major causes of impairment of wound healing and patient morbidity. One of the most common and aggressive wound pathogens is Staphylococcus aureus, displaying a large repertoire of virulence factors and commonly reduced susceptibility to antibiotics, such as the spread of methicillin-......-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Bacteriophages are obligate parasites of bacteria. They multiply intracellularly and lyse their bacterial host, releasing their progeny. We isolated a novel phage, DRA88, which has a ......Biofilms are major causes of impairment of wound healing and patient morbidity. One of the most common and aggressive wound pathogens is Staphylococcus aureus, displaying a large repertoire of virulence factors and commonly reduced susceptibility to antibiotics, such as the spread of methicillin...

  16. Semileptonic Decays of Heavy Lambda Baryons in a Quark Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston Roberts; Muslema Pervin; Simon Capstick

    2005-03-01

    The semileptonic decays of {Lambda}{sub c} and {Lambda}{sub b} are treated in the framework of a constituent quark model. Both nonrelativistic and semirelativistic Hamiltonians are used to obtain the baryon wave functions from a fit to the spectra, and the wave functions are expanded in both the harmonic oscillator and Sturmian bases. The latter basis leads to form factors in which the kinematic dependence on q{sup 2} is in the form of multipoles, and the resulting form factors fall faster as a function of q{sup 2} in the available kinematic ranges. As a result, decay rates obtained in the two models using the Sturmian basis are significantly smaller than those obtained using the harmonic oscillator basis. In the case of the {Lambda}{sub c}, decay rates calculated using the Sturmian basis are closer to the experimentally reported rates. However, we find a semileptonic branching fraction for the {Lambda}{sub c} to decay to excited {Lambda}* states of 11% to 19%, in contradiction with what is assumed in available experimental analyses. Our prediction for the {Lambda}{sub b} semileptonic decays is that decays to the ground state {Lambda}{sub c} provide a little less than 70% of the total semileptonic decay rate. For the decays {Lambda}{sub b} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}, the analytic form factors we obtain satisfy the relations expected from heavy-quark effective theory at the non-recoil point, at leading and next-to-leading orders in the heavy-quark expansion. In addition, some features of the heavy-quark limit are shown to naturally persist as the mass of the heavy quark in the daughter baryon is decreased.

  17. Weak decay of P shell lambda hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods and results of an experiment to study the weak decay of Lambda hypernuclei are presented. The hypernuclei under study were 12C, 11B, plus a hypernuclear of unknown charge and mass designed /sup a/Z. The hypernuclear production data were obtained using the Hypernuclear Spectrometer and the Low Energy Separated Beam (LESB I), at the AGS of Brookhaven National Laboratory. The Kaon beam momentum was 805 MeV/c. Three hypernuclear states were observed, the 12C ground state, the P substitutional state, and the S substitutional state. The P substitutional state has been previously observed to decay to 11B plus a low energy proton. Hence, decay products observed in coincidence with this state are from the weak decay of 11B. The S substitutional state is shown to decay to a stable but unidentified hypernucleus. The protons from the nonmesonic decay branch, and the negative pion from the mesonic decay branch were detected in a 14 elements scintillator range spectrometer. The neutrons from the nonmesonic decay branches were detected in a 24 element neutron detector. The experimental results are compared with several calculations for hypernuclear nonmesonic decay in infinite nuclear matter and in finite nuclei. Several of these calculations agree favorably with the total nonmesonic rate, but none of the calculations are able to determine both the nonmesonic rate and the neutron stimulated fraction. 40 refs., 103 figs., 25 tabs

  18. Mechanisms of mutagenesis for lambda phage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal experimental results are determination of the changes in DNA base sequence resulting from forward mutations in the cI (repressor) gene of lambda phage induced by various agents. For phage irradiated with ultraviolet light and assayed in lightly irradiated host cells to induce Weigle mutagenesis (targeted mutagenesis), two-thirds of the mutations are transitions. Most transitions seem to arise at the sites of Py(6-4)Pyo photoproducts, not at the more widely studied cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. The other mutations induced by ultraviolet are equally divided among transversions, frameshifts and double mutation events. The latter, two closely spaced base changes or a base change plus a frameshift, should rarely revert and may be the deletions induced by ultraviolet which have been previously reported. Unirradiated phage assayed in host cells heavily irradiated with ultraviolet light (nontargeted mutagenesis) show mainly frameshift mutations. These frameshifts may arise from low intracellular activity of DNA polymerase I when the enzyme binds to host DNA damaged by irradiation of the cells. Mismatch repair greatly reduced the numbers of mutations from bromouracil (which induces transitions by base mispairing) and acridines which induce frameshifts at runs of G.C base pairs). Only when mismatch repair activity is saturated by the number of improperly stacked bases in the DNA does a high level of mutagenesis occur

  19. Lambda Boo Abundance Patterns: Accretion from Orbiting Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Jura, M

    2015-01-01

    The abundance anomalies in lambda Boo stars are popularly explained by element-specific mass inflows at rates that are much greater than empirically-inferred bounds for interstellar accretion. Therefore, a lambda Boo star's thin outer envelope must derive from a companion star, planet, analogs to Kuiper Belt Objects or a circumstellar disk. Because radiation pressure on gas-phase ions might selectively allow the accretion of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen and inhibit the inflow of elements such as iron, the source of the acquired matter need not contain dust. We propose that at least some lambda Boo stars accrete from the winds of hot Jupiters.

  20. Lambda(1405) and Negative-Parity Baryons in Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nemoto, Y; Matsufuru, H; Suganuma, H

    2004-01-01

    We review briefly recent studies of the Lambda(1405) spectrum in Lattice QCD. Ordinary three-quark pictures of the Lambda(1405) in quenched Lattice QCD fail to reproduce the mass of the experimental value, which seems to support the penta-quark picture for the Lambda(1405) such as a Kbar-N molecule-like state. It is also noted that the present results suffer from relatively large systematic uncertainties coming from the finite volume effect, the chiral extrapolation and the quenching effect.

  1. Effects of scalar leptoquark on semileptonic $\\Lambda_b$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Sahoo, Suchismita

    2016-01-01

    We study the scalar leptoquark effects on the rare semileptonic decays of $\\Lambda_b$ baryon, governed by the quark level transition $b \\to s l^+ l^-$. We estimate the branching ratios, forward-backward asymmetries, lepton polarization parameters and the lepton flavour non-universality effects in these decay channels. We find significant deviations from the corresponding standard model predictions in some of the observables due to leptoquark effects. We also investigate the lepton flavour violating decays $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda l_i^- l_j^+$, the branching ratios of which are found to be ${\\cal O}(10^{-10} - 10^{-9})$.

  2. El editor Lambda para matemáticas

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz Carenas, J.; Fernández del Campo Sánchez, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    Se presentan las características y principales prestaciones del editor matemático Lambda (LAMBDA: Linear Access to Mathematics for Braille Devices and Audio-synthesis; en español, Acceso lineal a las matemáticas para dispositivos braille o de síntesis de audio), con el cual estudiantes y profesionales con discapacidad visual pueden escribir, leer y manipular expresiones simbólico-matemáticas hasta un nivel universitario superior. Lambda permite la edición accesible y la comunicación gráfica i...

  3. Semantics of a Typed Algebraic Lambda-Calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Valiron

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Algebraic lambda-calculi have been studied in various ways, but their semantics remain mostly untouched. In this paper we propose a semantic analysis of a general simply-typed lambda-calculus endowed with a structure of vector space. We sketch the relation with two established vectorial lambda-calculi. Then we study the problems arising from the addition of a fixed point combinator and how to modify the equational theory to solve them. We sketch an algebraic vectorial PCF and its possible denotational interpretations.

  4. Semantics of a Typed Algebraic Lambda-Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Benoît Valiron

    2010-01-01

    Algebraic lambda-calculi have been studied in various ways, but their semantics remain mostly untouched. In this paper we propose a semantic analysis of a general simply-typed lambda-calculus endowed with a structure of vector space. We sketch the relation with two established vectorial lambda-calculi. Then we study the problems arising from the addition of a fixed point combinator and how to modify the equational theory to solve them. We sketch an algebraic vectorial PCF and its possible den...

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Bacteriophage Smudge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Jessica L.; Breslin, Eileen; Schuhmacher, Zachary; Himelright, Madison; Berluti, Cassandra; Boyd, Charles; Carson, Rachel; Del Gallo, Elle; Giessler, Caris; Gilliam, Benjamin; Heatherly, Catherine; Nevin, Julius; Nguyen, Bryan; Nguyen, Justin; Parada, Jocelyn; Sutterfield, Blake; Tukruni, Muruj

    2016-01-01

    Smudge, a bacteriophage enriched from soil using Bacillus thuringiensis DSM-350 as the host, had its complete genome sequenced. Smudge is a myovirus with a genome consisting of 292 genes and was identified as belonging to the C1 cluster of Bacillus phages. PMID:27540049

  6. Multiple roles of genome-attached bacteriophage terminal proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein-primed replication constitutes a generalized mechanism to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in linear genomes, including viruses, gram-positive bacteria, linear plasmids and mobile elements. By this mechanism a specific amino acid primes replication and becomes covalently linked to the genome ends. Despite the fact that TPs lack sequence homology, they share a similar structural arrangement, with the priming residue in the C-terminal half of the protein and an accumulation of positively charged residues at the N-terminal end. In addition, various bacteriophage TPs have been shown to have DNA-binding capacity that targets TPs and their attached genomes to the host nucleoid. Furthermore, a number of bacteriophage TPs from different viral families and with diverse hosts also contain putative nuclear localization signals and localize in the eukaryotic nucleus, which could lead to the transport of the attached DNA. This suggests a possible role of bacteriophage TPs in prokaryote-to-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer. - Highlights: • Protein-primed genome replication constitutes a strategy to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in linear genomes. • Bacteriophage terminal proteins (TPs) are covalently attached to viral genomes by their primary function priming DNA replication. • TPs are also DNA-binding proteins and target phage genomes to the host nucleoid. • TPs can also localize in the eukaryotic nucleus and may have a role in phage-mediated interkingdom gene transfer

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis Bacteriophage Smudge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Jessica L; Breslin, Eileen; Schuhmacher, Zachary; Himelright, Madison; Berluti, Cassandra; Boyd, Charles; Carson, Rachel; Del Gallo, Elle; Giessler, Caris; Gilliam, Benjamin; Heatherly, Catherine; Nevin, Julius; Nguyen, Bryan; Nguyen, Justin; Parada, Jocelyn; Sutterfield, Blake; Tukruni, Muruj; Temple, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Smudge, a bacteriophage enriched from soil using Bacillus thuringiensis DSM-350 as the host, had its complete genome sequenced. Smudge is a myovirus with a genome consisting of 292 genes and was identified as belonging to the C1 cluster of Bacillus phages. PMID:27540049

  8. Bacteriophage for prophylaxis and therapy in cattle, poultry, and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The successful use of virulent (lytic) bacteriophages (phages) in preventing and treating neonatal enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections in calves, lambs and pigs has prompted investigation of other applications phage therapy in food animals. While results have been very variable, some indica...

  9. Multiple roles of genome-attached bacteriophage terminal proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Salas, Margarita, E-mail: msalas@cbm.csic.es

    2014-11-15

    Protein-primed replication constitutes a generalized mechanism to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in linear genomes, including viruses, gram-positive bacteria, linear plasmids and mobile elements. By this mechanism a specific amino acid primes replication and becomes covalently linked to the genome ends. Despite the fact that TPs lack sequence homology, they share a similar structural arrangement, with the priming residue in the C-terminal half of the protein and an accumulation of positively charged residues at the N-terminal end. In addition, various bacteriophage TPs have been shown to have DNA-binding capacity that targets TPs and their attached genomes to the host nucleoid. Furthermore, a number of bacteriophage TPs from different viral families and with diverse hosts also contain putative nuclear localization signals and localize in the eukaryotic nucleus, which could lead to the transport of the attached DNA. This suggests a possible role of bacteriophage TPs in prokaryote-to-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer. - Highlights: • Protein-primed genome replication constitutes a strategy to initiate DNA or RNA synthesis in linear genomes. • Bacteriophage terminal proteins (TPs) are covalently attached to viral genomes by their primary function priming DNA replication. • TPs are also DNA-binding proteins and target phage genomes to the host nucleoid. • TPs can also localize in the eukaryotic nucleus and may have a role in phage-mediated interkingdom gene transfer.

  10. Perturbative Corrections to $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda$ Form Factors from QCD Light-Cone Sum Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We compute radiative corrections to $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda$ from factors, at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy, from QCD light-cone sum rules with $\\Lambda_b$-baryon distribution amplitudes. Employing the diagrammatic approach factorization of the vacuum-to-$\\Lambda_b$-baryon correlation function is justified at leading power in $\\Lambda/m_b$, with the aid of the method of regions. Hard functions entering the factorization formulae are identical to the corresponding matching coefficients of heavy-to-light currents from QCD onto soft-collinear effective theory. The universal jet function from integrating out the hard-collinear fluctuations exhibits richer structures compared with the one involved in the factorization expressions of the vacuum-to-$B$-meson correlation function. Based upon the QCD resummation improved sum rules we observe that the perturbative corrections at ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s)$ shift the $\\Lambda_b \\to \\Lambda$ from factors at large recoil significantly and the dominant contribution originat...

  11. The electromagnetic form factors of the $\\Lambda$ in the timelike region

    CERN Document Server

    Haidenbauer, J

    2016-01-01

    The reaction $e^+e^- \\to \\bar \\Lambda \\Lambda$ is investigated for energies close to the threshold. Specific emphasis is put on the role played by the interaction in the final $\\bar \\Lambda \\Lambda$ system which is taken into account rigorously. For that interaction a variety of $\\bar \\Lambda \\Lambda$ potential models is employed that have been constructed for the analysis of the reaction $\\bar p p \\to \\bar \\Lambda \\Lambda$ in the past. The enhancement of the effective form factor for energies close to the $\\bar \\Lambda \\Lambda$ threshold, seen in pertinent experiments, is reproduced. Predictions for the $\\Lambda$ electromagnetic form factors $G_M$ and $G_E$ in the timelike region and for spin-dependent observables such as spin-correlation parameters are presented.

  12. First Observation of the $\\Lambda(1405)$ Line Shape in Electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, H Y

    2013-01-01

    We report the first observation of the line shape of the $\\Lambda(1405)$ from electroproduction, and show that it is not a simple Breit-Wigner resonance. Electroproduction of $K^+ \\Lambda(1405)$ off the proton was studied by using data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab in the range $1.0Lambda(1405)$ and $p \\pi^0$ of the $\\Sigma^+$. Neither the standard (PDG) resonance parameters, nor free parameters fitting to a single Breit-Wigner resonance represent the line shape. In our fits, the line shape corresponds approximately to predictions of a two-pole meson-baryon picture of the $\\Lambda(1405)$, with a lower mass pole near 1368 MeV/c$^2$ and a higher mass pole near 1423 MeV/c$^2$. Furthermore, with increasing photon virtuality the mass distribution shifts toward the higher mass pole.

  13. LAMBDA - Legacy Archive for Microwave Background Data Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) and the Legacy Archive for Microwave Background Data Analysis (LAMBDA) have merged into a...

  14. Characterisation of Strongly Normalising lambda-mu-Terms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen van Bakel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We provide a characterisation of strongly normalising terms of the lambda-mu-calculus by means of a type system that uses intersection and product types. The presence of the latter and a restricted use of the type omega enable us to represent the particular notion of continuation used in the literature for the definition of semantics for the lambda-mu-calculus. This makes it possible to lift the well-known characterisation property for strongly-normalising lambda-terms - that uses intersection types - to the lambda-mu-calculus. From this result an alternative proof of strong normalisation for terms typeable in Parigot's propositional logical system follows, by means of an interpretation of that system into ours.

  15. Automatic Binding Time Analysis for a Typed Lambda-Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    1988-01-01

    A binding time analysis imposes a distinction between the computations to be performed early (e.g. at compile-time) and those to be performed late (e.g. at run-time). For the lambda-calculus this distinction is formalized by a two-level lambda-calculus. The authors present an algorithm for static...... analysis of the binding times of a typed lambda-calculus with products, sums, lists and general recursive types. Given partial information about the binding times of some of the subexpressions it will complete that information such that (i) early bindings may be turned into late bindings but not vice versa......, (ii) the resulting two-level lambda-expression reflects our intuition about binding times, e.g. that early bindings are performed before late bindings, and (iii) as few changes as possible have been made compared with the initial binding information. The results can be applied in the implementation...

  16. Perturbative $\\lambda$-Supersymmetry and Small $\\kappa$-Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Sibo

    2014-01-01

    For the minimal $\\lambda$-supersymmetry, it stays perturbative to GUT scale if $\\lambda \\leq 0.7$. This upper bound can be relaxed if one either takes the criteria for non-perturbation when coupling closes to $\\sim 4\\pi$ or allows new fields at intermediate scale. It is shown that a simple $U(1)_X$ gauge sector with spontaneously broken scale $\\sim10$ TeV improves the bound as $\\lambda\\leq1.2$ instead. This deviation can induce significant effects on Higgs physics such as decreasing fine tuning involving Higgs mass, as well as on small $\\kappa$-phenomenology, the latter of which will be revised for $\\lambda$ in this new range.

  17. Proof Systems for Retracts in Simply Typed Lambda Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Stirling, Colin,

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns retracts in simply typed lambda calculus assuming βη-equality. We provide a simple tableau proof system which characterises when a type is a retract of another type and which leads to an exponential decision procedure.

  18. High Resolution Spectroscopy of 16N#Lambda# by Electroproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study of the 16O(e, e'K+)16N#Lambda# reaction has been performed at Jefferson Lab. A thin film of falling water was used as a target. This permitted a simultaneous measurement of the p(e, e'K+)Λ,Σ0 exclusive reactions and a precise calibration of the energy scale. A ground-state binding energy of 13.76 ± 0.16 MeV was obtained for 16N#Lambda# with better precision than previous measurements on the mirror hypernucleus 16O#Lambda#. Precise energies have been determined for peaks arising from a Lambda in s and p orbits coupled to the p1/2 and p3/2 hole states of the 15N core nucleus.

  19. The call-by-need lambda calculus (unabridged).

    OpenAIRE

    Maraist, John; Odersky, Martin; Wadler, Phil

    2007-01-01

    We present a calculus that captures the operational semantics of call-by-need.We demonstrate that the calculus is confluent and standardizable and entails the same observational equivalences as call-by-name lambda calculus.

  20. Observation of B- to pbar Lambda D0 at Belle

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, P; Adachi, I; Aihara, H; Asner, D M; Aulchenko, V; Aushev, T; Bakich, A M; Barberio, E; Belous, K; Bhuyan, B; Bozek, A; Bračko, M; Browder, T E; Chang, M -C; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, A; Cheon, B G; Cho, I -S; Cho, K; Choi, Y; Dalseno, J; Danilov, M; Doležal, Z; Drásal, Z; Eidelman, S; Fast, J E; Feindt, M; Gaur, V; Goh, Y M; Haba, J; Hara, T; Hayasaka, K; Hayashii, H; Hoshi, Y; Hou, W -S; Hsiung, Y B; Hyun, H J; Ishikawa, A; Itoh, R; Iwabuchi, M; Iwasaki, Y; Iwashita, T; Julius, T; Kang, J H; Kapusta, P; Katayama, N; Kawasaki, T; Kichimi, H; Kiesling, C; Kim, H O; Kim, J B; Kim, J H; Kim, K T; Kim, M J; Kim, Y J; Kinoshita, K; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, N; Koblitz, S; Križan, P; Kuhr, T; Kuzmin, A; Kwon, Y -J; Lange, J S; Lee, S -H; Li, J; Li, Y; Libby, J; Liu, C; Liu, Y; Liventsev, D; Louvot, R; Matvienko, D; McOnie, S; Miyata, H; Miyazaki, Y; Mohanty, G B; Nagasaka, Y; Nakano, E; Nakao, M; Natkaniec, Z; Neubauer, S; Nishida, S; Nitoh, O; Ogawa, S; Ohshima, T; Olsen, S L; Onuki, Y; Pakhlov, P; Pakhlova, G; Park, H; Park, H K; Pedlar, T K; Pestotnik, R; Peters, M; Petrič, M; Piilonen, L E; Ritter, M; Röhrken, M; Ryu, S; Sahoo, H; Sakai, Y; Sanuki, T; Schneider, O; Schwanda, C; Senyo, K; Sevior, M E; Shapkin, M; Shen, C P; Shibata, T -A; Shiu, J -G; Shwartz, B; Simon, F; Singh, J B; Smerkol, P; Sohn, Y -S; Solovieva, E; Stanič, S; Starič, M; Sumihama, M; Sumiyoshi, T; Tatishvili, G; Teramoto, Y; Uchida, M; Uehara, S; Unno, Y; Uno, S; Varner, G; Varvell, K E; Wang, C H; Wang, X L; Watanabe, Y; Williams, K M; Won, E; Yabsley, B D; Yamashita, Y; Yamauchi, M; Zhang, Z P

    2011-01-01

    We study B- meson decays to pbar Lambda D(*)0 final states using a sample of 657 * 10^6 B Bbar events collected at the Upsilon(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+ e- collider. The observed branching fraction for B- to pbar Lambda D0 is (1.43^ +0.28_-0.25 +- 0.18)*10^-5. with a significance of 8.1 standard deviations, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. Most of the signal events have the pbarLambda mass peaking near threshold. No significant signal is observed for B- to pbar Lambda D*0 and the corresponding upper limit on the branching fraction is 4.8 * 10^-5 at the 90% confidence level.

  1. Mesonic Decay of Charm Hypernuclei $\\Lambda^+_c$

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Sabyasachi; Krein, Gastão

    2016-01-01

    $\\Lambda^+_c$ hypernuclei are expected to have binding energies and other properties similar to those of strange hypernuclei in view of the similarity between the quark structures of the strange and charmed hyperons, namely $\\Lambda(uds)$ and $\\Lambda^+_c (udc)$. One striking difference however occurs in their mesonic decays, as there is almost no Pauli blocking in the nucleonic decay of a charm hypernucleus because the final-state nucleons leave the nucleus at high energies. The nuclear medium nevertheless affects the mesonic decays of charm hypernucleus because the nuclear mean fields modify the masses of the charm hyperon. In the present communication we present results of a first investigation of the effects of finite baryon density on different weak mesonic decay channels of the $\\Lambda^+_c$ baryon. We found a non-negligible reduction of the decay widths as compared to their vacuum values.

  2. A high statistics measurement of the Lambda(+)(c) lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, J M; Reyes, M; Yager, P M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; Massafferi, A; de Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; dos Reis, A C; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cuautle, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vazquez, F; Agostino, L; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Ramirez, J E; Segoni, I; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Bianco, S; Fabbri, F L; Zallo, A; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Kryemadhi, A; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Boschini, M; D'Angelo, P; DiCorato, M; Dini, P; Giammarchi, M; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Milazzo, L; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Merlo, M M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Vitulo, P; Hernandez, H; Lopez, A M; Luiggi, E; Mendez, H; Mendez, L; Mirles, A; Montiel, E; Olaya, D; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Rivera, C; Xiong, W; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Cho, K; Handler, T; Mitchell, R; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Nehring, M; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Vaandering, E W; Webster, M; Sheaff, M

    2002-04-22

    A high statistics measurement of the Lambda(+)(c) lifetime from the Fermilab fixed-target FOCUS photoproduction experiment is presented. We describe the analysis technique with particular attention to the determination of the systematic uncertainty. The measured value of 204.6 +/- 3.4 (stat) +/- 2.5 (syst) fs from 8034 +/- 122 Lambda(+)(c)-->pK(-)pi(+) decays represents a significant improvement over the present world average. PMID:11955226

  3. Shear-induced assembly of lambda-phage DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Haber, C.; Wirtz, D

    2000-01-01

    Recombinant DNA technology, which is based on the assembly of DNA fragments, forms the backbone of biological and biomedical research. Here we demonstrate that a uniform shear flow can induce and control the assembly of lambda-phage DNA molecules: increasing shear rates form integral DNA multimers of increasing molecular weight. Spontaneous assembly and grouping of end-blunted lambda-phage DNA molecules are negligible. It is suggested that shear-induced DNA assembly is caused by increasing th...

  4. Fundamental theorems of extensional untyped $\\lambda$-calculus revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Lyaletsky

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new proofs of three following fundamental theorems of the untyped extensional $\\lambda$-calculus: the $\\eta$-Postpo-nement theorem, the $\\beta\\eta$-Normal form theorem, and the Norma-lization theorem for $\\beta\\eta$-reduction. These proofs do not involve any special extensions of the standard language of $\\lambda$-terms but nevertheless are shorter and much more comprehensive than their known analogues.

  5. Lambda production in the DIS target fragmentation region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccopieri, Federico A. [Universite de Liege, IFPA, Liege (Belgium)

    2016-02-15

    By using a recently obtained set of Lambda fracture functions, we present predictions for Lambda production in the target fragmentation region of semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering in CLAS rate at 12 GeV kinematics, supplemented with a conservative error estimate. We discuss a number of observables sensitive to the assumptions of the underlying theory and many of the assumptions of the proposed phenomenological model. (orig.)

  6. Analysis of $\\Lambda_{b} \\rightarrow$ $\\Lambda \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ decay in scalar leptoquark model

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shuai-wei

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the baryonic semilepton decay $\\Lambda_{b} \\rightarrow$ $\\Lambda \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ in the scalar leptoquark models with $X(3,2,7/6)$ and $X(3,2,1/6)$ states, respectively. We also discuss the effects of this two NP models on some physical observables. For some measured observables, like the differential decay width, the longitudinal polarization of the dilepton system, the lepton-side forward-backward asymmetry and the baryon-side forward-backward asymmetry, we find, the prediction values of SM are consistent with the current data in the most $q^{2}$ ranges, where the prediction values of this two NP models can also keep consistent with the current data with $1\\sigma$. However, in some $q^{2}$ ranges, the prediction values of SM are difficult to meet the current data, but the contributions of this two NP models can meet them or keep closer to them. For the double lepton polarization asymmetries, $P_{LT}$, $P_{TL}$, $P_{NN}$ and $P_{TT}$ are sensitive to the scalar leptoquark model $X(3,2,7/6)$ but n...

  7. Scaled momentum distributions for K0s and Lambda/bar Lambda in DIS at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Aggarwal, R; Antonelli, S; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Aushev, V; Aushev, Y; Bachynska, O; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartosik, N; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Behnke, O; Behr, J; Behrens, U; Bellagamba, L; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bindi, M; Blohm, C; Bokhonov, V; Bold, T; Bondarenko, K; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Bot, D; Brock, I; Brownson, E; Brugnera, R; Brummer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Brzozowska, B; Bussey, P J; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chekanov, S; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; D'Agostini, G; Corso, F Dal; del Peso, J; Dementiev, R K; De Pasquale, S; Derrick, M; Devenish, R C E; Dobur, D; Dolgoshein, B A; Dolinska, G; Doyle, A T; Drugakov, V; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, A; Fang, S; Fazio, S; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Forrest, M; Foster, B; Gach, G; Galas, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Gialas, I; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Gogota, O; Golubkov, Yu A; Goettlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grebenyuk, J; Gregor, I; Grigorescu, G; Grzelak, G; Gueta, O; Guzik, M; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hamatsu, R; Hart, J C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Hilger, E; Hochman, D; Hori, R; Horton, K; Huttmann, A; Ibrahim, Z A; Iga, Y; Ingbir, R; Ishitsuka, M; Jakob, H -P; Januschek, F; Jones, T W; Jungst, M; Kadenko, I; Kahle, B; Kananov, S; Kanno, T; Karshon, U; Karstens, F; Katkov, I I; Kaur, M; Kaur, P; Keramidas, A; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Klanner, R; Klein, U; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P; Korol, Ie; Korzhavina, I A; Kotanski, A; Koetz, U; Kowalski, H; Kuprash, O; Kuze, M; Lee, A; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Libov, V; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Lisovyi, M; Lobodzinska, E; Lohmann, W; Loehr, B; Lohrmann, E; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lontkovskyi, D; Lukina, O Yu; Maeda, J; Magill, S; Makarenko, I; Malka, J; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Mattingly, M C K; Melzer-Pellmann, I -A; Mergelmeyer, S; Miglioranzi, S; Idris, F Mohamad; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Morris, J D; Mujkic, K; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Namsoo, T; Nania, R; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Nobe, T; Noor, U; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Oh, B Y; Okazaki, N; Oliver, K; Olkiewicz, K; Onishchuk, Yu; Papageorgiu, K; Parenti, A; Paul, E; Pawlak, J M; Pawlik, B; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Perlanski, W; Perrey, H; Piotrzkowski, K; Plucinski, P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Reisert, B; Ren, Z; Repond, J; Ri, Y D; Robertson, A; Roloff, P; Rubinsky, I; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Salii, A; Samson, U; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schleper, P; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schoenberg, V; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Schwartz, J; Sciulli, F; Shcheglova, L M; Shehzadi, R; Shimizu, S; Singh, I; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Sola, V; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V; Spiridonov, A; Stadie, H; Stanco, L; Stern, A; Stewart, T P; Stifutkin, A; Stopa, P; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sztuk-Dambietz, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tapper, A D; Tassi, E; Terron, J; Theedt, T; Tiecke, H; Tokushuku, K; Tomalak, O; Tomaszewska, J; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Vazquez, M; Verbytskyi, A; Viazlo, O; Vlasov, N N; Volynets, O; Walczak, R; Abdullah, W A T Wan; Whitmore, J J; Wiggers, L; Wing, M; Wlasenko, M; Wolf, G; Wolfe, H; Wrona, K; Yagues-Molina, A G; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Zarnecki, A F; Zawiejski, L; Zenaiev, O; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zhmak, N; Zhou, C; Zichichi, A; Zolkapli, Z; Zolko, M; Zotkin, D S

    2012-01-01

    Scaled momentum distributions for the strange hadrons K0s and Lambda/bar Lambda were measured in deep inelastic ep scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 330 pb-1. The evolution of these distributions with the photon virtuality, Q2, was studied in the kinematic region 10 < Q2 < 40000 GeV2 and 0.001 < x < 0.75, where x is the Bjorken scaling variable. Clear scaling violations are observed. Predictions based on different approaches to fragmentation were compared to the measurements. Tuned leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo calculations interfaced to the Lund string fragmentation model describe the data reasonably well in the whole range measured. Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations based on fragmentation functions, FFs, extracted from e+e- data alone, fail to describe the measurements. The calculations based on FFs extracted from a global analysis including e+e-, ep and pp data give an improved description. The measurements presented in this paper hav...

  8. Study of the semileptonic decay $\\Lambda^{0}_{b} \\to \\Lambda^{+}_{c}l^{-}\\overline{v}_{l}$

    CERN Document Server

    Albertus, C; Nieves, J; 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2005.01.005

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of a nonrelativistic quark model we evaluate the six form factors associated with the Lambda /sub b//sup 0/ to Lambda /sub c//sup +/l/sup -/v/sub l/ semileptonic decay. The baryon wave functions were evaluated using a variational approach applied to a family of trial functions constrained by Heavy Quark Symmetry (HQS). We use a spectator model with only one-body current operators. For these operators we keep up to first order terms on the internal (small) heavy quark momentum, but all orders on the transferred (large) momentum. Our result for the partially integrated decay width is in good agreement with lattice calculations. Comparison of our total decay width to experiment allows us to extract theV/sub cb /Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element for which we obtain a value of ¿V/sub cb/¿=0.047+or-0.005 in agreement with a recent determination by the DELPHI Collaboration. Furthermore, we obtain the universal Isgur-Wise function with a slope parameter rho /sup 2/=0.98 in agreement with...

  9. Genetic recombination of ultraviolet-irradiated nonreplicating lambda DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic recombination of ultraviolet-irradiated, nonreplicating lambda DNA was studied. Escherichia coli homoimmune lysogens were infected with ultraviolet-irradiated lambda phage whose DNA possessed a tandem duplication of the A to V genes. Recombination between duplicated segments produced lambda, DNA molecules possessing only one copy of the A to V region. DNA was extracted from cells and used to transfect recombination-deficient spheroplasts. Transfection lysates were assayed for total lambda phage and recombinant (EDTA-resistant) phage. Ultraviolet-stimulated recombination was shown to be completely RecA-dependent, mostly RecF-dependent, and RecBC and RecE-independent. Experiments with excision repair-deficient (uvr-) bacteria suggested that ultraviolet-stimulated recombination occurred by both Uvr-dependent and Uvr-independent processes. A role for pyrimidine dimers in recombination was indicated by the reduction in recombination frequency subsequent to photoreactivation and by experiments using lambda phase irradiated under conditions that produce almost exclusively pyrimidine dimers. A role for photoproducts other than pyrimidine dimers was suggested by the photo-reactivation-insensitive component of 254nm-stimulated recombination and by the observation that recombination frequencies of 254-irradiated phage were much greater than those of 313 nm/acetophenone-irradiated phage when both types of phage possessed the same number of pyridimidine dimers per lambda duplex

  10. Role of $Y(4630)$ in the $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_c\\bar{\\Lambda}_c$ reaction near threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yan-Yan; Wang, En; li, De-Min

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the charmed baryon production reaction $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_c\\bar{\\Lambda}_c$ in an effective Lagrangian approach. Besides the $t$-channel $D^0$ and $D^{*0}$ mesons exchanges, the $s$-channel $Y(4630)$ meson exchange is taken into account. For the total cross sections, the $D^0$ and $D^{*0}$ mesons provide minor background contributions, while the $Y(4630)$ state gives a clear peak structure with the magnitude of 10 $\\mu$b at center of mass energy 4.63 GeV. Basing on the results, we suggest that the reaction of $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow\\Lambda_c\\bar{\\Lambda}_c$ can be used to search for the $1^{--}$ charmonium-like $Y(4630)$ state, and our predictions can be tested in future by the $\\rm{\\bar PANDA}$ facility.

  11. Prevalence of Broad-Host-Range Lytic Bacteriophages of Sphaerotilus natans, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Ellen C.; Schrader, Holly S.; Rieland, Brenda; Thompson, Thomas L.; Lee, Kit W.; Nickerson, Kenneth W.; Kokjohn, Tyler A.

    1998-01-01

    Two bacteriophage collections were examined with regard to their ability to form plaques on multiple bacterial host species. Nine of 10 phages studied were found to be broad-host-range bacteriophages. These phages fell into two groups. Group 1, the SN series, was isolated from sewage treatment plant samples with Sphaerotilus natans ATCC 13338 as a host. The DNAs of these bacteriophages contained modified bases and were insensitive to cleavage by type I and II restriction endonucleases. The ef...

  12. The gene for type A streptococcal exotoxin (erythrogenic toxin) is located in bacteriophage T12.

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, C R; Ferretti, J J

    1984-01-01

    The infection of Streptococcus pyogenes T25(3) with the temperate bacteriophage T12 results in the conversion of the nontoxigenic strain to type A streptococcal exotoxin (erythrogenic toxin) production. Although previous research has established that integration of the bacteriophage genome into the host chromosome is not essential for exotoxin production, the location of the gene on the bacteriophage or bacterial chromosome had not been determined. In the present investigation, recombinant DN...

  13. Simultaneous loss of bacteriophage receptor and coaggregation mediator activities in Actinomyces viscosus MG-1.

    OpenAIRE

    Tylenda, C A; Enriquez, E.; Kolenbrander, P. E.; Delisle, A L

    1985-01-01

    Actinomyces bacteriophages were used as tools to study coaggregation between actinomyces and streptococci. Four bacteriophage isolates, phages AV-1, AV-2, AV-3, and 1281, bound to coaggregation group A Actinomyces viscosus and to group E A. naeslundii. No binding to groups B, C, D, or F was observed. Only A. viscosus MG-1 was capable of supporting a productive infection by these phages. Spontaneously occurring bacteriophage-resistant mutants of A. viscosus MG-1 were isolated and were shown to...

  14. Template reporter bacteriophage platform and multiple bacterial detection assays based thereon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, Lawrence (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The invention is a method for the development of assays for the simultaneous detection of multiple bacteria. A bacteria of interest is selected. A host bacteria containing plasmid DNA from a T even bacteriophage that infects the bacteria of interest is infected with T4 reporter bacteriophage. After infection, the progeny bacteriophage are plating onto the bacteria of interest. The invention also includes single-tube, fast and sensitive assays which utilize the novel method.

  15. The semileptonic decay Lambda_b -> Lambda_c + tau(-) + antinu_tau in the covariant confined quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Gutsche, Thomas; Korner, Jurgen G; Lyubovitskij, Valery E; Santorelli, Pietro; Habyl, Nurgul

    2015-01-01

    Recently there has been much interest in the tauonic semileptonic meson decays B -> D+ tau + nu_tau and B -> D* + tau + nu_tau where one has found larger rates than what is predicted by the Standard Model. We analyze the corresponding semileptonic baryon decays Lambda_b(0) -> Lambda_c(+) + tau(-) + antinu_tau with particular emphasis on the lepton helicity flip and scalar contributions which vanish for zero lepton masses. We calculate the total rate, differential decay distributions, the longitudinal and transverse polarization of the daughter baryon Lambda_c(+) and the tau-lepton, and the lepton-side forward-backward asymmetries. The nonvanishing polarization of the daughter baryon Lambda_c(+) leads to hadron-side asymmetries in e.g. the decay Lambda_c(+) -> Lambda(0) + pi(+) and azimuthal correlations between the two final state decay planes which we specify. We provide numerical results on these observables using results of the covariant confined quark model. We find large lepton mass effects in the q2-spe...

  16. Differential branching fraction and angular analysis of $\\Lambda^{0}_{b} \\rightarrow \\Lambda^0 \\mu^+\\mu^-$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casanova Mohr, Raimon; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The differential branching fraction of the rare decay $\\Lambda^{0}_{b} \\rightarrow \\Lambda^0 \\mu^+\\mu^-$ is measured as a function of $q^{2}$, the square of the dimuon invariant mass. The analysis is performed using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3.0 \\mbox{ fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb experiment. Evidence of signal is observed in the $q^2$ region below the square of the $J/\\psi$ mass. Integrating over $15 < q^{2} < 20 \\mbox{ GeV}^2/c^4$ the branching fraction is measured as $d\\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda^{0}_{b} \\rightarrow \\Lambda^0 \\mu^+\\mu^-)/dq^2 = (1.18 ^{+ 0.09} _{-0.08} \\pm 0.03 \\pm 0.27) \\times 10^{-7} ( \\mbox{GeV}^{2}/c^{4})^{-1}$, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic and due to the normalisation mode, $\\Lambda^{0}_{b} \\rightarrow J/\\psi \\Lambda^0$, respectively. In the $q^2$ intervals where the signal is observed, angular distributions are studied and the forward-backward asymmetries in the dimuon ($A^{l}_{\\rm FB}$) and hadron ($A^{h}_{\\r...

  17. P-wave Lambda N - Sigma N coupling and the spin-orbit splitting of 9 Lambda Be

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Suzuki, Y

    2008-01-01

    We reexamine the spin-orbit splitting of 9 Lambda Be excited states in terms of the SU_6 quark-model baryon-baryon interaction. The previous folding procedure to generate the Lambda alpha spin-orbit potential from the quark-model Lambda N LS interaction kernel predicted three to five times larger values for Delta E_{ell s}=E_x(3/2^+)-E_x(5/2^+) in the model FSS and fss2. This time, we calculate Lambda alpha LS Born kernel, starting from the LS components of the nuclear-matter G-matrix for the Lambda hyperon. This framework makes it possible to take full account of an important P-wave Lambda N - Sigma N coupling through the antisymmetric LS^{(-)} force involved in the Fermi-Breit interaction. We find that the experimental value, Delta E^{exp}_{ell s}=43 pm 5 keV, is reproduced by the quark-model G-matrix LS interaction with a Fermi-momentum around k_F=1.0 fm^{-1}, when the model FSS is used in the energy-independent renormalized RGM formalism.

  18. On the role of Cro in lambda prophage induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Sine Lo; Constantino, Nina; Court, Donald L;

    2005-01-01

    The lysogenic state of bacteriophage ¿ is exceptionally stable yet the prophage is readily induced in response to DNA damage. This delicate epigenetic switch is believed to be regulated by two proteins; the lysogenic maintenance promoting protein CI and the early lytic protein Cro. First, we conf...... of the cro gene might be unimportant for the lysogenic to lytic switch during induction of the ¿ prophage. We revisit the idea that Cro's primary role in induction is instead to mediate weak repression of the early lytic promoters.......The lysogenic state of bacteriophage ¿ is exceptionally stable yet the prophage is readily induced in response to DNA damage. This delicate epigenetic switch is believed to be regulated by two proteins; the lysogenic maintenance promoting protein CI and the early lytic protein Cro. First, we...

  19. On the role of Cro in lambda prophage induction

    OpenAIRE

    Svenningsen, Sine Lo; Constantino, Nina; Court, Donald L.; Adhya, Sankar

    2005-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: March 22 The lysogenic state of bacteriophage ¿ is exceptionally stable yet the prophage is readily induced in response to DNA damage. This delicate epigenetic switch is believed to be regulated by two proteins; the lysogenic maintenance promoting protein CI and the early lytic protein Cro. First, we confirm, in the native configuration, the previous observation that the DNA loop mediated by oligomerization of CI bound to two distinct operator regions (O L and O R), increas...

  20. Phage WO of Wolbachia: lambda of the endosymbiont world

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Bethany N.; Bordenstein, Seth R.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of an extraordinarily high level of mobile elements in the genome of Wolbachia, a widespread arthropod and nematode endosymbiont, suggests that this bacterium could be an excellent model for assessing the evolution and function of mobile DNA in specialized bacteria. Here, we discuss how studies on the temperate bacteriophage WO of Wolbachia have revealed unexpected levels of genomic flux and are challenging previously held views about the clonality of obligate intracellular bact...

  1. Methods for generation of reporter phages and immobilization of active bacteriophages on a polymer surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Bruce Michael (Inventor); Perry, Lynda Louise (Inventor); Morgan, Mark Thomas (Inventor); Kothapalli, Aparna (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Novel reporter bacteriophages are provided. Provided are compositions and methods that allow bacteriophages that are used for specific detection or killing of E. coli 0157:H7 to be propagated in nonpathogenic E. coli, thereby eliminating the safety and security risks of propagation in E. coli 0157:H7. Provided are compositions and methods for attaching active bacteriophages to the surface of a polymer in order to kill target bacteria with which the phage comes into contact. Provided are modified bacteriophages immobilized to a surface, which capture E. coli 0157:H7 and cause the captured cells to emit light or fluorescence, allowing detection of the bacteria in a sample.

  2. Lambda interferon (IFN-lambda), a type III IFN, is induced by viruses and IFNs and displays potent antiviral activity against select virus infections in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ank, Nina; West, Hans; Bartholdy, Christina;

    2006-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFNs) (interleukin-28/29 or lambda interferon [IFN-lambda]) are cytokines with IFN-like activities. Here we show that several classes of viruses induce expression of IFN-lambda1 and -lambda2/3 in similar patterns. The IFN-lambdas were-unlike alpha/beta interferon (IFN......-alpha potently restricted both viruses. Using three murine models for generalized virus infections, we found that while recombinant IFN-alpha reduced the viral load after infection with EMCV, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and HSV-2, treatment with recombinant IFN-lambda in vivo did not affect viral......-alpha/beta)-induced directly by stimulation with IFN-alpha or -lambda, thus identifying type III IFNs as IFN-stimulated genes. In vitro assays revealed that IFN-lambdas have appreciable antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) but limited activity against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), whereas IFN...

  3. Direct and general selection for lysogens of Escherichia coli by phage lambda recombinant clones.

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, M F; Cronan, J E

    1991-01-01

    We report a simple in vivo technique for introducing an antibiotic resistance marker into phage lambda. This technique could be used for direct selection of lysogens harboring recombinant phages from the Kohara lambda bank (a collection of ordered lambda clones carrying Escherichia coli DNA segments). The two-step method uses homologous recombination and lambda DNA packaging to replace the nonessential lambda DNA lying between the lysis genes and the right cohesive (cos) end with the neomycin...

  4. Fission of heavy $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei with the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach

    OpenAIRE

    Minato, F.; Chiba, S.; Hagino, K.

    2009-01-01

    Fission-related phenomena of heavy $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei are discussed with the constraint Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+BCS (SHF+BCS) method, in which a similar Skyrme-type interaction is employed also for the interaction between a $\\Lambda$ particle and a nucleon. Assuming that the $\\Lambda$ particle adiabatically follows the fission motion, we discuss the fission barrier height of $^{239}_{\\Lambda}$U. We find that the fission barrier height increases slightly when the $\\Lambda$ particle occupies the...

  5. Identification of a panel of tumor-associated antigens from breast carcinoma cell lines, solid tumors and testis cDNA libraries displayed on lambda phage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianfriglia Maurizio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor-associated antigens recognized by humoral effectors of the immune system are a very attractive target for human cancer diagnostics and therapy. Recent advances in molecular techniques have led to molecular definition of immunogenic tumor proteins based on their reactivity with autologous patient sera (SEREX. Methods Several high complexity phage-displayed cDNA libraries from breast carcinomas, human testis and breast carcinoma cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 were constructed. The cDNAs were expressed in the libraries as fusion to bacteriophage lambda protein D. Lambda-displayed libraries were efficiently screened with sera from patients with breast cancer. Results A panel of 21 clones representing 18 different antigens, including eight proteins of unknown function, was identified. Three of these antigens (T7-1, T11-3 and T11-9 were found to be overexpressed in tumors as compared to normal breast. A serological analysis of the 21 different antigens revealed a strong cancer-related profile for at least five clones (T6-2, T6-7, T7-1, T9-21 and T9-27. Conclusions Preliminary results indicate that patient serum reactivity against five of the antigens is associated with tumor disease. The novel T7-1 antigen, which is overexpressed in breast tumors and recognized specifically by breast cancer patient sera, is potentially useful in cancer diagnosis.

  6. Identification of a panel of tumor-associated antigens from breast carcinoma cell lines, solid tumors and testis cDNA libraries displayed on lambda phage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor-associated antigens recognized by humoral effectors of the immune system are a very attractive target for human cancer diagnostics and therapy. Recent advances in molecular techniques have led to molecular definition of immunogenic tumor proteins based on their reactivity with autologous patient sera (SEREX). Several high complexity phage-displayed cDNA libraries from breast carcinomas, human testis and breast carcinoma cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-468 were constructed. The cDNAs were expressed in the libraries as fusion to bacteriophage lambda protein D. Lambda-displayed libraries were efficiently screened with sera from patients with breast cancer. A panel of 21 clones representing 18 different antigens, including eight proteins of unknown function, was identified. Three of these antigens (T7-1, T11-3 and T11-9) were found to be overexpressed in tumors as compared to normal breast. A serological analysis of the 21 different antigens revealed a strong cancer-related profile for at least five clones (T6-2, T6-7, T7-1, T9-21 and T9-27). Preliminary results indicate that patient serum reactivity against five of the antigens is associated with tumor disease. The novel T7-1 antigen, which is overexpressed in breast tumors and recognized specifically by breast cancer patient sera, is potentially useful in cancer diagnosis

  7. Insights into Bacteriophage Application in Controlling Vibrio Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchumanan, Vengadesh; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Saokaew, Surasak; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Goh, Bey-Hing; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Lee, Learn-Han

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections from various organisms including Vibrio sp. pose a serious hazard to humans in many forms from clinical infection to affecting the yield of agriculture and aquaculture via infection of livestock. Vibrio sp. is one of the main foodborne pathogens causing human infection and is also a common cause of losses in the aquaculture industry. Prophylactic and therapeutic usage of antibiotics has become the mainstay of managing this problem, however, this in turn led to the emergence of multidrug resistant strains of bacteria in the environment; which has raised awareness of the critical need for alternative non-antibiotic based methods of preventing and treating bacterial infections. Bacteriophages – viruses that infect and result in the death of bacteria – are currently of great interest as a highly viable alternative to antibiotics. This article provides an insight into bacteriophage application in controlling Vibrio species as well underlining the advantages and drawbacks of phage therapy. PMID:27486446

  8. A method for the detection of bacteriophages from ocean water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moebus, K.

    1980-03-01

    A method for the isolation of bacteriophages from ocean water is described. It precludes sample storage before starting phage-enrichment cultures and provides for the use of 3 sub-samples enriched with organic nutrients after 1, 2 and 3 days of incubation. The method was used with samples collected from 6 m below the surface at 48 stations between the European continental shelf and the Sargasso Sea. With 213 among 931 bacterial isolates about 250 strains of bacteriophages were detected by two methods of different sensitivity. From 14 samples taken east of the Azores 115 host bacteria have been found versus only 98 from 34 samples collected at westerly stations. The employment of more than one sub-sample per station as well as the use of more sensitive phage-detection procedures was found to be more advantageous the lower the concentration of cultivatable bacteria in a sample.

  9. Biocontrol of Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum using bacteriophage PP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeong-A; Jee, Samnyu; Lee, Dong Hwan; Roh, Eunjung; Jung, Kyusuk; Oh, Changsik; Heu, Sunggi

    2013-08-01

    Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (formerly Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora) is a plant pathogen that causes soft rot and stem rot diseases in several crops, including Chinese cabbage, potato, and tomato. To control this bacterium, we isolated a bacteriophage, PP1, with lytic activity against P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the PP1 phage belongs to the Podoviridae family of the order Caudovirales, which exhibit icosahedral heads and short non-contractile tails. PP1 phage showed high specificity for P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, and several bacteria belonging to different species and phyla were resistant to PP1. This phage showed rapid and strong lytic activity against its host bacteria in liquid medium and was stable over a broad range of pH values. Disease caused by P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum was significantly reduced by PP1 treatment. Overall, PP1 bacteriophage effectively controls P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. PMID:23727798

  10. Bacteriophage application to control the contaminated water with Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jin Woo; Giri, Sib Sankar; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Yun, Sae Kil; Chi, Cheng; Chai, Ji Young; Lee, Byeong Chun; Park, Se Chang

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is one of the most important waterborne and foodborne pathogens around the world. Emergence of antibiotic-resistant Shigella has made the development of alternatives to conventional antibiotics necessary. In this study, a virulent Myoviridae bacteriophage, pSs-1 was isolated from environmental water in South Korea and showed infectivity to S. flexneri as well as S. sonnei strains. One-step growth analysis showed that pSs-1 has a short latent period (25 min) and a large burst size (97 PFU/cell). According to the genomic analysis, pSs-1 contains 164,999 bp of genome with a G + C content of 35.54% and it is considered as a member of the T4-like bacteriophage group. These results showed that pSs-1 may have potential as a biocontrol agent instead of conventional antibiotics for shigellosis. PMID:26971572

  11. Measurement of the Lambda_b Lifetime in Lambda_b --> J/psi Lambda0 in p-pbar Collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$=1.96 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abulencia, A; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bölla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, Yu A; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Budroni, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carrillo, S; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Crescioli, F; Cuenca-Almenar, C; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Cyr, D; Da Ronco, S; D'Auria, S; Davies, T; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; De Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Delli Paoli, F; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; Di Turo, P; Dorr, C; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernández, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; García, J E; Garberson, F; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gómez, G; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimarães da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B Y; Han, J Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Höcker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J R; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jindariani, S; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraan, A C; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhlmann, S E; Kuhr, T; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, Y J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P F; Lu, R S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Mäki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtälä, P; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Movilla-Fernández, P A; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Müller, T; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Österberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, Aldo L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pinera, L; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptochos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Ranjan, N; Rappoccio, S; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; Renton, P B; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Saltzberg, D; Sánchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfyrla, A; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T G; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakian, A; Sjölin, J; Slaughter, A J; Slaunwhite, J; Sliwa, K; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Söderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Spreitzer, T; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; Saint-Denis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tesarek, R J; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tokar, S; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vallecorsa, S; Van Remortel, N; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Vázquez, F; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vine, T; Vollrath, I; Volobuev, I P; Volpi, G; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, J; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Weinberger, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, G; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, T; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yang, Y C; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, G B; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2006-01-01

    We report a measurement of the Lambda_b lifetime in the exclusive decay Lambda_b --> J/psi Lambda0 in p-pbar collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 1.96 TeV using an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb^{-1} of data collected by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using fully reconstructed decays, we measure tau(Lambda_b) = 1.593 ^{+0.083}_{-0.078} (stat.) +- 0.033 (syst.) ps. This is the single most precise measurement of tau(Lambda_b) and is 3.2 sigma higher than the current world average.

  12. Octamerization of lambda CI repressor is needed for effective repression of P(RM) and efficient switching from lysogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, I B; Perkins, A J; Tsemitsidis, D; Egan, J B

    2001-11-15

    The CI repressor of bacteriophage lambda is a model for the role of cooperativity in the efficient functioning of genetic switches. Pairs of CI dimers interact to cooperatively occupy adjacent operator sites at O(R) and at O(L). These CI tetramers repress the lytic promoters and activate transcription of the cI gene from P(RM). CI is also able to octamerize, forming a large DNA loop between O(R) and O(L), but the physiological role of this is unclear. Another puzzle is that, although a dimer of CI is able to repress P(RM) by binding to the third operator at O(R), O(R)3, this binding seems too weak to affect CI production in the lysogenic state. Here we show that repression of P(RM) at lysogenic CI concentrations is absolutely dependent on O(L), in this case 3.8 kb away. A mutant defective in this CI negative autoregulation forms a lysogen with elevated CI levels that cannot efficiently switch from lysogeny to lytic development. Our results invalidate previous evidence that Cro binding to O(R)3 is important in prophage induction. We propose the octameric CI:O(R)-O(L) complex increases the affinity of CI for O(R)3 by allowing a CI tetramer to link O(R)3 and the third operator at O(L), O(L)3. PMID:11711436

  13. Bacteriophage-encoded depolymerases: their diversity and biotechnological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Diana Priscila Penso; Oliveira, Hugo Alexandre Mendes; Melo, Luís D. R.; Sillankorva, Sanna; Azeredo, Joana

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages (phages), natural enemies of bacteria, can encode enzymes able to degrade polymeric substances. These substances can be found in the bacterial cell surface, such as polysaccharides, or are produced by bacteria when they are living in biofilm communities, the most common bacterial lifestyle. Consequently, phages with depolymerase activity have a facilitated access to the host receptors, by degrading the capsular polysaccharides, and are believed to have a better performance agai...

  14. P. fluorescens biofilm control using bacteriophage ΦS1

    OpenAIRE

    Sillankorva, Sanna; Oliveira, Rosário; Vieira, M. J.; Sutherland, Ian W.; Azeredo, Joana

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilms contribute to the spoilage of dairy industry products due to the proteolytic activity of some Pseudomonas fluorescens strains. The eradication of these biofilms is difficult using the traditional chemical biocides due to the low removal action of these agents. Additionally chemical control leaves inactivated cells attached to the surface that tends to provide an ideal environment for further bacterial adhesion and growth. Bacteriophages can be seen as good alt...

  15. Choline-containing bacteriophage receptors in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, R. (Rafael); Garcia, E.; Garcia, P.; Ronda, C; Tomasz, A.

    1982-01-01

    Choline-containing teichoic acid seems to be essential for the adsorption of bacteriophage Dp-1 to pneumococci. This conclusion is based on the following observations: In contrast to pneumococci grown in choline-containing medium, cells grown in medium containing ethanolamine or other submethylated aminoalcohols instead of choline were found to be resistant to infection by Dp-1. Live choline-grown bacteria and heat- or UV-inactivated cells and purified cell walls prepared from these cells wer...

  16. Bacteriophages : an underestimated role in human and animal health ?

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne eDe Paepe; Marion eLeclerc; Tinsley, Colin R.; Marie-Agnès ePetit

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e. the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associa...

  17. Genetic analysis of bacteriophages from clinical and environmental samples

    OpenAIRE

    Knapik, Kamila Z.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophages, viruses infecting bacteria, are uniformly present in any location where there are high numbers of bacteria, both in the external environment and the human body. Knowledge of their diversity is limited by the difficulty to culture the host species and by the lack of the universal marker gene present in all viruses. Metagenomics is a powerful tool that can be used to analyse viral communities in their natural environments. The aim of this study was to investigate diverse populat...

  18. Molecular and Chemical Engineering of Bacteriophages for Potential Medical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Hodyra, Katarzyna; Dąbrowska, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in molecular engineering has contributed to the great progress of medicine. However, there are still difficult problems constituting a challenge for molecular biology and biotechnology, e.g. new generation of anticancer agents, alternative biosensors or vaccines. As a biotechnological tool, bacteriophages (phages) offer a promising alternative to traditional approaches. They can be applied as anticancer agents, novel platforms in vaccine design, or as target carriers in drug d...

  19. Salmonella bacteriophage diversity reflects host diversity on dairy farms

    OpenAIRE

    Switt, Andrea I. Moreno; den Bakker, Henk C.; Vongkamjan, Kitiya; Hoelzer, Karin; Warnick, Lorin D.; Cummings, Kevin J.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella is an animal and human pathogen of worldwide concern. Surveillance programs indicate that the incidence of Salmonella serovars fluctuates over time. While bacteriophages are likely to play a role in driving microbial diversity, our understanding of the ecology and diversity of Salmonella phages is limited. Here we report the isolation of Salmonella phages from manure samples from 13 dairy farms with a history of Salmonella presence. Salmonella phages were isolated from 10 of the 13...

  20. Identification of mutations conferring 5-azacytidine resistance in bacteriophage

    OpenAIRE

    Arribas, María; Cabanillas, Laura; Lázaro, Ester

    2011-01-01

    RNA virus replication takes place at a very high error rate, and additional increases in this parameter can produce the extinction of virus infectivity. Nevertheless, RNA viruses can adapt to conditions of increased mutagenesis, which demonstrates that selection of beneficial mutations is also possible at higher-than-standard error rates. In this study we have analysed the evolutionary behaviour of bacteriophage Qβ populations when replication proceeds in the presence of the mutagenic nucleos...

  1. Isolation of Actinomyces bacteriophage from human dental plaque.

    OpenAIRE

    Tylenda, C A; Calvert, C.; Kolenbrander, P. E.; Tylenda, A

    1985-01-01

    Human dental plaque samples were screened for the presence of bacteriophage for Actinomyces viscosus and Streptococcus sanguis. None of the 336 samples yielded phage for S. sanguis, but 10 contained virulent actinomyces phage. A high host cell specificity was observed in that one phage isolate infected only A. viscosus T14V, eight phage isolates infected only A. viscosus MG-1, and one infected both strains. None was capable of productively infecting various other actinomyces strains that repr...

  2. Effects of sunlight on bacteriophage viability and structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viruses are now widely recognized as the most abundant member of aquatic planktonic communities. Questions concerning the ecological role of viruses in such communities have lead to resurgent interest in the persistence of free fivuses in marine waters. This study seeks to evaluate the effects of solar radiation on the survival of viruses in surface waters. In situ effects of natural sunlight on infectivity and destruction of viral capsids of two estuarine bacteriophages were examined

  3. Characterization of bacteriophage communities and CRISPR profiles from dental plaque

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Mayuri; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Abeles, Shira R.; Boehm, Tobias K; Pride, David T

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental plaque is home to a diverse and complex community of bacteria, but has generally been believed to be inhabited by relatively few viruses. We sampled the saliva and dental plaque from 4 healthy human subjects to determine whether plaque was populated by viral communities, and whether there were differences in viral communities specific to subject or sample type. Results We found that the plaque was inhabited by a community of bacteriophage whose membership was mostly subject-...

  4. Measurement of Singly Cabibbo-Suppressed Decays $\\Lambda_c^{+}\\to p\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Lambda_c^{+}\\to pK^{+}K^{-}$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ahmed, S; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Bakina, O; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Berger, N; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chai, J; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Farinelli, R; Fava, L; Fegan, S; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, L; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, R P; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Heinsius, F H; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Holtmann, T; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, X Z; Huang, Y; Huang, Z L; Hussain, T; Andersson, W Ikegami; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kupsc, A; Kühn, W; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leithoff, H; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, H J; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P L; Li, P R; Li, Q Y; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y B; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Y Y; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Long, Y F; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, M M; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y M; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Mezzadri, G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales, C Morales; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Musiol, P; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schnier, C; Schumann, K Schoenning S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, M; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X H; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, L J; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, J J; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; You, Z Y; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, S Q; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2016-01-01

    Using 567 $pb^{-1}$ of data collected with the BESIII detector at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}=$ 4.599 $GeV$, near the $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}\\Lambda_{c}^{-}$ threshold, we study the singly Cabibbo-suppressed decays $\\Lambda_c^{+}\\to p\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Lambda_c^{+}\\to pK^{+}K^{-}$. By normalizing with respect to the Cabibbo-favored decay $\\Lambda_c^{+}\\to pK^{-}\\pi^{+}$, we obtain ratios of branching fractions: $\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda_c^{+}\\to p\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda_c^{+}\\to pK^{-}\\pi^{+})}$ = $(6.70 \\pm 0.48 \\pm 0.25)\\%$, $\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda_c^{+}\\to p\\phi)}{\\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda_c^{+}\\to pK^{-}\\pi^{+})}$ = $(1.81 \\pm 0.33 \\pm 0.13)\\%$, and $\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda_c^{+}\\to pK^{+}K^{-}_{\\text{non-}\\phi})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\Lambda_c^{+}\\to pK^{-}\\pi^{+})}$ = $(9.36 \\pm 2.22 \\pm 0.71)\\times10^{-3}$, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. The absolute branching fractions are also presented. Among these measurements, the decay $\\Lambda_c^{+}\\to p\\pi^{+}\\pi^...

  5. First observation and measurement of the resonant structure of the lambda_b->lambda_c pi-pi+pi- decay mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azzurri, P.; Barria, P.; Ciocci, M.A.; Donati, S.; Vataga, E.

    2009-12-01

    The authors present the first observation of the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decay using data from an integrated luminosity of approximately 2.4 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV, collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. They also present the first observation of the resonant decays {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Sigma}{sub c}(2455){sup 0} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Sigma}{sub c}(2455){sup ++}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}(2595){sup +}{pi}{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}(2625){sup +}{pi}{sup -} {yields} {Lambda}{sub c}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, and measure their relative branching ratios.

  6. Photoproduction of the. Lambda. sub c charmed baryon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M.P.; Calvino, F.; Crespo, J.M. (Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)); Barate, R.; DiCiaccio, L.; Ferrer, A.; Giomataris, Y.; Pattison, B.; Treille, D.; Zolnierowski, Y. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Bloch, D.; Engel, J.P.; Foucault, P.; Gerber, J.P.; Strub, R. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France). Centre de Recherches Nucleaires Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France)); Bonamy, P.; Borgeaud, P.; David, M.; Lemoigne, Y.; Magneville, C.; Primout, M.; Villet, G. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Physique des Particules Elementaires); Burchell, M.; Burmeister, H.; Cattaneo, M.; Dixon, J.; Duane, A.; Forty, R.W.; Seez, C.; Websdale, D.M. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Blackett Lab.); Brunet, J.M.; Poutot, D.; Triscos, P.; Tristram, G.; Volte, A. (College de France, 75 - Paris (France)); Almagne, B. d' ; Druet, P.; Krafft, C.; Lefievre, B.; Roudeau, P.; Six, J.; Wayne, M.; NA14/2 Collaboration

    1990-08-23

    In a photoproduction experiment using a mean photon energy of 100 GeV we have observed 29{plus minus}8 {Lambda}{sub c} (anti {Lambda}{sub c}) charmed-baryon and antibaryon decays in the pK{sup -}{pi}{sup +} (anti pK{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) final state. Quasi two-body final states do not contribute significantly to this channel. The mass of the {Lambda}{sub c} was measured to be 2281.7{plus minus}2.7{plus minus}2.6 MeV/c{sup 2} and its lifetime 0.18{plus minus}0.03{plus minus}0.03 ps. The ratio of {Lambda}{sub c}/D production, measured in this experiment, is significantly greater than that predicted by photon-gluon fusion and using a Lund model to describe the hadronization. This excess cannot be completely accounted for in this model, even using a {Lambda}{sub c} branching fraction in pK{pi} as high as 5%. (orig.).

  7. A Measurement of the Recoil Polarization of Electroproduced {Lambda}(1116)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeon McAleer

    2002-01-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer at the Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory was used to study the reaction e + p {yields} e{prime} + K{sup +} + {Lambda}(1116) for events where {Lambda}(1116) subsequently decayed via the channel {Lambda}(1116) {yields} p + {pi}{sup -}. Data were taken at incident electron beam energies of 2.5, 4.0, and 4.2 GeV during the 1999 E1C run period. They hyperon production spectra span the Q{sup 2} range from 0.5 to 2.8 GeV{sup 2} and nearly the entire range in the center of mass angles. The proton angular distribution in the {Lambda}(1116) rest frame is used to deduce the recoil polarization of the hyperon, and the W and cos {theta}{sub cm}{sup K+} dependence of the recoil polarization will be presented. The data show sizeable negative polarizations for the {Lambda}(1116) as a function of both cos {theta}{sub cm}{sup K+} and W.

  8. Bacteriophages and medical oncology: targeted gene therapy of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshinejad, Babak; Karimi, Marzieh; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2014-08-01

    Targeted gene therapy of cancer is of paramount importance in medical oncology. Bacteriophages, viruses that specifically infect bacterial cells, offer a variety of potential applications in biomedicine. Their genetic flexibility to go under a variety of surface modifications serves as a basis for phage display methodology. These surface manipulations allow bacteriophages to be exploited for targeted delivery of therapeutic genes. Moreover, the excellent safety profile of these viruses paves the way for their potential use as cancer gene therapy platforms. The merge of phage display and combinatorial technology has led to the emergence of phage libraries turning phage display into a high throughput technology. Random peptide libraries, as one of the most frequently used phage libraries, provide a rich source of clinically useful peptide ligands. Peptides are known as a promising category of pharmaceutical agents in medical oncology that present advantages such as inexpensive synthesis, efficient tissue penetration and the lack of immunogenicity. Phage peptide libraries can be screened, through biopanning, against various targets including cancer cells and tissues that results in obtaining cancer-homing ligands. Cancer-specific peptides isolated from phage libraries show huge promise to be utilized for targeting of various gene therapy vectors towards malignant cells. Beyond doubt, bacteriophages will play a more impressive role in the future of medical oncology. PMID:25012686

  9. Bacteriophage P22 in vitro DNA packaging monitored by agarose gel electrophoresis: rate of DNA entry into capsids.

    OpenAIRE

    Gope, R.; Serwer, P

    1983-01-01

    Bacteriophage P22, like other double-stranded DNA bacteriophages, packages DNA in a preassembled, DNA-free procapsid. The P22 procapsid and P22 bacteriophage have been electrophoretically characterized; the procapsid has a negative average electrical surface charge density (sigma) higher in magnitude than the negative sigma of the mature bacteriophage. Dextrans, sucrose, and maltose were shown to have a dramatic stimulatory effect on the in vitro packaging of DNA by the P22 procapsid. However...

  10. Analysis of the complete DNA sequence of the temperate bacteriophage TP901-1: Evolution, structure, and genome organization of lactococcal bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Lone; Østergaard, Solvej; Pedersen, Margit; Hammer, Karin; Vogensen, F.K.

    2001-01-01

    -1 may have evolved by homologous recombination between the host chromosome and a mother phage and support the observation that phage remnants as well as prophages located in the Lactococcus chromosome contribute significantly to bacteriophage evolution. Some proteins encoded in the early transcribed...... bacteriophage TP901-1 proliferation. Short regions of microhomology in intergenic regions present in several lactococcal bacteriophages and chromosomal fragments of Lactococcus lactis are suggested to be points of exchange of genetic material through homologous recombination. Our results indicate that TP901...

  11. Kaon and Lambda productions in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Jajati K; Alam, Jan-e

    2011-01-01

    A microscopic approach has been employed to study the kaon and $\\Lambda$ productions in heavy ion collisions. The productions of $K^+$ and $\\Lambda$ have been studied within the framework of Boltzmann transport equation for various beam energies. We find a non-monotonic horn like structure for $K^+/\\pi^+$ and $\\Lambda/\\pi$ when plotted against centre of mass energies ($\\sqrt s_{\\mathrm NN}$) with the assumption of initial partonic phase for $\\sqrt s_{\\mathrm NN}$ beyond a certain threshold. However, the ratio $K^+/\\pi^+$ shows a monotonic nature when a hadronic initial state is considered for all $\\sqrt s_{\\mathrm NN}$. Experimental values of $K^-/\\pi^-$ for different $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm NN}}$ are also reproduced within the ambit of the same formalism.

  12. Scale dependence of. Lambda. sub MS from deep inelastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.D.; Stirling, W.J. (Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Durham (United Kingdom)); Roberts, R.G. (Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom))

    1991-08-22

    Precision measurements of {Lambda}sub(anti Manti S) from deep inelastic Scattering traditionally use a fixed renormalization scale {mu} = Q. This is in contrast to measurements in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation, where 'scale dependence' is an important source of uncertainty on the value of {Lambda}sub(anti Manti S). We extend our previous determination of {Lambda}sub(anti Manti S) to allow for different scale choices. We find that our previous value of {alpha}{sub s} (M{sub z})=0.109{sub -=.005}{sup +0.004} becomes {alpha}{sub s} (M{sub z})=0.109{sub 00.008}{sup +0.007} when a reasonable variation of scale is included. We discuss the implications of this result for recent attempts to obtain information on the scale of supersymmetry from coupling constant unification. (orig.).

  13. LOCAL MEASUREMENT OF {Lambda} USING PULSAR TIMING ARRAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espriu, Domenec; Puigdomenech, Daniel [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-02-20

    We consider the propagation of gravitational waves (GWs) in de Sitter spacetime and how a non-zero value of the cosmological constant might affect their detection in pulsar timing arrays (PTAs). If {Lambda} {ne} 0, the waves are anharmonic in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker coordinates, and although this effect is very small it gives rise to noticeable consequences for GWs originating in extragalactic sources such as spiraling black hole binaries. The results indicate that the timing residuals induced by GWs from such sources in PTAs will show a peculiar angular dependence with a marked enhancement around a particular value of the angle subtended by the source and the pulsars, depending mainly on the actual value of the cosmological constant and the distance to the source. The position of the peak could represent a gauge of the value of {Lambda}. The enhancement that the new effect brings about could facilitate the first direct detection of GWs while representing a local measurement of {Lambda}.

  14. Lambda^{QCD}_{MS} from Renormalization Group Optimized Perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Kneur, J -L

    2011-01-01

    A recent extension of a variationally optimized perturbation, combined with renormalization group properties in a straightforward way, can provide approximations to nonperturbative quantities such as the chiral symmetry breaking order parameters typically. We apply this to evaluate, up to third order in this modified perturbation, the ratio Fpi/Lambda, where Fpi is the pion decay constant and Lambda the basic QCD scale in the modified MS scheme. Using experimental Fpi input value we obtain Lambda(nf=2) ~ 255_{-15}^{+40} MeV, where quoted errors are estimates of theoretical uncertainties of the method. This compares reasonably well with some recent lattice simulation results. We briefly discuss prospects (and obstacles) for extrapolation to alpha_S(mu) at perturbative mu values.

  15. Polarization of Lambda and Anti-Lambda in 920 GeV Fixed-Target Proton-Nucleus Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Abt, I; Agari, M; Albrecht, H; Aleksandrov, A; Amaral, V S; Amorim, A; Aplin, S J; Aushev, V; Bagaturia, Yu S; Balagura, V; Bargiotti, M; Barsukova, O; Bastos, J; Batista, J; Bauer, C; Bauer, T S; Belkov, A; Belkov, Ar; Belotelov, I; Bertin, A; Bobchenko, B M; Böcker, M; Bogatyrev, A; Böhm, G; Brauer, M; Bruinsma, M; Bruschi, M; Buchholz, P; Buran, T; Carvalho, J; Conde, P; Cruse, C; Dam, M; Danielsen, K M; Danilov, M; De Castro, S; Deppe, H; Dong, X; Dreis, H B; Egorytchev, V; Ehret, K; Eisele, F; Emeliyanov, D; Erhan, S; Essenov, S; Fabbri, L; Faccioli, P; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Flammer, J; Fominykh, B A; Funcke, M; Garrido, L; Gellrich, A; Giacobbe, B; Glass, J; Goloubkov, D; Golubkov, Y; Golutvin, A; Golutvin, I A; Gorbounov, I; Gorisek, A; Gouchtchine, O; Goulart, D C; Gradl, S; Gradl, W; Grimaldi, F; Guilitsky, Yu; Hansen, J D; Hernández, J M; Hofmann, W; Hohlmann, M; Hott, T; Hulsbergen, W; Husemann, U; Igonkina, O; Ispiryan, M; Jagla, T; Jiang, C; Kapitza, H; Karabekyan, S; Karpenko, N; Keller, S; Kessler, J; Khasanov, F; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kisel, I; Klinkby, E; Knöpfle, K T; Kolanoski, H; Korpar, S; Krauss, C; Kreuzer, P; Krizan, P; Krücker, D; Kupper, S; Kvaratskheliia, T; Lanyov, A; Lau, K; Lewendel, B; Lohse, T; Lomonosov, B N; Männer, R; Mankel, R; Masciocchi, S; Massa, I; Matchikhilian, I; Medin, G; Medinnis, M; Mevius, M; Michetti, A; Mikhailov, Yu; Mizuk, R; Muresan, R; Zur Nedden, M; Negodaev, M; Nörenberg, M; Nowak, S; Núñez-Pardo de Vera, M T; Ouchrif, M; Ould-Saada, F; Padilla, C; Peralta, D; Pernack, R; Pestotnik, R; Petersen, B AA; Piccinini, M; Pleier, M A; Poli, M; Popov, V; Pose, D; Prystupa, S; Pugatch, V; Pylypchenko, Y; Pyrlik, J; Reeves, K; Ressing, D; Rick, H; Riu, I; Robmann, P; Rostovtseva, I; Rybnikov, V; Sánchez, F; Sbrizzi, A; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schreiner, A; Schröder, H; Schwanke, U; Schwartz, A J; Schwarz, A S; Schwenninger, B; Schwingenheuer, B; Sciacca, F; Semprini-Cesari, N; Shuvalov, S; Silva, L; Sozuer, L; Solunin, S; Somov, A; Somov, S; Spengler, J; Spighi, R; Spiridonov, A A; Stanovnik, A; Staric, M; Stegmann, C; Subramanian, H S; Symalla, M; Tikhomirov, I; Titov, M; Tsakov, I; Uwer, U; Van Eldik, C; Vasilev, Yu; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Vukotic, I; Wahlberg, H; Walenta, Albert H; Walter, M; Wang, J J; Wegener, D; Werthenbach, U; Wolters, H; Wurth, R; Wurz, A; Zaitsev, Yu; Zavertyaev, M V; Zeuner, T; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Z; Zimmermann, R; Zivko, T; Zoccoli, A

    2006-01-01

    A measurement of the polarization of Lambda and Anti-Lambda baryons produced in pC and pW collisions at sqrt(s)=41.6 GeV has been performed with the HERA-B spectrometer. The measurements cover the kinematic range of 0.6 GeV/c < p_T<1.2 GeV/c in transverse momentum and -0.15Lambda agree with a parametrization of previous measurements which were performed at positive x_F values, where the Lambda polarization is negative. Results of Anti-Lambda polarization measurements are consistent with zero.

  16. Measurement of Lambda and Lambda(macro) particles in Au+Au collisions at the square root of S(NN) = 130 GeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcox, K; Adler, S S; Ajitanand, N N; Akiba, Y; Alexander, J; Aphecetche, L; Arai, Y; Aronson, S H; Averbeck, R; Awes, T C; Barish, K N; Barnes, P D; Barrette, J; Bassalleck, B; Bathe, S; Baublis, V; Bazilevsky, A; Belikov, S; Bellaiche, F G; Belyaev, S T; Bennett, M J; Berdnikov, Y; Botelho, S; Brooks, M L; Brown, D S; Bruner, N; Bucher, D; Buesching, H; Bumazhnov, V; Bunce, G; Burward-Hoy, J; Butsyk, S; Carey, T A; Chand, P; Chang, J; Chang, W C; Chavez, L L; Chernichenko, S; Chi, C Y; Chiba, J; Chiu, M; Choudhury, R K; Christ, T; Chujo, T; Chung, M S; Chung, P; Cianciolo, V; Cole, B A; D'Enterria, D G; David, G; Delagrange, H; Denisov, A; Deshpande, A; Desmond, E J; Dietzsch, O; Dinesh, B V; Drees, A; Durum, A; Dutta, D; Ebisu, K; Efremenko, Y V; el-Chenawi, K; En'yo, H; Esumi, S; Ewell, L; Ferdousi, T; Fields, D E; Fokin, S L; Fraenkel, Z; Franz, A; Frawley, A D; Fung, S-Y; Garpman, S; Ghosh, T K; Glenn, A; Godoi, A L; Goto, Y; Greene, S V; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Gupta, S K; Guryn, W; Gustafsson, H-A; Haggerty, J S; Hamagaki, H; Hansen, A G; Hara, H; Hartouni, E P; Hayano, R; Hayashi, N; He, X; Hemmick, T K; Heuser, J M; Hibino, M; Hill, J C; Ho, D S; Homma, K; Hong, B; Hoover, A; Ichihara, T; Imai, K; Ippolitov, M S; Ishihara, M; Jacak, B V; Jang, W Y; Jia, J; Johnson, B M; Johnson, S C; Joo, K S; Kametani, S; Kang, J H; Kann, M; Kapoor, S S; Kelly, S; Khachaturov, B; Khanzadeev, A; Kikuchi, J; Kim, D J; Kim, H J; Kim, S Y; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kistenev, E; Kiyomichi, A; Klein-Boesing, C; Klinksiek, S; Kochenda, L; Kochetkov, V; Koehler, D; Kohama, T; Kotchetkov, D; Kozlov, A; Kroon, P J; Kurita, K; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; Kyle, G S; Lacey, R; Lajoie, J G; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lee, D M; Leitch, M J; Li, X H; Li, Z; Lim, D J; Liu, M X; Liu, X; Liu, Z; Maguire, C F; Mahon, J; Makdisi, Y I; Manko, V I; Mao, Y; Mark, S K; Markacs, S; Martinez, G; Marx, M D; Masaike, A; Matathias, F; Matsumoto, T; McGaughey, P L; Melnikov, E; Merschmeyer, M; Messer, F; Messer, M; Miake, Y; Miller, T E; Milov, A; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, R E; Mishra, G C; Mitchell, J T; Mohanty, A K; Morrison, D P; Moss, J M; Mühlbacher, F; Mukhopadhyay, D; Muniruzzaman, M; Murata, J; Nagamiya, S; Nagasaka, Y; Nagle, J L; Nakada, Y; Nandi, B K; Newby, J; Nikkinen, L; Nilsson, P; Nishimura, S; Nyanin, A S; Nystrand, J; O'Brien, E; Ogilvie, C A; Ohnishi, H; Ojha, I D; Ono, M; Onuchin, V; Oskarsson, A; Osterman, L; Otterlund, I; Oyama, K; Paffrath, L; Pal, D; Palounek, A P T; Pantuev, V S; Papavassiliou, V; Pate, S F; Peitzmann, T; Petridis, A N; Pinkenburg, C; Pisani, R P; Pitukhin, P; Plasil, F; Pollack, M; Pope, K; Purschke, M L; Ravinovich, I; Read, K F; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Riabov, Y; Rosati, M; Rose, A A; Ryu, S S; Saito, N; Sakaguchi, A; Sakaguchi, T; Sako, H; Sakuma, T; Samsonov, V; Sangster, T C; Santo, R; Sato, H D; Sato, S; Sawada, S; Schlei, B R; Schutz, Y; Semenov, V; Seto, R; Shea, T K; Shein, I; Shibata, T-A; Shigaki, K; Shiina, T; Shin, Y H; Sibiriak, I G; Silvermyr, D; Sim, K S; Simon-Gillo, J; Singh, C P; Singh, V; Sivertz, M; Soldatov, A; Soltz, R A; Sorensen, S; Stankus, P W; Starinsky, N; Steinberg, P; Stenlund, E; Ster, A; Stoll, S P; Sugioka, M; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Sun, Z; Suzuki, M; Takagui, E M; Taketani, A; Tamai, M; Tanaka, K H; Tanaka, Y; Taniguchi, E; Tannenbaum, M J; Thomas, J; Thomas, J H; Thomas, T L; Tian, W; Tojo, J; Torii, H; Towell, R S; Tserruya, I; Tsuruoka, H; Tsvetkov, A A; Tuli, S K; Tydesjö, H; Tyurin, N; Ushiroda, T; Van Hecke, H W; Velissaris, C; Velkovska, J; Velkovsky, M; Vinogradov, A A; Volkov, M A; Vorobyov, A; Vznuzdaev, E; Wang, H; Watanabe, Y; White, S N; Witzig, C; Wohn, F K; Woody, C L; Xie, W; Yagi, K; Yokkaichi, S; Young, G R; Yushmanov, I E; Zajc, W A; Zhang, Z; Zhou, S; Zhou, S

    2002-08-26

    We present results on the measurement of Lambda and Lambda(macro) production in Au+Au collisions at square root of (S (NN) = 130 GeV with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The transverse momentum spectra were measured for minimum bias and for the 5% most central events. The Lambda;/Lambda ratios are constant as a function of p(T) and the number of participants. The measured net Lambda density is significantly larger than predicted by models based on hadronic strings (e.g., HIJING) but in approximate agreement with models which include the gluon-junction mechanism. PMID:12190391

  17. Lambda production in p+p interactions at SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Wilczek, Andrzej Gabriel; Kowalski, S

    The method of analysis for determination of Lambda production in p+p interactions has been developed, described, and applied to 158 GeV/c p+p data. The procedure has been used for calculation of double-differential spectra (d2n/dydpT, d2n/dydmT, d2n/dxFdpT), single-differential distributions (dn/dy , dn/dxF), mean transverse mass , and the dependence of inverse slope parameter T on y. Finally, mean Lambda multiplicity extrapolated to 4pi has been calculeted.

  18. A Strong Constraint on Ever-Present Lambda

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, J D

    2006-01-01

    We show that the causal set approach to creating an ever-present cosmological 'constant' in the expanding universe is strongly constrained by the isotropy of the microwave background. Fluctuations generated by stochastic lambda generation which are consistent with COBE and WMAP observations are far too small to dominate the expansion dynamics at z<1000 and so cannot explain the observed late-time acceleration of the universe. We also discuss other observational constraints from the power spectrum of galaxy clustering and show that the theoretical possibility of ever-present lambda arises only in 3+1 dimensional space-times.

  19. High Resolution Spectroscopy of 12B_Lambda by Electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Iodice, M; Acha, A; Ambrozewicz, P; Aniol, K A; Baturin, P; Bertin, P Y; Benaoum, H; Blomqvist, K I; Böglin, W; Breuer, H; Brindza, P; Bydzovsky, P; Camsonne, A; Chang, C C; Chen, J -P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E A; Cisbani, E; Colilli, S; Coman, L; Craver, B J; DeCataldo, G; deJager, C W; DeLeo, R; Deur, A P; Ferdi, C; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Giulani, F; Gómez, J; Gricia, M; Hansen, J O; Hayes, D; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Hyde, C E; Ibrahim, H F; Jiang, X; Kaufman, L J; Kino, K; Kross, B; Lagamba, L; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R A; Lucentini, M; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Meziani, Z E; McCormick, K; Michaels, R W; Millener, D J; Miyoshi, T; Moffit, B; Monaghan, P A; Moteabbed, M; MunozCamacho, C; Nanda, S; Nappi, E; Nelyubin, V V; Norum, B E; Okasyasu, Y; Paschke, K D; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Punjabi, V A; Qiang, Y; Raue, B; Reimer, P E; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Roche, R E; Rodriguez, V M; Saha, A; Santavenere, F; Sarty, A J; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Singh, J; Sirca, S; Snyder, R; Solvignon, P H; Sotona, M; Subedi, R; Sulkosky, V A; Suzuki, T; Ueno, H; Ulmer, P E; Urciuoli, G M; Veneroni, P; Voutier, E; Wojtsekhowski, B B; Zheng, X; Zorn, C

    2007-01-01

    An experiment measuring electroproduction of hypernuclei has been performed in Hall A at Jefferson Lab on a $^{12}$C target. In order to increase counting rates and provide unambiguous kaon identification two superconducting septum magnets and a Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH) were added to the Hall A standard equipment. An unprecedented energy resolution of less than 700 keV FWHM has been achieved. Thus, the observed \\lam{12}{B} spectrum shows for the first time identifiable strength in the core-excited region between the ground-state {\\it s}-wave $\\Lambda$ peak and the 11 MeV {\\it p}-wave $\\Lambda$ peak.

  20. High Resolution Spectroscopy of 12B_Lambda by Electroproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Iodice; F. Cusanno; A. Acha; P. Ambrozewicz; K.A. Aniol; P. Baturin; P.Y. Bertin; H. Benaoum; K.I. Blomqvist; W.U. Boeglin; H. Breuer; P. Brindza; P. Bydˇzovsk´y; A. Camsonne; C.C. Chang; J.-P. Chen; Seonho Choi; E.A. Chudakov; E. Cisbani; S. Colilli; L. Coman; B.J. Craver; G. De Cataldo; C.W. de Jager; R. De Leo; A.P. Deur; C. Ferdi; R.J. Feuerbach; E. Folts; R. Fratoni; S. Frullani; F. Garibaldi; O. Gayou; F. Giulani; J. Gomez; M. Gricia; J.O. Hansen; D. Hayes; D.W. Higinbotham; T.K. Holmstrom; C.E. Hyde; ; H.F. Ibrahim; X. Jiang; L.J. Kaufman; K. Kino; B. Kross; L. Lagamba; J.J. LeRose; R.A. Lindgren; M. Lucentini; D.J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; S. Marrone; Z.E. Meziani; K. McCormick; R.W. Michaels; D.J. Millener; T. Miyoshi; B. Moffit; P.A. Monaghan; M. Moteabbed; C. Munoz Camacho; S. Nanda; E. Nappi; V.V. Nelyubin; B.E. Norum; Y. Okasyasu; K.D. Paschke; C.F. Perdrisat; E. Piasetzky; V.A. Punjabi; Y. Qiang; B. Raue; P.E. Reimer; J. Reinhold; B. Reitz; R.E. Roche; V.M. Rodriguez; A. Saha; F. Santavenere; A.J. Sarty; J. Segal; A. Shahinyan; J. Singh; S. ˇ Sirca; R. Snyder; P.H. Solvignon; M. Sotona; R. Subedi; V.A. Sulkosky; T. Suzuki; H. Ueno; P.E. Ulmer; G.M. Urciuoli; P. Veneroni; E. Voutier; B.B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Zheng; and C. Zorn

    2007-07-01

    An experiment measuring electroproduction of hypernuclei has been performed in Hall A at Jefferson Lab on a $^{12}$C target. In order to increase counting rates and provide unambiguous kaon identification two superconducting septum magnets and a Ring Imaging CHerenkov detector (RICH) were added to the Hall A standard equipment. An unprecedented energy resolution of less than 700 keV FWHM has been achieved. Thus, the observed \\lam{12}{B} spectrum shows for the first time identifiable strength in the core-excited region between the ground-state {\\it s}-wave $\\Lambda$ peak and the 11 MeV {\\it p}-wave $\\Lambda$ peak.

  1. Evidence of RNA in D loops of intracellular lambda DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Chattoraj, D K; Stahl, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    If lambda DNA replication is blocked by mutation in any one of several genes essential for replication, intracellular lambda DNA often shows short three-stranded regions called D loops. In this report we show that one arm of a D loop is an RNA . DNA hybrid, whereas the remaining arm is made up of single-stranded DNA. The RNA can be partially removed by RNase A and totally removed by RNase H. Also, D loops do not appear if infections are made in cells treated with rifampin, a potent inhibitor ...

  2. Biocontrol of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using a bacteriophage cocktail in laboratory media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacteriophages are natural enemies of bacteria, and therefore, logical candidates to evaluate as antibacterial agents for the control of foodborne pathogens. The effect of a bacteriophage treatment on the prevention of E. coli O157:H7 growth was investigated in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) laboratory med...

  3. Isolation and characterization of a lytic bacteriophage φKp-lyy15 of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinyin; Lu; Hongyan; Shi; Zhe; Zhang; Fang; Han; Jinghua; Li; Yanbo; Sun

    2015-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,Bacteriophages(phages)are viruses that specifically infect and kill bacteria.They are ubiquitous throughout all environments that bacteria inhabit.Following their discovery by F.W.Twort in 1915 and F.d’Herele in 1917,bacteriophages were recognized as potential agents to treat bacterial diseases and phage therapy has been used

  4. lambda altSF: a phage variant that acquired the ability to substitute specific sets of genes at high frequency.

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, D.; Tomich, P; Parsons, C; Olson, E; Deans, R; Flamm, E

    1981-01-01

    We report the isolation of lambda altSF, a variant of Escherichia coli phage lambda that substitutes sets of genes at high frequency. Two forms of the variant phage have been studied: lambda altSF lambda, which exhibits the immunity (repressor recognition) of phage lambda, and lambda altSF22, which exhibits the immunity of Salmonella phage P22. Lysates made from single plaques of lambda altSF lambda contain 10-30% phage of the P22 form. Similarly, lysates from single plaques of lambda altSF22...

  5. Calculation of 1/m^{2}_{b} corrections to {\\Lambda}_b\\rightarrow{\\Lambda}_c decay widths in the Bethe-Salpeter equation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, L; Weng, M -H

    2016-01-01

    The matrix element of the weak transition {\\Lambda}_b\\rightarrow{\\Lambda}_c can be expressed in terms of six form factors. {\\Lambda}_Q(Q = b;c) can be regarded as composed of a heavy quark Q(Q = b;c) and a diquark which is made up of the remaining two light quarks. In this picture, we express these six form factors in terms of Bethe-Salpeter wave functions to second order in the 1/m_Q expansion. With the kernel containing both the scalar confinement and the one-gluon-exchange terms we calculate the form factors and the decay widths of the semileptonic decay {\\Lambda}_b\\rightarrow{\\Lambda}_clv as well as nonleptonic decays {\\Lambda}_b\\rightarrow{\\Lambda}_cP(V) numerically. We also add QCD corrections since they are comparable with 1/m_Q corrections.

  6. Observation of. lambda. -hypernuclei in the reaction /sup 12/C(. pi. /sup +/,K/sup +/)/sub. lambda. //sup 12/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milner, E.C.

    1985-12-01

    The observation of ..lambda..-hypernuclear levels in /sub ..lambda..//sup 12/C by associated production through the (..pi../sup +/,K/sup +/) reaction is reported. Spectrometers used in the measurements are discussed. The /sub ..lambda..//sup 12/C excitation energy spectra were recorded at laboratory scattering angles of 5.6/sup 0/, 10.3/sup 0/, and 15.2/sup 0/. The spectra show two major peaks - one attributed to the ground state, and one about 11 MeV higher in excitation. The peak near 11 MeV excitation energy is believed to be almost entirely composed of a multiplet of three J/sup ..pi../ = 2/sup +/ states. Relativistic DWBA calculations imply support for the expectation that higher spin states are preferentially populated in the (..pi../sup +/,K/sup +/) reaction, compared to the (K/sup -/,..pi../sup -/) reaction in which lower spin states are excited. 29 refs., 40 figs.

  7. Lambda flow in heavy-ion collisions: the role of final-state interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, G. Q.; Ko, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    Lambda flow in Ni+Ni collisions at SIS energies is studied in the relativistic transport model (RVUU 1.0). It is found that for primordial lambdas the flow is considerably weaker than proton flow. The inclusion of final-state interactions, especially the propagation of lambdas in mean-field potential, brings the lambda flow close to that of protons. An accurate determination of lambda flow in heavy-ion experiments is shown to be very useful for studying lambda properties in dense matter.

  8. Large palindromes in the lambda phage genome are preserved in a rec+ host by inhibiting lambda DNA replication.

    OpenAIRE

    Shurvinton, C E; Stahl, M. M.; Stahl, F. W.

    1987-01-01

    A large palindrome carried by phage lambda has been shown to prevent growth of the phage on a rec+ strain of Escherichia coli. The phage do form plaques on recBC sbcB strains, but the palindrome is not stable--deletions that either destroy the palindrome or diminish its size overgrow the original engineered palindrome-containing phage. We have prepared stocks of lambda carrying a palindrome that is 2 X 4200 base pairs long. These phage stocks are produced by induction of a lysogen in which th...

  9. Lepton polarization effects in "Lambda_b -> Lambda l+l-" decay in family non-universal Z' model

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Aliev; Savci, M.

    2012-01-01

    Possible manifestation of the family non-universal Z' boson effects in lepton polarization in rare, exclusive baryonic "Lambda_b -> Lambda l+l-" decay is examined. It is observed that the double lepton polarizations P_TT and P_NN are sensitive to the Z' contribution. Moreover, it is found that the zero position of the polarized forward-backward asymmetry A_FB^LL is shifted to the left compared to the standard model prediction. Therefore, determination of the zero value of A_FB^LL is quite an ...

  10. Challenging packaging limits and infectivity of phage {\\lambda}

    OpenAIRE

    Nurmemmedov, Elmar; Castelnovo, Martin; Medina, Elizabeth; Catalano, Carlos Enrique; Evilevitch, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The terminase motors of bacteriophages have been shown to be among the strongest active machines in the biomolecular world, being able to package several tens of kilobase pairs of viral genome into a capsid within minutes. Yet these motors are hindered at the end of the packaging process by the progressive build-up of a force resisting packaging associated with already packaged DNA. In this experimental work, we raise the issue of what sets the upper limit on the length of the genome that can...

  11. Determination of Lambda in quenched and full QCD - an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an update on our previous determination of the Lambda parameter in QCD. The main emphasis is on results for two flavours of light dynamical quarks, where we can now almost double the amount of data used, including values at smaller lattice spacings. The calculations are performed using O(a) improved Wilson fermions. Little change is found to previous numerical values

  12. Some properties of the lambda-mu-and-or-calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, Karim; Saber, Khelifa

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the lambda-mu-and-or-calculus which at the typed level corresponds to the full classical propositional natural deduction system. Church- Rosser property of this system is proved using the standardization and the finiteness developments theorem. We defi ne also the leftmost reduction and prove that it is a winning strategy

  13. The Local Void: for or against $\\Lambda$CDM?

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Lizhi; Guo, Qi

    2014-01-01

    The emptiness of the Local Void has been put forward as a serious challenge to the current standard paradigm of structure formation in $\\Lambda$CDM. We use a high resolution cosmological N-body simulation, the Millennium-II run, combined with a sophisticated semi-analytical galaxy formation model, to explore statistically whether the local void is allowed within our current knowledge of galaxy formation in $\\Lambda$CDM. We find that about $15$ percent of the Local Group analogue systems ($11$ of $77$) in our simulation are associated with nearby low density regions having size and 'emptiness' similar to those of the observed Local Void. This suggests that, rather than a crisis of the $\\Lambda$CDM, the emptiness of the Local Void is indeed a success of the standard $\\Lambda$CDM theory. The paucity of faint galaxies in such voids results from a combination of two factors: a lower amplitude of the halo mass function in the voids than in the field, and a lower galaxy formation efficiency in void haloes due to hal...

  14. High Resolution Spectroscopic Study of $^{10}_{\\Lambda}$Be

    CERN Document Server

    Gogami, T; Kawama, D; Achenbach, P; Ahmidouch, A; Albayrak, I; Androic, D; Asaturyan, A; Asaturyan, R; Ates, O; Baturin, P; Badui, R; Boeglin, W; Bono, J; Brash, E; Carter, P; Chiba, A; Christy, E; Danagoulian, S; De Leo, R; Doi, D; Elaasar, M; Ent, R; Fujii, Y; Fujita, M; Furic, M; Gabrielyan, M; Gan, L; Garibaldi, F; Gaskell, D; Gasparian, A; Han, Y; Hashimoto, O; Horn, T; Hu, B; Hungerford, Ed V; Jones, M; Kanda, H; Kaneta, M; Kato, S; Kawai, M; Khanal, H; Kohl, M; Liyanage, A; Luo, W; Maeda, K; Margaryan, A; Markowitz, P; Maruta, T; Matsumura, A; Maxwell, V; Mkrtchyan, A; Mkrtchyan, H; Nagao, S; Nakamura, S N; Narayan, A; Neville, C; Niculescu, G; Niculescu, M I; Nunez, A; Nuruzzaman,; Okayasu, Y; Petkovic, T; Pochodzalla, J; Qiu, X; Reinhold, J; Rodriguez, V M; Samanta, C; Sawatzky, B; Seva, T; Shichijo, A; Tadevosyan, V; Tang, L; Taniya, N; Tsukada, K; Veilleux, M; Vulcan, W; Wesselmann, F R; Wood, S A; Yamamoto, T; Ya, L; Ye, Z; Yokota, K; Yuan, L; Zhamkochyan, S; Zhu, L

    2015-01-01

    A spectroscopy of a $^{10}_{\\Lambda}$Be hypernucleus was carried out at JLab Hall C using the $(e,e^{\\prime}K^{+})$ reaction. A new magnetic spectrometer system (SPL+HES+HKS), specifically designed for high resolution hypernuclear spectroscopy, was used to obtain an energy spectrum with a resolution of 0.78 MeV (FWHM). The well-calibrated spectrometer system of the present experiment using the $p(e,e^{\\prime}K^{+})\\Lambda,\\Sigma^{0}$ reactions allowed us to determine the energy levels, and the binding energy of the ground state peak (mixture of 1$^{-}$ and 2$^{-}$ states) was obtained to be B$_{\\Lambda}$=8.55$\\pm$0.07(stat.)$\\pm$0.11(sys.) MeV. The result indicates that the ground state energy is shallower than that of an emulsion study by about 0.5 MeV which provides valuable experimental information on Charge Symmetry Breaking (CSB) effect in the $\\Lambda N$ interaction.

  15. Towards the Understanding of Stability Puzzles in Phage lambda

    OpenAIRE

    Ao, P.; Yin, L.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss two aspects, the in vivo and in vitro difference and the modeling of noise, of integrative modeling of network dynamics in biology, using phage lambda as an example. We believe those two aspects have not been seriously considered, and the including of them may be enough to solve the outstanding stability and robustness puzzle of in gene regulatory network dynamics.

  16. Resonances in Lambda_c+ to p K- pi+

    CERN Document Server

    Medellin, Z J; Morelos, A; Engelfried, Jurgen; Morelos, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    We report very preliminary results of a Dalitz-plot analysis of Lambda_c+ in the decay to p K- pi+ with the helicity formalism. We used the data from the fixed target experiment SELEX (E781) in Fermilab. We report about branching-ratios of the resonant states involved, and a possible initial state polarization.

  17. Electroproduction of Medium-Heavy Lambda-Hypernuclei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sotona, Miloslav; Bydžovský, Petr; Hashimoto, O.; Itonaga, K.; Motoba, T.

    Tohoku UNI : Universal Academy Press, 2001, s. 119. [International Workshop on Physics with GeV Electrons and Gamma-rays.. Senda (JP), 13.02.2001-15.02.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1048102 Keywords : electroproduction * lambda-hyrnuclei Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  18. A Metric Model of Lambda Calculus with Guarded Recursion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Schwinghammer, Jan; Støvring, Kristian

    We give a model for Nakano’s typed lambda calculus with guarded recursive definitions in a category of metric spaces. By proving a computational adequacy result that relates the interpretation with the operational semantics, we show that the model can be used to reason about contextual equivalence....

  19. Feasibility study of performing high precision gamma spectroscopy of {lambda}{lambda} hypernuclei in the anti PANDA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Lorente, Alicia

    2010-09-30

    Hypernuclear research will be one of the main topics addressed by the anti PANDA experiment at the planned Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research anti FAIR. Thanks to the use of stored anti p beams, copious production of double {lambda} hypernuclei is expected at the anti PANDA experiment, which will enable high precision {gamma} spectroscopy of such nuclei for the first time. At anti PANDA excited states of {xi}{sup -} hypernuclei will be used as a basis for the formation of double {lambda} hypernuclei. For their detection, a devoted hypernuclear detector setup is planned. This setup consists of a primary nuclear target for the production of {xi}{sup -}+ anti {xi} pairs, a secondary active target for the hypernuclei formation and the identification of associated decay products and a germanium array detector to perform {gamma} spectroscopy. In the present work, the feasibility of performing high precision {gamma} spectroscopy of double {lambda} hypernuclei at the anti PANDA experiment has been studied by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. For this issue, the designing and simulation of the devoted detector setup as well as of the mechanism to produce double {lambda} hypernuclei have been optimized together with the performance of the whole system. In addition, the production yields of double hypernuclei in excitedparticle stable states have been evaluated within a statistical decay model. A strategy for the unique assignment of various newly observed {gamma}-transitions to specific double hypernuclei has been successfully implemented by combining the predicted energy spectra of each target with the measurement of two pion momenta from the subsequent weak decays of a double hypernucleus. Indeed, based on these Monte Carlo simulation, the analysis of the statistical decay of {sup 13}{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}B has been performed. As result, three {gamma}-transitions associated to the double hypernuclei {sup 11}{sub {lambda}}{sub {lambda}}Be and to the single

  20. UV ability to destroy poliovirus end FRNA specific bacteriophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, J.; Joret, J.C.; Lesavre, J.; Perrot, J.Y.

    1996-01-01

    In France, the use of ultraviolet radiation to disinfect secondary effluents is only in its initial stage. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of UV to destroy Poliovirus Type 1 and FRNA specific bacteriophages (laboratory MS2 phages and indigenous phages). Concentrated viral solutions were mixed with secondary effluents artificially enriched with suspended solids and then irradiated at various UV dose in a collimated beam. Bacteriological analysis of Escherichia coli and enterococci were performed at the same time. UV were very efficient to kill Poliovirus : Inactivation of 3 and 5 log units were observed respectively at UV doses of 20 and 40 mW/cm{sup 2}. The Poliovirus disinfection rate was almost the same than Escherichia coli. Enterococci were more resistant than E. coli. Inactivation of MS2 bacteriophages was significantly correlated to UV dose following the relationship MS2 Inactivation = 0.047{sup *} Dose + 0,396. At UV dose of 20 mWs/cm{sup 2}, MS2 phages were 2.3 times more resistant to UV than Poliovirus, i.e. they need UV dose 2,3 times greater to be disinfected at the same level. A review of the literature has also shown that viruses more resistant to UV treatment have never been reported. All this would tend to confirm the interest of this group of virus as indicators of the disinfection efficiency of UV, which could indicate, on site, the inactivation of pathogenic viruses. Inactivation rates obtained for FRNA phages proved the good virucidal activity of UV. The inactivation of indigenous FRNA bacteriophages was not correlated with E. coli inactivation. On the other hand, it was correlated with enterococci inactivation. (Author). 23 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Studies of beauty baryon decays to $D^0 ph^-$ and $\\Lambda_c^+ h^-$ final states

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Adrover, Cosme; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Bauer, Thomas; Bay, Aurelio; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; van den Brand, Johannes; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Busetto, Giovanni; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Callot, Olivier; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carranza-Mejia, Hector; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coca, Cornelia; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bonis, Isabelle; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dogaru, Marius; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorosz, Piotr; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; van Eijk, Daan; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farry, Stephen; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garofoli, Justin; Garosi, Paola; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gordon, Hamish; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Hafkenscheid, Tom; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hartmann, Thomas; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hicks, Emma; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Huse, Torkjell; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Iakovenko, Viktor; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kaballo, Michael; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Wallaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Klaver, Suzanne; Kochebina, Olga; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanciotti, Elisa; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Li Gioi, Luigi; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Guoming; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Ian; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luisier, Johan; Luo, Haofei; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Maratas, Jan; Marconi, Umberto; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Martynov, Aleksandr; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Maurice, Emilie; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Moran, Dermot; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Mountain, Raymond; Mous, Ivan; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Muresan, Raluca; Muryn, Bogdan; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Nomerotski, Andrey; Novoselov, Alexey; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pavel-Nicorescu, Carmen; Pazos Alvarez, Antonio; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perez Trigo, Eliseo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Polok, Grzegorz; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Powell, Andrew; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redford, Sophie; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Alexander; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Roa Romero, Diego; Robbe, Patrick; Roberts, Douglas; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; 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Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Decays of beauty baryons to the $D^0 p h^-$ and $\\Lambda_c^+ h^-$ final states (where $h$ indicates a pion or a kaon) are studied using a data sample of $pp$ collisions, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector. The Cabibbo-suppressed decays $\\Lambda_b^0\\to D^0 p K^-$ and $\\Lambda_b^0\\to \\Lambda_c^+ K^-$ are observed and their branching fractions are measured with respect to the decays $\\Lambda_b^0\\to D^0 p \\pi^-$ and $\\Lambda_b^0\\to \\Lambda_c^+ \\pi^-$. In addition, the first observation is reported of the decay of the neutral beauty-strange baryon $\\Xi_b^0$ to the $D^0 p K^-$ final state, and a measurement of the $\\Xi_b^0$ mass is performed. Evidence of the $\\Xi_b^0\\to \\Lambda_c^+ K^-$ decay is also reported.

  2. Lambda-Dropping: Transforming Recursive Equations into Programs with Block Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    1998-01-01

    Lambda-lifting a functional program transforms it into a set of recursive equations. We present the symmetric transformation: lambda-dropping. Lambda-dropping a set of recursive equations restores block structure and lexical scope.For lack of scope, recursive equations must carry around all the...... the functions in the call path);• for lambda-dropping: to establish the Def/Use path of each parameter (parameters whose use occurs in the same scope as their definition do not need to be passed along in the call path).Without free variables, a program is scope-insensitive. Its blocks are then...... free to float (for lambda-lifting) or to sink (for lambda-dropping) along the vertices of the scope tree.We believe lambda-lifting and lambda-dropping are interesting per se, both in principle and in practice, but our prime application is partial evaluation: except for Malmkjær and Ø...

  3. Lambda-Dropping: Transforming Recursive Equations into Programs with Block Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    1999-01-01

    Lambda-lifting a functional program transforms it into a set of recursive equations. We present the symmetric transformation: lambda-dropping. Lambda-dropping a set of recursive equations restores block structure and lexical scope.For lack of scope, recursive equations must carry around all the...... the functions in the call path);• for lambda-dropping: to establish the Def/Use path of each parameter (parameters whose use occurs in the same scope as their definition do not need to be passed along in the call path).Without free variables, a program is scope-insensitive. Its blocks are then...... free to float (for lambda-lifting) or to sink (for lambda-dropping) along the vertices of the scope tree.We believe lambda-lifting and lambda-dropping are interesting per se, both in principle and in practice, but our prime application is partial evaluation: except for Malmkjær and Ø...

  4. Measurement of the $\\Lambda_b^0$ lifetime and mass in the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

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Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; 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Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Stephen; 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Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Duguid, Liam; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Bø rge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jø rgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Hernandez, Carlos Medina; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lukas, Wolfgang; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Plotnikova, Elena; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Byszewski, Marcin; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2013-01-01

    A measurement of the $\\Lambda_b^0$ lifetime and mass in the decay channel $\\Lambda_b^0 \\to J/\\psi(\\mu^+ \\mu^-) \\Lambda^0(p\\pi^-)$ is presented. The analysis uses a signal sample of about 2200 $\\Lambda_b^0$ and anti-Lambda_b decays that are reconstructed in 4.9 fb$^{-1}$ of ATLAS pp collision data collected in 2011 at the LHC center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. A simultaneous mass and decay time maximum likelihood fit is used to extract the $\\Lambda_b^0$ lifetime and mass. They are measured to be $\\tau_{\\Lambda_b}$ = 1.449 +/- 0.036(stat) +/- 0.017(syst) ps and $m_{\\Lambda_b}$ = 5619.7 +/- 0.7(stat) +/- 1.1(syst) MeV.

  5. Molecular Characterization of a Bacteriophage (Chp2) from Chlamydia psittaci

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, B. L.; Everson, J. S.; Fane, B.; Giannikopoulou, P.; Vretou, E.; Lambden, P R; Clarke, I N

    2000-01-01

    Comparisons of the proteome of abortifacient Chlamydia psittaci isolates from sheep by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis identified a novel abundant protein with a molecular mass of 61.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 6.41. C-terminal sequence analysis of this protein yielded a short peptide sequence that had an identical match to the viral coat protein (VP1) of the avian chlamydiaphage Chp1. Electron microscope studies revealed the presence of a 25-nm-diameter bacteriophage (Chp2) with no...

  6. [Bacteriophage therapy of septic complications of orthopaedic surgery (author's transl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, G; Kehr, P; Mathevon, H; Clavert, J M; Séjourne, P; Pointu, J

    1979-01-01

    Seven septic cases have been treated by bacteriophage; two infections after insertion of a hip prosthesis, two septic arthritis of the knee, one osteomyelitis of the tibia, one septic non-union of the femur and one septic complication following Harrington rodding. Only specific phages were used in association with several types of surgical procedure. The technique of treatment is described. All cases were long-term infections with resistant organisms. Results were good in five, fair in one and one case was a failure. It is concluded that phage therapy may be helpful in the treatment of long-term infections. PMID:156386

  7. Bacteriophage-Derived Vectors for Targeted Cancer Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahidul Islam Pranjol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer gene therapy expanded and reached its pinnacle in research in the last decade. Both viral and non-viral vectors have entered clinical trials, and significant successes have been achieved. However, a systemic administration of a vector, illustrating safe, efficient, and targeted gene delivery to solid tumors has proven to be a major challenge. In this review, we summarize the current progress and challenges in the targeted gene therapy of cancer. Moreover, we highlight the recent developments of bacteriophage-derived vectors and their contributions in targeting cancer with therapeutic genes following systemic administration.

  8. Re-initiation repair in bacteriophage T4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation of bacteriophage T4 with ultraviolet light induces the formation of pyrimidine dimers in its DNA. These dimers hamper replication of DNA and, to a lesser extent, transcription of DNA after its infection of bacteria. A number of pathways enable phage T4 to multiply dimer-containing DNA. One of these pathways has been named replication repair and is described in this thesis. The properties of two phage strains, unable to perform replication repair, have been studied to obtain a picture of the repair process. The mutations in these strains that affect replication repair have been located on the genomic map of T4. (Auth.)

  9. Scaled momentum distributions for K{sup 0}{sub S} and {lambda}/ anti {lambda} in DIS at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2011-11-15

    Scaled momentum distributions for the strange hadrons K{sub S}{sup 0} and {lambda}/ anti {lambda} were measured in deep inelastic ep scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 330 pb{sup -1}. The evolution of these distributions with the photon virtuality, Q{sup 2}, was studied in the kinematic region 10lambda}/ anti {lambda} strange hadrons. (orig.)

  10. Longitudinal spin transfer to Lambda and Lambda hyperons in polarized proton-proton collisions at s=200 GeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D.R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M.J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielčík, Jaroslav; Bielčíková, Jana; Biritz, B.; Bland, L.C.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T. P.; Bysterský, Michal; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M.C.D.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M.C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, Petr; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K.E.; Christie, W.; Clarke, R.F.; Codrington, M.J.M.; Corliss, R.; Cormier, T.M.; Coserea, R. M.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; De Silva, L.C.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; de Souza, R.D.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dunlop, J.C.; Mazumdar, M.R.D.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Gangaharan, D.R.; Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y.N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Hofman, D.J.; Hollis, R.S.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G..; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, Pavel; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C.L.; Jones, P.G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitán, Jan; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kikola, D.P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S.R.; Knospe, A.G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kopytine, M.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kuhn, C.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednický, Richard; Lee, Ch.; Lee, J.H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, N.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G.L.; Ma, Y.G.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O.I.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H.S.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; McShane, T.S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N.G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D.A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B.K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J.M.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Ng, M.J.; Nogach, L.V.; Nurushev, S.B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B.S.; Pal, S.K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S.Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S.C.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N.K.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R.L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H.G.; Roberts, J.B.; Rogachevskiy, O.V.; Romero, J.L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M.J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S.S.; Shi, X.H.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R.N.; Skoby, M.J.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Staszak, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Suarez, M.C.; Subba, N.L.; Šumbera, Michal; Sun, X.M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T.J.M.; de Toledo, A. S.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A.H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A.R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M. V.; Trainor, T.A.; Tram, V.N.; Trattner, A.L.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O.D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D.G.; Van Buren, G.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vanfossen, J.A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G.S.M.; Vasilevski, I.M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Vigdor, S.E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S.A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J.C.; Westfall, G.D.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S.W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Tlustý, David; Xie, W.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q.H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, P.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.K.; Yue, Q.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.M.; Zhang, X.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, J.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zuo, J.X.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 11 (2009), 111102/1-111102/7. ISSN 1550-7998 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : CHARGED CURRENT INTERACTIONS * PP COLLISIONS * (LAMBDA)OVER-BAR POLARIZATION Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 4.922, year: 2009

  11. Propagation of heavy baryons in heavy-ion collisions. Part I: $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Lambda_b$ transport coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Tolos, Laura; Das, Santosh K

    2016-01-01

    We compute the transport coefficients (drag and momentum diffusion) of the low-lying heavy baryons $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Lambda_b$ in a medium of light mesons formed at the later stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the Fokker-Planck approach to obtain the transport coefficients from unitarized baryon-meson interactions based on effective field theories that respect chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. We provide the transport coefficients as a function of temperature and heavy-baryon momentum, and analyze the applicability of certain non-relativistic estimates. Moreover we compare our outcome for the spatial diffusion coefficient to the one coming from the solution of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation and we find a very good agreement between both calculations. The transport coefficients for $\\Lambda_c$ and $\\Lambda_b$ in a thermal bath will be used in a subsequent publication as input in a Langevin evolution code for the generation and propagation of heavy particles in heavy-ion ...

  12. A study of Lambda hypernuclei within the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock Model

    OpenAIRE

    Guleria, Neelam; Dhiman, Shashi K.; Shyam, Radhey

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the properties of the single Lambda hypernuclei within a Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) model. The parameters of the Skyrme type effective lambda-nucleon (Lambda N) interaction are obtained by fitting to the experimental Lambda binding energies of hypernuclei with masses spanning a wide range of the periodic table. Alternative parameter sets are also obtained by omitting nuclei below mass number 16 from the fitting procedure. The SHF calculations are performed for the binding energi...

  13. Quark to $\\Lambda$-hyperon spin transfers in the current-fragmentation region

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Yujie; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    We perform a study on the struck quark to the $\\Lambda$-hyperon fragmentation processes by taking into account the anti-quark fragmentations and intermediate decays from other hyperons. We concentrate on how the longitudinally polarized quark fragments to the longitudinally polarized $\\Lambda$, how unpolarized quark and anti-quark fragment to the unpolarized $\\Lambda$, and how quark and anti-quark fragment to the $\\Lambda$ through the intermediate decay processes. We calculate the effective f...

  14. An Implementation of the Language Lambda Prolog Organized around Higher-Order Pattern Unification

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Xiaochu

    2009-01-01

    This thesis concerns the implementation of Lambda Prolog, a higher-order logic programming language that supports the lambda-tree syntax approach to representing and manipulating formal syntactic objects. Lambda Prolog achieves its functionality by extending a Prolog-like language by using typed lambda terms as data structures that it then manipulates via higher-order unification and some new program-level abstraction mechanisms. These additional features raise new implementation questions th...

  15. Application of bacteriophages in post-harvest control of human pathogenic and food spoiling bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Gálvez, Antonio; Lucas López, Rosario

    2016-10-01

    Bacteriophages have attracted great attention for application in food biopreservation. Lytic bacteriophages specific for human pathogenic bacteria can be isolated from natural sources such as animal feces or industrial wastes where the target bacteria inhabit. Lytic bacteriophages have been tested in different food systems for inactivation of main food-borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., Campylobacter jejuni and Cronobacter sakazkii, and also for control of spoilage bacteria. Application of lytic bacteriophages could selectively control host populations of concern without interfering with the remaining food microbiota. Bacteriophages could also be applied for inactivation of bacteria attached to food contact surfaces or grown as biofilms. Bacteriophages may receive a generally recognized as safe status based on their lack of toxicity and other detrimental effects to human health. Phage preparations specific for L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica serotypes have been commercialized and approved for application in foods or as part of surface decontamination protocols. Phage endolysins have a broader host specificity compared to lytic bacteriophages. Cloned endolysins could be used as natural preservatives, singly or in combination with other antimicrobials such as bacteriocins. PMID:26042353

  16. Pulmonary bacteriophage therapy on Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis strains: first steps towards treatment and prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Morello

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant bacteria are the cause of an increasing number of deadly pulmonary infections. Because there is currently a paucity of novel antibiotics, phage therapy--the use of specific viruses that infect bacteria--is now more frequently being considered as a potential treatment for bacterial infections. Using a mouse lung-infection model caused by a multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa mucoid strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient, we evaluated bacteriophage treatments. New bacteriophages were isolated from environmental samples and characterized. Bacteria and bacteriophages were applied intranasally to the immunocompetent mice. Survival was monitored and bronchoalveolar fluids were analysed. Quantification of bacteria, bacteriophages, pro-inflammatory and cytotoxicity markers, as well as histology and immunohistochemistry analyses were performed. A curative treatment (one single dose administrated 2 h after the onset of the infection allowed over 95% survival. A four-day preventive treatment (one single dose resulted in a 100% survival. All of the parameters measured correlated with the efficacy of both curative and preventive bacteriophage treatments. We also showed that in vitro optimization of a bacteriophage towards a clinical strain improved both its efficacy on in vivo treatments and its host range on a panel of 20 P. aeruginosa cystic fibrosis strains. This work provides an incentive to develop clinical studies on pulmonary bacteriophage therapy to combat multidrug-resistant lung infections.

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriophages Against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ji-Gang; Lim, Jeong-A; Song, Yu-Rim; Heu, Sunggi; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Koh, Young Jin; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Owing to the prohibition of agricultural antibiotic use in major kiwifruit-cultivating countries, alternative methods need to be developed to manage this disease. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically infect target bacteria and have recently been reconsidered as potential biological control agents for bacterial pathogens owing to their specificity in terms of host range. In this study, we isolated bacteriophages against P. syringae pv. actinidiae from soils collected from kiwifruit orchards in Korea and selected seven bacteriophages for further characterization based on restriction enzyme digestion patterns of genomic DNA. Among the studied bacteriophages, two belong to the Myoviridae family and three belong to the Podoviridae family, based on morphology observed by transmission electron microscopy. The host range of the selected bacteriophages was confirmed using 18 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, including the Psa2 and Psa3 groups, and some were also effective against other P. syringae pathovars. Lytic activity of the selected bacteriophages was sustained in vitro until 80 h, and their activity remained stable up to 50°C, at pH 11, and under UV-B light. These results indicate that the isolated bacteriophages are specific to P. syringae species and are resistant to various environmental factors, implying their potential use in control of bacterial canker disease in kiwifruits. PMID:26628254

  18. Lambda: A Mathematica-package for operator product expansions in vertex algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Ekstrand, Joel

    2010-01-01

    We give an introduction to the Mathematica package Lambda, designed for calculating $\\lambda$-brackets in both vertex algebras, and in SUSY vertex algebras. This is equivalent to calculating operator product expansions in two-dimensional conformal field theory. The syntax of $\\lambda$-brackets is reviewed, and some simple examples are shown, both in component notation, and in $N=1$ superfield notation.

  19. Lambda: A Mathematica-package for operator product expansions in vertex algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ekstrand, Joel

    2010-01-01

    We give an introduction to the Mathematica package Lambda, designed for calculating {\\lambda}-brackets in both vertex algebras, and in SUSY vertex algebras. This is equivalent to calculating operator product expansions in two-dimensional conformal field theory. The syntax of {\\lambda}-brackets is reviewed, and some simple examples are shown, both in component notation, and in N=1 superfield notation.

  20. Charge symmetry breaking in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei: updated HYP 2015 progress report

    CERN Document Server

    Gal, Avraham

    2016-01-01

    Ongoing progress in understanding and evaluating charge symmetry breaking in $\\Lambda$ hypernuclei is discussed in connection to recent measurements of the $_{\\Lambda}^{4}{\\rm H}(0^+_{\\rm g.s.})$ binding energy at MAMI [A1 Collaboration: PRL 114 (2015) 232501] and of the $_{\\Lambda}^{4}{\\rm He}(1^+_{\\rm exc})$ excitation energy at J-PARC [E13 Collaboration: PRL 115 (2015) 222501].

  1. Polarization of Lambda0 and antiLambda0 inclusively produced by 610GeV/c Sigma- and 525GeV/c proton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez-Lopez, J L; Engelfried, J; Akgun, U; Alkhazov, G; Amaro-Reyes, J; Atamanchuk, A G; Ayan, A S; Balatz, M Y; Blanco-Covarrubias, A; Bondar, N F; Cooper, P S; Dauwe, L J; Davidenko, G V; Dersch, U; Dolgolenko, A G; Dzyubenko, G B; Edelstein, R; Emediato, L; Endler, A M F; Eschrich, I; Escobar, C O; Estrada, N; Evdokimov, A V; Filimonov, I S; Flores-Castillo, A; García, F G; Gaspero, M; Giller, I; Golovtsov, V L; Gouffon, P; Gülmez, E; He Kangling; Iori, M; Jun, S Y; Kaya, M; Kilmer, J; Kim, V T; Kochenda, L M; Konorov, I; Kozhevnikov, A P; Krivshich, A G; Krüger, H; Kubantsev, M A; Kubarovskii, V P; Kulyavtsev, A I; Kuropatkin, N P; Kurshetsov, V F; Kushnirenko, A; Kwan, S; Lach, J; Lamberto, A; Landsberg, L G; Larin, I; Leikin, E M; Li Yunshan; Luksys, M; Lungov, T; Maleev, V P; Mao, D; Mao, Chensheng; Mao, Zhenlin; Mathew, P; Mattson, M; Matveev, V; McCliment, E; Moinester, M A; Molchanov, V V; Morelos, A; Nemitkin, A V; Neoustroev, P V; Newsom, C; Nilov, A P; Nurushev, S B; Ocherashvili, A; Onel, Y; Ozel, E; Ozkorucuklu, S; Penzo, Aldo L; Petrenko, S V; Pogodin, P I; Procario, M; Prutskoi, V A; Ramberg, E; Rappazzo, G F; Razmyslovich, B V; Rud, V I; Russ, J; Schiavon, Paolo; Simón, J; Sitnikov, A I; Skow, D; Smith, V J; Srivastava, M; Steiner, V; Stepanov, V; Stutte, L; Svoiski, M; Terentyev, N K; Thomas, G P; Torres, I; Uvarov, L N; Vasilev, A N; Vavilov, D V; Vazquez-Jauregui, E; Verebryusov, V S; Victorov, V A; Vishnyakov, V E; Vorobyov, A A; Vorwalter, K; You, J; Zhao, Wenheng; Zheng, Shuchen; Zukanovich-Funchal, R

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the polarization of Lambda0 and antiLambda0 inclusively produced by 610GeV/c Sigma- and 525GeV/c proton beams in the experiment SELEX during the 1996/7 fixed target run at Fermilab. The polarization was measured as a function of the Lambda longitudinal momentum fraction xF and transverse momentum pt. For the Lambda0 produced by Sigma- the polarization is increasing with xF, from slightly negative at x_F~0 to about 15% at large xF; it shows a non-monotonic behavior as a function of pt. For the proton beam, the Lambda0 polarization is negative and decreasing as a function of xF and pt. The antiLambda0 polarization is compatible with 0 for both beam particles over the full kinematic range. The target dependence was examined but no statistically significant difference was found.

  2. Ecology of Anti-Biofilm Agents I: Antibiotics versus Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen T. Abedon

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages, the viruses that infect bacteria, have for decades been successfully used to combat antibiotic-resistant, chronic bacterial infections, many of which are likely biofilm associated. Antibiotics as anti-biofilm agents can, by contrast, be inefficacious against even genetically sensitive targets. Such deficiencies in usefulness may result from antibiotics, as naturally occurring compounds, not serving their producers, in nature, as stand-alone disruptors of mature biofilms. Anti-biofilm effectiveness by phages, by contrast, may result from a combination of inherent abilities to concentrate lytic antibacterial activity intracellularly via bacterial infection and extracellularly via localized population growth. Considered here is the anti-biofilm activity of microorganisms, with a case presented for why, ecologically, bacteriophages can be more efficacious than traditional antibiotics as medically or environmentally applied biofilm-disrupting agents. Four criteria, it can be argued, generally must be met, in combination, for microorganisms to eradicate biofilms: (1 Furnishing of sufficiently effective antibacterial factors, (2 intimate interaction with biofilm bacteria over extended periods, (3 associated ability to concentrate antibacterial factors in or around targets, and, ultimately, (4 a means of physically disrupting or displacing target bacteria. In nature, lytic predators of bacteria likely can meet these criteria whereas antibiotic production, in and of itself, largely may not.

  3. PET Imaging and biodistribution of chemically modified bacteriophage MS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Michelle E; Aanei, Ioana L; Behrens, Christopher R; Tong, Gary J; Murphy, Stephanie T; O'Neil, James P; Francis, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    The fields of nanotechnology and medicine have merged in the development of new imaging and drug delivery agents based on nanoparticle platforms. As one example, a mutant of bacteriophage MS2 can be differentially modified on the exterior and interior surfaces for the concurrent display of targeting functionalities and payloads, respectively. In order to realize their potential for use in in vivo applications, the biodistribution and circulation properties of this class of agents must first be investigated. A means of modulating and potentially improving the characteristics of nanoparticle agents is the appendage of PEG chains. Both MS2 and MS2-PEG capsids possessing interior DOTA chelators were labeled with (64)Cu and injected intravenously into mice possessing tumor xenografts. Dynamic imaging of the agents was performed using PET-CT on a single animal per sample, and the biodistribution at the terminal time point (24 h) was assessed by gamma counting of the organs ex vivo for 3 animals per agent. Compared to other viral capsids of similar size, the MS2 agents showed longer circulation times. Both MS2 and MS2-PEG bacteriophage behaved similarly, although the latter agent showed significantly less uptake in the spleen. This effect may be attributed to the ability of the PEG chains to mask the capsid charge. Although the tumor uptake of the agents may result from the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect, selective tumor imaging may be achieved in the future by using exterior targeting groups. PMID:23214968

  4. Phenotypic and genotypic variations within a single bacteriophage species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulakov Leonid

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although horizontal gene transfer plays a pivotal role in bacteriophage evolution, many lytic phage genomes are clearly shaped by vertical evolution. We investigated the influence of minor genomic deletions and insertions on various phage-related phenotypic and serological properties. Findings We collected ten different isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteriophage ϕKMV. All sequenced genomes (42-43 kb, long direct terminal repeats are nearly identical, which intuitively implied strongly similar infections cycles. However, their latent periods vary between 21 and 28 minutes and they are able to lyse between 5 and 58% of a collection of 107 clinical P. aeruginosa strains. We also noted that phages with identical tail structures displayed profound differences in host spectra. Moreover, point mutations in tail and spike proteins were sufficient to evade neutralization by two phage-specific antisera, isolated from rabbits. Conclusion Although all analyzed phages are 83-97% identical at the genome level, they display a surprisingly large variation in various phenotypic properties. The small overlap in host spectrum and their ability to readily escape immune defences against a nearly identical phage are promising elements for the application of these phages in phage therapy.

  5. Comparative analysis of two bacteriophages of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dömötör, Dóra; Frank, Tamara; Rákhely, Gábor; Doffkay, Zsolt; Schneider, György; Kovács, Tamás

    2016-09-01

    Walnut blight caused by Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis (Xaj) is one of the most frequent infective diseases of walnut, resulting in serious economic losses. One potential solution to control this disease could be the application of bacteriophages. In this study, 24 phages were isolated from soil and walnut aerial tissues infected with Xaj. Two polyvalent bacteriophages, Xaj2 and Xaj24 were chosen for further characterization including their morphological, physiological and genomic analyses. Xaj2 was classified as Siphoviridae whereas Xaj24 belonged to the Podoviridae family. Both phages demonstrated lytic effect on Xaj in laboratory trials. Complete genomes of Xaj2 and Xaj24 were determined. Genomes of Xaj2 and Xaj24 consisted of 49.241 and 44.861 nucleotides encoding 80 and 53 genes, respectively. Comparative genome analyses have revealed that Xaj2 had a unique genome sequence, while Xaj24 was a phiKMV-like phage and it was most similar to the Prado phage which is virulent for Xylella fastidiosa and Xanthomonas spp. In this study, we present the first two complete Xaj phage sequences enabling an insight into the genomics of Xaj phages. PMID:27275846

  6. [Reconstruction of possible paths of the origin and morphological evolution of bacteriophages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letarov, A V

    1998-11-01

    The problem of the origin and evolution of viruses and, in particular, the origin and evolution of bacteriophages is of considerable interest. However, so far, this problem has not been solved with quantitative methods of molecular systematics. In the present study, an attempt to reconstruct the possible paths of appearance and evolution of bacteriophages based on their structural features and morphogenesis, as well as general characteristics of their life cycles and genome organization, was carried out. A scheme describing phylogeny of the main bacteriophage groups and evolution of their life cycles is suggested. Existence of two independently evaluating types of morphogenesis ("budding outward" and "budding inward") is postulated. PMID:10096023

  7. Complete Genome Sequences of Lytic Bacteriophages of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. Juglandis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Ignacio; Santos, Leonardo; Segovia, Cristopher; Ayala, Manuel; Alvarado, Romina; Nuñez, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Three bacteriophages, f20-Xaj, f29-Xaj, and f30-Xaj, with lytic activity against Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis were isolated from walnut trees (VIII Bío Bío Region, Chile). These lytic bacteriophages have double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes of 43,851 bp, 41,865 bp, and 44,262 bp, respectively. These are the first described bacteriophages with lytic activity against X. arboricola pv. juglandis that can be utilized as biocontrol agents. PMID:27257210

  8. Quark confinement potential examined by excitation energy of the Lambda_c and Lambda_b baryons in a quark-diquark model

    CERN Document Server

    Jido, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to have diquark configuration in heavy baryons, such as Lambda_c and Lambda_b, is examined by a nonrelativistic potential model with a heavy quark and a light scalar diquark. Assuming that the Lambda_c and Lambda_b baryons are composed of the heavy quark and the scalar-isoscalar ud diquark, we solve the two-body Schrodinger equation with the Coulomb plus linear potential and obtain the energy spectra for the heavy baryons. Contrary to our expectation, it is found that the potential determined by the quarkonium spectra fails to reproduce the excitation spectra of the Lambda_c and Lambda_b in the quark-diquark picture, while the Lambda_c and Lambda_b spectra is reproduced with a half strength of the confinement string tension than for the quarkonium. The Xi_c excitation energy is also calculated and is found to be smaller than Lambda_c in the quark-diquark model. This is not consistent with the experimental observation. These puzzles should be solved when one takes the quark-diquark picture for ...

  9. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil was investigated using compound-specific stable isotope analysis. The results revealed that lambda-cyhalothrin was biodegraded in soil under laboratory conditions. The half-lives of lambda-cyhalothrin were determined to be 49 and 161 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 2 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin and 84 and 154 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 10 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin resulted in carbon isotope fractionation, which shifted from − 29.0‰ to − 26.5‰ in soil spiked with 2 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, and to − 27.5‰ with 10 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin. A relationship was established between the stable carbon isotope fraction and the residual concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin by the Rayleigh equation in which the carbon isotope enrichment factor ε of the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in the soil was calculated as − 2.53‰. This study provides an approach to quantitatively evaluate the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil in field studies. - Highlights: • Abiotic and biotic degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin were observed in soil. • Biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin was evaluated by CSIA. • Biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin leads to carbon isotope fractionation. • An enrichment factor ε of lambda-cyhalothrin was determined as − 2.53‰

  10. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xiaoli [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Quzhou University, Quzhou 324000 (China); Xu, Zemin [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Xichang [Laboratory for Teaching in Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Fangxing, E-mail: fxyang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Leipzig 04318 (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil was investigated using compound-specific stable isotope analysis. The results revealed that lambda-cyhalothrin was biodegraded in soil under laboratory conditions. The half-lives of lambda-cyhalothrin were determined to be 49 and 161 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 2 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin and 84 and 154 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 10 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin resulted in carbon isotope fractionation, which shifted from − 29.0‰ to − 26.5‰ in soil spiked with 2 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, and to − 27.5‰ with 10 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin. A relationship was established between the stable carbon isotope fraction and the residual concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin by the Rayleigh equation in which the carbon isotope enrichment factor ε of the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in the soil was calculated as − 2.53‰. This study provides an approach to quantitatively evaluate the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil in field studies. - Highlights: • Abiotic and biotic degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin were observed in soil. • Biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin was evaluated by CSIA. • Biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin leads to carbon isotope fractionation. • An enrichment factor ε of lambda-cyhalothrin was determined as − 2.53‰.

  11. Mathematical modeling of the lambda switch: a fuzzy logic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschov, Dmitriy; Margaliot, Michael

    2009-10-21

    Gene regulation plays a central role in the development and functioning of living organisms. Gaining a deeper qualitative and quantitative understanding of gene regulation is an important scientific challenge. The Lambda switch is commonly used as a paradigm of gene regulation. Verbal descriptions of the structure and functioning of the switch have appeared in biological textbooks. We apply fuzzy modeling to transform one such verbal description into a well-defined mathematical model. The resulting model is a piecewise-quadratic second-order differential equation. It demonstrates functional fidelity with known results while being simple enough to allow a rather detailed analysis. Properties such as the number, location, and domain of attraction of equilibrium points can be studied analytically. Furthermore, the model provides a rigorous explanation for the so-called stability puzzle of the Lambda switch. PMID:19589343

  12. Ultracompact radio sources-data and a variable $\\Lambda$

    CERN Document Server

    Vishwakarma, R G

    1999-01-01

    In order to test the consistency of the cosmological models with observations as well as to measure the different cosmological parameters, data on angular sizes and reshifts of ultracompact radio sources, compiled by Jackson and Dodgson, has been used recently by several authors in the models with constant to solve the cosmological constant problem, we examine this data for a variable fluid flow which demands $\\Lambda$ to be variable. We find that the acceptable fits are also obtained for open models with small $\\Lambda$ of either sign. The models are found to be decelerating and require intermediate density, higher than that in the models of Jackson and Dodgson but not as high as in the cannonical cold dark matter model of Kellermann.

  13. Lambda-antilambda decay asymmetries and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exclusive reaction /bar p/p → /bar Lambda/Λ is an interesting laboratory in which to study both spin physics and fundamental symmetries. The PS185 collaboration at LEAR has been exploiting this fact for the last few years in an ongoing program of hyperon-antihyperon production. The motivation for this study will be outlined and the experimental technique will be described. Spin physics aspects such as the measurements of the outgoing hyperon polarization and preliminary determinations of spin correlation coefficients will be presented. Fundamental symmetry checks such as lifetime differences between Λ and /bar Lambda/ (CPT) and decay properties (CP) will be discussed. A future experiment which is quite sensitive to CP violation in a hyperon-antihyperon system will be mentioned. 15 refs., 4 figs

  14. Beyond $\\Lambda$CDM: Problems, solutions, and the road ahead

    CERN Document Server

    Bull, Philip; Adamek, Julian; Baker, Tessa; Bellini, Emilio; Jiménez, Jose Beltrán; Bentivegna, Eloisa; Camera, Stefano; Clesse, Sébastien; Davis, Jonathan H; Di Dio, Enea; Enander, Jonas; Finelli, Fabio; Heavens, Alan; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Hu, Bin; Llinares, Claudio; Maartens, Roy; Mörtsell, Edvard; Nadathur, Seshadri; Noller, Johannes; Pasechnik, Roman; Pawlowski, Marcel S; Pereira, Thiago S; Quartin, Miguel; Ricciardone, Angelo; Riemer-Sørensen, Signe; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Sakstein, Jeremy; Saltas, Ippocratis D; Salzano, Vincenzo; Sawicki, Ignacy; Solomon, Adam R; Spolyar, Douglas; Starkman, Glenn D; Steer, Danièle; Tereno, Ismael; Verde, Licia; Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; von Strauss, Mikael; Winther, Hans A

    2015-01-01

    Despite its continued observational successes, there is a persistent (and growing) interest in extending cosmology beyond the standard model, $\\Lambda$CDM. This is motivated by a range of apparently serious theoretical issues, involving such questions as the cosmological constant problem, the particle nature of dark matter, the validity of general relativity on large scales, the existence of anomalies in the CMB and on small scales, and the predictivity and testability of the inflationary paradigm. In this paper, we summarize the current status of $\\Lambda$CDM as a physical theory, and review investigations into possible alternatives along a number of different lines, with a particular focus on highlighting the most promising directions. While the fundamental problems are proving reluctant to yield, the study of alternative cosmologies has led to considerable progress, with much more to come if hopes about forthcoming high-precision observations and new theoretical ideas are fulfilled.

  15. Target space supergeometry of $\\eta$ and $\\lambda$-deformed strings

    CERN Document Server

    Borsato, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    We study the integrable $\\eta$ and $\\lambda$-deformations of supercoset string sigma models, the basic example being the deformation of the $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ superstring. We prove that the kappa symmetry variations for these models are of the standard Green-Schwarz form, and we determine the target space supergeometry by computing the superspace torsion. We check that the $\\lambda$-deformation gives rise to a standard supergravity background; for the $\\eta$-model the requirement that the target space is a supergravity solution translates into a simple condition on the R-matrix which enters the definition of the deformation. We further construct all such non-abelian R-matrices of rank four which solve the homogeneous classical Yang-Baxter equation for the algebra so(2,4). We argue that the corresponding backgrounds are equivalent to sequences of non-commuting TsT-transformations, and verify this explicitly for some of the examples.

  16. Modeling and Simulation of Photoelectronic Lambda Bipolar Transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on the region model of lambda bipolar transistor (LBT), a dividing region theory model of PLBT is set up,simulated and verified. Firstly, the principal operations of different kinds of photoelectronic lambda bipolar transistor (PLBT) are characterized by a simple circuit model.Through mathematical analysis of the equivalent circuit, the typical characteristics curve is divided into positive resistance, peak, negative resistance and cutoff regions. Secondly, by analyzing and simulating this model, the ratio of MOSFET width to channel length, threshold voltage and common emitter gain are discovered as the main structure parameters that determine the characteristic curves of PLBT. And peak region width, peak current value, negative resistance value and valley voltage value of PLBT can be changed conveniently according to the actual demands by modifying these parameters. Finally comparisons of the characteristics of the fabricated devices and the simulation results are made, which show that the analytical results are in agreement with the observed devices characteristics.

  17. A linearly expanding universe with variable G and $\\Lambda$

    CERN Document Server

    Arbab, A I

    1999-01-01

    We have studied a cosmological model with a cosmological term of the form linearly with time for both radiation and matter dominated epochs. The cosmological constant is found to decrease as $t^{-2}$ and the rate of particle creation is smaller than the Steady State value. The model gives present age of the universe $(\\rm t_p$) is found to be $\\rm t_p=H_p^{-1}$, where $\\rm H_p$ is the Hubble constant. The model is free from the main problems of the Standard Model. Since the scale factor $\\rm R\\propto t$ during the entire evolution of the universe the ratio of the cosmological constant at the Planck and present time is $\\rm\\fr{\\Lambda_{Pl}}{\\Lambda_p}=10^{120}$. This decay law justifies why, today, the cosmological constant is exceedingly small.

  18. The gradient flow in $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujikawa, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    A gradient flow equation for $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory in $D=4$ is formulated. In this scheme the gradient flow equation is written in terms of the renormalized probe variable $\\Phi(t,x)$ and renormalized parameters $m^{2}$ and $\\lambda$ in a manner analogous to the higher derivative regularization. No extra divergence is induced in the interaction of the probe variable $\\Phi(t,x)$ and the 4-dimensional dynamical variable $\\phi(x)$ which is defined in renormalized perturbation theory. The finiteness to all orders in perturbation theory is established by power counting argument in the context of $D+1$ dimensional field theory. This simple model will be useful to understand the basic smearing mechanism.

  19. Which spectral distortions does $\\Lambda$CDM actually predict?

    CERN Document Server

    Chluba, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Ever refined cosmological measurements have established the $\\Lambda$CDM concordance model, with the key cosmological parameters being determined to percent-level precision today. This allows us to make explicit predictions for the spectral distortions of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) created by various processes occurring in the early Universe. Here, we summarize all guaranteed CMB distortions and assess their total uncertainty within $\\Lambda$CDM. We also compare simple methods for approximating them, highlighting some of the subtle aspects when it comes to interpreting future distortion measurements. Under simplified assumptions, we briefly study how well a PIXIE-like experiment may measure the main distortion parameters (i.e., $\\mu$ and $y$). Next generation CMB spectrometers are expected to detect the distortion caused by reionization and structure formation at extremely high significance. They will also be able to constrain the small-scale power spectrum through the associated $\\mu$-distortion, ...

  20. Programacion funcional y lambda cálculo

    OpenAIRE

    Jonatan Gómez Perdomo; Wilson Castro Rojas; Alexander Cardona López

    2011-01-01

    En la primera parte de este artículo se explican algunos conceptos de los lenguajes de programación, haciendo énfasis en las caracteristicas y propiedades de los lenguajes de programación funcional. En la segunda, se realiza una introducción al lambda cálculo puro, su notación, axiomas y reglas elementales.

  1. Lambda modes of the neutron diffusion equation in hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nodal collocation method is proposed to compute the dominant Lambda modes of nuclear reactor core with a hexagonal geometry. This method is based on a triangular mesh and assumes that the neutronic flux can be approximated as a finite expansion in terms of Dubiner's polynomials. The method transforms the initial differential eigenvalue problem into a generalized algebraic one, from which the dominant modes of the reactor can be computed. The performance of the method is tested with two benchmark problems. (authors)

  2. Structure of the lambda-phases of niobium deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambda phases of NbD/sub x/ (0.78 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.84), which exist below 220 K, have been studied by neutron and electron diffraction. The observed modulated structure can be described as a deuteron concentration wave in a slightly distorted bcc Nb matrix. The wave-vector is parallel to , and the wavelength varies from 16.0 A to 21.4 A, increasing with increasing concentration

  3. Coalgebraic reasoning in Coq: bisimulation and lambda-coiteration scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Niqui, Milad

    2008-01-01

    In this work we present a modular theory of the coalgebras and bisimulation in the intensional type theory implemented in Coq. On top of that we build the theory of weakly final coalgebras and develop the lambda-coiteration scheme, thereby extending the class of specifications definable in Coq. We provide an instantiation of the theory for the coalgebra of streams and show how some of the productive specifications violating the guardedness condition of Coq can be formalised using our library.

  4. Characterization of SAL605 negative resist at {lambda}=13 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Fontaine, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Gaines, D.P.; Kania, D.R.

    1996-05-24

    We have characterized the response of the negative resist SAL605 in the extreme ultraviolet ({lambda}=13 nm). The sensitivity was found to be {approx}1 mJ/cm{sup 3} for all conditions studied. We have identified processing conditions leading to high ({gamma}{gt}4) contrast. The resist response was modeled using Prolith/2 and the development parameters were obtained from the exposure curves.

  5. Standardization of a Call-By-Value Lambda-Calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrieri, Giulio; Paolini, Luca; Ronchi Della Rocca, Simona

    2015-01-01

    We study an extension of Plotkin's call-by-value lambda-calculus by means of two commutation rules (sigma-reductions). Recently, it has been proved that this extended calculus provides elegant characterizations of many semantic properties, as for example solvability. We prove a standardization theorem for this calculus by generalizing Takahashi's approach of parallel reductions. The standardization property allows us to prove that our calculus is conservative with respect to the Plotkin's one...

  6. Programacion funcional y lambda cálculo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Gómez Perdomo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available En la primera parte de este artículo se explican algunos conceptos de los lenguajes de programación, haciendo énfasis en las caracteristicas y propiedades de los lenguajes de programación funcional. En la segunda, se realiza una introducción al lambda cálculo puro, su notación, axiomas y reglas elementales.

  7. Topological semigroups of matrix units and countably compact Brandt $\\lambda^0$-extensions of topological semigroups

    CERN Document Server

    Gutik, Oleg; Reiter, Andriy

    2009-01-01

    We show that a topological semigroup of finite partial bijections $\\mathscr{I}_\\lambda^n$ of an infinite set with a compact subsemigroup of idempotents is absolutely $H$-closed and any countably compact topological semigroup does not contain $\\mathscr{I}_\\lambda^n$ as a subsemigroup. We give sufficient conditions onto a topological semigroup $\\mathscr{I}_\\lambda^1$ to be non-$H$-closed. Also we describe the structure of countably compact Brandt $\\lambda^0$-extensions of topological monoids and study the category of countably compact Brandt $\\lambda^0$-extensions of topological monoids with zero.

  8. The decays $\\Lambda_{b,c}\\to N^*\\, l\\,\

    CERN Document Server

    Emmerich, Maximilian; Schäfer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We present an exploratory study of the $\\Lambda_{c,b}\\to N^*$-form factors and the semileptonic decay width within the framework of light-cone sum rules. We use two different methods and two different interpolating currents for the $\\Lambda_{c,b}$. As interpolating currents we choose an axial-vector like and a pseudoscalar like current. Our results show that the procedure of eliminating negative parity partners is not well suited for the case at hand and that the second approach using structures with highest powers of $p_+$ with an axial-vector like interpolating current gives the most reliable results. Our predictions are based on the models obtained in \\cite{Anikin:2015ita,Braun:2014wpa}. The largest uncertainty comes from the uncertainty of the twist 4 parameters $\\eta_{10},\\,\\eta_{11}$ and we take the spread between the two models in \\cite{Anikin:2015ita} as a measure for this. We get \\begin{eqnarray} \\Gamma(\\Lambda_b\\to N^*(1535) l \

  9. Radical effects on mutation spectra in lambda phage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations in the lambda repressor gene cI (710 bp) were induced by 60Co-gamma radiation in dissolved lambda phage DNA. After in vitro DNA packaging to lambda phage particles (pack phage) and phenotypic expression of the mutants, DNA was sequenced directly. Two-thirds of mutations were located in the amino terminus region of the gene without any signs of hotspots. Changes consisted of (+1) insertions (25%) and base substitutions (75%). Transitions were exclusively G/C to A/T. Transversions were mostly G/C to C/G and few G/C to T/A. A/T to T/A transversions, A/T to G/C transitions, deletions and gross rearrangements were not found. In most of the base substitutions a pre-existing base pair had been replaced by an A/T pair; this might come from 'non- instructional sites' like abasic sites. Several mechanisms for base substitutions are considered. (author)

  10. Induced polarization of {\\Lambda}(1116) in kaon electroproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielyan, M; Carman, D S; Park, K; Adhikari, K P; Adikaram, D; Amaryan, M J; Pereira, S Anefalos; Avakian, H; Ball, J; Baltzell, N A; Battaglieri, M; Baturin, V; Bedlinskiy, I; Biselli, A S; Bono, J; Boiarinov, S; Briscoe, W J; Brooks, W K; Burkert, V D; Cao, T; Celentano, A; Chandavar, S; Charles, G; Cole, P L; Contalbrigo, M; Cortes, O; Crede, V; DAngelo, A; Dashyan, N; De Vita, R; De Sanctis, E; Deur, A; Djalali, C; Doughty, D; Dupre, R; Fassi, L El; Eugenio, P; Fedotov, G; Fegan, S; Fleming, J A; Forest, T A; Garillon, B; Gevorgyan, N; Ghandilyan, Y; Gilfoyle, G P; Giovanetti, K L; Girod, F X; Goetz, J T; Golovatch, E; Gothe, R W; Griffioen, K A; Guidal, M; Guo, L; Hafidi, K; Hakobyan, H; Hattawy, M; Hicks, K; Ho, D; Holtrop, M; Hughes, S M; Ilieva, Y; Ireland, D G; Ishkhanov, B S; Jenkins, D; Jiang, H; Jo, H S; Joo, K; Keller, D; Khandaker, M; Kim, W; Klein, F J; Koirala, S; Kubarovsky, V; Kuhn, S E; Kuleshov, S V; Lenisa, P; Levine, W I; Livingston, K; MacGregor, I J D; Mayer, M; McKinnon, B; Meyer, C A; Mestayer, M D; Mirazita, M; Mokeev, V; Moody, C I; Moutarde, H; Movsisyan, A; Munevar, E; Camacho, C Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P; Niccolai, S; Niculescu, G; Osipenko, M; Pappalardo, L L; Paremuzyan, R; Pasyuk, E; Peng, P; Phelps, W; Phillips, J J; Pisano, S; Pogorelko, O; Pozdniakov, S; Price, J W; Procureur, S; Protopopescu, D; Rimal, D; Ripani, M; Rizzo, A; Sabatie, F; Salgado, C; Schott, D; Schumacher, R A; Simonyan, A; Smith, G D; Sober, D I; Sokhan, D; Stepanyan, S S; Stepanyan, S; Strakovsky, I I; Strauch, S; Sytnik, V; Tang, W; Ungaro, M; Vlassov, A V; Voskanyan, H; Voutier, E; Walford, N K; Watts, D P; Wei, X; Weinstein, L B; Zachariou, N; Zana, L; Zhang, J

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the induced polarization of the ${\\Lambda}(1116)$ in the reaction $ep\\rightarrow e'K^+{\\Lambda}$, detecting the scattered $e'$ and $K^+$ in the final state along with the proton from the decay $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^-$.The present study used the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS), which allowed for a large kinematic acceptance in invariant energy $W$ ($1.6\\leq W \\leq 2.7$ GeV) and covered the full range of the kaon production angle at an average momentum transfer $Q^2=1.90$ GeV$^2$.In this experiment a 5.50 GeV electron beam was incident upon an unpolarized liquid-hydrogen target. We have mapped out the $W$ and kaon production angle dependencies of the induced polarization and found striking differences from photoproduction data over most of the kinematic range studied. However, we also found that the induced polarization is essentially $Q^2$ independent in our kinematic domain, suggesting that somewhere below the $Q^2$ covered here there must be a strong $Q^2$ dependence. Along wit...

  11. Measurement of the Lambda0(b) Lifetime in Lambda0(b) ---> J/psi Lambda0 in p anti-p Collisions at s**(1/2) = 1.96-TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abulencia, A.; Adelman, J.; Affolder, T.; Akimoto, T.; Albrow, M.G.; Ambrose, D.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Anikeev, K.; Annovi, A.; /Taiwan, Inst. Phys.

    2006-09-01

    The authors report a measurement of the {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} lifetime in the exclusive decay {Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}{Lambda}{sup 0} in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb{sup -1} of data collected by the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. Using fully reconstructed decays, they measure {tau}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}) = 1.593{sub -0.078}{sup +0.083}(stat.) {+-} 0.033(syst.) ps. This is the single most precise measurement of {tau}({Lambda}{sub b}{sup 0}) and is 3.2 {sigma} higher than the current world average.

  12. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Xu, Zemin; Zhang, Xichang; Yang, Fangxing

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil was investigated using compound-specific stable isotope analysis. The results revealed that lambda-cyhalothrin was biodegraded in soil under laboratory conditions. The half-lives of lambda-cyhalothrin were determined to be 49 and 161 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 2mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin and 84 and 154 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 10mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin resulted in carbon isotope fractionation, which shifted from -29.0‰ to -26.5‰ in soil spiked with 2mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, and to -27.5‰ with 10mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin. A relationship was established between the stable carbon isotope fraction and the residual concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin by the Rayleigh equation in which the carbon isotope enrichment factor ε of the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in the soil was calculated as -2.53‰. This study provides an approach to quantitatively evaluate the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil in field studies. PMID:26092290

  13. On the Binding Energy and the Charge Symmetry Breaking in A<=16 Lambda-hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Botta, E; Feliciello, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent achievements in hypernuclear spectroscopy, in particular the determination of the $\\Lambda$-binding energy B$_{\\Lambda}$ by high precision magnetic spectrometry, contributed to stimulate considerably the search for Charge Symmetry Breaking effects in $\\Lambda$-hypernuclei isomultiplets. We have reorganized the results from the FINUDA experiment and we have produced a list of B$_{\\Lambda}$ values for hypernuclei with A$\\leq$16 considering only the data from magnetic spectrometers with an absolute calibration of the energy scale (FINUDA at DA$\\Phi$NE and electroproduction experiments). By comparing them with the corresponding B$_{\\Lambda}$ from the emulsion experiments, we observe that there is a systematic small difference that is taken into account. A synopsis of all the results on B$_{\\Lambda}$ so far published is finally suggested. Several interesting conclusions are drawn, among which the equality within the errors of B$_{\\Lambda}$ for the A=7, 12, 16 isomultiplets, based only on recent spectrometri...

  14. Charting the Structure and Energetics of Packaged DNA in Bacteriophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiangyun; Rau, Donald C.; Parsegian, V. Adrian; Fang, Li Tai; Knobler, Charles M.; Gelbart, William M.

    2009-03-01

    Many bacterial viruses resort to pressure in order to infect bacteria, e.g., lambda phage stores its dsDNA genome at surprisingly high pressure and then uses this pressure to drive delivery of the genome. We report on a biophysical interrogation of the DNA configuration and pressure in lambda phage by combining structural and thermodynamic measurements with theoretical modeling. Changes in DNA organization in the capsid are monitored using solution small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). We vary the DNA-DNA repulsion and DNA bending contributions to the capsid pressure by changing salt concentrations and packaged length, and augment SAXS data with osmotic stress measurements to elicit the evolving structure and energetics of the packaged DNA.

  15. Performance of microstrip gas chambers in BNL-E885: a search for LAMBDA LAMBDA-hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Landry, M; Davis, C A; Faszer, W; Gan, L; Lee, L; Page, S A; Ramsay, W D; Salomon, M; Oers, W T H

    1999-01-01

    The performance of MicroStrip Gas Chambers (MSGC) in BNL Experiment 885, a search for LAMBDA LAMBDA-hypernuclei, is detailed. Chambers with an active area of 80x50 mm sup 2 were instrumented and operated as a vertex detector in the experiment. Furthermore, two distinct types of microstrip prints were utilized in these chambers. Prints manufactured with Integrated Circuit (IC) photolithographic technology have fine tolerances and thin minimum trace widths, but can suffer from a high rate of defects per print and are more costly. Prints constructed with Printed Circuit (PC) photolithographic technology have coarser tolerances but relatively few defects per print, and are extremely cost-effective. Results of bench and beam tests of both IC and PC based MSGCs are presented and their performance in BNL-E885 is discussed. E885 marks the first use of PC based MSGCs in an experiment.

  16. Measurement of spin-transfer observables in pp to $\\Lambda \\Lambda$ at 1.637 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Bassalleck, B; Bradtke, C; Bröders, R; Bunker, B; Dennert, H; Dutz, H; Eilerts, S W; Eyrich, W; Fields, D; Fischer, H; Franklin, G; Franz, J; Gehring, R; Geyer, R; Görtz, S; Harmsen, J; Hauffe, J; Heinsius, F H; Hertzog, D W; Johansson, T; Jones, T; Khaustov, P; Kilian, K; Kingsberry, P; Kriegler, E; Lowe, J; Meier, A; Metzger, A E; Meyer, C A; Meyer, Werner T; Moosburger, M; Oelert, W; Paschke, K D; Plückthun, M; Pomp, S; Quinn, B; Radtke, E; Reicherz, G; Röhrich, K; Sachs, K; Schmitt, H; Schoch, B; Sefzick, T; Stinzing, F; Stotzer, R W; Tayloe, R; Wirth, S

    2002-01-01

    Spin-transfer observables for pp to Lambda Lambda have been measured using a transversely polarized frozen-spin target and a beam momentum of 1.637 GeV/c. Current models of the reaction near threshold are in good agreement with existing measurements performed with unpolarized particles in the initial state but produce conflicting predictions for the spin-transfer observables D/sub nn/ and K/sub nn/ (the normal-to-normal depolarization and polarization transfer), which are measurable only with polarized target or beam. Measurements of D/sub nn/ and K/sub nn/ presented here are found to be in disagreement with predictions from these models. (21 refs).

  17. Inactivation of lambda phage infectivity and lambda deoxyribonucleic acid transfection by N-methyl-isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone-copper complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, W; Helling, R

    1976-01-01

    The infectivity of intact lambda phage and transfection by lambda deoxyribonucleic acid were inactivated by exposure to the copper complexes of N-methyl-isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone, thiosemicarbazide, and semicarbazide, but not methyl-isatin. No inactivation was observed when these compounds were used in the absence of copper sulfate. This confirms our previous observation that the activity of N-methyl-isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone is mediated by its thiosemicarbazone moiety and that the presence of copper is required for action. This represents the first time, to our knowledge, that semicarbazide has been found to possess antiviral activity. It is clear that these compounds act directly on deoxyribonucleic acid; whether the compounds also act on proteins has not been determined. PMID:769669

  18. A Single Molecule Study of Two Bacteriophage Epigenetic Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haowei

    Epigenetic switches allow organisms to evolve into different states by activating/repressing different sets of genes without mutations of the underlying DNA sequence. The study of epigenetic switches is very important to understand the mechanism of human development, the origin of cancer, mental illness and fundamental processes such as gene regulation. The coliphage lambda epigenetic switch, which allows switching from lysogeny to lysis, has been studied for more than 50 years as a paradigm, and has recently received renewed attention. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used here to show that the lambda repressor oligomerizes on DNA, primarily as a dodecamer, to secure a DNA loop, which is the basis of the lambda switch. This study also provides support for the idea that specifically bound repressor stabilizes adjacent, non-specifically bound repressor molecules, which confers robustness to the switch. 186 is a member of a different coliphage family. One of the major differences between the two coliphage families is that lambda phages can be induced to switch from the lysogenic to the lytic state by UV radiation, but most coliphages of P2 family, to which 186 belongs, cannot. Interaction between coliphage 186 repressor and DNA is characterized by AFM and tethered particle motion (TPM). To expedite analysis of the AFM data, MatLab codes were written to automate the laborious, manual tracing procedures. The programs automatically recognize DNA segments and protein particles in an image, in order to measure the DNA length and position of bound particles as well as their height, diameter and volume. Application of these algorithms greatly improved the efficiency of AFM analysis. It was showed that 186 CI dimers form heptameric wheels, which induce DNA wrapping and different kinds of DNA looping producing various conformations of nucleoprotein complexes. Information about the dynamics of DNA wrapping and looping on 186 CI particles was also obtained by TPM.

  19. BRED: a simple and powerful tool for constructing mutant and recombinant bacteriophage genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Marinelli

    Full Text Available Advances in DNA sequencing technology have facilitated the determination of hundreds of complete genome sequences both for bacteria and their bacteriophages. Some of these bacteria have well-developed and facile genetic systems for constructing mutants to determine gene function, and recombineering is a particularly effective tool. However, generally applicable methods for constructing defined mutants of bacteriophages are poorly developed, in part because of the inability to use selectable markers such as drug resistance genes during viral lytic growth. Here we describe a method for simple and effective directed mutagenesis of bacteriophage genomes using Bacteriophage Recombineering of Electroporated DNA (BRED, in which a highly efficient recombineering system is utilized directly on electroporated phage DNA; no selection is required and mutants can be readily detected by PCR. We describe the use of BRED to construct unmarked gene deletions, in-frame internal deletions, base substitutions, precise gene replacements, and the addition of gene tags.

  20. [The challenge of controlling foodborne diseases: bacteriophages as a new biotechnological tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorquera, Denisse; Galarce, Nicolás; Borie, Consuelo

    2015-12-01

    Foodborne diseases are an increasing public health issue, in which bacterial pathogens have a transcendental role. To face this situation, the food industry has implemented several control strategies, using in the last decade some biotechnological tools, such as direct application of bacteriophages on food, to effectively control bacterial pathogens. Their bactericidal and safe properties to humans and animals have been widely described in the literature, being nowadays some bacteriophage-based products commercially available. Despite this, there are so many factors that can interfere in their biocontrol effectiveness on food, therefore is essential to consider these factors before their application. Thus, the optimal bacterial reduction will be achieved, which would produce a safer food. This review discusses some factors to consider in the use of bacteriophages as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens, including historical background, taxonomy and biological description of bacteriophages, and also advantages, disadvantages, and considerations of food applications. PMID:26928505

  1. Pecularities of mutagenesis of T4Br bacteriophage under the direct and indirect radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different lethal and mutagenic effects were shown when bacteriophage T4Br+ (470 r/min) was irradiated in broth (direct effect) and a buffer solution (direct and indirect action). The survival rate of the bacteriophage in the buffer solution was 0.1 percent for a dose rate of 60 kr; in the broth it was 10 percent. The frequency of mutation of the bacteriophage also showed the greater effect of the irradiation in the buffer solution than in the broth (25 and 5 r-mutants respectively at a dose rate of 10 kr). An analysis of the ratio of the r-groups when the bacteriophage was treated in various ways revealed differences between mutagenesis produced in the broth and the buffer, and spontaneous mutagenesis. (V.A.P.)

  2. Utilizing Synthetic Spectra to Refine Lambda Boo Stars' UV Classification Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Neff, James E.; Johnson, Dustin; Tarbell, Erik; Romo, Christopher; Steele, Patricia; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Lambda Boo-type stars are a group of late B to early F-type Population I dwarfs that show deficiencies of iron-peak elements (up to 2 dex), but their C, N, O, and S abundances are near solar. This stellar class has recently regained the spotlight because of the directly-imaged planets around a confirmed Lambda Boo star, HR 8799, and a suggested Lambda Boo star Beta Pictoris. The discovery of a giant asteroid belt around Vega, another possible Lambda Boo star, also suggests hidden planets. This possible link between Lambda Boo stars and planet-bearing stars motivates us to study Lambda Boo stars systematically. Since the peculiar nature of the prototype Lambda Bootis was first noticed in 1943, Lambda Boo candidates published in the literature have been selected using widely different criteria. The Lambda Boo label has been applied to almost any peculiar A-type stars that do not fit elsewhere. In order to determine the origin of Lambda Boo stars' unique abundance pattern and to better discriminate between theories explaining the Lambda Boo phenomenon, a consistent working definition of Lambda Boo stars is needed. We have re-evaluated all published Lambda Boo candidates and their available ultraviolet and visible spectra. Using observed and synthetic spectra, we explored the classification of Lambda Boo stars and developed quantitative criteria that discriminate metal-poor stars from bona fide Lambda Boo stars. With model spectra, we demonstrated that the (C I 1657 Angstrom)/ (Al II 1671 Angstrom) line ratio is the best single criterion to distinguish between Lambda Boo stars and metal weak stars, and that one cannot use a single C I/Al II cut-off value as a Lambda Boo classification criterion. The C I/Al II cut-off value is a function of a star's effective temperature and metallicity. Using these stricter Lambda Boo classification criteria, we concluded that neither Beta Pictoris nor Vega should be classified as Lambda Boo stars.

  3. Genetic diversity among five T4-like bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Claire

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteriophages are an important repository of genetic diversity. As one of the major constituents of terrestrial biomass, they exert profound effects on the earth's ecology and microbial evolution by mediating horizontal gene transfer between bacteria and controlling their growth. Only limited genomic sequence data are currently available for phages but even this reveals an overwhelming diversity in their gene sequences and genomes. The contribution of the T4-like phages to this overall phage diversity is difficult to assess, since only a few examples of complete genome sequence exist for these phages. Our analysis of five T4-like genomes represents half of the known T4-like genomes in GenBank. Results Here, we have examined in detail the genetic diversity of the genomes of five relatives of bacteriophage T4: the Escherichia coli phages RB43, RB49 and RB69, the Aeromonas salmonicida phage 44RR2.8t (or 44RR and the Aeromonas hydrophila phage Aeh1. Our data define a core set of conserved genes common to these genomes as well as hundreds of additional open reading frames (ORFs that are nonconserved. Although some of these ORFs resemble known genes from bacterial hosts or other phages, most show no significant similarity to any known sequence in the databases. The five genomes analyzed here all have similarities in gene regulation to T4. Sequence motifs resembling T4 early and late consensus promoters were observed in all five genomes. In contrast, only two of these genomes, RB69 and 44RR, showed similarities to T4 middle-mode promoter sequences and to the T4 motA gene product required for their recognition. In addition, we observed that each phage differed in the number and assortment of putative genes encoding host-like metabolic enzymes, tRNA species, and homing endonucleases. Conclusion Our observations suggest that evolution of the T4-like phages has drawn on a highly diverged pool of genes in the microbial world. The T4

  4. BRED: A Simple and Powerful Tool for Constructing Mutant and Recombinant Bacteriophage Genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Marinelli, Laura J.; Mariana Piuri; Zuzana Swigonová; Amrita Balachandran; Oldfield, Lauren M.; van Kessel, Julia C.; Hatfull, Graham F.

    2008-01-01

    Advances in DNA sequencing technology have facilitated the determination of hundreds of complete genome sequences both for bacteria and their bacteriophages. Some of these bacteria have well-developed and facile genetic systems for constructing mutants to determine gene function, and recombineering is a particularly effective tool. However, generally applicable methods for constructing defined mutants of bacteriophages are poorly developed, in part because of the inability to use selectable m...

  5. Isolation of Dickeya dadantii strains from potato disease and biocontrol by their bacteriophages

    OpenAIRE

    Soleimani-Delfan, Abbas; Etemadifar, Zahra; Emtiazi, Giti; Bouzari, Majid

    2015-01-01

    One of the most economically important bacterial pathogens of plants and plant products is Dickeya dadantii. This bacterium causes soft rot disease in tubers and other parts of the potato and other plants of the Solanaceae family. The application of restricted host range bacteriophages as biocontrol agents has recently gained widespread interest. This study purposed to isolate the infectious agent of the potato and evaluate its biocontrol by bacteriophages. Two phytopathogenic strains were is...

  6. Hexagonally packed DNA within bacteriophage T7 stabilized by curvature stress.

    OpenAIRE

    Odijk, T

    1998-01-01

    A continuum computation is proposed for the bending stress stabilizing DNA that is hexagonally packed within bacteriophage T7. Because the inner radius of the DNA spool is rather small, the stress of the curved DNA genome is strong enough to balance its electrostatic self-repulsion so as to form a stable hexagonal phase. The theory is in accord with the microscopically determined structure of bacteriophage T7 filled with DNA within the experimental margin of error.

  7. A Fluoroquinolone Induces a Novel Mitogen-Encoding Bacteriophage in Streptococcus canis

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrey, Keely T.; Ren, Jun; Prescott, John F.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated whether the recently recognized emergence of canine streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF) might be partly attributed to the use of fluoroquinolones to treat Streptococcus canis infections in dogs. Both mitomycin and the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin caused bacteriophage-induced lysis of S. canis strain 34, an isolate from a case of canine STSS and NF. Fluoroquinolone-evoked, bacteriophage-induced lysis occurred over a range of concentr...

  8. Bacteriophages LIMElight and LIMEzero of Pantoea agglomerans belonging to the 'phiKMV-like viruses'

    OpenAIRE

    Adriaenssens, Evelien; Ceyssens, Pieter-Jan; Dunon, Vincent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Maes, Martine; De Proft, Maurice; Lavigne, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans is a common soil bacterium used in the biocontrol of fungi and bacteria but is also an opportunistic human pathogen. It has been described extensively in this context, but knowledge of bacteriophages infecting this species is limited. Bacteriophages LIMEzero and LIMElight of P. agglomerans are lytic phages, isolated from soil samples, belonging to the Podoviridae and are the first Pantoea phages of this family to be described. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes (43,03...

  9. Excision repair and patch size in UV-irradiated bacteriophage T4.

    OpenAIRE

    Yarosh, D B; Rosenstein, B S; Setlow, R B

    1981-01-01

    We determined the average size of excision repair patches in repair of UV lesions in bacteriophage T4 by measuring the photolysis of bromodeoxyuridine incorporated during repair. The average patch was small, approximately four nucleotides long. In control experiments with the denV1 excision-deficient mutant, we encountered an artifact, a protein(s) which remained bound to phenol-extracted DNA and prevented nicking by the UV-specific endonucleases of Micrococcus luteus and bacteriophage T4.

  10. Polarization effects in the cascade decay Lambda_b -> Lambda(-> p pi-) + J/psi(-> l+ l-) in the covariant confined quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Gutsche, Thomas; Korner, Jurgen G; Lyubovitskij, Valery E; Santorelli, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    We calculate the invariant and helicity amplitudes for the nonleptonic decay Lambda_b -> Lambda + J/psi, psi(2S) in the covariant confined quark model. We discuss joint angular decay distributions in the cascade decay Lambda_b -> Lambda(-> p pi-) + J/psi, psi(2S) (-> l+ l-) and calculate some of the asymmetry parameters that characterize the joint angular decay distribution. We confirm expectations from the naive quark model that the transitions into the lambda_Lambda=1/2 helicity states of the daughter baryon Lambda are strongly suppressed leading to a near maximal negative polarization of the Lambda. For the same reason the azimuthal correlation between the two decay planes spanned by (p pi-) and (l+ l-) is negligibly small. We provide form factor results for the whole accessible q2-range. Our results are close to lattice results at minimum recoil and light-cone sum rule results at maximum recoil. A new feature of our analysis is that we include lepton mass effects in the calculation which allows us to also...

  11. Access to bacteriophage therapy: discouraging experiences from the human cell and tissue legal framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeken, G; Huys, I; De Vos, D; De Coninck, A; Roseeuw, D; Kets, E; Vanderkelen, A; Draye, J P; Rose, T; Jennes, S; Ceulemans, C; Pirnay, J P

    2016-02-01

    Cultures of human epithelial cells (keratinocytes) are used as an additional surgical tool to treat critically burnt patients. Initially, the production environment of keratinocyte grafts was regulated exclusively by national regulations. In 2004, the European Tissues and Cells Directive 2004/23/EC (transposed into Belgian Law) imposed requirements that resulted in increased production costs and no significant increase in quality and/or safety. In 2007, Europe published Regulation (EC) No. 1394/2007 on Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products. Overnight, cultured keratinocytes became (arguably) 'Advanced' Therapy Medicinal Products to be produced as human medicinal products. The practical impact of these amendments was (and still is) considerable. A similar development appears imminent in bacteriophage therapy. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that can be used for tackling the problem of bacterial resistance development to antibiotics. Therapeutic natural bacteriophages have been in clinical use for almost 100 years. Regulators today are framing the (re-)introduction of (natural) bacteriophage therapy into 'modern western' medicine as biological medicinal products, also subject to stringent regulatory medicinal products requirements. In this paper, we look back on a century of bacteriophage therapy to make the case that therapeutic natural bacteriophages should not be classified under the medicinal product regulatory frames as they exist today. It is our call to authorities to not repeat the mistake of the past. PMID:26678555

  12. Isolation of Dickeya dadantii strains from potato disease and biocontrol by their bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Soleimani-Delfan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the most economically important bacterial pathogens of plants and plant products is Dickeya dadantii. This bacterium causes soft rot disease in tubers and other parts of the potato and other plants of the Solanaceae family. The application of restricted host range bacteriophages as biocontrol agents has recently gained widespread interest. This study purposed to isolate the infectious agent of the potato and evaluate its biocontrol by bacteriophages. Two phytopathogenic strains were isolated from infected potatoes, identified based on biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and submitted to GenBank as D. dadantii strain pis3 (accession no. HQ423668 and D. dadantii strain sip4 (accession no. HQ423669. Their bacteriophages were isolated from Caspian Sea water by enriching the water filtrate with D. dadantii strains as hosts using spot or overlay methods. On the basis of morphotypes, the isolated bacteriophages were identified as members of the Myoviridae and Siphoviridae families and could inhibit the growth of antibiotic resistant D. dadantii strains in culture medium. Moreover, in Dickeya infected plants treated with bacteriophage, no disease progression was detected. No significant difference was seen between phage-treated and control plants. Thus, isolated bacteriophages can be suggested for the biocontrol of plant disease caused by Dickeya strains.

  13. Isolation of Dickeya dadantii strains from potato disease and biocontrol by their bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani-Delfan, Abbas; Etemadifar, Zahra; Emtiazi, Giti; Bouzari, Majid

    2015-01-01

    One of the most economically important bacterial pathogens of plants and plant products is Dickeya dadantii. This bacterium causes soft rot disease in tubers and other parts of the potato and other plants of the Solanaceae family. The application of restricted host range bacteriophages as biocontrol agents has recently gained widespread interest. This study purposed to isolate the infectious agent of the potato and evaluate its biocontrol by bacteriophages. Two phytopathogenic strains were isolated from infected potatoes, identified based on biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and submitted to GenBank as D. dadantii strain pis3 (accession no. HQ423668) and D. dadantii strain sip4 (accession no. HQ423669). Their bacteriophages were isolated from Caspian Sea water by enriching the water filtrate with D. dadantii strains as hosts using spot or overlay methods. On the basis of morphotypes, the isolated bacteriophages were identified as members of the Myoviridae and Siphoviridae families and could inhibit the growth of antibiotic resistant D. dadantii strains in culture medium. Moreover, in Dickeya infected plants treated with bacteriophage, no disease progression was detected. No significant difference was seen between phage-treated and control plants. Thus, isolated bacteriophages can be suggested for the biocontrol of plant disease caused by Dickeya strains. PMID:26413062

  14. A simple and novel modification of comet assay for determination of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Krishna; Sanmukh, Swapnil; Chandekar, Rajshree; Paunikar, Waman

    2014-07-01

    The comet assay is the widely used method for in vitro toxicity testing which is also an alternative to the use of animal models for in vivo testing. Since, its inception in 1984 by Ostling and Johansson, it is being modified frequently for a wide range of application. In spite of its wide applicability, unfortunately there is no report of its application in bacteriophages research. In this study, a novel application of comet assay for the detection of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis was described. The conventional methods in bacteriophage research for studying bacterial lysis by bacteriophages are plaque assay method. It is time consuming, laborious and costly. The lytic activity of bacteriophage devours the bacterial cell which results in the release of bacterial genomic material that gets detected by ethidium bromide staining method by the comet assay protocol. The objective of this study was to compare efficacy of comet assay with different assay used to study phage mediated bacterial lysis. The assay was performed on culture isolates (N=80 studies), modified comet assay appear to have relatively higher sensitivity and specificity than other assay. The results of the study showed that the application of comet assay can be an economical, time saving and less laborious alternative to conventional plaque assay for the detection of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis. PMID:24681053

  15. [Determination of Azospirillum Brasilense Cells With Bacteriophages via Electrooptical Analysis of Microbial Suspensions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulii, O I; Karavayeva, O A; Pavlii, S A; Sokolov, O I; Bunin, V D; Ignatov, O V

    2015-01-01

    The dependence-of changes in the electrooptical properties of Azospirillum brasilense cell suspension Sp7 during interaction with bacteriophage ΦAb-Sp7 on the number and time of interactions was studied. Incubation of cells with bacteriophage significantly changed the electrooptical signal within one minute. The selective effect of bacteriophage ΦAb on 18 strains of bacteria of the genus Azospirillum was studied: A. amazonense Ami4, A. brasilense Sp7, Cd, Sp107, Sp245, Jm6B2, Brl4, KR77, S17, S27, SR55, SR75, A. halopraeferans Au4, A. irakense KBC1, K A3, A. lipoferum Sp59b, SR65 and RG20a. We determined the limit of reliable determination of microbial cells infected with bacteriophage: - 10(4) cells/mL. The presence of foreign cell cultures of E. coli B-878 and E. coli XL-1 did not complicate the detection of A brasilense Sp7 cells with the use of bacteriophage ΦAb-Sp7. The results demonstrated that bacteriophage (ΦAb-Sp7 can be used for the detection of Azospirillum microbial cells via t electrooptical analysis of cell suspensions. PMID:26204775

  16. Utilizing Synthetic UV Spectra to Explore the Physical Basis for the Classification of Lambda Boötis Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Neff, James E.; Johnson, Dustin M.; Tarbell, Erik S.; Romo, Christopher A.; Prabhaker, Arvind; Steele, Patricia A.; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    Lambda Boo-type stars are a group of late B to early F-type Population I dwarfs that show mild to extreme deficiencies of iron-peak elements (up to 2 dex), but their C, N, O, and S abundances are near solar. This intriguing stellar class has recently regained the spotlight because of the directly imaged planets around a confirmed Lambda Boo star, HR 8799, and a suggested Lambda Boo star, Beta Pictoris. The discovery of a giant asteroid belt around Vega, another possible Lambda Boo star, also suggests hidden planets. The possible link between Lambda Boo stars and planet-bearing stars motivates us to study Lambda Boo stars systematically. Since the peculiar nature of the prototype Lambda Boötis was first noticed in 1943, Lambda Boo candidates published in the literature have been selected using widely different criteria. In order to determine the origin of Lambda Boo stars’ unique abundance pattern and to better discriminate between theories explaining the Lambda Boo phenomenon, a consistent working definition of Lambda Boo stars is needed. We have re-evaluated all published Lambda Boo candidates and their available ultraviolet and visible spectra. In this paper, using observed and synthetic spectra, we explore the physical basis for the classification of Lambda Boo stars, and develop quantitative criteria that discriminate metal-poor stars from bona fide Lambda Boo stars. Based on these stricter Lambda Boo classification criteria, we conclude that neither Beta Pictoris nor Vega should be classified as Lambda Boo stars.

  17. Bacteriophages in clinical samples can interfere with microbiological diagnostic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Jaque, Maryury; Muniesa, Maite; Navarro, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and they are found everywhere their bacterial hosts are present, including the human body. To explore the presence of phages in clinical samples, we assessed 65 clinical samples (blood, ascitic fluid, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and serum). Infectious tailed phages were detected in >45% of ascitic fluid and urine samples. Three examples of phage interference with bacterial isolation were observed. Phages prevented the confluent bacterial growth required for an antibiogram assay when the inoculum was taken from an agar plate containing lysis plaques, but not when taken from a single colony in a phage-free area. In addition, bacteria were isolated directly from ascitic fluid, but not after liquid enrichment culture of the same samples, since phage propagation lysed the bacteria. Lastly, Gram-negative bacilli observed in a urine sample did not grow on agar plates due to the high densities of infectious phages in the sample. PMID:27609086

  18. The role of temperate bacteriophages in bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Emily V; Winstanley, Craig; Fothergill, Joanne L; James, Chloe E

    2016-03-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria. There are an estimated 10(31) phage on the planet, making them the most abundant form of life. We are rapidly approaching the centenary of their identification, and yet still have only a limited understanding of their role in the ecology and evolution of bacterial populations. Temperate prophage carriage is often associated with increased bacterial virulence. The rise in use of technologies, such as genome sequencing and transcriptomics, has highlighted more subtle ways in which prophages contribute to pathogenicity. This review discusses the current knowledge of the multifaceted effects that phage can exert on their hosts and how this may contribute to bacterial adaptation during infection. PMID:26825679

  19. Complete Genomic Sequence of Bacteriophage Felix O1

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    Andrew M. Kropinski

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage O1 is a Myoviridae A1 group member used historically for identifying Salmonella. Sequencing revealed a single, linear, 86,155-base-pair genome with 39% average G+C content, 131 open reading frames, and 22 tRNAs. Closest protein homologs occur in Erwinia amylovora phage φEa21-4 and Escherichia coli phage wV8. Proteomic analysis indentified structural proteins: Gp23, Gp36 (major tail protein, Gp49, Gp53, Gp54, Gp55, Gp57, Gp58 (major capsid protein, Gp59, Gp63, Gp64, Gp67, Gp68, Gp69, Gp73, Gp74 and Gp77 (tail fiber. Based on phage-host codon differences, 7 tRNAs could affect translation rate during infection. Introns, holin-lysin cassettes, bacterial toxin homologs and host RNA polymerase-modifying genes were absent.

  20. Role of osmotic and hydrostatic pressures in bacteriophage genome ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Serge G.; Panja, Debabrata; Molineux, Ian J.

    2013-02-01

    A critical step in the bacteriophage life cycle is genome ejection into host bacteria. The ejection process for double-stranded DNA phages has been studied thoroughly in vitro, where after triggering with the cellular receptor the genome ejects into a buffer. The experimental data have been interpreted in terms of the decrease in free energy of the densely packed DNA associated with genome ejection. Here we detail a simple model of genome ejection in terms of the hydrostatic and osmotic pressures inside the phage, a bacterium, and a buffer solution or culture medium. We argue that the hydrodynamic flow associated with the water movement from the buffer solution into the phage capsid and further drainage into the bacterial cytoplasm, driven by the osmotic gradient between the bacterial cytoplasm and culture medium, provides an alternative mechanism for phage genome ejection in vivo; the mechanism is perfectly consistent with phage genome ejection in vitro.