Kunda, Nitesh K; Wafula, Denis; Tram, Meilinn; Wu, Terry H; Muttil, Pavan
Formulating vaccines into a dry form enhances its thermal stability. This is critical to prevent administering damaged and ineffective vaccines, and to reduce its final cost. A number of vaccines in the market as well as those being evaluated in the clinical setting are in a dry solid state; yet none of these vaccines have achieved long-term stability at high temperatures. We used spray-drying to formulate a recombinant live attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm; expressing Francisella tularensis immune protective antigen pathogenicity island protein IglC) bacterial vaccine into a thermostable dry powder using various sugars and an amino acid. Lm powder vaccine showed minimal loss in viability when stored for more than a year at ambient room temperature (∼23°C) or for 180days at 40°C. High temperature viability was achieved by maintaining an inert atmosphere in the storage container and removing oxygen free radicals that damage bacterial membranes. Further, in vitro antigenicity was confirmed by infecting a dendritic cell line with cultures derived from spray dried Lm and detection of an intracellularly expressed protective antigen. A combination of stabilizing excipients, a cost effective one-step drying process, and appropriate storage conditions could provide a viable option for producing, storing and transporting heat-sensitive vaccines, especially in regions of the world that require them the most. PMID:27020530
Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has presented challenges for development of effective vaccines, despite several decades of research. The only vaccine against BKD that is commercially licensed is an injectable preparation containing live cells ...
Bandholtz, Lisa Charlotta
This thesis describes DNA-based vaccination and the importance of bacterial DNA in different immunological perspectives. Intranasal (i.n.) DNA vaccination utilizing a plasmid encoding the chlamydial heat shock protein 60 (p-hsp-60) generated lower bacterial burden and reduced pathology in the lungs of mice after subsequent infection with C. pneumoniae. This DNA vaccine- induced protection was dependent on T cells and induction of IFN-gamma. Co-administration of a plasmid...
Elliott, Diane G.; Wiens, Gregory D.; Hammell, K. Larry; Rhodes, Linda D.
Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) of salmonid fishes, caused by Renibacterium salmoninarum, has been recognized as a serious disease in salmonid fishes since the 1930s. This chapter discusses the occurrence and significance, etiology, and pathogenesis of BKD. It then describes the different vaccination procedures and the effects and side-effects of vaccination. Despite years of research, however, only a single vaccine has been licensed for prevention of BKD, and has demonstrated variable efficacy. Therefore, in addition to a presentation of the current status of BKD vaccination, a discussion of potential future directions for BKD vaccine development is included in the chapter. This discussion is focused on the unique characteristics of R. salmoninarum and its biology, as well as aspects of the salmonid immune system that might be explored specifically to develop more effective vaccines for BKD prevention.
Meningococcal Disease (Bacterial meningitis) Vaccine and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby ... advice from your health care provider. What is meningitis? Meningitis is an infection of the lining that ...
... bacterial vaccines. 113.64 Section 113.64 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.64 General requirements for live bacterial vaccines... bacterial vaccine shall meet the requirements in this section. (a) Purity test. Final container samples...
This document is the executive summary and background review for the final report of ''Development of a Vaccine for Bacterial Kidney Disease in Salmon''. A description of the disease is provided, with microbiological characterization of the infective agent. A brief discussion of attempts to eradicate the disease is included. Recent progress in vaccine development and attempts to control the disease through pharmacological means are described, along with potential ways to break the cycle of infection. 80 refs
Diana C Otczyk
Full Text Available Pneumonia in childhood is endemic in large parts of the world and in particular, in developing countries, as well as in many indigenous communities within developed nations. Haemophilus influenzae type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae conjugate vaccines are currently available against the leading bacterial causes of pneumonia. The use of the vaccines in both industrialised and developing countries have shown a dramatic reduction in the burden of pneumonia and invasive disease in children. However, the greatest threat facing pneumococcal conjugate vaccine effectiveness is serotype replacement. The current vaccines provide serotype-specific, antibody–mediated protection against only a few of the 90+ capsule serotypes. Therefore, there has been a focus in recent years to rapidly advance technologies that will result in broader disease coverage and more affordable vaccines that can be used in developing countries. The next generation of pneumococcal vaccines have advanced to clinical trials.
Thole, J.E.R.; Dalen, P.J. van; Havenith, C.E.G.; Pouwels, P.H.; Seegers, J.F.M.L.; Tielen, F.D.; Zee, M.D. van der; Zegers, N.D.; Shaw, M.
By expression of foreign antigens in attenuated strains derived from bacterial pathogens and in non-pathogenic commensal bacteria, recombinant vaccines are being developed that aim to stimulate mucosal immunity. Recent advances in the pathogenesis and molecular biology of these bacteria have allowed
Acevedo, Reinaldo; Fernández, Sonsire; Zayas, Caridad; Acosta, Armando; Sarmiento, Maria Elena; Valerie A. Ferro; Rosenqvist, Einar; Campa, Concepcion; Cardoso, Daniel; Garcia, Luis; Perez, Jose Luis
Vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles (OMV) were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D) and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cuba. A...
Reinaldo eAcevedo; Sonsire eFernandez; Caridad eZayas; Armando eAcosta; Maria Elena Sarmiento; Valerie A. Ferro; Einar eRosenqvist; Concepcion eCampa; Daniel eCardoso; Luis eGarcia; Jose Luis Perez
Vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles (OMV) were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of self meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D) and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cu...
Acevedo, Reinaldo; Fernández, Sonsire; Zayas, Caridad; Acosta, Armando; Sarmiento, Maria Elena; Ferro, Valerie A; Rosenqvist, Einar; Campa, Concepcion; Cardoso, Daniel; Garcia, Luis; Perez, Jose Luis
Vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles (OMV) were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D) and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cuba. A Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) process was developed at the Finlay Institute to produce OMV from N. meningitidis serogroup B (dOMVB) using detergent extraction. Subsequently, OMV from N. meningitidis, serogroup A (dOMVA), serogroup W (dOMVW), and serogroup X (dOMVX) were obtained using this process. More recently, the extraction process has also been applied effectively for obtaining OMV on a research scale from Vibrio cholerae (dOMVC), Bordetella pertussis (dOMVBP), Mycobacterium smegmatis (dOMVSM), and BCG (dOMVBCG). The immunogenicity of the OMV has been evaluated for specific antibody induction, and together with functional bactericidal and challenge assays in mice has shown their protective potential. dOMVB has been evaluated with non-neisserial antigens, including with a herpes virus type 2 glycoprotein, ovalbumin, and allergens. In conclusion, OMV are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and remain an important technology for development of vaccine candidates. PMID:24715891
Full Text Available Vaccines based on outer membrane vesicles (OMV were developed more than 20 years ago against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B. These nano-sized structures exhibit remarkable potential for immunomodulation of immune responses and delivery of self meningococcal antigens or unrelated antigens incorporated into the vesicle structure. This paper reviews different applications in OMV Research and Development (R&D and provides examples of OMV developed and evaluated at the Finlay Institute in Cuba. A Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP process was developed at the Finlay Institute to produce OMV from N. meningitidis serogroup B (dOMVB using detergent extraction. Subsequently, OMV from N. meningitidis, serogroup A (dOMVA, serogroup W (dOMVW and serogroup X (dOMVX were obtained using this process. More recently, the extraction process has also been applied effectively for obtaining OMV on a research scale from Vibrio cholerae (dOMVC, Bordetella pertussis (dOMVBP, Mycobacterium smegmatis (dOMVSM and BCG (dOMVBCG. The immunogenicity of the OMV have been evaluated for specific antibody induction, and together with functional bactericidal and challenge assays in mice have shown their protective potential. dOMVB has been evaluated with non-self neisserial antigens, including with a herpes virus type 2 glycoprotein, ovalbumin and allergens. In conclusion, OMV are proving to be more versatile than first conceived and remain an important technology for development of vaccine candidates.
Håstein, T; Gudding, R; Evensen, O
During the last few years, the use of vaccines for disease prevention in aquaculture has expanded both with regard to the number of fish species and number of microbial diseases. According to the responses to a questionnaire received from 41 countries, vaccination is used in the commercial aquaculture of species like Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), sea bream (Sparus aurata), barramundi (Lates calcarifer), tilapia (Tilapia spp), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), purplish and gold-striped amberjack (Seriola dumereli), striped jack (Pseudocaranx dentex) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). The range of bacterial infections for which vaccines are commercially available now comprises classical vibriosis (Listonella anguillarum, Vibrio ordalii), furunculosis (Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida), cold-water vibriosis (Vibrio salmonicida), yersiniosis (Yersinia ruckeri), pasteurellosis (Photobacterium damselae supsp. piscicida), edwardsiellosis (Edwardsiella ictaluri), winter ulcer (Moritella viscosa), and streptococcosis/lactococcosis (Streptococcus iniae, Lactococcus garviae). Furthermore, experimental vaccines are used against diseases such as infection with Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damsela subsp. damsela in barramundi, piscirickettsiosis and bacterial kidney disease in salmonids, as well as infection with Flexibacter maritimus (now: Tenacibaculum maritimum) in turbot. There was good agreement between the information received from different sources in the same country. Most vaccines are licensed products, but some non-licensed vaccines are also used in commercial fish farms. Most bacterial vaccines are inactivated products and recombinant vaccine technology has so far been used to a very limited extent. Salmonid fish are usually immunised with multivalent vaccines by intraperitoneal injection. In marine fish species vaccination is generally
Rhodes, Linda D; Rathbone, Cindra K; Corbett, Stephen C; Harrell, Lee W; Strom, Mark S
DNA adjuvants and whole bacterial cell vaccines against bacterial kidney disease (BKD) were tested in juvenile chinook salmon. Whole cell vaccines of either a nonpathogenic Arthrobacter spp. or an attenuated Renibacterium salmoninarum strain provided limited prophylactic protection against acute intraperitoneal challenge with virulent R. salmoninarum, and the addition of either synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides or purified R. salmoninarum genomic DNA as adjuvants did not increase protection. However, a combination of both whole cell vaccines significantly increased survival among fish naturally infected with R. salmoninarum, and the surviving fish treated with the combination vaccine exhibited reduced levels of bacterial antigens in the kidney. This is the first demonstration of a potential therapeutic effect of a whole cell vaccine against BKD. PMID:15123289
Full Text Available Although current influenza vaccines are effective in general, there is an urgent need for the development of new technologies to improve vaccine production timelines, capacities and immunogenicity. Herein, we describe the development of an influenza vaccine technology which enables recombinant production of highly efficient influenza vaccines in bacterial expression systems. The globular head domain of influenza hemagglutinin, comprising most of the protein's neutralizing epitopes, was expressed in E. coli and covalently conjugated to bacteriophage-derived virus-like particles produced independently in E.coli. Conjugate influenza vaccines produced this way were used to immunize mice and found to elicit immune sera with high antibody titers specific for the native influenza hemagglutinin protein and high hemagglutination-inhibition titers. Moreover vaccination with these vaccines induced full protection against lethal challenges with homologous and highly drifted influenza strains.
Full Text Available Salmonella enterica infections are a significant global health issue, and development of vaccines against these bacteria requires an improved understanding of how vaccination affects the growth and spread of the bacteria within the host. We have combined in vivo tracking of molecularly tagged bacterial subpopulations with mathematical modelling to gain a novel insight into how different classes of vaccines and branches of the immune response protect against secondary Salmonella enterica infections of the mouse. We have found that a live Salmonella vaccine significantly reduced bacteraemia during a secondary challenge and restrained inter-organ spread of the bacteria in the systemic organs. Further, fitting mechanistic models to the data indicated that live vaccine immunisation enhanced both the bacterial killing in the very early stages of the infection and bacteriostatic control over the first day post-challenge. T-cell immunity induced by this vaccine is not necessary for the enhanced bacteriostasis but is required for subsequent bactericidal clearance of Salmonella in the blood and tissues. Conversely, a non-living vaccine while able to enhance initial blood clearance and killing of virulent secondary challenge bacteria, was unable to alter the subsequent bacterial growth rate in the systemic organs, did not prevent the resurgence of extensive bacteraemia and failed to control the spread of the bacteria in the body.
Xiaohong Cui; Adler, Stuart P.; Davison, Andrew J.; Larry Smith; EL-Sayed E. Habib; McVoy, Michael A.
Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones have proven invaluable for genetic manipulation of herpesvirus genomes. BAC cloning can also be useful for capturing representative genomes that comprise a viral stock or mixture. The Towne live attenuated cytomegalovirus vaccine was developed in the 1970s by serial passage in cultured fibroblasts. Although its safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy have been evaluated in nearly a thousand human subjects, the vaccine itself has been little studied. I...
Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Riber, Ulla;
Effective control of paratuberculosis is hindered by lack of a vaccine preventing infection, transmission and without diagnostic interference with tuberculosis. We have developed a novel multi-stage recombinant subunit vaccine in which a fusion of four early expressed MAP antigens is combined with...... characterized by a significant containment of bacterial burden in gut tissues compared to non-vaccinated animals. There was no cross-reaction with bovine tuberculosis in vaccinated animals. This novel multi-stage vaccine has the potential to become a marker vaccine for paratuberculosis....
Dwivedi, Pratistha; Alam, Syed Imteyaz; Tomar, Rajesh Singh
Functional genomics has made possible advanced structure-to-function investigation of pathogens and helped characterize virulence mechanisms. Proteomics has been become a tool for large-scale identification of proteins involved during invasion and infection by the pathogens. Bacterial surface and secreted proteins play key role in the interaction between the bacterial cell and the host environment. Thus exoproteome and surface proteome of a microorganism are hypothesized to contain components of effective vaccines. Surfome and exoproteome analysis strategy facilitates identification of novel vaccine antigen and overall helps in progress of discovery of vaccine. The study of the antibody response can advance how proteomics is used, because it investigates antibody-antigen interactions and also unravel the relationship of antibody responses to pathogen and host characteristics. System immunology integrating with proteome i.e. immunoproteomics is applicable to those infections that are having tendency of diverse antibody target recognition and thus accurately reflects progression of the infection. PMID:27465855
Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Riber, Ulla; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Andersen, Peter; Jungersen, Gregers
Effective control of paratuberculosis is hindered by lack of a vaccine preventing infection, transmission and without diagnostic interference with tuberculosis. We have developed a novel multi-stage recombinant subunit vaccine in which a fusion of four early expressed MAP antigens is combined with...... followed for a year. The FET11 vaccine induced a significant T cell response against constituent vaccine proteins characterized by a high percentage of CD4+ T cells and participation of polyfunctional CD4+ T cells. Of the two different age groups, late FET11 vaccination conferred protective immunity...... characterized by a significant containment of bacterial burden in gut tissues compared to non-vaccinated animals. There was no cross-reaction with bovine tuberculosis in vaccinated animals. This novel multi-stage vaccine has the potential to become a marker vaccine for paratuberculosis....
Full Text Available Vaccines developing immune responses towards surface carbohydrates conjugated to proteins are effective in preventing infection and death by bacterial pathogens. Traditional production of these vaccines utilizes complex synthetic chemistry to acquire and conjugate the glycan to a protein. However, glycoproteins produced by bacterial protein glycosylation systems are significantly easier to produce, and could possible be used as vaccine candidates. In this work we functionally expressed the B. pseudomallei O polysaccharide (OPS II, the C. jejuni oligosaccharyltransferase (OTase, and a suitable glycoprotein (AcrA in a designer E. coli strain with a higher efficiency for production of glycoconjugates. We were able to produce and purify the OPS II-AcrA glycoconjugate, and MS analysis confirmed correct glycan was produced and attached. We observed the attachment of the O-acetylated deoxyhexose directly to the acceptor protein, which expands the range of substrates utilized by the OTase PglB. Injection of the glycoprotein into mice generated an IgG immune response against B. pseudomallei, and this response was partially protective against an intranasal challenge. Our experiments show that bacterial engineered glycoconjugates can be utilized as vaccine candidates against B. pseudomallei. Additionally, our new E. coli strain SDB1 is more efficient in glycoprotein production, and could have additional applications in the future.
B.J. Tuasikal; I.W.T. Wibawan2; F.H. Pasaribu2; S. Estuningsih2
A study have been conducted to isolate and characterize bacterial protein S. agalactiae, which is antigenic and can be used to test immunogenicity of vaccine in order to manufacture irradiated mastitis (inflammation of the udder) vaccine in ruminant. The study aims to determine the Molecular Weight (MW) bacterial protein S. agalactiae irradiation, which can be used to test the nature of its antigenic caharacteristic. The character of S. agalactiae antigenic stimulates antibody induction of th...
Claire M Smith
Full Text Available Bacterial polysaccharides have numerous clinical or industrial uses. Recombinant plants could offer the possibility of producing bacterial polysaccharides on a large scale and free of contaminating bacterial toxins and antigens. We investigated the feasibility of this proposal by cloning and expressing the gene for the type 3 synthase (cps3S of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Nicotinia tabacum, using the pCambia2301 vector and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer. In planta the recombinant synthase polymerised plant-derived UDP-glucose and UDP-glucuronic acid to form type 3 polysaccharide. Expression of the cps3S gene was detected by RT-PCR and production of the pneumococcal polysaccharide was detected in tobacco leaf extracts by double immunodiffusion, Western blotting and high-voltage paper electrophoresis. Because it is used a component of anti-pneumococcal vaccines, the immunogenicity of the plant-derived type 3 polysaccharide was tested. Mice immunised with extracts from recombinant plants were protected from challenge with a lethal dose of pneumococci in a model of pneumonia and the immunised mice had significantly elevated levels of serum anti-pneumococcal polysaccharide antibodies. This study provides the proof of the principle that bacterial polysaccharide can be successfully synthesised in plants and that these recombinant polysaccharides could be used as vaccines to protect against life-threatening infections.
Mohammad Mehdi Attarpour-Yazdi
Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis is one of the most serious infections and should be treated as emergency. As it has significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, every country should have precise information regarding the etiological agents of disease and populations at risk to design public health prevention strategy. In the present study in addition of evaluation of common etiological agents (Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in bacterial meningitis cases, we sero-grouped or serotyped the obtained agents in order to predict the usefulness of existing vaccines against bacterial meningitis.Cerebrospinal fluid of 182 suspected meningitis patients were collected, from which 114 cases were approved by biochemical, microbiological and molecular tests as bacterial meningitis. The isolated bacteria were serogrouped or serotyped to determine the dominant serotypes.Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for 36%, Haemophilus influenza for 26% and Neisseria meningitidis for 14% of cases. From 13 serogroups of N. meningitides the most frequent serogroups, were meningococcus group B (51%, C(24% A (18%, Z(2%, W135 (1% and 3% was not identified. In H. influenzae group only serotype b (100% have been identified and in pneumococcal meningitis the most common serotype among our cases were 18C (44% followed by14 (17%, 19A (13%, 6A (9%, 7F (4%, 4(3%, 3 (3%, 9V (2%, 8 (2%, 23f (2%, 5 (1%.Since there is no nationwide mass immunization program for common agents of bacterial meningitis in Iran, the result of this study can be used to improve the existing vaccines to cover the detected serotypes and consequently reduce the incidence of bacterial meningitis.
Michelle E Gahan
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of Salmonella to deliver heterologous antigens from DNA vaccines is a well-accepted extension of the success of oral Salmonella vaccines in animal models. Attenuated S. typhimurium and S. typhi strains are safe and efficacious, and their use to deliver DNA vaccines combines the advantages of both vaccine approaches, while complementing the limitations of each technology. An important aspect of the basic biology of the Salmonella/DNA vaccine platform is the relative contributions of prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression in production of the vaccine antigen. Gene expression in DNA vaccines is commonly under the control of the eukaryotic cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. The aim of this study was to identify and disable putative bacterial promoters within the CMV promoter and evaluate the immunogenicity of the resulting DNA vaccine delivered orally by S. typhimurium. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results reported here clearly demonstrate the presence of bacterial promoters within the CMV promoter. These promoters have homology to the bacterial consensus sequence and functional activity. To disable prokaryotic expression from the CMV promoter a series of genetic manipulations were performed to remove the two major bacterial promoters and add a bacteria transcription terminator downstream of the CMV promoter. S. typhimurium was used to immunise BALB/c mice orally with a DNA vaccine encoding the C-fragment of tetanus toxin (TT under control of the original or the modified CMV promoter. Although both promoters functioned equally well in eukaryotic cells, as indicated by equivalent immune responses following intramuscular delivery, only the original CMV promoter was able to induce an anti-TT specific response following oral delivery by S. typhimurium. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that prokaryotic expression of the antigen and co-delivery of this protein by Salmonella are at least partially responsible for the successful
Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part II: Vaccines for Shigella, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) enterohemorragic E. coli (EHEC) and Campylobacter jejuni.
O'Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Carlos Salazar, Juan; Montero, David
In Part II we discuss the following bacterial pathogens: Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic) and Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast to the enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae discussed in Part I of this series, for the bacterial pathogens described here there is only one licensed vaccine, developed primarily for Vibrio cholerae and which provides moderate protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (Dukoral(®)), as well as a few additional candidates in advanced stages of development for ETEC and one candidate for Shigella spp. Numerous vaccine candidates in earlier stages of development are discussed. PMID:25715096
Identification of specific antigens responsible for the ability of complex immunogens to induce protection is a major goal in development of bacterial vaccines. Much of the investigation has focused on highly abundant and highly immunodominant outer membrane proteins. Recently however, genomic and p...
Stocker, B A
The development of live bacterial vaccines is reviewed, in particular aromatic-dependent Salmonella, either for protection against the corresponding infections (including typhoid fever) or as carrier-presenter of antigens of unrelated pathogens or of DNA specifying them. Aromatic-dependent Salmonella live vaccines are also compared with BCG and Ty21a and the recent records of exceptional situations are discussed in which aroA (deletion) strains of Salmonella typhimurium cause progressive disease in mice. PMID:11000459
Ivan Y. C. Lin
Full Text Available Genetically attenuated microorganisms, including pathogenic and commensal bacteria, can be engineered to carry and deliver heterologous antigens to elicit host immunity against both the vector as well as the pathogen from which the donor gene is derived. These live attenuated bacterial vectors have been given much attention due to their capacity to induce a broad range of immune responses including localized mucosal, as well as systemic humoral and/or cell-mediated immunity. In addition, the unique tumor-homing characteristics of these bacterial vectors has also been exploited for alternative anti-tumor vaccines and therapies. In such approach, tumor-associated antigen, immunostimulatory molecules, anti-tumor drugs, or nucleotides (DNA or RNA are delivered. Different potential vectors are appropriate for specific applications, depending on their pathogenic routes. In this review, we survey and summarize the main features of the different types of live bacterial vectors and discussed the clinical applications in the field of vaccinology. In addition, different approaches for using live attenuated bacterial vectors for anti-cancer therapy is discussed, and some promising pre-clinical and clinical studies in this field are outlined.
Luciano Cesar Pontes Azevedo
Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis is associated with significant burden in Brazil. In 2010, both 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and meningococcal capsular group C conjugate vaccine were introduced into the routine vaccination schedule. Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine was previously introduced in 1999. This study presents trends in demographics, microbiological characteristics and seasonality patterns of bacterial meningitis cases in Brazil from 2000 to 2010.All meningitis cases confirmed by clinical and/or laboratory criteria notified to the national information system for notifiable diseases between 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. Proportions of bacterial meningitis cases by demographic characteristics, criteria used for confirmation and etiology were calculated. We estimated disease rates per 100,000 population and trends for the study period, with emphasis on H. influenzae, N. meningitidis and S. pneumoniae cases. In the decade, 341,805 cases of meningitis were notified in Brazil. Of the 251,853 cases with defined etiology, 110,264 (43.8% were due to bacterial meningitis (excluding tuberculosis. Of these, 34,997 (31.7% were due to meningococcal disease. The incidence of bacterial meningitis significantly decreased from 3.1/100,000 population in 2000-2002 to 2.14/100,000 in 2009-2010 (p<0.01. Among cases of meningococcal disease, the proportion of those associated with group C increased from 41% in 2007 to 61.7% in 2010, while the proportion of group B disease progressively declined. Throughout the study period, an increased number of cases occurred during winter.Despite the reduction in bacterial meningitis incidence during the last decade, it remains a significant healthcare issue in Brazil. Meningococcal disease is responsible for the majority of the cases with group C the most common capsular type. Our study demonstrates the appropriateness of introduction of meningococcal vaccination in Brazil. Furthermore, this study provides a baseline
Siefert, Alyssa L; Caplan, Michael J; Fahmy, Tarek M
Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) sense microorganisms via pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by both extra- and intracellular Toll-like Receptors (TLRs), initiating immune responses against invading pathogens. Bacterial PAMPs include extracellular lipopolysaccharides and intracellular unmethylated CpG-rich oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG). We hypothesized that a biomimetic approach involving antigen-loaded nanoparticles (NP) displaying Monophosphoryl Lipid A (MPLA) and encapsulating CpG may function as an effective "artificial bacterial" biomimetic vaccine platform. This hypothesis was tested in vitro and in vivo using NP assembled from biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer, surface-modified with MPLA, and loaded with CpG and model antigen Ovalbumin (OVA). First, CpG potency, characterized by cytokine profiles, titers, and antigen-specific T cell responses, was enhanced when CpG was encapsulated in NP compared to equivalent concentrations of surface-presented CpG, highlighting the importance of biomimetic presentation of PAMPs. Second, NP synergized surface-bound MPLA with encapsulated CpG in vitro and in vivo, inducing greater pro-inflammatory, antigen-specific T helper 1 (Th1)-skewed cellular and antibody-mediated responses compared to single PAMPs or soluble PAMP combinations. Importantly, NP co-presentation of CpG and MPLA was critical for CD8(+) T cell responses, as vaccination with a mixture of NP presenting either CpG or MPLA failed to induce cellular immunity. This work demonstrates a rational methodology for combining TLR ligands in a context-dependent manner for synergistic nanoparticulate vaccines. PMID:27162077
The increasing number of annual influenza (IAV) cases, coupled with the recent IAV pandemic, has amplified concerns about its impact on human and animal health. It is appreciated that Flu is complicated by bacterial pneumonia. Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) can occur followi...
Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) has been and remains a chronic contributory problem limiting the productivity of salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Control of this disease will not come easily, but it would lead to a tremendous increase in the health and numbers of salmon populations. Vaccination of salmon to Renibacterium salmoninarum (KDB) is a potentially successful method of controlling this disease. To date, however, no successful vaccine has been developed for general use. A possible solution to this problem, and thus the goal of this research, is to isolate the antigenic components of KDB and enhance their ability to activate the host defenses. This will be accomplished by the chemical modification of these antigens with potent immunomodulatory substances. These modified antigens will then be tested for their effectiveness in inducing immunity to BKD and thereby preventing the disease. The goal of the project's fourth year was to test the immunogenicity and prophylactic value in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) of various--chemical conjugates of Renibacterium salmoninarum cell and major antigens. This was accomplished by assessing the serum antibody response, the cellular immune response (chemiluminescence), and the kinetics of mortality after lethal injections of the bacteria. The studies completed this year have: (1) identified immunization procedures which enhance the induction of high levels of antibody; (2) identified functionally distinct serum antibodies which may possess different abilities to protect salmon against BKD; (3) begun the isolation and characterization of anti-R. salmoninarum antibodies which may correlate with varying degrees of protection; (4) identified chemiluminescence as a potential method for assessing cellular immunity to bacterial kidney disease; and (5) characterized two monoclonal antibodies to R. salmoninarum which will be of benefit in the diagnosis of this disease.
... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...
Handley, Scott A; Desai, Chandni; Zhao, Guoyan; Droit, Lindsay; Monaco, Cynthia L; Schroeder, Andrew C; Nkolola, Joseph P; Norman, Megan E; Miller, Andrew D; Wang, David; Barouch, Dan H; Virgin, Herbert W
AIDS caused by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection is associated with gastrointestinal disease, systemic immune activation, and, in cross-sectional studies, changes in the enteric virome. Here we performed a longitudinal study of a vaccine cohort to define the natural history of changes in the fecal metagenome in SIV-infected monkeys. Matched rhesus macaques were either uninfected or intrarectally challenged with SIV, with a subset receiving the Ad26 vaccine, an adenovirus vector expressing the viral Env/Gag/Pol antigens. Progression of SIV infection to AIDS was associated with increased detection of potentially pathogenic viruses and bacterial enteropathogens. Specifically, adenoviruses were associated with an increased incidence of gastrointestinal disease and AIDS-related mortality. Viral and bacterial enteropathogens were largely absent from animals protected by the vaccine. These data suggest that the SIV-associated gastrointestinal disease is associated with the presence of both viral and bacterial enteropathogens and that protection against SIV infection by vaccination prevents enteropathogen emergence. PMID:26962943
Kaattari, Stephen L.
Bacterial kidney disease of salmonids is a very complex disease which appears to exploit a variety of pathogenic mechanisms. An understanding of these mechanisms is essential to the development of efficacious vaccines. It has become well established from the studies published .in this report and those of others that soluble antigens which are secreted by Renibacterium salmoninarum have toxigenic potential. If they are found to be responsible for mortality, the development of toxoid(s) could be paramount to the production of a vaccine. One must, however, be circumspect in producing a vaccine. A thorough knowledge, not only of the pathogen, but also of the immune system of the host is an absolute requirement. This becomes of particular importance when dealing with fish diseases, since the field of fish immunology is still within its infancy. This lack of knowledge is particularly felt when the induction of a prophylactic immune response concomitantly leads to pathological side effects which may be as destructive as the original infection. Indeed, it appears that some aspects of BKD may be due to the induction of hypersensitivity reactions. If such immunopathologies are expressed, it is prudent to thoroughly evaluate the nature of the immunoprophylaxis to insure that these harmful sequelae do not occur. Evaluation of a variety of antigens, adjuvants, immune responses, and survival data leads us to recommend that attempts at prophylaxis against BKD should center upon the elicitation of cellular immunity utilizing preparations of Mycobacterium chelonii. The choice of this species of mycobacteria was made because of its effectiveness, ease of maintenance and production, and the lack of need for its propagation within containment facilities. These assets are important to consider if large scale vaccine production is to be profitable. As can be seen from the data provided, M. chelonii alone is capable of producing prophylaxis to BKD, however, this is likely due to the
Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Osaki, Takako; Taguchi, Haruhiko; Sato, Noriko; Toyoda, Atushi; Takahashi, Motomichi; Kai, Masanori; Nakata, Noboru; Komatsu, Akio; Atomi, Yutaka; Kamiya, Shigeru
In order to assess the efficacy of oral Helicobacter pylori heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) as a vaccine, protection against H. pylori infection in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) C57BL/6 and germfree (GF) IQI mice was examined. Prophylactic oral vaccination of these two strains of mice with either H. pylori HSP60 or Escherichia coli GroEL inhibited H. pylori colonization by 90 to 95% at 3 weeks postinfection (p.i.). However, these mice were only partially protected because bacterial loads increas...
Ma, Jimei; Xu, Jinmei; Guan, Lingyu; Hu, Tianjian; Liu, Qin; Xiao, Jingfan; Zhang, Yuanxing
It is an attractive strategy to develop a recombinant bacterial vector vaccine by expressing exogenous protective antigen to induce the immune response, and the main concern is how to enhance the cellular internalization of antigen produced by bacterial vector. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short cationic/amphipathic peptides which facilitate cellular uptake of various molecular cargoes and therefore have great potentials in vector vaccine design. In this work, eleven different CPPs were fused to the C-terminus of EGFP respectively, and the resultant EGFP-CPP fusion proteins were expressed and purified to assay their cross-membrane transport in macrophage J774 A.1 cells. Among the tested CPPs, TAT showed an excellent capability to deliver the cargo protein EGFP into cytoplasm. In order to establish an efficient antigen delivery system in Escherichia coli, the EGFP-TAT synthesis circuit was combined with an in vivo inducible lysis circuit PviuA-E in E. coli to form an integrated antigen delivery system, the resultant E. coli was proved to be able to lyse upon the induction of a mimic in vivo signal and thus release intracellular EGFP-TAT intensively, which were assumed to undergo a more efficient intracellular delivery by CPP to evoke protective immune responses. Based on the established antigen delivery system, the protective antigen gene flgD from an invasive intracellular fish pathogen Edwardsiella tarda EIB202, was applied to establish an E. coli recombinant vector vaccine. This E. coli vector vaccine presented superior immune protection (RPS = 63%) under the challenge with E. tarda EIB202, suggesting that the novel antigen delivery system had great potential in bacterial vector vaccine applications. PMID:24746937
Alcorn, S.; Murray, A.L.; Pascho, R.J.; Varney, J.
The relative efficacies of 1 commercial and 5 experimental vaccines for bacterial kidney disease (BKD) were compared through a cohabitation waterborne challenge. Groups of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were vaccinated with one of the following: (1) killed Renibacterium salmoninarum ATCC 33209 (Rs 33209) cells; (2) killed Rs 33209 cells which had been heated to 37??C for 48 h, a process that destroys the p57 protein; (3) killed R. salmoninarum MT239 (Rs MT239) cells; (4) heated Rs MT239 cells; (5) a recombinant version of the p57 protein (r-p57) emulsified in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA); (6) the commercial BKD vaccine Renogen; (7) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) emulsified with an equal volume of FIA; or (8) PBS alone. Following injection, each fish was marked with a subcutaneous fluorescent latex tag denoting its treatment group and the vaccinated fish were combined into sham and disease challenge tanks. Two weeks after these fish were vaccinated, separate groups of fish were injected with either PBS or live R. salmoninarum GL64 and were placed inside coated-wire mesh cylinders (liveboxes) in the sham and disease challenge tanks, respectively. Mortalities in both tanks were recorded for 285 d. Any mortalities among the livebox fish were replaced with an appropriate cohort (infected with R. salmoninarum or healthy) fish. None of the bacterins evaluated in this study induced protective immunity against the R. salmoninarum shed from the infected livebox fish. The percentage survival within the test groups in the R. salmoninarum challenge tank ranged from 59% (heated Rs MT239 bacterin) to 81 % (PBS emulsified with FIA). There were no differences in the percentage survival among the PBS-, PBS/FIA-, r-p57-and Renogen-injected groups. There also were no differences in survival among the bacterin groups, regardless of whether the bacterial cells had been heated or left untreated prior to injection. ?? Inter-Research 2005.
Alcorn, Stewart; Murray, Anthony L; Pascho, Ronald J; Varney, Jed
The relative efficacies of 1 commercial and 5 experimental vaccines for bacterial kidney disease (BKD) were compared through a cohabitation waterborne challenge. Groups of juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha were vaccinated with one of the following: (1) killed Renibacterium salmoninarum ATCC 33209 (Rs 33209) cells; (2) killed Rs 33209 cells which had been heated to 37 degrees C for 48 h, a process that destroys the p57 protein; (3) killed R. salmoninarum MT239 (Rs MT239) cells; (4) heated Rs MT239 cells; (5) a recombinant version of the p57 protein (r-p57) emulsified in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA); (6) the commercial BKD vaccine Renogen; (7) phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) emulsified with an equal volume of FIA; or (8) PBS alone. Following injection, each fish was marked with a subcutaneous fluorescent latex tag denoting its treatment group and the vaccinated fish were combined into sham and disease challenge tanks. Two weeks after these fish were vaccinated, separate groups of fish were injected with either PBS or live R. salmoninarum GL64 and were placed inside coated-wire mesh cylinders (liveboxes) in the sham and disease challenge tanks, respectively. Mortalities in both tanks were recorded for 285 d. Any mortalities among the livebox fish were replaced with an appropriate cohort (infected with R. salmoninarum or healthy) fish. None of the bacterins evaluated in this study induced protective immunity against the R. salmoninarum shed from the infected livebox fish. The percentage survival within the test groups in the R. salmoninarum challenge tank ranged from 59% (heated Rs MT239 bacterin) to 81% (PBS emulsified with FIA). There were no differences in the percentage survival among the PBS-, PBS/FIA-, r-p57- and Renogen-injected groups. There also were no differences in survival among the bacterin groups, regardless of whether the bacterial cells had been heated or left untreated prior to injection. PMID:15819430
Full Text Available A study have been conducted to isolate and characterize bacterial protein S. agalactiae, which is antigenic and can be used to test immunogenicity of vaccine in order to manufacture irradiated mastitis (inflammation of the udder vaccine in ruminant. The study aims to determine the Molecular Weight (MW bacterial protein S. agalactiae irradiation, which can be used to test the nature of its antigenic caharacteristic. The character of S. agalactiae antigenic stimulates antibody induction of the immune system, in which case is the body's defense system against mastitis disease in cattle. In this study, irradiation of gamma ray is used to attenuate the pathogenicity of bacteria by reducing S. agalactiae antigenic caharacteristic. Previous research, in irradiation dose orientation before antigenic protein isolation of S. agalactiae, indicated that irradiation lethal dose to 50% (LD50 is 17 Gy. The characterization of S. agalactiae bacteria isolate using SDS-page method results in no significance different between irradiated and non-irradiated group, which indicated by MW range 75 – 100 kDa base on marker standard which used, or 99 kDa by the linier equation of Y = 11,60 – 0.05X (where Y = bands distance; X = MW standard protein; r2 = 0.99. In conclusion, 17 Gy irradiation dose does not impair antigenic property of S. agalactiae and therefore, can be applied to produce base material of irradiated vaccine for mastitis
Almazán, Consuelo; Moreno-Cantú, Orlando; Moreno-Cid, Juan A; Galindo, Ruth C; Canales, Mario; Villar, Margarita; de la Fuente, José
Vaccines containing the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 antigens protect cattle against tick infestations. Tick subolesin (SUB), elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and ubiquitin (UBQ) are new candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. Previous studies showed that R. microplus BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein (MSP) 1a N-terminal region (BM95-MSP1a) for presentation on the Escherichia coli membrane were protective against R. microplus infestations in rabbits. In this study, we extended these results by expressing SUB-MSP1a, EF1a-MSP1a and UBQ-MSP1a fusion proteins on the E. coli membrane using this system and demonstrating that bacterial membranes containing the chimeric proteins BM95-MSP1a and SUB-MSP1a were protective (>60% vaccine efficacy) against experimental R. microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus infestations in cattle. This system provides a novel, simple and cost-effective approach for the production of tick protective antigens by surface display of antigenic protein chimera on the E. coli membrane and demonstrates the possibility of using recombinant bacterial membrane fractions in vaccine preparations to protect cattle against tick infestations. PMID:22085549
A study have been conducted to isolate and characterize bacterial protein S. agalactiae, which is antigenic and can be used to test immunogenicity of vaccine in order to manufacture irradiated mastitis (inflammation of the udder) vaccine in ruminant. The study aims to determine the Molecular Weight (MW) bacterial protein S. agalactiae irradiation, which can be used to test the nature of its antigenic caharacteristic. The character of S. agalactiae antigenic stimulates antibody induction of the immune system, in which case is the body's defense system against mastitis disease in cattle. In this study, irradiation of gamma ray is used to attenuate the pathogenicity of bacteria by reducing S. agalactiae antigenic characteristic. Previous research, in irradiation dose orientation before antigenic protein isolation of S. agalactiae, indicated that irradiation lethal dose to 50% (LD50) is 17 Gy. The characterization of S. agalactiae bacteria isolate using SDS-page method results in no significance different between irradiated and non-irradiated group, which indicated by MW range 75 - 100 kDa base on marker standard which used, or 99 kDa by the linier equation of Y = 11,60 - 0.05X (where Y = bands distance; X = MW standard protein); r2 = 0.99. In conclusion, 17 Gy irradiation dose does not impair antigenic property of S. agalactiae and therefore, can be applied to produce base material of irradiated vaccine for mastitis. (author)
Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M; Matondo, Sungwa;
responses as well as to efficiently break B cell self-tolerance. The spy-VLP-system may serve as a generic tool for the cost-effective development of effective VLP-vaccines against both infectious- and non-communicable diseases and could facilitate rapid and unbiased screening of vaccine candidate antigens....
Zeng, Yuhong; Fan, Haihong; Chiueh, Gary; Pham, Binh; Martin, Russ; Lechuga-Ballesteros, David; Truong, Vu L; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell
Development of optimal formulation conditions stabilizing live attenuated bacterial vaccines is impeded by traditional methods used for viability measurement. To facilitate preformulation studies of such vaccines, spectroscopic techniques capable of providing real-time and high throughput information have been employed to obtain a global stability profile for a live attenuated Ty21a bacterial typhoid vaccine over a wide range of pH (4 to 8) and temperature (10 to 85 degrees C). Using the data obtained from fluorescence and circular dichroism techniques, an empirical phase diagram (EPD) has been subsequently constructed, which suggests that Ty21a cells exist in at least four apparent physical phases related to different viability states, with the most stable phase at pH 6 and 7 at temperatures below 30 degrees C. A slightly basic pH (pH 8) appears to decrease the fluidity of the cell membrane, whereas acidic pH conditions are detrimental to membrane integrity over the entire temperature range. Based on the above stability profile, a fluorescence-based high throughput screening assay has been developed to test the stabilizing effects of various compounds at different concentrations. Amongst other promising stabilizers, 10% sucrose and 0.15 M glutamic acid display the greatest protective effects, with an increase of about 10 degrees C in the transition temperature of Ty21a cells. Preliminary studies have also been performed on foam dried formulations as an alternative approach to further stabilize Ty21a cells. The data show that 10% sucrose and trehalose both increase the in-process and storage stabilities of the cells. PMID:19221516
Chen-Fang Ho; Tzou-Yien Lin
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial pathogen of infectious diseases inchildren and adolescents. The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine could preventinvasive pneumococcal infection with broader serotype coverage but still has some limitations.On the other hand, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been shown todecrease cases of nasopharyngeal acquired S. pneumoniae vaccine serotypes and provedherd immunity. The safety and efficacy against vaccine serotype pneumo...
Wen, Jing; Yang, Yi; Zhao, Guangyu; Tong, Shuang; Yu, Hong; Jin, Xia; Du, Lanying; Jiang, Shibo; Kou, Zhihua; Zhou, Yusen
Because of their stability and ease of manipulation, DNA vaccines have considerable potential for eliciting immune responses. However, they are limited by their weak immunogenicity, especially in humans. To address this challenge, we explored a new strategy of HIV vaccine delivery using Salmonella typhi Ty21a bacterial ghosts (BGs). We found that Ty21a BGs loaded with an HIV gp140 DNA vaccine (Ty21a BG-DNA) were readily taken up by murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells, and gp140 was efficiently expressed in these cells. Peripheral and intestinal mucosal anti-gp120 antibody responses in mice vaccinated with BGs-DNA vaccine were significantly higher than those in mice immunized with naked DNA vaccine. The enhancement of antibody responses was associated with BG-induced production of IL-10 through TLR4 pathway. These results demonstrate that Ty21a BGs is a novel and effective delivery vehicle for DNA vaccines, which could therefore be used as a new strategy for development of HIV vaccines. PMID:22819719
Mucosal SIV vaccines comprising inactivated virus particles and bacterial adjuvants induce CD8+T-regulatory cells that suppress SIV positive CD4+cell activation and prevent SIV infection in the macaque model.
Jean Marie eAndrieu; song echen; Chunhui eLAI; weizhong eguo; Wei eLu
A new paradigm of mucosal vaccination against HIV infection has been investigated in the macaque model. A vaccine consisting of inactivated SIVmac239 particles together with a living bacterial adjuvant (either the Calmette & Guerin bacillus, lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus rhamnosus) was administered to macaques via the vaginal or oral/intragastic route. In contrast to all established human and veterinary vaccines, these three vaccine regimens did not elicit SIV-specific antibodies n...
Dentschev, W; Marinova, S; Sumerska, T; Nenkov, P; Koitschev, T; Trifonowa, A
Streptomycin-dependent and inactivated Shigella flexneri 2a and Shigella sonnei strains were intra-intestinally applied to rabbits for immunisation. Rosette and plaque tests and well as indirect haemagglutination gave short-time secretion of low titres of specific copro-antibody, following monovaccines and bivaccines. High titres of secretory antibody were induced, depending on doses, by re-immunisation. No antigen competition was established. The localised immune response caused by Shigella live vaccines was found to be much stronger than that induced by inactivated vaccines PMID:6998404
Maletzki, C.; Klier, U.; W. Obst; Kreikemeyer, B.; Linnebacher, M
Several decades after Coley's initial work, we here systematically analyzed tumoricidal as well as immunostimulatory effects of the historical preparation Coley's Toxin (CT), a safe vaccine made of heat-inactivated S. pyogenes and S. marcescens. First, by performing in vitro analysis, established human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines responded with dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition. Effects were attributed to necrotic as well as apoptotic cell death as determined by increased Caspase...
Gahan, Michelle E.; Webster, Diane E.; Wesselingh, Steven L.; Richard A. Strugnell; Yang, Ji
Background The use of Salmonella to deliver heterologous antigens from DNA vaccines is a well-accepted extension of the success of oral Salmonella vaccines in animal models. Attenuated S. typhimurium and S. typhi strains are safe and efficacious, and their use to deliver DNA vaccines combines the advantages of both vaccine approaches, while complementing the limitations of each technology. An important aspect of the basic biology of the Salmonella/DNA vaccine platform is the relative contribu...
... Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Bacterial Meningitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... serious disease. Laboratory Methods for the Diagnosis of Meningitis This manual summarizes laboratory methods used to isolate, ...
Moor, Kathrin; Wotzka, Sandra Y; Toska, Albulena; Diard, Médéric; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Slack, Emma
Our mucosal surfaces are the main sites of non-vector-borne pathogen entry, as well as the main interface with our commensal microbiota. We are still only beginning to understand how mucosal adaptive immunity interacts with commensal and pathogenic microbes to influence factors such as infectivity, phenotypic diversity, and within-host evolution. This is in part due to difficulties in generating specific mucosal adaptive immune responses without disrupting the mucosal microbial ecosystem itself. Here, we present a very simple tool to generate inactivated mucosal vaccines from a broad range of culturable bacteria. Oral gavage of 10(10) peracetic acid-inactivated bacteria induces high-titer-specific intestinal IgA in the absence of any measurable inflammation or species invasion. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that this technique is sufficient to provide fully protective immunity in the murine model of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonellosis, even in the face of severe innate immune deficiency. PMID:26904024
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the face of impending influenza pandemic, a rapid vaccine production and mass vaccination is the most effective approach to prevent the large scale mortality and morbidity that was associated with the 1918 "Spanish Flu". The traditional process of influenza vaccine production in eggs is time consuming and may not meet the demands of rapid global vaccination required to curtail influenza pandemic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Recombinant technology can be used to express the hemagglutinin (HA of the emerging new influenza strain in a variety of systems including mammalian, insect, and bacterial cells. In this study, two forms of HA proteins derived from the currently circulating novel H1N1 A/California/07/2009 virus, HA1 (1-330 and HA (1-480, were expressed and purified from E. coli under controlled redox refolding conditions that favoured proper protein folding. However, only the recombinant HA1 (1-330 protein formed oligomers, including functional trimers that bound receptor and caused agglutination of human red blood cells. These proteins were used to vaccinate ferrets prior to challenge with the A/California/07/2009 virus. Both proteins induced neutralizing antibodies, and reduced viral loads in nasal washes. However, the HA1 (1-330 protein that had higher content of multimeric forms provided better protection from fever and weight loss at a lower vaccine dose compared with HA (1-480. Protein yield for the HA1 (1-330 ranged around 40 mg/Liter, while the HA (1-480 yield was 0.4-0.8 mg/Liter. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study that describes production in bacterial system of properly folded functional globular HA1 domain trimers, lacking the HA2 transmembrane protein, that elicit potent neutralizing antibody responses following vaccination and protect ferrets from in vivo challenge. The combination of bacterial expression system with established quality control methods could provide a mechanism for rapid large
Mucosal SIV Vaccines Comprising Inactivated Virus Particles and Bacterial Adjuvants Induce CD8+ T-Regulatory Cells that Suppress SIV-Positive CD4+ T-Cell Activation and Prevent SIV Infection in the Macaque Model
Andrieu, Jean-Marie; Chen, Song; Lai, Chunhui; Guo, Weizhong; Lu, Wei
A new paradigm of mucosal vaccination against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been investigated in the macaque model. A vaccine consisting of inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239 particles together with a living bacterial adjuvant (either the Calmette and Guerin bacillus, Lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus rhamnosus) was administered to macaques via the vaginal or oral/intragastric route. In contrast to all established human and veterinary vaccines, the...
Jake E Lowry
Full Text Available Current vaccines used for the prevention of brucellosis are ineffective in inducing protective immunity in animals that are chronically infected with Brucella abortus, such as elk. Using a gene discovery approach, in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT on B. abortus, we previously identified ten loci that encode products up-regulated during infection in elk and consequently may play a role in virulence. In our present study, five of the loci (D15, 0187, VirJ, Mdh, AfuA were selected for further characterization and compared with three additional antigens with virulence potential (Hia, PrpA, MltA. All eight genes were PCR-amplified from B. abortus and cloned into E. coli. The recombinant products were then expressed, purified, adjuvanted, and delivered subcutaneously to BALB/c mice. After primary immunization and two boosts, mice were challenged i.p. with 5 x 10⁴ CFU of B. abortus strain 19. Spleens from challenged animals were harvested and bacterial loads determined by colony count at various time points. While vaccination with four of the eight individual proteins appeared to have some effect on clearance kinetics, mice vaccinated with recombinant Mdh displayed the most significant reduction in bacterial colonization. Furthermore, mice immunized with Mdh maintained higher levels of IFN-γ in spleens compared to other treatment groups. Collectively, our in vivo data gathered from the S19 murine colonization model suggest that vaccination with at least three of the IVIAT antigens conferred an enhanced ability of the host to respond to infection, reinforcing the utility of this methodology for the identification of potential vaccine candidates against brucellosis. Mechanisms for immunity to one protein, Mdh, require further in vitro exploration and evaluation against wild-type B. abortus challenge in mice, as well as other hosts. Additional studies are being undertaken to clarify the role of Mdh and other IVI antigens in B. abortus virulence
Lowry, Jake E; Isaak, Dale D; Leonhardt, Jack A; Vernati, Giulia; Pate, Jessie C; Andrews, Gerard P
Current vaccines used for the prevention of brucellosis are ineffective in inducing protective immunity in animals that are chronically infected with Brucella abortus, such as elk. Using a gene discovery approach, in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT) on B. abortus, we previously identified ten loci that encode products up-regulated during infection in elk and consequently may play a role in virulence. In our present study, five of the loci (D15, 0187, VirJ, Mdh, AfuA) were selected for further characterization and compared with three additional antigens with virulence potential (Hia, PrpA, MltA). All eight genes were PCR-amplified from B. abortus and cloned into E. coli. The recombinant products were then expressed, purified, adjuvanted, and delivered subcutaneously to BALB/c mice. After primary immunization and two boosts, mice were challenged i.p. with 5 x 10⁴ CFU of B. abortus strain 19. Spleens from challenged animals were harvested and bacterial loads determined by colony count at various time points. While vaccination with four of the eight individual proteins appeared to have some effect on clearance kinetics, mice vaccinated with recombinant Mdh displayed the most significant reduction in bacterial colonization. Furthermore, mice immunized with Mdh maintained higher levels of IFN-γ in spleens compared to other treatment groups. Collectively, our in vivo data gathered from the S19 murine colonization model suggest that vaccination with at least three of the IVIAT antigens conferred an enhanced ability of the host to respond to infection, reinforcing the utility of this methodology for the identification of potential vaccine candidates against brucellosis. Mechanisms for immunity to one protein, Mdh, require further in vitro exploration and evaluation against wild-type B. abortus challenge in mice, as well as other hosts. Additional studies are being undertaken to clarify the role of Mdh and other IVI antigens in B. abortus virulence and induction of
Wibowo, Nani; Wu, Yang; Fan, Yuanyuan; Meers, Joanne; Lua, Linda H L; Middelberg, Anton P J
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) causes significant economic loss, reduced food security and poses an ongoing pandemic threat. Poultry vaccination significantly decreases these problems and recognizes that the health of humans, animals and ecosystems are connected. Low-cost manufacture of poultry vaccine matched quickly to the ever-changing circulating strain is needed for effective vaccination. Here, we re-engineered the process to manufacture bacterially synthesized modular capsomere comprising influenza M2e, previously shown to confer complete protection in challenged mice, for application in poultry. Modular capsomere was prepared using a simplified non-chromatographic salting-out precipitation method and its immunogenicity tested in vivo in poultry. Modular capsomere crudely purified by precipitation (pCapM2e) contained more contaminants than equivalent product purified by chromatography (cCapM2e). Unadjuvanted pCapM2e containing 80 EU of endotoxin per dose was inferior to highly purified and adjuvanted cCapM2e (2 EU per dose). However, addition of adjuvant to pCapM2e resulting in high immunogenicity after only a single dose of vaccination, yet without any local adverse reaction. This finding suggests a strong synergy between adjuvant, antigen and contaminants, and the possible existence of a "Goldilocks" level of contaminants, where high immunogenicity and low reactogenicity can be obtained in a single-shot vaccination. The simplified process offers potential cost and speed advantages to address the needs in influenza poultry vaccination in low-cost veterinary markets. PMID:26407921
Lorenzen, Niels; Lorenzen, Ellen; Einer-Jensen, Katja; LaPatra, Scott E.
It was recently reported that DNA vaccination of rainbow trout fingerlings against viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) induced protection within 8 days after intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA. In order to analyse the specificity of this early immunity, fish were vaccinated with plasmid...... DNA encoding the VHSV or the infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) glycoprotein genes and later challenged with homologous or heterologous pathogens. Challenge experiments revealed that immunity established shortly after vaccination was cross-protective between the two viral pathogens...
Arrazuria, Rakel; Molina, Elena; Garrido, Joseba M; Pérez, Valentín; Juste, Ramón A; Elguezabal, Natalia
Paratuberculosis (PTB), a chronic granulomatous enteritis produced by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), is considered as one of the diseases with the highest economic impact in the ruminant industry. Vaccination against MAP is recommended during the first months after birth on the basis that protection would be conferred before the first contact with mycobacteria. However, little is known about the therapeutic effect of MAP vaccination in controlled experimental conditions. The current study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination before and after challenge with MAP in a rabbit infection model. The rabbits were divided into four groups: non-infected control (NIC, n = 4), infected control challenged with MAP (IC, n = 5), vaccinated and challenged 1 month after with MAP (VSI, n = 5) and challenged with MAP and vaccinated 2 months later (IVS, n = 5). The results from this study show a quick increase in IFN-γ release upon stimulation with bovine, avian and johnin PPD in animals vaccinated before MAP challenge. All vaccinated animals show an increased humoral response as seen by western blot and ELISA. The final bacteriology index (considering tissue culture and qPCR) shows that the IC group was the most affected. Vaccination after infection (IVS) produced the lowest bacteriology index showing significant differences with the IC group (p = 0.034). In conclusion, vaccination against MAP shows positive effects in a rabbit model. However, vaccination after infection shows a slightly stronger protective effect compared to vaccination before infection, suggesting a therapeutic effect. This feature could be applied to previously infected adult animals under field conditions. PMID:27496043
Full Text Available It is known that physical linkage of TLR ligands and vaccine antigens significantly enhances the immunopotency of the linked antigens. We have used this approach to generate novel influenza vaccines that fuse the globular head domain of the protective hemagglutinin (HA antigen with the potent TLR5 ligand, flagellin. These fusion proteins are efficiently expressed in standard E. coli fermentation systems and the HA moiety can be faithfully refolded to take on the native conformation of the globular head. In mouse models of influenza infection, the vaccines elicit robust antibody responses that mitigate disease and protect mice from lethal challenge. These immunologically potent vaccines can be efficiently manufactured to support pandemic response, pre-pandemic and seasonal vaccines.
Jungersen, Gregers; Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, C.; Mikkelsen, H.; Andersen, P.
-γ assay responses from 40 to 52 weeks compared to non-vaccinated calves. These results indicate the FET11 vaccine can be used to accelerate eradication of paratuberculosis while surveillance or test-and-manage control programs for tuberculosis and Johne’s disease remain in place. Funded by EMIDA ERA......A new (FET11) recombinant vaccine against paratuberculosis was developed based on recombinant antigens from acute and latent stages of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection. In two experiments 28 calves and 15 goats were orally inoculated with live Map in their third week of...... PCR and revealed significantly reduced levels of Map and reduced histopathology. Diagnostic tests for antibody responses and cell-mediated immune responses, used as surrogates of infection, corroborated the observed vaccine efficacy: Five of seven non‐vaccinated calves seroconverted in ID Screen...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterologous prime-boost immunization protocols using different gene expression systems have proven to be successful tools in protecting against various diseases in experimental animal models. The main reason for using this approach is to exploit the ability of expression cassettes to prime or boost the immune system in different ways during vaccination procedures. The purpose of the project was to study the ability of recombinant vaccinia virus (VV and bacterial plasmid, both carrying the NS1 gene from tick-borne encephalitis (TBE virus under the control of different promoters, to protect mice against lethal challenge using a heterologous prime-boost vaccination protocol. Results The heterologous prime-boost vaccination protocol, using a VV recombinant and bacterial plasmid, both containing the NS1 TBE virus protein gene under the control of different promoters, achieved a high level of protection in mice against lethal challenge with a highly pathogenic TBE virus strain. No signs of pronounced TBE infection were detected in the surviving animals. Conclusion Heterologous prime-boost vaccination protocols using recombinant VV and bacterial plasmids could be used for the development of flavivirus vaccines.
In an attempt to develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, four chemicals (gossypol, proflavine hemisulfate, novobiocin, and ciprofloxacin) were used to modify the following four genera of bacteria through chemical-resistance strategy: (1) Aeromonas hydrophila (9 isolates); (2) Edwards...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.69 Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Multocida Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...
Ting-Yu Angela Liao
Full Text Available Current strategies to improve the current BCG vaccine attempt to over-express genes encoding specific M. tuberculosis (Mtb antigens and/or regulators of antigen presentation function, which indeed have the potential to reshape BCG in many ways. However, these approaches often face serious difficulties, in particular the efficiency and stability of gene expression via nucleic acid complementation and safety concerns associated with the introduction of exogenous DNA. As an alternative, we developed a novel non-genetic approach for rapid and efficient display of exogenous proteins on bacterial cell surface. The technology involves expression of proteins of interest in fusion with a mutant version of monomeric avidin that has the feature of reversible binding to biotin. Fusion proteins are then used to decorate the surface of biotinylated BCG. Surface coating of BCG with recombinant proteins was highly reproducible and stable. It also resisted to the freeze-drying shock routinely used in manufacturing conventional BCG. Modifications of BCG surface did not affect its growth in culture media neither its survival within the host cell. Macrophages phagocytized coated BCG bacteria, which efficiently delivered their surface cargo of avidin fusion proteins to MHC class I and class II antigen presentation compartments. Thereafter, chimeric proteins corresponding to a surrogate antigen derived from ovalbumin and the Mtb specific ESAT6 antigen were generated and tested for immunogenicity in vaccinated mice. We found that BCG displaying ovalbumin antigen induces an immune response with a magnitude similar to that induced by BCG genetically expressing the same surrogate antigen. We also found that BCG decorated with Mtb specific antigen ESAT6 successfully induces the expansion of specific T cell responses. This novel technology, therefore, represents a practical and effective alternative to DNA-based gene expression for upgrading the current BCG vaccine.
Liao, Ting-Yu Angela; Lau, Alice; Joseph, Sunil; Hytönen, Vesa; Hmama, Zakaria
Current strategies to improve the current BCG vaccine attempt to over-express genes encoding specific M. tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens and/or regulators of antigen presentation function, which indeed have the potential to reshape BCG in many ways. However, these approaches often face serious difficulties, in particular the efficiency and stability of gene expression via nucleic acid complementation and safety concerns associated with the introduction of exogenous DNA. As an alternative, we developed a novel non-genetic approach for rapid and efficient display of exogenous proteins on bacterial cell surface. The technology involves expression of proteins of interest in fusion with a mutant version of monomeric avidin that has the feature of reversible binding to biotin. Fusion proteins are then used to decorate the surface of biotinylated BCG. Surface coating of BCG with recombinant proteins was highly reproducible and stable. It also resisted to the freeze-drying shock routinely used in manufacturing conventional BCG. Modifications of BCG surface did not affect its growth in culture media neither its survival within the host cell. Macrophages phagocytized coated BCG bacteria, which efficiently delivered their surface cargo of avidin fusion proteins to MHC class I and class II antigen presentation compartments. Thereafter, chimeric proteins corresponding to a surrogate antigen derived from ovalbumin and the Mtb specific ESAT6 antigen were generated and tested for immunogenicity in vaccinated mice. We found that BCG displaying ovalbumin antigen induces an immune response with a magnitude similar to that induced by BCG genetically expressing the same surrogate antigen. We also found that BCG decorated with Mtb specific antigen ESAT6 successfully induces the expansion of specific T cell responses. This novel technology, therefore, represents a practical and effective alternative to DNA-based gene expression for upgrading the current BCG vaccine. PMID:26716832
Does a 10-valent pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine prevent respiratory exacerbations in children with recurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis, chronic suppurative lung disease and bronchiectasis: protocol for a randomised controlled trial
Background Recurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB), chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis are characterised by a chronic wet cough and are important causes of childhood respiratory morbidity globally. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most commonly associated pathogens. As respiratory exacerbations impair quality of life and may be associated with disease progression, we will determine if the novel 10-valent pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) reduces exacerbations in these children. Methods A multi-centre, parallel group, double-blind, randomised controlled trial in tertiary paediatric centres from three Australian cities is planned. Two hundred six children aged 18 months to 14 years with recurrent PBB, CSLD or bronchiectasis will be randomised to receive either two doses of PHiD-CV or control meningococcal (ACYW135) conjugate vaccine 2 months apart and followed for 12 months after the second vaccine dose. Randomisation will be stratified by site, age (, nasopharyngeal and saliva swabs, and serum will be collected at baseline and at 2, 3, 8 and 14 months post-enrolment. Local and systemic reactions will be recorded on daily diaries for 7 and 30 days, respectively, following each vaccine dose and serious adverse events monitored throughout the trial. Fortnightly, parental contact will help record respiratory exacerbations. The primary outcome is the incidence of respiratory exacerbations in the 12 months following the second vaccine dose. Secondary outcomes include: nasopharyngeal carriage of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae vaccine and vaccine- related serotypes; systemic and mucosal immune responses to H. influenzae proteins and S. pneumoniae vaccine and vaccine-related serotypes; impact upon lung function in children aged ≥6 years; and vaccine safety. Discussion As H. influenzae is the most common bacterial pathogen associated with these chronic respiratory diseases in
Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) is a frequent cause of elevated mortality in rainbow trout and the development of effective control strategies is a priority within the U.S. A goal of the NCCCWA breeding program is to produce germplasm with superior growth and survival following exposure to infe...
Vaccination with a synthetic glycoconjugate, in combination with the administration of an inhibitor that blocks capsular polysaccharide synthesis in bacteria, could offer an alternative route to combat bacterial infections.
The two types of poliovirus vaccines are inactivated vaccine, given parenterally, and live virus vaccine, given orally. Oral poliovirus is the vaccine of choice for global eradication. Either inactivated vaccine or oral vaccine may be given concurrently with other routinely recommended childhood vaccines. No serious adverse events have been associated with the vaccine. Oral poliovirus vaccine can cause vaccine associated paralytic poliomyelitis.
... the safety of Tdap, Meningococcal, and HPV vaccines Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine is Very Safe Read about the safety of ... Hepatitis A Vaccine Safety Hepatitis B Vaccine Safety Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Safety FAQs about HPV Safety Influenza (Flu) Vaccine ...
..., Bovine. 113.68 Section 113.68 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...
Using a rapid and reliable system based on Tn7-mediated site-specific transposition, we have successfully constructed a recombinant Oka varicella vaccine (vOka) expressing the mumps virus (MuV) fusion protein (F). The backbone of the vector was our previously reported vOka-BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) genome. We inserted the transposon Tn7 attachment sequence, LacZα-mini-attTn7, into the region between ORF12 and ORF13 to generate a vOka-BAC-Tn genome. The MuV-F expressing cassette was transposed into the vOka-BAC genome at the mini-attTn7 transposition site. MuV-F protein was expressed in recombinant virus, rvOka-F infected cells. In addition, the MuV-F protein was cleaved in the rvOka-F infected cells as in MuV-infected cells. The growth of rvOka-F was similar to that of the original recombinant vOka without the F gene. Thus, we show that Tn7-mediated transposition is an efficient method for introducing a foreign gene expression cassette into the vOka-BAC genome as a live virus vector.
Mucosal SIV vaccines comprising inactivated virus particles and bacterial adjuvants induce CD8+T-regulatory cells that suppress SIV positive CD4+cell activation and prevent SIV infection in the macaque model.
Jean Marie eAndrieu
Full Text Available A new paradigm of mucosal vaccination against HIV infection has been investigated in the macaque model. A vaccine consisting of inactivated SIVmac239 particles together with a living bacterial adjuvant (either the Calmette & Guerin bacillus, lactobacillus plantarum or Lactobacillus rhamnosus was administered to macaques via the vaginal or oral/intragastic route. In contrast to all established human and veterinary vaccines, these three vaccine regimens did not elicit SIV-specific antibodies nor cytotoxic T-lymphocytes but induced a previously unrecognized population of non-cytolytic MHCIb/E-restricted CD8+T regulatory cells that suppressed the activation of SIV positive CD4+ T-lymphocytes. SIV reverse transcription was thereby blocked in inactivated CD4+ T-cells; the initial burst of virus replication was prevented and the vaccinated macaques were protected from a challenge infection. Three to 14 months after intragastric immunization, 24 macaques were challenged intrarectally with a high dose of SIVmac239 or with the heterologous strain SIV B670 (both strains grown on macaques PBMC. Twenty-three of these animals were found to be protected for up to 48 months while all 24 control macaques became infected. This protective effect against SIV challenge together with the concomitant identification of a robust ex-vivo correlate of protection suggests a new approach for developing an HIV vaccine in humans. The induction of this new class of CD8+ T regulatory cells could also possibly be used therapeutically for suppressing HIV replication in infected patients and this novel tolerogenic vaccine paradigm may have potential applications for treating a wide range of immune disorders and is likely to may have profound implications across immunology generally.
Dietrich, Guido; Griot-Wenk, Monika; Metcalfe, Ian C; Lang, Alois B; Viret, Jean-François
Most pathogens gain access to their host through mucosal surfaces. It is therefore desirable to develop vaccination strategies that lead to mucosal immune responses. Ideally, a vaccine should be administered mucosally in order to elicit mucosal protection. Several attenuated live viral and bacterial pathogens are registered as oral vaccines for human use, including the oral polio vaccine (Sabin) as well as attenuated strains of Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae. These attenuated bacterial live vaccines-S. typhi Ty21a as well as V. cholerae CVD 103-HgR-are employed as vaccines against typhoid and cholera, respectively. In this manuscript, we review the immune responses that are induced by these vaccines, with a focus on mucosal immunity. PMID:12531339
Riber, Ulla; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Ståhl, Marie; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Jungersen, Gregers
same extent as non-vaccinated pigs after challenge,however less L. intracellularis in ileum and lymph nodes was seen post mortem. In the RE group, challengedid not lead to L. intracellularis shedding and no challenge bacteria were found post mortem. In both VACand RE the acute phase haptoglobin...... response was diminished and L. intracellularis specific IgG responseswere delayed and reduced compared to non-vaccinated pigs. On the other hand L. intracellularis specificIFN- responses tended to develop faster in the VAC group compared to controls.Conclusion: Although vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs...
Het vaccin dat de kip moet beschermen tegen de bacterie Campylobacter werkt in het laboratorium. Dat wil bacterioloog Jaap Wagenaar wel kwijt. Wanneer het er komt en zelfs of het er komt, daarover laat Wagenaar zich niet uit. "Het is een hele klus om het immuunsysteem van kippen effectief op te laten treden tegen Campylobacter", zegt Wagenaar die werkt bij het CVI en hoogleraar is aan de Universiteit Utrecht. "Geen van de vaccins die onderzoekers tot nu hebben uitgeprobeerd werken"
Biotechnology has been used extensively in the development of vaccines for aquaculture. Modern molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cloning and microarray analysis have facilitated antigen discovery, construction of novel candidate vaccines, and assessments of vaccine efficacy, mode of action, and host response. This review focuses on DNA vaccines for finfish to illustrate biotechnology applications in this field. Although DNA vaccines for fish rhabdoviruses continue to show the highest efficacy, DNA vaccines for several other viral and bacterial fish pathogens have now been proven to provide significant protection against pathogen challenge. Studies of the fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines have elucidated factors that affect DNA vaccine efficacy as well as the nature of the fish innate and adaptive immune responses to DNA vaccines. As tools for managing aquatic animal disease emergencies, DNA vaccines have advantages in speed, flexibility, and safety, and one fish DNA vaccine has been licensed.
Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... Girls ages 11 and 12 should receive the HPV vaccine series: The vaccine is given in three shots ...
Xia, Shui-Li; Lei, Jian-Lin; Du, Mingliang; Wang, Yimin; Cong, Xin; Xiang, Guang-Tao; Li, Lian-Feng; Yu, Shenye; Du, Enqi; Liu, Siguo; Sun, Yuan; Qiu, Hua-Ji
Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious swine disease caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Previously, we demonstrated that rAdV-SFV-E2, an adenovirus-delivered, Semliki Forest virus replicon-vectored marker vaccine against CSF, is able to protect pigs against lethal CSFV challenge. From an economical point of view, it will be beneficial to reduce the minimum effective dose of the vaccine. This study was designed to test the adjuvant effects of Salmonella enteritidis-derived bacterial ghosts (BG) to enhance the protective immunity of rAdV-SFV-E2 in pigs. Groups of 5-week-old pigs (n = 4) were immunized intramuscularly twice with 10(5) median tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) rAdV-SFV-E2 combined with 10(10) colony forming units (CFU) BG, 10(6) or 10(5) TCID50 rAdV-SFV-E2 alone or 10(10) CFU BG alone at an interval of 3 weeks, and challenged with the highly virulent CSFV Shimen strain at 1 week post-booster immunization. The results show that the pigs inoculated with 10(5) TCID50 rAdV-SFV-E2 plus BG or 10(6) TCID50 rAdV-SFV-E2 alone were completely protected from lethal CSFV challenge, in contrast with the pigs vaccinated with 10(5) TCID50 rAdV-SFV-E2 or BG alone, which displayed partial or no protection following virulent challenge. The data indicate that BG are a promising adjuvant to enhance the efficacy of rAdV-SFV-E2 and possibly other vaccines. PMID:27301745
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent cause of pneumonia and meningitis. This article looks at the pneumococcal vaccine, its uses, efficacy, and adverse effects and how vaccination may be improved. We also look at the role of the new conjugate vaccines.
... to its advantages over IPV in providing intestinal immunity and providing secondary spread of the vaccine to unprotected contacts. Who needs this vaccine and when? Side Effects Excerpt from Vaccine Information Statement A Polio-Free ...
... Newsletters Events Also Known As Smallpox = Vaccinia Smallpox Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The smallpox ... like many other vaccines. For that reason, the vaccination site must be cared for carefully to prevent ...
Ting-Yu Angela Liao; Alice Lau; Sunil Joseph; Vesa Hytönen; Zakaria Hmama
Current strategies to improve the current BCG vaccine attempt to over-express genes encoding specific M. tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens and/or regulators of antigen presentation function, which indeed have the potential to reshape BCG in many ways. However, these approaches often face serious difficulties, in particular the efficiency and stability of gene expression via nucleic acid complementation and safety concerns associated with the introduction of exogenous DNA. As an alternative, we deve...
Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J
Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. PMID:26541249
Zielen, S; Bühring, I.; Strnad, N.; Reichenbach, J; Hofmann, D.
There is still a lack of effective vaccination strategies for patients with a deficient antibody response to bacterial polysaccharide antigens. In an open trial, we evaluated the immunogenicity and tolerance of a new 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 22 infection-prone nonresponders to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and 21 controls. In the patient group, nonresponsiveness was confirmed by repeated vaccination with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. The study protoc...
Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterial ... Bacterial gastroenteritis can affect 1 person or a group of people who all ate the same food. It is ...
Adolescent period usually are omitted regarding the vaccination and the other health evaluations, in our country. Adolescent period is usually considered as between the ages of 8-18 years. During this period, it is important to evaluate routine adolescent examination as well as vaccination status.Childhood (0-18 years) vaccination can be considered in three stages; infantil period vaccinations (
Cheville, N. F.; Olsen, S. C.; Jensen, A E; Stevens, M G; Florance, A M; Houng, H S; Drazek, E S; Warren, R. L.; Hadfield, T. L.; Hoover, D L
To evaluate host responses, young goats were inoculated subcutaneously with a genetic deletion mutant (deltapurE201) of Brucella melitensis (n = 6), its virulent parental strain 16M (n = 6), or saline (n = 6). No clinical evidence of brucellosis was seen in any goat. Serum antibody titers peaked at postinoculation day (PID) 14. Bacteria in lymph nodes that drained sites of vaccination reached peak numbers of >10(6) CFU/g in both infected groups at PID 7 and progressively declined to PID 84. A...
Jake E Lowry; Isaak, Dale D.; Leonhardt, Jack A.; Giulia Vernati; Jessie C Pate; Andrews, Gerard P.
Current vaccines used for the prevention of brucellosis are ineffective in inducing protective immunity in animals that are chronically infected with Brucella abortus, such as elk. Using a gene discovery approach, in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT) on B. abortus, we previously identified ten loci that encode products up-regulated during infection in elk and consequently may play a role in virulence. In our present study, five of the loci (D15, 0187, VirJ, Mdh, AfuA) were selected for ...
Raida, Martin Kristian; Buchmann, Kurt
Studies have been conducted on the temperature-dependent effect of bath vaccination of rainbow trout against Yersinia ruckeri O1. Protection of rainbow trout fry against challenge, following bath vaccination with a bacterin of Yersinia ruckeri O1, the bacterial pathogen causing enteric red mouth...... disease (ERM), was investigated at 5, 15 and 25° C. Rainbow trout fry were kept at controlled temperatures for two month before they were immersed in a commercial Yersinia ruckeri O1 bacterin for 10 minutes. Control groups were sham vaccinated using pure water. Fish were challenged with Yersinia ruckeri O......1 one and two month post vaccination at the three temperatures. Protection of vaccinated fish was seen one and two month post vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 15° C. There was no effect of vaccination in rainbow trout reared at 5 and 25° C. Spleen tissue was sampled from 5 vaccinated and 5...
Li, Yi; Hill, Andrew; Beitelshees, Marie; Shao, Shuai; Lovell, Jonathan F; Davidson, Bruce A; Knight, Paul R; Hakansson, Anders P; Pfeifer, Blaine A; Jones, Charles H
Immunization strategies against commensal bacterial pathogens have long focused on eradicating asymptomatic carriage as well as disease, resulting in changes in the colonizing microflora with unknown future consequences. Additionally, current vaccines are not easily adaptable to sequence diversity and immune evasion. Here, we present a "smart" vaccine that leverages our current understanding of disease transition from bacterial carriage to infection with the pneumococcus serving as a model organism. Using conserved surface proteins highly expressed during virulent transition, the vaccine mounts an immune response specifically against disease-causing bacterial populations without affecting carriage. Aided by a delivery technology capable of multivalent surface display, which can be adapted easily to a changing clinical picture, results include complete protection against the development of pneumonia and sepsis during animal challenge experiments with multiple, highly variable, and clinically relevant pneumococcal isolates. The approach thus offers a unique and dynamic treatment option readily adaptable to other commensal pathogens. PMID:27274071
Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B
Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...
Buchmann, Kurt; Desmukh, Sidhartha; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar;
We have previously shown that immersion vaccination (30 sec) using the Aquavac Relera vaccine (containing formalin killed Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 of both biotypes 1 and 2) provides the best protection (when compared to other commercial ERM vaccines on the Danish market) against infection...... following i. p. challenge using Y. ruckeri O1, biotype 2, which at present is the main bacterial pathogen in fingerling trout production in Denmark. Despite a significant protection conferred by this vaccine (immersion) some mortality could be observed following challenge. We have therefore performed a...... study in order to elucidate if different vaccine administration methods (using Aquavac Relera) can improve protection and reduce mortality of exposed trout following challenge with this particular pathogen. Rainbow trout (mean weight 7.8 g) reared at the Bornholm Salmon Hatchery under pathogen free...
Garcia-Contreras, Lucila; Wong, Yun-Ling; Muttil, Pavan; Padilla, Danielle; Sadoff, Jerry; DeRousse, Jessica; Germishuizen, Willem Andreas; Goonesekera, Sunali; Elbert, Katharina; Bloom, Barry R.; Miller, Rich; Fourie, P. Bernard; Hickey, Anthony; Edwards, David
By manufacturing a single-particle system in two particulate forms (i.e., micrometer size and nanometer size), we have designed a bacterial vaccine form that exhibits improved efficacy of immunization. Microstructural properties are adapted to alter dispersive and aerosol properties independently. Dried “nanomicroparticle” vaccines possess two axes of nanoscale dimensions and a third axis of micrometer dimension; the last one permits effective micrometer-like physical dispersion, and the form...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anthrax Spore Vaccine-Nonencapsulated... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.66 Anthrax Spore Vaccine—Nonencapsulated. Anthrax Spore Vaccine... in 9 CFR 113.64 and the requirements in this paragraph. Any serial or subserial found...
Vaccines play a major role in the prevention of human birth defects by protecting the pregnant woman from teratogenic or otherwise harmful infections. Until now, it has not been common practice to perform preclinical developmental toxicity tests for new vaccines. Despite the excellent safety record of vaccines, increased attention is now being given to the feasibility of screening new vaccines for developmental hazards in animals before their use in humans. Contrary to previous assumptions, many vaccines are now given to potentially pregnant women. Any new components of the vaccine formulation (adjuvants, excipients, stabilisers, preservatives, etc...) could also be tested for influences on development, although based on past experience the risks are limited by the very low dosages used. The conferred immunity following vaccination lasts for several years. Therefore, the developing conceptus may theoretically be exposed to the induced antibodies and/or sensitised T-cells, even if the pregnant woman was last vaccinated during childhood (particularly if she encounters the antigen during pregnancy through exposure to infection). However, it should be kept in mind that viral or bacterial infections represent a higher risk for a pregnant woman than the potential adverse effects related to vaccination or the associated immune response. Non-clinical safety studies may be employed as an aid for hazard identification. In these studies interactions of the vaccine with the maternal immune system or with the developmental systems of the offspring are considered. Post-natal examinations are necessary to detect all possible manifestations of developmental toxicity, such as effects on the immune system. Species selection for the preclinical studies is based on immunogenicity to the vaccine and the relative timing and rate of transfer of maternal antibodies to the offspring. A single study design is proposed for the pre- and post-natal developmental assessments of vaccines in
Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; Cervarix; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer ... HPV is a common virus that is spread through sexual contact. There are several types of HPV. ...
... children and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination Pronounced (dif-THEER-ee-a) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Diphtheria causes a thick covering in the back of ...
Background Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is vital in vaccine-induced immune defense against bacterial and viral infections and tumor. Our recent study demonstrated the power of a literature-based discovery method in extraction and comparison of the IFN-γ and vaccine-mediated gene interaction networks. The Vaccine Ontology (VO) contains a hierarchy of vaccine names. It is hypothesized that the application of VO will enhance the prediction of IFN-γ and vaccine-mediated gene interaction network. Resu...
Coban, Cevayir; Kobiyama, Kouji; Jounai, Nao; Tozuka, Miyuki; Ishii, Ken J.
Since the introduction of DNA vaccines two decades ago, this attractive strategy has been hampered by its low immunogenicity in humans. Studies conducted to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines have shown that understanding the mechanism of action of DNA vaccines might be the key to successfully improving their immunogenicity. Our current understanding is that DNA vaccines induce innate and adaptive immune responses in two ways: (1) encoded protein (or polypeptide) antigen(s) by the DNA...
Cristina Aparecida Borges Laval
Full Text Available Acute bacterial meningitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among children less than five years old. Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most important agents of bacterial meningitis in developing countries. The development of the conjugate vaccines in the beginning of the 90's, especially type b H. influenzae (Hib, and more recently the heptavalent pneumococcal and the serogroup C meningococcal vaccines, have contributed directly to changes in the epidemiological profile of these invasive diseases (direct effect and of their carriage status (indirect effect. We review the impact of the Hib conjugate vaccine in Latin American countries, where this vaccine has been implemented, and the potential of pneumococcal and meningococcal conjugate vaccines for the reduction of meningitis worldwide. We also address constraints for the development and delivery of these vaccines and review new candidate state-of-the-art vaccines. The greatest challenge, undoubtedly, is to implement these vaccines worldwide, especially in the developing regions.
... conjugate vaccine=MenACWY Use of Vaccines to Prevent Meningitis in Persons with Cochlear Implants Recommend on Facebook ... cochlear implants are more likely to get bacterial meningitis than children without cochlear implants. In addition, some ...
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service
Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B
Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406
Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service
CERN Medical Service
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service
People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service
Jin Li; Wang Zhijun; Węgrzyn Alicja
Abstract Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the...
Tafalla, C.; Bøgwald, Jarl; Dalmo, Roy Ambli
Vaccination is the most adequate method to control infectious diseases that threaten the aquaculture industry worldwide. Unfortunately, vaccines are usually not able to confer protection on their own; especially those vaccines based on recombinant antigens or inactivated pathogens. Therefore, the use of adjuvants or immunostimulants is often necessary to increase the vaccine efficacy. Traditional adjuvants such as mineral oils are routinely used in different commercial bacterial vaccines avai...
Aggarwal, A; Dutta, A K
Typhoid fever continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries with about 33 million cases per year. Protective efficacy of traditional acetone/phenol killed vaccines is similar to newer typhoid vaccines (Ty21A and Vi antigen vaccine) but side effects of these newer vaccines are considerably less. Though the mortality is low, typhoid fever causes considerable morbidity and loss of working days. Problems during treatment are increasing due to emergence and spread of multidrug resistant S. typhi. Hence to decrease the incidence of typhoid fever in addition to ensuring safe water supply and excreta disposal a typhoid vaccine needs to be introduced in the National Immunization Schedule. PMID:11563251
Tumor vaccines have several potential advantages over standard anticancer regiments. They represent highly specific anticancer therapy. Inducing tumor-specific memory T-lymphocytes, they have potential for long-lived antitumor effects. However, clinical trials, in which cancer patients were vaccinated with tumor vaccines, have been so far mainly disappointing. There are many reasons for the inefficiency of tumor vaccines. Most cancer antigens are normal self-molecules to which immune tolerance exists. That is why the population of tumor-specific lymphocytes is represented by a small number of low-affinity T-lymphocytes that induce weak antitumor immune response. Simultaneously, tumors evolve many mechanisms to actively evade immune system, what makes them poorly immunogenic or even tolerogenic. Novel immunotherapeutic strategies are directed toward breaking immune tolerance to tumor antigens, enhancing immunogenicity of tumor vaccines and overcoming mechanisms of tumor escape. There are several approaches, unfortunately, all of them still far away from an ideal tumor vaccine that would reject a tumor. Difficulties in the activation of antitumor immune response by tumor vaccines have led to the development of alternative immunotherapeutic strategies that directly focus on effector mechanisms of immune system (adoptive tumor- specific T-lymphocyte transfer and tumor specific monoclonal antibodies). (author)
Lambert, Linda C.
The significant burden of disease due to pertussis, which predominantly affects newborns during their first few months of life, was substantially decreased following the introduction of inactivated whole-bacterial-cell vaccines in the middle of the 20th century. Although these vaccines were effective in reducing the incidence of pertussis in the countries that implemented their widespread use, increasing concerns about pertussis vaccine–associated adverse events led the development of acellul...
Lee, R; Opdebeeck, J P
Antigens located in the midgut of the tick are hidden from the host's immune system. Egg production of ticks can be reduced when ticks are fed on animals vaccinated with midgut antigens of the tick, and a subunit vaccine formulated with the recombinant antigen Bm86 is now available that can reduce the number of ticks infesting cattle grazing on pasture. Midgut antigens used in vaccines against insects that transmit pathogenic organisms to humans have not been as effective in reducing insect fecundity and an alternative approach may be necessary. Transmission-blocking vaccines directed at interfering with the vector-pathogen interaction could result in loss of vector competence and block the spread of disease-causing organisms. PMID:10198800
Østerhus, Sven Frederick
The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....
Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti
Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research
Ouattara, Amed; Laurens, Matthew B.
No licensed malaria vaccine currently exists; however, final phase 3 testing results of a leading candidate vaccine are forthcoming. Continued challenges to malaria vaccine developers include genetically diverse strains found in nature and establishment of a vaccine correlate of protection.
... recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (JORRP). What is the HPV vaccine? The HPV vaccine provides protection against some types of HPV. ... I am pregnant. Should I get the HPV vaccine? The HPV vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women because ...
... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...
... Preparedness Vaccine Safety Partners About ISO Thimerosal in Vaccines Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Thimerosal is ... harm. Thimerosal prevents the growth of bacteria in vaccines. Thimerosal is added to vials of vaccine that ...
... A - Z Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live ... it cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine ...
The Scientific Working Groups on Immunology of Malaria and on Applied Field Research in Malaria of the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases held a joint meeting at WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, on 4-8 February 1985 to consider the current status of malaria vaccine research. Although experience with vaccines against bacterial and viral infections provides valuable information, the advanced stages of development of malaria vaccines pose...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucella Abortus Vaccine. 113.65 Section 113.65 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.65 Brucella...
Riedmann, Eva M.
Long-term effectiveness shown for Merck’s chickenpox vaccine Again—no link between vaccines and autism Experimental ovarian cancer vaccine successful in phase 1 Sinovac’s HFMD vaccine meets phase 3 study goal A vaccine for long-suffering cat allergy patients Vaccines are key to breaking infectious disease-malnutrition cycle Cancer vaccine failures due to the adjuvant IFA? Novartis’ typhoid vaccine make good progress
Garcia-Contreras, Lucila; Wong, Yun-Ling; Muttil, Pavan; Padilla, Danielle; Sadoff, Jerry; Derousse, Jessica; Germishuizen, Willem Andreas; Goonesekera, Sunali; Elbert, Katharina; Bloom, Barry R; Miller, Rich; Fourie, P Bernard; Hickey, Anthony; Edwards, David
By manufacturing a single-particle system in two particulate forms (i.e., micrometer size and nanometer size), we have designed a bacterial vaccine form that exhibits improved efficacy of immunization. Microstructural properties are adapted to alter dispersive and aerosol properties independently. Dried "nanomicroparticle" vaccines possess two axes of nanoscale dimensions and a third axis of micrometer dimension; the last one permits effective micrometer-like physical dispersion, and the former provides alignment of the principal nanodimension particle axes with the direction of airflow. Particles formed with this combination of nano- and micrometer-scale dimensions possess a greater ability to aerosolize than particles of standard spherical isotropic shape and of similar geometric diameter. Here, we demonstrate effective application of this biomaterial by using the live attenuated tuberculosis vaccine bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Prepared as a spray-dried nanomicroparticle aerosol, BCG vaccine exhibited high-efficiency delivery and peripheral lung targeting capacity from a low-cost and technically simple delivery system. Aerosol delivery of the BCG nanomicroparticle to normal guinea pigs subsequently challenged with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis significantly reduced bacterial burden and lung pathology both relative to untreated animals and to control animals immunized with the standard parenteral BCG. PMID:18344320
Deng, Shunzhou; Martin, Carly; Patil, Rasika; Zhu, Felix; Zhao, Bin; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun
A recombinant vector vaccine uses an attenuated virus, bacterium, or parasite as the carrier to express a heterologous antigen(s). Many recombinant vaccine vectors and related vaccines have been developed and extensively investigated. To compare and better understand recombinant vectors and vaccines, we have generated Vaxvec (http://www.violinet.org/vaxvec), the first web-based database that stores various recombinant vaccine vectors and those experimentally verified vaccines that use these vectors. Vaxvec has now included 59 vaccine vectors that have been used in 196 recombinant vector vaccines against 66 pathogens and cancers. These vectors are classified to 41 viral vectors, 15 bacterial vectors, 1 parasitic vector, and 1 fungal vector. The most commonly used viral vaccine vectors are double-stranded DNA viruses, including herpesviruses, adenoviruses, and poxviruses. For example, Vaxvec includes 63 poxvirus-based recombinant vaccines for over 20 pathogens and cancers. Vaxvec collects 30 recombinant vector influenza vaccines that use 17 recombinant vectors and were experimentally tested in 7 animal models. In addition, over 60 protective antigens used in recombinant vector vaccines are annotated and analyzed. User-friendly web-interfaces are available for querying various data in Vaxvec. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine vectors, vaccines, and related information is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO). Vaxvec is a timely and vital source of vaccine vector database and facilitates efficient vaccine vector research and development. PMID:26403370
IT’S always nice when expectations are exceeded by half a billion dollars.This was the case for the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization(GAVI) at its fundraising conference in June.A public-private initiative,GAVI,which works to ensure children in developing countries receive crucial vaccinations,had gone into the meeting hoping to net $3.7 billion.They came away with $4.3 billion,"despite the fact that donors everywhere are coping with budget crises," as Bill Gates
Saxena, Manvendra; Van, Thi Thu Hao; Baird, Fiona J.; Coloe, Peter J; Smooker, Peter M.
Over the last century, the successful attenuation of multiple bacterial and viral pathogens has led to an effective, robust and safe form of vaccination. Recently, these vaccines have been evaluated as delivery vectors for heterologous antigens, as a means of simultaneous vaccination against two pathogens. The general consensus from published studies is that these vaccine vectors have the potential to be both safe and efficacious. However, some of the commonly employed vectors, for example Sa...
Samina, I; Khinich, Y; Peleg, B A
Vaccination of turkeys via the wattle has been introduced as a novel route of vaccination using attenuated live viral turkey meningo-encephalitis (TME) and killed-in-oil bacterial (Pasteurella multocida) vaccines. The efficacy of the immunization was evaluated by the haemagglutination-inhibition test for TME and by challenge for TME and P. multocida. Immunization via the wattle route was comparable or better as compared with the conventional routes, intramuscular and subcutaneous, for P. multocida and TME, respectively. These results were obtained by wattle vaccination administered either by injection, punching with a needle as used for fowl pox vaccination or by topical application. The advantages of wattle vaccination are: no local untoward reactions (P. multocida), which might frequently occur in the muscles following improper subcutaneous mass vaccination, less time and labour consuming, and less stress for the turkeys. It is suggested to test the wattle route of vaccination with other viral and bacterial vaccines in turkeys and other avian species. PMID:26911605
Riedmann, Eva M
Vaccinating boys against HPV to reduce cancer rates across the sexes New melanoma vaccine contains natural product from marine sponges Impact of Hib conjugate vaccines in developing countries Electronic Health Records to keep track of immunization status Pregnant women urged to get whooping cough vaccination New nano-coating developed to preserve vaccines Alternative approach to creating a universal flu vaccine New modular vaccine design: MAPS technology
Bowman, Darcia Harris
Schools play a key role in ensuring that children are being immunized against diseases, but conflicting research is making enforcement difficult. This article discusses a growing trend of vaccine avoidance and the endless supply of conflicting information and research about immunization safety. Despite the controversy, many people appear to accept…
Some have argued that the vaccine against malaria developed by Manuel Pattaroyo, a Colombian scientist, is being tested prematurely in humans and that it is unlikely to be successful. While the Pattaroyo vaccine has been shown to confer protection against the relatively mild malaria found in Colombia, doubts exist over whether it will be effective in Africa. Encouraging first results, however, are emerging from field tests in Tanzania. The vaccine triggered a strong new immune response, even in individuals previously exposed to malaria. Additional steps must be taken to establish its impact upon mortality and morbidity. Five major trials are underway around the world. The creator estimates that the first ever effective malaria vaccine could be available for widespread use within five years and he has no intention of securing a patent for the discovery. In another development, malaria specialists from 35 African countries convened at an international workshop in Zimbabwe to compare notes. Participants disparaged financial outlays for the fight against malaria equivalent to 2% of total AIDS funding as insufficient; noted intercountry differences in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment; and found information exchange between anglophone and francophone doctors to be generally poor. PMID:12287671
Early work on fish immunology and disease resistance demonstrated fish (like animals and humans) that survived infection were typically resistant to re-infection with the same pathogen. The concepts of resistance upon reinfection lead to the research and development of replicating (live) vaccines in...
Vaccination is a proven, cost-effective method to prevent infectious diseases in animals. Current fish vaccines can be categorized as killed fish vaccines or modified live vaccines. The major advantage of live vaccine is their ability to stimulate both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses for ...
Riedmann, Eva M.
DNA vaccine for T1D promising in the clinic HPV vaccines halved infections in US teenage girls Modified DC immunotherapy against melanoma New study looks at clinical severity of human H7N9 infections Prevnar vaccines are valuable for healthcare systems GAPVAC: New consortium in the fight of brain cancer Cytomegalovirus vaccine to enter phase 3 Malaria vaccination using chemically attenuated parasites
ProQuad® (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine, Varicella Vaccine) ... up to about 1 person in 5) and measles-like rash (about 1 person in 20) than MMR and varicella vaccines given separately. Moderate Problems:Seizure (jerking or staring) ...
... 586. Related Content STDs during Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy and HIV, Viral Hepatitis, and STD Prevention Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ( ... Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ... STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive ...
Any bacteria that can cause a urinary tract infection can cause acute bacterial prostatitis. Infections spread through sexual contact can cause prostatitis. These include chlamydia and gonorrhea . Sexually transmitted ...
Köhle, Ülkü; Kükner, Şahap
Conjunctivitis is an infection of the conjunctiva, generally characterized by irritation, itching, foreign body sensation, tearing and discharge. Bacterial conjunctivitis may be distinguished from other types of conjunctivitis by the presence of yellow–white mucopurulent discharge. It is the most common form of ocular infection all around the world. Staphylococcus species are the most common bacterial pathogenes, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus i...
The protein moiety of Brucella abortus outer membrane protein 16 is a new bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern that activates dendritic cells in vivo, induces a Th1 immune response, and is a promising self-adjuvanting vaccine against systemic and oral acquired brucellosis.
Pasquevich, Karina A; García Samartino, Clara; Coria, Lorena M; Estein, Silvia M; Zwerdling, Astrid; Ibañez, Andrés E; Barrionuevo, Paula; Oliveira, Fernanda Souza de; Carvalho, Natalia Barbosa; Borkowski, Julia; Oliveira, Sergio Costa; Warzecha, Heribert; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Cassataro, Juliana
Knowing the inherent stimulatory properties of the lipid moiety of bacterial lipoproteins, we first hypothesized that Brucella abortus outer membrane protein (Omp)16 lipoprotein would be able to elicit a protective immune response without the need of external adjuvants. In this study, we demonstrate that Omp16 administered by the i.p. route confers significant protection against B. abortus infection and that the protective response evoked is independent of the protein lipidation. To date, Omp16 is the first Brucella protein that without the requirement of external adjuvants is able to induce similar protection levels to the control live vaccine S19. Moreover, the protein portion of Omp16 (unlipidated Omp16 [U-Omp16]) elicits a protective response when administered by the oral route. Either systemic or oral immunization with U-Omp16 elicits a Th1-specific response. These abilities of U-Omp16 indicate that it is endowed with self-adjuvanting properties. The adjuvanticity of U-Omp16 could be explained, at least in part, by its capacity to activate dendritic cells in vivo. U-Omp16 is also able to stimulate dendritic cells and macrophages in vitro. The latter property and its ability to induce a protective Th1 immune response against B. abortus infection have been found to be TLR4 dependent. The facts that U-Omp16 is an oral protective Ag and possesses a mucosal self-adjuvanting property led us to develop a plant-made vaccine expressing U-Omp16. Our results indicate that plant-expressed recombinant U-Omp16 is able to confer protective immunity, when given orally, indicating that a plant-based oral vaccine expressing U-Omp16 could be a valuable approach to controlling this disease. PMID:20351187
Chettri, Jiwan Kumar
vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....
... you do need any vaccinations, wait 1 month after you get them before you try to get pregnant. ... vaccine during pregnancy, you can get it right after you give birth. Getting the Tdap vaccine soon after ...
Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...
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Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV)Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other drugs used to be more effective. But ... the disease, through vaccination, even more important. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) protects against 23 types of pneumococcal ...
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Ellebedy, A. H.; Webby, R J
Influenza A viruses pose a substantial threat to the human population whether by purposeful manipulation and release or by the natural process of interspecies transmissions from animal reservoirs. The challenge with preparing for these events with vaccination strategies is that the best forms of protective immunity target the most variably of the viral proteins, hemagglutinin. Add to this even just the natural extent of variation in this protein and the challenges to vaccinologists become gre...
Michel, P; Rasoamanana, B; Rasolofonirina, N; Roux, J
Plague has existed in Madagascar since 1896, with epidemic control achieved by GIRARD with an EV vaccine in 1937. Plague persists in Madagascar, however, due to the large animal reservoir. With a predilection for nodal tissues, Yersinia pestis is a virulent bacteria that is potent inducer of antibody synthesis. Immunity mechanisms stimulated by infection were studied: 1. In human by immunoenzymatic methods 2. In mice by seroprotection and vaccinating tests. Induced immunity for people in endemic and endemic-epidemic areas, is significant, affecting approximately 70% of these populations. In non endemic areas, immunity is found in only 33% of the population, perhaps this explains the persistence of epidemic? In all cases, this immunity is a quick onset (6 days), is persistent (> 2 years), and has demonstrable serious recognition of YOP (Yersinia Outer Proteins) by Western Blot method. Human antibodies were shown to be protective for mice. Animals vaccinated by YOP were protected equally well, when compared to animals infected with Yersinia pestis and subsequently treated with antibiotics. Finally, YOP aerosols were also shown to induce antibodies. In conclusion, plague is a vaccinatable bacterial disease and YOP can be used as an animal vaccine to permit plague control in the rat reservoir. PMID:1345094
To avoid the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and polio outbreaks due to circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) was introduced for routine immunization in a number of countries with a low risk of polio outbreaks. Currently, production and marketing of a standalone conventional IPV and two diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-IPV (Sabin-derived IPV; sIPV) products have been submitted, and it is expected that the IPV products will be introduced in Japan in the autumn of 2012. At the same time, a decline in the OPV immunization rate became apparent in Japan due to serious public concerns about a remaining risk of VAPP and introduction of IPV in the near future. Therefore, the recent development of polio immunity gaps should be carefully monitored, and surveillance of suspected polio cases and laboratory diagnosis of polioviruses have to be intensified for the transition period from OPV to IPV in Japan. The development of sIPV is one of the most realistic options to introduce affordable IPV to developing countries. In this regard, further clinical studies on its efficacy, safety, and interchangeability of sIPV will be needed after the introduction of the sIPV products, which will be licensed in Japan for the first time in the world. PMID:23189825
Hill, Adrian V. S.
There is no licenced vaccine against any human parasitic disease and Plasmodium falciparum malaria, a major cause of infectious mortality, presents a great challenge to vaccine developers. This has led to the assessment of a wide variety of approaches to malaria vaccine design and development, assisted by the availability of a safe challenge model for small-scale efficacy testing of vaccine candidates. Malaria vaccine development has been at the forefront of assessing many new vaccine technol...
Riedmann, Eva M.
Oncolytic immunotherapy reduces the size of melanoma tumors in phase 3 trial EV71 vaccine protects children against HFMD Influenza vaccination important for risk groups Bharat‘s rotavirus vaccine is safe and modestly efficacious Successfully avoiding the cold-chain for vaccines FDA approval for Stallergenes’ sublingual grass pollen allergy immunotherapy HPV vaccination campaign could change from three to two doses in the UK Valneva continues phase 2/3 trial of Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine PMID:25290656
Leibovitch, Emily C; Jacobson, Steven
Vaccines for neuroinfectious diseases are becoming an ever-increasing global health priority, as neurologic manifestations and sequelae from existing and emerging central nervous system infections account for significant worldwide morbidity and mortality. The prevention of neurotropic infections can be achieved through globally coordinated vaccination campaigns, which have successfully eradicated nonzoonotic agents such as the variola viruses and, hopefully soon, poliovirus. This review discusses vaccines that are currently available or under development for zoonotic flaviviruses and alphaviruses, including Japanese and tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, West Nile, dengue, Zika, encephalitic equine viruses, and chikungunya. Also discussed are nonzoonotic agents, including measles and human herpesviruses, as well as select bacterial, fungal, and protozoal pathogens. While therapeutic vaccines will be required to treat a multitude of ongoing infections of the nervous system, the ideal vaccination strategy is pre-exposure vaccination, with the ultimate goals of minimizing disease associated with zoonotic viruses and the total eradication of nonzoonotic agents. PMID:27365085
... Palsy: Shannon's Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Immunizations: Meningococcal Vaccines ...
... children and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Tetanus (Lockjaw) Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tetanus (lockjaw) is a serious disease that causes painful ...
Several series of experiments in the laboratory as well as in natural conditions teach that the production of carbonate particles by heterotrophic bacteria follows different ways. The 'passive' carbonatogenesis is generated by modifications of the medium that lead to the accumulation of carbonate and bicarbonate ions and to the precipitation of solid particles. The 'active' carbonatogenesis is independent of the metabolic pathways. The carbonate particles are produced by ionic exchanges through the cell membrane following still poorly known mechanisms. Carbonatogenesis appears to be the response of heterotrophic bacterial communities to an enrichment of the milieu in organic matter. The active carbonatogenesis seems to start first. It is followed by the passive one which induces the growth of initially produced particles. The yield of heterotrophic bacterial carbonatogenesis and the amounts of solid carbonates production by bacteria are potentially very high as compared to autotrophic or chemical sedimentation from marine, paralic or continental waters. Furthermore, the bacterial processes are environmentally very ubiquitous; they just require organic matter enrichment. Thus, apart from purely evaporite and autotrophic ones, all Ca and/or Mg carbonates must be considered as from heterotrophic bacterial origin. By the way, the carbon of carbonates comes from primary organic matter. Such considerations ask questions about some interpretations from isotopic data on carbonates. Finally, bacterial heterotrophic carbonatogenesis appears as a fundamental phase in the relationships between atmosphere and lithosphere and in the geo-biological evolution of Earth. (author)
Bourgeois, A Louis; Wierzba, Thomas F; Walker, Richard I
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is one of the most common bacterial causes of diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality, particularly among infants and young children in developing countries. Still, the true impact on child and traveler health is likely underestimated. There are currently no licensed vaccines for ETEC, but studies indicate high public health impact, cost-effectiveness, and feasibility of immune protection through vaccination. ETEC vaccine development remains a World Health Organization priority. Traditionally, ETEC vaccine development efforts have focused on inducing antitoxin and anticolonization antigen immunity, as studies indicate that antibodies against both antigen types can contribute to protection and thus have potential for vaccines. Leading cellular vaccine candidates are ETVAX (a mixture of four inactivated strains) and ACE527 (a mixture of three live attenuated strains), both of which have been found to be safe and immunogenic in Phase 1/2 trials. ETVAX is the furthest along in development with descending-age studies already underway in Bangladesh. Other ETEC vaccine candidates based on protein subunits, toxoids (both LT and ST), or novel, more broadly conserved ETEC antigens are also under development. Of these, a protein adhesin-based subunit approach is the most advanced. Impact and economic models suggest favorable vaccine cost-effectiveness, which may help expand market interest in ETEC vaccines. Combination vaccine formulations may help improve the economic case for development and use, and better point-of-care diagnostics will help to raise awareness of the true health burden of ETEC and highlight the potential public health benefit of ETEC vaccine introduction. Better diagnostics and vaccine demand forecasting will also improve vaccine development financing and support accelerated uptake once a licensed vaccine becomes available. PMID:26988259
Vejborg, Rebecca Munk
parameters, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is...... the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental...
Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno
Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, mea
Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Conjugate vaccines in which polysaccharide antigens are covalently linked to carrier proteins belong to the most effective and safest vaccines against bacterial pathogens. State-of-the art production of conjugate vaccines using chemical methods is a laborious, multi-step process. In vivo enzymatic coupling using the general glycosylation pathway of Campylobacter jejuni in recombinant Escherichia coli has been suggested as a simpler method for producing conjugate vaccines. In this study we describe the in vivo biosynthesis of two novel conjugate vaccine candidates against Shigella dysenteriae type 1, an important bacterial pathogen causing severe gastro-intestinal disease states mainly in developing countries. Results Two different periplasmic carrier proteins, AcrA from C. jejuni and a toxoid form of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin were glycosylated with Shigella O antigens in E. coli. Starting from shake flask cultivation in standard complex medium a lab-scale fed-batch process was developed for glycoconjugate production. It was found that efficiency of glycosylation but not carrier protein expression was highly susceptible to the physiological state at induction. After induction glycoconjugates generally appeared later than unglycosylated carrier protein, suggesting that glycosylation was the rate-limiting step for synthesis of conjugate vaccines in E. coli. Glycoconjugate synthesis, in particular expression of oligosaccharyltransferase PglB, strongly inhibited growth of E. coli cells after induction, making it necessary to separate biomass growth and recombinant protein expression phases. With a simple pulse and linear feed strategy and the use of semi-defined glycerol medium, volumetric glycoconjugate yield was increased 30 to 50-fold. Conclusions The presented data demonstrate that glycosylated proteins can be produced in recombinant E. coli at a larger scale. The described methodologies constitute an important step
Ticks are responsible for the transmission of viral, bacterial, and protozoal diseases of man and animals and also produce significant economic losses to cattle industry. The use of acaricides constitutes a major component of integrated tick control strategies. However, this is accompanied by the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and contamination of environment and milk and meat products with drug residues. These issues highlight the need for alternative approaches to control tick infestations and have triggered the search for tick protective antigens for vaccine development. Vaccination as a tick control method has been practiced since the introduction of TickGARD and Gavac that were developed using the midgut glycoprotein Bm86 as antigen. Gavac within integrated tick management systems has proven to reduce the number of acaricidal applications per year that are required to control some strains of R. microplus ticks in different geographical regions. Nevertheless, it has limited or no efficacy against other tick species. These issues have stimulated research for additional tick protective antigens with critical functions in the tick. This chapter presents methodologies for the design and test of molecules as antigens against ticks. Considerations about different methods for the tick control compared to the immunological methods, the desirable characteristics for an anti-tick vaccine and the obstacles encountered for developing this kind of vaccines are discussed. Detailed methodologies for the establishment of a biological model to test new molecules as immunogens against ticks and to perform challenge trials with this model are presented. General considerations in the efficacy calculation for any anti-tick vaccine are also discussed. PMID:27076303
Koya, Vijay; Moayeri, Mahtab; Leppla, Stephen H.; Daniell, Henry
The currently available human vaccine for anthrax, derived from the culture supernatant of Bacillus anthracis, contains the protective antigen (PA) and traces of the lethal and edema factors, which may contribute to adverse side effects associated with this vaccine. Therefore, an effective expression system that can provide a clean, safe, and efficacious vaccine is required. In an effort to produce anthrax vaccine in large quantities and free of extraneous bacterial contaminants, PA was expre...
Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.
@@ Anew method of immunization was discovered in the early 1990s. Several research groups independently demonstrated that direct inoculation of DNA plasmids coding for a specific protein antigen could elicit immune responses against that antigen[1-4].Since in theory the mRNA molecules also have the potential to be translated into the protein antigen, this vaccination approach was officially named by WHO as the nucleic acid vaccination even though the term DNA vaccine has been used more commonly in the literature. This novel approach is considered the fourth generation of vaccines after live attenuated vaccines, killed or inactivated vaccines and recombinant protein based subunit vaccines.
McNeil, Hannah C; Jefferies, Johanna M C; Clarke, Stuart C
Worldwide bacterial meningitis accounts for more than one million cases and 135,000 deaths annually. Profound, lasting neurological complications occur in 9-25% of cases. This review confirms the greatest risk from bacterial meningitis is in early life in Malaysia. Much of the disease burden can be avoided by immunization, particularly against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Despite inclusion of the Hib vaccine in the National Immunisation Programme and the licensure of pneumococcal vaccines, these two species are the main contributors to bacterial meningitis in Malaysia, with Neisseria meningitidis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, causing a smaller proportion of disease. The high Hib prevalence may partly be due to dated, small-scale studies limiting the understanding of the current epidemiological situation. This highlights the need for larger, better quality surveillance from Malaysia to evaluate the success of Hib immunization and to help guide immunization policy for vaccines against S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis. PMID:25962101
MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan
With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vacc...
Osterhaus, Ab; Fouchier, Ron; Rimmelzwaan, Guus
Vaccination is the most cost-effective way to reduce the considerable disease burden of seasonal influenza. Although seasonal influenza vaccines are effective, their performance in the elderly and immunocompromised individuals would benefit from improvement. Major problems related to the development and production of pandemic influenza vaccines are response time and production capacity as well as vaccine efficacy and safety. Several improvements can be envisaged. Vaccine production technologi...
Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria
The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...
This podcast provides information about whooping cough and the recommendation that all preteens receive the Tdap vaccine when they are 11 or 12 to help protect them from this serious disease. Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Infectious and Respiratory Disease (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Disease (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPD). Date Released: 1/22/2015.
This podcast provides information about whooping cough and the recommendation that all children receive the DTaP vaccine, according to CDCâs recommended schedule, to help protect them from this serious disease. Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB). Date Released: 1/22/2015.
Astronomo, Rena D.; Burton, Dennis R.
The realm of carbohydrate vaccines has expanded far beyond the capsular polysaccharides of bacterial pathogens to include a diverse collection of targets representing nearly every biological kingdom. Recent technological advances in glycobiology and glycochemistry are paving the way for a new era in carbohydrate vaccine design enabling greater efficiency in the identification, synthesis and evaluation of unique glycan epitopes found on a plethora of pathogens and malignant cells. This article...
Klugman, Keith P.
Pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality in children in developing countries and is also the leading infectious cause of death in adults. The most important cause of pneumonia is the Gram-positive bacterial pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, also known as the pneumococcus. It has thus become the leading vaccine-preventable cause of death and is a successful and diverse human pathogen. The development of conjugate pneumococcal vaccines has made possible the prevention of pneumococcal disea...
..., Division of Bacterial, Parasitic and Allergenic Products, Office of Vaccines Research and Review, Center... disclosure would constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy (5 U.S.C. 552b(c)(6))....
Streptococcus iniae is a significant bacterial pathogen that causes hemorrhagic septicemia and meningoencephalitis in tilapia, hybrid striped bass, rainbow trout, olive flounder, yellowtail, barramundi and other species of cultured and wild fish worldwide. In tilapia production, vaccination of fry ...
Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. PMID:27474242
Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley
Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. PMID:25902360
... be updated.) Top of Page HPV-Cervarix (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine Some people should not get HPV vaccine or ... updated.) Top of Page HPV-Gardasil-9 (Human Papillomavirus) vaccine Some people should not get HPV vaccine. Anyone ...
Kumar, Goel Manish; Arun, Kumar; Bilas, Jain Ram; Ruchi, Jain; Pardeep, Khanna; Pradeep, Siwach
Worldwide, large proportion i.e., 37% of deaths due to diarrhea in young children is attributed to rotavirus. A monovalent P1A G1 vaccine and a pentavalent bovine-human reassortant vaccine human rotavirus vaccine had shown good clinical efficacy without any increase in intussusception among vaccine recipients. WHO recommends that the first dose of rotavirus vaccine should be administered to infants up to age of 6-15 weeks irrespective of the prior history of rotavirus infection and the maximum age for administering the last dose of the vaccine should be 32 weeks. Booster doses are not recommended. The current update reviews the issues related to rotavirus vaccines and their usages like milestones in the development of rotavirus vaccines, concerns regarding their efficacy and cost-effectiveness, immunity after natural infection, potential for changes in virus strains, current recommendations, post marketing surveillance, and future challenges and scope for further research regarding rotavirus vaccines. PMID:25145068
Pneumococci are the leading bacterial causes of respiratory tract infections, bacteremia and meningitis. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) are effective and safe in young children. Their introduction led to significant reductions of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), pneumonia, otitis media and antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal infections. Beyond these effects in the vaccinated age groups, there is a reduction in nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage and therefore in transmission. This in turn led to marked reductions in IPD and pneumonia in non-vaccinated age groups, particularly elderly adults as evidence of herd protection. Recently it was shown that the 13-valent PCV13 is effective and safe in adults leading to the age-independent recommendation of PCV13 in all persons with risk factors. PMID:27268445
Marana, Moonika H.; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob;
Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (AS) is the etiological agent of typical furunculosis in salmonid fish. The disease causes bacterial septicemia and is a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide, inducing high morbidity and mortality. In this study we vaccinated rainbow...... response against AS. Fourteen proteins were prepared in 3 different experimental subunit vaccine combinations and used to vaccinate rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. We tested the proteins for their ability to elicit antibody production and protection. Thus, fish were exposed to virulent...
Full Text Available Vaccination is a process that induces specific immune resistance to a bacterial or viral infectious disease. Vaccines have prevented several infectious diseases for many years, and are still being investigated. Till date, no preventive modality exists for periodontal disease and treatment rendered is palliative. The current treatment of periodontitis is non-specific and is centered on removal of supra and sub gingival plaque debridement. Periodontal disease has been positively related to life-threatening systemic diseases such as atherosclerosis and diabetes. The objective of periodontal vaccine is to identify the antigens involved in the destructive process of periodontitis against which antibodies would be evoked to exert protection.
Friedlander, Arthur M; Little, Stephen F
Anthrax, a disease of herbivores, only rarely infects humans. However, the threat of using Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent, to intentionally produce disease has been the impetus for development of next-generation vaccines. Two licensed vaccines have been available for human use for several decades. These are composed of acellular culture supernatants containing the protective antigen (PA) component of the anthrax toxins. In this review we summarize the various approaches used to develop improved vaccines. These efforts have included the use of PA with newer adjuvants and delivery systems, including bacterial and viral vectors and DNA vaccines. Attempts to broaden the protection afforded by PA-based vaccines have focused on adding other B. anthracis components, including spore and capsule antigens. PMID:19837282
... changes or ringing in the ears.Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for unusual ... visit CDC's website at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines. HPV Vaccine (Gardasil) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health ...
... changes or ringing in the ears. Like all vaccines, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for unusual ... gov/std/hpv and http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines HPV Vaccine (Cervarix) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health ...
... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases On this Page Protect Your ... American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Descriptions of Vaccine-preventable Child Diseases The following vaccine-preventable diseases, ...
... CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Current Vaccine Shortages & Delays Last Updated December 7, 2015 On ... schedule are included in this update. Chart of Vaccines* in Delay or Shortage Vaccines are listed in ...
... and adults - Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Diphtheria Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) See also: Healthcare Personnel Vaccination Recommendations [1 page] July 2008 Top of Page ...
Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Neumann, Lukas; Ohtani, Maki; Strøm, Helene Kragelund; Raida, Martin Kristian
The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infectio...
Harro, Janette M; Peters, Brian M.; O'May, Graeme A.; Archer, Nathan; Kerns, Patrick; Prabhakara, Ranjani; Shirtliff, Mark E
Vaccine development against pathogenic bacteria is an imperative initiative as bacteria are gaining resistance to current antimicrobial therapies and few novel antibiotics are being developed. Candidate antigens for vaccine development can be identified by a multitude of high-throughput technologies that were accelerated by access to complete genomes. While considerable success has been achieved in vaccine development against bacterial pathogens, many species with multiple virulence factors a...
Lynch, Joyce M.; Briles, David E.; Metzger, Dennis W.
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of respiratory tract infections, its main entry route being the nasal mucosa. The recent development of pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccines has led to a dramatic improvement in protection against invasive disease in infants and children, but these vaccines have been found to be only 50 to 60% protective against bacterial carriage. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of intranasal (i.n.) conjugate vaccine delivery using interleukin-...
Barbosa, Eudes; Aburjaile, Flavia F; Ramos, Rommel Tj;
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have made high-throughput sequencing available to medium- and small-size laboratories, culminating in a tidal wave of genomic information. The quantity of sequenced bacterial genomes has not only brought excitement to the field of genomics but also...... heightened expectations that NGS would boost antibacterial discovery and vaccine development. Although many possible drug and vaccine targets have been discovered, the success rate of genome-based analysis has remained below expectations. Furthermore, NGS has had consequences for genome quality, resulting...... in an exponential increase in draft (partial data) genome deposits in public databases. If no further interests are expressed for a particular bacterial genome, it is more likely that the sequencing of its genome will be limited to a draft stage, and the painstaking tasks of completing the sequencing of its genome...
Full Text Available The influence of immunomodulation on dynamics of early antigen specific response (antigen binding lymphocytes - ABL was studied in the experiment with rabbits immunization by herpes vaccine. Acceleration of appearance and disappearance of ABL after one-time immunization with herpes vaccine by introduction of licensed preparations of interleukin-1, interleukin-2, polyoxidonium and interferon inductor bacterial was revealed.
We replaced the MEQ gene from a bacterial artificial chromosome clone of Marek’s disease virus with gJ and gB genes from infectious laryngotracheitis virus. We will compare the efficacy of these vectored vaccines with commercial vaccines for Marek’s disease and infectious laryngotracheitis....
Schwameis, Michael; Buchtele, Nina; Wadowski, Patricia Pia; Schoergenhofer, Christian; Jilma, Bernd
Chikungunya virus has become a global health threat, spreading to the industrial world of Europe and the Americas; no treatment or prophylactic vaccine is available. Since the late 1960s much effort has been put into the development of a vaccine, and several heterogeneous strategies have already been explored. Only two candidates have recently qualified to enter clinical phase II trials, a chikungunya virus-like particle-based vaccine and a recombinant live attenuated measles virus-vectored vaccine. This review focuses on the current status of vaccine development against chikungunya virus in humans and discusses the diversity of immunization strategies, results of recent human trials and promising vaccine candidates. PMID:26554522
Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global hea...
Liu, Pei-Feng; Haake, Susan Kinder; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming
An abscess in a gum pocket, resulting from bacterial infection, is a common source of chronic halitosis. Although antibiotics are generally prescribed for abscesses, they require multiple treatments with risks of creating resistant bacterial strains. Here we develop a novel vaccine using ultraviolet-inactivated Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum), a representative oral bacterium for halitosis. A gum pocket model, established by continuous inoculation of F. nucleatum, was employed to valida...
Attenuvax® Measles Vaccine ... R-Vax® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... M-R® II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)
... flu is to get vaccinated each year. Flu Vaccination Why should people get vaccinated against the flu? ... Vaccine Benefits What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ...
Vannier, P; Cariolet, R
A study was undertaken of the protection induced by inactivated and live Aujeszky's disease virus vaccines. The vaccines were administered using a special device which, without the use of a needle, delivered the preparation intradermally. The trials were performed on 88 pigs which were vaccinated at the beginning of the fattening period both in experimental conditions and in pig herds. All the pigs were challenged at the end of the fattening period in isolation units. The results obtained were compared with those obtained using the same vaccines injected intramuscularly. It was shown that vaccination via the intradermal route induced good protection in the vaccinated animals and was similar to that conferred by live virus vaccine injected intramuscularly. The results, with the inactivated virus vaccine, were not so good when it was injected via the intradermal route. Studies with intradermal vaccination showed no local lesion or very small nodules strictly localized to the dermis. The results also confirmed that the effects of challenge exposure depended on the health status of animals prior to infection and show the necessity to use a synthetic value (delta G) to interpret the data and mainly to compare the results objectively. In fattening pigs this vaccination procedure is attractive because (i) less animal constraint is needed than would be for intramuscular injections, (ii) injection can be checked by the presence of a visible papula at the site of inoculation and, (iii) pigs can be vaccinated in the ham while they are feeding. Injection without a needle also contributes to avoiding bacterial contamination under practical farm conditions of vaccination. PMID:2554623
... Tdap= Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular Pertussis vaccine Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Vaccination Pronounced (per-TUS-iss) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Whooping cough â€” known medically as pertussis â€” is a ...
The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.
Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.
... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...
Engerix-B® ... a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis B?Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus.In ...
Sedova, E.; Shcherbinin, D.; Migunov, A.; Smirnov, Iu; Logunov, D.; Shmarov, M.; Tsybalova, L.; Naroditskiĭ, B.; O. Kiselev; Gintsburg, A.
This review covers the problems encountered in the construction and production of new recombinant influenza vaccines. New approaches to the development of influenza vaccines are investigated; they include reverse genetics methods, production of virus-like particles, and DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines. Such approaches as the delivery of foreign genes by DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines can preserve the native structure of antigens. Adenoviral vectors are a promising gene-delivery pla...
Midthun, K; Kapikian, A Z
Rotavirus vaccine development has focused on the delivery of live attenuated rotavirus strains by the oral route. The initial "Jennerian" approach involving bovine (RIT4237, WC3) or rhesus (RRV) rotavirus vaccine candidates showed that these vaccines were safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic but induced highly variable rates of protection against rotavirus diarrhea. The goal of a rotavirus vaccine is to prevent severe illness that can lead to dehydration in infants and young children in both...
Greenwood, Brian; Salisbury, David; Hill, Adrian V. S.
Vaccines have made a major contribution to global health in recent decades but they could do much more. In November 2011, a Royal Society discussion meeting, ‘New vaccines for global health’, was held in London to discuss the past contribution of vaccines to global health and to consider what more could be expected in the future. Papers presented at the meeting reviewed recent successes in the deployment of vaccines against major infections of childhood and the challenges faced in developing ...
Bozzo, Pina; Narducci, Andrea; Einarson, Adrienne
Question One of my patients is studying to become a dental hygienist. Owing to the program requirements, she received several vaccinations last week, including measles-mumps-rubella, varicella, and hepatitis B (HB) vaccines, as well as a tetanus booster. However, today a blood test confirmed that she is currently 6 weeks pregnant. What is known about the safety of these vaccines during pregnancy, and are there any general recommendations for vaccines for women who are planning to become pregn...
The concept of immunization was started in Japan in 1849 when Jenner’s cowpox vaccine seed was introduced, and the current immunization law was stipulated in 1948. There have been two turning points for amendments to the immunization law: the compensation remedy for vaccine-associated adverse events in 1976, and the concept of private vaccination in 1994. In 1992, the regional Court of Tokyo, not the Supreme Court, decided the governmental responsibility on vaccine-associated adverse events, ...
Vaccination is regarded as one of the biggest triumphs in the history of medicine. We are living in the most successful period of vaccine development. The accumulation of multidisciplinary knowledge and the investment of massive funding have enabled the development of vaccines against many infectious diseases as well as other diseases including malignant tumors. The paradigm of clinical vaccine evaluation and licensure has also been modernized based on scientific improvements and historical e...
Mitali M Shah
Full Text Available A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a specific disease. More than two centuries have passed since the first successful vaccine for smallpox was developed. We′ve come a long way since. Today′s vaccines are among the 21 st century′s most successful and cost-effective public health tools for preventing diseases.
Durbin, Anna P
Denvaxia is the first licensed vaccine for the prevention of dengue. It is a live vaccine developed using recombinant DNA technology. The vaccine is given as three doses over the course of a year and has the potential to prevent hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations each year. PMID:27368091
S. M. Kharit
Massive vaccination had proved its effective morbidity reduction. Today it is necessary to extend vaccination schedule, creation of selective, regional schedules based on epidemiological, clinical, economical substantiation. Development of vaccination needs the profound scientific research, modernization of adverse reaction observing system, betterment training system and awareness of population.
... in the same shot with other vaccines.Routine hepatitis B vaccination was recommended for some U.S. adults and children ... 95%, and by 75% in other age groups.Vaccination gives long-term protection from hepatitis B infection, possibly lifelong.
Santana, Violeta Fernández; Balbin, Yury Valdés; Calderón, Janoi Chang; Icart, Luis Peña; Verez-Bencomo, Vicente
Capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and lipopolysaccharides from bacteria are employed for the production of vaccines against human diseases. Initial development of CPS as a vaccine was followed by the development and introduction of conjugate polysaccharide-protein vaccines. The principles leading to both developments are reviewed.
Bacteria predate plants and animals by billions of years. Today, they are the world's smallest cells yet they represent the bulk of the world's biomass, and the main reservoir of nutrients for higher organisms. Most bacteria can move on their own, and the majority of motile bacteria are able to swim in viscous fluids using slender helical appendages called flagella. Low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics is at the heart of the ability of flagella to generate propulsion at the micron scale. In fact, fluid dynamic forces impact many aspects of bacteriology, ranging from the ability of cells to reorient and search their surroundings to their interactions within mechanically and chemically-complex environments. Using hydrodynamics as an organizing framework, we review the biomechanics of bacterial motility and look ahead to future challenges.
V. A. Liashenko
Abstract. The review article considers different variants of measles vaccine that may be classified into two groups, i.e., vaccines that do not contain viable measles virus, and attenuated measles vaccines which could be employed in unusual manner.The first group includes DNA-vaccines, recombinant vaccine strains encoding synthesis of measles hemagglutinin and fusion protein, as well as peptide vaccines containing molecular fragments of these proteins. The mentioned variants of vaccines were ...
Lin, Chyongchiou J; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Toback, Seth L; Rousculp, Matthew D; Raymund, Mahlon; Ambrose, Christopher S; Zimmerman, Richard K
This randomized cluster trial was designed to improve workplace influenza vaccination rates using enhanced advertising, choice of vaccine type (intranasal or injectable) and an incentive. Workers aged 18-49 years were surveyed immediately following vaccination to determine factors associated with vaccination behavior and choice. The questionnaire assessed attitudes, beliefs and social support for influenza vaccine, demographics, and historical, current, and intentional vaccination behavior. Of the 2389 vaccinees, 83.3% received injectable vaccine and 16.7% received intranasal vaccine. Factors associated with previous influenza vaccination were older age, female sex, higher education and greater support for injectable vaccine (all P<.02). Current influenza vaccination with intranasal vaccine vs. injectable vaccine was associated with higher education, the study interventions, greater support for the intranasal vaccine and nasal sprays, less support of injectable vaccine, more negative attitudes about influenza vaccine, and a greater likelihood of reporting that the individual would not have been vaccinated had only injectable vaccine been offered (all P<.01). Intentional vaccine choice was most highly associated with previous vaccination behavior (P<.001). A key to long term improvements in workplace vaccination is to encourage first time influenza vaccination through interventions that include incentives, publicity and vaccine choice. PMID:20638452
Rahmat Setya Adji
Full Text Available Anthrax is a bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis attacking both animal and human (zoonosis . The disease is normally associated with domestic livestock such as sheep, goats, and cattle, but humans are also infected due to exposure or comsuming infected animals . The control of anthrax in humans and animals involves developing a diagnostic method for B. anthracis detection and confirmation of anthrax, prevention by vaccines, and disease investigation . Rapid and more accurate diagnosis techniques for anthrax should be developed for improving the conventional method used in Indonesia . Vaccines are effective against anthrax . Current anthrax vaccine used in Indonesia is spores vaccine produced from a non-encapsulated, toxigenic. Sterne strain 34F2 of B. anthracis . The use of this vaccine occasionally causes local pain, necroses at the inoculation site, subcutaneous oedema and occasionally death of the animal . Several vaccines have been developed recently such as sub unit vaccine, anthrax vaccine absorbed (AVA, that contains a protective antigen (PA component of the anthrax toxin as the major protective immunogen and is usually used in humans. In endemic areas of anthrax, outbreaks still routinely occur almost yearly . Monitoring of the epidemiological patterns of the disease has to be carried out by field investigation .
Mohan, Teena; Verma, Priyanka; Rao, D Nageswara
The pure recombinant and synthetic antigens used in modern day vaccines are generally less immunogenic than older style live/attenuated and killed whole organism vaccines. One can improve the quality of vaccine production by incorporating immunomodulators or adjuvants with modified delivery vehicles viz. liposomes, immune stimulating complexes (ISCOMs), micro/nanospheres apart from alum, being used as gold standard. Adjuvants are used to augment the effect of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine, more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease. Adjuvants accomplish this task by mimicking specific sets of evolutionary conserved molecules which include lipopolysaccharides (LPS), components of bacterial cell wall, endocytosed nucleic acids such as dsRNA, ssDNA and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide containing DNA. This review provides information on various vaccine adjuvants and delivery vehicles being developed to date. From literature, it seems that the humoral immune responses have been observed for most adjuvants and delivery platforms while viral-vector, ISCOMs and Montanides have shown cytotoxic T-cell response in the clinical trials. MF59 and MPL® have elicited Th1 responses, and virus-like particles (VLPs), non-degradable nanoparticle and liposomes have also generated cellular immunity. Such vaccine components have also been evaluated for alternative routes of administration with clinical success reported for intranasal delivery of viral-vectors and proteosomes and oral delivery of VLP vaccines. PMID:24434331
Myrian Trotta; Juan Lahore; Nancy Cardoso; Osvaldo Melucci; María Catena; Mariano Pérez-Filgueira; Fernando Fernández; Alejandra Victoria Capozzo
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccination in Argentina is compulsory for most of the cattle population and conducted by certified veterinarians. This organized campaign may facilitate the controlled application of other vaccines against endemic diseases, provided immune responses against FMD are not hindered. There is no published information on the interference of immunity against FMD vaccines when applied together with a live bacterial vaccine. In this study we evaluated if the simultaneous ...
Mtui-Malamsha, Niwael Jesse
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a bovine bacterial disease of major economic importance in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccination has been recommended to control the disease in endemic areas such as the Maasai ecosystems of Kenya and Tanzania; however, the currently used live attenuated vaccine has been reported to have poor vaccine safety and efficacy. To compare standard (current) and an improved (buffered) version of the live CBPP-vaccine, several epidemiological studie...
Cross, Alan S
Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is an important initiator of sepsis, a clinical syndrome that is a leading cause of death in intensive care units. Vaccines directed against core LPS structures that are widely conserved among Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) have been developed for the treatment and/or prevention of sepsis. Killed whole bacterial vaccines (E. coli O111:B4, J5 [Rc chemotype] mutant and S. minnesota, Re chemotype) protected mice against experimental sepsis. Human J5 immune antisera reduced the mortality from GNB sepsis in a large controlled clinical trial; however, subsequent clinical studies with antiendotoxin antibodies did not demonstrate protective efficacy in sepsis. Multiple clinical studies have since demonstrated a correlation between the level of circulating antibodies to LPS core and morbidity and mortality in different clinical settings. We therefore developed a subunit vaccine by combining detoxified J5 LPS (J5 dLPS) with the outer membrane protein (OMP) from group B N. meningitidis. This vaccine was highly efficacious in experimental models of sepsis and progressed to phase 1 clinical trial. While well-tolerated, this vaccine induced only 3-4-fold increases in anti-J5 dLPS antibody. Addition of the TLR9 agonist, oligodeoxynucleotide with a CpG motif, as adjuvant to the vaccine increased antibody levels in mice and the vaccine/CpG combination will progress to phase 1 human study. Additional vaccines in which the core glycolipid was either conjugated to carrier protein or incorporated into liposomes have been developed, but have not progressed to clinical trial. Should an antiendotoxin vaccine become available, a new immunization strategy directed towards distinct populations at risk will be required. PMID:20593272
Benage, Matthew; Fraunfelder, Frederick W
All of the widely administered vaccines have been reported to cause uveitis. The ocular inflammation is usually temporary and resolves with topical ocular steroids. During a 26-year period, a total of 289 cases of vaccine-associated uveitis were reported to three adverse reaction reporting databases. Hepatitis B vaccine, either alone or administered with other vaccines, appears to be the leading offender. Clinicians are encouraged to report cases of vaccine- or drug-associated ocular adverse reactions to www.eyedrugregistry.com. PMID:27039491
Riedmann, Eva M.
GSK`s Synflorix: Highly effective at preventing invasive pneumococcal disease Positive phase 1 interim results for killed whole-virus HIV vaccine Therapeutic HBV vaccine drives immune responses in liver New tuberculosis vaccine candidate to enter the clinic Novartis receives positive CHMP opinion for MenB vaccine Bexsero New research points way to faster flu vaccines New Meth vaccine shows promise in animals RTS,S malaria vaccine reduces malaria by approximately one-third in African infants
Uhl, Elizabeth W.; Martin, Marcus; Coleman, James K.; Yamamoto, Janet K
Advances in vaccine technology are occurring in the molecular techniques used to develop vaccines and in the assessment of vaccine efficacy, allowing more complete characterization of vaccine-induced immunity correlating to protection. FIV vaccine development has closely mirrored and occasionally surpassed the development of HIV-1 vaccine, leading to first licensed technology. This review will discuss technological advances in vaccine designs, challenge infection assessment, and characterizat...
Berens-Riha, N; Alberer, M; Löscher, T
Vaccinations are a prominent part of health preparations before international travel. They can avoid or significantly reduce the risk of numerous infectious diseases. Until recently, vaccination against yellow fever was the only obligatory vaccination. However, according to updated international health regulations, other vaccinations and prophylactic measures may be required at entry from certain countries. For all routine vaccinations as recommended in Germany, necessary revaccination and catch-up of missed vaccinations should be administered before travel. At most destinations the risk of infection is higher than in Germany. Hepatitis A vaccine is generally recommended for travelers to areas of increased risk, polio vaccine for all destinations where eradication is not yet confirmed (Asia and Africa). The indications for other travel vaccines must take into consideration travel destination and itinerary, type and duration of travel, individual risk of exposure as well as the epidemiology of the disease to be prevented. Several vaccines of potential interest for travel medicine, e.g., new vaccines against malaria and dengue fever, are under development. PMID:24519704
Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf
Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based on recombinant allergen-derivatives, peptides and allergen genes have emerged through molecular allergen characterization. The molecular allergy vaccines allow sophisticated targeting of the immune system and may eliminate side effects which so far have limited the use of traditional allergen extract-based vaccines. Successful clinical trials performed with the new vaccines indicate that broad allergy vaccination is on the horizon and may help to control the allergy pandemic. PMID:22521141
Martín Montañés, Carlos; Gicquel, Brigitte
The current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine, bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), is a live vaccine used worldwide, as it protects against severe forms of the disease, saving thousands of lives every year, but its efficacy against pulmonary forms of TB, responsible for transmission of the diseases, is variable. For more than 80 years now no new TB vaccines have been successfully developed. Over the last decade the effort of the scientific community has resulted in the design and construction of promising vaccine candidates. The goal is to develop a new generation of vaccines effective against respiratory forms of the disease. We will focus this review on new prophylactic vaccine candidates that aim to prevent TB diseases. Two are the main strategies used to improve the immunity conferred by the current BCG vaccine, by boosting it with new subunit vaccines, and a second strategy is focused on the construction of new more effective live vaccines, capable to replace the current BCG and to be used as prime vaccines. After rigorous preclinical studies in different animal models new TB vaccine candidates enter in clinical trials in humans. First, a small Phase I for safety followed by immunological evaluation in Phase II trials and finally evaluated in large population Phase III efficacy trials in endemic countries. At present BCG prime and boost with different subunit vaccine candidates are the more advanced assessed in Phase II. Two prime vaccines (based on recombinant BCG) have been successfully evaluated for safety in Phase I trials. A short number of live attenuated vaccines are in advance preclinical studies and the candidates ready to enter Phase I safety trials are produced under current good manufacturing practices. PMID:21420568
Full Text Available Nanoparticles have demonstrated unique advantages in enhancing immunotherapy potency and have drawn increasing interest in developing safe and effective vaccine formulations. Recent technological advancement has led to the discovery and development of cell membrane-coated nanoparticles, which combine the rich functionalities of cellular membranes and the engineering flexibility of synthetic nanomaterials. This new class of biomimetic nanoparticles has inspired novel vaccine design strategies with strong potential for modulating antibacterial immunity. This article will review recent progress on using cell membrane-coated nanoparticles for antibacterial vaccination. Specifically, two major development strategies will be discussed, namely (i vaccination against virulence factors through bacterial toxin sequestration; and (ii vaccination against pathogens through mimicking bacterial antigen presentation.
Angsantikul, Pavimol; Thamphiwatana, Soracha; Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang
Nanoparticles have demonstrated unique advantages in enhancing immunotherapy potency and have drawn increasing interest in developing safe and effective vaccine formulations. Recent technological advancement has led to the discovery and development of cell membrane-coated nanoparticles, which combine the rich functionalities of cellular membranes and the engineering flexibility of synthetic nanomaterials. This new class of biomimetic nanoparticles has inspired novel vaccine design strategies with strong potential for modulating antibacterial immunity. This article will review recent progress on using cell membrane-coated nanoparticles for antibacterial vaccination. Specifically, two major development strategies will be discussed, namely (i) vaccination against virulence factors through bacterial toxin sequestration; and (ii) vaccination against pathogens through mimicking bacterial antigen presentation. PMID:26457720
Rosenthal, Joseph A; Chen, Linxiao; Baker, Jenny L; Putnam, David; DeLisa, Matthew P
Vaccine adjuvants are an essential component of vaccine design, helping to generate immunity to pathogen antigens in the absence of infection. Recent advances in nanoscale engineering have created a new class of particulate bionanotechnology that uses biomimicry to better integrate adjuvant and antigen. These pathogen-like particles, or PLPs, can come from a variety of sources, ranging from fully synthetic platforms to biologically derived, self-assembling systems. By employing molecularly engineered targeting and stimulation of key immune cells, recent studies utilizing PLPs as vaccine delivery platforms have shown great promise against high-impact, unsolved vaccine targets ranging from bacterial and viral pathogens to cancer and addiction. PMID:24832075
... flu viruses. What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu vaccine works can ... of age and older). How are benefits of vaccination measured? Public health researchers measure how well flu ...
Wong, Yun-Ling; Sampson, Samantha; Germishuizen, Willem Andreas; Goonesekera, Sunali; Caponetti, Giovanni; Sadoff, Jerry; Bloom, Barry R; Edwards, David
With the increasing incidence of tuberculosis and drug resistant disease in developing countries due to HIV/AIDS, there is a need for vaccines that are more effective than the present bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. We demonstrate that BCG vaccine can be dried without traditional freezing and maintained with remarkable refrigerated and room-temperature stability for months through spray drying. Studies with a model Mycobacterium (Mycobacterium smegmatis) revealed that by removing salts and cryoprotectant (e.g., glycerol) from bacterial suspensions, the significant osmotic pressures that are normally produced on bacterial membranes through droplet drying can be reduced sufficiently to minimize loss of viability on drying by up to 2 orders of magnitude. By placing the bacteria in a matrix of leucine, high-yield, free-flowing, "vial-fillable" powders of bacteria (including M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG) can be produced. These powders show relatively minor losses of activity after maintenance at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C up to and beyond 4 months. Comparisons with lyophilized material prepared both with the same formulation and with a commercial formulation reveal that the spray-dried BCG has better overall viability on drying. PMID:17299039
Full Text Available Abstract Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The control of this infection in cattle is crucial: infected ruminants can indeed encounter reproductive disorders and represent the most important source of human infection. In the field, vaccination is currently advised in infected herds but the comparative effectiveness of different vaccination protocols has never been explored: the duration of the vaccination programme and the category of animals to be vaccinated have to be determined. Our objective was to compare, by simulation, the effectiveness over 10 years of three different vaccination strategies in a recently infected dairy cattle herd. A stochastic individual-based epidemic model coupled with a model of herd demography was developed to simulate three temporal outputs (shedder prevalence, environmental bacterial load and number of abortions and to calculate the extinction rate of the infection. For all strategies, the temporal outputs were predicted to strongly decrease with time at least in the first years of vaccination. However, vaccinating only three years was predicted inadequate to stabilize these dynamic outputs at a low level. Vaccination of both cows and heifers was predicted as being slightly more effective than vaccinating heifers only. Although the simulated extinction rate of the infection was high for both scenarios, the outputs decreased slower when only heifers were vaccinated. Our findings shed new light on vaccination effectiveness related to Q fever. Moreover, the model can be further modified for simulating and assessing various Q fever control strategies such as environmental and hygienic measures.
Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry
The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory
Bricker, B J; Halling, S. M.
Because the brucellosis eradication program uses slaughter and quarantine as control measures, it would benefit from faster methods of bacterial identification. Distinguishing vaccine strains from strains that cause infections among vaccinated herds in the field is essential. To accomplish this, our PCR-based, species-specific assay (B. J. Bricker and S. M. Halling, J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:2660-2666, 1994) was updated to identify Brucella abortus vaccine strains S19 and RB51. Three new oligonu...
The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year. Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...
Sedova, E S; Shcherbinin, D N; Migunov, A I; Smirnov, Iu A; Logunov, D Iu; Shmarov, M M; Tsybalova, L M; Naroditskiĭ, B S; Kiselev, O I; Gintsburg, A L
This review covers the problems encountered in the construction and production of new recombinant influenza vaccines. New approaches to the development of influenza vaccines are investigated; they include reverse genetics methods, production of virus-like particles, and DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines. Such approaches as the delivery of foreign genes by DNA- and viral vector-based vaccines can preserve the native structure of antigens. Adenoviral vectors are a promising gene-delivery platform for a variety of genetic vaccines. Adenoviruses can efficiently penetrate the human organism through mucosal epithelium, thus providing long-term antigen persistence and induction of the innate immune response. This review provides an overview of the practicability of the production of new recombinant influenza cross-protective vaccines on the basis of adenoviral vectors expressing hemagglutinin genes of different influenza strains. PMID:23346377
Arrazola, M Pilar; Serrano, Almudena; López-Vélez, Rogelio
Traveler's vaccination is one of the key strategies for the prevention of infectious diseases during international travel. The risk of acquiring an infectious disease is determined in each case by the characteristics of the traveler and the travel, so the pre-departure medical advice of the traveler must be individualized. The World Health Organization classifies travelerś vaccines into three groups. - Vaccines for routine use in national immunization programs: Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, polio, measles-mumps-rubella, tetanus-diphtheria-whooping a cough, and chickenpox. - Vaccinations required by law in certain countries before to enter them: yellow fever, meningococcal disease and poliomyelitis. - Vaccines recommended depending on the circumstances: cholera, japanese encephalitis, tick-borne encephalitis, meningococcal disease, typhoid fever, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, rabies and BCG. This review is intended to introduce the reader to the field of international vaccination. PMID:26920587
Vaccines against leptospirosis followed within a year of the first isolation of Leptospira, with the first use of a killed whole cell bacterin vaccine in guinea pigs published in 1916. Since then, bacterin vaccines have been used in humans, cattle, swine, and dogs and remain the only vaccines licensed at the present time. The immunity elicited is restricted to serovars with related lipopolysaccharide (LPS) antigen. Likewise, vaccines based on LPS antigens have clearly demonstrated protection in animal models, which is also at best serogroup specific. The advent of leptospiral genome sequences has allowed a reverse vaccinology approach for vaccine development. However, the use of inadequate challenge doses and inappropriate statistical analysis invalidates many of the claims of protection with recombinant proteins. PMID:25388138
... Preventing and treating prostate cancer spread to bones Vaccine treatment for prostate cancer Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) is ... less advanced prostate cancer. Possible side effects of vaccine treatment Side effects from the vaccine tend to ...
Cybulski, Robert J.; Sanz, Patrick; O'Brien, Alison D.
The biological attack conducted through the U.S. postal system in 2001 broadened the threat posed by anthrax from one pertinent mainly to soldiers on the battlefield to one understood to exist throughout our society. The expansion of the threatened population placed greater emphasis on the reexamination of how we vaccinate against Bacillus anthracis. The currently-licensed Anthrax Vaccine, Adsorbed (AVA) and Anthrax Vaccine, Precipitated (AVP) are capable of generating a protective immune res...
Gomez Lorenzo, Margarita M.; Fenton, Matthew J.
Vaccination is the primary strategy for prevention and control of influenza. The surface hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the influenza virus contains two structural elements (head and stalk) that differ in their potential utility as vaccine targets. The head of the HA protein is the primary target of antibodies that confer protective immunity to influenza viruses. The underlying health status, age, and gene polymorphisms of vaccine recipients and, just as importantly, the extent of the antigeni...
Goldman, Ran D.; Koren, Gideon
QUESTION: A 27-year-old patient of mine recently learned she is pregnant. She took the influenza vaccine offered at work when she was 7 weeks pregnant. Is her fetus at risk of malformations? ANSWER: No evidence indicates that killed influenza vaccine is teratogenic, even if given during the first trimester. Since 1996, Health Canada's Centre for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that pregnant women in their second and third trimesters be vaccinated. This should not be interpreted...
Linhart, Birgit; Valenta, Rudolf
Vaccines aim to establish or strengthen immune responses but are also effective for the treatment of allergy. The latter is surprising because allergy represents a hyper-immune response based on immunoglobulin E production against harmless environmental antigens, i.e., allergens. Nevertheless, vaccination with allergens, termed allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only disease-modifying therapy of allergy with long-lasting effects. New forms of allergy diagnosis and allergy vaccines based o...
Kaaijk, Patricia; Luytjes, Willem; Rots, Nynke Y.
The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants worldwide. Also persons with heart/lung disease or an immunodeficiency disorder, and the elderly are at increased risk for severe LRI upon RSV infection. Although there is at present no licensed RSV vaccine available, it is a priority target for several vaccine developers. For the implementation of a future RSV vaccination within national immunization schemes, various strategies can be...
Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar
The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25749248
Turner, G. S.
Samples of Fermi, Semple, modified Semple, Duck embryo and tissue culture rabies vaccine were inoculated by different routes and in different doses into rabbits, mice and hamsters. The vaccines induced neither detectable interferon nor immediate protection against lethal challenge with CVS rabies virus. Under similar conditions, high but transient levels of interferon were induced in control animals of the same species with the polynucleotide complex Poly I.C. Hamsters but not mice were protected by Poly I.C.-induced interferon. No autointerference by vaccine with challenge virus was established. Vaccine-induced protection in mice was directly related to immune response. PMID:4506993
Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup;
DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... with these modifications, it is likely that the primary use of DNA vaccines may be as primers for viral-vectored vaccines, rather than as single agents. This review discusses the approaches used to enhance DNA vaccine immunogenicity, with a primary focus on fusion strategies that enhance antigen presentation....
Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)
Berlanda Scorza, Francesco; Tsvetnitsky, Vadim; Donnelly, John J
Influenza virus causes acute upper and lower respiratory infections and is the most likely, among known pathogens, to cause a large epidemic in humans. Influenza virus mutates rapidly, enabling it to evade natural and vaccine-induced immunity. Furthermore, influenza viruses can cross from animals to humans, generating novel, potentially pandemic strains. Currently available influenza vaccines induce a strain specific response and may be ineffective against new influenza viruses. The difficulty in predicting circulating strains has frequently resulted in mismatch between the annual vaccine and circulating viruses. Low-resource countries remain mostly unprotected against seasonal influenza and are particularly vulnerable to future pandemics, in part, because investments in vaccine manufacturing and stockpiling are concentrated in high-resource countries. Antibodies that target conserved sites in the hemagglutinin stalk have been isolated from humans and shown to confer protection in animal models, suggesting that broadly protective immunity may be possible. Several innovative influenza vaccine candidates are currently in preclinical or early clinical development. New technologies include adjuvants, synthetic peptides, virus-like particles (VLPs), DNA vectors, messenger RNA, viral vectors, and attenuated or inactivated influenza viruses. Other approaches target the conserved exposed epitope of the surface exposed membrane matrix protein M2e. Well-conserved influenza proteins, such as nucleoprotein and matrix protein, are mainly targeted for developing strong cross-protective T cell responses. With multiple vaccine candidates moving along the testing and development pipeline, the field is steadily moving toward a product that is more potent, durable, and broadly protective than previously licensed vaccines. PMID:27038130
Bacterial glycosyltransferases (GT) often synthesize the same glycan linkages as mammalian GT; yet, they usually have very little sequence identity. Nevertheless, enzymatic properties, folding, substrate specificities, and catalytic mechanisms of these enzyme proteins may have significant similarity. Thus, bacterial GT can be utilized for the enzymatic synthesis of both bacterial and mammalian types of complex glycan structures. A comparison is made here between mammalian and bacterial enzymes that synthesize epitopes found in mammalian glycoproteins, and those found in the O antigens of Gram-negative bacteria. These epitopes include Thomsen–Friedenreich (TF or T) antigen, blood group O, A, and B, type 1 and 2 chains, Lewis antigens, sialylated and fucosylated structures, and polysialic acids. Many different approaches can be taken to investigate the substrate binding and catalytic mechanisms of GT, including crystal structure analyses, mutations, comparison of amino acid sequences, NMR, and mass spectrometry. Knowledge of the protein structures and functions helps to design GT for specific glycan synthesis and to develop inhibitors. The goals are to develop new strategies to reduce bacterial virulence and to synthesize vaccines and other biologically active glycan structures. PMID:25368613
The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines. PMID:26668751
... Prevnar 13®) 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPSV) (Pneumovax®) Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate (Hib) Tetravalent (A, C, Y, W-135) ... CDC immunization guidelines for routine meningococcal vaccination. The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is not routinely recommended for those ...
Reimann, Ilona; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin
Chimeric pestiviruses have shown great potential as marker vaccine candidates against pestiviral infections. Exemplarily, we describe here the construction and testing of the most promising classical swine fever vaccine candidate "CP7_E2alf" in detail. The description is focused on classical cloning technologies in combination with reverse genetics. PMID:26458840
million of lambs were vaccinated for the last 7-8 years. These vaccines are successfully used for calves, sucking-pigs disease prophylaxis. We are going to receive a patent for two of the above mentioned vaccines. Using radiative biotechnology we can make vaccines against the most bacterial infections, contaminants of which grow well on firm medium
Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B
Lassa fever remains a serious challenge to public health in West Africa threatening both local residents in rural areas and those who serve them, particularly medical care providers. Given the ecology of the rodent host and conditions in the endemic area, a vaccine is mandatory for control. The challenge is to overcome the scientific, political and economic obstacles to producing a human use vaccine candidate. There are some scientific issues to resolve. It is known that the G-protein confers protection but we do not know its duration. If the N-protein is also included there may be a better duration of protection but it is unclear whether the N-protein as a vaccine may possibly enhance the infection. The original vaccinia vector must be replaced by new vectors, chimeras or by delivering DNA in some format. A live vaccine is attractive because it can confer protection in a single shot. A killed vaccine is more stable, particularly for distribution in the tropics but usually requires repeated shots. For practical reasons a live vaccine format should probably be pursued, which could then be combined with a yellow fever vaccine, using the same cold chains, since this disease occupies the same endemic areas in West Africa. Lassa vaccine initiatives have suffered from a lack of funding in the past but bioterrorism has brought new resources to Lassa virus science. Adequate funding and applications of new vaccine technologies give hope that we may soon see a vaccine in clinical trials. However, the difficulty of conducting trials in endemic areas and lack of political stability remain serious problems. PMID:15056044
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess influenza vaccination status and influenza vaccination practices of family physicians in Quebec. DESIGN: Mail survey of a random sample of 1000 family physicians. SETTING: Family practices in the province of Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: Of 1000 Quebec family physicians sent questionnaires, 550 responded. After excluding physicians who worked only in institutions, had no patients older than 65 years, or did clinical work less than 20% of the time, 379 respondents were eligible for the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Vaccination status of family physicians in 1996 and professional practices based on six clinical and administrative activities pertaining to influenza vaccination. RESULTS: Prevalence of vaccination was 35.5% (95% confidence interval 30.8% to 40.4% among responding physicians and was higher among those 60 years and older, those with a chronic condition, and those perceiving high peer pressure to get vaccinated. Most respondents frequently assessed the current influenza vaccination status of their patients, risk factors for influenza-related complications, and contraindications to the vaccine. They also frequently provided education about influenza and its vaccine, recommended vaccination, and administered the vaccine. Only a few reported assessing prior influenza vaccinations or recording vaccination status regularly. Finally, vaccinated physicians recommended the vaccine more frequently to their patients than unvaccinated physicians did. CONCLUSION: Promotion programs focusing on peer influence could increase vaccination of family physicians. This could in turn improve vaccination coverage of elderly patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43 and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72. The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination.
... CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Mumps - Vaccine Q&A For Parents Is there a vaccine to prevent mumps? Yes. Two doses of mumps- ... 12 years old. UPDATED July 2010 Is the vaccine effective/does it work? One dose of mumps ...
... of nail infection is often caused by a bacterial infection but may also be caused by herpes, a ... to a type of yeast called Candida , or bacterial infection, and this may lead to abnormal nail growth. ...
Aubert, M; Aumaître, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadière, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M-A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J-L; Strady, C
The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) ; which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010 ; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve - but for how long ? - the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55 %, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine
Bøje, Sarah; Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Erneholm, Karin; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Jungersen, Gregers; Andersen, Peter; Follmann, Frank
Chlamydia is the most widespread sexually transmitted bacterial disease and a prophylactic vaccine is highly needed. Ideally, this vaccine is required to induce a combined response of Th1 cell-mediated immune (CMI) response in concert with neutralizing antibodies. Using a novel Göttingen minipig......F infectivity in vitro. Both Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 and UV-SvD/CAF01 vaccination protected pigs against a vaginal C. trachomatis SvD infection. In conclusion, the Hirep1+CTH93/CAF01 vaccine proved highly immunogenic and equally protective as UV-SvD/CAF01 showing promise for the development of a subunit vaccine...
Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria
Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will...
Saxena, Manvendra; Van, Thi Thu Hao; Baird, Fiona J; Coloe, Peter J; Smooker, Peter M
Over the last century, the successful attenuation of multiple bacterial and viral pathogens has led to an effective, robust and safe form of vaccination. Recently, these vaccines have been evaluated as delivery vectors for heterologous antigens, as a means of simultaneous vaccination against two pathogens. The general consensus from published studies is that these vaccine vectors have the potential to be both safe and efficacious. However, some of the commonly employed vectors, for example Salmonella and adenovirus, often have pre-existing immune responses in the host and this has the potential to modify the subsequent immune response to a vectored antigen. This review examines the literature on this topic, and concludes that for bacterial vectors there can in fact, in some cases, be an enhancement in immunogenicity, typically humoral, while for viral vectors pre-existing immunity is a hindrance for subsequent induction of cell-mediated responses. PMID:23175507
Full Text Available DNA, the essential part of the life is making way in to new vaccine technology. Plasmid vectors from the bacteria have revolutionized the world of vaccine design by its new technology DNA vaccines. Small portion of the nucleotides from the pathogen held under the control of promoter in a plasmid vector can be used as a vaccine. DNA vaccines alleviate the odds of the other vaccines by having good hold on both the faces of the immunity. The key to the success of DNA vaccine lies in the route of administration of the vaccine which can be done in many ways. Prime boost strategy is an approach used to boost the action of DNA vaccine. To date there are only four DNA vaccine available in the market. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 228-232
Kling, Heather M; Nau, Gerard J; Ross, Ted M; Evans, Thomas G; Chakraborty, Krishnendu; Empey, Kerry M; Flynn, JoAnne L
Pulmonary diseases and infections are among the top contributors to human morbidity and mortality worldwide, and despite the successful history of vaccines and antimicrobial therapeutics, infectious disease still presents a significant threat to human health. Effective vaccines are frequently unavailable in developing countries, and successful vaccines have yet to be developed for major global maladies, such as tuberculosis. Furthermore, antibiotic resistance poses a growing threat to human health. The "Challenges and Future in Vaccines, Drug Development, and Immunomodulatory Therapy" session of the 2013 Pittsburgh International Lung Conference highlighted several recent and current studies related to treatment and prevention of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, highly pathogenic influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis. Research presented here focused on novel antimicrobial therapies, new vaccines that are either in development or currently in clinical trials, and the potential for immunomodulatory therapies. These studies are making important contributions to the areas of microbiology, virology, and immunology related to pulmonary diseases and infections and are paving the way for improvements in the efficacy of vaccines and antimicrobials. PMID:25148426
Full Text Available In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1, pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in Pubmed data base mainly of the 2000 until 2009 and the words were used is pregnancy, flu vaccination, complications of the flu vaccination at the period of pregnancy. Results: Morbidity during periods of seasonal influenza in pregnant women is increased, while in times of pandemic are recorded fatalities. Based on this, specific recommendations have been made for a flu vaccination in pregnant women, both from the CDC, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in the U.S. and other official bodies like the World Health Organization, according to that the constitution of influenza vaccine in the pregnancy is necessary, given that the probability of morbidity in this period is increased at 10%. Conclusions: The studies so far to influenza vaccination in pregnancy, do not record serious complications for pregnant women and infants. However more research needs to be done on the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy.
Lode, H M; Stahlmann, R
Vaccinations are the most successful and cost-effective measures for prevention of infections. Important pathogens of respiratory tract infections (e.g. influenza viruses and pneumococci) can be effectively treated by vaccinations. The seasonal trivalent and recently now quadrivalent influenza vaccines include antigens from influenza A and B type viruses, which have to be modified annually oriented to the circulating strains. The effective protection by influenza vaccination varies considerably (too short protection time, mismatch); therefore, administration late in the year is the best approach (November/December). Two pneumococcal vaccines are recommended for adults: the over 30-year-old 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and the 4-year-old 13-valent conjugate vaccine (PCV13). The immunological and clinical efficacy of PPV23 is controversially discussed; however, a moderate reduction of invasive pneumococcal infections is widely accepted. The PCV13 stimulates a T-cell response and has currently demonstrated its clinical efficacy in an impressive study (CAPiTA). The problem of PCV13 is the relatively limited coverage of only 47% of the currently circulating invasive pneumococcal serotypes. PMID:26330051
Vaccines are among the most effective public health interventions used today. Population based vaccination programmes are mainly aimed at protecting against common childhood diseases, but other population groups are also the targets for different recommendations. The objectives of this thesis were to assess coverage and reasons for non-vaccination for three of vaccination programmes recommended by the National Board of Health and Welfare: influenza vaccine for the elderly, ...
Ford, John A; Mahgoub, Hamid; Shankar, Ananda Giri
The United Kingdom has had a long history with vaccine acceptability dating back to Edward Jenner’s theory of small pox vaccination. More recently, the discredited, Wakefield study published in 1998 continues to cause MMR skepticism. In pregnant women pertussis vaccination has been considerably more successful than influenza vaccination. Influenza vaccine uptake in healthcare workers remains poor. The media, politicians, and health reforms have contributed to the mixed coverage for these vacc...
Mary Kate Hart
Full Text Available The development of vaccines for microorganisms and bacterial toxins with the potential to be used as biowarfare and bioterrorism agents is an important component of the US biodefense program. DVC is developing two vaccines, one against inhalational exposure to botulinum neurotoxins A1 and B1 and a second for Yersinia pestis, with the ultimate goal of licensure by the FDA under the Animal Rule. Progress has been made in all technical areas, including manufacturing, nonclinical, and clinical development and testing of the vaccines, and in assay development. The current status of development of these vaccines, and remaining challenges are described in this chapter.
Skoble, Justin; Beaber, John W.; Gao, Yi; Lovchik, Julie A.; Sower, Laurie E.; Liu, Weiqun; Luckett, William; Johnny W. Peterson; Calendar, Richard; Daniel A Portnoy; Lyons, C. Rick; Dubensky, Thomas W
Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. We have developed a novel whole-bacterial-cell anthrax vaccine utilizing B. anthracis that is killed but metabolically active (KBMA). Vaccine strains that are asporogenic and nucleotide excision repair deficient were engineered by deleting the spoIIE and uvrAB genes, rendering B. anthracis extremely sensitive to photochemical inactivation with S-59 psoralen and UV light. We also introduced point mutations into the lef and cya genes, which ...
Tin Tin Htar, Myint; Madhava, Harish; Balmer, Paul; Christopoulou, Dina; Menegas, Damianos; Bonnet, Eric
Introduction Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis. Young children, the elderly and those who are immunocompromised or who suffer from chronic diseases have the highest risk of developing pneumococcal meningitis. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed in 2000 in the US and in 2001 in Europe. Methods A literature search was performed in PubMed to identify studies assessing the impact of routine childhood PCV7 vaccination on pneumococcal di...
Yang, Ya-ping; Li, Yu-hong; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Bi, Lan; Fan, Ming-wen
Aim: To prepare a clinical-grade anti-caries DNA vaccine pGJA-P/VAX and explore its immune effect and protective efficacy against a cariogenic bacterial challenge. Methods: A large-scale industrial production process was developed under Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) by combining and optimizing common unit operations such as alkaline lysis, precipitation, endotoxin removal and column chromatography. Quality controls of the purified bulk and final lyophilized vaccine were conducted accordi...
Roe, E. A.; Jones, R J
Klebsiella vaccine was prepared from strains of Klebsiella aerogenes with capsular types K1, K36, K44 and K Cross (a type which cross-reacts in vitro with sera from many klebsiella capsular types). The vaccine was extracted by dialysis and ultrafiltration from capsular material released during growth of the bacteria in a five-day batch culture. Mice given one dose of vaccine from K1a (1.0 microgram/mouse) survived lethal intraperitoneal challenge of 11/11 homologous klebsiella strains four da...
Miller, Louis H.; Howard, Russell J.; Carter, Richard; Good, Michael F.; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.
Malaria exacts a toll of disease to people in the Tropics that seems incomprehensible to those only familiar with medicine and human health in the developed world. The methods of molecular biology, immunology, and cell biology are now being used to develop an antimalarial vaccine. The Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria have many stages in their life cycle. Each stage is antigenically distinct and potentially could be interrupted by different vaccines. However, achieving complete protection by vaccination may require a better understanding of the complexities of B- and T-cell priming in natural infections and the development of an appropriate adjuvant for use in humans.
Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...
Romanò, Luisa; Paladini, Sara; Galli, Cristina; Raimondo, Giovanni; Pollicino, Teresa; Zanetti, Alessandro R
Hepatitis B virus is a worldwide leading cause of acute and chronic liver disease including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Effective vaccines have been available since the early '80s and vaccination has proved highly successful in reducing the disease burden, the development of the carrier state and the HB-related morbidity and mortality in the countries where vaccination has been implemented. Neutralizing (protective) antibodies (anti-HBs) induced by vaccination are targeted largely towards the amino acid hydrophilic region, referred to as the common a determinant which is present on the outer protein coat or surface antigen (HBsAg), spanning amino acids 124-149. This provides protection against all HBV genotypes (from A to H) and is responsible for the broad immunity afforded by hepatitis B vaccination. Thus, alterations of residues within this region of the surface antigen may determine conformational changes that can allow replication of the mutated HBV in vaccinated people. An important mutation in the surface antigen region was identified in Italy some 25 years ago in infants born to HBsAg carrier mothers who developed breakthrough infections despite having received HBIG and vaccine at birth. This virus had a point mutation from guanosine to adenosine at nucleotide position 587, resulting in aa substitution from glycine (G) to arginine (R) at position 145 in the a determinant. Since the G145R substitution alters the projecting loop (aa 139-147) of the a determinant, the neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination are no longer able to recognize the mutated epitope. Beside G145R, other S-gene mutations potentially able to evade neutralizing anti-HBs and infect vaccinated people have been described worldwide. In addition, the emergence of Pol mutants associated with resistance to treatment with nucleos(t)ide analogues can select viruses with crucial changes in the overlapping S-gene, potentially able to alter the S protein immunoreactivity. Thus
Alphavirus vectors based on Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus have been widely applied for vaccine development. Naked RNA replicons, recombinant viral particles, and layered DNA vectors have been subjected to immunization in preclinical animal models with antigens for viral targets and tumor antigens. Moreover, a limited number of clinical trials have been conducted in humans. Vaccination with alphavirus vectors has demonstrated efficient immune responses and has showed protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus and tumor cells, respectively. Moreover, vaccines have been developed against alphaviruses causing epidemics such as Chikungunya virus. PMID:27076308
Hansen, Morten; Met, O; Svane, I M;
Cancer vaccines designed to re-calibrate the existing host-tumour interaction, tipping the balance from tumor acceptance towards tumor control holds huge potential to complement traditional cancer therapies. In general, limited success has been achieved with vaccines composed of tumor...... in vitro migration via autocrine receptor-mediated endocytosis of CCR7. In the current review, we discuss optimal design of DC maturation focused on pre-clinical as well as clinical results from standard and polarized dendritic cell based cancer vaccines....
Kasper Rømer Villumsen
Full Text Available The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infection with the pathogenic enterobacteria Yersinia ruckeri O1 biotype 1 the causative agent of enteric redmouth disease (ERM. Rainbow trout were orally vaccinated with AquaVac ERM Oral (MERCK Animal Health or an experimental vaccine bacterin of Y. ruckeri O1. Both vaccines were tested with and without a booster vaccination four months post the primary vaccination. Furthermore, two groups of positive controls were included, one group receiving the experimental oral vaccine in a 50 times higher dose, and the other group receiving a single dose administered anally in order to bypass the stomach. Each group was bath challenged with 6.3 × 10(8 CFU/ml Y. ruckeri, six months post the primary vaccination. The challenge induced significant mortality in all the infected groups except for the groups vaccinated anally with a single dose or orally with the high dose of bacterin. Both of these groups had 100% survival. These results show that a low dose of Y. ruckeri bacterin induces full protection when the bacterin is administered anally. Oral vaccination also induces full protection, however, at a dose 50 times higher than if the fish were to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the orally fed antigen is digested in the stomach before it reaches the second segment of the intestine where it can be taken up as immunogenic antigens and presented to lymphocytes.
Full Text Available Muhamed-Kheir Taha, Ala-Eddine DeghmaneInstitut Pasteur, Unit of Invasive Bacterial Infections and National Reference Center for Meningococci, Paris, FranceAbstract: Meningococcal disease is a life-threatening invasive infection (mainly septicemia and meningitis that occurs as epidemic or sporadic cases. The causative agent, Neisseria meningitidis or meningococcus, is a capsulated Gram-negative bacterium. Current vaccines are prepared from the capsular polysaccharides (that also determine serogroups and are available against strains of serogroups A, C, Y, and W-135 that show variable distribution worldwide. Plain polysaccharide vaccines were first used and subsequently conjugate vaccines with enhanced immunogenicity were introduced. The capsular polysaccharide of meningococcal serogroup B is poorly immunogenic due to similarity to the human neural cells adhesion molecule. Tailor-made, strain-specific vaccines have been developed to control localized and clonal outbreaks due to meningococci of serogroup B but no “universal” vaccine is yet available. This unmet medical need was recently overcome using several subcapsular proteins to allow broad range coverage of strains and to reduce the risk of escape variants due to genetic diversity of the meningococcus. Several vaccines are under development that target major or minor surface proteins. One vaccine (Bexsero®; Novartis, under registration, is a multicomponent recombinant vaccine that showed an acceptable safety profile and covers around 80% of the currently circulating serogroup B isolates. However, its reactogenicity in infants seems to be high and the long term persistence of the immune response needs to be determined. Its activity on carriage, and therefore transmission, is under evaluation. Indirect protection is expected through restricting strain circulation and acquisition. This vaccine covers the circulating strains according to the presence of the targeted antigens in the
Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Monturiol-Gross, Laura; Naylor, Claire; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Flieger, Antje
Bacterial sphingomyelinases and phospholipases are a heterogeneous group of esterases which are usually surface associated or secreted by a wide variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These enzymes hydrolyze sphingomyelin and glycerophospholipids, respectively, generating products identical to the ones produced by eukaryotic enzymes which play crucial roles in distinct physiological processes, including membrane dynamics, cellular signaling, migration, growth, and death. Several bacterial sphingomyelinases and phospholipases are essential for virulence of extracellular, facultative, or obligate intracellular pathogens, as these enzymes contribute to phagosomal escape or phagosomal maturation avoidance, favoring tissue colonization, infection establishment and progression, or immune response evasion. This work presents a classification proposal for bacterial sphingomyelinases and phospholipases that considers not only their enzymatic activities but also their structural aspects. An overview of the main physiopathological activities is provided for each enzyme type, as are examples in which inactivation of a sphingomyelinase- or a phospholipase-encoding gene impairs the virulence of a pathogen. The identification of sphingomyelinases and phospholipases important for bacterial pathogenesis and the development of inhibitors for these enzymes could generate candidate vaccines and therapeutic agents, which will diminish the impacts of the associated human and animal diseases. PMID:27307578
Mascola, John R.
One obstacle to realizing the promise of viral vectors for vaccine delivery is pre-existing immunity to such vectors. An adroit application of structure-based design points to a way around that problem.
... Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines On This Page What are human papillomaviruses? Which cancers are caused by HPV? Who gets HPV infections? Can HPV infections be ...
Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...
Tenivac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Why get vaccinated?Tetanus and diphtheria are very serious diseases. They are rare in the United States today, but people who do become ...
Tenivac® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids) ... Why get vaccinated?Tetanus and diphtheria are very serious diseases. They are rare in the United States today, but people who do become infected often have severe ...
... is packaged. Monosodium glutamate ( MSG ) and 2-phenoxy-ethanol which are used as stabilizers in a few ... mercury, aluminum, formaldehyde, human serum albumin, antibiotics, and yeast proteins in vaccines have not been found to ...
WHO is now celebrating more than 30 years of freedom from smallpox. What was originally seen as a victory over an ancient scourge can now be viewed as an epidemiologically driven programme to overcome governmental inertia and under-achievement in delivering an off-patent vaccine. Though efforts are accelerating global vaccine use, a plea is made to push the world's governments to commit to universal childhood vaccination via a proposed new programme. The latter should begin by exploiting a long list of ever more affordable off-patent vaccines, vaccines that can virtually eliminate the bulk of the world's current vaccine-preventable disease burden. PMID:19699330
Angela S Clem
From a literature review of the current literature, this article provides an introduction to vaccine immunology including a primer on the components of the immune system, passive vs. active immunization, the mechanism(s) by which immunizations stimulate(s) immunity, and the types of vaccines available. Both the innate and adaptive immune subsystems are necessary to provide an effective immune response to an immunization. Further, effective immunizations must induce long-term stimulation of bo...
Rotavirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide and infects almost all children in the first 5 years of life with severe dehydrating gastroenteritis occurring primarily among children 4 to 36 months of age Rotavirus causes an estimated 600 000 deaths and more than 2 million hospitalizations each year A tetravalent rhesus human reassortant rotavirus vaccine Rotashield was licensed in 1998 for routine immunization of infants in the United States However the vaccine was subsequentl...
Kristin L Moffitt; Malley, Richard
Currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines are based on the generation of antibodies to the pneumococcal polysaccharide, of which there are more than 90 different types. While these vaccines are highly effective against the serotypes included, their high cost and limited serotype coverage limits their usefulness worldwide, particularly in low resources areas. Thus alternative or adjunctive options are being actively pursued. This review will present these various approaches, including variation...
Luke, Catherine J.; Subbarao, Kanta
Recent outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Asia and associated human infections have led to a heightened level of awareness and preparation for a possible influenza pandemic. Vaccination is the best option by which spread of a pandemic virus could be prevented and severity of disease reduced. Production of live attenuated and inactivated vaccine seed viruses against avian influenza viruses, which have the potential to cause pandemics, and their testing in preclinical studies and...
Reperant, Leslie A.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.
Influenza virus infections yearly cause high morbidity and mortality burdens in humans, and the development of a new influenza pandemic continues to threaten mankind as a Damoclean sword. Influenza vaccines have been produced by using egg-based virus growth and passaging techniques that were developed more than 60 years ago, following the identification of influenza A virus as an etiological agent of seasonal influenza. These vaccines aimed mainly at eliciting neutralizing antibodies targetin...
Gärtner, Barbara C.; de Meyer, Tim
Public health vaccination guidelines cannot be easily transferred to elite athletes. An enhanced benefit from preventing even mild diseases is obvious but stronger interference from otherwise minor side effects has to be considered as well. Thus, special vaccination guidelines for adult elite athletes are required. In most of them, protection should be strived for against tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis, influenza, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps and varicella. When living or travelin...
Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.
Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It ...
Meningococcal disease presenting primarily as meningococcemia and meningitis continues to be a devastating problem around the world In the past 200 years several meningococcal epidemics have been noted in Europe Africa Asia and the United States Annually 500 000 cases of invasive meningococcal disease occur still worldwide of which 8805;50 000 result in death Therefore vaccine development has been undertaken in earnest for the prevention of this disease Polysaccharide vaccines have been avail...
Adjuvant is originated from the Latin word "adjuvare" which means "help" in English to enhance the immunological responses when given together with antigens. The beginning of adjuvant was mineral oil which enhanced the immune response when it was given with inactivated Salmonella typhimurium. Aluminium salt was used to precipitate diphtheria toxoid and increased level of antibody response was demonstrated when administered with alum-precipitated antigens. Since 1930, aluminium salt has been used as DTaP (diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis vaccine) adjuvant. Many candidates were tested for adjuvant activity but only aluminum salt is allowed to use for human vaccines. New adjuvant MF59, oil-in-water emulsion type, was developed for influenza vaccine for elderly (Fluad) and series of AS adjuvant are used for hepatitis B, pandemic flue, and human papiloma virus vaccines. Oil-adjuvanted influenza pandemic vaccines induced higher antibody response than alum-adjuvanted vaccine with higher incidence of adverse events, especially for local reactions. Alum-adjuvanted whole virion inactivated H5N1 vaccine was developed in Japan, and it induced relatively well immune responses in adults. When it applied for children, febrile reaction was noted in approximately 60% of the subjects, with higher antibodies. Recent investigation on innate immunity demonstrates that adjuvant activity is initiated from the stimulation on innate immunity and/or inflammasome, resulting in cytokine induction and antigen uptake by monocytes and macrophages. The probable reason for high incidence of febrile reaction should be investigated to develop a safe and effective influenza vaccine. PMID:22129866
Ching-Min Wang; Shou-Chien Chen; Kow-Tong Chen
Background: Rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide and of diarrheal deaths of infants and children in developing countries. The huge burden of childhood rotavirus-related diarrhea in the world continues to drive the remarkable pace of vaccine development. Data sources: Research articles were searched using terms "rotavirus" and "rotavirus vaccine" in MEDLINE and PubMed. Articles not published in the English language, articles without abstracts, and opinion articles were excluded from the review. After preliminary screening, all articles were reviewed and synthesized to provide an overview of current vaccines and vaccination programs. Results: In this review of the global rotavirus vaccines and vaccination programs, the principles of rotavirus vaccine development and the efficacy of the currently licensed vaccines from both developed and developing countries were summarized. Conclusions: Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in children in both developed and developing countries. Rotavirus vaccination is a cost-effective measure to prevent rotavirus diarrhea.
Besnard, Lise; Fabre, Virginie; Fettig, Michael; Gousseinov, Elina; Kawakami, Yasuhiro; Laroudie, Nicolas; Scanlan, Claire; Pattnaik, Priyabrata
Vaccines are derived from a variety of sources including tissue extracts, bacterial cells, virus particles, recombinant mammalian, yeast and insect cell produced proteins and nucleic acids. The most common method of vaccine production is based on an initial fermentation process followed by purification. Production of vaccines is a complex process involving many different steps and processes. Selection of the appropriate purification method is critical to achieving desired purity of the final product. Clarification of vaccines is a critical step that strongly impacts product recovery and subsequent downstream purification. There are several technologies that can be applied for vaccine clarification. Selection of a harvesting method and equipment depends on the type of cells, product being harvested, and properties of the process fluids. These techniques include membrane filtration (microfiltration, tangential-flow filtration), centrifugation, and depth filtration (normal flow filtration). Historically vaccine harvest clarification was usually achieved by centrifugation followed by depth filtration. Recently membrane based technologies have gained prominence in vaccine clarification. The increasing use of single-use technologies in upstream processes necessitated a shift in harvest strategies. This review offers a comprehensive view on different membrane based technologies and their application in vaccine clarification, outlines the challenges involved and presents the current state of best practices in the clarification of vaccines. PMID:26657051
Ellis, J A; Gow, S P; Waldner, C L; Shields, S; Wappel, S; Bowers, A; Lacoste, S; Xu, Z; Ball, E
In order to determine the comparative efficacy of vaccines administered intranasally or orally to protect puppies from disease subsequent to experimental infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica (Bb), a randomized controlled trial was performed using 48 approximately 8-week-old specific pathogen free, Bb naive Beagle puppies. Puppies were randomized into three groups and administered vaccines containing Bb intranasally or orally, or a placebo intranasally. Twenty-one days later, all dogs were challenge exposed via aerosol administration of Bb. Clinical signs, nasal bacterial shedding and immune responses were monitored for 28 days after challenge. Intranasally vaccinated puppies had significantly lower rates of coughing, nasal discharge, retching and sneezing (i.e. were less sick clinically) than control puppies. The distinction between the orally vaccinated puppies and the control puppies was less consistent. The orally vaccinated puppies had less coughing and less retching than the control puppies, but nasal discharge and sneezing did not differ from control animals. Orally vaccinated puppies had higher rates of coughing, nasal discharge, retching and sneezing than the intranasally vaccinated puppies. Although both intranasal and oral Bb vaccines stimulated immune responses associated with disease sparing following Bb infection, the intranasal route of delivery conferred superior clinical outcomes. The observed difference in clinical efficacy suggests the need to question the rationale for the use of currently available orally administered Bb vaccines. PMID:27256028
Full Text Available Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits.
Nicol, A F; Andrade, C V; Russomano, F B; Rodrigues, L L S; Oliveira, N S; Provance, D W
Controversy still exists over whether the benefits of the available HPV vaccines outweigh the risks and this has suppressed uptake of the HPV vaccines in comparison to other vaccines. Concerns about HPV vaccine safety have led some physicians, healthcare officials and parents to withhold the recommended vaccination from the target population. The most common reason for not administering the prophylactic HPV vaccines are concerns over adverse effects. The aim of this review is the assessment of peer-reviewed scientific data related to measurable outcomes from the use of HPV vaccines throughout the world with focused attention on the potential adverse effects. We found that the majority of studies continue to suggest a positive risk-benefit from vaccination against HPV, with minimal documented adverse effects, which is consistent with other vaccines. However, much of the published scientific data regarding the safety of HPV vaccines appears to originate from within the financially competitive HPV vaccine market. We advocate a more independent monitoring system for vaccine immunogenicity and adverse effects to address potential conflicts of interest with regular systematic literature reviews by qualified individuals to vigilantly assess and communicate adverse effects associated with HPV vaccination. Finally, our evaluation suggests that an expanded use of HPV vaccine into more diverse populations, particularly those living in low-resource settings, would provide numerous health and social benefits. PMID:27074168
Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene;
. ruckeri bacteria are need in order to obtain significantly increased immunity against the disease. These results suggest that a high amount of the vaccine is digested in the stomach of the rainbow trout and therefore did not reach the intestine as immunogenic antigens. The project is still ongoing......The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate in many years. Recently both M-cells and dendritic cells have been found in fish and it is therefore likely that antigens can be taken up from the intestine and induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish...
Kopecko, Dennis J; Sieber, Heike; Ures, Jose A; Fürer, Andreas; Schlup, Jacqueline; Knof, Ulrich; Collioud, Andre; Xu, Deqi; Colburn, Kevin; Dietrich, Guido
The attenuated live bacterial vaccine strain Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Ty21a is the main constituent of Vivotif, the only licensed oral vaccine against typhoid fever. The strain was developed in the 1970s by chemical mutagenesis. In the course of this mutagenesis, a number of mutations were introduced into the vaccine strain. Characterisation of the vaccine strain during development as well as release of master- and working seed lots (MSL and WSL) and commercial batches is based on phenotypic assays assessing microbiological and biochemical characteristics of Ty21a. In the current study, we have analysed by DNA sequencing the specific mutations originally correlated with the attenuation of strain Ty21a. These data demonstrate the stability of these mutations for MSLs and WSLs of Ty21a produced between 1980 and 2005. Finally, we have confirmed the correlation of these genetic mutations with the expected phenotypic attenuations for the seed lots used in vaccine manufacture over 25 years. PMID:19121604
Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Neumann, Lukas; Otani, Maki;
is administered anally. Oral vaccination also induces full protection, however, at a dose 50 times higher than if the fish were to be vaccinated anally. This indicates that much of the orally fed antigen is digested in the stomach before it reaches the second segment of the intestine where it can be taken up......The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce...... included, one group receiving the experimental oral vaccine in a 50 times higher dose, and the other group receiving a single dose administered anally in order to bypass the stomach. Each group was bath challenged with 6.3×108 CFU/ml Y. ruckeri, six months post the primary vaccination. The challenge...
Murakami, Tomoaki; Muhammad, Naeem; Inoshima, Yasuo; Yanai, Tokuma; Goryo, Masanobu; Ishiguro, Naotaka
Avian AA amyloidosis is commonly observed in adult birds afflicted with bacterial infections or chronic inflammatory disorders. Experimental AA amyloidosis in birds can be induced by repeated inflammatory stimulation, such as injection with casein or vaccination with oil-emulsified bacterins. However, the transmission of amyloidosis among avian species has not been studied well to date. In the present study, we confirm the potential induction of avian AA amyloidosis by inoculation of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccine or Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccine. To determine the transmission of chicken AA amyloidosis among white hens, we induced experimental AA amyloidosis in vaccinated chickens by intravenous or oral administration of chicken AA fibrils. Amyloid deposits were observed in chickens injected with SE and inoculated with chicken AA fibrils intravenously (21/26: 81%) and orally (8/12: 67%). These results suggest that chicken AA amyloidosis can be induced by vaccinations, and may be transmitted among like species by oral administration. PMID:23548152
Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Cervical and other anogenital cancers, cervical and anal intraepithelial neoplasia, genital warts, and recurrent respiratory papillomatosis are HPV associated diseases. Prophylactic HPV vaccines are composed of HPV L1 capsid protein that self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs when expressed in recombinant systems. Two types of prophylactic vaccines are designed as a bivalent vaccine to protect against high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 and a quadrivalent vaccine designed to protect against HPV 16 and 18, and low-risk, genital wart-causing HPV 6 and 11. Proof-of-principle trials have suggested that intramuscular injections of VLPs result in strong adaptive immune responses that are capable of neutralizing subsequent natural infections. Recent research on the safety and efficacy of candidate prophylactic vaccines against HPV have shown very promising results with nearly 100% efficacy in preventing the development of persistent infections and cervical precancerous lesions in vaccinated individuals.
Ridpath, Julia F
Providing acquired immune protection against infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) is challenging due to the heterogeneity that exists among BVDV strains and the ability of the virus to infect the fetus and establish persistent infections. Both modified live and killed vaccines have been shown to be efficacious under controlled conditions. Both humoral and cellular immune responses are protective. Following natural infection or vaccination with a modified live vaccine, the majority of the B cell response (as measured by serum antibodies) is directed against the viral proteins E2 and NS2/3, with minor responses against the Erns and E1 proteins. Vaccination with killed vaccines results in serum antibodies directed mainly at the E2 protein. It appears that the major neutralizing epitopes are conformational and are located within the N-terminal half of the E2 protein. While it is thought that the E2 and NS2/3 proteins induce protective T cell responses, these epitopes have not been mapped. Prevention of fetal infections requires T and B cell response levels that approach sterilizing immunity. The heterogeneity that exists among circulating BVDV strains, works against establishing such immunity. Vaccination, while not 100% effective in every individual animal, is effective at the herd level. PMID:22883306
Ye, Zhenlong; Li, Zhong; Jin, Huajun; Qian, Qijun
Cancer is one of the major leading death causes of diseases. Prevention and treatment of cancer is an important way to decrease the incidence of tumorigenesis and prolong patients' lives. Subversive achievements on cancer immunotherapy have recently been paid much attention after many failures in basic and clinical researches. Based on deep analysis of genomics and proteomics of tumor antigens, a variety of cancer vaccines targeting tumor antigens have been tested in preclinical and human clinical trials. Many therapeutic cancer vaccines alone or combination with other conventional treatments for cancer obtained spectacular efficacy, indicating the tremendously potential application in clinic. With the illustration of underlying mechanisms of cancer immune regulation, valid, controllable, and persistent cancer vaccines will play important roles in cancer treatment, survival extension and relapse and cancer prevention. This chapter mainly summarizes the recent progresses and developments on cancer vaccine research and clinical application, thus exploring the existing obstacles in cancer vaccine research and promoting the efficacy of cancer vaccine. PMID:27240458
Barbosa, Eudes Gv; Aburjaile, Flavia F; Ramos, Rommel Tj; Carneiro, Adriana R; Le Loir, Yves; Baumbach, Jan; Miyoshi, Anderson; Silva, Artur; Azevedo, Vasco
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have made high-throughput sequencing available to medium- and small-size laboratories, culminating in a tidal wave of genomic information. The quantity of sequenced bacterial genomes has not only brought excitement to the field of genomics but also heightened expectations that NGS would boost antibacterial discovery and vaccine development. Although many possible drug and vaccine targets have been discovered, the success rate of genome-based analysis has remained below expectations. Furthermore, NGS has had consequences for genome quality, resulting in an exponential increase in draft (partial data) genome deposits in public databases. If no further interests are expressed for a particular bacterial genome, it is more likely that the sequencing of its genome will be limited to a draft stage, and the painstaking tasks of completing the sequencing of its genome and annotation will not be undertaken. It is important to know what is lost when we settle for a draft genome and to determine the "scientific value" of a newly sequenced genome. This review addresses the expected impact of newly sequenced genomes on antibacterial discovery and vaccinology. Also, it discusses the factors that could be leading to the increase in the number of draft deposits and the consequent loss of relevant biological information. PMID:24921006
Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald
Opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections of the lower respiratory tract, most commonly those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii, remain the major causes of mortality in those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bacterial respiratory pathogens most prevalent in those infected with HIV, other than M. tuberculosis, represent the primary focus of the current review with particular emphasis on the pneumococcus, the leading cause of mortality due to HIV infection in the developed world. Additional themes include (1) risk factors; (2) the predisposing effects of HIV-mediated suppression on pulmonary host defenses, possibly intensified by smoking; (3) clinical and laboratory diagnosis, encompassing assessment of disease severity and outcome; and (4) antibiotic therapy. The final section addresses current recommendations with respect to pneumococcal immunization in the context of HIV infection, including an overview of the rationale underpinning the current "prime-boost" immunization strategy based on sequential administration of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23. PMID:26974299
Eudes; GV; Barbosa; Flavia; F; Aburjaile; Rommel; TJ; Ramos; Adriana; R; Carneiro; Yves; Le; Loir; Jan; Baumbach; Anderson; Miyoshi; Artur; Silva; Vasco; Azevedo
Next-generation sequencing(NGS) technologies have made high-throughput sequencing available to medium- and small-size laboratories, culminating in a tidal wave of genomic information. The quantity of sequenced bacterial genomes has not only brought excitement to the field of genomics but also heightened expectations that NGS would boost antibacterial discovery and vaccine development. Although many possible drug and vaccine targets have been discovered, the success rate of genome-based analysis has remained below expectations. Furthermore, NGS has had consequences for genome quality, resulting in an exponential increase in draft(partial data) genome deposits in public databases. If no further interests are expressed for a particular bacterial genome, it is more likely that the sequencing of its genome will be limited to a draft stage, and the painstaking tasks of completing the sequencing of its genome and annotation will not be undertaken. It is important to know what is lost when we settle for a draft genome and to determine the "scientific value" of a newly sequenced genome. This review addresses the expected impact of newly sequenced genomes on antibacterial discovery and vaccinology. Also, it discusses the factors that could be leading to the increase in the number of draft deposits and the consequent loss of relevant biological information.
Vaccinations for Adults with Hepatitis C Infection This table shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...
Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...
Rahmat Setya Adji; Lily Natalia
Anthrax is a bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis attacking both animal and human (zoonosis) . The disease is normally associated with domestic livestock such as sheep, goats, and cattle, but humans are also infected due to exposure or comsuming infected animals . The control of anthrax in humans and animals involves developing a diagnostic method for B. anthracis detection and confirmation of anthrax, prevention by vaccines, and disease investigation . Rapid and more accurate diagn...
The development of vaccines directed against polysaccharide capsules of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and N. meningitidis have been of great importance in preventing potentially fatal infections. Bacterial capsular polysaccharides are T-cell-independent antigens that induce specific antibody response characterized by IgM immunoglobulins, with a very low IgG class switched response and lack of capability of inducing a booster response. The inability of pure polysaccharides to induce sustained i...
Stenler, Sofia; Blomberg, Pontus; Smith, Ci Edvard
While DNA vaccination using plasmid vectors is highly attractive, there is a need for further vector optimization regarding safety, stability, and efficiency. In this commentary, we review the minicircle vector (MC), which is an entity devoid of plasmid bacterial sequences, as an alternative to the traditional plasmid construct. The commentary highlights the recent discovery by Stenler et al. (2014) that the small size of an MC enables improved resistance to the shearing forces associated wit...
Meunier, Marine; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Hirchaud, Edouard; Parra, Alberto; Chemaly, Marianne; Dory, Daniel
Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria’s main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for thi...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pseudorabies Vaccine. 113.318 Section... Virus Vaccines § 113.318 Pseudorabies Vaccine. Pseudorabies Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing... be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be prepared from...
Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger
-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial......Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...
The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace ...
Fiorentino, M A; Campos, E; Cravero, S; Arese, A; Paolicchi, F; Campero, C; Rossetti, O
Brucella abortus M1-luc is a mutant strain derived from S19 vaccine strain in which most of bp26 sequence has been replaced by the luciferase coding gene. Strain I2 is a double mutant derived from M1-luc in which most of omp19 has been deleted without introduction of any genetic markers. In BALB/c mice, M1-luc presented equivalent performance to S19 regarding persistence, splenomegaly and protection against challenge. Interestingly, I2 was more attenuated than S19, with no reduction of protection against challenge. In order to evaluate the potential for vaccine use of these strains in the natural host, four groups of 15 heifers, 6-month old, were either non-vaccinated or vaccinated with S19, M1-luc or I2. To at reached 17-month old, heifers were synchronized with two doses of PGF2alpha and received natural service during 60 days with two bulls. Pregnant heifers were challenged at approximately six gestation months with virulent B. abortus S2308. Blood samples post-challenge of heifers were collected for serologic test as well as specimens of aborted fetuses and premature calves for bacterial isolation and histopathological analyses. Protection levels against abortion were 78.6% for S19, 81.8% for M1-luc and 45.5% for I2, compared to the 25% that did not abort from the non-vaccinated group. These results indicate that in bovines BP26 had no influence in protective capacity of S19, correlating with the results obtained in mice. However, contrarily to what was previously observed in mice, lack of expression of Omp19 rendered in less protection capacity of S19 in the natural host. PMID:18565697
Hu, Mingming; Zhang, Yanhe; Xie, Fang; Li, Gang; Li, Jianjun; Si, Wei; Liu, Siguo; Hu, Shouping; Zhang, Zhuo; Shen, Nan; Wang, Chunlai
Commercial bacterins for Glässer's disease are widely used for the prevention of this disease caused by Haemophilus parasuis; however, the protective efficacy varies depending on the strain and serovar. Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty bacterial envelopes that, unlike classic bacterins, suffer no denaturing steps during their production. These properties may lead to superior protection. In this study, a BG vaccine generated from the Haemophilus parasuis serovar 5 reference strain Nagasaki was...
Porter, John R.; And Others
Describes an effective laboratory method for demonstrating bacterial flagella that utilizes the Proteus mirabilis organism and a special harvesting technique. Includes safety considerations for the laboratory exercise. (MDH)
MacDonald, Noni E
The SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy concluded that vaccine hesitancy refers to delay in acceptance or refusal of vaccination despite availability of vaccination services. Vaccine hesitancy is complex and context specific, varying across time, place and vaccines. It is influenced by factors such as complacency, convenience and confidence. The Working Group retained the term 'vaccine' rather than 'vaccination' hesitancy, although the latter more correctly implies the broader range of immunization concerns, as vaccine hesitancy is the more commonly used term. While high levels of hesitancy lead to low vaccine demand, low levels of hesitancy do not necessarily mean high vaccine demand. The Vaccine Hesitancy Determinants Matrix displays the factors influencing the behavioral decision to accept, delay or reject some or all vaccines under three categories: contextual, individual and group, and vaccine/vaccination-specific influences. PMID:25896383
... autism in children. In 2004 the Institute of Medicine reviewed many studies looking into this theory and... the vaccine. 5. What are the risks from inactivated influenza vaccine? A vaccine, like any medicine... palsy) that can lead to breathing or swallowing problems. Anyone with a weakened immune system....
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu...
... trial participation by people of all races/ethnicities, genders and socioeconomic backgrounds. • Support vaccine volunteers and/or ... preventive HIV vaccines. These include leading universities, biotechnology companies, pharmaceutical firms and government agencies such as NIAID. • ...
Educational Objective: At the conclusion of this presentation, the participant will know the current status of veterinary tuberculosis vaccine research and development, and understand the challenges which remain for the future introduction of tuberculosis vaccines intended for wildlife and livestock...
... and click "GO" or visit Healthmap Vaccine Finder . Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... critical for people with health conditions such as liver disease. If you have chronic liver disease, talk ...
... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs ... Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ189, October 2015 PDF Format The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is influenza (the ...
... Resources News Newsletters Events Measles Vaccination: Who Needs It? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccine Measles ... it is eliminated from the body. Who Needs It? Children Children should get 2 doses of MMR ...
This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...
Proctor, R A
Bacterial vaccines have made dramatic impacts upon morbidity and mortality caused by a number of common pathogens, but a vaccine to prevent Staphylococcus aureus infections has proven to be illusive. With successful bacterial vaccines, the organisms are all part of the transient flora, whereas, S. aureus is part of the normal human flora. This means that S. aureus has had a prolonged time to adapt to the host milieu and its defences. The failure of several staphylococcal antigens to protect humans from infection in vaccine clinical trials using active or passive immunisation has stimulated a re-examination of the fundamental assumptions about staphylococcal immunity in humans vs. animals, especially rodents. This has spurred an active debate about the appropriate models for vaccine development and an examination of our current understanding of the protective immunity in humans. A major factor in the development of previous bacterial vaccines was a biomarker that predicted human protection, e.g., antibodies to tetanus toxoid or to pneumococcal polysaccharide. While antibodies against a number of staphylococcal antigens have proven to be an excellent biomarker for protection in rodents, these have not been translated to human infections. Thus, while much work remains, there is a growing consensus that T-cell immunity plays an important role in protecting humans. Moreover, the presence of anti-staphylococcal toxin antibodies correlates with reduced disease severity in humans. The most important recent advances concerning potential biomarkers, and the role of pre-existing immune status of vaccines in vaccine-associated mortality are considered in this review. PMID:26629971
Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia
Biodefense vaccines are developed against a diverse group of pathogens. Vaccines were developed for some of these pathogens a long time ago but they are facing new challenges to move beyond the old manufacturing technologies. New vaccines to be developed against other pathogens have to determine whether to follow traditional vaccination strategies or to seek new approaches. Advances in basic immunology and recombinant DNA technology have fundamentally transformed the process of formulating a ...
Malik, SS; Gupta, MC; Braich, JS
Malaria, one of the deadliest infectious diseases, affects millions of people worldwide including India. As an addition to chemoprophylaxis and other antimalarial interventions malaria vaccine is under extensive research since decades. The vaccine development is more difficult to predict than drug development and presents a unique challenge as there has never before been a vaccine effective against a parasite. Effective malaria vaccine could help eliminate and eradicate malaria. There are cur...
Jarnail Singh Braich; Surinder Singh Malik
Malaria is one of the deadliest infectious diseases that affects millions of people worldwide including India. As an addition to chemoprophylaxis and other antimalarial interventions malaria vaccine is under extensive research since decades. The vaccine development is more difficult to predict than drug development and presents a unique challenge as already there has been no vaccine effective against a parasite. Effective malaria vaccine could help eliminate and eradicate malaria; there are c...
Greenberg, Harry B.; Estes, Mary K.
Rotaviruses cause life-threatening gastroenteritis in children worldwide; the enormous disease burden has focused efforts to develop vaccines and led to the discovery of novel mechanisms of gastrointestinal virus pathogenesis and host responses to infection. Two live-attenuated vaccines for gastroenteritis (Rotateq and Rotarix) have been licensed in many countries. This review summarizes the latest data on these vaccines, their effectiveness and challenges to global vaccination. Recent insigh...
Meunier, Marine; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Chemaly, Marianne
Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria's main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens. PMID:27413761
Riddle, Mark S; Guerry, Patricia
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading causes of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with a number of sequelae, including Guillain-Barre Syndrome, reactive arthritis, irritable bowel syndrome and growth stunting/malnutrition. Vaccine development against C. jejuni is complicated by its antigenic diversity, a lack of small animal models, and a poor understanding of the bacterium's pathogenesis. Vaccine approaches have been limited to recombinant proteins, none of which have advanced beyond Phase I testing. Genomic analyses have revealed the presence of a polysaccharide capsule on C. jejuni. Given the success of capsule-conjugate vaccines for other mucosal pathogens of global importance, efforts to evaluate this established approach for C. jejuni are also being pursued. A prototypical capsule-conjugate vaccine has demonstrated efficacy against diarrheal disease in non-human primates and is currently in Phase I testing. In addition to proof of concept studies, more data on the global prevalence of capsular types, and a better understanding of the acute and chronic consequences of C. jejuni are needed to inform investments for a globally relevant vaccine. PMID:26973064
Meunier, Marine; Guyard-Nicodème, Muriel; Hirchaud, Edouard; Parra, Alberto; Chemaly, Marianne; Dory, Daniel
Campylobacteriosis is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne gastroenteritis affecting humans in the European Union. Human cases are mainly due to Campylobacter jejuni or Campylobacter coli, and contamination is associated with the handling and/or consumption of poultry meat. In fact, poultry constitutes the bacteria's main reservoir. A promising way of decreasing the incidence of campylobacteriosis in humans would be to decrease avian colonization. Poultry vaccination is of potential for this purpose. However, despite many studies, there is currently no vaccine available on the market to reduce the intestinal Campylobacter load in chickens. It is essential to identify and characterize new vaccine antigens. This study applied the reverse vaccinology approach to detect new vaccine candidates. The main criteria used to select immune proteins were localization, antigenicity, and number of B-epitopes. Fourteen proteins were identified as potential vaccine antigens. In vitro and in vivo experiments now need to be performed to validate the immune and protective power of these newly identified antigens. PMID:27413761
Full Text Available The challenges faced in delivering lifesaving vaccines to the targeted beneficiaries need to be addressed from the existing knowledge and learning from the past. This review documents the history of vaccines and vaccination in India with an objective to derive lessons for policy direction to expand the benefits of vaccination in the country. A brief historical perspective on smallpox disease and preventive efforts since antiquity is followed by an overview of 19 th century efforts to replace variolation by vaccination, setting up of a few vaccine institutes, cholera vaccine trial and the discovery of plague vaccine. The early twentieth century witnessed the challenges in expansion of smallpox vaccination, typhoid vaccine trial in Indian army personnel, and setting up of vaccine institutes in almost each of the then Indian States. In the post-independence period, the BCG vaccine laboratory and other national institutes were established; a number of private vaccine manufacturers came up, besides the continuation of smallpox eradication effort till the country became smallpox free in 1977. The Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI (1978 and then Universal Immunization Programme (UIP (1985 were launched in India. The intervening events since UIP till India being declared non-endemic for poliomyelitis in 2012 have been described. Though the preventive efforts from diseases were practiced in India, the reluctance, opposition and a slow acceptance of vaccination have been the characteristic of vaccination history in the country. The operational challenges keep the coverage inequitable in the country. The lessons from the past events have been analysed and interpreted to guide immunization efforts.
Prime-boost bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination with lentivirus-vectored and DNA-based vaccines expressing antigens Ag85B and Rv3425 improves protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mice.
Xu, Ying; Yang, Enzhuo; Wang, Jianguang; Li, Rui; Li, Guanghua; Liu, Guoyuan; Song, Na; Huang, Qi; Kong, Cong; Wang, Honghai
To prevent the global spread of tuberculosis (TB), more effective vaccines and vaccination strategies are urgently needed. As a result of the success of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in protecting children against miliary and meningeal TB, the majority of individuals will have been vaccinated with BCG; hence, boosting BCG-primed immunity will probably be a key component of future vaccine strategies. In this study, we compared the ability of DNA-, protein- and lentiviral vector-based vaccines that express the antigens Ag85B and Rv3425 to boost the effects of BCG in the context of immunity and protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in C57BL/6 mice. Our results demonstrated that prime-boost BCG vaccination with a lentiviral vector expressing the antigens Ag85B and Rv3425 significantly enhanced immune responses, including T helper type 1 and CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses, compared with DNA- and protein-based vaccines. However, lentivirus-vectored and DNA-based vaccines greatly improved the protective efficacy of BCG against M. tuberculosis, as indicated by a lack of weight loss and significantly reduced bacterial loads and histological damage in the lung. Our study suggests that the use of lentiviral or DNA vaccines containing the antigens Ag85B and Rv3425 to boost BCG is a good choice for the rational design of an efficient vaccination strategy against TB. PMID:24773322
... SPOTS! AH’M SICK, MA! AH CAIN’T GIT NO VACCINE T’DAY! 13 OH, SON! HOW’ ... D TELL HIS FOLKS HE WAS GOIN’ T’GIT VACCINATED AN’ HE’D GO SWIMMIN’! "” ” HE DIDN’ ... T’THE HEALTH CLINIC! HEH! HEH! AH GOTTA GIT THET VACCINE! WAIT! WE’LL GO WITH YOU! ...
Skov, J.; Chettri, J. K.; Jaafar, R. M.;
Two candidate adjuvants were tested with a commercial ERM dip vaccine (AquaVac™ Relera, MSD Animal Health) for rainbow trout in an experimental design compatible with common vaccination practices at farm level, i.e. immersion of fish in vaccine (±adjuvant) for 30 s. The adjuvants were the...
Jarnail Singh Braich
Full Text Available Malaria is one of the deadliest infectious diseases that affects millions of people worldwide including India. As an addition to chemoprophylaxis and other antimalarial interventions malaria vaccine is under extensive research since decades. The vaccine development is more difficult to predict than drug development and presents a unique challenge as already there has been no vaccine effective against a parasite. Effective malaria vaccine could help eliminate and eradicate malaria; there are currently 63 vaccine candidates, 41 in preclinical and clinical stages of development. Vaccines are being designed to target pre-erythrocytic stages, erythrocytic stage or the sexual stages of Plasmodium taken up by a feeding mosquito, or the multiple stages. Two vaccines in preclinical and clinical development target P. falciparum; and the most advanced candidate is the pre-erythrocytic vaccine RTS,S which is in phase-III clinical trials. It is likely that world's first malaria vaccine will be available by 2015 at the country level. More efficacious second generation malaria vaccines are on the way to development. Safety, efficacy, cost and provision of the vaccine to all communities are major concerns in malaria vaccine issue. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 60-66
Fukui, Masayuki; Shinjo, Kikuko; Umemura, Masayuki; Shigeno, Satoko; Harakuni, Tetsuya; Arakawa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Goro
Although the BCG vaccine can prevent tuberculosis (TB) in infants, its ability to prevent adult pulmonary TB is reportedly limited. Therefore, development of a novel effective vaccine against pulmonary TB has become an international research priority. We have previously reported that intranasal vaccination of mice with a mycobacterial heparin-binding hemagglutinin adhesin (HBHA) plus mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) enhances production of IFN-γ and anti-HBHA antibody and suppresses extrapulmonary bacterial dissemination after intranasal infection with BCG. In the present study, the effects of intranasal HBHA + CT vaccine on murine pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection were examined. Intranasal HBHA + CT vaccination alone failed to reduce the bacterial burden in the infected lung. However, a combination vaccine consisting of s.c. BCG priming and an intranasal HBHA + CT booster significantly enhanced protective immunity against pulmonary Mtb infection on day 14 compared with BCG vaccine alone. Further, it was found that intranasal HBHA + CT vaccine enhanced not only IFN-γ but also IL-17A production by HBHA-specific T cells in the lung after pulmonary Mtb infection. Therefore, this combination vaccine may be a good candidate for a new vaccine strategy against pulmonary TB. PMID:26577130
Etiology of bacterial meningitis among children aged 2-59 months in Salvador, Northeast Brazil, before and after routine use of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine Etiologia da meningite bacteriana em crianças com idade entre 2 e 59 meses em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, antes e depois do uso rotineiro da vacina para Haemophilus influenzae tipo b
Cristiana M. Nascimento-Carvalho
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of etiologic agents of bacterial meningitis (BM among children aged 2-59 months in a sample of patients in Salvador, Northeast Brazil, with emphasis on the frequency of BM of unknown etiology (BMUE, just before, during and after the implementation of routine immunization of infants with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccination. METHOD: Demographic, clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF information was collected from the chart of every patient, aged 2-59 months, whose CSF exam was performed at the CSF Lab - José Silveira Foundation, between January 1989 and December 2001. Every CSF exam was completely performed according to standard methods. The etiologic diagnosis was based on either culture and/or latex-agglutination test. When the agent was only seen on Gram stained smear, the diagnosis was descriptive. BMUE was defined as: glucose 100 mg / dl, white blood cell count > 20 cells / mm³, percentage of neutrophils > 80%. RESULTS: Of 1519 patients, 894 (58.9% had normal exams and BM was diagnosed in 95 (6.2%. Etiologic agents were: Hib (44.2%, meningococcus (13.7%, Gram-negative bacilli (11.6%, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (6.3%, pneumococcus (4.2%, other agents (4.2%; BMUE was diagnosed in 15.8% of cases with BM. By analysing the frequency of BMUE and Hib among all exams performed yearly, the peaks were recorded in 1989 (5.3% and 1990 (16.9%, respectively, decreasing to 0.7% and 0% in 2001. CONCLUSION: It is possible that the implementation of the conjugate Hib vaccine during the 1990's has been decreasing not only the occurrence of Hib meningitis but also of BMUE.OBJETIVO: Descrever a freqüência dos agentes etiológicos de meningite bacteriana (MB em amostra das crianças com idade entre 2 e 59 meses, em Salvador, Nordeste do Brasil, com ênfase na freqüência de MB de etiologia indeterminada (MBEI, antes, durante e após a implementação da imunização rotineira de lactentes com vacina para
Angela S Clem
Full Text Available From a literature review of the current literature, this article provides an introduction to vaccine immunology including a primer on the components of the immune system, passive vs. active immunization, the mechanism(s by which immunizations stimulate(s immunity, and the types of vaccines available. Both the innate and adaptive immune subsystems are necessary to provide an effective immune response to an immunization. Further, effective immunizations must induce long-term stimulation of both the humoral and cell-mediated arms of the adaptive system by the production of effector cells and memory cells. At least seven different types of vaccines are currently in use or in development that produce this effective immunity and have contributed greatly to the prevention of infectious disease around the world.
As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...
Thomason, Brendan; Read, Timothy D.
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has a far more significant role than gene duplication in bacterial evolution. This has recently been illustrated by work demonstrating the importance of HGT in the emergence of bacterial metabolic networks, with horizontally acquired genes being placed in peripheral pathways at the outer branches of the networks.
Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger
Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection. PMID:27096872
Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria
Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach that ...... become valuable weapons for preventing pathogen contamination and fighting infectious diseases in the future....
Tim N. Mak
Full Text Available Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs. IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection.
Xia TIAN; Hong CAI; Yu-Xian ZHU
DNA vaccine may be a promising tool for controlling tuberculosis development. However,vaccines encoding single antigens of mycobacterium did not produce protective effect as BCG did. In the present study, we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a divalent DNA vaccine encoding two immunodominant antigens Ag85B and MPT64 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We found that both humoral and Th1-type (high IFN-γ, low IL-4) cellular responses obtained from the divalent DNA vaccine group were significantly higher than that conferred by BCG. RT-PCR results showed that antigens were expressed differentially in various organs in divalent DNA vaccine group. The survival rate for mice treated with the divalent DNA vaccine after challenging with high doses of virulent M. tuberculosis H37Rv was significantly higher than that of the BCG group or any of the single DNA vaccine group. Significant differences were also found between the single and divalent DNA vaccinated mice in terms of body, spleen and lung weight. Bacterial loading decreased about 2000-fold in lungs and about 100-fold in spleens of divalent DNA vaccinated mice when compared with that of the control group. We conclude that our divalent DNA vaccine may be a better choice for controlling tuberculosis disease in animals.
Lantos, John D; Jackson, Mary Anne; Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K; Myers, Angela L; Connelly, Beverly L
Policies that mandate immunization have always been controversial. The controversies take different forms in different contexts. For routine childhood immunizations, many parents have fears about both short- and long-term side effects. Parental worries change as the rate of vaccination in the community changes. When most children are vaccinated, parents worry more about side effects than they do about disease. Because of these worries, immunization rates go down. As immunization rates go down, disease rates go up, and parents worry less about side effects of vaccination and more about the complications of the diseases. Immunization rates then go up. For teenagers, controversies arise about the criteria that should guide policies that mandate, rather than merely recommend and encourage, certain immunizations. In particular, policy makers have questioned whether immunizations for human papillomavirus, or other diseases that are not contagious, should be required. For healthcare workers, debates have focused on the strength of institutional mandates. For years, experts have recommended that all healthcare workers be immunized against influenza. Immunizations for other infections including pertussis, measles, mumps, and hepatitis are encouraged but few hospitals have mandated such immunizations-instead, they rely on incentives and education. Pandemics present a different set of problems as people demand vaccines that are in short supply. These issues erupt into controversy on a regular basis. Physicians and policy makers must respond both in their individual practices and as advisory experts to national and state agencies. The articles in this volume will discuss the evolution of national immunization programs in these various settings. We will critically examine the role of vaccine mandates. We will discuss ways that practitioners and public health officials should deal with vaccine refusal. We will contrast responses of the population as a whole, within the
Full Text Available Although use of non-medical settings for vaccination such as retail pharmacies has grown in recent years, little is known about how various settings are used by individuals with different vaccination habits. We aimed to assess the relationship between repeated, annual influenza vaccination and location of vaccination.We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 4,040 adults in 2010.We fielded a nationally representative survey using an online research panel operated by Knowledge Networks. The completion rate among sampled panelists was 73%.39% of adults reported that they have never received a seasonal influenza vaccination. Compared to those who were usually or always vaccinated from year to year, those who sometimes or rarely received influenza vaccinations were significantly more likely to be vaccinated in a medical setting in 2009-2010.RESULTS indicate that while medical settings are the dominant location for vaccination overall, they play an especially critical role in serving adults who do not regularly receive vaccinations. By exploring vaccination habits, we can more appropriately choose among interventions designed to encourage the initiation vs. maintenance of desired behaviors.
Ohtake, Satoshi; Martin, Russell; Saxena, Atul; Pham, Binh; Chiueh, Gary; Osorio, Manuel; Kopecko, Dennis; Xu, Deqi; Lechuga-Ballesteros, David; Truong-Le, Vu
Foam drying, a modified freeze drying process, was utilized to produce a heat-stable, live attenuated Salmonella Typhi 'Ty21a' bacterial vaccine. Ty21a vaccine was formulated with pharmaceutically approved stabilizers, including sugars, plasticizers, amino acids, and proteins. Growth media and harvesting conditions of the bacteria were also studied to enhance resistance to desiccation stress encountered during processing as well as subsequent storage at elevated temperatures. The optimized Ty21a vaccine, formulated with trehalose, methionine, and gelatin, demonstrated stability for approximately 12 weeks at 37°C (i.e., time required for the vaccine to decrease in potency by 1log(10)CFU) and no loss in titer at 4 and 25°C following storage for the same duration. Furthermore, the foam dried Ty21a elicited a similar immunogenic response in mice as well as protection in challenge studies compared to Vivotif™, the commercial Ty21a vaccine. The enhanced heat stability of the Ty21a oral vaccine, or Ty21a derivatives expressing foreign antigens (e.g. anthrax), could mitigate risks of vaccine potency loss during long-term storage, shipping, delivery to geographical areas with warmer climates or during emergency distribution following a bioterrorist attack. Because the foam drying process is conducted using conventional freeze dryers and can be readily implemented at any freeze drying manufacturing facility, this technology appears ready and appropriate for large scale processing of foam dried vaccines. PMID:21300096
Kennedy, Richard B; Ovsyannikova, Inna; Poland, Gregory A
Few diseases can match the enormous impact that smallpox has had on mankind. Its influence can be seen in the earliest recorded histories of ancient civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia. With fatality rates up to 30%, smallpox left its survivors with extensive scarring and other serious sequelae. It is estimated that smallpox killed 500 million people in the 19th and 20th centuries. Given the ongoing concerns regarding the use of variola as a biological weapon, this review will focus on the licensed vaccines as well as current research into next-generation vaccines to protect against smallpox and other poxviruses. PMID:19837292
Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.
Monath, T P
Vaccination against JE ideally should be practiced in all areas of Asia where the virus is responsible for human disease. The WHO has placed a high priority on the development of a new vaccine for prevention of JE. Some countries in Asia (Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, and the PRC) manufacture JE vaccines and practice childhood immunization, while other countries suffering endemic or epidemic disease (India, Nepal, Laos, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines) have no JE vaccine manufacturing or policy for use. With the exception of the PRC, all countries practicing JE vaccination use formalin inactivated mouse brain vaccines, which are relatively expensive and are associated with rare but clinically significant allergic and neurological adverse events. New inactivated JE vaccines manufactured in Vero cells are in advanced preclinical or early clinical development in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and the PRC. An empirically derived, live attenuated vaccine (SA14-14-2) is widely used in the PRC. Trials in the PRC have shown SA14-14-2 to be safe and effective when administered in a two-dose regimen, but regulatory concerns over manufacturing and control have restricted international distribution. The genetic basis of attenuation of SA14-14-2 has been partially defined. A new live attenuated vaccine (ChimeriVax-JE) that uses a reliable flavivirus vaccine--yellow fever 17D--as a live vector for the envelope genes of SA14-14-2 virus is in early clinical trials and appears to be well tolerated and immunogenic after a single dose. Vaccinia and avipox vectored vaccines have also been tested clinically, but are no longer being pursued due to restricted effectiveness mediated by anti-vector immunity. Other approaches to JE vaccines--including naked DNA, oral vaccination, and recombinant subunit vaccines--have been reviewed. PMID:12082985
Tullu, Millind S; Rodrigues, Sean; Muranjan, Mamta N; Bavdekar, Sandeep B; Kamat, Jaishree R; Hira, Priya R
The rabies vaccines containing neural elements are used in some countries including India. We report three cases that presented with various neurological complications following the use of these vaccines. The presenting manifestations included those of encephalitis, radiculitis and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. These neurological complications are highlighted so that scientific evidence compels the community to discontinue the use of the neural tissue rabies vaccines. Newer generation cell culture rabies vaccines should be preferred over the neural tissue rabies vaccines for post-exposure prophylaxis. PMID:12626831
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is one of the key molecules in innate immunity and its role in human vaccine responses is poorly known. This study aimed to investigate the possible association of MBL polymorphisms with antibody production after primary and booster vaccinations with acellular pertussis vaccines in infants and adolescents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Five hundred and sixty eight subjects were included in this study. In the adolescent cohort 355 subjects received a dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (dTpa vaccine ten years previously. Follow-up was performed at 3, 5 and 10 years. Infant cohort consisted of 213 subjects, who had received three primary doses of DTaP vaccine at 3, 5, and 12 months of age according to Finnish immunization program. Blood samples were collected before the vaccinations at 2,5 months of age and after the vaccinations at 13 months and 2 years of age. Concentrations of IgG antibodies to pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertactin and antibodies to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids were measured by standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of MBL2 gene exon1 (codons 52, 54, 57 were examined. MBL serum concentration was also measured from the adolescent cohort. No association was found with MBL2 exon 1 polymorphisms and antibody responses against vaccine antigens, after primary and booster dTpa vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that MBL polymorphisms do not affect the production and persistence of antibodies after acellular pertussis vaccination. Our finding also suggests that MBL might not be involved in modulating antibody responses to the vaccines made of purified bacterial proteins.
Lu, Zhao; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Smith, Rebecca L; Karns, Jeffrey S; Hovingh, Ernest; Schukken, Ynte H
Salmonella is a major cause of bacterial foodborne disease. Human salmonellosis results in significant public health concerns and a considerable economic burden. Dairy cattle are recognized as a key source of several Salmonella serovars that are a threat to human health. To lower the risk of Salmonella infection, reduction of Salmonella prevalence in dairy cattle is important. Vaccination as a control measure has been applied for reduction of preharvest Salmonella prevalence on dairy farms. Salmonella vaccines are usually imperfect (i.e., vaccines may provide a partial protection for susceptible animals, reduce the infectiousness and shedding level, shorten the infectious period of infected animals, and/or curb the number of clinical cases), and evaluation of the potential impacts of imperfect Salmonella vaccines at the farm level is valuable to design effective intervention strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of imperfect Salmonella vaccines on the stochastic transmission dynamics in an adult dairy herd. To this end, we developed a semi-stochastic and individual-based continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) vaccination model with both direct and indirect transmission, and applied the CTMC vaccination model to Salmonella Cerro transmission in an adult dairy herd. Our results show that vaccines shortening the infectious period are most effective in reducing prevalence, and vaccines decreasing host susceptibility are most effective in reducing the outbreak size. Vaccines with multiple moderate efficacies may have the same effectiveness as vaccines with a single high efficacy in reducing prevalence, time to extinction, and outbreak size. Although the environment component has negligible contributions to the prevalence, time to extinction, and outbreak size for Salmonella Cerro in the herd, the relative importance of environment component was not assessed. This study indicates that an effective vaccination program against Salmonella Cerro
Pizza, M; Scarlato, [No Value; Masignani, [No Value; Giuliani, MM; Arico, B; Comanducci, M; Jennings, GT; Baldi, L; Bartolini, E; Capecchi, B; Galeotti, CL; Luzzi, E; Manetti, R; Marchetti, E; Mora, M; Nuti, S; Ratti, G; Santini, L; Savino, S; Scarselli, M; Storni, E; Zuo, PJ; Broeker, M; Hundt, E; Knapp, B; Blair, E; Mason, T; Tettelin, H; Hood, DW; Jeffries, AC; Saunders, NJ; Granoff, DM; Venter, JC; Moxon, ER; Grandi, G; Rappuoli, R
Neisseria meningitidis is a major cause of bacterial septicemia and meningitis. Sequence variation of surface-exposed proteins and cross-reactivity of the serogroup B capsular polysaccharide with human tissues have hampered efforts to develop a successful vaccine. To overcome these obstacles, the en
Full Text Available In 2010, researchers reported that the two US-licensed rotavirus vaccines contained DNA or DNA fragments from porcine circovirus (PCV. Although PCV, a common virus among pigs, is not thought to cause illness in humans, these findings raised several safety concerns. In this study, we sought to determine whether viruses, including PCV, could be detected in ileal tissue samples of children vaccinated with one of the two rotavirus vaccines. A broad spectrum, novel DNA detection technology, the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (LLMDA, was utilized, and confirmation of viral pathogens using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR was conducted. The LLMDA technology was recently used to identify PCV from one rotavirus vaccine. Ileal tissue samples were analyzed from 21 subjects, aged 15–62 months. PCV was not detected in any ileal tissue samples by the LLMDA or PCR. LLMDA identified a human rotavirus A from one of the vaccinated subjects, which is likely due to a recent infection from a wild type rotavirus. LLMDA also identified human parechovirus, a common gastroenteritis viral infection, from two subjects. Additionally, LLMDA detected common gastrointestinal bacterial organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae, Bacteroidaceae, and Streptococcaceae families from several subjects. This study provides a survey of viral and bacterial pathogens from pediatric ileal samples, and may shed light on future studies to identify pathogen associations with pediatric vaccinations.
da Costa, Adeliane Castro; Costa-Júnior, Abadio de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Fábio Muniz; Nogueira, Sarah Veloso; Rosa, Joseane Damaceno; Resende, Danilo Pires; Kipnis, André; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that is a major public health problem. The vaccine used for TB prevention is Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which provides variable efficacy in protecting against pulmonary TB among adults. Consequently, several groups have pursued the development of a new vaccine with a superior protective capacity to that of BCG. Here we constructed a new recombinant BCG (rBCG) vaccine expressing a fusion protein (CMX) composed of immune dominant epitopes from Ag85C, MPT51, and HspX and evaluated its immunogenicity and protection in a murine model of infection. The stability of the vaccine in vivo was maintained for up to 20 days post-vaccination. rBCG-CMX was efficiently phagocytized by peritoneal macrophages and induced nitric oxide (NO) production. Following mouse immunization, this vaccine induced a specific immune response in cells from lungs and spleen to the fusion protein and to each of the component recombinant proteins by themselves. Vaccinated mice presented higher amounts of Th1, Th17, and polyfunctional specific T cells. rBCG-CMX vaccination reduced the extension of lung lesions caused by challenge with Mtb as well as the lung bacterial load. In addition, when this vaccine was used in a prime-boost strategy together with rCMX, the lung bacterial load was lower than the result observed by BCG vaccination. This study describes the creation of a new promising vaccine for TB that we hope will be used in further studies to address its safety before proceeding to clinical trials. PMID:25398087
Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida;
Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...
Full Text Available Alphavirus vectors have demonstrated high levels of transient heterologous gene expression both in vitro and in vivo and, therefore, possess attractive features for vaccine development. The most commonly used delivery vectors are based on three single-stranded encapsulated alphaviruses, namely Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Alphavirus vectors have been applied as replication-deficient recombinant viral particles and, more recently, as replication-proficient particles. Moreover, in vitro transcribed RNA, as well as layered DNA vectors have been applied for immunization. A large number of highly immunogenic viral structural proteins expressed from alphavirus vectors have elicited strong neutralizing antibody responses in multispecies animal models. Furthermore, immunization studies have demonstrated robust protection against challenges with lethal doses of virus in rodents and primates. Similarly, vaccination with alphavirus vectors expressing tumor antigens resulted in prophylactic protection against challenges with tumor-inducing cancerous cells. As certain alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus, have been associated with epidemics in animals and humans, attention has also been paid to the development of vaccines against alphaviruses themselves. Recent progress in alphavirus vector development and vaccine technology has allowed conducting clinical trials in humans.
The use of vaccination to control bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections presents exceptional challenges due to the nature of the virus, the unique interaction of the virus with the immune system, and its ability to establish persistent infections. The lack of proof reading function during th...
In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the importance of vaccines and how they work. Created: 4/23/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 4/23/2013.
Hicks, D J; Fooks, A R; Johnson, N
The development of vaccines that prevent rabies has a long and distinguished history, with the earliest preceding modern understanding of viruses and the mechanisms of immune protection against disease. The correct application of inactivated tissue culture-derived vaccines is highly effective at preventing the development of rabies, and very few failures are recorded. Furthermore, oral and parenteral vaccination is possible for wildlife, companion animals and livestock, again using inactivated tissue culture-derived virus. However, rabies remains endemic in many regions of the world and causes thousands of human deaths annually. There also remain no means of prophylaxis for rabies once the virus enters the central nervous system (CNS). One reason for this is the poor immune response within the CNS to infection with rabies virus (RABV). New approaches to vaccination using modified rabies viruses that express components of the innate immune system are being applied to this problem. Preliminary reports suggest that direct inoculation of such viruses could trigger an effective anti-viral response and prevent a fatal outcome from RABV infection. PMID:22861358
Roč. 3, Suppl. 1 (2005), S7. ISSN 1214-021X. [Cells VI - Biological Days /18./. 24.10.2005-26.10.2005, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : tumour vaccines * HPV16 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology
Jennifer Couzin; 丁东
@@ If there's one thing cancer vaccine developers would like to know, it's why only a handful of patients respond strongly to their inventions. Now at an immunology② meeting here, a team of scientists reported that a set of patients with metastatic melanoma③ may be revealing an answer to that mysterious question.
Beale, J; Horaud, F.
In this paper we consider the main steps in the process of manufacture of oral polio vaccine and assess the probable clearance factor for HIV retrovirus at each step. We conclude that the processes employed would have eliminated retrovirus contamination for all practical purposes.
... about data collection Información en español acerca del Sistema para Reportar Reacciones Adversas a las Vacunas (VAERS) ( ... by Product Area Product Areas back Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...
Full Text Available Masoumeh Firouzamandi,1,2 Hassan Moeini,3 Seyed Davood Hosseini,4 Mohd Hair Bejo,1 Abdul Rahman Omar,1,3 Parvaneh Mehrbod,3 Mohamed E El Zowalaty,5 Thomas J Webster,6 Aini Ideris1,3 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tabriz, Iran; 3Laboratory of Vaccine and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Arak, Iran; 5Biomedical Research Center, Vice President Office for Research, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; 6Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Plasmid DNA (pDNA-based vaccines have emerged as effective subunit vaccines against viral and bacterial pathogens. In this study, a DNA vaccine, namely plasmid internal ribosome entry site-HN/F, was applied in ovo against Newcastle disease (ND. Vaccination was carried out using the DNA vaccine alone or as a mixture of the pDNA and dextran-spermine (D-SPM, a nanoparticle used for pDNA delivery. The results showed that in ovo vaccination with 40 µg pDNA/egg alone induced high levels of antibody titer (P<0.05 in specific pathogen-free (SPF chickens at 3 and 4 weeks postvaccination compared to 2 weeks postvaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI titer was not significantly different between groups injected with 40 µg pDNA + 64 µg D-SPM and 40 µg pDNA at 4 weeks postvaccination (P>0.05. Higher antibody titer was observed in the group immunized with 40 µg pDNA/egg at 4 weeks postvaccination. The findings also showed that vaccination with 40 µg pDNA/egg alone was able to confer protection against Newcastle disease virus strain NDIBS002 in two out of seven SPF chickens. Although the chickens produced antibody titers 3 weeks after in ovo vaccination, it was not sufficient to provide complete protection
Dilutions and application of live Mycoplasma gallisepticum vaccines without the use of vaccine stabilizing compounds may lead to significant loss of vaccine viability and loss of vaccine efficacy. Vaccine viability may decreases due to osmotic lysis of the mycoplasma as well as the presence of chlo...
Langemann, Timo; Koller, Verena Juliana; Muhammad, Abbas; Kudela, Pavol; Mayr, Ulrike Beate; Lubitz, Werner
The Bacterial Ghost (BG) platform technology is an innovative system for vaccine, drug or active substance delivery and for technical applications in white biotechnology. BGs are cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria. BGs are devoid of all cytoplasmic content but have a preserved cellular morphology including all cell surface structures. Using BGs as delivery vehicles for subunit or DNA-vaccines the particle structure and surface properties of BGs are targeting the carrier itself to primary antigen-presenting cells. Furthermore, BGs exhibit intrinsic adjuvant properties and trigger an enhanced humoral and cellular immune response to the target antigen. Multiple antigens of the native BG envelope and recombinant protein or DNA antigens can be combined in a single type of BG. Antigens can be presented on the inner or outer membrane of the BG as well as in the periplasm that is sealed during BG formation. Drugs or supplements can also be loaded to the internal lumen or periplasmic space of the carrier. BGs are produced by batch fermentation with subsequent product recovery and purification via tangential flow filtration. For safety reasons all residual bacterial DNA is inactivated during the BG production process by the use of staphylococcal nuclease A and/or the treatment with β-propiolactone. After purification BGs can be stored long-term at ambient room temperature as lyophilized product. The production cycle from the inoculation of the pre-culture to the purified BG concentrate ready for lyophilization does not take longer than a day and thus meets modern criteria of rapid vaccine production rather than keeping large stocks of vaccines. The broad spectrum of possible applications in combination with the comparably low production costs make the BG platform technology a safe and sophisticated product for the targeted delivery of vaccines and active agents as well as carrier of immobilized enzymes for applications in white biotechnology. PMID:21326832
Webster, R G; Robinson, H L
Immunisation with purified DNA is a powerful technique for inducing immune responses. The concept is very simple, involving insertion of the gene encoding the antigen of choice into a bacterial plasmid, and injection of the plasmid into the host where the antigen is expressed and induces humoral and cellular immunity. This technology can induce immunity to all antigens that can be encoded by DNA; this includes all protein, but not carbohydrate, antigens. DNA immunisation appears to result in presentation of antigens to the host's immune system in a natural form, similar to that achieved with live attenuated vaccines. The most efficacious routes for DNA immunisation are bombardment with particles coated with DNA (gene-gun), followed by intramuscular and intradermal administration. The efficiency of transfection of host cells is low, but sufficient to induce immunological responsiveness. The DNA plasmid is retained in the transfected cells in an unintegrated form for the life of the cell. The majority of transfected cells are eliminated, but residual expression has been detected for longer periods. In animal model systems, DNA immunisation has been shown to induce protective immunity to influenza, herpes, rabies, hepatitis B and lymphocytic choriomeningitis viruses, and to malaria and mycobacteria. However, strategies to induce protective immunity to HIV and other disease agents remain to be developed. DNA vaccines permit modulation of the immune response by altering the route or method of DNA administration, by including immunostimulatory sequences in the plasmid, and by co-administration of cytokine genes with the gene encoding the antigen of interest. A T helper 1 response provides cell-mediated immune killing of infected cells and neutralising antibody production, while a T helper 2 response induces IgE and allergic responses. The advantages of DNA immunisation are: similarity to live attenuated vaccination but without the possibility of contamination with
Tod J Merkel; Perera, Pin-Yu; Kelly, Vanessa K.; Verma, Anita; Llewellyn, Zara N.; Waldmann, Thomas A.; Mosca, Joseph D.; Perera, Liyanage P.
Bioterrorism poses a daunting challenge to global security and public health in the 21st century. Variola major virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, and Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial pathogen responsible for anthrax, remain at the apex of potential pathogens that could be used in a bioterror attack to inflict mass casualties. Although licensed vaccines are available for both smallpox and anthrax, because of inadequacies associated with each of these vaccines, serious concerns remain ...
Lai, Zengzu; Schreiber, John R.
Bacterial polysaccharides (PS) are T cell-independent antigens that do not induce immunologic memory and are poor immunogens in infants. Conjugate vaccines in which the PS is covalently linked to a carrier protein have enhanced immunogenicity that resembles that of T cell-dependent antigens. The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, which uses the outer membrane protein complex (OMPC) from meningococcus as a carrier protein, elicits protective levels of anti-capsular PS antib...
Demberg, Thorsten; Ettinger, Amelia C.; Aladi, Stanley; McKinnon, Katherine; Kuddo, Thea; Venzon, David; Patterson, L. Jean; Phillips, Terry M.; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie
It has been proposed that microbial translocation might play a role in chronic immune activation during HIV/SIV infection. Key roles in fighting bacterial and fungal infections have been attributed to Th17 and Tc17 cells. Th17 cells can be infected with HIV/SIV, however whether effective vaccination leads to their maintenance following viral challenge has not been addressed. Here we retrospectively investigated if a vaccine regimen that potently reduced viremia post-challenge preserved Th17 a...
In oncology, vaccination is accepted as an important preventive measure. As a tertiary prevention protocol, several vaccines are recommended for the oncology patients. The newest vaccine in medicine is swine flu vaccine which is developed for prevention of novel H1N1 influenza virus infection. In this paper, the author will briefly discuss on swine flu vaccination for oncology patients.
... Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available A retrospective study of 80 infantile patients (ages 30-365 days; 47 male, 33 female with culture-proven bacterial meningitis seen over a 16 year period (1986-2001 is reported from Taiwan.
Julio Cesar Reina
Full Text Available At present two prophylactic human papilloma virus (HPV vaccines are commercially available. The Tetravalent vaccine against infection with four VPH types (6, 11, 16, and 18 distributed in the national program in Colombia and the Bivalent vaccine against the VPH types 16 and 18, respectively. The efficacy and safety of both vaccines has periodically been assessed and they have been declared efficacious and safe by the health authorities of several countries and the Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety ( GACVS of the World’s Health Organization (WHO.In its report of March 2014 the GACVS analyzed the evidence of the relationship between the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine with >175 million of doses distributed worldwide and autoimmune diseases, particularly Multiple Sclerosis, Aluminum as adjuvant, Vasculitis caused by vaccine DNA fragments and the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome described in Japan. The Committee ratified the strict vaccine safety control and based on a thorough examination of existing evidence, reaffirmed that the risk-benefit profile remains favorable. The case of the children of Carmen de Bolivar in Colombia has been described by several authors in other countries as "Massive Psychogenic Event", which has absolute no relationship with the vaccine but its high media dissemination resulted into disastrous consequences for the national vaccination program
McGettigan, James P
Rabies remains a global public health threat that kills more than 55,000 people per year. Rabies disproportionately affects children and, therefore, is ranked the seventh most important infectious disease due to years lost. Prevention of human rabies is accomplished by controlling rabies in domestic and wild animals, including the use of vaccination programs. The usefulness of human rabies vaccines is hampered by high cost, complicated vaccination regimens and lack of compliance, especially in areas of Africa and Asia where human rabies infections are endemic. A single-dose vaccine would greatly benefit efforts to combat this global health threat. However, a single-dose vaccine based on current inactivated vaccines does not appear feasible and other approaches are needed. Technology has advanced since modern human rabies vaccines were developed over 40 years ago. In addition, our understanding of immunological principles that influence the outcome of vaccination has increased. This article describes the current status of inactivated rabies virus vaccines and recent developments arising from the use of reverse genetics technologies designed to develop replication-deficient or single-cycle live rabies virus-based vectors for use as a single-dose rabies vaccine for humans. PMID:20923268
Dalton, J P; Mulcahy, G
Over the last decade, the anti-parasitics market has been the fastest growing sector of the overall $18 billion animal health market. While drugs for the treatment of parasites of livestock still dominate this sector and will continue to be developed or re-formulated, because of consumer demands for chemical-free food and of concerns regarding the environment and animal welfare there is a growing interest in the development of safe and effective vaccines. There is also a call for vaccines in the lucrative $3 billion-plus companion animal market. These demands for vaccines will add a greater impetus to an area that has seen tremendous success in the last 15 years. A number of anti-parasite vaccines have been developed, e.g. the recombinant 45w and EG95 oncosphere proteins against Taenia ovis and Echinococcus granulosis, respectively, and the Bm86 vaccine against Boophilus microplus. In addition, the cathepsin L vaccines against the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, and the H11 vaccine against Haemonchus contortus are progressing well. There are also many additional vaccine candidates for H. contortus and for other nematodes such as Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus spp. that may ultimately lead to broad-spectrum gastrointestinal worm vaccines. Live or attenuated-live vaccines are available for the control of avian coccidiosis, toxplasmosis in sheep and anaplasmosis in cattle, although molecular vaccines against protozoans are still proving elusive. The wealth of information in genomics, proteomics and immunology that has been forthcoming together will new methods of vaccine production and delivery should see many new vaccines reach the marketplace in the near future. PMID:11516584
Ochman, Howard; Elwyn, Susannah; Moran, Nancy A
Attempts to calibrate bacterial evolution have relied on the assumption that rates of molecular sequence divergence in bacteria are similar to those of higher eukaryotes, or to those of the few bacterial taxa for which ancestors can be reliably dated from ecological or geological evidence. Despite similarities in the substitution rates estimated for some lineages, comparisons of the relative rates of evolution at different classes of nucleotide sites indicate no basis for their universal appl...
Ahmed, S Sohail; Montomoli, Emanuele; Pasini, Franco Laghi; Steinman, Lawrence
Despite the very high benefit-to-risk ratio of vaccines, the fear of negative side effects has discouraged many people from getting vaccinated, resulting in the reemergence of previously controlled diseases such as measles, pertussis and diphtheria. This fear has been amplified more recently by multiple epidemiologic studies that confirmed the link of an AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine (Pandemrix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Germany) used in Europe during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic [A(H1N1) pdm09] with the development of narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder, in children and adolescents. However, public misperceptions of what adjuvants are and why they are used in vaccines has created in some individuals a closed "black box" attitude towards all vaccines. The focus of this review article is to revisit this "black box" using the example of narcolepsy associated with the European AS03-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine. PMID:27228647
Povey, R. Charles
Distemper vaccination failures are uncommon. A number of factors which could cause such failure are discussed. The blocking effect of maternal antibody can be expected in 50% of pups at six weeks but is not important after 12 weeks. Among intercurrent infections, the immunosuppressive effect of parvovirus has the potential to precipitate vaccine-induced distemper. Corticosteroids at levels up to 10 mg/kg do not interfere with successful distemper vaccination. Anesthesia or surgery has little ...
Prodanov Jasna; Došen Radoslav; Lalić Milan; Gagrčin Mladen; Orlić Dušan B.
Different diseases in domestic animals require the application of different methods of immunological protection, depending on the type of vaccine manner of application and type of adjuvant. The objective of the work was to consider general principles and the basic requirements for efficient vaccination. It points out existing faults in practice which lead to the occurrence of mistakes made during vaccination and the appearance of resulting undesired consequences. There are many reasons why va...
Scriba, Thomas J; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Henri Lambert, Paul; Sanicas, Melvin; Martin, Carlos; Neyrolles, Olivier
Live attenuated and killed whole-cell vaccines (WCVs) offer promising vaccination strategies against tuberculosis. A number of WCV candidates, based on recombinant bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or related mycobacterial species are in various stages of preclinical or clinical development. In this review, we discuss the vaccine candidates and key factors shaping the development pathway for live and killed WCVs and provide an update on progress. PMID:27247343
Neumann, Lukas; Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Kragelund Strøm, Helene;
Vaccination is a keystone in prophylactic strategies preventing outbreaks of fish pathogenic bacterial diseases in aquaculture. The first commercial fish vaccine consisted of a bacterin of Yersinia ruckeri serotype O1 biotype 1. The vaccine has been very successful and has been used for more than...... 35 years. A vast experience has been gained concerning the applications of the vaccine, which can be utilized through several mucosal immunization routes such as bath, oral and anal application, all resulting in significantly increased survival compared to un-vaccinated control groups during bath...... challenge experiments. Little is known regarding the nature of the protective immune response. We have shown that even low titers of Y. ruckeri specific antibodies confer protective immunity in vivo, and shown that is possible to pass immunity to naïve fish by passing serum containing Y. ruckeri specific...
Maritz-Olivier, Christine; van Zyl, Willem; Stutzer, Christian
In the post-genomic era, reverse vaccinology is proving promising in the development of vaccines against bacterial and viral diseases, with limited application in ectoparasite vaccine design. In this study, we present a systematic approach using a combination of functional genomics (DNA microarrays) techniques and a pipeline incorporating in silico prediction of subcellular localization and protective antigenicity using VaxiJen for the identification of novel anti-tick vaccine candidates. A total of 791 candidates were identified using this approach, of which 176 are membrane-associated and 86 secreted soluble proteins. A preliminary analysis on the antigenicity of selected membrane proteins using anti-gut antisera yielded candidates with an IgG binding capacity greater than previously identified epitopes of Bm86. Subsequent vaccination trials using recombinant proteins will not only validate this approach, but will also improve subsequent reverse vaccinology approaches for the identification of novel anti-tick vaccine candidates. PMID:22521592
Porter, Kevin R; Teneza-Mora, Nimfa; Raviprakash, Kanakatte
Dengue is the most important arbovirus worldwide and is the virus that causes dengue fever and the more severe dengue hemorrhagic fever. There are four serotypes of dengue with each possessing the ability to cause disease. Developing a preventive vaccine is the most efficient and effective way to prevent these diseases, and because immunity to one serotype does not protect against the other serotypes, a vaccine must provide tetravalent protection. We used DNA immunization as a platform to develop a tetravalent vaccine. In this chapter, we describe the laboratory, regulatory, and clinical methodology for evaluating a candidate tetravalent vaccine in a Phase 1 clinical trial. PMID:24715294
Piganelli, J D; Wiens, G D; Zhang, J A; Christensen, J M; Kaattari, S L
A whole cell Renibacterium salmoninarum vaccine was developed using 37 degrees C heat treated cells that were subsequently formalin fixed; this treatment reduced bacterial hydrophobicity and cell associated p57. Coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch were immunized with the p57- vaccine by either a combination of intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intramuscular (i.m.) injections or per os. In the first experiment, i.p./i.m. vaccination of coho salmon with p57- cells in Freund's Incomplete Adjuvant (FIA) conferred a statistically significant increase in mean time to death after the salmon were i.p. challenged with 4.1 x 10(6) colony forming units (cfu) of R. salmoninarum. There was no significant difference in response between fish immunized with R. salmoninarum cell surface extract in FIA and those immunized with extracellular protein (ECP) concentrated from culture supernatant in FIA. The i.p. challenge dose resulted in complete mortality of all fish by Day 43. In a second experiment, fish were orally vaccinated with p57- R. salmoninarum cells encased in a pH protected, enteric-coated antigen microsphere (ECAM). Fish were bath challenged with 4.2 x 10(6) cfu ml-1 on Day 0 and sampled at time points of 0 (pre-challenge), 50, 90, or 150 d immersion challenge. Vaccine efficacy was determined by monitoring the elaboration of p57 in the kidneys of vaccinated and control fish. Fish vaccinated orally demonstrated a significantly lower concentration of p57 (p 0.05) versus controls. In summary, these studies suggest the preliminary efficacy of 37 degrees C treatment of R. salmoninarum cells as an oral bacterial kidney disease vaccine. PMID:10349551
Foged, Camilla; Sundblad, Anne; Hovgaard, Lars
be far superior to that of B-cells and macrophages. DC are localized at strategic places in the body at sites used by pathogens to enter the organism, and are thereby in an optimal position to capture antigens. In general, vaccination strategies try to mimic the invasiveness of the pathogens. DC are...... considered to play a central role for the provocation of primary immune responses by vaccination. A rational way of improving the potency and safety of new and already existing vaccines could therefore be to direct vaccines specifically to DC. There is a need for developing multifunctional vaccine drug...... delivery systems (DDS) with adjuvant effect that target DC directly and induce optimal immune responses. This paper will review the current knowledge of DC physiology as well as the progress in the field of novel vaccination strategies that directly or indirectly aim at targeting DC....
Rios, Alessandra C; Moutinho, Carla G; Pinto, Flávio C; Del Fiol, Fernando S; Jozala, Angela; Chaud, Marco V; Vila, Marta M D C; Teixeira, José A; Balcão, Victor M
Worldwide, bacterial resistance to chemical antibiotics has reached such a high level that endangers public health. Presently, the adoption of alternative strategies that promote the elimination of resistant microbial strains from the environment is of utmost importance. This review discusses and analyses several (potential) alternative strategies to current chemical antibiotics. Bacteriophage (or phage) therapy, although not new, makes use of strictly lytic phage particles as an alternative, or a complement, in the antimicrobial treatment of bacterial infections. It is being rediscovered as a safe method, because these biological entities devoid of any metabolic machinery do not possess any affinity whatsoever to eukaryotic cells. Lysin therapy is also recognized as an innovative antimicrobial therapeutic option, since the topical administration of preparations containing purified recombinant lysins with amounts in the order of nanograms, in infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, demonstrated a high therapeutic potential by causing immediate lysis of the target bacterial cells. Additionally, this therapy exhibits the potential to act synergistically when combined with certain chemical antibiotics already available on the market. Another potential alternative antimicrobial therapy is based on the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), amphiphilic polypeptides that cause disruption of the bacterial membrane and can be used in the treatment of bacterial, fungal and viral infections, in the prevention of biofilm formation, and as antitumoral agents. Interestingly, bacteriocins are a common strategy of bacterial defense against other bacterial agents, eliminating the potential opponents of the former and increasing the number of available nutrients in the environment for their own growth. They can be applied in the food industry as biopreservatives and as probiotics, and also in fighting multi-resistant bacterial strains. The use of antibacterial antibodies
Xiong, Qiyan; Wei, Yanna; Feng, Zhixin; Gan, Yuan; Liu, Zhanjun; Liu, Maojun; Bai, Fangfang; Shao, Guoqing
An attenuated Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccine that requires intrathoracic administration is commercially available for use against mycoplasmal pneumonia in China. Given the limitations of such a route of administration, this study was undertaken to assess the capacity of an ISCOM-matrix adjuvant to enhance immunogenicity following intramuscular use. Immune responses in pigs following vaccination and subsequent intra-tracheal bacterial inoculation were examined using lymphocyte proliferation, serology and mucosal IgA in both nasal and saliva swabs. Vaccination induced clear lymphocyte proliferation, but only slight serum antibody responses although these were significantly increased following experimental infection. Mucosal IgA was not detected in either nasal or salivary secretions. Following bacterial challenge, animals vaccinated with the adjuvant-containing live vaccine exhibited less severe pulmonary lesions (median score 3.67) than unvaccinated pigs (median score 13.58). The degree of ciliary loss on the respiratory tract surface was reduced in vaccinated pigs compared with experimentally infected controls. The findings indicated that the adjuvant vaccine administered IM provided protection against experimentally induced mycoplasmal pneumonia and could have commercial potential. PMID:24314715
Cervical cancer can be prevented with HPV vaccines. NCI-supported researchers helped establish HPV as a cause of cervical cancer. They also helped create the first HPV vaccines, were involved in the vaccine trials, and contribute to ongoing studies.
... Español Text Size Email Print Share Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines: What You Need to Know (VIS) Page Content ... to help protect against serogroup B . Meningococcal ACWY Vaccines There are two kinds of meningococcal vaccines licensed ...
Wang, Zhen; Bhattacharyya, Samit; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero; Perc, Matjaz; Perra, Nicola; Salathé, Marcel; Zhao, Dawei
Historically, infectious diseases caused considerable damage to human societies, and they continue to do so today. To help reduce their impact, mathematical models of disease transmission have been studied to help understand disease dynamics and inform prevention strategies. Vaccination - one of the most important preventive measures of modern times - is of great interest both theoretically and empirically. And in contrast to traditional approaches, recent research increasingly explores the pivotal implications of individual behavior and heterogeneous contact patterns in populations. Our report reviews the developmental arc of theoretical epidemiology with emphasis on vaccination, as it led from classical models assuming homogeneously mixing (mean-field) populations and ignoring human behavior, to recent models that account for behavioral feedback and/or population spatial/social structure. Many of the methods used originated in statistical physics, such as lattice and network models, and their associated ana...
Falconer, Jonathan L; Christie, R James; Pollard, Emily J; Olsen, Steven C; Grainger, David W
Ballistic delivery capability is essential to delivering vaccines and other therapeutics effectively to both livestock and wildlife in many global scenarios. Here, lyophilized poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-glycolide dimethacrylate crosslinked but degradable hydrogels were assessed as payload vehicles to protect and deliver a viable bacterial vaccine, Brucella abortus strain RB51 (RB51), ballistically using commercial thermoplastic cellulosic degradable biobullets. Degradable PEG hydrogel rods loaded with ∼10(10) live RB51 bacteria (CFUs) were fabricated using three different polymerization methods, cut into fixed-sized payload segments, and lyophilized. Resulting dense, glassy RB51 vaccine-loaded monoliths were inserted into thermoplastic biobullet 100-μL payload chambers. Viability studies of lyophilized formulations assessed as a function of time and storage temperature supported the abilities of several conditions to produce acceptable vaccine shelf-lives. Fired from specifically designed air rifles, gel-loaded biobullets exhibit down-range ballistic properties (i.e., kinetic energy, trajectory, accuracy) similar to unloaded biobullets. Delivered to bovine tissue, these hydrogels rehydrate rapidly by swelling in tissue fluids, with complete hydration observed after 5h in serum. Live RB51 vaccine exhibited excellent viability following carrier polymerization, lyophilization, and storage, at levels sufficient for vaccine dosing to wild range bison, the intended target. These data validate lyophilized degradable PEG hydrogel rods as useful drug carriers for remote delivery of both live vaccines and other therapeutics to livestock, wildlife, or other free-range targets using ballistic technologies. PMID:26705151
Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.
fully addressed, although inherently the risks should not be any greater than with the commercial fish vaccines that are currently used. Present classification systems lack clarity in distinguishing DNA-vaccinated animals from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which could raise issues in terms of...... licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production...
The opportunities and problems for hepatitis B vaccination programmes in prison settings are discussed. In particular, the advantages of modelling are stressed and an active case-finding approach is advocated. Measures for maintaining good case-holding are also discussed, and a 0, 1, 2 months vaccination regimen with 20 microg doses of vaccine is advocated for prison settings. A higher reference level for inferring adequate immunization is also recommended, with booster injections for inmates...
Desowitz, R S; Miller, L. H.
The data obtained with adjuvant—antigen vaccines against asexual malaria parasites in different host—parasite systems are reviewed. From these data the problems associated with antimalarial vaccine development and testing are considered. The requirement for an adjuvant to induce immunity and the type of adjuvant required depends primarily on the host. Since the immune response of man to malaria vaccines is unknown, it is impossible to predict which animal infection is most likely to be a fait...
Malaria is a parasitic disease of major global health significance that causes an estimated 2.7 million deaths each year. In this review we describe the burden of malaria and discuss the complicated life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for most of the deaths from the disease, before reviewing the evidence that suggests that a malaria vaccine is an attainable goal. Significant advances have recently been made in vaccine science, and we review new vaccine technologies a...
McGettigan, James P.
Rabies remains a global public health threat that kills more than 55,000 people per year. Rabies disproportionately affects children and, therefore, is ranked the seventh most important infectious disease due to years lost. Prevention of human rabies is accomplished by controlling rabies in domestic and wild animals, including the use of vaccination programs. The usefulness of human rabies vaccines is hampered by high cost, complicated vaccination regimens and lack of compliance, especially i...
Fisher-Hoch, S P; Hutwagner, L.; Brown, B.; McCormick, J. B.
Lassa fever has been estimated to cause 5,000 deaths annually in West Africa. Recently, war in the zone where Lassa fever is hyperendemic has severely impeded control and treatment. Vaccination is the most viable control measure. There is no correlation between antibody levels and outcome in human patients, and inactivated vaccines produce high titers of antibodies to all viral proteins but do not prevent virus replication and death in nonhuman primates. Accordingly, we vaccinated 44 macaques...
Kestenbaum, Lori A.; Feemster, Kristen A
In the 20th century, the introduction of multiple vaccines significantly reduced childhood morbidity, mortality, and disease outbreaks. Despite, and perhaps because of, their public health impact, an increasing number of parents and patients are choosing to delay or refuse vaccines. These individuals are described as vaccine hesitant. This phenomenon has developed due to the confluence of multiple social, cultural, political and personal factors. As immunization programs continue to expand, u...
This feature article discusses the basic principles of patentability as related to vaccine research, and outlines recent cases in the US and EU in which vaccine patents have been considered. Issues regarding eligibility for supplementary protection, as currently being considered by the Court of Justice of the EU, are also outlined, as well as the implications of such issues in protecting future vaccine research. PMID:21154148
Maria Siettou; Maria Saridi
In periods of seasonal influenza, during pandemic flu in the past and from recent experience that we have the emergence of influenza A (H1N1), pregnant compared with non-pregnant women are at increased risk to get sick and to develop serious complications up to mortality. Purpose: This paper examines the risks that arise for pregnant from contamination with the flu virus and the safety of influenza vaccination in pregnancy. Method: The method involves searching review and research studies in ...
Mann, Barbara J.; Ark, Nicole M
Tularemia, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis, can be contracted by the bite of an arthropod vector or by inhalation. This disease occurs relatively infrequently but can be severe and even life-threatening if untreated. Until recently, there were few laboratories studying this organism; however, concerns over its potential use as a biological weapon have led to renewed attention to F. tularensis research, particularly in the area of vaccine development. Advances in t...
Knisely, Jane M; Liu, Baoying; Ranallo, Ryan T; Zou, Lanling
As antibiotic resistance increases and the rate of antibiotic development slows, it is becoming more urgent to develop novel approaches to prevent and mitigate serious bacterial and fungal infections. Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), including those caused by Clostridium difficile, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and Candida species, are a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. HAIs are also a key driver of antibiotic use. Vaccines directed toward these pathogens could help prevent a large number of HAIs and associated antibiotic use if administered to targeted populations. Despite numerous scientific and operational challenges, there are vaccine candidates in late-stage clinical development for C. difficile, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa Basic, preclinical, and early clinical research to develop vaccines for other types of HAIs is also under way. In addition, other prophylactic immune interventions, such as monoclonal antibodies, for several of these pathogens are in advanced development. Here we describe the promise, challenges, and current pipeline of vaccines to prevent HAIs. PMID:27208045
Lesinski, G B; Westerink, M A
T cell independent antigens do not require T cell help to induce an immune response, and are characterized by a lack of immunologic memory. These antigens can be divided into two classes, TI-1 or TI-2. TI-1 antigens, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, are potent B-cell mitogens, capable of non-specific, polyclonal activation of B cells. In contrast, TI-2 antigens can only activate mature B cells and consist of highly repetitive structures, such as capsular polysaccharides (CPS) from bacteria. Many vaccines currently in use consist of purified capsular polysaccharides from pathogenic bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. These vaccines are efficacious in immune-competent adults, however, due to their TI-2 nature, are not effective in children <2 years of age. Converting polysaccharides into T cell dependent (TD) antigens, allows children, <2, to produce an effective immune response. This review focuses on various strategies used to convert the immune response to polysaccharide antigens from TI-2 to a TD response. Conjugate vaccines, anti-idiotypic antibodies, phage display library technology and DNA vaccines are discussed. PMID:11576678
As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not provide protection against the...
Burns, Cara C; Diop, Ousmane M; Sutter, Roland W; Kew, Olen M
The attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has many properties favoring its use in polio eradication: ease of administration, efficient induction of intestinal immunity, induction of durable humoral immunity, and low cost. Despite these advantages, OPV has the disadvantage of genetic instability, resulting in rare and sporadic cases of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and the emergence of genetically divergent vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs). Whereas VAPP is an adverse event following exposure to OPV, VDPVs are polioviruses whose genetic properties indicate prolonged replication or transmission. Three categories of VDPVs are recognized: (1) circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs) from outbreaks in settings of low OPV coverage, (2) immunodeficiency-associated VDPVs (iVDPVs) from individuals with primary immunodeficiencies, and (3) ambiguous VDPVs (aVDPVs), which cannot be definitively assigned to either of the first 2 categories. Because most VDPVs are type 2, the World Health Organization's plans call for coordinated worldwide replacement of trivalent OPV with bivalent OPV containing poliovirus types 1 and 3. PMID:25316847
Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Otieno, Walter Agingu; Brewer, Noel T.; Agot, Kawango; Smith, Jennifer S.
As human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines become available in less developed countries, understanding women’s attitudes towards HPV vaccines can help guide approaches to immunization programs. We assessed knowledge and interest in prophylactic HPV vaccines among Kenyan women seeking women’s health services (N=147). They knew little about cervical cancer or HPV vaccine. Most women (95%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 92%, 99%), however, were willing to have their daughters vaccinated with a vaccin...
Federman, Ross S
Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating. PMID:25506276
Hoffman, Stephen L; Vekemans, Johan; Richie, Thomas L; Duffy, Patrick E
In 2013 there were an estimated 584,000 deaths and 198 million clinical illnesses due to malaria, the majority in sub-Saharan Africa. Vaccines would be the ideal addition to the existing armamentarium of anti-malaria tools. However, malaria is caused by parasites, and parasites are much more complex in terms of their biology than the viruses and bacteria for which we have vaccines, passing through multiple stages of development in the human host, each stage expressing hundreds of unique antigens. This complexity makes it more difficult to develop a vaccine for parasites than for viruses and bacteria, since an immune response targeting one stage may not offer protection against a later stage, because different antigens are the targets of protective immunity at different stages. Furthermore, depending on the life cycle stage and whether the parasite is extra- or intra-cellular, antibody and/or cellular immune responses provide protection. It is thus not surprising that there is no vaccine on the market for prevention of malaria, or any human parasitic infection. In fact, no vaccine for any disease with this breadth of targets and immune responses exists. In this limited review, we focus on four approaches to malaria vaccines, (1) a recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccine aimed at Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite cycle (RTS,S/AS01), (2) whole sporozoite vaccines aimed at Pf pre-erythrocytic stages (PfSPZ Vaccine and PfSPZ-CVac), (3) prime boost vaccines that include recombinant DNA, viruses and bacteria, and protein with adjuvant aimed primarily at Pf pre-erythrocytic, but also asexual erythrocytic stages, and (4) recombinant protein with adjuvant vaccines aimed at Pf and Plasmodium vivax sexual erythrocytic and mosquito stages. We recognize that we are not covering all approaches to malaria vaccine development, or most of the critically important work on development of vaccines against P. vivax, the second most important cause of
Reiter, Paul L.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; KADIS, JESSICA A.; Brewer, Noel T.
In 2009, the United States approved quadrivalent HPV vaccine for males 9–26 years old, but data on vaccine uptake are lacking. We determined HPV vaccine uptake among adolescent males, as well as stage of adoption and vaccine acceptability to parents and their sons. A national sample of parents of adolescent males ages 11–17 years (n=547) and their sons (n=421) completed online surveys during August and September 2010. Analyses used multivariate linear regression. Few sons (2%) had received an...
Diarrhoea is a main concern for travellers, populations of developing countries and children. Causative pathogens are numerous. An efficient vaccine against cholera is available, also offering a 50% cross-protection against E. Coli enterotoxin (ETEC), however its efficacy is only 23% against all-causes traveller's diarrhoea. Rotavirus can be responsible for severe diarrhoea in infants but rarely causes traveller's diarrhoea. Two new vaccines being under development appear effective and well-tolerated but too expensive for developing countries which most need them. To date, the live oral Ty21a vaccine remains frequently prescribed in Switzerland, with limited indications and suboptimal efficacy. A new oral vaccine is under development. PMID:16767878
Full Text Available Genetically inactivated, Gram-negative bacteria that express malaria vaccine candidates represent a promising novel self-adjuvanting vaccine approach. Antigens expressed on particulate bacterial carriers not only target directly to antigen-presenting cells but also provide a strong danger signal thus circumventing the requirement for potent extraneous adjuvants. E. coli expressing malarial antigens resulted in the induction of either Th1 or Th2 biased responses that were dependent on both antigen and sub-cellular localization. Some of these constructs induced higher quality humoral responses compared to recombinant protein and most importantly they were able to induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in a murine model of malaria. In light of these encouraging results, two major Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic malaria vaccine targets, the Cell-Traversal protein for Ookinetes and Sporozoites (CelTOS fused to the Maltose-binding protein in the periplasmic space and the Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP fused to the Outer membrane protein A in the outer membrane were expressed in a clinically relevant, attenuated Shigella strain (Shigella flexneri 2a. This type of live attenuated vector has previously undergone clinical investigations as a vaccine against shigellosis. Using this novel delivery platform for malaria, we find that vaccination with the whole organism represents an effective vaccination alternative that induces protective efficacy against sporozoite challenge. Shigella GeMI-Vax expressing malaria targets warrant further evaluation to determine their full potential as a dual disease, multivalent, self-adjuvanting vaccine system, against both shigellosis and malaria.
Rupprecht, Charles E; Hanlon, Cathleen A; Blanton, Jesse; Manangan, Jamie; Morrill, Patricia; Murphy, Staci; Niezgoda, Michael; Orciari, Lillian A; Schumacher, Carolin L; Dietzschold, Bernhard
Oral rabies virus (RV) vaccines are used to immunize a diversity of mammalian carnivores, but no single biological is effective for all major species. Recently, advances in reverse genetics have allowed the design of recombinant RV for consideration as new vaccines. The objective of this experiment was to examine the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of recombinant RV vaccines administered to captive dogs by the oral route, compared to a commercial vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) recombinant virus vaccine. Animals consisted of naive purpose-bred beagles of both sexes, and were 6 months of age or older. Dogs were randomly assigned to one of six groups, and received either diluent or vaccine (PBS; V-RG; RV SN10-333; RV SPBN-Cyto c; RV SPBNGA; RV SPBNGAGA), with at least six animals per group. On day 0, 1 ml of each vaccine (or PBS) was administered to the oral cavity of each dog, at an approximate concentration of 10(8) to 10(9) TCID50. After vaccination, dogs were observed daily and bled weekly, for 5 weeks, prior to RV challenge. No signs of illness related to vaccination were detected during the observation period. Excluding the controls, RV neutralizing antibodies were detected in the majority of animals within 1-2 weeks of primary vaccination. Thereafter, all dogs were inoculated in the masseter muscle with a street virus of canine origin. All control animals developed rabies, but no vaccinates succumbed, with the exception of a single dog in the V-RG group. Review of these preliminary data demonstrates the non-inferiority of recombinant RV products, as concerns both safety and efficacy, and supports the suggestion that these vaccines may hold promise for future development as oral immunogens for important carnivore species, such as dogs. PMID:15896409
Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård
Campylobacter is the most commonly reported gastrointestinal bacterial pathogen in the European Union (EU) since 2005. Reportedly, 212,064 humans have been confirmed ill in 2010 due to a Campylobacter infection in the EU. The major source of infection, among sporadic human cases is to be found in...... the food chain, from farm-to-fork, where poultry meat is considered to be one of the major vehicles of Campylobacter infections in humans, accounting for 50–80% of reported cases. One way to reduce this economic loss to society is perhaps the introduction of a new Campylobacter vaccine, which could be...... the EU27 level. In this study, benefits are mainly assumed to comprise lower risk of illness due to Campylobacter infections, and hence increased labor productivity. In the modeled analysis presented in this paper, the possible price of the vaccine is estimated when it is assumed that: (i) the number...
Herl Jenlink, Carolyn; Kuehnert, Paul; Mazyck, Donna
The 2009 H1N1 influenza virus presented a major challenge to health departments, schools, and other community partners to effectively vaccinate large numbers of Americans, primarily children. The use of school-located vaccination (SLV) programs to address this challenge led health departments and schools to become creative in developing models for…
... these materials is included in a December 17, 1999 Federal Register notice (64 FR 70914). Proposed... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and...
To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)
The serological responses in vaccinated and multiple vaccinated cattle against non-structural proteins (NSP) of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus were measured using four commercially available assays. Vaccines were concentrated using polyethylene glycol to contain higher antigenic payloads that those routinely used. Animals received up to five doses of polyvalent oil vaccines over six months, administered by the intra-muscular route on d 0, 90, 130, 160 and 200. Serum samples were taken 30-40 d after each vaccination. At 60 d post vaccination the antibody response to each of the vaccine strains showed high levels of antibodies against structural proteins that correlated with protection against challenge above 81%. The detection of antibodies against NSP was made with two ELISAs using expressed 3ABC as antigen; one ELISA using peptides from 3B and an enzyme-immunotransfer blot assay (EITB). Locally produced ELISA-3ABC reagents and agar gel immunodiffusion using VIAA, were also evaluated. After four doses of vaccine, animals were negative in all the assays. After the fifth immunization, two of seventeen animals were reactive in one ELISA kit, but these samples proved negative by confirmatory tests. Antibodies against NSP were not detected in primo-vaccinated cattle used for potency tests using three batches of standard vaccine. The principle of the NSP ELISA as screening test for large sero surveys in South America is established and this paper emphasises the importance using vaccines that have no demonstrated interference with NSP ELISAs and the advantages of reducing the number of false-positives that would require further confirmation by other assays. (author)
Kim, Y C; Jarrahian, C; Zehrung, D; Mitragotri, S; Prausnitz, M R
Intradermal (ID) vaccination can offer improved immunity and simpler logistics of delivery, but its use in medicine is limited by the need for simple, reliable methods of ID delivery. ID injection by the Mantoux technique requires special training and may not reliably target skin, but is nonetheless used currently for BCG and rabies vaccination. Scarification using a bifurcated needle was extensively used for smallpox eradication, but provides variable and inefficient delivery into the skin. Recently, ID vaccination has been simplified by introduction of a simple-to-use hollow microneedle that has been approved for ID injection of influenza vaccine in Europe. Various designs of hollow microneedles have been studied preclinically and in humans. Vaccines can also be injected into skin using needle-free devices, such as jet injection, which is receiving renewed clinical attention for ID vaccination. Projectile delivery using powder and gold particles (i.e., gene gun) have also been used clinically for ID vaccination. Building off the scarification approach, a number of preclinical studies have examined solid microneedle patches for use with vaccine coated onto metal microneedles, encapsulated within dissolving microneedles or added topically to skin after microneedle pretreatment, as well as adapting tattoo guns for ID vaccination. Finally, technologies designed to increase skin permeability in combination with a vaccine patch have been studied through the use of skin abrasion, ultrasound, electroporation, chemical enhancers, and thermal ablation. The prospects for bringing ID vaccination into more widespread clinical practice are encouraging, given the large number of technologies for ID delivery under development. PMID:21472533
Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent’s scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Uptodate molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and shortterm and longterm fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.
Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael
defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa......, resistance and QS inhibition as future antimicrobial targets, in particular those that would work to minimize selection pressures for the development of resistant bacteria.......Biofilm resilience poses major challenges to the development of novel antimicrobial agents. Biofilm bacteria can be considered small groups of “Special Forces” capable of infiltrating the host and destroying important components of the cellular defense system with the aim of crippling the host...
Tabi, Z; Man, S
The first generation of human cancer vaccines has been tested in phase III clinical trials, but only a few of these have demonstrated sufficient efficacy to be licensed for clinical use. This article reviews some of the mechanisms that could contribute to these limited clinical responses, and highlights the challenges faced for development of future vaccines. PMID:16979786
Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from ... Immunization Practices (ACIP) released new guidelines that recommend hepatitis B vaccination for all unvaccinated adults with diabetes who are ...
Painter, Julia E.; Sales, Jessica M.; Pazol, Karen; Wingood, Gina M.; Windle, Michael; Orenstein, Walter A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.
Background: School-based vaccination programs may provide an effective strategy to immunize adolescents against influenza. This study examined whether adolescent attitudes toward influenza vaccination mediated the relationship between receipt of a school-based influenza vaccination intervention and vaccine uptake. Methods: Participants were…
Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new vaccines. Defining the correlates of vaccine protection is essential to achieve this goal. In this study, we used the wild boar model for mycobacterial infection and TB to characterize the protective mechanisms elicited by a new heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV. Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special impact on the prevention of pulmonary disease, which is one of the limitations of current vaccines. Oral vaccination with the IV induced an adaptive antibody response and activation of the innate immune response including the complement component C3 and inflammasome. Mycobacterial DNA/RNA was not involved in inflammasome activation but increased C3 production by a still unknown mechanism. The results also suggested a protective mechanism mediated by the activation of IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells by MHC I antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs in response to vaccination with the IV, without a clear role for Th1 CD4+ T cells. These results support a role for DCs in triggering the immune response to the IV through a mechanism similar to the phagocyte response to PAMPs with a central role for C3 in protection against mycobacterial infection. Higher C3 levels may allow increased opsonophagocytosis and effective bacterial clearance, while interfering with CR3-mediated opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis of mycobacteria, a process that could be enhanced by specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins induced by vaccination with the IV. These results suggest that the IV acts through novel mechanisms to protect against TB in wild boar.
Full Text Available Human newborns and infants are bombarded with multiple pathogens on leaving the sterile intra-uterine environment, and yet have suboptimal innate immunity and limited immunological memory, thus leading to increased susceptibility to infections in early life. They are thus the target age group for a host of vaccines against common bacterial and viral pathogens. They are also the target group for many vaccines in development, including those against tuberculosis (TB, malaria and HIV infection. However, neonatal and infant responses to many vaccines are suboptimal, and in the case of the polysaccharide vaccines, it has been necessary to develop the alternative conjugated formulations in order to induce immunity in early life. Immunoregulatory factors are an intrinsic component of natural immunity necessary to dampen or control immune responses, with the caveat that they may also decrease immunity to infections or lead to chronic infection. This review explores the key immunoregulatory factors at play in early life, with a particular emphasis on regulatory T cells (Tregs. It goes on to explore the role that Tregs play in limting vaccine immunogenicity, and describes animal and human studies in which Tregs have been depleted in order to enhance vaccine responses. A deeper understanding of the role that Tregs play in limiting or controlling vaccine induced immunity would provide strategies to improve vaccine immunogenicity in this critical age group. New adjuvants and drugs are being developed that can transiently suppress Treg function, and their use as part of human vaccination strategies against infections is becoming a real prospect for the future.
Hu, Yong-hua; Deng, Tian; Sun, Bo-guang; Sun, Li
Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen that can infect a wide range of marine animals. In previous studies, we have reported a virulent V. harveyi strain, T4D. In the present study, an attenuated mutant of T4D, T4DM, was obtained by selection of rifampicin resistance. Compared to the wild type, T4DM was different in whole-cell protein profile and much slower in growth rate when cultured in stress conditions caused by iron depletion. Virulence analysis showed that compared to T4D, T4DM exhibited a dramatically increased median lethal dose, impaired tissue dissemination capacity, defective hemolytic activity, and significantly reduced resistance against the killing effect of host serum. To examine the potential of T4DM as a live attenuated vaccine, Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) were vaccinated with T4DM via intraperitoneal injection or immersion. The results showed that at one and two months post-vaccination, fish administered with T4DM via both approaches, in particular that of immersion, were effectively protected against not only V. harveyi but also Vibrio alginolyticus, another important fish pathogen. Microbiological analysis showed that following immersion vaccination, T4DM was recovered from the internal organs of the vaccinated fish in a time-dependent manner within the first 6 days post-vaccination. Serum antibodies against V. harveyi and V. alginolyticus were detected in T4DM-vaccinated fish, and, compared to serum from control fish, serum from T4DM-vaccinated fish was significantly enhanced in bactericidal activity. These results indicate that T4DM is an attenuated strain with residual infectivity and that T4DM can induce effective cross-species protection against both V. harveyi and V. alginolyticus when used as a live immersion vaccine. PMID:22484605
Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.
in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...... viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies...... for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fish have been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain...
Molehin, Adebayo J; Rojo, Juan U; Siddiqui, Sabrina Z; Gray, Sean A; Carter, Darrick; Siddiqui, Afzal A
Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) of public health importance. Despite decades of implementation of mass praziquantel therapy programs and other control measures, schistosomiasis has not been contained and continues to spread to new geographic areas. A schistosomiasis vaccine could play an important role as part of a multifaceted control approach. With regards to vaccine development, many biological bottlenecks still exist: the lack of reliable surrogates of protection in humans; immune interactions in co-infections with other diseases in endemic areas; the potential risk of IgE responses to antigens in endemic populations; and paucity of appropriate vaccine efficacy studies in nonhuman primate models. Research is also needed on the role of modern adjuvants targeting specific parts of the innate immune system to tailor a potent and protective immune response for lead schistosome vaccine candidates with the long-term aim to achieve curative worm reduction. This review summarizes the current status of schistosomiasis vaccine development. PMID:26651503
Silman, Nigel J; Rivera, Liza M; Wheat, Jenifer
The Phacilitate Vaccine Forum comprised numerous plenary sessions and panel discussions. The highlights of the meeting were the discussion of new adjuvant technologies able to specifically target the immune system to drive the response down the required route. Also of topical interest was a session on the challenges of the current influenza pandemic, and strategies for vaccination and control of the disease. Finally, the session covering vaccines for tropical and emerging infectious diseases highlighted some of the niche vaccines that are being developed, in particular those for dengue and West Nile viruses, which show great promise. In addition to scientific promise, the value proposition for vaccine development in a risk-averse economy was outlined, citing expected growth in the worldwide market of more than US$25 billion within 5 years. This proposition was supported by the overviews of disposable and 'flex factory' manufacturing technologies, providing cost and time efficiencies in product development, which are especially critical for the emerging markets. PMID:19803754
The call for a new decade of vaccines was made in December 2010. The aims are to secure the further discovery, development and delivery of vaccination. The first challenge is the acquisition of funds for the research and development of 20 new vaccines1. The Gates Foundation has pledged $10 billion for this venture. The other major players are WHO, UNICEF and the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. The top priorities are TB, AIDS and Malaria. It is hoped that a Malaria vaccine will available in 3 years. The ambitious target of saving the lives of over 7 million children has been set. The programme must also address the need for vaccines in insulin dependent diabetes, cancers and degenerative diseases2.
Full Text Available Schistosomiasis, the second major parasitic disease in the world after malaria affects at least 200 million people, 500 million being exposed to the risk of infection. It is widely agreed that a vaccine strategy wich could lead to the induction of effector mechanisms reducing the level of reinfection and ideally parasite fecundity would deeply affect the incidence of pathological manifestations as well as the parasite transmission potentialities. Extensive studies performed in the rat model have allowed the identification of novel effector mechanisms involving IgE antibodies and various inflammatory cell populations (eosinophils, macrophages and platelets whereas regulation of immune response by blocking antibodies has been evidencial. Recent epidemiological studies have now entirely confirmed in human populations the the role of IgE antibodies in the acquisition of resistance and the association of IgG4 blocking antibodies with increased susceptibility. On the basis of these concepts, several schistosome glutathion S-transferase (Sm 28 GST appears as a pronising vaccine candidate. Immunization experiments have shown that two complementary goals can be achieved: (a a partial but significant reduction of the worm population (up to 60//in rats; (b a significant reduction of parasite fecundity (up in the mice and 85//in cattle and egg viability (up to 80//. At least two distinct immunological mechanisms account for these two effects. IgE antibodies appear as a major humoral component of acquired resistance whereas IgA antibodies appear as a major humoral factor affecting parasite fecundity. These studies seem to represent a parasite diseases through the identification of potentially protective antigens and of the components of the immune response which vaccination should aim at inducing.
Lim, Jacqueline Kyungah; Lee, Yong-Seok; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Thiry, Georges; Mahoney, Richard; Yoon, In-Kyu
Dengue is a public health problem in the tropics and subtropics. There are several vaccine candidates in clinical development. However, there may be gaps in the new vaccine introduction after vaccine licensure before it becomes available in developing countries. In anticipation of the first dengue vaccine candidate to be licensed, Dengue Vaccine Initiative (DVI) and, its predecessor, Pediatric Dengue Vaccine Initiative (PDVI) have been working on points for consideration to accelerate evidence-based dengue vaccine introduction, once a vaccine becomes available. In this paper, we review the history of PDVI and its successor, the DVI, and elaborate on the points of consideration for dengue vaccine introduction. PMID:26651238
Crawford, Donald L.; Ramachandra, Muralidhara
A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.
... or scraped, the injury should be washed with soap and water and covered with a sterile bandage. Petrolatum may be applied to open areas to keep the tissue moist and to try to prevent bacterial invasion. Doctors recommend that people do not use ...
Microflora of fruit surfaces has been the best source of antagonists against fungi causing postharvest decays of fruit. However, there is little information on microflora colonizing surfaces of fruits other than grapes, apples, and citrus fruit. We characterized bacterial microflora on nectarine f...
Joung, Sun Myung; Ryoo, Sungweon
The anti-tuberculosis Bacille de Calmette et Guérin (BCG) vaccine was developed between 1905 and 1921 at Pasteur Institutes of Lille in France, and was adopted by many countries. BCG strains comprise natural mutants of major virulence factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and that BCG sub-strains differ markedly in virulence levels. The tuberculosis became endemic in Korea after the Korean War (1950s). The BCG strain, which was donated by Pasteur Institutes, was brought to Korea in 1955, and ...
In this 30 second public service announcement, a mother talks about the importance of protecting 11-12 year-old boys and girls with HPV vaccination. (Una madre habla sobre la importancia de proteger a los niÃ±os y las niÃ±as de 11 a 12 aÃ±os con la vacuna contra el VPH.). Created: 1/15/2014 by National Center for Immunizations and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). Date Released: 1/15/2014.
Guo, Rongxian; Geng, Shizhong; Jiao, Hongmei; Pan, Zhiming; Chen, Xiang; Jiao, Xinan
Salmonella Gallinarum biovar Pullorum is the causative agent of pullorum disease in poultry, an acute systemic disease that results in a high mortality rate in young chickens. Vaccines have been considered in many developing countries where levels of infection are high and eradication is not a realistic option. An attenuated strain combined with protein E-mediated cell lysis was used to generate a safety enhanced Salmonella Pullorum ghost vaccine. Immune responses and protection induced by ghost vaccine in chickens were investigated following a prime-boost immunization administered via intramuscular and oral routes. Chickens from vaccinated groups showed significant increases in antigen-specific IgG, especially after booster immunization. Lymphocyte proliferation responses were also significantly increased in all immunized groups at 2-weeks post-final vaccination. The Salmonella Pullorum ghost vaccine provided satisfactory protection against virulent Salmonella Pullorum infection, as shown by the robust stimulation of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses as well as the reduction in the number of bacterial recovered post-challenge. Moreover, the immune effects and survival rates indicated intramuscular injection is more efficient than oral vaccination. In conclusion, our results suggest that Salmonella Pullorum ghosts may be used as a safe and effective novel inactivated vaccine candidate to protect against virulent Salmonella Pullorum infection. PMID:27090623
Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Jaafar, Rzgar M; Krossøy, Bjørn; Kania, Per W; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt
When testing vaccine-induced protection an effective and reliable challenge method is a basic requirement and we here present a comparative study on different challenge methods used for infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with Aeromonas salmonicida, a bacterial pathogen eliciting furunculosis. Fish were vaccinated with three different adjuvanted trivalent vaccines containing formalin killed A. salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum O1 and O2a. These were 1) the commercial vaccine Alpha Ject 3000, 2) an experimental vaccine with water in paraffin oil adjuvant, 3) an experimental vaccine with water in paraffin oil in water adjuvant. Fish were then exposed to A. salmonicida challenge using i.p. injection, cohabitation in freshwater, cohabitation in saltwater (15 ppt) or combined fresh/saltwater cohabitation. Cohabitation reflects a more natural infection mode and was shown to give better differentiation of vaccine types compared to i.p. injection of live bacteria. The latter infection mode is less successful probably due to the intra-abdominal inflammatory reactions (characterized in this study according to the Speilberg scale) induced by i.p. vaccination whereby injected live bacteria more effectively become inactivated at the site of injection. Compared to cohabitation in freshwater, cohabitation in saltwater was less efficient probably due to reduced survivability of A. salmonicida in saltwater, which was also experimentally verified in vitro. PMID:25783001
Pérez de Val, Bernat; Vidal, Enric; López-Soria, Sergio; Marco, Alberto; Cervera, Zoraida; Martín, Maite; Mercader, Irene; Singh, Mahavir; Raeber, Alex; Domingo, Mariano
Vaccination of domestic animals has emerged as an alternative long-term strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB). A trial under field conditions was conducted in a TB-free goat herd to assess the safety of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Eleven kids and 10 milking goats were vaccinated with BCG. Bacterial shedding and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses were monitored throughout the study. Comprehensive pathological examination and mycobacterial culture of target tissues were performed. BCG vaccine strain was only isolated from the draining lymph node of the injection site of a kid euthanized at week 8 post-vaccination. The remaining animals were euthanized at week 24. Six out of 20 showed small granulomas at the injection site. BCG shedding was not detected in either faeces or in milk throughout the study. All vaccinated kids showed BCG-induced IFN-γ responses at week 8 post-vaccination. BCG vaccination of goats showed no lack of biological safety for the animals, environment and public health, and local adverse reactions were negligible. PMID:26795364
Birkett, Ashley J
Despite recent progress in reducing deaths attributable to malaria, it continues to claim approximately 500,000 lives per year and is associated with approximately 200 million infections. New tools, including safe and effective vaccines, are needed to ensure that the gains of the last 15 years are leveraged toward achieving the ultimate goal of malaria parasite eradication. In 2015, the European Medicines Agency announced the adoption of a positive opinion for the malaria vaccine candidate most advanced in development, RTS,S/AS01, which provides modest protection against clinical malaria; in early 2016, WHO recommended large-scale pilot implementations of RTS,S in settings of moderate-to-high malaria transmission. In alignment with these advancements, the community goals and preferred product characteristics for next-generation vaccines have been updated to inform the development of vaccines that are highly efficacious in preventing clinical malaria, and those needed to accelerate parasite elimination. Next-generation vaccines, targeting all stages of the parasite lifecycle, are in early-stage development with the most advanced in Phase 2 trials. Importantly, progress is being made in the definition of feasible regulatory pathways to accelerate timelines, including for vaccines designed to interrupt transmission of parasites from humans to mosquitoes. The continued absence of financially lucrative, high-income markets to drive investment in malaria vaccine development points to continued heavy reliance on public and philanthropic funding. PMID:26993333
Evans, Thomas G; Schrager, Lew; Thole, Jelle
TB is now the single pathogen that causes the greatest mortality in the world, at over 1.6 million deaths each year. The widely used the 90 year old BCG vaccine appears to have minimal impact on the worldwide incidence despite some efficacy in infants. Novel vaccine development has accelerated in the past 15 years, with 15 candidates entering human trials; two vaccines are now in large-scale efficacy studies. Modeling by three groups has consistently shown that mass vaccination that includes activity in the latently infected population, especially adolescents and young adults, will likely have the largest impact on new disease transmission. At present the field requires better validated animal models, better understanding of a correlate of immunity, new cost-effective approaches to Proof of Concept trials, and increased appreciation by the public health and scientific community for the size of the problem and the need for a vaccine. Such a vaccine is likely to also play a role in the era of increasing antibiotic resistance. Ongoing efforts and studies are working to implement these needs over the next 5 years, which will lead to an understanding that will increase the likelihood of a successful TB vaccine. PMID:26973073
Wobeser, Bruce K.
During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found.
Wobeser, Bruce K
During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found. PMID:25829553
The administration of meningitis vaccinations to the college population has recently been the topic of much discussion. Much of the controversy has surrounded the promotion of widespread vaccinations or educational campaigns about the vaccine for incoming freshman students. Recommendations about the use of meningococcal vaccines for college…
... problems, or severe scars from skin grafts. Meningococcal group B (MenB) vaccine can help prevent meningococcal disease ... What are meningococcal group B vaccines?Two meningococcal group B vaccines have been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration. These vaccines are ...
What is HPV vaccine?Gardasil-9 is one of three FDA-approved HPV vaccines. It is recommended for both males and females. ... Who should not get HPV vaccine or should wait?Anyone who has had a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction to a dose of HPV vaccine should ...
Miranda, Karina Leite; Poester, Fernando Padilla; Minharro, Silvia; Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; Stynen, Ana Paula Reinato; Lage, Andrey Pereira
Live attenuated Brucella abortus S19 is the most effective vaccine against brucellosis in cattle. The assessment of the immunological parameters is essential to guarantee the biological quality of live anti-bacteria vaccines. The evaluation of genetic stability of live bacterial vaccines is also important in quality control. The aims of the present study were to compare (i) the immunogenicity and residual virulence, and (ii) the genotypic profile (MLVA15) of the eight S19 vaccines commercialized in Brazil to the USDA S19 reference strain. Two batches of each of the eight S19 commercial vaccines used in Brazil (A-H) were tested. They were submitted to the potency and residual virulence in vivo tests recommended by OIE and typed by the multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) described for Brucella spp. Our results demonstrated that all S19 vaccines commercialized in Brazil would be approved by Brazilian and OIE recommendations for potency and residual virulence. Furthermore, the S19 vaccine is genetically very homogeneous, as all but two batches (from the same manufacturer) tested showed identical MLVA15 profile. The two batches with different profiles presented six repeat units in locus Bruce07, instead of the five found in all other strains, including the USDA S19 reference strain. Although presenting a slightly different profile, this vaccine was also protective, as demonstrated by the immunogenicity and residual virulence assays performed. Therefore, the commercial Brazilian S19 vaccines were in accordance to Brazilian and international standards for immunogenicity and residual virulence tests. Moreover, our results also show that MLVA could be a useful inclusion to the list of in vitro tests required by the official control authorities to be applied to the commercial S19 vaccines, as an efficient assay to guarantee the quality and stability of the vaccine strains. PMID:23664986
Contreras, Heidi; Chim, Nicholas; Credali, Alfredo; Goulding, Celia W.
Iron is an essential nutrient for the survival of organisms. Bacterial pathogens possess specialized pathways to acquire heme from their human hosts. In this review, we present recent structural and biochemical data that provide mechanistic insights into several bacterial heme uptake pathways, encompassing the sequestration of heme from human hemoproteins to secreted or membrane-associated bacterial proteins, the transport of heme across bacterial membranes, and the degradation of heme within...
Zweig, Stephen E
Electronic time-temperature indicator (eTTI) monitors can be programmed to exactly follow the stability characteristics of vaccines with a high degree of realism. The monitors have a visual output, enabling vaccine status to be assessed at a glance, and can also output more detailed statistical data. When packaged with vaccine vials in groups of about 10 vials per box, the eTTI can remain with a vaccine throughout most of the vaccine's lifetime. The monitors can detect essentially all cold-chain breaks, and can detect issues, such as inadvertent freezing, that are presently not detected by other vaccine stability monitors such as Vaccine Vial Monitors (VVM). PMID:16759766
Oliveira Alexandre Nunes de
Full Text Available In order to determine the best type of rabies vaccine to use as a booster, 78 serological samples from singly vaccinated cattle were analyzed by counterimmunoelectrophoresis technique. The animals were divided into several groups, received the first vaccine dose with modified live virus vaccine (ERA strain and were revaccinated with inactivated virus or modified live virus vaccines. Boosters were given at 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks following first vaccination. Results showed high titres in the cases of booster with inactivated vaccine. In all cases, however, detectable antibody titres declined quickly.
Opel, Douglas J; Marcuse, Edgar K
Recently in this journal, David Ropeik argued for imposing additional burdens upon individuals who refused vaccines for themselves or for their children. Specifically, Ropeik advocated for policies that would decrease the ease of claiming vaccine exemptions and restricting unvaccinated children participation in social activities. We argue that, in order to derive the optimal societal benefit from modern vaccinology in an era of vaccine hesitancy, we need to consider doing more than conventional remodeling of current policies. We may need to fundamentally redesign and rebuild. PMID:24084386
van Roosmalen, ML; Kanninga, R; El Khattabi, M; Neef, J; Audouy, S; Bosma, T; Kuipers, A; Post, E; Steen, A; Kok, J; Buist, G; Kuipers, OP; Robillard, G; Leenhouts, K
Mucosal immunization with subunit vaccines requires new types of antigen delivery vehicles and adjuvants for optimal immune responses. We have developed a non-living and non-genetically modified gram-positive bacterial delivery particle (GEM) that has built-in adjuvant activity and a high loading ca
Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Jaafar, Rzgar M.;
When testing vaccine-induced protection an effective and reliable challenge method is a basic requirement and we here present a comparative study on different challenge methods used for infection of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss with Aeromonas salmonicida, a bacterial pathogen eliciting furun...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reported coverage rates of first and second doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV are almost 95% in China, while measles cases are constantly being reported. This study evaluated the vaccine coverage, timeliness, and barriers to immunization of MCV1 and MCV2 in children aged from 8-48 months. METHODS: We assessed 718 children aged 8-48 months, of which 499 children aged 18-48 months in September 2011. Face to face interviews were administered with children's mothers to estimate MCV1 and MCV2 coverage rate, its timeliness and barriers to vaccine uptake. RESULTS: The coverage rates were 76.9% for MCV1 and 44.7% for MCV2 in average. Only 47.5% of surveyed children received the MCV1 timely, which postpone vaccination by up to one month beyond the stipulated age of 8 months. Even if coverage thus improves with time, postponed vaccination adds to the pool of unprotected children in the population. Being unaware of the necessity for vaccination and its schedule, misunderstanding of side-effect of vaccine, and child being sick during the recommended vaccination period were significant preventive factors for both MCV1 and MCV2 vaccination. Having multiple children, mother's education level, household income and children with working mothers were significantly associated with delayed or missing MCV1 immunization. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid future outbreaks, it is crucial to attain high coverage levels by timely vaccination, thus, accurate information should be delivered and a systematic approach should be targeted to high-risk groups.
It appears to be entirely appropriate for pharmacists to administer vaccinations if restricted to a limited number of vaccines and a well-defined set of recipients. Recommended types of vaccines would be inert vaccines with no contraindications, including flu vaccines, booster shots for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and polio, and HPV vaccines for the prevention of cervical cancer. Recipients targeted for these types of vaccinations would only be adults and adolescents. In addition, pharmacist-administered vaccinations would not be recommended for pregnant women, people with immunodeficiencies, chronic diseases, or cystic fibrosis, people under treatment (anticoagulants) or with known allergies, and haemophiliacs. They would not be recommended either when needed in the context of employment and for traveling abroad. Training is essential to manage the successful implementation of a pharmacist-administered vaccination program (maintaining cold storage, monitoring, space allocation, vaccination administration process, preventive measures, quick recognition and management of anaphylactic chock…). PMID:23177558
Sachs, Joel L.; Skophammer, Ryan G.; Regus, John U.
Diverse bacterial lineages form beneficial infections with eukaryotic hosts. The origins, evolution, and breakdown of these mutualisms represent important evolutionary transitions. To examine these key events, we synthesize data from diverse interactions between bacteria and eukaryote hosts. Five evolutionary transitions are investigated, including the origins of bacterial associations with eukaryotes, the origins and subsequent stable maintenance of bacterial mutualism with hosts, the captur...
Courtney L Davis
Full Text Available We establish a mathematical framework for studying immune interactions with Shigella, a bacteria that kills over one million people worldwide every year. The long-term goal of this novel approach is to inform Shigella vaccine design by elucidating which immune components and bacterial targets are crucial for establishing Shigella immunity. Our delay differential equation model focuses on antibody and B cell responses directed against antigens like lipopolysaccharide in Shigella's outer membrane. We find that antibody-based vaccines targeting only surface antigens cannot elicit sufficient immunity for protection. Additional boosting prior to infection would require a four-orders-of-magnitude increase in antibodies to sufficiently prevent epithelial invasion. However, boosting anti-LPS B memory can confer protection, which suggests these cells may correlate with immunity. We see that IgA antibodies are slightly more effective per molecule than IgG, but more total IgA is required due to spatial functionality. An extension of the model reveals that targeting both LPS and epithelial entry proteins is a promising avenue to advance vaccine development. This paper underscores the importance of multifaceted immune targeting in creating an effective Shigella vaccine. It introduces mathematical models to the Shigella vaccine development effort and lays a foundation for joint theoretical/experimental/clinical approaches to Shigella vaccine design.
Salonius, K; Siderakis, C; MacKinnon, A M; Griffiths, S G
Arthrobacter davidanieli (proposed species nomenclature) is a non-pathogenic Gram-variable bacterium related to, but taxonomically distinct from, Renibacterium salmoninarum, the aetiological agent of bacterial kidney disease (BKD). We have demonstrated that vaccination with live A. davidanieli is effective against BKD in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) showing above 80 relative percent survival in experimental challenge trials. Good protection was also demonstrated in long-term field trials where Atlantic salmon were naturally exposed to R. salmoninarum challenge until 23 months after vaccination. The same vaccine, which is licensed in Canada against BKD has also proved effective in reducing mortality from experimental challenge of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) with Piscirickettsia salmonis, the causative agent of piscirickettsiosis. Under field conditions in Chile, use of the vaccine led to a significant reduction in piscirickettsiosis mortality in coho salmon over 10 months following sea transfer. The vaccine strain is unique in that it is the first live organism to be licensed as a vaccine for use in aquaculture. Potential mechanisms of protection against the two taxonomically disparate pathogens are discussed. PMID:15962482
Full Text Available After Edward Jenner established human vaccination over 200 years ago, attenuated poxviruses became key players to contain the deadliest virus of its own family: Variola virus (VARV, the causative agent of smallpox. Cowpox virus (CPXV and horsepox virus (HSPV were extensively used to this end, passaged in cattle and humans until the appearance of vaccinia virus (VACV, which was used in the final campaigns aimed to eradicate the disease, an endeavor that was accomplished by the World Health Organization (WHO in 1980. Ever since, naturally evolved strains used for vaccination were introduced into research laboratories where VACV and other poxviruses with improved safety profiles were generated. Recombinant DNA technology along with the DNA genome features of this virus family allowed the generation of vaccines against heterologous diseases, and the specific insertion and deletion of poxvirus genes generated an even broader spectrum of modified viruses with new properties that increase their immunogenicity and safety profile as vaccine vectors. In this review, we highlight the evolution of poxvirus vaccines, from first generation to the current status, pointing out how different vaccines have emerged and approaches that are being followed up in the development of more rational vaccines against a wide range of diseases.
Chong, Pele; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Chow, Yen-Hung; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Klein, Michel
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses are the major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks worldwide and have a significant socioeconomic impact, particularly in Asia. Formalin-inactivated (FI) EV71 vaccines evaluated in human clinical trials in China, Taiwan, and Singapore were found to be safe and to elicit strong neutralizing antibody responses against EV71 currently circulating in Asia. The results from 3 different phase 3 clinical trials performed in young children (6-60 months) indicate that the efficacy of FI-EV71 vaccines is >90% against EV71-related HFMDs and >80% against EV71-associated serious diseases, but the vaccines did not protect against coxsackievirus A16 infections. Here we discuss the critical factors affecting EV71 vaccine product registration, including clinical epidemiology, antigenic shift issues in cross-protection and vaccine strain selection, standardized animal models for potency testing, and cost-effective manufacturing processes for potential incorporation of FI-EV71 vaccine into Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines. PMID:25352588
Masadeh, Majed M; Alzoubi, Karem H; Al-Azzam, Sayer I; Al-Agedi, Hassan S; Abu Rashid, Baraa E; Mukattash, Tariq L
Immunization can contribute to a dramatic reduction in number of vaccine-preventable diseases among children. The aim of this study is to investigate mothers' awareness about child vaccines and vaccination in Jordan. This study was a community-based, cross-sectional study that was performed at public places in Irbid City. Data was collected from 506 mothers. After verbal approval, mothers were interviewed to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and practice toward vaccination. Results show that majority of mothers had acceptable knowledge and positive attitude toward vaccination. Most of mothers (94.7-86.8%) were able to identify vaccines that are mandatory as per the national vaccination program. Lower knowledge was observed among mothers (71.6%) for HIB vaccination being mandatory. Most mothers (97.2%) had vaccination card for their baby form the national vaccination programs. Vaccination delay was reported by about 36.6% of mothers and was shown to be associated with significantly (P = 0.001) lower vaccination knowledge/attitude score. Additionally, mothers who reported to be regularly offered information about vaccination during visits and those who identified medical staff members as their major information source had significantly higher vaccination knowledge/attitude score (P = 0.002). In conclusion, vaccination coverage rate is high; however, some aspects of knowledge, attitudes, and practice of vaccination need to be improved. Knowledge and attitudes of mothers were directly associated with their practice of vaccination. Medical staff education about vaccination during each visit seems to be the most effective tool that directly reflects on better practice of vaccination such as reducing the possibility for vaccination delay. PMID:24732060
Thera, Mahamadou A.; Plowe, Christopher V.
Vaccines are the most powerful public health tools mankind has created, but malaria parasites are bigger, more complicated, and wilier than the viruses and bacteria that have been conquered or controlled with vaccines. Despite decades of research toward a vaccine for malaria, this goal has remained elusive. Nevertheless, recent advances justify optimism that a licensed malaria vaccine is within reach. A subunit recombinant protein vaccine that affords in the neighborhood of 50% protective eff...
Choi, Hyo-Jick; Yoo, Dae-Goon; Bondy, Brian J.; Quan, Fu-Shi; Compans, Richard W.; Kang, Sang-Moo; Mark R Prausnitz
A microneedle patch coated with vaccine simplifies vaccination by using a patch-based delivery method and targets vaccination to the skin for superior immunogenicity compared to intramuscular injection. Previous studies of microneedles have demonstrated effective vaccination using freshly prepared microneedles, but the issue of long-term vaccine stability has received only limited attention. Here, we studied the long-term stability of microneedles coated with whole inactivated influenza vacci...
Shin, So Youn
Despite the tremendous efforts to develop a successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine, the quest for a safe and effective HIV vaccine seems to be remarkably long and winding. Disappointing results from previous clinical trials of VaxGen's AIDSVAXgp120 vaccine and MRKAd5 HIV-1 Gag/Pol/Nef vaccine emphasize that understanding the correlates of immune protection in HIV infection is the key to solve the puzzle. The modest vaccine efficacy from RV144 trial and the successive results ob...
Hildegund C J Ertl
Full Text Available Rabies, the most fatal of all infectious diseases, remains a major public health problem in developing countries, claiming the lives of an estimated 55,000 people each year. Most fatal rabies cases, with more than half of them in children, result from dog bites and occur among low-income families in Southeast Asia and Africa. Safe and efficacious vaccines are available to prevent rabies. However, they have to be given repeatedly, three times for pre-exposure vaccination and four to five times for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP. In cases of severe exposure, a regimen of vaccine combined with a rabies immunoglobulin (RIG preparation is required. The high incidence of fatal rabies is linked to a lack of knowledge on the appropriate treatment of bite wounds, lack of access to costly PEP, and failure to follow up with repeat immunizations. New, more immunogenic but less costly rabies virus vaccines are needed to reduce the toll of rabies on human lives. A preventative vaccine used for the immunization of children, especially those in high incidence countries, would be expected to lower fatality rates. Such a vaccine would have to be inexpensive, safe, and provide sustained protection, preferably after a single dose. Novel regimens are also needed for PEP to reduce the need for the already scarce and costly RIG and to reduce the number of vaccine doses to one or two. In this review, the pipeline of new rabies vaccines that are in pre-clinical testing is provided and an opinion on those that might be best suited as potential replacements for the currently used vaccines is offered.
Ertl, Hildegund C J
Rabies, the most fatal of all infectious diseases, remains a major public health problem in developing countries, claiming the lives of an estimated 55,000 people each year. Most fatal rabies cases, with more than half of them in children, result from dog bites and occur among low-income families in Southeast Asia and Africa. Safe and efficacious vaccines are available to prevent rabies. However, they have to be given repeatedly, three times for pre-exposure vaccination and four to five times for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). In cases of severe exposure, a regimen of vaccine combined with a rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) preparation is required. The high incidence of fatal rabies is linked to a lack of knowledge on the appropriate treatment of bite wounds, lack of access to costly PEP, and failure to follow up with repeat immunizations. New, more immunogenic but less costly rabies virus vaccines are needed to reduce the toll of rabies on human lives. A preventative vaccine used for the immunization of children, especially those in high incidence countries, would be expected to lower fatality rates. Such a vaccine would have to be inexpensive, safe, and provide sustained protection, preferably after a single dose. Novel regimens are also needed for PEP to reduce the need for the already scarce and costly RIG and to reduce the number of vaccine doses to one or two. In this review, the pipeline of new rabies vaccines that are in pre-clinical testing is provided and an opinion on those that might be best suited as potential replacements for the currently used vaccines is offered. PMID:19787033
Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Hyldig, Grethe; Przybylska, Dominika Alicja;
Sensory quality of fish meat is influenced by many parameters prior to slaughter. In the present study, it was examined if previous infections or damages in the muscle tissue influence product quality parameters in fish. Fillets from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in seawater at a com......-smoked instead of being sold as raw meat. The established correlation between disease history stresses the importance of disease prevention in aquaculture production, e.g., vaccination of the fish....... commercial fish farm were sensory evaluated for more than a year after recovery following physical tissue damage or infection by the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum. The effect of vaccination was also included as some fish were vaccinated before bacterial challenge. The fish...
Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay
acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1......, fever, headache, and nausea were reported in less than 6% of children receiving inactivated vaccine compared to 0.6% of unvaccinated controls. One cluster-RCT compared the live-attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine (widely used in China) with no intervention measuring adverse events. Fever was reported in 2...
Zakharova, O M; Mel'nychuk, M D; Dankevych, L A; Patyka, V P
Bacterial destruction of the culture was described and its agents identified in the spring and winter rape crops. Typical symptoms are the following: browning of stem tissue and its mucilagization, chlorosis of leaves, yellowing and beginning of soft rot in the place of leaf stalks affixion to stems, loss of pigmentation (violet). Pathogenic properties of the collection strains and morphological, cultural, physiological, and biochemical properties of the agents of rape's bacterial diseases isolated by the authors have been investigated. It was found that all the isolates selected by the authors are highly or moderately aggressive towards different varieties of rape. According to the complex of phenotypic properties 44% of the total number of isolates selected by the authors are related to representatives of the genus Pseudomonas, 37% - to Xanthomonas and 19% - to Pectobacterium. PMID:23293826
Frees, Dorte; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne
Bacterial pathogens rely on proteolysis for variety of purposes during the infection process. In the cytosol, the main proteolytic players are the conserved Clp and Lon proteases that directly contribute to virulence through the timely degradation of virulence regulators and indirectly by providing...... tolerance to adverse conditions such as those experienced in the host. In the membrane, HtrA performs similar functions whereas the extracellular proteases, in close contact with host components, pave the way for spreading infections by degrading host matrix components or interfering with host cell...... cell. These extracellular proteases are activated in complex cascades involving auto-processing and proteolytic maturation. Thus, proteolysis has been adopted by bacterial pathogens at multiple levels to ensure the success of the pathogen in contact with the human host....
Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Kawamura, Yoshiki; Ohashi, Masahiro
In 1974, Japanese scientists developed a live attenuated varicella vaccine based on the Oka strain. The efficacy of the vaccine for the prevention of varicella has been primarily demonstrated in studies conducted in the United States following the adoption of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in 1996. Although the vaccine was developed by Japanese scientists, until recently, the vaccine has been administered on a voluntary basis in Japan resulting in a vaccine coverage rate of approximately 40%. Therefore, Japan initiated universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in November 2014. Given the transition from voluntary to universal immunization in Japan, it will also be important to monitor the epidemiology of varicella and herpes zoster. The efficacy and safety of co-administration of the varicella vaccine and measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine have been demonstrated in many countries; however, there was no data from Japan. In order to adopt the practice of universal immunization using the Oka strain varicella vaccine in Japan, data demonstrating the efficacy and safety of co-administration of varicella vaccine and measles and rubella (MR) vaccine were required. Additionally, we needed to elucidate the appropriate time interval between the first and second administrations of the vaccine. It is also important to differentiate between wild type and Oka vaccine type strains in herpes zoster patient with past history of varicella vaccine. Thus, there are many factors to consider regarding the adoption of universal immunization in Japan to control varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections. PMID:26944711
Diagnosis of dengue virus infections is complicated by preference for different diagnostic tests in different post onset days of illness and the presence of multiple serotypes leading to secondary and tertiary infections. The sensitivity of the most commonly employed diagnostic assays such as anti dengue IgM capture (MAC) ELISA and non structural protein (NS) 1 capture ELISA are lower in secondary and subsequent infections. Introduction of dengue vaccine in endemic regions will affect the way how dengue is diagnosed in vaccinated subjects. This viewpoint article discusses implications of introduction of dengue vaccine on the diagnosis of dengue infections in vaccinated subjects and the strategies that are needed to tackle the issue. PMID:27142330