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Sample records for bacterial protein meal

  1. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...... containing no BPM served as controls, i.e. for minks diet M1, for pigs P1; the experimental diets contained increasing levels of BPM to replace fish meal (minks) or soybean meal (pigs), so that up to 17% (P2), 20% (M2), 35% (P3), 40% (M3), 52% (P4), and 60% (M4) of digestible N was BPM derived. Protein...... turnover rate was measured by means of the end-product method using [15N]glycine as tracer and urinary nitrogen as end-product. In minks, protein flux, synthesis, and breakdown increased significantly with increasing dietary BPM. In pigs, diet had no observed effect on protein turnover rate. The intake...

  2. Bacterial protein meal in diets for growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Kjos, N.P.;

    2007-01-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on the protein and energy metabolism of pigs from weaning to a live weight of 80 kg. FOur litters with four castrated male pigs in each litter were used. The litters were divided into two...... blocks according to age. One pig from each litter was fed one of the four experimental diets. Soya-bean meal was replaced with BPM on the basis of digestible protein, and the BPM contents in the four diets were 0% (BP0), 5% (BP5), 10% (BP10) and 15% (BP15), corresponding to 0%, 17%, 35% and 52...... by inclusion level of BPM. Retention of energy was 620 (BP0), 696 (BP5), 613 (BP10) and 664 kJ/kg0.75 per day (BP15), the differences among diets being non-significant. The N-free respiratory quotient was similar on all diets. It was concluded that the overall protein and energy metabolism in growing pigs were...

  3. Effect of bacterial protein meal on protein and energy metabolism in growing chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This experiment investigates the effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on the protein and energy metabolism, and carcass chemical composition of growing chickens. Seventy-two Ross male chickens were allocated to four diets, each in three replicates with 0% (D0), 2......% (D2), 4% D4), and 6% BPM (D6), BPM providing up to 20% of total dietary N. Five balance experiments were conducted when the chickens were 3-7, 10-14, 17-21, 23-27, and 30-34 days old. During the same periods, 22-h respiration experiments (indirect calorimetry) were performed with troups of 6 chickens...... for protein and energy retention found in the balance and respiration experiments. It was concluded that the overall protein and energy metabolism as well as carcass composition were not influenced by a dietary content of up to 6% BPM corresponding to 20% of dietary N....

  4. Excretion of purine base derivatives after intake of bacterial protein meal in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, A.

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial protein meal has a high content ofprotein but also of RNA and DNA. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four diets containing increasing levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM), from weaning to 80 kg live weight, to evaluate whether the RNA and DNA contents of BPM influenced the retention...... of nitrogen. It was hypothesised that an increased intake of RNA and DNA would lead to an increased urinary excretion of purine base derivatives and increased plasma concentrations. Retention of nitrogen was unaffected by dietary content of BPM (P=0.08) and the urinary excretion of purine base derivatives...... increased with increasing dietary content of BPM. No differences in fasting plasma concentration of uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine were observed. It can therefore be concluded that increasing levels of dietary BPM maintained protein accretion and led to changes in excretion of purine detrivatices...

  5. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets....... The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...

  6. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  7. Nitrogen and energy balance in growing mink (Mustela vison) fed different levels of bacterial protein meal produced with natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein;

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on energy and protein metabolism in growing mink kits. Sixteen male mink kits of the standard brown genotype were randomly fed one of four diets: A control (Diet III) and 60......% (Diet IV) of the digested nitrogen (DN) was replaced with BPM. Nitrogen balance and respiration experiments (indirect calorimetry) were carried out when the animals were approximately 9.5, 14.5, 17.5, 23.5 and 28.5 weeks of age. The apparent digestibility of crude protein and energy decreased...... significantly with increasing dietary BPM. The retained nitrogen was 0.45, 0.54, 0.52 and 0.40 g/kg0,75 on Diets I, II, III and IV, respectively, the observed differences between diets being non-significant (p=0.06). Heat production (HE) was between 645 and 665 kJ/kg0.75 on all diets (p=0.78). retained energy...

  8. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae withou

  9. Sunflower meal protein as a feed for broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lević Jovanka D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of the nutritional aspects associated with the utilization of sunflower meal in broiler diets. To gain the maximum benefit from this feed ingredient, some of the characteristics of sunflower meal must be considered. In broiler diets, it is recommended that only high-quality decellulosed sunflower meal be used. Our own results and a broad variety of published reports have thus been consulted. Experiments with high protein sunflower meal in broiler diets have shown that sunflower meal can successfully replace soybean meal, provided that diets are supplemented with adequate amounts of lysine and energy. Consequently, the inclusion of sunflower meal in broiler diets may vary depending on the fiber content of the meal, the lysine and/or energy supplementation of the diet.

  10. PROTEIN FRACTIONATION AND PROPERTIES OF SALICORNIA MEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicornia bigelovii Torr. is an annual salt-marsh oilseed plant. Hexane-defatted salicornia meal was extracted sequentially with 0.5 M sodium chloride (2x), water, 70% ethanol, and 0.1 N sodium hydroxide (2x). Each sodium chloride extract was dialyzed against deionized water and centrifuged to se...

  11. The Processing Technology of Feather Meal and Its Use as a Protein Source in Ruminant Ration

    OpenAIRE

    Wisri Puastuti

    2007-01-01

    Feather meal protein contains high level of keratin, which consists of 14% disulphide cystine, therefore feather meal protein is difficult to be digested by proteolytic enzymes. Feather meal must be processed before being used in the ration, because the digestibility of unprocessed feather meal is very low (5.8%). There are four processing methods of feather meal, i.e. physical, chemical, enzymatic and microbiological. The aim of these processings is to alleviate or break down the bonds in th...

  12. PROTEIN ENRICHMENT OF DEFATTED SALICORNIA MEAL BY AIR CLASSIFICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salicornia bigelovii Torr. is a leafless, annual salt-marsh plant. Previous investigators reported the seed contained 26-33% oil, 30-33% protein, 5-7% fiber, and 5-7% ash over a five-year period. Hexane-defatted salicornia meal was ground in a pin mill and separated by air classification into vari...

  13. PROTEIN OF MEAT AND BONE MEAL FOR PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patieva S. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern requirements of intergovernmental standards to the quality and safety of livestock produce provide for the use of highly productive animals capable under small expenses to produce more the high quality produce. In particular, at the formation of meat productivity at pigs the great significance has an achievement of optimal digestion and assimilability of consumed fodder means. In the connection, the study of digestion of meat and bone meal from slaughterhouse wastes of cattle (MCM and poultry (MCBM presents the scientific interest. In the fodder experience on the growing pigs with the fistula of iliac intestines there was investigated the digestion of two types of meat and bone meal from slaughterhouse wastes of cattle (MCM and poultry (MKBM. The iliac accessibility of amino acids of meat and bone meal found itself too low: 49,3 % - 69,3 %. The accessibility of general protein reliably did not differ from the average accessibility on main amino acids - 61,5 %. To count the real iliac accessibility of raw protein and amino acids of meat and bone meal there was determined an endogenous emission of these substances on the casein diet. The real iliac accessibility of protein and individual amino acids did not leave the limits in 73% on МCM and 69% - on МCBМ. The accessibility of lysine, leucine and isoleucine MCBM is reliably higher than the same in MCM (P

  14. Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Lei; Kobir, Ahasanul; Jers, Carsten;

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria and Eukarya share essentially the same family of protein-serine/threonine kinases, also known as the Hanks-type kinases. However, when it comes to protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, bacteria seem to have gone their own way. Bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) are bacterial...... enzymes that are unique in exploiting the ATP/GTP-binding Walker motif to catalyze phosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues. Characterized for the first time only a decade ago, BY-kinases have now come to the fore. Important regulatory roles have been linked with these enzymes, via their involvement...... in exopolysaccharide production, virulence, DNA metabolism, stress response and other key functions of the bacterial cell. BY-kinases act through autophosphorylation (mainly in exopolysaccharide production) and phosphorylation of other proteins, which have in most cases been shown to be activated by...

  15. Canola meals from different production plants differ in ruminal protein degradability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactation trials have shown that production and N efficiency were improved when dietary soybean meal was replaced with equal crude protein (CP) from canola meal. Three or four canola meal samples were collected from each of 12 Canadian production plants (total = 37), and analyzed for differences in ...

  16. Functional properties of proteins isolated from industrially produced sunflower meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petia Ivanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein isolate 1 (PI1 and protein isolate 2 (PI2 were prepared from industrially produced sunflower meal by using isoelectric and ethanol precipitation respectively. The water absorption capacity of PI1 was 6 times higher than that of PI2 and was significantly reduced by the presence of 0.03 M and 0.25 M NaCl. Oil absorption capacity of both protein isolates was not influenced by NaCl supplementation. Foam capacity of PI1 and PI2 was pH-dependent. While the foam capacity of both isolates was improved by either 0.03 M or 0.25 M NaCl, the foam stability was negatively influenced by the addition of NaCl at all pH values with except for pH 4. Emulsifying activity of PI1 and PI2 was lowest at pH 4. The emulsions exhibited relatively high stability (> 90% under all studied conditions. Knowledge of the influence of pH and boundary concentrations of NaCl on the functionality of sunflower meal protein isolates could be beneficial for their future potential application in food industry.

  17. Dietary Protein to Maintain Muscle Mass in Aging: A Case for Per-meal Protein Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C H; Oikawa, S Y; Phillips, S M

    2016-01-01

    It is well accepted that daily protein intake is an important dietary consideration to limit and treat age-related declines in muscle mass, strength, and function. Furthermore, we propose that there is a growing appreciation for the need to consider protein intake on a per-meal basis rather than simply focusing on the total daily protein intake. The existence of a saturable dose-response relationship between muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and the quantity of protein consumed in a single meal/bolus provides the rationale for promoting an even/balanced pattern of daily protein intake. We hypothesize that a balanced/even protein intake pattern with the ingestion a quantity of protein shown to optimally stimulate MPS at each meal may be an effective strategy to alleviate sarcopenic muscle loss. In this review we examine the available evidence supporting the influence of dietary protein intake pattern on muscle protein turnover, muscle mass, and muscle function. We present several practical considerations that, it is proposed, should be taken into account when translating a per-meal protein recommendation into dietary advice for older adults. PMID:26980369

  18. The Processing Technology of Feather Meal and Its Use as a Protein Source in Ruminant Ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisri Puastuti

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Feather meal protein contains high level of keratin, which consists of 14% disulphide cystine, therefore feather meal protein is difficult to be digested by proteolytic enzymes. Feather meal must be processed before being used in the ration, because the digestibility of unprocessed feather meal is very low (5.8%. There are four processing methods of feather meal, i.e. physical, chemical, enzymatic and microbiological. The aim of these processings is to alleviate or break down the bonds in the keratin such as disulphide, ionic, ester and hydrogen bonds. Processed feather meal is known as hydrolyzed feather meal (HFM. Although the processing methods of feather meal produce different quality of HFM, the utilization of HFM in ruminant ration results in a better response than conventional protein resources. HFM has higher level of crude protein content (74 – 92%, rumen undegradable protein (70% and post rumiral digestibility (57 – 78% than soybean meal has. The utilization of HFM in ration up to 8% of dry matter can substitute soybean meal and the use of 2 – 3% HFM improved milk production in dairy cow and daily gain in sheep and cattle.

  19. Bacterial cell division proteins as antibiotic targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. den Blaauwen; J.M. Andreu; O. Monasterio

    2014-01-01

    Proteins involved in bacterial cell division often do not have a counterpart in eukaryotic cells and they are essential for the survival of the bacteria. The genetic accessibility of many bacterial species in combination with the Green Fluorescence Protein revolution to study localization of protein

  20. Recent advances in bacterial heme protein biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mayfield, Jeffery A.; Dehner, Carolyn A.; Dubois, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in genetics, fed by the burst in genome sequence data, has led to the identification of a host of novel bacterial heme proteins that are now being characterized in structural and mechanistic terms. The following short review highlights very recent work with bacterial heme proteins involved in the uptake, biosynthesis, degradation, and use of heme in respiration and sensing.

  1. EVALUATION OF FERMENTED PALM KERNEL MEAL AND FERMENTED COPRA MEAL PROTEINS AS SUBSTITUTE FOR SOYBEAN MEAL PROTEIN IN LAYING HENS DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F DAIRO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and ten (210 laying hens of Black Harco breed at 37 weeks in lay were fed experimental layer diets, in which fermented palm kernel meal (PKM and copra meal (CM were used independently to substitute for soybean meal (SBM on protein content basis at 0%, 25%, 50% and 75%, to give seven treatments in a completely randomized design feeding trial that lasted 12 weeks. Performance characteristics and some haematological indices were evaluated in this study. Fermentation for seven days increased the crude protein of PKM (from 20.04% to 23.42% and that of CM (from 19.63% to 23.11%. The crude fibre of the fermented PKM and CM decreased (from 15.47% to 12.44 % and 16.00% to 11.63% respectively. The feed intake (FI was significantly highest (P<0.05 for laying hens fed 75% PKM substitution for SBM (126.06g but lowest for those on 25% CM (115.02g. Birds fed 75% PKM had the highest (P<0.05 body weight gain (1.73g while those on 25% CM recorded the lowest (1.50g. Hen-day production was significantly highest (P<0.05 in the control group (72.42% but similar with the values of 69.37%, 70.35% and 69.53% recorded by laying hens fed diets containing 50% PKM, 25% CM and 75% CM respectively. Hens fed 50% CM had the highest egg shape index (0.68 while those on 75% PKM recorded the lowest value of 0.65. The control diet had the highest feed cost per kilogramme (kg (N57.99 while 75% CM had the lowest (N46.51. Feed cost per number of egg produced was highest (P<0.05 in the control (N1.78 and similar with the values obtained for laying hens fed CM at 25%, 50% and 75% which are N1.80, N1.79 and N1.74 respectively. The compared values of PKM and CM at corresponding levels of substitution using t-test indicated significant increase (P<0.05 in FI for PKM at all levels of substitution for SBM (121.74g at 25%, 126.56g at 50% and 126.06g at 75% over the values of 115.02g, 121.18g and 124.96g for the respective dietary substitution levels of CM at 25%, 50% and 75%. Body

  2. Fish meals, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as potential ingredients in pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folador, J F; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Parsons, C M; Bauer, L L; Utterback, P L; Schasteen, C S; Bechtel, P J; Fahey, G C

    2006-10-01

    An experiment to determine the chemical composition and protein quality of 13 fish substrates (pollock by-products, n = 5; fish protein hydrolysates, n = 5; and fish meals, n = 3) was conducted. Two of these substrates, salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) and salmon meal with crushed bones (SMB), were used to determine their palatability as components of dog diets. Pollock by-products differed in concentrations of CP, crude fat, and total AA by 71, 79, and 71%, respectively, and GE by 4.1 kcal/g. Fish protein hydrolysates and fish meals were less variable (approximately 18, 14, and 17%, and 1.4 kcal/g, respectively). Biogenic amine concentrations were much higher in fish protein hydrolysates as compared with pollock by-products and fish meals. Pollock liver and viscera had the highest total fatty acid concentrations; however, red salmon hydrolysate and SMB had the highest total PUFA concentrations (49.63 and 48.60 mg/g, respectively). Salmon protein hydrolysate had the highest protein solubility in 0.2% KOH. Based on calculations using immobilized digestive enzyme assay values, lysine digestibility of fish meal substrates was comparable to in vivo cecectomized rooster assay values and averaged approximately 90.3%. Also, pollock milt, pollock viscera, red salmon hydrolysate, and sole hydrolysate had comparable values as assessed by immobilized digestive enzyme assay and rooster assays. A chick protein efficiency ratio (PER) assay compared SMB and SPH to a whole egg meal control and showed that SMB had high protein quality (PER = 3.5), whereas SPH had poor protein quality (PER value less than 1.5). However, using whole egg meal as the reference protein, both fish substrates were found to be good protein sources with an essential AA index of 1.0 and 0.9 for SMB and SPH, respectively. In the dog palatability experiments, a chicken-based control diet and 2 diets containing 10% of either SPH or SMB were tested. Dogs consumed more of the SPH diet compared with the control

  3. Preparation and characterisation of protein hydrolysates from Indian defatted rice bran meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Misra, Gautam; Ghosh, Santinath

    2008-01-01

    Rice bran meal is a very good source of protein along with other micronutrients. Rice bran meal has been utilized to produce protein isolates and respective protein hydrolysates for potential application in various food products. De-oiled rice bran meal, available from Indian rice bran oil extraction plants, was initially screened by passing through an 80-mesh sieve (yield about 70%). A fraction (yield-30%) rich in fibre and silica was initially discarded from the meal. The protein content of the through fraction increased from 20.8% to 24.1% whereas silica content reduced from 3.1% to 0.4%. Rice bran protein isolate (RPI) was prepared by alkaline extraction followed by acidic precipitation at isoelectric point. This protein isolate was hydrolysed by papain at pH 8.0 and at 37 degrees C for 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The peptides produced by partial hydrolysis had been evaluated by determining protein solubility, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam capacity and foam stability (FS). All protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original protein isolate. These improved functional properties of rice bran protein hydrolysates would make it useful for various application especially in food, pharmaceutical and related industries. PMID:18075222

  4. The nutrient composition of European ready meals: protein, fat, total carbohydrates and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, Sonja; Manschein, Martin; Lammer, Guido; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2015-04-01

    Despite the increasing social importance of ready meals, only few studies have been conducted on their nutrient composition. Therefore, 32 chilled, frozen and heat-treated ready meals (only main dishes) from the continental European market were analysed for protein, fat, total carbohydrate and energy. Half of the meals were nutritionally imbalanced by providing elevated fat (>30% of energy) and low carbohydrate levels (nutritional quality for the food industry, seven "nutritionally optimised" ready meals were created at the European level and analysed, however success was limited. If product labelling is to be useful for consumers, our results also indicate a need for better quality control to reduce the differences between content and labelling. PMID:25442542

  5. Umami taste amino acids produced by hydrolyzing extracted protein from tomato seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for extracting protein to prepare umami taste amino acids from defatted tomato seed meal (DTSM) which is a by-product of tomato processing. Papain was used as an enzyme for the hydrolysis of DTSM. The particle size distribution of DTSM, protein concentration and fr...

  6. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein and energy regarding fish meal, poultry by-product meal and quinua for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana C. Gutiérrez-Espinosa; Martha I. Yossa-Perdomo; Walter Vásquez-Torres

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine protein (ADCp) and energy (ADCe) apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) for fish meal (FM), poultry by-product meal (PBM) and quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa) (QF) used in feeding Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The indirect method with a chromium oxide marker was used to estimate the aforementioned ADC; faeces were collected by the modified Guelph system. Tilapias having an average 130 g weight were fed on an experimental diet consisting o...

  7. The Use of Sweet Almond Meal as a Protein Source in Japanese Quails Diets

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    Arjomandi MA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first experiment, the chemical composition, apparent metabolizable energy (AME, AME corrected for nitrogen (AMEn, true metabolizable energy (TME, TME corrected for nitrogen (TMEn values of the sweet almond meal were determined in adult Leghorn cockerels. The second experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet almond meal at 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg on Japanese quail's growth performance, some blood metabolites, relative weight of different organs, meat quality and egg yolk cholesterol in a completely randomized design with 288 Japanese quails including 4 treatments, 4 replicates and 18 birds per replicate. The metabolizable energy values of sweet almond meal were following: AME = 3734, AMEn = 3648, TME = 3908, TMEn = 3746 kcal/kg as fed basis. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and live weight gain and relative weight of different organs in the birds fed diets with different levels of the sweet almond meal were not statistically different from control. A sweet almond meal at 300 g/kg level showed the lower serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05 compared to control and 100 g/kg sweet almond meal. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on the total cholesterol content of quail's eggs. Malondialdehyde concentration in breast meat samples after 40 days freezing decreased, whereas the level of sweet almond meal increased (P < 0.01. In general, a sweet almond meal without any adverse effect on growth performance is a good source of energy and protein and can be used up to 300 g/kg of the Japanese quail diets.

  8. Regional blood flow in rats after a single low-protein, high-carbohydrate test meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Z; Wickler, S J; Stern, J S; Horwitz, B A

    1984-07-01

    It was previously observed that a single low-protein, high-carbohydrate test meal results in increased in vitro thermic activity of brown adipose tissue. In the present study, we have examined whether such a meal increases the in vivo thermic activity, estimated from measurement of the rate of blood flow. With radioactively labeled microspheres, blood flows into brown fat and several other tissues were determined in meal-deprived (n = 11) and meal-fed (n = 11) rats. The microspheres were injected into the heart of anesthetized animals about 2-2.5 h after the test meal, one injection in the resting state and one during maximal norepinephrine stimulation. In the resting state, blood flow per gram tissue more than doubled in the brown fat (P less than 0.05) and was increased more than 50% in the heart (P less than 0.01) of the fed group. Blood flows into liver and retroperitoneal white fat were reduced by 40 (P less than 0.01) and 30%, respectively, in the fed group. During norepinephrine infusion, significant meal-associated increases in blood flow were evident only in brown fat (P less than 0.05) and the soleus muscle (P less than 0.05), whereas a significant decrease was observed in the liver (P less than 0.05). No statistically significant meal-associated changes in norepinephrine-stimulated blood flow were found in the other tissues examined (i.e., heart, gastrocnemius, and diaphragm muscles, kidneys, white fat, spleen, and adrenals). Our in vivo data thus support the view that brown fat plays a role in the thermic effect of a meal. PMID:6742226

  9. Development of protein enriched noodles using texturized defatted meal from sunflower, flaxseed and soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhise, Suresh; Kaur, A; Aggarwal, Poonam

    2015-09-01

    Texturized defatted meals from sunflower, soybean and flaxseed prepared using extrusion technology were incorporated in noodles to improve the protein content of noodles. Noodles were also evaluated for chemical composition, cooking quality, color, functional, textural and sensory properties. Sensory, color and cooking characteristics of noodles were negatively affected with increasing level as texturized flour compared with the control. Noodles with 10 % texturized sunflower and flaxseed flour received the highest sensory scores. Overall acceptability scores were maximum for control and noodles with 10 % texturized defatted meal of sunflower and flaxseed. Further incorporation of 20 % texturized defatted flour from soybean in noodle making gave satisfactory results in terms of overall acceptability. It was concluded that texturized defatted meal serve as good substitute to wheat flour with increased protein content in noodles production and utilization. PMID:26345004

  10. ISOLATED PROTEIN FROM CASTOR BEAN, PEANUT, SOY BEAN AND SAFFLOWER MEALS

    OpenAIRE

    B.Tavasolian; S.Nikpour; B.Makanvand

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean, peanut, Soy bean and safflower protein isolates were prepared. The amino acid content of each of the protein isolates was analysed and the essential amino acid contents were compared with the FAO human requirements. The results indicated that castor bean has the highest oil and the protein content of defatted meal. Safflower 3148 (Marand, Iran) has the highest amount of essential amino acids. Peanut (Gilan Iran) has the lowest content of essential amino acids, however, in compari...

  11. Radiosensitivities of bacterial isolates on minced chicken and poached chicken meal and their elimination following irradiation and chilled storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitivities of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus on poached chicken meal (PCM) and minced chicken substrate (MCS) were determined. Effect of irradiation (0, 1, 2 kGy) on total viable cells (TVC) of PCM components was determined under chilled (3-5 oC) storage (0, 9, 14, 21 days) and challenge testing of the bacterial isolates with irradiation (0, 2, 3 kGy) was also conducted on PCM under chilled storage (0,7, 14, 21, 28 days). Additionally, sensory evaluation of the PCM components was assessed with irradiation (0, 2, 3 kGy) during chilled storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days). D10 of E. coli on PCM and MCS were 0.18 and 0.25 kGy whiles those of S. aureus were 0.27 and 0.29 kGy, respectively. D10 values for PCME. coli. 2 kGy controlled TVC and extended the shelf life of meals to ≥14 days but 3 kGy was required to eliminate E. coli and S. aureus. Sensory qualities of the meal were not affected by an irradiation dose of 3 kGy

  12. A Novel Hemp Seed Meal Protein Hydrolysate Reduces Oxidative Stress Factors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Girgih, Abraham T.; Alashi, Adeola M.; Rong He; Malomo, Sunday A.; Pema Raj; Thomas Netticadan; Rotimi E Aluko

    2014-01-01

    This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old) SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group) and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w) HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection....

  13. C-reactive protein and bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Jørgensen, P E; Nexø, E;

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to review published articles on the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) tests with cerebrospinal fluid and serum in diagnosing bacterial meningitis. The literature from 1980 and onwards was searched using the electronic databases of MEDLINE, and we used summary...

  14. Factors affecting antioxidant activity of soybean meal and caseine protein hydrolysates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antioxidative activity of protein hydrolysates was dependent on the raw material, condition of hydrolysis and lipid substrate used in model systems. Soybean meal hydrolysate was more active in lard and in linoleic acid emulsion than caseine hydrolysate, whereas caseine was more active in vegetable oils. Antioxidant activity of evaluated protein hydrolysates in all lipid systems, with or without oxidation catalysts, suggests them as natural food additives for lipid stabilization, thus for improvement of its nutritional value and sensory properties

  15. Improvement of protein extraction from sunflower meal by hydrolysis with alcalase

    OpenAIRE

    Yust, María del Mar; Pedroche, Joaquín; Megías, Cristina; Girón-Calle, Julio; Alaíz Barragán, Manuel; Millán, Francisco; Vioque, Javier

    2003-01-01

    Extraction of proteins from defatted sunflower meal has been improved by addition of the protease alcalase during alkaline extraction. This method offers several additional advantages as compared to the traditional alkaline extraction without alcalase, which is usually carried out after a sedimentation/flotation step to remove the lignocellulosic fraction. As compared to extraction without alcalase, addition of 0.1% (v/v) alcalase improved the yield of protein extraction from 57.5% to 8...

  16. Improvement of protein extraction from sunflower meal by hydrolysis with alcalase

    OpenAIRE

    Vioque, J.; Millán, F.; Alaiz, M.; Girón-Calle, J.; Megías, C.; Pedroche, J.; Yust, M. M.

    2003-01-01

    Extraction of proteins from defatted sunflower meal has been improved by addition of the protease alcalase during alkaline extraction. This method offers several additional advantages as compared to the traditional alkaline extraction without alcalase, which is usually carried out after a sedimentation/flotation step to remove the lignocellulosic fraction. As compared to extraction without alcalase, addition of 0.1% (v/v) alcalase improved the yield of protein extraction from 57.5% to 87.4%, ...

  17. Engineered fluorescent proteins illuminate the bacterial periplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorben Dammeyer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial periplasm is of special interest whenever cell factories are designed and engineered. Recombinantely produced proteins are targeted to the periplasmic space of Gram negative bacteria to take advantage of the authentic N-termini, disulfide bridge formation and easy accessibility for purification with less contaminating cellular proteins. The oxidizing environment of the periplasm promotes disulfide bridge formation - a prerequisite for proper folding of many proteins into their active conformation. In contrast, the most popular reporter protein in all of cell biology, Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP, remains inactive if translocated to the periplasmic space prior to folding. Here, the self-catalyzed chromophore maturation is blocked by formation of covalent oligomers via interchain disulfide bonds in the oxidizing environment. However, different protein engineering approaches addressing folding and stability of GFP resulted in improved proteins with enhanced folding properties. Recent studies describe GFP variants that are not only active if translocated in their folded form via the twin-arginine translocation (Tat pathway, but actively fold in the periplasm following general secretory pathway (Sec and signal recognition particle (SRP mediated secretion. This mini-review highlights the progress that enables new insights into bacterial export and periplasmic protein organization, as well as new biotechnological applications combining the advantages of the periplasmic production and the Aequorea-based fluorescent reporter proteins.

  18. Substitution of Soybean Meal and Cornmeal to Moisture, pH, Bacterial Colony Forming and Shelf Life of Rejected Duck Meatballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novia Deni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of substitution of soybean meal with cornmeal to moisture, pH, bacterial colony forming and the shelf life of rejected duck meatballs. This research material using duck meat Coast (Indian Runner salvage as much as 4000 grams were obtained from the Livestock Anduring Padang and soybean meal with Mungbean trademarks and cornmeal with cornstarch trademarks respectively of 600 grams were obtained at Raya Padang market. The research method used was experimental method with the random design, which consists of 5 treatments and 4 groups as replication. The treatment given in this study is the substitution of soybean meal and maize by A (100%: 0%, B (75%: 25%, C (50%: 50%, D (25%: 75% and E (0%: 100%. Variables measured were moisture, pH, bacterial colony forming and the shelf life of rejected duck meatballs. The results of this study indicate that substitution of soybean meal and cornmeal significant effect on moisture, pH, bacterial colony forming and shelf life. Substitution of soybean meal and cornmeal by 100%: 0% is the best to produce the rejected duck meatballs with 69.20% moisture, pH 6.44, bacterial colony forming 7.85 x 105 CFU / g, and the shelf life of 22.12 hours.

  19. Ice nucleation protein as a bacterial surface display protein

    OpenAIRE

    Sarhan Mohammed A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Surface display technology can be defined as that phenotype (protein or peptide) which is linked to a genotype (DNA or RNA) through an appropriate anchoring motif. A bacterial surface display system is based on expressing recombinant proteins fused to sorting signals (anchoring motifs) that direct their incorporation on the cell surface.

  20. Thermal properties of defatted meal, concentrate, and protein isolate of baru nuts (Dipteryx alata Vog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog., a species of legume found in the Brazilian savannas, was investigated in this study for the composition of its flesh and seed. Thermal analyses, Thermogravimetry (TG, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC were used to investigate the proteins in defatted meal, concentrate, and protein isolate. The protein concentrate was extracted at pH 10, followed by a precipitation at the isoelectric point to obtain the isolate that was spray dried. The thermogravimetric curves were obtained under a nitrogen atmosphere with a 100 mL/minutes flow. The initial, final and peak temperatures and mass loss were analyzed. Within the performed temperature ranges studied, the defatted meal and concentrate presented four steps of mass loss, while the isolate showed only two steps. The protein content of defatted meal from Baru nuts was higher than that of the isolate. On the other hand, there was a reduction in enthalpy, which suggests that the process applied to obtain the baru concentrate and isolate led to protein denaturation.

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and ruminal protein degradation of canola meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawrang, P. [Agriculture, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: parvinshawrang@yahoo.co.uk; Nikkhah, A.; Zare-Shahneh, A. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, A.A. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-4933, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raisali, G. [Radiation Applications Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi-Shahrebabak, M. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    Gamma irradiation of canola meal (at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy) could alter its ruminal protein degradation characteristics by cross-linking of the polypeptide chains. This processing resulted in decrease (linear effect, P<0.001) of ruminal protein degradation and increase (linear effect, P<0.001) of intestinal protein digestibility. The results showed that gamma irradiation at doses higher than 25 kGy can be used as a cross-linking agent to improve protein properties of supplements in ruminant nutrition.

  2. Replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, S; Manafi, M; Olfati, Z; Hedyati, M; Latifi, M; Veysi, A

    2016-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets. Experiments were carried out as a completely randomized design where each experiment involved 4 treatments of 6 replicates and 10 chicks in each pen. Soybean meal proteins in a corn-soy control diet were replaced with 15, 30, and 45% of cow skin gelatin (CSG) or corn protein concentrate (CPC), respectively, in experiments 1 and 2. BW and cumulative feed intake were measured at 7, 21, and 42 d of age. Blood characteristics, relative organs weight and length, ileal digesta viscosity, ileal morphology, and cecal coliform and Salmonella population were measured at 42 d of age. Apparent total tract digestibility of protein was determined during 35 to 42 d of age. Replacement of soybean meal with CSG severely inhibited BW gain, decreased feed intake, and increased FCR in broilers during the experimental period (P ≤ 0.01). The inclusion of CPC reduced BW and increased FCR significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at 21 and 42 d of age without any consequence in feed intake. Protein digestibility was reduced and ileal digesta viscosity was increased linearly by increasing the amount of CSG and CPC in the control diet (P ≤ 0.01). Replacement of soybean meal with CSG and CPC did not significantly alter blood cell profile and plasma phosphorus, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Aspartate transaminase, and HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. The inclusion of CSG linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased plasma uric acid concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) when the amount of CSG replacement was 15%. The results of this experiment showed that using CSG and CPC negatively affects broiler performance and therefore is not a suitable alternative to soybean meal in commercial diets. PMID:26574036

  3. Effects of gamma irradiation on ruminal protein degradation and intestinal digestibility of cottonseed meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dry matter of cottonseed meal (CSM) was determined by freeze-drying 1 g sample in duplicate. Based on this value, sufficient water was added to increase the moisture content of 2.5 kg of CSM to 250 g/kg. Gamma irradiation was carried out in a cobalt-60 irradiator at 20 deg. C. The dose rate determined by Fricke dosimetry was 0.37 Gy/s. Three polyethylene packages of samples were irradiated in a gamma cell for total doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy in the presence of air. Prior to sealing in plastic bags, samples were allowed to air equilibrate for 2 h, then refrigerated (4 deg. C). Duplicate nylon bags of untreated or irradiated CSM were suspended in the rumen of four non-lactating Holstein cows for up to 48 h, and in situ resulting data were fitted to non-linear degradation model to calculate degradation parameters of crude protein. Proteins of untreated and treated CSM bag residues were fractionated by gel electrophoresis. Intestinal digestibility of crude protein was measured using the mobile nylon bag technique. As shown, gamma irradiation of CSM resulted in decreasing of crude protein disappearance in the rumen. This is beneficial effect for high producing ruminants, which need high amount of escaped protein from rumen to intestine. Fitting disappearance data to non-linear degradation model showed that the wash out fraction and degradation rate of crude protein decreased linearly (P < 0.01), but the potentially degradable fraction increased quadratically (P < 0.01) with increases in irradiation doses. As a consequence, the effective degradability of crude protein decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as doses increased. Intestinal digestibility of ruminally undegraded crude protein increased linearly (P < 0.01) as irradiation doses increased. Three major protein components were observed: globulin 9S, globulin 5S and albumin 2S. Electrophoretic results indicated that globulin 9S in untreated cottonseed meal (whereas globulin 9S, globulin 5S and albumin 2S in gamma

  4. Soybean Meal Protein Assay -Cross lab tests and Kjeldhal vs Leco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqiang (Bill) Xiong; Zu Liya; Chang Biying; Xing Jianjun

    2002-01-01

    @@ Introduction Accuracy/precision of crude protein assay (CP) iscritical for the trade of soybean meal (SBM) and feedformulation. Past experience indicated that the CPassay variation in China could be very large and farbeyond AFCO Analytical Variation (AV%, previouslyPermitted Analytical Variation or PAV%). On CP testprocedures recently there has been a saying that theLeco combustion method was more accurate than theclassical Kjeldahl procedure.

  5. Fluorescent sensors based on bacterial fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence proteins are widely used as markers for biomedical and technological purposes. Therefore, the aim of this project was to create a fluorescent sensor, based in the green and cyan fluorescent protein, using bacterial S-layers proteins as scaffold for the fluorescent tag. We report the cloning, expression and purification of three S-layer fluorescent proteins: SgsE-EGFP, SgsE-ECFP and SgsE-13aa-ECFP, this last containing a 13-amino acid rigid linker. The pH dependence of the fluorescence intensity of the S-layer fusion proteins, monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy, showed that the ECFP tag was more stable than EGFP. Furthermore, the fluorescent fusion proteins were reassembled on silica particles modified with cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes. Zeta potential measurements confirmed the particle coatings and indicated their colloidal stability. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that the fluorescence of the fusion proteins was pH dependent and sensitive to the underlying polyelectrolyte coating. This might suggest that the fluorescent tag is not completely exposed to the bulk media as an independent moiety. Finally, it was found out that viscosity enhanced the fluorescence intensity of the three fluorescent S-layer proteins. (paper)

  6. Fluorescent sensors based on bacterial fusion proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats Mateu, Batirtze; Kainz, Birgit; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B.; Toca-Herrera, José L.

    2014-06-01

    Fluorescence proteins are widely used as markers for biomedical and technological purposes. Therefore, the aim of this project was to create a fluorescent sensor, based in the green and cyan fluorescent protein, using bacterial S-layers proteins as scaffold for the fluorescent tag. We report the cloning, expression and purification of three S-layer fluorescent proteins: SgsE-EGFP, SgsE-ECFP and SgsE-13aa-ECFP, this last containing a 13-amino acid rigid linker. The pH dependence of the fluorescence intensity of the S-layer fusion proteins, monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy, showed that the ECFP tag was more stable than EGFP. Furthermore, the fluorescent fusion proteins were reassembled on silica particles modified with cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes. Zeta potential measurements confirmed the particle coatings and indicated their colloidal stability. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that the fluorescence of the fusion proteins was pH dependent and sensitive to the underlying polyelectrolyte coating. This might suggest that the fluorescent tag is not completely exposed to the bulk media as an independent moiety. Finally, it was found out that viscosity enhanced the fluorescence intensity of the three fluorescent S-layer proteins.

  7. Evaluation of detoxification methods on toxic and antinutritional composition and nutritional quality of proteins in Jatropha curcas meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianhui; Zhang, Hui; Niu, Liya; Wang, Xingguo; Lu, Xia

    2011-04-27

    The Jatropha curcas meal was detoxified by different methods, and the effect of detoxification was evaluated in this study. The method that hydrolysis of enzymes (cellulase plus pectinase) followed by washing with ethanol (65%) had a significant (p antinutritional components, and nutritional quality of proteins. After this treatment, the phorbolesters (PEs) were decreased by 100%. The antinutritional components (phytates, tannins, saponins, protease inhibitor, and lectin activities) were decreased to tolerable levels, which were lower than those in soybean meal. The crude protein in detoxified meal was 74.68%, and the total content of amino acids was 66.87 g/100 g of dry matter. The in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) increased from 82.14 to 92.37%. The pepsin-insoluble nitrogen was only 4.57% of the total nitrogen, and about 90% of the protein was true protein. The protein-digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of the meal was 0.75. The results showed that this treatment was a promising way to detoxify J. curcas meal, and the nutritional quality of detoxified meal can be simultaneously enriched and improved. PMID:21410262

  8. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTROPHORETIC FRACTIONS OF PROTEIN ISOLATES FROM SUNFLOWER MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronova N. S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The food status of Russians is characterized by deficiency of protein. Perspective sources of food protein are the secondary resources of the oil and fat industry received when processing seeds of sunflower, including sunflower meal. Unfortunately, the features of technological process at the oilextracting press exclude a possibility of receiving food protein-containing products from them without the additional processing increasing biological value and improving technical characteristics of proteins. On the basis of the above information, the researches of a protein complex of sunflower cake, development of ways of regulation of its functional and technological properties and increase of biological value is up-to-date. The article presents the analysis of the influence of enzymatic modification on the distribution of electrophoretic fractions of the modified protein isolates

  9. Sunflower seed protein concentrates and isolates obtention from ethanol oil extraction meals--(technical note).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regitano-d'Arce, M A; Gutierrez, E M; Lima, U de A

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this work was to study and identify the necessary processing steps for obtaining good quality sunflower seed protein concentrate and isolate when the oil is extracted with ethanol. This work is part of a research project on using ethanol as renewable solvent for sunflower seed oil recovery and possible further processing of the meal. Both 99 degrees GL and 90 degrees GL ethanol were employed in the extractions to produce the concentrate. Isolates were obtained by treating the concentrate with NaOH and HCl solutions and final rinsing with acidified water. Both products were light in color and almost free from chlorogenic acid. PMID:7717804

  10. The influence of protein containing meals on the pharmacokinetics of levodopa in healthy volunteers.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, D R; Higginson, I; Macklin, B S; Renwick, A G; Waller, D G; George, C F

    1991-01-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of levodopa and paracetamol after single oral doses have been investigated in eight healthy young volunteers in the fasted state and following isocaloric meals containing either 10.5 g or 30.5 g of protein. 2. The initial peak and maximum plasma drug concentrations and the times at which these occurred were not affected by food. 3. The mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for paracetamol following an overnight fast did not differ significantly from...

  11. Effect of microwave and enzymatic treatment on the recovery of protein from Indian defatted rice bran meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Chakraborty, Chaitali; Barman, Amit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Defatted rice bran meal is an important source of protein along with other micronutrients. Rice bran meal has been utilized to produce protein isolates for potential application in various food products. Attempt has been made to increase the protein solubility by physical means like microwave digestion as well as by microwave digestion followed by homogenization. Simple 40 sec microwave treatment could give the protein recovery of 78.4% as against 28.9% after 1 min of conventional boiling and 40 sec is taken as optimum time for microwave treatment. The protein recovery is further increased by microwave treatment followed by homogenization. Defatted rice bran meal has also been treated with enzyme papain and viscozyme separately to increase the protein solubility. The yield of protein isolate (RPI), prepared by alkaline extraction followed by acidic precipitation is 10.2%, which is further increased to 14.5 & 22.4% by papain, viscozyme modification and 21.1 & 22.3% by microwave treatment and microwave treatment followed by homogenization respectively. A maximum of 82.5 and 82.6% protein has been recovered as soluble protein from de-oiled bran by viscozyme treatment and by 40 sec microwave treatment followed by 10 min of homogenization. So, microwave treatment along with homogenization is a suitable alternative processes in extracting protein from rice bran meal. PMID:23018849

  12. A comparison of two fecal collection methods for protein and amino acid digestibility coefficients for menhaden fish meal and two grades of pultry-by-product meals in market-size sunshine bass (Morone chrysops X M. saxatilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apparent digestibility and availability coefficients for protein and amino acids in menhaden fish meal (MEN), pet-food grade (PBM-pet,) and feed-grade poultry by-product meal (PBM-feed) were determined for market-size (500 g) sunshine bass using passive netting or manual stripping of feces. A refer...

  13. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Anti Mastitis Bacterial Activity of Diet Containing Betel Leaf Meal (Piper betle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Yamin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this experiment was to study the inhibition effect of betel leaf meal (BLM addition into concentrate diet on mastitis causing bacteria and on rumen fermentation condition. The study consisted of five dietary treatments of BLM level in concentrate feed, i.e., 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% and four replicates of each treatment. The treatment diets together with napier grass in ratio of 40 : 60 were fermented using rumen liquor. All treatments were examined their antibacterial activity before and after fermentation. After four hours fermentation, supernatant of each samples were analyzed for VFA, NH3, number of bacteria and protozoa. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility were analyzed after 48 h fermentation. The results showed that before fermentation, 8% BLM addition caused the bigest (P<0.05 inhibition diameter of Staphylococcus spp. growth compared to other lower levels. However after fermentation there were no significant differences among the addition levels of BLM. Two per cent of BLM addition produced higher VFA (P<0.05 than the other addition levels. Ammonia concentration, dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility were not different among the treatments. Addition of BLM significantly (P<0.01 decreased protozoa number, but did not affect bacterial count. It is concluded that the addition of 2% BLM in concentrate feed can be used effectively to inhibit the growth of mastitis causing bacteria (Staphylococcus spp. and does not disturb rumen fermentation condition.

  14. Casein and soy protein meals differentially affect whole-body and splanchnic protein metabolism in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiking, Yvette C; Deutz, Nicolaas E P; Jäkel, Martin; Soeters, Peter B

    2005-05-01

    Dietary protein quality is considered to be dependent on the degree and velocity with which protein is digested, absorbed as amino acids, and retained in the gut as newly synthesized protein. Metabolic animal studies suggest that the quality of soy protein is inferior to that of casein protein, but confirmatory studies in humans are lacking. The study objective was to assess the quality of casein and soy protein by comparing their metabolic effects in healthy human subjects. Whole-body protein kinetics, splanchnic leucine extraction, and urea production rates were measured in the postabsorptive state and during 8-h enteral intakes of isonitrogenous [0.42 g protein/(kg body weight . 8 h)] protein-based test meals, which contained either casein (CAPM; n = 12) or soy protein (SOPM; n = 10) in 2 separate groups. Stable isotope techniques were used to study metabolic effects. With enteral food intake, protein metabolism changed from net protein breakdown to net protein synthesis. Net protein synthesis was greater in the CAPM group than in the SOPM group [52 +/- 14 and 17 +/- 14 nmol/(kg fat-free mass (FFM) . min), respectively; P CAPM (P = 0.07). Absolute splanchnic extraction of leucine was higher in the subjects that consumed CAPM [306 +/- 31 nmol/(kg FFM . min)] vs. those that consumed SOPM [235 +/- 29 nmol/(kg FFM . min); P < 0.01]. In conclusion, a significantly larger portion of soy protein is degraded to urea, whereas casein protein likely contributes to splanchnic utilization (probably protein synthesis) to a greater extent. The biological value of soy protein must be considered inferior to that of casein protein in humans. PMID:15867285

  15. Limiting amino acids in an 11% crude protein corn-soybean meal diet for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L E; Kerr, B J; Easter, R A

    1987-11-01

    Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that methionine, isoleucine, valine or nitrogen either singly or in combination are limiting in an 11% crude protein, lysine-tryptophan-threonine-supplemented, corn-soybean meal diet for growing pigs. A 16% crude protein diet was used as a positive control in each experiment and all amino acid additions were made, at a minimum, to equal requirements. Average initial weights were 21.3 kg, 23.0 kg and 19.1 kg in Exp. 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The experiments averaged 4 wk in duration. In Exp. 1 and 2, neither the addition of glutamic acid as a source of nitrogen, nor methionine to the 11% diet resulted in any improvement (P greater than .20) in rate or efficiency of growth. Addition of the combination of isoleucine and valine to the 11% diet resulted in an increase (P less than .05) in both growth rate and feed efficiency to a level not different (P greater than .20) from that of the pigs consuming the positive control diet. The addition of valine to the 11% crude protein diet with supplemental lysine, tryptophan and threonine (Exp. 3) caused an improvement in daily gain (P less than .05) but not feed efficiency (P greater than .10). Isoleucine addition tended to reduce pig performance. The results of these experiments suggest that an 11% crude protein, corn-soybean meal diet fortified with lysine, tryptophan and threonine is not limiting in sulfur amino acids or nitrogen. Valine may be the only limiting amino acid. PMID:3693151

  16. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M., E-mail: mtaghinejad@iaut.ac.i [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, S.R. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizi, S. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, P.O. Box 57155-1177, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shawrang, P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  17. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.; Ebrahimi, S. R.; Azizi, S.; Shawrang, P.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased ( P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased ( P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved ( P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  18. A Novel Hemp Seed Meal Protein Hydrolysate Reduces Oxidative Stress Factors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham T. Girgih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection. After a 4-week washout period, the remaining 20-week old SHRs were fed for an additional four weeks and sacrificed for blood collection. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and total peroxides (TPx levels were determined. Results showed that plasma TAC, CAT and SOD levels decreased in the older 20-week old SHRs when compared to the young SHRs. The presence of HMH in the diets led to significant (p < 0.05 increases in plasma SOD and CAT levels in both young and adult SHR groups; these increases were accompanied by decreases in TPx levels. The results suggest that HMH contained antioxidant peptides that reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in SHRs with enhanced antioxidant enzyme levels and total antioxidant capacity.

  19. Differential regulation of protein synthesis and mTOR signaling in skeletal muscle and visceral tissues of neonatal pigs after a meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein synthesis (PS) increases after a meal in neonates, but the time course of the changes in PS in different tissues after a meal is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the changes in tissue PS, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation, and proportion of ribosomal protein (rp) mRNAs...

  20. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  1. Use of pet food-grade poultry by-product meal as an alternate protein source in weanling pig diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zier, C E; Jones, R D; Azain, M J

    2004-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate pet food-grade poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a replacement protein source for fish meal (FM), blood meal (BM), and spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) in weanling pig diets. In the first study, 200 crossbred pigs (initial BW = 6.5 kg) were weaned (21 d) and randomly allotted to one of four dietary treatments, which included a control and three test diets where PBM was substituted for FM, blood products, or both. Experimental diets were fed during Phase I (d 0 to 5 postweaning) and Phase II (d 5 to 19), and a common Phase III diet was fed from d 19 to 26. Overall (d 0 to 26), there was no difference in performance of pigs fed PBM in place of the other ingredients. However, during Phase I, BW (P trials in a blocked design with product (SDPP or PBM) as the first factor, and lysine level (1.08, 1.28, 1.49%; as-fed basis) as the second factor. Growth rate increased with increasing lysine (P < 0.05), regardless of the source. These results indicate that PBM can be used in nursery diets in place of blood meal and fish meal without affecting performance. Furthermore, although feeding PBM in Phase I diets was not equivalent to SDPP during the first week, there was no overall difference in performance at the end of the nursery phase. PMID:15484958

  2. Bacterial Protein N-Glycosylation: New Perspectives and Applications*

    OpenAIRE

    Nothaft, Harald; Szymanski, Christine M.

    2013-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is widespread throughout all three domains of life. Bacterial protein N-glycosylation and its application to engineering recombinant glycoproteins continue to be actively studied. Here, we focus on advances made in the last 2 years, including the characterization of novel bacterial N-glycosylation pathways, examination of pathway enzymes and evolution, biological roles of protein modification in the native host, and exploitation of the N-glycosylation pathways to create ...

  3. Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as a protein supplement for broiler chicks production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friday Chima NWORGU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to find out the potential Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as a protein supplement for the broiler chicks production. For this, Ninety unsexed one week old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were used. These selected chicks were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments i.e. A (Centrosema free diet, B (3%, C (6%, D (9% and E (12% with different concentration of C. pubescens leaf meal (CLM. Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 6 birds per replicate. This CLM mainly used to replaced groundnut cake and soybean in the diets. Water and feeds were served adlibitum. The results of study revealed that dietary supplementation of CLM significantly (P<0.05 and progressively depressed final body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio unlike water and feed intakes. Dietary inclusion of 6-12% CLM for broiler chicks reduced weight gain averagely by 12.96% compared to control. The cost of feed per kg live weight gain was N91.86, N96.04 and NI07.59/kg for control, 3 and 12%, respectively. Profit margin was highest in control (N4.11 and birds placed on 3% CLM (N2.66 per bird compared to those fed 9.0-12.0% CLM dietary inclusion, in which average loss was N20.39 per bird. Hence results of study clearly advised that CLM can be add as protein supplements but it should not include more than 3% in the diet of broiler chicks

  4. Replacement of fish meal in juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets using a yeast-derived protein source

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effects of a yeast-derived protein source (NuPro) as a replacement for menhaden fish meal on weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), whole-body composition, and disease resistance in juvenile channel catfish. NuPro replaced 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% o...

  5. Behavior of Escherichia coli bacteria in whey protein and corn meal during twin screw extrusion processing at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many studies on the development of new and/ or value added nutritional meal corn and whey protein isolates for US consumers have been reported. However, information on the effect of treatment parameters on microbial safety of foods extruded below 100 deg C is limited. In this study, we investigated ...

  6. Post-Meal Responses of Elongation Factor 2 (eEF2) and Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) to Leucine and Carbohydrate Supplements for Regulating Protein Synthesis Duration and Energy Homeostasis in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Layman, Donald K; Anthony, Tracy G.; Garlick, Peter J.; Wilson, Gabriel J; Moulton, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu) and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2). This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements ...

  7. A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowerman Susan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While high protein diets have been shown to improve satiety and retention of lean body mass (LBM, this study was designed to determine effects of a protein-enriched meal replacement (MR on weight loss and LBM retention by comparison to an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched MR within customized diet plans utilizing MR to achieve high protein or standard protein intakes. Methods Single blind, placebo-controlled, randomized outpatient weight loss trial in 100 obese men and women comparing two isocaloric meal plans utilizing a standard MR to which was added supplementary protein or carbohydrate powder. MR was used twice daily (one meal, one snack. One additional meal was included in the meal plan designed to achieve individualized protein intakes of either 1 2.2 g protein/kg of LBM per day [high protein diet (HP] or 2 1.1 g protein/kg LBM/day standard protein diet (SP. LBM was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Body weight, body composition, and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Results Eighty-five subjects completed the study. Both HP and SP MR were well tolerated, with no adverse effects. There were no differences in weight loss at 12 weeks (-4.19 ± 0.5 kg for HP group and -3.72 ± 0.7 kg for SP group, p > 0.1. Subjects in the HP group lost significantly more fat weight than the SP group (HP = -1.65 ± 0.63 kg; SP = -0.64 ± 0.79 kg, P = 0.05 as estimated by BIA. There were no significant differences in lipids nor fasting blood glucose between groups, but within the HP group a significant decrease in cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was noted at 12 weeks. This was not seen in the SP group. Conclusion Higher protein MR within a higher protein diet resulted in similar overall weight loss as the standard protein MR plan over 12 weeks. However, there was significantly more fat loss in the HP group but no significant difference in lean body mass. In this trial, subject compliance with both the

  8. Production of low chlorogenic and caffeic acid containing sunflower meal protein isolate and its use in functional wheat bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchekoldina, Tatiana; Aider, Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Sunflower meal protein isolate (SMPI) is a promising food additive in different matrices. However, the uses of SMPI are limited because of the presence of antinutritional compounds like polyphenolic substances. Chlorogenic and caffeic acids are the dominants polyphenolics in the SMPI. These substances cause significant changes of the colour of the meal, proteins and food matrices during their extraction and use as food additives. Moreover, these substances lower the nutritional value of the end product due to their interaction with some amino acids such as lysine and methionine. Thus, the removal of these substances is important to enable the use of the SMPI and meal in general in a greater extent in food applications and replacing more expensive protein sources such as soy proteins. The aim of this work was to study the production of functional bread by supplementing wheat flour with sunflower meal protein isolate (SMPI). SMPI with low content of chlorogenic and caffeic acid was usefully produced following alkaline extraction and purification with succinic acid. Purified SMPI showed well balanced amino acid profile and was characterized by high water and fat absorption capacities. It was incorporated to dough formula at 8-12 % of the total wheat flour. The results showed that production of bread supplemented with SMPI was technologically feasible. The supplemented bread had high mass volume and nutritional quality compared to the control bread. The optimal SMPI to incorporate into dough formula without significant alteration of the final bread colour was established at 10 %. This study will be helpful to find economic ways to enhance the nutritional quality of wheat bread and to improve the profitability of sunflower meal residue. PMID:25328173

  9. Convergent evolution among immunoglobulin G-binding bacterial proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, I M; Wikström, M.; Forsén, S.; Drakenberg, T; Gomi, H.; Sjöbring, U; Björck, L

    1992-01-01

    Protein G, a bacterial cell-wall protein with high affinity for the constant region of IgG (IgGFc) antibodies, contains homologous repeats responsible for the interaction with IgGFc. A synthetic peptide corresponding to an 11-amino acid-long sequence in the COOH-terminal region of the repeats was found to bind to IgGFc and block the interaction with protein G. Moreover, two other IgGFc-binding bacterial proteins (proteins A and H), which do not contain any sequences homologous to the peptide,...

  10. Growth performance of sea bass fed increasing levels of pea-wheat protein in diets varying in fish meal quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tibaldi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A 11-week trial was carried out to compare the growth performance of sea bass (D. labrax fed six isonitrogenous isocaloric diets where protein from two fish meals of different nutritive value was replaced with graded levels (0, 50 or 75% of a mixture made up by a pea protein concentrate and wheat gluten. Fish meal quality did not affect (P>0.05 weight gain or feed efficiency in fish fed graded levels of plant protein in the diet. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 as the level of plant protein was increased in the diet but this did not led to impaired growth or feed conversion rate. Protein efficiency and retention were equally improved (P<0.05 only with diets where a poor quality fish meal was substituted by protein rich-plant ingredients. Calculations based on the mass balance of nutrients of sea bass proven the inclusion of a mixture of highly purified plant-protein derivatives in complete diets for the sea bass, to be beneficial in reducing pollution load.

  11. Advances in animal and plant protein sources in place of fish meal%动植物蛋白源替代鱼粉研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周歧存; 麦康森; 刘永坚; 谭北平

    2005-01-01

    With the fast development of aquaculture, fish meal needs increased in recent years, however the quantity of fish catching decreases gradually. Fishmeal is a limited feed resource, and serious concem exists on the future availability of this feedstuff for incorporation in fish diets. Undoubtedly, fish meal is well recognized as the best dietary protein source for most marine carnivorous fishes which required high dietary protein levels compared to omnivorous or herbivorous fish. Fishmeal is known for their high content of essential amino acids and fatty acids, low carbohydrates, high digestibility, low levels of anti-nutritional factors (for fresh fish meal) and is a very good source of minerals and is highly palatable. Thus fish meal is in high demand as the protein source for many formulated diets. However, production of fish meal consumes approximately 35 % of the total global fish catch, and the increasing price and potentially unstable supply in the market could be limiting factors for marine fish culture. There have been strong efforts to define and develop cost-effective protein sources that can, at least partly, substitute for expensive high-quality fish meals in least-cost feed formulations. The search for fish meal substitutes and altemative dietary protein sources is an international research priority that could be of considerable economic advantages. Therefore it is urgent task to find animal and plant protein sources in place of fish meal. Among these, plant feedstuffs have received most attention in recent years, but due to their amino acid unbalances, .presence of anti-nutritional factors and low palatability, a high level of replacement of fish meal with plant feedstuffs in omnivorous fish is generally not well accepted. This paper reviews the research status for other protein sources replacing fish meal based on available information in the literature. Animal and plant protein sources nutrient values are evaluated from the aspect of digestibility

  12. Reduced postprandial energy expenditure and increased exogenous fat oxidation in young woman after ingestion of test meals with a low protein content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Susanne

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macronutrient composition of diets can influence energy balance in humans. We tested the hypothesis whether low protein content in single meals may induce lower values of energy expenditure (EE and fat oxidation (FO as compared to adequate protein content. Methods Indirect calorimetry was combined with a breath test using naturally 13C-enriched corn oil to differentiate between postprandial exogenous and endogenous FO. Young women ingested single meals containing either 3.9% (low protein, LP or 11.4% (adequate protein, AP of total energy (~3100 kJ as protein. Results Postprandial EE was 160 kJ/6 h lower (p Conclusion Breath tests using naturally 13C-labeled corn oil mirror exogenous FO. Low protein meals resulted in reduced postprandial EE and increased exogenous FO as compared to adequate protein meals without differences in total FO.

  13. In vitro estimation of rumen protein degradability using 35S to label the bacterial mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was carried out in order to simplify a previously developed 15N-method for in vitro estimation of rumen protein degradability. Casein (Cas), whole soybeans (Sb) heated at 120oC for 20 min (SbTherm) and sunflower (Sfl) were incubated at 39oC for 4 hours in a water bathshaker with the following media: McDougall's buffer, strained and enriched with particle associated bacteria rumen fluid (2:1), rapidly (maltose, sucrose, glucose) and more slowly (pectin, soluble starch) degradable carbohydrates with final concentration of 815 mg/100 ml and 21.7 μCi/100 ml of35S (from Na235SO4). After the incubation had been ceased, a bacterial fraction was isolated through differential centrifugation and specific activity of bacterial (Bac) and high speed total solids (TS) nitrogen was measured. The ratio was used to calculate bacterial mass in TS and through the Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration in TS - the net bacterial growth (against control vessels without protein). The level of ammonia-N in the supernate after blank correction was used to find the ammonia-N released from protein degradation. The data showed that the rate (and extend) of degradation for the Cas (as a standard protein) was lower compared to those obtained through the 15N-method but it was higher than the rate derived through another in vitro method. The Cas equivalent of the Sb was higher than the figure we found in a previous experiment with solvent extracted soybean meal suggesting that the 35S-method underestimated the degradability of the Cas. After being tested on a wider range of foodstuffs, the proposed 35S-method might be considered as an alternative procedure which is less laborous than the 15N-method. (author)

  14. Bioavailability of crude protein and lipid from biofloc meals produced in an activated sludge system for white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sabry Neto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the bioavailability of crude protein and lipid from biofloc meals generated with an activated sludge system using two water sources: wastewater from shrimp experimental culture (BFL-W and, artificially, using clean seawater (BFL-C. The sludge system operated by chemical and organic fertilization three times per week. Sampling of bioflocs occurred every two days during 81 days. To evaluate digestibility, each type of biofloc meal was incorporated into a reference diet (REF at 300 g/kg. Another diet acted as a negative control (NEG by using fish waste meal. The apparent digestibility of bioflocs was estimated by the indirect method using chromic oxide (Cr2O3 as the inert marker at 10 g/kg of the diet. Juvenile L. vannamei of 5.09±0.79 g (n = 440 were stocked at 10 shrimp/tank in 44 tanks of 61 L each that operated under a water recirculating regime. Biofloc meals contained a high ash content (591.0-649.2 g/kg combined with a low crude protein content (95.9-137.3 g/kg. After 26 days, shrimp achieved a final survival of 93.2±0.8% and a biomass gain of 37.1±1.8 g/tank. Final shrimp body weight ranged from 9.01±0.15 to 9.45±0.13 g. The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of crude protein in the biofloc produced from BFL-W, BFL-C and fish waste meal (NEG reached 26.0, 25.7, and 64.1%, respectively. Similarly, the lipid ADC was 78.9, 67.9, and 85.8%, respectively. This study indicated that biofloc meals had a low protein availability for L. vannamei. However, although low levels of lipid were present, it proved to be available for the species. The dietary inclusion of biofloc meal appears to have a growth-promoting effect on shrimp, which may be associated with trace minerals, or other nutrients not identified in this study.

  15. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  16. Assessment of protein quality of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal toasted in the presence of lignosulfonate by amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, T G; Bikker, P; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, -methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing pigs as criteria. Differences in protein quality were created by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in the presence of lignosulfonate resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM). The processing treatment was used as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Ten growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 4 diets containing SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM in each of 3 periods. Ileal chyme was collected at the end of each period and analyzed for CP, AA, and OMIU-reactive Lys. Diets were analyzed for furosine and carboxymethyllysine (CML) as an indicator for MRP and lysinoalanine (LAL), which is a cross-link product. The SBM and RSM diets contained furosine, CML, and LAL, indicating that the Maillard reaction and cross-linking had taken place in SBM and RSM, presumably during the oil extraction/desolventizing process. The amounts of furosine, CML, and LAL were elevated in pSBM and pRSM due to further processing. Processing resulted in a reduction in total and OMIU-reactive Lys contents and a decrease in G:F from 0.52 to 0.42 for SBM and 0.46 to 0.39 for RSM ( = 0.006), SID of CP from 83.9 to 71.6% for SBM and 74.9 to 64.6% for RSM ( < 0.001), and SID of AA ( < 0.001), with the largest effects for total and OMIU-reactive Lys. The effects of processing could be substantial and should be taken into account when using processed protein sources in diets for growing pigs. The extent of protein damage may be assessed by additional analyses of MRP and cross-link products. PMID:27065264

  17. TROPICAL VEGETABLE (AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS LEAF MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT IN BROILER STARTER DIETS: BIONUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A FASUYI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.

  18. Exploring the diversity of protein modifications: special bacterial phosphorylation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Grangeasse, Christophe; Turgay, Kürşad

    2016-01-01

    physiology, and regulatory networks. Investigating these unusual bacterial kinase and phosphatases is not only important to understand their role in bacterial physiology but will help to generally understand the full potential and evolution of protein phosphorylation for signal transduction, protein...... has been most thoroughly investigated. Unlike in eukarya, a large diversity of enzyme families has been shown to phosphorylate and dephosphorylate proteins on various amino acids with different chemical properties in bacteria. In this review, after a brief overview of the known bacterial...... phosphorylation systems, we focus on more recently discovered and less widely known kinases and phosphatases. Namely, we describe in detail tyrosine- and arginine-phosphorylation together with some examples of unusual serine-phosphorylation systems and discuss their potential role and function in bacterial...

  19. BLANNOTATOR: enhanced homology-based function prediction of bacterial proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankainen Matti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated function prediction has played a central role in determining the biological functions of bacterial proteins. Typically, protein function annotation relies on homology, and function is inferred from other proteins with similar sequences. This approach has become popular in bacterial genomics because it is one of the few methods that is practical for large datasets and because it does not require additional functional genomics experiments. However, the existing solutions produce erroneous predictions in many cases, especially when query sequences have low levels of identity with the annotated source protein. This problem has created a pressing need for improvements in homology-based annotation. Results We present an automated method for the functional annotation of bacterial protein sequences. Based on sequence similarity searches, BLANNOTATOR accurately annotates query sequences with one-line summary descriptions of protein function. It groups sequences identified by BLAST into subsets according to their annotation and bases its prediction on a set of sequences with consistent functional information. We show the results of BLANNOTATOR's performance in sets of bacterial proteins with known functions. We simulated the annotation process for 3090 SWISS-PROT proteins using a database in its state preceding the functional characterisation of the query protein. For this dataset, our method outperformed the five others that we tested, and the improved performance was maintained even in the absence of highly related sequence hits. We further demonstrate the value of our tool by analysing the putative proteome of Lactobacillus crispatus strain ST1. Conclusions BLANNOTATOR is an accurate method for bacterial protein function prediction. It is practical for genome-scale data and does not require pre-existing sequence clustering; thus, this method suits the needs of bacterial genome and metagenome researchers. The method and a

  20. Changes in energy expenditure associated with ingestion of high protein, high fat versus high protein, low fat meals among underweight, normal weight, and overweight females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Barry D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic rate is known to rise above basal levels after eating, especially following protein consumption. Yet, this postprandial rise in metabolism appears to vary among individuals. This study examined changes in energy expenditure in response to ingestion of a high protein, high fat (HPHF meal versus an isocaloric high protein, low fat (HPLF meal in underweight, normal weight, or overweight females (n = 21 aged 19–28 years. Methods Energy expenditure, measured using indirect calorimetry, was assessed before and every 30 minutes for 3.5 hours following consumption of the meals on two separate occasions. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results Significant positive correlations were found between body mass index (BMI and baseline metabolic rate (MR (r = 0.539; p = 0.017, between body weight and baseline MR (r = 0.567; p = 0.011, between BMI and average total change in MR (r = 0.591; p = 0.008, and between body weight and average total change in MR (r = 0.464; p = 0.045. Metabolic rate (kcal/min was significantly higher in the overweight group than the normal weight group, which was significantly higher than the underweight group across all times and treatments. However, when metabolic rate was expressed per kg fat free mass (ffm, no significant difference was found in postprandial energy expenditure between the overweight and normal groups. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from the baseline rate did not significantly differ in the underweight (n = 3 or in the overweight subjects (n = 5 following consumption of either meal at any time. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from baseline were significantly higher in normal weight subjects (n = 11 across all times following consumption of the HPHF meal versus the HPLF meal. Conclusion There is no diet-induced thermogenic advantage between the HPHF and HPLF meals in

  1. Bacterial S-layer protein coupling to lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weygand, M.; Wetzer, B.; Pum, D.; Sleytr, U.B.; Cuvillier, N.; Kjær, K.; Howes, P.B.; Lösche, M.

    1999-01-01

    The coupling of bacterial surface (S)-layer proteins to lipid membranes is studied in molecular detail for proteins from Bacillus sphaericus CCM2177 and B. coagulans E38-66 recrystallized at dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) monolayers on aqueous buffer. A comparison of the monolayer str...

  2. Lack of effect of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal intake on stress-related mood and eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmens Sofie G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of meals with different macronutrients, especially high in carbohydrates, may influence stress-related eating behavior. We aimed to investigate whether consumption of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meals influences stress-related mood, food reward, i.e. 'liking' and 'wanting', and post-meal energy intake. Methods Participants (n = 38, 19m/19f, age = 25 ± 9 y, BMI = 25.0 ± 3.3 kg/m2 came to the university four times, fasted, once for a stress session receiving a high-protein meal, once for a rest session receiving a high-protein meal, once for a stress session receiving a high-carbohydrate meal and once for a rest session receiving a high-carbohydrate meal (randomized cross-over design. The high-protein and high-carbohydrate test meals (energy percentage protein/carbohydrate/fat 65/5/30 vs. 6/64/30 matched for energy density (4 kJ/g and daily energy requirements (30%. Stress was induced using an ego-threatening test. Pre- and post-meal 'liking' and 'wanting' (for bread, filling, drinks, dessert, snacks, stationery (non-food alternative as control was measured by means of a computer test. Following the post-meal 'wanting' measurement, participants received and consumed their wanted food items (post-meal energy intake. Appetite profile (visual analogue scales, mood state (Profile Of Mood State and State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires, and post-meal energy intake were measured. Results Participants showed increased feelings of depression and anxiety during stress (P Conclusions Consumption of a high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal appears to have limited impact on stress-related eating behavior. Only participants with high disinhibition showed decreased subsequent 'wanting' and energy intake during rest; this effect disappeared under stress. Acute stress overruled effects of consumption of high-protein foods. Trial registration The study was registered in the Dutch Trial Register (NTR1904. The

  3. Effect of salseed-meal tannins on protein synthesis, 35S incorporation and cellulose digestibility by rumen microbes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannins from seed-meal of sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. F.) were fractionated after treatments into ethyl acetate (EA) and lead acetate (LA) fractions. In trial 1, incorporation of 35S from (NH4)235SO4 into microbial protein declined due to the effect of both 2% EA and LA fractions as compared to control. Microbial protein synthesis was depressed significantly (P 35S incorporation and cellulolysis at all levels of both the tannin fractions. It may be inferred that both the tannin fractions from salseed-meal showed antimicrobial activity and LA fraction seems to be more deleterious than EA fraction for rumen metabolism. The experiments were conducted in vitro using rumen liquor of a non-pregnant dry cow having permanent rumen fistula. (auth.)

  4. Neem seed meal utilization for growth and its influence on 35S in incorporation into microbial protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve buffalo-calves in two groups (1 and 2) were fed a conventional concentrate diet and a diet containing 20 percent neem seed meal, respectively. The buffalo calves of group 1 gained 15.5 kg more in a period of 119 days than the group 2 with corresponding DM consumptions of 3.35 kg per day. In another experiment, two in vitro trials were conducted in duplicate with neem seed meal at the levels of 5.9, 11.1 and 20.0 percent along with required substrates and 35S utilization was estimated in microbial protein using Na235SO4. Apparently there were no differences in 35S incorporation between different treatments indicating thereby that nimbin and its derivatives might not have any adverse effect on microbial protein synthesis. (author)

  5. Protein quality control in the bacterial periplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdanovic, Melisa; Clausen, Tim; Kaiser, Markus; Huber, Robert; Ehrmann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Protein quality control involves sensing and treatment of defective or incomplete protein structures. Misfolded or mislocalized proteins trigger dedicated signal transduction cascades that upregulate the production of protein quality-control factors. Corresponding proteases and chaperones either degrade or repair damaged proteins, thereby reducing the level of aggregation-prone molecules. Because the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria is particularly exposed to environmental changes and respective protein-folding stresses connected with the presence of detergents, low or high osmolarity of the medium, elevated temperatures, and the host's immune response, fine-tuned protein quality control systems are essential for survival under these unfavorable conditions. This review discusses recent advances in the identification and characterization of the key cellular factors and the emerging general principles of the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:21639788

  6. Using Nigella sativa meal as a substitute source for vegetable protein in rations of native growing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Nasser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 15 growing local bull calves of about 150-200 kg, live body weight and 10-12 months old to investigate the effect of substituting soyabean meal as concentrate feed mixture protein by Nigella sativa meal (NSM at 0 , 60 and 100%. Animals were divided into 3 groups of 5 calves each, according to their live body weight for performing feeding trials. All groups of animals were fed iso-nitrogen (15% CP and iso-caloric (2.7 Mcal/kg. ME diets. Experimental rations were offered at 2.5% of live body weight with 1% of wheat straw. At the end of the feeding trial, which lasted for 105 days, blood samples were collected from all calves to estimate the total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol. Digestibility trial was carried out on three animals of each group to investigate the nutritional value of rations. Economical study was also carried out on experimental animals. Results indicated that there was an improvement in feed intake by 13 and 14% for groups fed a ration containing NSM compared with the group fed the control one. No significant differences were between groups of calves in total body weight gain and blood parameters. The feed conversion ratio improved by 12% for the group of calves fed control ration as compared with other groups. The same cost of producing 1 kg live body weight gain was found. Substituting soybean meal protein at 60 and 100% by NSM protein significantly improved crude fiber, ether extract, EE, and the values of digestion coefficient. It was concluded that NSM could be substituted instead of soyabean meal for growing local calves with out adverse effects on their performance.

  7. Amino acids composition and protein quality evaluation of marine species and meals for feed formulations in cephalopods

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezo Valverde, Jesús; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; TOMÁS VIDAL, ANA; Jover Cerda, Miguel; Rodriguez, Carmen; Estefanell, Juan; Gairin, Joan I.; Domingues, Pedro Miguel; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Garcia Garcia, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The amino acid composition and protein levels of three species of cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Loligo gahi and Todarodes sagittatus), the natural diets of common octopus (O. vulgaris) and different kinds of meals were determined in order to optimise the content of these nutrients in artificial feeds. Arginine, leucine and lysine were the most abundant essential amino acids in cephalopods, while glutamate and aspartate represented the main non-essential amino acids. Arginine and leucine were...

  8. Affect of corn germ meal inclusion in pig diets bacterial ecology in the cecum and proximal colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inclusion of bio-fuel co-products in swine diets is becoming more common due to greater availability and increasing cereal grain costs. These co-products have lower starch and higher fiber concentrations. Twenty-four pigs were adapted to diets with either corn or solvent extracted corn germ meal (...

  9. Bacteriological study of fish meal in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of fish-meal production in Peru is pointed out, and the methods of manufacture are described. The bacteriological status at different stages of the fish-meal production process is reviewed. It is stated that the bacterial count of fish meal is related to the bacterial count of fish pools, the environmental sanitation in ship holds and factories and the method of preserving the fish meal. (author). 7 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Improvement of protein extraction from sunflower meal by hydrolysis with alcalase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vioque, J.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of proteins from defatted sunflower meal has been improved by addition of the protease alcalase during alkaline extraction. This method offers several additional advantages as compared to the traditional alkaline extraction without alcalase, which is usually carried out after a sedimentation/flotation step to remove the lignocellulosic fraction. As compared to extraction without alcalase, addition of 0.1% (v/v alcalase improved the yield of protein extraction from 57.5% to 87.4%, providing an extract that is 22% hydrolyzed. In addition, an increment of up to 4.5 times in protein solubility at low pH values is achieved, which correlates with the degree of hydrolysis. The extracts that were obtained in the presence of alcalase had a higher proline and glycine content, suggesting that the protease improves extraction of proline-rich and glycine-rich cell wall proteins that are part of the lignocellulosic fraction. These protein extracts can be directly dried without generation of wastewater, and the resulting fiber-rich material could be used for animal feeding.Se ha mejorado la extracción proteica de la harina desengrasa de girasol mediante la adición de la proteasa alcalasa durante la extracción alcalina. Este método ofrece varias ventajas adicionales en comparación con la extracción alcalina tradicional sin alcalasa, que se desarrolla normalmente mediante un proceso de flotación/sedimentación para retirar la fracción lignocelulósica. En comparación a la extracción sin alcalasa, la adicción de 0.1% (v/v de alcalasa mejora los rendimientos de extracción proteica desde un 57.5% a un 87.4%, dando un extracto con un 22% de grado de hidrólisis. Además se obtiene un incremento de hasta 4.5 veces de la solubilidad proteica a bajos pHs, que se correlaciona con el grado de hidrólisis. Los extractos obtenidos con alcalasa tenían un mayor contenido de prolina y glicina, sugiriendo que la proteasa mejora la extracción de las

  11. Demodex-associated bacterial proteins induce neutrophil activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Background: Patients with rosacea demonstrate a higher density of Demodex mites in their skin than controls. A bacterium isolated from a Demodex mite from a patient with papulopustular rosacea (PPR) was previously shown to provoke an immune response in patients with PPR or ocular rosacea thus suggesting a possible role for bacterial proteins in the etiology of this condition. Objectives: To examine the response of neutrophils to proteins derived from a bacterium isolated from a Demodex mite. Methods: Bacterial cells were lysed and proteins were partially purified by AKTA-FPLC. Isolated neutrophils were exposed to bacterial proteins and monitored for alterations in migration, degranulation and cytokine production. Results: Neutrophils exposed to proteins from Bacillus cells demonstrated increased levels of migration and elevated release of MMP-9, an enzyme known to degrade collagen and cathelicidin, an antimicrobial peptide. In addition neutrophils exposed to the bacterial proteins demonstrated elevated rates of Il-8 and TNF-alpha production. Conclusions: Proteins produced by a bacterium isolated from a Demodex mite have the ability to increase the migration, degranulation and cytokine production abilities of neutrophils. These results suggest that bacteria may play a role in the inflammatory erythema associated with rosacea.

  12. Evaluation of a rendered poultry mortality-soybean meal product as a supplemental protein source for pig diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, R O; Brendemuhl, J H; Leak, F W; Hess, J B

    2004-04-01

    Dehydrated/rendered broiler mortality-soybean meal products (DPS) were evaluated in two trials as high-protein feedstuffs for pig diets. Broiler mortalities, collected and frozen on-farm and transported to a central facility, were minced, blended with soybean meal, and dried with a final product temperature of 120 to 130 degrees C. The final DPS products used contained approximately 30 and 45% (DM basis) dried broiler mortality for the first and second trials, respectively (DPS1 and DPS2). The first trial involved 50 young, growing pigs (9 to 26 kg) and the second, 72 growing and finishing pigs (27 to 111 kg). The trials compared corn-based diets containing either soybean meal (SBM; 48%) or DPS products as the supplemental protein source. The DPS products averaged 50% CP and 2.9% total lysine; crude fat content of DPS used in the first trial was 8%, and for the second, 14.6% (as-fed basis). The ADG of pigs fed the DPS diets in either trial was similar to that of pigs fed the SBM control diets. In the second trial, pigs fed DPS2 had an overall average G:F ratio that was 9% better (P mincing, blending with SBM, and dehydration of frozen stored on-farm broiler mortalities produced a safe and nutritious protein feedstuff for pigs, while also offering a viable disposal option. PMID:15080329

  13. UTILIZATION OF CORN GLUTEN MEAL AS A PROTEIN SOURCE IN DIETS FOR GILTHEAD SEA BREAM (Sparus aurata L. JUVENILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yiğit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of corn gluten meal (CGM was evaluated as a partial fish meal (FM substitute in practical diets for gilthead sea bream juveniles. Four test diets (isonitrogenous and isoca¬loric, 52% protein and 10% lipid, 19 kJ/g diet containing increasing levels of CGM were for¬mulated to replace anchovy meal at levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. Triplicate groups of ju¬venile sea bream (initial body weight of 1.5 g were reared in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS over 45 days at 18±2°C. Fish fed a diet containing 10% of CGM showed com¬parable growth performance similar to the control diet containing FM as the sole protein source. No mortality was observed in all treatment groups. Dietary CGM inclusion levels of 20% and 30% showed lower growth performance, feed utilization, and protein efficiency com¬pared to the control and the 10% CGM inclusion diets. However these values were not signifi¬cantly different among fish fed the CGM10 and CGM20 diets. Economical analyses also con¬firmed the growth related experimental results in terms of best profit obtained with the 10% CGM inclusion diet. Results in the present study showed that CGM alone without any amino acid supplements can substitute FM up to 10% with no adverse effects on growth performance, feed utilization, or economical inputs in gilthead sea bream juveniles.

  14. Growh performance, nitrogen balance and urinary purine derivatives in growing-furring mink (Mustela vison) fed bacterial protein produced from natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Ø.; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl;

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial protein meal (BPM), containing 70% crude protein and produced on natural gas, was evaluated versus fish meal as protein source for mink in the growing-furring period (June 29-November 26). BPM, rich in nucleic acids, accounted for 0 (control), 20 and 40% of dietary crude protein...... corresponding to 0,4 and 8% of the wet diets, respectively. Each diet was given to 48 animals, 24 males and 24 females. The inclusion of BPM tended to reduce feed intake and body weight gain during the first half of the experimental period, but this was compensated for during the last part of the experiment......, except for males on the 8% BPM diet. Balance experiments carried out with 18 and 28 weeks old males, revealed similar digestibility of main nutrients except for fat that were reduced with BPM inclusion. N-retentions were similar for the dietary groups. Daily excretion of urine was lower with the 8% BPM...

  15. Prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes Salmonella invasion.

    OpenAIRE

    MacBeth, K J; Lee, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have found that prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes the ability of Salmonella typhimurium to enter HEp-2 cells. Our results suggest that an essential invasion factor has a functional half-life that is seen as a gradual loss of invasiveness in the absence of protein synthesis. Therefore, Salmonella invasiveness appears to be a transient phenotype that is lost unless protein synthesis is maintained. This finding may explain why salmonellae grown to stationary phase ...

  16. Utilisation of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica meal as protein source for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaka Seriba Diarra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of substituting Giant African snail meal for fish meal in laying hens diet. Four diets were formulated to contain snail meal as replacement for fish meal at 0 (control, 33, 67 and 100 %. A total of 120 Shaver Brown pullets aged 18 weeks were allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomised design. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and ten birds per replicate. Feed intake increased only for the 33% treatment as compared to the 67% replacement diet but did not differ from the other treatments. There were no significant treatment effects on egg performance parameters observed (egg production, egg weight, total egg mass, feed conversion ratio and percent shell. The overall feed cost of egg production reduced on the snail mealbased diets. The organoleptic evaluation of boiled eggs revealed no difference between the treatments. Based on these results it was concluded that total replacement of fish meal with cooked snail meat meal does not compromise laying performance or egg quality. The substitution is beneficial in terms of production cost reduction and the reduction of snails will have a beneficial impact especially where these snails are a serious agricultural pest. The manual collection and processing of snails can also become a source of rural income.

  17. Reduced postprandial energy expenditure and increased exogenous fat oxidation in young woman after ingestion of test meals with a low protein content

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Susanne; Petzke Klaus J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Macronutrient composition of diets can influence energy balance in humans. We tested the hypothesis whether low protein content in single meals may induce lower values of energy expenditure (EE) and fat oxidation (FO) as compared to adequate protein content. Methods Indirect calorimetry was combined with a breath test using naturally 13C-enriched corn oil to differentiate between postprandial exogenous and endogenous FO. Young women ingested single meals containing either ...

  18. Differential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lene S; Hartvigsen, Merete L; Brader, Lea J;

    2009-01-01

    , glucagon, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide responses. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that as a supplement to a fat-rich meal in patients with type 2 diabetes, whey protein seems to outperform other proteins in terms of postprandial lipemia improvement, possibly because of...... objective was to compare the effects of the proteins casein, whey, cod, and gluten on postprandial lipid and incretin responses to a high-fat meal in persons with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A crossover study was conducted in 12 patients with type 2 diabetes. Blood samples were collected over 8 h after......BACKGROUND: Enhanced and prolonged postprandial triglyceride responses involve increased cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes. Dietary fat and carbohydrates profoundly influence postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, whereas little information exists on the effect of proteins. OBJECTIVE: The...

  19. Studies on substitutional protein sources for fish meal in the diet of Japanese flounder; Hirame shiryo ni okeru miriyo shigen no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, K.; Furuta, T.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Effectiveness of livestock industry wastes and vegetable protein added to fish meal in fish farming is tested by feeding the Japanese flounder. In the experiment, a part or the whole of the fish meal protein is replaced by the meat meal (MM), meat and bone meal (MBM), corngluten meal (CGM), or dried silkworm pupa meal (SPM), and fries of the Japanese flounder are fed on the new diets for eight weeks. On a diet containing 60% or less of MM, no change is detected in the fish in terms of increase in weight, protein efficiency ratio, and blood components, indicating that 60% at the highest of fish meal may be replaced by MM. In the case of MBM, it can occupy approximately 20%. As for CGM, the proper substitution rate is approximately 40%. Essential amino acids that the new diets may lack are added for an approximately 10% improvement on the result. The SPM substitution works up to 40%, when, however, the blood components are degraded. The proper substitution rate is therefore placed at approximately 20%. 38 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Anti Mastitis Bacterial Activity of Diet Containing Betel Leaf Meal (Piper betle L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Yamin; A. Sudarman; D. Evvyernie

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this experiment was to study the inhibition effect of betel leaf meal (BLM) addition into concentrate diet on mastitis causing bacteria and on rumen fermentation condition. The study consisted of five dietary treatments of BLM level in concentrate feed, i.e., 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% and four replicates of each treatment. The treatment diets together with napier grass in ratio of 40 : 60 were fermented using rumen liquor. All treatments were examined their antibacterial activity be...

  1. Glycemia and insulinemia in healthy subjects after lactose-equivalent meals of milk and other food proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Mikael; Stenberg, Marianne; Frid, Anders H;

    2004-01-01

    for leucine, valine, lysine, and isoleucine. A correlation was also obtained between responses of insulin and GIP concentrations. Reconstituted milk powder and whey had substantially lower postprandial glucose areas under the curve (AUCs) than did the bread reference (-62% and -57%, respectively). Whey meal......BACKGROUND: Milk products deviate from other carbohydrate-containing foods in that they produce high insulin responses, despite their low GI. The insulinotropic mechanism of milk has not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of common dietary sources of animal...... or vegetable proteins on concentrations of postprandial blood glucose, insulin, amino acids, and incretin hormones [glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1] in healthy subjects. DESIGN: Twelve healthy volunteers were served test meals consisting of reconstituted milk...

  2. The Chaotic Structure of Bacterial Virulence Protein Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdanur Genc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial virulence proteins, which have been class ified on structure of virulence, causes several diseases. For instance, Adhesins play an important role in th e host cells. They are inserted DNA sequences for a variety of virulence properties. Several important methods conducted for the prediction of bacterial virulence proteins for finding new drugs or vaccines. In this study, we propose a method for feature sele ction about classification of bacterial virulence protein. The features are constituted dir ectly from the amino acid sequence of a given protein. Amino acids form proteins, which are criti cal to life, and have many important functions in living cells. They occurring with diff erent physicochemical properties by a vector of 20 numerical values, and collected in AAIndex datab ases of known 544 indices. For all that, this approach have two steps. Firstly , the amino acid sequence of a given protein analysed with Lyapunov Exponents that they have a chaotic structure in accordance wi th the chaos theory. After that, if the results show chara cterization over the complete distribution in the phase space from the point of deterministic sys tem, it means related protein will show a chaotic structure. Empirical results revealed that generated feature v ectors give the best performance with chaotic structure of physicochemical features of amino acid s with Adhesins and non-Adhesins data sets.

  3. Identification of ligands for bacterial sensor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Matilde; Morel, Bertrand; Corral-Lugo, Andrés; Rico-Jiménez, Miriam; Martín-Mora, David; López-Farfán, Diana; Reyes-Darias, José Antonio; Matilla, Miguel A; Ortega, Álvaro; Krell, Tino

    2016-02-01

    Bacteria have evolved a variety of different signal transduction mechanisms. However, the cognate signal molecule for the very large amount of corresponding sensor proteins is unknown and their functional annotation represents a major bottleneck in the field of signal transduction. The knowledge of the signal molecule is an essential prerequisite to understand the signalling mechanisms. Recently, the identification of signal molecules by the high-throughput protein screening of commercially available ligand collections using differential scanning fluorimetry has shown promise to resolve this bottleneck. Based on the analysis of a significant number of different ligand binding domains (LBDs) in our laboratory, we identified two issues that need to be taken into account in the experimental design. Since a number of LBDs require the dimeric state for ligand recognition, it has to be assured that the protein analysed is indeed in the dimeric form. A number of other examples demonstrate that purified LBDs can contain bound ligand which prevents further binding. In such cases, the apo-form can be generated by denaturation and subsequent refolding. We are convinced that this approach will accelerate the functional annotation of sensor proteins which will help to understand regulatory circuits in bacteria. PMID:26511375

  4. Bacterial Microcompartment Organelles: Protein Shell Structure and Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Yeates, Todd O; Crowley, Christopher S.; Tanaka, Shiho

    2010-01-01

    Some bacteria contain organelles or microcompartments consisting of a large virion-like protein shell encapsulating sequentially acting enzymes. These organized microcompartments serve to enhance or protect key metabolic pathways inside the cell. The variety of bacterial microcompartments provide diverse metabolic functions, ranging from CO2 fixation to the degradation of small organic molecules. Yet they share an evolutionarily related shell, which is defined by a conserved protein domain th...

  5. Surface display of proteins by Gram-negative bacterial autotransporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourez Michael

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Expressing proteins of interest as fusions to proteins of the bacterial envelope is a powerful technique with many biotechnological and medical applications. Autotransporters have recently emerged as a good tool for bacterial surface display. These proteins are composed of an N-terminal signal peptide, followed by a passenger domain and a translocator domain that mediates the outer membrane translocation of the passenger. The natural passenger domain of autotransporters can be replaced by heterologous proteins that become displayed at the bacterial surface by the translocator domain. The simplicity and versatility of this system has made it very attractive and it has been used to display functional enzymes, vaccine antigens as well as polypeptides libraries. The recent advances in the study of the translocation mechanism of autotransporters have raised several controversial issues with implications for their use as display systems. These issues include the requirement for the displayed polypeptides to remain in a translocation-competent state in the periplasm, the requirement for specific signal sequences and "autochaperone" domains, and the influence of the genetic background of the expression host strain. It is therefore important to better understand the mechanism of translocation of autotransporters in order to employ them to their full potential. This review will focus on the recent advances in the study of the translocation mechanism of autotransporters and describe practical considerations regarding their use for bacterial surface display.

  6. A feasibility study of non-targeted adulterant screening based on NIRM spectral library of soybean meal to guarantee quality: The example of non-protein nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guanghui; Fan, Xia; Yang, Zengling; Han, Lujia

    2016-11-01

    The quality and safety of soybean meal is a key matter for the livestock breeding and food industries, since it is one of the most important and widely used protein feed raw materials. As driven by commercial interests, new illegal adulterants which are unknown to consumers and regulators emerge constantly. In order to make up for the inadequacy of traditional detection methods, a novel non-targeted adulterant screening method based on a near-infrared microscopy spectral library of soybean meal is proposed. This study focused on the feasibility of non-targeted screening methods for the detection of adulteration in soybean meal. Six types of non-protein nitrogen were taken as examples and partial least squares discriminant analysis was employed to verify the feasibility of this novel method. The results showed that the non-targeted screening method could screen out adulterations in soybean meal with satisfactory results. PMID:27211617

  7. Bacterial characterization using protein profiling in a microchip separations platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Shelly A; Lane, Pamela; Lane, Todd W; Cruz, Evelyn; Haroldsen, Brent; VanderNoot, Victoria A

    2007-12-01

    A rapid microanalytical protein-based approach to bacterial characterization is presented. Chip gel electrophoresis (CGE) coupled with LIF detection was used to analyze lysates from different bacterial cell lines to obtain signature profiles of the soluble protein composition. The study includes Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus anthracis (Delta Sterne strain) vegetative cells as well as endospores formed from the latter two species as model organisms to demonstrate the method. A unified protein preparation protocol was developed for both cell types to streamline the benchtop process and aid future automation. Cells and spores were lysed and proteins solubilized using a combination of thermal and chemical lysis methods. Reducing agents, necessary to solubilize spore proteins, were eliminated using a small-scale rapid size-exclusion chromatography step to eliminate interference with down-stream protein labeling. This approach was found to be compatible with nonspore cells (i.e., vegetative cells) as well, not adversely impacting the protein signatures. Data are presented demonstrating distinct CGE protein signatures for our model organisms, suggesting the potential for discrimination of organisms on the basis of empirical protein patterns. The goal of this work is to develop a fast and field-portable method for characterizing bacteria via their proteomes. PMID:18008300

  8. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen;

    2013-01-01

    A new methodology is introduced that allows the design of meal solutions (such as chilled and frozen ready meals, menu choices in catering and food service) based on empirical assessments of fit between meal centres and side components. The necessary input data are collected by means of a consumer...

  9. Prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes Salmonella invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBeth, K J; Lee, C A

    1993-01-01

    We have found that prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes the ability of Salmonella typhimurium to enter HEp-2 cells. Our results suggest that an essential invasion factor has a functional half-life that is seen as a gradual loss of invasiveness in the absence of protein synthesis. Therefore, Salmonella invasiveness appears to be a transient phenotype that is lost unless protein synthesis is maintained. This finding may explain why salmonellae grown to stationary phase lose their ability to enter cultured cells. In addition, a short-lived capacity to enter cells may be important during infection so that bacterial invasiveness is limited to certain times and host sites during pathogenesis. PMID:8454361

  10. Structural Aspects of Bacterial Outer Membrane Protein Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmettes, Charles; Judd, Andrew; Moraes, Trevor F

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is predominantly populated by β-Barrel proteins and lipid anchored proteins that serve a variety of biological functions. The proper folding and assembly of these proteins is essential for bacterial viability and often plays a critical role in virulence and pathogenesis. The β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex is responsible for the proper assembly of β-barrels into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) system is required for proper targeting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane. PMID:26621472

  11. Evaluation of Nutritive Value of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Leaf Meal in Compound Diets for Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822) Fingerlings after Fermentation with Two Bacterial Strains Isolated from Fish Gut

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Sangbrita; Ray, Arun Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Nine isonitrogenous (30% crude protein approximately) and isocaloric (18.23 kJ g-1) experimental diets (D1-D9) were formulated either with raw or treated (fermented with fish intestinal bacteria) Eichhornia crassipes leaf meal at 20%, 30% and 40% levels replacing other ingredients partially from a fish meal based reference diet (RD). Two specific strains of fish intestinal bacteria, Bacillus subtilis CY5 (isolated from Cyprinus carpio) and B. megaterium CI3 (isolated from Ctenopharyngodon id...

  12. Recombinant Expression Screening of P. aeruginosa Bacterial Inner Membrane Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Constance J

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmembrane proteins (TM proteins make up 25% of all proteins and play key roles in many diseases and normal physiological processes. However, much less is known about their structures and molecular mechanisms than for soluble proteins. Problems in expression, solubilization, purification, and crystallization cause bottlenecks in the characterization of TM proteins. This project addressed the need for improved methods for obtaining sufficient amounts of TM proteins for determining their structures and molecular mechanisms. Results Plasmid clones were obtained that encode eighty-seven transmembrane proteins with varying physical characteristics, for example, the number of predicted transmembrane helices, molecular weight, and grand average hydrophobicity (GRAVY. All the target proteins were from P. aeruginosa, a gram negative bacterial opportunistic pathogen that causes serious lung infections in people with cystic fibrosis. The relative expression levels of the transmembrane proteins were measured under several culture growth conditions. The use of E. coli strains, a T7 promoter, and a 6-histidine C-terminal affinity tag resulted in the expression of 61 out of 87 test proteins (70%. In this study, proteins with a higher grand average hydrophobicity and more transmembrane helices were expressed less well than less hydrophobic proteins with fewer transmembrane helices. Conclusions In this study, factors related to overall hydrophobicity and the number of predicted transmembrane helices correlated with the relative expression levels of the target proteins. Identifying physical characteristics that correlate with protein expression might aid in selecting the "low hanging fruit", or proteins that can be expressed to sufficient levels using an E. coli expression system. The use of other expression strategies or host species might be needed for sufficient levels of expression of transmembrane proteins with other physical

  13. Inactivation of indispensable bacterial proteins by early proteins of bacteriophages: implication in antibacterial drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, S; Chattoraj, P; Ganguly, T; Chanda, P K; Mandal, N C

    2008-06-01

    Bacteriophages utilize host bacterial cellular machineries for their own reproduction and completion of life cycles. The early proteins that phage synthesize immediately after the entry of their genomes into bacterial cells participate in inhibiting host macromolecular biosynthesis, initiating phage-specific replication and synthesizing late proteins. Inhibition of synthesis of host macromolecules that eventually leads to cell death is generally performed by the physical and/or chemical modification of indispensable host proteins by early proteins. Interestingly, most modified bacterial proteins were shown to take part actively in phage-specific transcription and replication. Research on phages in last nine decades has demonstrated such lethal early proteins that interact with or chemically modify indispensable host proteins. Among the host proteins inhibited by lethal phage proteins, several are not inhibited by any chemical inhibitor available today. Under the context of widespread dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria in recent years, the information of lethal phage proteins and cognate host proteins could be extremely invaluable as they may lead to the identification of novel antibacterial compounds. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about some early phage proteins, their cognate host proteins and their mechanism of action and also describe how the above interacting proteins had been exploited in antibacterial drug discovery. PMID:18537683

  14. Function, structure, and mechanism in bacterial photosensory LOV proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Herrou, Julien; Crosson, Sean

    2011-01-01

    LOV domains are protein photosensors conserved in bacteria, archaea, plants and fungi that detect blue light via a flavin cofactor. In the bacterial kingdom, LOV domains are present in both chemotrophic and phototrophic species, where they are found N-terminally of signaling and regulatory domains such as sensor histidine kinases, diguanylate cyclases/phosphodiesterases, DNA-binding domains, and σ factor regulators. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge on the function of...

  15. Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using ProteinA-bacterial magnetite complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Tadashi; Sato, Rika; Kamiya, Shinji; Tanaka, Tsuyosi; Takeyama, Haruko

    1999-04-01

    Bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs) which have ProteinA expressed on their surface were constructed using magA which is a key gene in BMP biosynthesis in the magnetic bacterium Magnetospirillum sp. AMB-1. Homogenous chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay using antibody bound ProteinA-BMP complexes was developed for detection of human IgG. A good correlation between the luminescence yield and the concentration of human IgG was obtained in the range of 1-10 3 ng/ml.

  16. Near-infrared fluorescent proteins engineered from bacterial phytochromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, Daria M; Baloban, Mikhail; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2015-08-01

    Near-infrared fluorescent proteins (NIR FPs), photoactivatable NIR FPs and NIR reporters of protein-protein interactions developed from bacterial phytochrome photoreceptors (BphPs) have advanced non-invasive deep-tissue imaging. Here we provide a brief guide to the BphP-derived NIR probes with an emphasis on their in vivo applications. We describe phenotypes of NIR FPs and their photochemical and intracellular properties. We discuss NIR FP applications for imaging of various cell types, tissues and animal models in basic and translational research. In this discussion, we focus on NIR FPs that efficiently incorporate endogenous biliverdin chromophore and therefore can be used as straightforward as GFP-like proteins. We also overview a usage of NIR FPs in different imaging platforms, from planar epifluorescence to tomographic and photoacoustic technologies. PMID:26115447

  17. Feeding Value of Corn Gluten Meal as a Source of Protein in Creep Feeding Diets of Suckling Lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-two newly born lambs were randomly divided into three similar groups, their weights were recorded at birth then each two weeks. Lambs in the groups were left to suckle their mothers, in addition to one of the experimental diets (as creep feeding), which found in Table (1). First group (Gl) fed diet contains 13% soybean meal (SBM) and served as a control diet, second group (G2) fed diet contains 6.5% SBM and 6.5% corn gluten meal (CGM), and third group (G3) fed diet contains 13% CGM. The concentrate feed mixture was offered daily started at 7th days of age until weaning. Blood samples were taken at 7, 40 and 80 days of age. The results showed that averages daily body weight gain and weaning weight of lambs were higher significantly with G2 than G3 then Gl. In addition, male lambs had higher weaning weight and average daily weight gain than female lambs in the three groups. The highest means of serum total proteins, albumin and globulin recorded with G2 followed by G3 then Gl o Means of serum glucose significantly decrease with age. Blood serum aspartate amino -transferase (AST) and alanine amino - transferase (ALT) creatinine concentration and T3 level were not affected by treatments. Serum triglyceride and serum cholesterol levels were higher recorded for Gl and G2 than G3. It is concluded that adding corn gluten meal to creep feeding diets improves growth of suckling lambs without any side effects on physiological body function of lambs

  18. Effect of high-level fish meal replacement by plant proteins in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) on growth and body/fillet quality traits

    OpenAIRE

    M. de Francesco; Parisi, G.; Perez Sanchez, J.; Gomez Requeni, P; Medale, Francoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam; M. Mecatti; Poli, B

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile gilthead sea bream (initial body weight ca. 100 g) were reared in an indoor flow through marine water system for 1 year. Fish were fed two isoenergetic [19.2 kJ g−1 dry matter (DM)] and isoproteic (426 g kg−1 DM) diets either based on fish meal (diet FM) or on a mixture of plant protein sources (diet PP), replacing 75% of fish meal protein. The growth trial was conducted in duplicate, two tanks for each dietary treatment. Growth performance and feed utilization were regis...

  19. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in novel organic protein feedstuffs for pigs: Black soldier fly larvae meal(Hermetia illucens)

    OpenAIRE

    Kortelainen, Tiina; Siljander-Rasi, Hilkka; Tuori, Mikko; Partanen, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in organically produced black soldier fly larvae (Hermeti illucens) meal in growing piglets. The use of Hermetia meal in pig feeding is not allowed for the time being, but feed legislation in the EU concerning the use of Hermetia meal for pigs is in progress. Two batches of Hermetia meal arrived from Switzerland (FiBL Research Institute of Organic Agriculture). In batch 1, fa...

  20. The relative nutritive value of irradiated spray-dried blood powder and heat-sterilized blood meal as measured in combination with whey protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of processing blood meal in which nutritive value of the protein is preserved is described, since appreciable losses occur in the nutritive value of the protein when prepared by heat sterilization with drying at atmospheric pressure in steam jacketed vessels. Blood was spray dried and irradiated at an intensity of 10 kGy. Collectively the heat of spray drying and irradiation was effective in killing both the virus plaque-forming units and the bacteria, thus producing a commercially acceptable sterile product of higher nutritive value. The relative nutritive values (RNV) of 50:50 protein were 0,56 for whey protein concentrate plus heat-sterilized blood meal and 0.90 for whey protein concentrate plus irradiated spray-dried blood powder. Whey protein concentrate used as a control has a RNV of 1,0

  1. Bacterial Protein Synthesis as a Target for Antibiotic Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenz, Stefan; Wilson, Daniel N

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis occurs on macromolecular machines, called ribosomes. Bacterial ribosomes and the translational machinery represent one of the major targets for antibiotics in the cell. Therefore, structural and biochemical investigations into ribosome-targeting antibiotics provide not only insight into the mechanism of action and resistance of antibiotics, but also insight into the fundamental process of protein synthesis. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of protein synthesis, particularly with respect to X-ray and cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of ribosome complexes, and highlights the different steps of translation that are targeted by the diverse array of known antibiotics. Such findings will be important for the ongoing development of novel and improved antimicrobial agents to combat the rapid emergence of multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria. PMID:27481773

  2. The use of green pea (Pisum sativum as alternative protein source for fish meal in diets for Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlinda S. Ganzon-Naret

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effect of green pea P. sativum asalternative protein source for fish meal on the growth performance, feed utilization and phosphorusexcretion for Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Four isonitrogenous (40% crude protein and isolipidic(10% lipid diets were prepared with the increasing substitution levels of green pea (GP for fish meal(FM at 0% (P0, 10% (P10, 20% (P20 and 30% (P30 with corresponding dietary protein levels at 0,2.6, 5.2 and 7.8% respectively in a 40% protein diet. The weight gain (WG of fish (19.69 g fed P0 diet(control without GP meal was comparable to fish fed P10 diet (17.75 g but significantly (p 0.05 werefound in the percentage of lipid among the different treatments. The peak time for phosphorus excretionwas observed after the first feeding at the end of 8 hrs. Fish fed P0 diet had the highest phosphorusexcretion which was attributed to its high level of FM component whereas fish fed P30 diet had thelowest. It appears that green pea can replace fish meal at the level of 10% in diets for sea bass withoutadverse effects on growth, feed utilization or body composition and this may also contribute toenvironmental protection as well as reduce feed cost to sustain aquaculture.

  3. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler hens. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In two experiments with colostomized broiler hens the influence of a straw meal supplement on the apparent digestibility of the amino acids of the ration and the 15N-labelled basic amino acids in wheat was studied. In experiment 1 the animals received 120 g mixed feed plus 0, 20, 30 and 40 g straw meal per animal and day. The digestibility of the amino acids decreased on average from 86% to 83%, 80% and 79% with the growing straw intake. In contrast to the control variant, 20 g straw meal intake resulted in a singificant decrease of digestibility for lysine, histidine, glycine, tyrosine, phenylanaline, cystine and methionine. 30 and 40 g straw meal reduced significantly the digestibility of all amino acids with the exception of arginine. The amino acid composition of the crude protein in feces changed only very slightly due to the straw supplement. In experiment 2 15N-labelled wheat was a component of the ration. Of the 15N-labelled amino acids lysine, histidine and arginine, 88, 90 and 95% were apparently digested. The adaptation of the animals to straw meal intake did not change the digestibility of the amino acids. (author)

  4. USE OF EXTRUSION-TEXTURIZED WHEY PROTEIN ISOLATES IN PUFFED CORN MEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adding whey protein concentrates or isolates to expanded snack foods would boost their nutritional content; however, adding non-textured whey proteins in amounts larger than 5% interferes with expansion, making the products less crunchy. To counter this effect, whey protein isolate was first extrud...

  5. Holo- And Apo- Structures of Bacterial Periplasmic Heme Binding Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, W.W.; Li, H.; Eakanunkul, S.; Tong, Y.; Wilks, A.; Guo, M.; Poulos, T.L.

    2009-06-01

    An essential component of heme transport in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the periplasmic protein that shuttles heme between outer and inner membranes. We have solved the first crystal structures of two such proteins, ShuT from Shigella dysenteriae and PhuT from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both share a common architecture typical of Class III periplasmic binding proteins. The heme binds in a narrow cleft between the N- and C-terminal binding domains and is coordinated by a Tyr residue. A comparison of the heme-free (apo) and -bound (holo) structures indicates little change in structure other than minor alterations in the heme pocket and movement of the Tyr heme ligand from an 'in' position where it can coordinate the heme iron to an 'out' orientation where it points away from the heme pocket. The detailed architecture of the heme pocket is quite different in ShuT and PhuT. Although Arg{sup 228} in PhuT H-bonds with a heme propionate, in ShuT a peptide loop partially takes up the space occupied by Arg{sup 228}, and there is no Lys or Arg H-bonding with the heme propionates. A comparison of PhuT/ShuT with the vitamin B{sub 12}-binding protein BtuF and the hydroxamic-type siderophore-binding protein FhuD, the only two other structurally characterized Class III periplasmic binding proteins, demonstrates that PhuT/ShuT more closely resembles BtuF, which reflects the closer similarity in ligands, heme and B{sub 12}, compared with ligands for FhuD, a peptide siderophore.

  6. Bacterial Hydrolysis of Protein and Methylated Protein and Its Implications for Studies of Protein Degradation in Aquatic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Richard G.; Kirchman, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase was radiolabelled by in vitro translation, resulting in uniformly labelled ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, and also by reductive methylation. We investigated the degradation of the two forms of radiolabelled protein by natural bacterial populations. Although total hydrolysis of uniformly labelled protein and methylated protein was nearly equal, percent assimilation, respiration, and release as low-molecular-weight material were different. Radioacti...

  7. Malic acid or orthophosphoric acid-heat treatments for protecting sunflower (Helianthus annuus) meal proteins against ruminal degradation and increasing intestinal amino acid supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, J M; González, J; Ouarti, M; Silván, J M; Ruiz del Castillo, M L; de la Peña Moreno, F

    2013-02-01

    The protection of sunflower meal (SFM) proteins by treatments with solutions of malic acid (1 M) or orthophosphoric acid (0.67 M) and heat was studied in a 3 × 3 Latin-square design using three diets and three rumen and duodenum cannulated wethers. Acid solutions were applied to SFM at a rate of 400 ml/kg under continuous mixing. Subsequently, treated meals were dried in an oven at 150°C for 6 h. Diets (ingested at 75 g/kg BW0.75) were isoproteic and included 40% Italian ryegrass hay and 60% concentrate. The ratio of untreated to treated SFM in the concentrate was 100 : 0 in the control diet and around 40 : 60 in diets including acid-treated meals. The use of acid-treated meals did not alter either ruminal fermentation or composition of rumen contents and led to moderate reductions of the rumen outflow rates of untreated SFM particles, whereas it did not affect their comminution and mixing rate. In situ effective estimates of by-pass (BP) and its intestinal effective digestibility (IED) of dry matter (DM), CP and amino acids (AAs) were obtained considering both rates and correcting the particle microbial contamination in the rumen using 15N infusion techniques. Estimates of BP and IED decreased applying microbial correction, but these variations were low in agreement with the small contamination level. Protective treatments increased on average the BP of DM (48.5%) and CP (267%), mainly decreasing both the soluble fraction and the degradation rate but also increasing the undegradable fraction, which was higher using orthophosphoric acid. Protective treatments increased the IED of DM (108%) and CP, but this increase was lower using orthophosphoric acid (11.8%) than malic acid (20.7%). Concentrations of AA were similar among all meals, except for a reduction in lysine concentrations using malic acid (16.3%) or orthophosphoric acid (20.5%). Protective treatments also increased on average the BP of all AA, as well as the IED of most of them. Evidence of higher

  8. Partial replacement of protein in soybean meal by moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera in bocourti’s catfish (Pangasius bocourti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundit Yuangsoi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken in order to determine the effect of a dietary of moringa seed cake on digestibility, growth performance, blood chemistry and histopathologic of bocourti’s catfish. Fish were fed with diets formulated by 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 of moringa seed cake to replace protein in soybean meal. Fish with mean wet weights of 21.50± 0.25 g per fish were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks. Significant differences (p<0.05 in weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate were detected between bocourti’s catfish given the experimental diets. All fish grew normally and no significant difference was observed for survival rate and feed conversion ratio among fish fed tested diets. The highest FCR was generally observed that as moringa seed cake inclusion increased in the diets that were noted to exhibit slightly poor growth performance, feed utilization and pepsin digestibility tested. Blood chemistry and hepatosomatic index did not differ significantly for any of the diet treatments. No histopathological changes were found in distal intestines and liver. The study indicated that the dietary moringa seed cake contains ingredients that could be used for bocourti’s catfish diets possibly not over up to for 500 g kg-1 soybean protein replacement without negative effect on growth, digestibility and histology.

  9. Hearth bread characteristics: Effect of protein quality, protein content, whole meal flour, DATEM, proving time, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, A.; Magnus, E.M.; Færgestad, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of protein quality, protein content, ingredients, and baking process of flour blends on hearth loaves were studied. The flour blends varied in protein composition and content. Flours of strong protein quality produced hearth loaves with larger loaf volume, larger bread slice area, and hi

  10. Effect of replacing soybean meal protein with protein from upland cottonseed, Pima cottonseed, or extruded Pima cottonseed on production of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, G A; Kerkman, T M; Sullivan, H M; Dowd, M K; Funk, P A

    2013-04-01

    Pima cotton production is increasing in the United States, but Pima cottonseed generally contains higher concentrations of the antinutritive pigment gossypol than conventional upland cottonseed. Heating promotes the reaction of gossypol with protein, reducing gossypol absorption and toxicity. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional value for dairy cattle of Pima cottonseed cake (PCSC) that was heated and oil largely removed by an experimental extrusion process, compared with upland cottonseed (UCS) and Pima cottonseed (PCS). The PCS had greater crude protein (CP) and ether extract, less neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), similar total gossypol, but higher (-)-gossypol isomer compared with UCS. Extrusion reduced lipid content by 73%, increased concentrations of CP, NDF, and ADF, and reduced total gossypol, (+)-gossypol, and (-)-gossypol in PCSC versus PCS. Forty lactating Holsteins (8 with ruminal cannulas) were blocked by days in milk into 5 squares in a replicated, incomplete 8 × 8 Latin square, and were fed diets containing, on a dry matter (DM) basis, 30% alfalfa silage, 31% corn silage, 21 to 25% high-moisture corn, and about 15% CP. Diets were fed as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Supplemental CP was from (1) solvent soybean meal (SSBM) only or 50% from SSBM plus 50% from (2) UCS, (3) PCS, (4) PCSC, (5) UCS plus PCS, and (6) UCS plus PCSC, or (7) 50% from expeller soybean meal (ESBM) plus 50% from PCS, and (8) 50% from ESBM plus 50% from PCSC. Periods were 4 wk long (total of 16 wk); production data were collected over the last 2 wk and blood and ruminal samples were taken on d 28 of each period. Data were analyzed using Proc Mixed of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Diet affected dry matter intake, with greatest intake on diet 6 and lowest intake on diets 1 and 3. The highest milk fat content was observed on diet 5 and the greatest fat yield on diet 7; fat content and yield were lowest on diet 1

  11. Carbohydrate/protein selection in a single meal correlated with plasma tryptophan and tyrosine ratios to neutral amino acids in fasting individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, S E

    1986-01-01

    Plasma ratios of tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine (Tyr) to their respective competing large neutral amino acids (LNAA) for brain uptake, serum insulin and plasma glucose concentrations were determined in 31 fasting healthy female subjects, and in two smaller groups of smokers and oral contraceptive users, who were subsequently allowed to compose individual breakfast meals from a selection of 25 dietary products. Additional blood samples were collected at 2 hr after the meal. Smokers consumed less carbohydrate (-22%) and total calories (-23%) and showed decreased basal serum insulin level, when compared to controls on the same age. Females on oral contraceptives consumed significantly more carbohydrate (+54%) and total calories (+32%) than comparable controls. In the 31 females there was no significant correlation between any of the biological variables and the intake of fat or total calories. The ratio of carbohydrate/protein eaten was significantly and directly correlated with age and with the sum of plasma ratios Trp/LNAA and Tyr/LNAA, and these independent variables associated with 37% of the variance in the ratio carbohydrate/protein consumed, as evaluated by multiple regression analysis. After the meal, the plasma ratio Tyr/LNAA was increased, whereas the ratio Trp/LNAA was decreased in subjects whose ratio carbohydrate/protein consumed was below the mean of the full sample, whereas subjects who consumed meals with a high ratio carbohydrate/protein showed an increase in plasma ratio Trp/LNAA. It is concluded that biological variables in man are significantly associated with the choice between nutrients with different carbohydrate and protein contents for breakfast. The changes in the plasma ratios Trp/LNAA and Tyr/LNAA after consumption were generally moderate. PMID:3797484

  12. Ribosome reinitiation at leader peptides increases translation of bacterial proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Semen A; Zverkov, Oleg A; Seliverstov, Alexandr V; Lyubetsky, Vassily A

    2016-01-01

    Short leader genes usually do not encode stable proteins, although their importance in expression control of bacterial genomes is widely accepted. Such genes are often involved in the control of attenuation regulation. However, the abundance of leader genes suggests that their role in bacteria is not limited to regulation. Specifically, we hypothesize that leader genes increase the expression of protein-coding (structural) genes via ribosome reinitiation at the leader peptide in the case of a short distance between the stop codon of the leader gene and the start codon of the structural gene. For instance, in Actinobacteria, the frequency of leader genes at a distance of 10-11 bp is about 70 % higher than the mean frequency within the 1 to 65 bp range; and it gradually decreases as the range grows longer. A pronounced peak of this frequency-distance relationship is also observed in Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetales, Acidobacteria, the Deinococcus-Thermus group, and Planctomycetes. In contrast, this peak falls to the distance of 15-16 bp and is not very pronounced in Firmicutes; and no such peak is observed in cyanobacteria and tenericutes. Generally, this peak is typical for many bacteria. Some leader genes located close to a structural gene probably play a regulatory role as well. PMID:27084079

  13. Surface Proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae and Related Proteins in Other Bacterial Pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Gunnar; Stålhammar-Carlemalm, Margaretha; Areschoug, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is the major cause of invasive bacterial disease, including meningitis, in the neonatal period. Although prophylactic measures have contributed to a substantial reduction in the number of infections, development of a vaccine remains an important goal. While much work in this field has focused on the S. agalactiae polysaccharide capsule, which is an important virulence factor that elicits protective immunity, surface proteins have received incre...

  14. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.; Rowlinson, P.; Pilajun, R.; Gunun, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of...

  15. Skin Firming, Skin Smoothing, Skin Blemishes Elimination and Anti-aging Effects of Increased Protein Intake in the Form of Voandzeia hypogeal Seed Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the effect of excess calorie intake on the human body showed that it resulted in accumulation of excess body fat; the darkening of the skin colour and the development of a bumpy skin. Problem statement: The present study investigated the effects of increased protein intake on the human skin and on body fat. The skin firming, skin smoothing and skin colour lightening effects of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract has already been established. The anti-obesity, body calming and anti-aging effects of VA leaf extract have also been established. Approach: The effects of increased protein intake (in the form of eating of 100 gm Voandzeia hypogeal seed paste meal two times daily, was tested on the skin, anti-obesity and anti-aging effects of VA leaf extract. The study was done for 10 days. Results: The results of the study showed that Voandzeia subterranean (hypogea cooked potentiated the skin tightening, skin smoothing, skin colour lightening and the anti-obesity/anti-aging effects of VA. Leaf extract. These results show that increased Voandezia hypogeal seed paste meal [increased protein intake has skin tightening/clearing/lightening/smoothing and anti-obesity/anti-aging effects]. They also show that cooked Voandzeia hypogeal seed paste meal has a potentiating effect on the skin and body effects of VA leaf extract. Conclusion: From the findings of this study the author to concludes that increased protein intake potentiated the skin firming/skin smoothing/skin colour lightening; body calming; anti-obesity and anti-aging effects of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract. The study also concludes that Voandzeia hypogeal seed meal has skin firming/skin smoothing/skin colour lightening (clearing; body calming; anti-obesity and anti-aging effects.

  16. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerton, Dean M.; Campbell, Matthew D.; Gonzalez, Javier T.; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; West, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI): 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2) completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ) was consumed with (CHO + WP) or without (CHO) 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ), or breakfast was omitted (NB). At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0–180 min): 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L), compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L) and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p 0.05). Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal. PMID:26927166

  17. REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL BY CANOLA MEAL IN DIETS FOR MAJOR CARPS IN FERTILIZED PONDS

    OpenAIRE

    S. ABBAS, I. AHMED, M. HAFEEZ-UR-REHMAN AND A. MATEEN

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted in three earthen ponds to evaluate the replacement of fish meal by low cost plant protein (canola meal) for major carps in semi-intensive culture system. Each pond was fertilized with cattle manure at the rate of 0.16g N/100g wet fish body weight daily. A control diet (30% CP), formulated by using fish meal, cotton seed meal, maize gluten and rice polish, was designated as T1, while in T2 and T3, the fish meal was replaced with canola meal by 20 and 40%, respectively....

  18. Identification of Proteins and Peptide Biomarkers for Detecting Banned Processed Animal Proteins (PAPs) in Meat and Bone Meal by Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbaix, Hélène; Budinger, Dimitri; Dieu, Marc; Fumière, Olivier; Gillard, Nathalie; Delahaut, Philippe; Mauro, Sergio; Raes, Martine

    2016-03-23

    The outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United Kingdom in 1986, with processed animal proteins (PAPs) as the main vector of the disease, has led to their prohibition in feed. The progressive release of the feed ban required the development of new analytical methods to determine the exact origin of PAPs from meat and bone meal. We set up a promising MS-based method to determine the species and the source (legal or not) present in PAPs: a TCA-acetone protein extraction followed by a cleanup step, an in-solution tryptic digestion of 5 h (with a 1:20 protein/trypsin ratio), and mass spectrometry analyses, first without any a priori, with a Q-TOF, followed by a targeted triple-quadrupole analysis. Using this procedure, we were able to overcome some of the major limitations of the official methods to analyze PAPs, detecting and identifying prohibited animal products in feedstuffs by the monitoring of peptides specific for cows, pigs, and sheep in PAPs. PMID:26943838

  19. Effect of storage temperatures on injured escherichia coli cell populations in whey and corn meal snacks treated with a twin screw extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of extrusion treatment parameters on injured populations of corn meal and whey protein isolate inoculated with surrogate E. coli populations has been reported. However, information on the effect of treatment parameters on injured bacterial populations of treated corn and whey protein prod...

  20. Substituição do farelo de soja pela farinha de glúten de milho na alimentação de cabras leiteiras Substitution of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in dairy goat feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Pego de Macedo

    2003-08-01

    the effect of substitution of soybean meal (SM protein by the protein from the corn gluten flour (CGF, in the milk production, milk composition, voluntary intake and plasmatic urea. The experimental design was the triple Latin square 4x4, with four periods of 21 days, being 14 days of adaptation to the diet and seven days for samples collection. The goats were fed and milked in the morning and afternoon. The substitution levels studied were: 0, 10, 30 and 50% of CGF (based in the crude protein. The substitution of the soybean meal by CGM did not affect the intake (kg/day and %BW of dry matter, crude protein and acid detergent fiber, but there was quadratic effect for neutral detergent fiber intake (kg/day and %BW. There was effect on the levels of plasmatic urea nitrogen (PUN, where the smallest values were in the intermediate levels of substitution, being the biggest values for the treatment with only SM. The milk production decreased lineally with the inclusion of CGM. The substitution levels resulted in lineal decrease in the fat production (kg/day, in the milk fat content (% and milk total solids content (%. There was quadratic effect for lactose production, being the smallest value for 31.6% of substitution level. It was no effect on in crude protein in the milk, which average was .083 kg/day. The crude protein content, lactose and total solids did not suffer effect of the substitution levels, being the average values of 2.98, 4.35 and 11.51%, respectively.

  1. Post-Meal Responses of Elongation Factor 2 (eEF2 and Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK to Leucine and Carbohydrate Supplements for Regulating Protein Synthesis Duration and Energy Homeostasis in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald K. Layman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2. This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements of Leu or carbohydrates. Adult (~256 g male Sprague-Dawley rats were food deprived for 12 h, then either euthanized before a standard meal (time 0 or at 90 or 180 min post-meal. At 135 min post-meal, rats received one of five oral supplements: 270 mg leucine (Leu270, 80:40:40 mg leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu80, 2.63 g carbohydrates (CHO2.6, 1 g carbohydrates (CHO1.0, or water (Sham control. Following the standard meal, MPS increased at 90 min then declined to pre-meal baseline at 180 min. Rats administered Leu270, Leu80, CHO2.6, or CHO1.0 maintained elevated rates of MPS at 180 min, while Sham controls declined from peak values. Leu80 and CHO1.0 treatments maintained MPS, but with values intermediate between Sham controls and Leu270 and CHO2.6 supplements. Consistent with MPS findings, the supplements maintained elongation activity and cellular energy status by preventing increases in AMP/ATP and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC and eEF2. The impact of the supplements on MPS and cellular energy status was in proportion to the energy content within the individual treatments (i.e., Leu270 > Leu80; CHO2.6 > CHO1.0, but the Leu supplements produced a disproportionate anabolic stimulation of MPS, eEF2 and energy status with significantly lower energy content. In summary, the incongruity between MPS and translation initiation at 180 min reflects a block in translation elongation due to

  2. Identification and Characterization of Inhibitors of Bacterial Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Losee L.; Xian, Jun; Ali, Syed; Geng, Bolin; Fan, Jun; Mills, Debra M.; Arvanites, Anthony C.; Orgueira, Hernan; Ashwell, Mark A.; Carmel, Gilles; Xiang, Yibin; Moir, Donald T.

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) catalyzes an essential step in fatty acid biosynthesis. ENR is an attractive target for narrow-spectrum antibacterial drug discovery because of its essential role in metabolism and its sequence conservation across many bacterial species. In addition, the bacterial ENR sequence and structural organization are distinctly different from those of mammalian fatty acid biosynthesis enzymes. High-throughput screening to identify inhibitors of Esch...

  3. Aqueous ethanol extraction of dietary soy protein isolate improves 59Fe absorption by the rat from a casein-based test meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial soy protein isolate (SPI) was further processed in an attempt to understand how a diet based on SPI can cause decreased iron retention by the rat from a separately administered casein-based test meal. Groups of eight rats were fed either a casein-based diet or a diet based on SPI. The acid-precipitated SPI was incorporated into diets as such, after neutralization, after 60% (v/v) ethanol extraction and neutralization, or after 60% ethanol exposure and neutralization. All dietary SPI was heat-treated by exposure to steam at 108 degrees C for 30 min. Rats were fed their respective diets, each containing 25 mg Fe/kg, for 13 d, and then all rats were fed a 59Fe-radiolabeled 2.5-g casein test meal containing 64 micrograms of iron. Ingested radioactivity was determined following the meal, and retained radioactivity over the subsequent 10-d period. Absorption was not distinguishable for groups fed the casein-based (78.3 ± 3.6%) and the ethanol-extracted, SPI-based diet (80.2 ± 5.4%). Absorption was lower (P less than 0.01) for groups fed each of the other SPI-based diets: SPI as such (68.3 ± 8.9%), neutralized SPI (69.8 ± 5.0%) and ethanol-exposed SPI (67.6 ± 4.8%). An ethanol-extractable component of SPI may be responsible for decreased iron absorption by animals fed SPI prior to a radiolabeled test meal

  4. Transcriptional abundance is not the single force driving the evolution of bacterial proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Wen; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Dan; Yang, Zu-Jun; Guo, Feng-Biao

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite rapid progress in understanding the mechanisms that shape the evolution of proteins, the relative importance of various factors remain to be elucidated. In this study, we have assessed the effects of 16 different biological features on the evolutionary rates (ERs) of protein-coding sequences in bacterial genomes. Results Our analysis of 18 bacterial species revealed new correlations between ERs and constraining factors. Previous studies have suggested that transcriptional a...

  5. Extraction of phytic acid and preparation of protein isolates from rapeseed meal%菜籽粕植酸提取和分离蛋白的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丽军; 周俊; 姜绍通; 孙汉巨; 罗水忠; 韩智宏

    2011-01-01

    植酸和蛋白是菜籽粕中2种极具经济价值的成份.为提高菜籽粕的综合利用效果,该文以双低冷榨菜籽粕为原料,采用醋酸溶液提取植酸,在膜分离精制植酸粗提液过程中同时回收蛋白;再对植酸提取后的残余物进行蛋白分离,超滤纯化后获得高纯度的蛋白成品.响应面优化的植酸最适提取条件为:醋酸质量分数0.7%,提取温度48℃,液料比10 mL/g,提取时间1.6 h,该条件下植酸得率为1.865%.植酸粗提液中回收出的蛋白和损失植酸分别占菜籽粕的3.63%和0.395%.超滤精制的分离蛋白可达到70%~90%不同纯度的要求,蛋白中多酚含量显著减少,且植酸与硫苷未检出.%Phytic acid and protein are two kinds of valuable components in rapeseed meal. To improve comprehensive utilization in this research, phytic acid was extracted with acetum from double-low coldpressed rapeseed meal, and protein was recovered from the crude extract of phytic acid by membrane separating technology. The meal residue was dried to extract protein, which was then purified by ultrafiltration to obtain high purity product. Extraction conditions of phytic acid were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) as follows: mass fraction of acetic acid 0.7%,extraction temperature 48℃, liquid-to-solid ratio 10 mL/g, extraction time 1.6 h. Under this condition, extraction yield was 1.865%. Protein recovered and phytic acid loss accounting for rapeseed meal were 3.63% and 0.395% respectively in crude extract of phytic acid. Purity of the protein refined by ultrafiltration was between 70% and 90%, in which the content ofpolyphenols was significantly reduced and no phytic acid and glucosinolates could be detected.

  6. Integration of bacterial expansin-like proteins into cellulosome promotes the cellulose degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Cui, Zhenling; Song, Xiangfei; Liu, Ya-Jun; Cui, Qiu; Feng, Yingang

    2016-03-01

    Cellulosomes are multi-enzyme complexes assembled by cellulases and hemicellulases through dockerin-cohesin interactions, which are the most efficient system for the degradation of lignocellulosic resources in nature. Recent genomic analysis of a cellulosome-producing anaerobe Clostridium clariflavum DSM 19732 revealed that two expansin-like proteins, Clocl_1298 and Clocl_1862, contain a dockerin module, which suggests that they are components of the cellulosome. Bacterial expansin-like proteins do not have hydrolytic activities, but can facilitate the degradation of cellulosic biomass via synergistic effects with cellulases. In this study, the synergistic effect of the expansin-like proteins with both native and designer cellulosomes was investigated. The free expansin-like proteins, including expansin-like domains of Clocl_1298 and Clocl_1862, as well as a well-studied bacterial expansin-like protein BsEXLX1 from Bacillus subtilis, promoted the cellulose degradation by native cellulosomes, indicating the cellulosomal expansin-like proteins have the synergistic function. When they were integrated into a trivalent designer cellulosome, the synergistic effect was further amplified. The sequence and structure analyses indicated that these cellulosomal expansin-like proteins share the conserved functional mechanism with other bacterial expansin-like proteins. These results indicated that non-catalytic expansin-like proteins in the cellulosome can enhance the activity of the cellulosome in lignocellulose degradation. The involvement of functional expansin-like proteins in the cellulosome also implies new physiological functions of bacterial expansin-like proteins and cellulosomes. PMID:26521249

  7. EEVD motif of heat shock cognate protein 70 contributes to bacterial uptake by trophoblast giant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Suk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The uptake of abortion-inducing pathogens by trophoblast giant (TG cells is a key event in infectious abortion. However, little is known about phagocytic functions of TG cells against the pathogens. Here we show that heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70 contributes to bacterial uptake by TG cells and the EEVD motif of Hsc70 plays an important role in this. Methods Brucella abortus and Listeria monocytogenes were used as the bacterial antigen in this study. Recombinant proteins containing tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR domains were constructed and confirmation of the binding capacity to Hsc70 was assessed by ELISA. The recombinant TPR proteins were used for investigation of the effect of TPR proteins on bacterial uptake by TG cells and on pregnancy in mice. Results The monoclonal antibody that inhibits bacterial uptake by TG cells reacted with the EEVD motif of Hsc70. Bacterial TPR proteins bound to the C-terminal of Hsc70 through its EEVD motif and this binding inhibited bacterial uptake by TG cells. Infectious abortion was also prevented by blocking the EEVD motif of Hsc70. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that surface located Hsc70 on TG cells mediates the uptake of pathogenic bacteria and proteins containing the TPR domain inhibit the function of Hsc70 by binding to its EEVD motif. These molecules may be useful in the development of methods for preventing infectious abortion.

  8. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Allerton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI: 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2 completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ was consumed with (CHO + WP or without (CHO 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ, or breakfast was omitted (NB. At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0––180 min: 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L, compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05, with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247. There were no post-lunch (0–180 min effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492, insulinemia (p = 0.338 or subjective appetite (p > 0.05. Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  9. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633. PMID:27313852

  10. Blocking of bacterial biofilm formation by a fish protein coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Klemm, Per

    2008-01-01

    proteinaceous coating is characterized with regards to its biofilm-reducing properties by using a range of urinary tract infectious isolates with various pathogenic and adhesive properties. The antiadhesive coating significantly reduced or delayed biofilm formation by all these isolates under every condition......Bacterial biofilm formation on inert surfaces is a significant health and economic problem in a wide range of environmental, industrial, and medical areas. Bacterial adhesion is generally a prerequisite for this colonization process and, thus, represents an attractive target for the development of...... biofilm-preventive measures. We have previously found that the preconditioning of several different inert materials with an aqueous fish muscle extract, composed primarily of fish muscle alpha-tropomyosin, significantly discourages bacterial attachment and adhesion to these surfaces. Here, this...

  11. The effect of substituting Nigella Sativa Meal as a source of protein in the rations of local rabbits on their productive performance and carcass traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen local male rabbits (6-8 weeks old were allocated into three nutritional groups. The first group fed standard ration, 5 and 10% of the Nigella Sativa Meal (NSM were added to the concentrated rations of the 2nd and 3rd groups replacing 36 and 72% of the soybean meal (SBM protein respectively. The feeding period lasted for eight weeks. Feed consumption and body weight gain were recorded weekly. At the end of feeding period, all rabbits were slaughtered and carcass traits were studied. No significant differences were found in total body weight gain and feed conversion rate (475, 502, 478 gm and (4.8, 4.8, 4.9 kg ration/1 kg wt. gain. Feed cost per 1 kg body gain declined 16% in the 3rd group, which cost 2294 ID, compared with the 1st group (2717 and the 2nd group (2561 ID. No significant differences in all carcass traits were found. Substituting 72% of SBM protein by NSM protein in rabbit ration showed no negative effects on all productive parameters and carcass traits.

  12. Data presenting a modified bacterial expression vector for expressing and purifying Nus solubility-tagged proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Wu, Heng; Terman, Jonathan R

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria are the predominant source for producing recombinant proteins but while many exogenous proteins are expressed, only a fraction of those are soluble. We have found that a new actin regulatory enzyme Mical is poorly soluble when expressed in bacteria but the use of a Nus fusion protein tag greatly increases its solubility. However, available vectors containing a Nus tag have been engineered in a way that hinders the separation of target proteins from the Nus tag during protein purification. We have now used recombinant DNA approaches to overcome these issues and reengineer a Nus solubility tag-containing bacterial expression vector. The data herein present a modified bacterial expression vector useful for expressing proteins fused to the Nus solubility tag and separating such target proteins from the Nus tag during protein purification. PMID:27547802

  13. Imaging bacterial protein expression using genetically encoded sensors composed of RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Wenjiao; Strack, Rita L.; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2013-01-01

    We show that the difficulties in imaging the dynamics of protein expression in live bacterial cells can be overcome using fluorescent sensors based on Spinach, an RNA that activates the fluorescence of a small-molecule fluorophore. These RNAs selectively bind target proteins, and exhibit fluorescence increases that enable protein expression to be imaged in living cells. These sensors provide a general strategy to image protein expression in single bacteria in real-time.

  14. Effects of Dietary Corn Gluten Meal on Growth Performance and Protein Metabolism in Relation to IGF-I and TOR Gene Expression of Juvenile Cobia (Rachycentron canadum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yiwen; AI Qinghui; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Wenbing; XU Wei; ZHANG Yanjiao; LIUFU Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    A growth experiment was conducted on cobia (Rachycentron canadum,initial weight 108.2g±3.0g) to investigate the effects of dietary com gluten meal (CGM) levels on the fish growth,whole body composition and protein metabolism in relation to specific gene expression.Five isonitrogenous (crude protein 45%) and isoenergetic (gross energy 20kJg-1) practical diets were formulated by replacing 0% (the control),17.5%,35.0%,52.5%,and 70.0% of fish meal (FM) protein with CGM protein.No significant differences were observed in the survival,feed intake (FI),specific growth rate (SGR),feed efficiency (FE) and protein productive value (PPV) among fish fed diets with 0%,17.5%,35.0%,and 52.5% of CGM protein.However,these indices were significantly lower in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein than those in fish fed the control diet (P<0.05).The whole-body crude protein and lipid contents were significantly lower while the whole-body moisture content was significantly higher in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein compared with the control group (P< 0.05).When 70.0% of FM protein was replaced by CGM,plasma total protein and cholesterol contents were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05).Fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein had significantly lower hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) expression levels than those in the control group (P < 0.05).However,no significant differences were observed in hepatic target of rapamycin (TOR),dorsal muscle IGF-I and TOR expression levels among dietary treatments.Results of the present study indicated that 52.5% of FM protein could be replaced by CGM in the diets without significant influences on the growth,feed utilization and protein metabolism of juvenile cobia.The present results might be useful for developing cost effective and sustainable cobia dietary formulations.

  15. Effects of dietary corn gluten meal on growth performance and protein metabolism in relation to IGF-I and TOR gene expression of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiwen; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2013-09-01

    A growth experiment was conducted on cobia ( Rachycentron canadum, initial weight 108.2 g ± 3.0 g) to investigate the effects of dietary corn gluten meal (CGM) levels on the fish growth, whole body composition and protein metabolism in relation to specific gene expression. Five isonitrogenous (crude protein 45%) and isoenergetic (gross energy 20 kJ g-1) practical diets were formulated by replacing 0% (the control), 17.5%, 35.0%, 52.5%, and 70.0% of fish meal (FM) protein with CGM protein. No significant differences were observed in the survival, feed intake (FI), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE) and protein productive value (PPV) among fish fed diets with 0%, 17.5%, 35.0%, and 52.5% of CGM protein. However, these indices were significantly lower in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein than those in fish fed the control diet ( P < 0.05). The whole-body crude protein and lipid contents were significantly lower while the whole-body moisture content was significantly higher in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). When 70.0% of FM protein was replaced by CGM, plasma total protein and cholesterol contents were significantly lower than those in the control group ( P < 0.05). Fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein had significantly lower hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) expression levels than those in the control group ( P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed in hepatic target of rapamycin (TOR), dorsal muscle IGF-I and TOR expression levels among dietary treatments. Results of the present study indicated that 52.5% of FM protein could be replaced by CGM in the diets without significant influences on the growth, feed utilization and protein metabolism of juvenile cobia. The present results might be useful for developing cost effective and sustainable cobia dietary formulations.

  16. Ruminal Degradability of Dry Matter and Crude Protein from Moist Dehulled Lupin and Extruded Rapeseed Meal Degradabilidad Ruminal de la Materia Seca y de la Proteína Cruda de Lupino Descascarado y Torta de Raps Extruidos

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari; René Anrique

    2011-01-01

    The flow of ruminal undegradable protein (RUP) to the small intestine can be increased if ruminal degradation of dietary protein is reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion on ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) from dehulled lupin (Lupinus albus L.) (DL) and rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) meal (RM). Unextruded soybean (Glicine max L.) meal (SBM) was used as a control. The DL was extruded at 130 ºC with 20% moisture and RM was extr...

  17. Growth and nitrogen metabolism of sea bass fed graded levels of nucleic acid nitrogen from yeast or RNA extract as partial substitute for protein nitrogen from fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaushik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some studies carried out in mammalian models have shown de novo synthesis and salvage of nucleotides to be a costly metabolic process and a dietary supplementation with nucleic acids (NA or nucleotides has been suggested to result in a protein sparing action (Sanderson and He, 1994. On the other hand, high levels of dietary NA could have toxic effects and lead to disturbance in protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in monogastric animals lacking uricase activity, an enzyme involved in NA degradation (Clifford and Story, 1976. So far, there is no clear indication of such effects in fish fed nucleic acid-enriched diets (Tacon and Cooke, 1980; Rumsey et al., 1992; Fournier et al., 2002. The aim of this experiment was to investigate growth response and N metabolism in juvenile sea bass (D. labrax fed diets supplying graded levels of nucleic acid N from dry brewer's yeast or RNA extract as partial substitutes for protein nitrogen provided by fish meal.

  18. The diagnostic value of c-reactive protein estimation in differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of serum and CSF C-reactive protein (C-rp) in differentiating bacterial from viral meningitis. Design: An observational, respective hospital-based study. Place and duration of study: It was conducted at the Department of Medicine and Department of Pediatrics, Shaikh Zayed Postgraduate Medical Institute Lahore, Over a Period of one year between march, 1999 and March, 2000. Subject and Methods: A randomized group of thirty patients, who presented with clinical features, suggestive of meningitis, were included in the study. C-reactive protein determinations were performed by latex agglutination method on the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of these patients. Results: In the present study, c-reactive protein was found to be a more sensitive test for differentiating bacterial from non-bacterial meningitis on initial examination than the usual conventional methods used to diagnose bacterial meningitis. CSF C-reactive protein had a greater sensitivity (92% as compared to serum C-reactive protein (71%). Conclusion: C-reactive protein determination in CSF was found to be a useful indicator of bacterial meningitis that can be used to distinguish it from viral meningitis. (author)

  19. Effects of protein hydrolysates supplementation in low fish meal diets on growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of red sea bream Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Sanaz; Rahimnejad, Samad; Herault, Mikaël; Fournier, Vincent; Lee, Cho-Rong; Dio Bui, Hien Thi; Jeong, Jun-Bum; Lee, Kyeong-Jun

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the supplemental effects of three different types of protein hydrolysates in a low fish meal (FM) diet on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal morphology, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile red sea bream. A FM-based diet was used as a high fish meal diet (HFM) and a low fish meal (LFM) diet was prepared by replacing 50% of FM by soy protein concentrate. Three other diets were prepared by supplementing shrimp, tilapia or krill hydrolysate to the LFM diet (designated as SH, TH and KH, respectively). Triplicate groups of fish (4.9 ± 0.1 g) were fed one of the test diets to apparent satiation twice daily for 13 weeks and then challenged by Edwardsiella tarda. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P HFM and hydrolysate treated groups compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant improvements in feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios were obtained in fish fed the hydrolysates compared to those fed the LFM diet. Significant enhancement in digestibility of protein was found in fish fed SH and KH diets and dry matter digestibility was increased in the group fed SH diet in comparison to LFM group. Fish fed the LFM diet showed significantly higher glucose level than all the other treatments. Whole-body and dorsal muscle compositions were not significantly influenced by dietary treatments. Histological analysis revealed significant reductions in goblet cell numbers and enterocyte length in the proximal intestine of fish fed the LFM diet. Superoxide dismutase activity and total immunoglobulin level were significantly increased in fish fed the diets containing protein hydrolysates compared to the LFM group. Also, significantly higher lysozyme and antiprotease activities were found in fish fed the hydrolysates and HFM diets compared to those offered LFM diet. Fish fed the LFM diet exhibited the lowest disease resistance against E. tarda and dietary inclusion of the hydrolysates resulted in

  20. Interactions That Drive Sec-Dependent Bacterial Protein Transport†

    OpenAIRE

    Rusch, Sharyn L.; Kendall, Debra A.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the transport of hydrophilic proteins across biological membranes continues to be an important undertaking. The general secretory (Sec) pathway in Escherichia coli transports the majority of E. coli proteins from their point of synthesis in the cytoplasm to their sites of final localization, associating sequentially with a number of protein components of the transport machinery. The targeting signals for these substrates must be discriminated from those of proteins transported v...

  1. The Possibility of Using Irradiated Khishni (Liza abu) Fish Meal Instead of the Imported Protein Sources in The Diet of Common Carp (Cprinus carpio L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were done,the first for ten week,in which fish meal (FM) were used instead of animal protein (AP). A total of (12) group of young common carps Cyprinus carpio L.(25.98±0.27 gm.) were fed on four experimental diets. The first three diets were with 4%, 8% and 12% of (FM) (total replacement),specific growth rate, final fish weight and protein efficiency ratio. Whereas, in the second experiment, a total of (15) groups of C.carpio (36,44±0.23 gm)were fed on five experimental diets in which (FM) were used by 12% and 15% instead of (AP) as well as by 10% and 15% instead of Soyabean meal . The fifth diets was with 0% (F M). Statistical analysis (CRD and Dun cans test ) showed no significant differences (P>0.05) between the experimental diet according to food conversion ratio. According to these results dried irradiated Khishni can be used as a (FM). and to be a good replacer for all (AP) and 50% of Soyabean (c.p. 44%) in the diet of common carp.) (author)

  2. Visualizing translocation and localization of bacterial type III effector proteins using a genetically encoded reporter system

    OpenAIRE

    Gawthorne, Jayde A.; Audry, Laurent; McQuitty, Claire; Dean, Paul; Christie, John M.; Enninga, Jost; Andrew J. Roe

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial Type Three Secretion System (T3SS) effector proteins are critical determinants of infection for many animal and plant pathogens. However, monitoring of the translocation and delivery of these important virulence determinants has proved to be technically challenging. Here, we used a genetically engineered LOV (light-oxygen-voltage) sensing domain derivative to monitor the expression, translocation and localization of bacterial T3SS effectors. We found the Escherichia coli O157:H7 bac...

  3. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Basavanta Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1 corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME, crude protein (CP and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05 in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.

  4. Proteolytic activation of human pancreatitis associated protein is required for peptidoglycan binding and bacterial aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Medveczky, Péter; Szmola, Richárd; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) is a 16 kDa lectin-like protein, which becomes robustly upregulated in the pancreatic juice during acute pancreatitis. Trypsin cleaves the N terminus of PAP, which in turn forms insoluble fibrils. PAP and its paralog the pancreatic stone protein induce bacterial aggregation and, more recently, PAP was shown to bind to the peptidoglycan of Gram positive bacteria and exert a direct bactericidal effect. However, the role of N-terminal processing in the antib...

  5. Essential bacterial helicases that counteract the toxicity of recombination proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Marie-Agnès; Ehrlich, Dusko

    2002-01-01

    PcrA, Rep and UvrD are three closely related bacterial helicases with a DExx signature. PcrA is encoded by Gram-positive bacteria and is essential for cell growth. Rep and UvrD are encoded by Gram-negative bacteria, and mutants lacking both helicases are also not viable. To understand the non-viability of the helicase mutants, we characterized spontaneous extragenic suppressors of a Bacillus subtilis pcrA null mutation. Here we report that one of these suppressors maps in recF and that previo...

  6. Bacterial S-layer protein coupling to lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weygand, M.; Wetzer, B.; Pum, D.;

    1999-01-01

    -filled cavities near its center. The protein volume fraction reaches maxima of >60% in two horizontal sections of the S-layer, close to the lipid monolayer and close to the free subphase. In between it drops to similar to 20%. Four S-layer protein monomers are located within the unit cell of a square lattice with...

  7. BACTERIAL SOLUTE TRANSPORT PROTEINS IN THEIR LIPID ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TVELD, GI; DRIESSEN, AJM; KONINGS, WN; Veld, Gerda in 't

    1993-01-01

    The cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria is a selective barrier that restricts entry and exit of solutes. Transport of solutes across this membrane is catalyzed by specific membrane proteins. Integral membrane proteins usually require specific lipids for optimal activity and are inhibited by other lipid

  8. Aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de alimentos protéicos determinados em galos cecectomizados True digestible amino acids of protein meals determined in cecectomized roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladstone Brumano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade e os valores de aminoácidos digestíveis verdadeiros de 12 alimentos protéicos para aves. Utilizou-se o método de alimentação forçada, com galos Leghorne adultos cecectomizados, em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 12 tratamentos, seis repetições e um galo por unidade experimental. Os alimentos estudados foram: farelo de glúten de milho 22%, farelo de glúten de milho 60%, concentrado protéico de soja, soja integral extrusada parcialmente desengordurada, farinha de carne e ossos 36%, farinha de carne e ossos 45%, farinha de peixe, farinha de vísceras de aves de alto teor de gordura, farinha de penas, plasma sangüíneo 70%, plasma sangüíneo 78% e hemácias. Os valores médios dos coeficientes de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos essenciais e não-essenciais, em porcentagem, foram, respectivamente, 83,32 e 87,20 para o farelo de glúten de milho 22%; 92,90 e 94,86 para o farelo de glúten de milho 60%; 91,10 e 90,19 para o concentrado protéico de soja; 88,90 e 88,91 para a soja integral extrusada parcialmente desengordurada; 88,63 e 85,94 para a farinha de carne e ossos 36%; 87,80 e 85,00 para a farinha de carne e ossos 45%; 89,39 e 87,32 para a farinha de peixe; 79,22 e 74,36 para a farinha de vísceras de aves de alto teor de gordura; 85,89 e 82,32 para a farinha de penas; 87,22 e 87,78 para o plasma sangüíneo 70%; 90,42 e 91,40 para o plasma sangüíneo 78%; e 95,25 e 94,31 para as hemácias.The true digestibility coefficients and the values of true amino acid digestibility of 12 protein meals were determined in Leghorn cecectomized roosters by the "forced feed" method. The experiment was analyzed as a complete randomized design with 12 treatments, six replicates and one rooster per experimental unit. The studied feedstuffs were as follows: corn gluten meal 22%, corn gluten meal 60%, soybean protein concentrate, partially defatted

  9. Horizontal gene transfer of zinc and non-zinc forms of bacterial ribosomal protein S4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthey-Schulten Zaida

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The universal ribosomal protein S4 is essential for the initiation of small subunit ribosomal assembly and translational accuracy. Being part of the information processing machinery of the cell, the gene for S4 is generally thought of as being inherited vertically and has been used in concatenated gene phylogenies. Here we report the evolution of ribosomal protein S4 in relation to a broad sharing of zinc/non-zinc forms of the gene and study the scope of horizontal gene transfer (HGT of S4 during bacterial evolution. Results In this study we present the complex evolutionary history of ribosomal protein S4 using 660 bacterial genomes from 16 major bacterial phyla. According to conserved characteristics in the sequences, S4 can be classified into C+ (zinc-binding and C- (zinc-free variants, with 26 genomes (mainly from the class Clostridia containing genes for both. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of the S4 sequences was incongruent with the standard bacterial phylogeny, indicating a departure from strict vertical inheritance. Further analysis using the genome content near the S4 genes, which are usually located in a conserved gene cluster, showed not only that HGT of the C- gene had occurred at various stages of bacterial evolution, but also that both the C- and C+ genes were present before the individual phyla diverged. To explain the latter, we theorize that a gene pool existed early in bacterial evolution from which bacteria could sample S4 gene variants, according to environmental conditions. The distribution of the C+/- variants for seven other zinc-binding ribosomal proteins in these 660 bacterial genomes is consistent with that seen for S4 and may shed light on the evolutionary pressures involved. Conclusion The complex history presented for "core" protein S4 suggests the existence of a gene pool before the emergence of bacterial lineages and reflects the pervasive nature of HGT in subsequent bacterial evolution

  10. High-Throughput Screening of Bacterial Protein Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, John N.; Gitai, Zemer

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing number of sequenced genomes and subsequent sequence-based analysis has provided tremendous insight into cellular processes; however, the ability to experimentally manipulate this genomic information in the laboratory requires the development of new high-throughput methods. To translate this genomic information into information on protein function, molecular and cell biological techniques are required. One strategy to gain insight into protein function is to observe where e...

  11. A bacterial two-hybrid system that utilizes Gateway cloning for rapid screening of protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, S L Rajasekhar; Zogaj, Xhavit; Barker, Jeffrey R; Seshu, Janakiram; Dove, Simon L; Klose, Karl E

    2010-11-01

    Comprehensive clone sets representing the entire genome now exist for a large number of organisms. The Gateway entry clone sets are a particularly useful means to study gene function, given the ease of introduction into any Gateway-suitable destination vector. We have adapted a bacterial two-hybrid system for use with Gateway entry clone sets, such that potential interactions between proteins encoded within these clone sets can be determined by new destination vectors. We show that utilizing the Gateway clone sets for Francisella tularensis and Vibrio cholerae, known interactions between F. tularensis IglA and IglB and V. cholerae VipA and VipB could be confirmed with these destination vectors. Moreover, the introduction of unique tags into each vector allowed for visualization of the expressed hybrid proteins via Western immunoblot. This Gateway-suitable bacterial two-hybrid system provides a new tool for rapid screening of protein-protein interactions. PMID:21091448

  12. A simple yeast-based strategy to identify host cellular processes targeted by bacterial effector proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Bosis

    Full Text Available Bacterial effector proteins, which are delivered into the host cell via the type III secretion system, play a key role in the pathogenicity of gram-negative bacteria by modulating various host cellular processes to the benefit of the pathogen. To identify cellular processes targeted by bacterial effectors, we developed a simple strategy that uses an array of yeast deletion strains fitted into a single 96-well plate. The array is unique in that it was optimized computationally such that despite the small number of deletion strains, it covers the majority of genes in the yeast synthetic lethal interaction network. The deletion strains in the array are screened for hypersensitivity to the expression of a bacterial effector of interest. The hypersensitive deletion strains are then analyzed for their synthetic lethal interactions to identify potential targets of the bacterial effector. We describe the identification, using this approach, of a cellular process targeted by the Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopE2. Interestingly, we discover that XopE2 affects the yeast cell wall and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. More generally, the use of a single 96-well plate makes the screening process accessible to any laboratory and facilitates the analysis of a large number of bacterial effectors in a short period of time. It therefore provides a promising platform for studying the functions and cellular targets of bacterial effectors and other virulence proteins.

  13. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement in...... the school meal project. The anlysis indicates that the pupils have developed knowledge and skills related to novel foods and dishes, and that school meals can contribute to pupils' learning, whether this learning is planned or not. However, if school meals are to be further developes as an arena for...

  14. Field trial with redtop flycatcher baited with ready made protein meal for the control of houseflies in Gazipur dairy farm, Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B P

    1994-03-01

    A field trial with Redtop Flycatcher having bait formulated as ready made protein meal a.i 977 gms/kg was carried out for the control of adult housefly Musca domestica domestica L. in Gazipur dairy farm situated at eastern corner of Delhi and observation compared with another field trial with commonly available Baygon bait using scattering method. The observation recorded during the field trial revealed that the new flycatcher was capable of retaining the trapped flies and the protein bait remained active for a period of 35 to 42 days (with peak attractability around the ninth day) without requiring refilling the flycatcher with bait during this period. The flycatcher installed in indoor situation was found to be more effective than that kept outside. Parallel tests with Baygon bait containing 2 per cent Propoxur scattered @ 40 gms a.i/100 m2 were found to kill more flies than the new protein baited flycatcher but required daily replenishment of the insecticide. Fly attractancy of the protein sample was also compared with that of other food sources for the flies available in the study area over a period of five days, independently using the same flycatcher. Wheat flour dough was observed to be the most efficient fly attractant compared to other food sources including protein bait. PMID:7963378

  15. Identification of Dominant Immunogenic Bacteria and Bacterial Proteins in Periodontitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbæk, Mette Rylev; Haubek, Dorte; Birkelund, Svend;

    Marginal periodontitis is considered an infectious disease that triggers host inflammatory responses resulting in destruction of the periodontium. A complex biofilm of bacteria is associated with periodontitis. Some species have been identified as putative pathogens such as Porphyromonas gingivalis...... (P.g) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A.a), but the identity of dominate immunogens of these bacteria is poorly elucidated. The aim of the study was to identify dominant immunogenic proteins of P.g and A.a in patients suffering from chronic and aggressive periodontitis by proteomic analysis...... will be able to identify immunodominant proteins and potentially important virulence factors of putative periodontal pathogens....

  16. 鱼粉质量对中国对虾、真鲷、饲料转化率和蛋白质消化率的影响%Influence of fish meal quality on growth,feed conversion rate and protein digestibility in shrimp (Penaeus chinensis ) and red seabream (Pagrosomus major)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of fishmeal quality on growth,feed conversion ratio and protein digestibility was studied in a growth experiment with shrimp and red seabream.The shrimp and fish were fed three diets varing in the quality of the fishmeal used in the respective feeds: low quality fish meal,good quality fish meal,and Peru fish meal.The experiment lasted for 2 months.The shrimp and fish fed the feed with good quality fish meal showed significantly better feed conversion ratio,weight gain rate,protein digestibility than the other groups.

  17. Prediction of Bacterial Virulent Proteins with Composition Moment Vector Feature Encoding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gök Murat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of bacterial virulent proteins is critical for vaccine development and understanding of virulence mechanisms in pathogens. For this purpose, a number of feature encoding methods based on sequences and evolutionary information of a given protein have been proposed and applied with some classifier algorithms so far. In this paper, we performed composition moment vector (CMV, which includes information about both composition and position of amino acid in the protein sequence to predict bacterial virulent proteins. The tests were validated in three different independent datasets. Experimental results show that CMV feature encoding method leads to better classification performance in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, f-measure and the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC scores on diverse classifiers.

  18. Polyacrylamide Slab Gel Electrophoresis of Soluble Proteins for Studies of Bacterial Floras

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, W. E. C.; Hash, D E; Holdeman, Lillian V.; Cato, Elizabeth P.

    1980-01-01

    A polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis procedure was used to compare cellular proteins from bacterial isolates of gingival crevice floras. Isolates with identical protein patterns consistently were shown to be members of the same species. When used to screen isolates, the procedure reduced total analytical time and expense without sacrificing accuracy, and it provided additional verification of the identity of strains characterized by conventional phenotypic tests.

  19. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette; Poulsen, Karin T.; Campbell, Fiona M; Eckersall, P. David; Heegaard, Peter M.H.

    2009-01-01

    International audience The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we st...

  20. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as markers of bacterial infection in patients with solid tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Laura V; Maraldo, Maja V; Mortensen, Christiane E;

    2014-01-01

    infection. In this prospective study, we wanted to investigate the value of procalcitonin (PCT) compared with C-reactive protein (CRP) as an indicator of bacterial infection in adult patients with solid tumours. METHODS: A total of 41 patients with solid tumours admitted to hospital due to fever or clinical...

  1. Niobium Uptake and Release by Bacterial Ferric Ion Binding Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Shi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferric ion binding proteins (Fbps transport FeIII across the periplasm and are vital for the virulence of many Gram negative bacteria. Iron(III is tightly bound in a hinged binding cleft with octahedral coordination geometry involving binding to protein side chains (including tyrosinate residues together with a synergistic anion such as phosphate. Niobium compounds are of interest for their potential biological activity, which has been little explored. We have studied the binding of cyclopentadienyl and nitrilotriacetato NbV complexes to the Fbp from Neisseria gonorrhoeae by UV-vis spectroscopy, chromatography, ICP-OES, mass spectrometry, and Nb K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These data suggest that NbV binds strongly to Fbp and that a dinuclear NbV centre can be readily accommodated in the interdomain binding cleft. The possibility of designing niobium-based antibiotics which block iron uptake by pathogenic bacteria is discussed.

  2. Proteinaceous determinants of surface colonization in bacteria: Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation from a protein secretion perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MickaelDesvaux

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial colonization of biotic or abiotic surfaces results from two quite distinct physiological processes, namely bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Broadly speaking, a biofilm is defined as the sessile development of microbial cells. Biofilm formation arises following bacterial adhesion but not all single bacterial cells adhering reversibly or irreversibly engage inexorably into a sessile mode of growth. Among molecular determinants promoting bacterial colonization, surface proteins are the most functionally diverse active components. To be present on the bacterial cell surface, though, a protein must be secreted in the first place. Considering the close association of secreted proteins with their cognate secretion systems, the secretome (which refers both to the secretion systems and their protein substrates is a key concept to apprehend the protein secretion and related physiological functions. The protein secretion systems are here considered in light of the differences in the cell-envelope architecture between diderm-LPS (archetypal Gram-negative, monoderm (archetypal Gram-positive and diderm-mycolate (archetypal acid-fast bacteria. Besides, their cognate secreted proteins engaged in the bacterial colonization process are regarded from single protein to supramolecular protein structure as well as the non-classical protein secretion. This state-of-the-art on the complement of the secretome (the secretion systems and their cognate effectors involved in the surface colonization process in diderm-LPS and monoderm bacteria paves the way for future research directions in the field.

  3. THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF MEALS

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, SC; STRUBBE, JH; Woods, Stephen C.

    1994-01-01

    Meals are considered as bouts of behavior that, although necessary for supplying nutrients to the body, result in undesirable perturbations of homeostatically controlled parameters. If the environment dictates that an animal mainly eat very large meals, these meal-associated perturbations become potentially dangerous. When the opportunity to eat a very large meal is regular and predictable, animals adopt strategies that maximize the efficiency of the process while minimizing the threatening h...

  4. Mutations in the bacterial ribosomal protein l3 and their association with antibiotic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Rasmus N; Ntokou, Eleni; Nørgaard, Katrine;

    2015-01-01

    Different groups of antibiotics bind to the peptidyl transferase center (PTC) in the large subunit of the bacterial ribosome. Resistance to these groups of antibiotics has often been linked with mutations or methylations of the 23S rRNA. In recent years, there has been a rise in the number of...... studies where mutations have been found in the ribosomal protein L3 in bacterial strains resistant to PTC-targeting antibiotics but there is often no evidence that these mutations actually confer antibiotic resistance. In this study, a plasmid exchange system was used to replace plasmid-carried wild...

  5. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sungback; Hwang, Okhwa; Park, Sungkwon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg) fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15%) and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas ch...

  6. Effect of sulfur analogue of lysine on bacterial protein biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S-(beta-Aminoethyl)-L-cysteine, a sulfur analogue of lysine inhibited strongly growth of Escherichia coli A-19, and weakly that of Corynebacterium sp. isolated from soil, but did not inhibit growth of Aerobacter aerogenes. In Corynebacterium sp. the inhibitory effect was markedly enhanced in the presence of L-threonine. The inhibition of growth by S-(beta-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine was rapidly reversed by the addition of L-lysine. S-(beta-Aminoethyl)-L-cysteine inhibited protein synthesis and the activity of lysyl-tRNA synthetase from E. coli and A. aerogenes. All the other lysine analogues tested inhibited the activity of enzyme, but S-(beta-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine derivatives, S-(beta-N-acetyl-aminoethyl)-L-cysteine and S-(beta-aminoethyl)-alpha-N-acetyl-L-cysteine were not effective. (auth.)

  7. Flexibility in targeting and insertion during bacterial membrane protein biogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biogenesis of Escherichia coli inner membrane proteins (IMPs) is assisted by targeting and insertion factors such as the signal recognition particle (SRP), the Sec-translocon and YidC with translocation of (large) periplasmic domains energized by SecA and the proton motive force (pmf). The use of these factors and forces is probably primarily determined by specific structural features of an IMP. To analyze these features we have engineered a set of model IMPs based on endogenous E. coli IMPs known to follow distinct targeting and insertion pathways. The modified model IMPs were analyzed for altered routing using an in vivo protease mapping approach. The data suggest a facultative use of different combinations of factors

  8. Pathogenic Leptospira species express surface-exposed proteins belonging to the bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, James; Barocchi, Michele A; Croda, Julio; Young, Tracy A; Sanchez, Yolanda; Siqueira, Isadora; Bolin, Carole A; Reis, Mitermayer G; Riley, Lee W; Haake, David A; Ko, Albert I

    2003-08-01

    Proteins with bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, such as the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin and Escherichia coli intimin, are surface-expressed proteins that mediate host mammalian cell invasion or attachment. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a new family of Big domain proteins, referred to as Lig (leptospiral Ig-like) proteins, in pathogenic Leptospira. Screening of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri expression libraries with sera from leptospirosis patients identified 13 lambda phage clones that encode tandem repeats of the 90 amino acid Big domain. Two lig genes, designated ligA and ligB, and one pseudogene, ligC, were identified. The ligA and ligB genes encode amino-terminal lipoprotein signal peptides followed by 10 or 11 Big domain repeats and, in the case of ligB, a unique carboxy-terminal non-repeat domain. The organization of ligC is similar to that of ligB but contains mutations that disrupt the reading frame. The lig sequences are present in pathogenic but not saprophytic Leptospira species. LigA and LigB are expressed by a variety of virulent leptospiral strains. Loss of Lig protein and RNA transcript expression is correlated with the observed loss of virulence during culture attenuation of pathogenic strains. High-pressure freeze substitution followed by immunocytochemical electron microscopy confirmed that the Lig proteins were localized to the bacterial surface. Immunoblot studies with patient sera found that the Lig proteins are a major antigen recognized during the acute host infection. These observations demonstrate that the Lig proteins are a newly identified surface protein of pathogenic Leptospira, which by analogy to other bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily virulence factors, may play a role in host cell attachment and invasion during leptospiral pathogenesis. PMID:12890019

  9. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acids composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the interactions of molasses or corn meal [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) sources] with flaxseed meal or a soybean-sunflower meal protein mix [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) sources] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in organic Jersey cows fed...

  10. Identification of beta-subunit of bacterial RNA-polymerase--a non-species-specific bacterial protein--as target of antibodies in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Kai-Wolfgang; Schmider, Wolfgang; Kist, Manfred; Batsford, Stephen; Schiltz, Emile; Oelke, Mathias; Tuczek, Anja; Dettenborn, Therese; Behringer, Dirk; Kreisel, Wolfgang

    2003-03-01

    Several observations suggest that bacteria induce autoimmunity in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Since no PBC-specific bacterial species could be identified, it can be speculated that the triggers are non-species-specific bacterial proteins. This hypothesis would imply that several or even all bacterial species can trigger PBC. Therefore, we investigated whether PBC exhibits immune reactions to non-species-specific bacterial antigens. Yersinia enterocolitica O3 was screened for the presence of proteins that were labeled by immunoblotting using PBC sera. We focused our investigations on a 160-kDa protein, which was further enriched and characterized by partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The prevalence of antibodies to this protein was determined by immunoblotting in a variety of diseases. The 160-kDa protein was identified as the beta-subunit of bacterial RNA-polymerase, a highly conserved bacterial protein with a very high degree of sequence identity among all bacterial species. Antibodies to the beta-subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase were specific for this protein. Until now no mammalian protein could be found that cross-reacts with these antibodies. The prevalence of antibodies to the beta-subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase (ARPA) using the protein from Yersinia enterocolitica O3 (serum dilution 1:1000) was: healthy controls (HC, N = 101) 7.9%, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, N = 61) 32.8%, autoimmune hepatitis type 1 (AIH, N = 46) 26.1%, alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ALC, N = 44) 9.1%, Crohn's disease (CD, N = 38) 7.9%, ulcerative colitis (UC, N = 24) 8.3%, primary sclerosing cholangitis + UC (PSC/UC, N = 11) 0%, acute yersiniosis (Yers, N = 36) 19.4%, acute infection with Campylobacter jejuni (Camp, N = 10) 0%, acute Q-fever (QF, N = 16) 6.25%, chronic hepatitis C (HCV, N = 39) 7.7%, c-ANCA-positive vasculitis (Vasc, N = 40) 15%, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, N = 28) 10.7%, and malaria tropica (MT, N = 24) 16.7%. There was no significant

  11. Enzymatic Extraction of Alkali Insoluble Protein from High Temperature Rice Bran Meal%高温米糠粕碱不溶蛋白的酶法提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永强; 殷嘉音; 周雪松; 张娜; 王雪; 杨楠

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of four different proteases in hydrolyzing high temperature rice bran meal for enzymatic extraction of alkali insoluble protein was compared to identify alkaline protease as the best choice. The effects of alkaline protease dose, temperature, pH and hydrolysis time on extraction efficiency were explored by one-factor-at-a-time design. Using orthogonal array design, the optimal conditions of alkaline protease dose, temperature, and pH were determined to be 300 U/g, 55 ℃, and 8.5, respectively. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of alkali insoluble protein was up to 28.9%.%以高温米糠粕为摹础原料,通过酶解能力比较,确定碱性蛋白酶对高温米糠粕中不戚不溶性蛋白的作用效果最佳。通过单因素试验分析酶添加量、作用温度、pH值和酶解时间对蛋白提耳义效果的影响。通过止交试验确定最佳提取丁岂:碱性蛋白酶添加量300U/g、提取温度55℃、pH8.5,蛋白提取率可达28.9%。

  12. 月见草籽粕分离蛋白的制备%Study on preparation of protein isolation from primrose meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马涛; 吕品

    2009-01-01

    Based on primrose meal, the process conditions and functional properties of protein isolated was prepared on alkali-extraction and acid-isolation.Through orthogonal tests,the best conditions of extraction were: the pH 12,the temperature 45℃, the times of extraction 3, the proportion of the material to liquid 1:12, 1:10, 1:8 respectively and protein deposited at pH6.0, pH3.8.In the product gained through spray drying process the content were 75.5%.%以月见草冷榨浸出粕为材料,初步探索碱提酸沉法制备月见草籽粕分离蛋白的工艺条件及其功能特性通过正交实验得到提取的最佳工艺条件为:pH12,温度45℃,提取3次,料液比分别1:12、1:10、1:8;调pH6.0、3.8二次沉淀,喷雾干燥后产品的粗蛋白含量达75.5%.

  13. Use of Copra Meal in Poultry and Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Copra meal (CM is an important feed ingredient and the by-product of the oil extraction from dried coconut kernels. This product, although copra meal has a moderate protein content (15-25%; because of a high cellulose content (11.63-16.00% and some limiting amino acids (particularly lysine and methionine, limits its use as a basic source of protein in poultry due to insufficient. Copra meals are more suitable common supplements as both an energy and protein source for ruminants. In this paper, nutritional researches performed with the copra meal usage on poultry and ruminant species have been reviewed.

  14. The use of fed batch approaches to maximise yields in bacterial fermentation and protein expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fermentation facility for the scale up of bacterial and yeast fermentations has been set up at the University of Queensland under the auspices of the ARC Special Research Centre for Functional and Applied Genomics. A major application is the production of recombinant proteins for determination of tertiary structures by X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance. For this purpose, large amounts of protein arc needed and the yield from a single fermentation run is crucial to success within constrained laboratory budgets. To achieve maximal yields we are optimising fed batch approaches in bacterial fermentation. Fed batch offers many advantages over batch cultures. Coupled with the ability to monitor online the internal conditions of the fermentation including pH and dissolved oxygen and stirrer cascading functions it is possible to ensure that the nutritional environment of the microorganism is optimised for its growth and or for optimal protein expression. The poster will describe some of our experience in setting up fed batch fermentations and successful applications of fed batches to increasing protein yield. It will also outline services that are available to academic groups outside the University of Queensland For structure determination and functional studies, the production of radiolabelled proteins can also be an advantage. We will describe initial experiments aimed at coupling the principles of fed batch fermentation to the introduction of carbon or nitrogen isotopes into the recombinant protein

  15. Phase variation of Opa proteins of Neisseria meningitidis and the effects of bacterial transformation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manish Sadarangani; J Claire Hoe; Katherine Makepeace; Peter Van Der Ley; Andrew J Pollard

    2016-03-01

    Opa proteins are major proteins involved in meningococcal colonization of the nasopharynx and immune interactions. Opa proteins undergo phase variation (PV) due to the presence of the 5′-CTCTT-3′ coding repeat (CR) sequence. The dynamics of PV of meningococcal Opa proteins is unknown. Opa PV, including the effect of transformation on PV, was assessed using a panel of Opa-deficient strains of Neisseria meningitidis. Analysis of Opa expression from UK disease-causing isolates was undertaken. Different opagenes demonstrated variable rates of PV, between 6.4 ×10–4 and 6.9 ×10–3 per cell per generation. opa genes with a longer CR tract had a higher rate of PV (r2=0.77, p=0.1212). Bacterial transformation resulted in a 180-fold increase in PV rate. The majority of opagenes in UK disease isolates (315/463, 68.0%) were in the ‘on’ phase, suggesting the importance of Opa proteins during invasive disease. These data provide valuable information for the first time regarding meningococcal Opa PV. The presence of Opa PV in meningococcal populations and high expression of Opa among invasive strains likely indicates the importance of this protein in bacterial colonization in the human nasopharynx. These findings have potential implications for development of vaccines derived from meningococcal outer membranes.

  16. Crystal structure of the Campylobacter jejuni Cj0090 protein reveals a novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold among bacterial lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seonghee; Kawai, Fumihiro; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yeo, Hye-Jeong

    2012-12-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins play an important role in bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. The genome of Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborn pathogen, is predicted to contain over 20 lipoproteins. However, the functions of the majority of C. jejuni lipoproteins remain unknown. The Cj0090 protein is encoded by a lipoprotein operon composed of cj0089, cj0090, and cj0091. Here, we report the crystal structure of Cj0090 at 1.9 Å resolution, revealing a novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold with β-sandwich architecture. The structure suggests that Cj0090 may be involved in protein-protein interactions, consistent with a possible role for bacterial lipoproteins. PMID:22987763

  17. Bacterial-based systems for expression and purification of recombinant Lassa virus proteins of immunological relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Cashman Kathleen A; Ferro Philip J; Sampey Darryl B; Goba Augustine; Fair Joseph N; Matschiner Alex; Branco Luis M; Schoepp Randal J; Tesh Robert B; Bausch Daniel G; Garry Robert F; Guttieri Mary C

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background There is a significant requirement for the development and acquisition of reagents that will facilitate effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lassa fever. In this regard, recombinant Lassa virus (LASV) proteins may serve as valuable tools in diverse antiviral applications. Bacterial-based systems were engineered for expression and purification of recombinant LASV nucleoprotein (NP), glycoprotein 1 (GP1), and glycoprotein 2 (GP2). Results Full-length NP and the ...

  18. Mitomycin resistance in mammalian cells expressing the bacterial mitomycin C resistance protein MCRA

    OpenAIRE

    Belcourt, Michael F.; Penketh, Philip G.; Hodnick, William F.; Johnson, David A.; David H Sherman; Rockwell, Sara; Sartorelli, Alan C.

    1999-01-01

    The mitomycin C-resistance gene, mcrA, of Streptomyces lavendulae produces MCRA, a protein that protects this microorganism from its own antibiotic, the antitumor drug mitomycin C. Expression of the bacterial mcrA gene in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells causes profound resistance to mitomycin C and to its structurally related analog porfiromycin under aerobic conditions but produces little change in drug sensitivity under hypoxia. The mitomycins are prodrugs that are enzymatically reduc...

  19. Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction

    OpenAIRE

    Hajishengallis, George; Martin, Michael; Sojar, Hakimuddin T.; Sharma, Ashu; Schifferle, Robert E.; DeNardin, Ernesto; Russell, Michael W.; Genco, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important signal transducers that mediate inflammatory reactions induced by microbes through pattern recognition of virulence molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoproteins. We investigated whether proinflammatory cytokine responses induced by certain bacterial protein adhesins may also depend on TLRs. In differentiated THP-1 mononuclear cells stimulated by LPS-free recombinant fimbrillin (rFimA) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, cytokine release was a...

  20. Slow Onset Inhibition of Bacterial β-Ketoacyl-acyl Carrier Protein Synthases by Thiolactomycin*

    OpenAIRE

    Machutta, Carl A.; Bommineni, Gopal R.; Luckner, Sylvia R.; Kapilashrami, Kanishk; Ruzsicska, Bela; Simmerling, Carlos; Kisker, Caroline; Tonge, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Thiolactomycin (TLM), a natural product thiolactone antibiotic produced by species of Nocardia and Streptomyces, is an inhibitor of the β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase (KAS) enzymes in the bacterial fatty acid synthase pathway. Using enzyme kinetics and direct binding studies, TLM has been shown to bind preferentially to the acyl-enzyme intermediates of the KASI and KASII enzymes from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Escherichia coli. These studies, which utilized acyl-enzyme mimics in...

  1. Replacing moringa leaf (Moringa oleifera) partially by protein replacement in soybean meal of fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio)

    OpenAIRE

    Bundit Yuangsoi; Toshiro Masumoto

    2012-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics.The leaves are the protein source with an adequate profile of amino acids. The present study was undertaken in orderto determine the effect of a dietary of moringa leaves on digestibility and growth performance of fancy carp. Fish were fedwith diets containing isonitrogenouse and isoenergetic formulated by 20 and 50 g kg-1 of moringa leaves to replace protein insoybean. Fis...

  2. Structural basis of a rationally rewired protein-protein interface critical to bacterial signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornaia, Anna I; Casino, Patricia; Marina, Alberto; Laub, Michael T

    2013-09-01

    Two-component signal transduction systems typically involve a sensor histidine kinase that specifically phosphorylates a single, cognate response regulator. This protein-protein interaction relies on molecular recognition via a small set of residues in each protein. To better understand how these residues determine the specificity of kinase-substrate interactions, we rationally rewired the interaction interface of a Thermotoga maritima two-component system, HK853-RR468, to match that found in a different two-component system, Escherichia coli PhoR-PhoB. The rewired proteins interacted robustly with each other, but no longer interacted with the parent proteins. Analysis of the crystal structures of the wild-type and mutant protein complexes and a systematic mutagenesis study reveal how individual mutations contribute to the rewiring of interaction specificity. Our approach and conclusions have implications for studies of other protein-protein interactions and protein evolution and for the design of novel protein interfaces. PMID:23954504

  3. Recombinant expression and purification of "virus-like" bacterial encapsulin protein cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurup, W Frederik; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Koay, Melissa S T

    2015-01-01

    Ultracentrifugation, particularly the use of sucrose or cesium chloride density gradients, is a highly reliable and efficient technique for the purification of virus-like particles and protein cages. Since virus-like particles and protein cages have a unique size compared to cellular macromolecules and organelles, the rate of migration can be used as a tool for purification. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the purification of recently discovered virus-like assemblies called bacterial encapsulins from Thermotoga maritima and Brevibacterium linens. PMID:25358773

  4. Secreted and immunogenic proteins produced by the honeybee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Evans, Jay D; Zunino, Pablo

    2010-03-24

    American Foulbrood is a severe disease affecting larvae of honeybee Apis mellifera, causing significant decrease in the honeybee population, beekeeping industries and agricultural production. In spite of its importance, little is known about the virulence factors secreted by Paenibacillus larvae during larval infection. The aim of the present work was to perform a first approach to the identification and characterization of P. larvae secretome. P. larvae secreted proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and identified by MALDI-TOF. Protein toxicity was evaluated using an experimental model based on feeding of A. mellifera larvae and immunogenicity was evaluated by Western blot, using an antiserum raised against cells and spores of P. larvae. Ten different proteins were identified among P. larvae secreted proteins, including proteins involved in transcription, metabolism, translation, cell envelope, transport, protein folding, degradation of polysaccharides and motility. Although most of these proteins are cytosolic, many of them have been previously detected in the extracellular medium of different Bacillus spp. cultures and have been related to virulence. The secreted proteins resulted highly toxic and immunogenic when larvae were exposed using an experimental model. This is the first description of proteins secreted by the honeybee pathogen P. larvae. This information may be relevant for the elucidation of bacterial pathogenesis mechanisms. PMID:19781868

  5. Substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1991 Replacement of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeisson Emerson Casimiro Ferrari

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 5 tratamentos 0%; 25%; 50%; 75% e 100% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho e, com 4 repetições. Os níveis adotados corresponderam a 11,75%; 23%; 35,78% e 47,28% de inclusão de glúten de milho nas rações, as quais foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas em proteína digestível (PD, isocalóricas em energia digestível (ED e com a mesma quantidade de fibra bruta, lisina e metionina. Foram utilizados 100 alevinos com peso médio de 7,47±1,61g, distribuídos em 20 aquários (250L, em sistema de recirculação de água dotado de controle de temperatura. Foi observado efeito quadrático para o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e taxa de eficiência protéica, sendo os respectivos valores ótimos estimados em 30,69%; 48% e 46,25% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho e, para o consumo de ração, foi verificado efeito linear. Em função da média referente aos valores estimados para os diferentes parâmetros avaliados, pôde-se concluir que a proteína do glúten de milho pode substituir até 42% (19,82% de inclusão na ração da proteína do farelo de soja em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo.The research was carried out aiming to evaluate the replacement of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae diets. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of replacement of soybean protein by corn gluten meal protein and 4 replicates. The used levels corresponded to 11.75%, 23%, 35.78% and 42.28% of corn gluten meal inclusion in diets, formulated to be

  6. The role of bacterial antizyme: From an inhibitory protein to AtoC transcriptional regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakidis Dimitrios A

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review considers the role of bacterial antizyme in the regulation of polyamine biosynthesis and gives new perspectives on the involvement of antizyme in other significant cellular mechanisms. Antizyme is a protein molecule induced by the end product of the enzymic reaction that it inhibits, in a non-competitive manner. The bacterial ornithine decarboxylase is regulated by nucleotides, phosphorylation and antizyme. The inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase by antizyme can be relieved to different degrees by DNA or by a variety of synthetic nucleic acid polymers, attributed to a specific interaction between nucleic acid and antizyme. Recently, this interplay between bacterial antizyme and nucleic acid was determined by discerning an additional function to antizyme that proved to be the atoC gene product, encoding the response regulator of the bacterial two-component system AtoS-AtoC. The gene located just upstream of atoC encodes the sensor kinase, named AtoS, that modulates AtoC activity. AtoC regulates expression of atoDAEB operon which is involved in short-chain fatty acid metabolism. Antizyme is thus referred to as AtoC, functioning both as a post-translational and transcriptional regulator. Also, the AtoS-AtoC signal transduction system in E. coli has a positive regulatory role on poly-(R-3-hydroxybutyrate biosynthesis. The properties and gene structural similarities of antizymes from different organisms were compared. It was revealed that conserved domains are present mostly in the C-domain of all antizymes. BLAST analysis of the E. coli antizyme protein (AtoC showed similarities around 69–58% among proteobacteria, g-proteobacteria, enterobacteria and the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus. A working hypothesis is proposed for the metabolic role of antizyme (AtoC describing the significant biological implications of this protein molecule. Whether antizymes exist to other enzymes in different tissues, meeting the

  7. Adhesion Properties of Plywood Glue Containing Soybean Meal as Extender

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of soybean meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive intended for sprayline coaters. Ground soybean meal, with 51.5% (dry basis, db) crude protein and 1.5% (db) residual oil, replaced the current industry extender, wheat flour, in the standard ...

  8. Evaluation of corn germ meal as extender in plywood adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of corn germ meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive. Partially defatted dried corn germ, containing 2.1% (dry basis, db) crude oil and 24.7% (db) crude protein, was ground to 40-mesh particle size. The corn germ meal was then substituted (on...

  9. Bacterial Protein Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae by SDS-page Method for Subclinical Mastitis Irradiated Vaccine Materials in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    B.J. Tuasikal; I.W.T. Wibawan2; F.H. Pasaribu2; S. Estuningsih2

    2012-01-01

    A study have been conducted to isolate and characterize bacterial protein S. agalactiae, which is antigenic and can be used to test immunogenicity of vaccine in order to manufacture irradiated mastitis (inflammation of the udder) vaccine in ruminant. The study aims to determine the Molecular Weight (MW) bacterial protein S. agalactiae irradiation, which can be used to test the nature of its antigenic caharacteristic. The character of S. agalactiae antigenic stimulates antibody induction of th...

  10. Biochemical characterization and bacterial expression of an odorant-binding protein from Locusta migratoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, L; Scaloni, A; D'Ambrosio, C; Zhang, L; Yahn, Y; Pelosi, P

    2003-02-01

    Analysis of soluble proteins from different body parts of Locusta migratoria revealed a fast-migrating component in native electrophoresis, unique to antennae of both sexes. N-terminal sequence analysis and cloning identified this protein as a member of the insect odorant-binding proteins, carrying a well-conserved six-cysteine motif. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the occurrence of two distinct polypeptide species determined by nucleotide sequencing and demonstrated that the cysteine residues are paired in an interlocked fashion. The protein was expressed in a bacterial system with yields of about 10 mg/l of culture, mostly present as inclusion bodies. However, this recombinant product was solubilized after disulfide reduction. Air oxidation yielded a species with all disulfides spontaneously formed as in the native counterpart. Both native and recombinant proteins migrated as a dimer in gel filtration chromatography. Ligand binding was measured, using N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine as the fluorescent probe; the affinity of other ligands was measured in competitive binding assays. The protein exhibited great resistance to thermal denaturation even following prolonged treatment at 100 degrees C. A structural model for this dimeric species was generated on the basis of its sequence homology with Bombyx mori pheromone-binding protein, whose three-dimensional structure has been resolved as an unbound species and in complex with its physiological ligand. This is the first report of an odorant-binding protein identified and characterized from Orthoptera. PMID:12678502

  11. Object-adapted trapping and shape-tracking to probe a bacterial protein chain motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Julian; Koch, Matthias; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The helical bacterium Spiroplasma is a motile plant and anthropod pathogen which swims by propagating pairs of kinks along its cell body. As a well suited model system for bacterial locomotion, understanding the cell's molecular motor is of vital interest also regarding the combat of bacterial diseases. The extensive deformations related to these kinks are caused by a contractile cytoskeletal protein ribbon representing a linear motor in contrast to common rotary motors as, e.g., flagella. We present new insights into the working of this motor through experiments with object-adapted optical traps and shape-tracking techniques. We use the given laser irradiation from the optical trap to hinder bacterial energy (ATP) production through the production of O2 radicals. The results are compared with experiments performed under the influence of an O2-Scavenger and ATP inhibitors, respectively. Our results show clear dependences of the kinking properties on the ATP concentration inside the bacterium. The experiments are supported by a theoretical model which we developed to describe the switching of the ribbon's protein subunits.

  12. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungback; Hwang, Okhwa; Park, Sungkwon

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg) fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15%) and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas chromatography and 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing systems, respectively. Levels of phenols, indoles, short chain fatty acid and branched chain fatty acid were lowest (pp-cresol and skatole with Bacteroides, acetic acid and butyric acid with AM982595_g of Porphyromonadaceae family, and propionic acid with Tissierella. Taken together, administration of 15% CP showed less production of odorous compounds than 20% CP group and this result might be associated with the changes in bacterial communities especially whose roles in protein metabolism. PMID:26194219

  13. Mechanisms of Host-Pathogen Protein Complex Formation and Bacterial Immune Evasion of Streptococcus suis Protein Fhb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueqin; Liu, Peng; Gan, Shuzhen; Zhang, Chunmao; Zheng, Yuling; Jiang, Yongqiang; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-08-12

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2)-induced sepsis and meningitis are often accompanied by bacteremia. The evasion of polymorphonuclear leukocyte-mediated phagocytic clearance is central to the establishment of bacteremia caused by S. suis 2 and is facilitated by the ability of factor H (FH)-binding protein (Fhb) to bind FH on the bacterial surface, thereby impeding alternative pathway complement activation and phagocytic clearance. Here, C3b/C3d was found to bind to Fhb, along with FH, forming a large immune complex. The formation of this immune complex was mediated by domain II of Fhb via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which, to our knowledge, is a new type of interaction. Interestingly, Fhb was found to be associated with the cell envelope and also present in the culture supernatant, where secreted Fhb inhibited complement activation via interactions with domain II, thereby enhancing antiphagocytic clearance by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Thus, Fhb is a multifunctional bacterial protein, which binds host complement component C3 as well as FH and interferes with innate immune recognition in a secret protein manner. S. suis 2 therefore appears to have developed a new strategy to combat host innate immunity and enhance survival in host blood. PMID:27342778

  14. Chirality Switching by Martensitic Transformation in Protein Cylindrical Crystals: Application to Bacterial Flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Ricardo Kiyohiro

    Martensitic transformations provide unique engineering properties that, when designed properly, become important parts of new technology. Martensitic transformations have been studied for many years in traditional alloys (iron, steel, titanium, etc.), however there is still much to be learned in regards to these transformations in biological materials. Olson and Hartman showed in 1982 that these transformations are also observed in bacterial flagella and T4 bacteriophage viral sheaths, allowing for propulsion of bacteria in a fluid environment and, for the virus, is responsible for the infection mechanism. This work demonstrates, using the bacterial flagella as an example, that these transformations can be modelled using thermodynamic methods that are also used to model the transformations in alloys. This thesis work attempts to explain the transformations that occur in bacterial flagella, which are capable of small strain, highly reversible martensitic transformations. The first stress/temperature phase diagrams of these flagella were created by adding the mechanical energy of the transformation of the flagella to limited chemical thermodynamics information of the transformation. Mechanical energy is critical to the transformation process because the bacterial body applies a torque to the radius of the flagella. Finally, work has begun and will be completed in regards to understanding the kinetics of the transformation of the flagella. The motion of the transformation interface can be predicted by using a Landau-Ginzburg model. The crystallography of the transformation in bacterial flagella is also being computed to determine the invariant lines of transformation that occur within this cylindrical crystal. This work has shown that it is possible to treat proteins in a similar manner that alloys are treated when using thermodynamic modelling. Much can be learned from translating what is known regarding phase transformations in hard material systems to soft, organic

  15. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  16. Cyclic enterobacterial common antigen: Potential contaminant of bacterially expressed protein preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously reported the identification of the cyclic enterobacterial common antigen (ECACYC) polysaccharide in E. coli strains commonly used for heterologous protein expression (PJA Erbel et al., J. Bacteriol.185 (2003): 1995). Following this initial report, interactions among several NMR groups established that characteristic N-acetyl signals of ECACYC have been observed in 15N-1H HSQC spectra of samples of various bacterially-expressed proteins suggesting that this water-soluble carbohydrate is a common contaminant. We provide NMR spectroscopic tools to recognize ECACYC in protein samples, as well as several methods to remove this contaminant. Early recognition of ECA-based NMR signals will prevent time-consuming analyses of this copurifying carbohydrate

  17. Bacterial Ortholog of Mammalian Translocator Protein (TSPO) with Virulence Regulating Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapalain, Annelise; Chevalier, Sylvie; Orange, Nicole; Murillo, Laurence; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Feuilloley, Marc G. J.

    2009-01-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO), previously designated as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is a protein mainly located in the outer mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells. TSPO is implicated in major physiological functions and functionally associated with other proteins such as the voltage-dependent anionic channel, also designated as mitochondrial porin. Surprisingly, a TSPO-related protein was identified in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides but it was initially considered as a relict of evolution. In the present study we cloned a tspO gene in Pseudomonas fluorescens MF37, a non-photosynthetic eubacterium and we used bioinformatics tools to identify TSPO in the genome of 97 other bacteria. P. fluorescens TSPO was recognized by antibodies against mouse protein and by PK 11195, an artificial ligand of mitochondrial TSPO. As in eukaryotes, bacterial TSPO appears functionally organized as a dimer and the apparent Kd for PK 11195 is in the same range than for its eukaryotic counterpart. When P. fluorescens MF37 was treated with PK 11195 (10−5 M) adhesion to living or artificial surfaces and biofilm formation activity were increased. Conversely, the apoptotic potential of bacteria on eukaryotic cells was significantly reduced. This effect of PK11195 was abolished in a mutant of P. fluorescens MF37 deficient for its major outer membrane porin, OprF. The present results demonstrate the existence of a bacterial TSPO that shares common structural and functional characteristics with its mammalian counterpart. This protein, apparently involved in adhesion and virulence, reveals the existence of a possible new inter kingdom signalling system and suggests that the human microbiome should be involuntarily exposed to the evolutionary pressure of benzodiazepines and related molecules. This discovery also represents a promising opportunity for the development of alternative antibacterial strategies. PMID:19564920

  18. Bacterial ortholog of mammalian translocator protein (TSPO with virulence regulating activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise Chapalain

    Full Text Available The translocator protein (TSPO, previously designated as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is a protein mainly located in the outer mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells. TSPO is implicated in major physiological functions and functionally associated with other proteins such as the voltage-dependent anionic channel, also designated as mitochondrial porin. Surprisingly, a TSPO-related protein was identified in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides but it was initially considered as a relict of evolution. In the present study we cloned a tspO gene in Pseudomonas fluorescens MF37, a non-photosynthetic eubacterium and we used bioinformatics tools to identify TSPO in the genome of 97 other bacteria. P. fluorescens TSPO was recognized by antibodies against mouse protein and by PK 11195, an artificial ligand of mitochondrial TSPO. As in eukaryotes, bacterial TSPO appears functionally organized as a dimer and the apparent Kd for PK 11195 is in the same range than for its eukaryotic counterpart. When P. fluorescens MF37 was treated with PK 11195 (10(-5 M adhesion to living or artificial surfaces and biofilm formation activity were increased. Conversely, the apoptotic potential of bacteria on eukaryotic cells was significantly reduced. This effect of PK11195 was abolished in a mutant of P. fluorescens MF37 deficient for its major outer membrane porin, OprF. The present results demonstrate the existence of a bacterial TSPO that shares common structural and functional characteristics with its mammalian counterpart. This protein, apparently involved in adhesion and virulence, reveals the existence of a possible new inter kingdom signalling system and suggests that the human microbiome should be involuntarily exposed to the evolutionary pressure of benzodiazepines and related molecules. This discovery also represents a promising opportunity for the development of alternative antibacterial strategies.

  19. Bacterial ortholog of mammalian translocator protein (TSPO) with virulence regulating activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapalain, Annelise; Chevalier, Sylvie; Orange, Nicole; Murillo, Laurence; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2009-01-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO), previously designated as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is a protein mainly located in the outer mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells. TSPO is implicated in major physiological functions and functionally associated with other proteins such as the voltage-dependent anionic channel, also designated as mitochondrial porin. Surprisingly, a TSPO-related protein was identified in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides but it was initially considered as a relict of evolution. In the present study we cloned a tspO gene in Pseudomonas fluorescens MF37, a non-photosynthetic eubacterium and we used bioinformatics tools to identify TSPO in the genome of 97 other bacteria. P. fluorescens TSPO was recognized by antibodies against mouse protein and by PK 11195, an artificial ligand of mitochondrial TSPO. As in eukaryotes, bacterial TSPO appears functionally organized as a dimer and the apparent Kd for PK 11195 is in the same range than for its eukaryotic counterpart. When P. fluorescens MF37 was treated with PK 11195 (10(-5) M) adhesion to living or artificial surfaces and biofilm formation activity were increased. Conversely, the apoptotic potential of bacteria on eukaryotic cells was significantly reduced. This effect of PK11195 was abolished in a mutant of P. fluorescens MF37 deficient for its major outer membrane porin, OprF. The present results demonstrate the existence of a bacterial TSPO that shares common structural and functional characteristics with its mammalian counterpart. This protein, apparently involved in adhesion and virulence, reveals the existence of a possible new inter kingdom signalling system and suggests that the human microbiome should be involuntarily exposed to the evolutionary pressure of benzodiazepines and related molecules. This discovery also represents a promising opportunity for the development of alternative antibacterial strategies. PMID:19564920

  20. Viability of adhered bacterial cells: tracking MinD protein oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Matt; Colville, Keegan; Schultz-Nielsen, Chris; Jericho, Manfred; Dutcher, John

    2010-03-01

    To study bacterial cells using atomic force microscopy, it is necessary to immobilize the cells on a substrate. Because bacterial cells and common substrates such as glass and mica have a net negative charge, positively charged polymers such as poly-L-lysine (PLL) and polyethyleneimine (PEI) are commonly used as adhesion layers. However, the use of adhesion polymers could stress the cell and even render it inviable. Viable E. coli cells use oscillations of Min proteins along the axis of the rod-shaped cells to ensure accurate cell division. By tagging MinD proteins with GFP, oscillations can be observed using fluorescence microscopy. For a healthy cell in an ideal environment, the oscillation period is measured to be ˜40 s. Prior experiments have shown that PLL increases the oscillation period significantly (up to 80%). In the present study, we have used epifluorescence and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) to track MinD protein oscillations in E. coli bacteria adhered to a variety of positively charged polymers on mica as a function of polymer surface coverage.

  1. Role of acute-phase proteins in interleukin-1-induced nonspecific resistance to bacterial infections in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Vogels, M.T.E.; L. Cantoni; Carelli, M.; Sironi, M; Ghezzi, P; van der Meer, J. W M

    1993-01-01

    Treatment with a single low dose (80 to 800 ng) of interleukin-1 (IL-1) 24 h before a lethal bacterial challenge of granulocytopenic and normal mice enhances nonspecific resistance. Since IL-1 induces secretion of acute-phase proteins, liver proteins which possess several detoxifying effects, we investigated the role of these proteins in the IL-1-induced protection. Inhibition of liver protein synthesis with D-galactosamine (GALN) completely inhibited the IL-1-induced synthesis of acute-phase...

  2. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Jin; Jong Hyun Ham; Rosemary Hage; Wanying Zhao; Jaricelis Soto-Hernández; Sang Yeol Lee; Seung-Mann Paek; Min Gab Kim; Charles Boone; Coplin, David L.; David Mackey

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, w...

  3. Structural and functional characterization of the bacterial ferrous homeostasis protein FeoA

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Vanessa Cristina de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    O objectivo deste trabalho intitulado ““Structural and functional characterization of the bacterial ferrous homeostasis protein FeoA” consistiu na determinação da estrutura e função da proteína FeoA da bacteria E.coli. A principal via bacteriana de entrada do ferro ferroso é através do sistema Feo que deriva das palavras inglesas ferrous iron transport. O ferro é um elemento essencial para a maioria dos organismos participando em vias metabólicas essenciais. Os sistemas de importação ...

  4. Branched signal wiring of an essential bacterial cell-cycle phosphotransfer protein

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Jimmy A.; Xu, Qingping; Childers, W. Seth; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Kern, Justin W.; Eckart, Michael; Deacon, Ashley M.; Shapiro, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Vital to bacterial survival is the faithful propagation of cellular signals, and in Caulobacter crescentus ChpT is an essential mediator within the cell cycle circuit. ChpT functions as a histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein (HPt) that shuttles a phosphoryl group from the receiver domain of CckA, the upstream hybrid histidine kinase (HK), to one of two downstream response regulators (RRs)—CtrA or CpdR—that controls cell cycle progression. To understand how ChpT interacts with multiple...

  5. Heterologously expressed bacterial and human multidrug resistance proteins confer cadmium resistance to Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Achard-Joris, M; van Saparoea, HBV; Driessen, AJM; Bourdineaud, JP; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The human MDR1 gene is induced by cadmium exposure although no resistance to this metal is observed in human cells overexpressing hMDR1. To access the role of MDR proteins in cadmium resistance, human MDR1, Lactococcus lactis lmrA, and Oenococcus oeni omrA were expressed in an Escherichia coli tolC mutant strain which proved to be hypersensitive to cadmium. Both the human and bacterial MDR genes conferred cadmium resistance to E. coli up to 0.4 mM concentration. Protection was abolished by 10...

  6. Biochemical Roles for Conserved Residues in the Bacterial Fatty Acid-binding Protein Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Tyler C; Miller, Darcie J; Jackson, Pamela; Nourse, Amanda; White, Stephen W; Rock, Charles O

    2016-03-18

    Fatty acid kinase (Fak) is a ubiquitous Gram-positive bacterial enzyme consisting of an ATP-binding protein (FakA) that phosphorylates the fatty acid bound to FakB. In Staphylococcus aureus, Fak is a global regulator of virulence factor transcription and is essential for the activation of exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipids. The 1.2-Å x-ray structure of S. aureus FakB2, activity assays, solution studies, site-directed mutagenesis, and in vivo complementation were used to define the functions of the five conserved residues that define the FakB protein family (Pfam02645). The fatty acid tail is buried within the protein, and the exposed carboxyl group is bound by a Ser-93-fatty acid carboxyl-Thr-61-His-266 hydrogen bond network. The guanidinium of the invariant Arg-170 is positioned to potentially interact with a bound acylphosphate. The reduced thermal denaturation temperatures of the T61A, S93A, and H266A FakB2 mutants illustrate the importance of the hydrogen bond network in protein stability. The FakB2 T61A, S93A, and H266A mutants are 1000-fold less active in the Fak assay, and the R170A mutant is completely inactive. All FakB2 mutants form FakA(FakB2)2 complexes except FakB2(R202A), which is deficient in FakA binding. Allelic replacement shows that strains expressing FakB2 mutants are defective in fatty acid incorporation into phospholipids and virulence gene transcription. These conserved residues are likely to perform the same critical functions in all bacterial fatty acid-binding proteins. PMID:26774272

  7. The Meal Frequency Project : The effect of meal frequency on body composition during 12-weeks of strength training

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background: Human trials on the effect of meal frequency on body composition are scarce. Short-term studies show increased rate of protein synthesis immediately after intake of amino acids (Rennie 2002), and frequent meals are shown to aid in the preservation of lean body mass when dieting (Iwao 1996). Consequently it could be hypothesised that in response to strength training interventions, more frequent meals will give larger muscle mass accumulation and lower fat mass than fewe...

  8. FRACIONAMENTO DE PROTEÍNAS DE SILAGEM DE CAPIM-ELEFANTE EMURCHECIDO OU COM FARELO DE CACAU PROTEIN FRACTIONING OF SILAGE OF ELEPHANTGRASS WILTED OR WITH COCOA MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Desenvolveu-se o experimento para determinar as frações que compõem as proteínas da silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Camaroon submetido ao emurchecimento ou à adição de diferentes níveis de farelo de cacau. O capim-elefante utilizado foi colhido aos 50 dias de rebrota após o corte de uniformização e submetido aos seguintes tratamentos: capim-elefante emurchecido ao sol por oito horas, e capim-elefante sem emurchecimento com níveis de 0 %, 7 %, 14%, 21 % e 28 % de farelo de cacau (FC (% da matéria natural. Acondicionou-se o material em silos de PVC com capacidade para 5,3 litros, que foram abertos após 45 dias. Para todas as frações de proteínas estimadas, o tratamento emurchecido apresentou valores semelhantes (P>0,05 ao do tratamento sem emurchecimento. As frações protéicas foram influenciadas pelas adições de FC, verificando-se redução dos teores das frações A e B1+B2 e aumentos das frações B3 e C, para os níveis crescentes de FC.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Conservação de forragens, forrageira, Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Cameroon, subproduto, Theobroma cacao L.

    The experiment was conducted to determine the fractions that compose the protein of silage on the submitted elephant grass forage to wilting under the sun light for eight hours. Other treatments involved the same elephant grass without exposing to sun light but with addition of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28% of cocoa meal (CM at the ensilage processing. The PVC silos used in the experiment were 5.3 liters in capacity, and were opened in 45 days. To all protein-estimated fractions, the wilted treatment showed similar values (P>.05 to the treatment without wilting. The protein fractions were influenced by CM addictions, verifying reduction in contents of A and B1+B2 fractions and increase in B3 and C fractions, with CM increasing levels

  9. Meals served in Danish nursing homes and to meals-on-wheels clients may not offer nutritionally adequate choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Hansen, Kirsten S.

    2010-01-01

    ), extra portions of different menus were made (3 days in a row). The meal samples (total n = 389) were analyzed for content of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate. The findings were compared with recommendations regarding the foods to be served in Danish institutions. The nutrient content of the meals......-on-wheels and nursing home meals, as well as that of the homemade energy and protein dense drink, varied considerably. The nursing home menus seldom or never fulfilled the recommendations. Our findings support the conclusion that meals served in Danish nursing homes and to meals-on-wheels clients do not...... commonly served, including the standard menu (most commonly prepared), the energy and protein dense menu, and two types of texture modified menus (chopped and blended). Also, one portion of a homemade energy and protein dense drink was collected and analyzed. For each of the participating kitchens (N = 10...

  10. The pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein is an intra-species bacterial adhesin that promotes bacterial aggregation in vivo and in biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J Sanchez

    Full Text Available The Pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein (PsrP is a pathogenicity island encoded adhesin that has been positively correlated with the ability of Streptococcus pneumoniae to cause invasive disease. Previous studies have shown that PsrP mediates bacterial attachment to Keratin 10 (K10 on the surface of lung cells through amino acids 273-341 located in the Basic Region (BR domain. In this study we determined that the BR domain of PsrP also mediates an intra-species interaction that promotes the formation of large bacterial aggregates in the nasopharynx and lungs of infected mice as well as in continuous flow-through models of mature biofilms. Using numerous methods, including complementation of mutants with BR domain deficient constructs, fluorescent microscopy with Cy3-labeled recombinant (rBR, Far Western blotting of bacterial lysates, co-immunoprecipitation with rBR, and growth of biofilms in the presence of antibodies and competitive peptides, we determined that the BR domain, in particular amino acids 122-166 of PsrP, promoted bacterial aggregation and that antibodies against the BR domain were neutralizing. Using similar methodologies, we also determined that SraP and GspB, the Serine-rich repeat proteins (SRRPs of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus gordonii, respectively, also promoted bacterial aggregation and that their Non-repeat domains bound to their respective SRRPs. This is the first report to show the presence of biofilm-like structures in the lungs of animals infected with S. pneumoniae and show that SRRPs have dual roles as host and bacterial adhesins. These studies suggest that recombinant Non-repeat domains of SRRPs (i.e. BR for S. pneumoniae may be useful as vaccine antigens to protect against Gram-positive bacteria that cause infection.

  11. Decreased Bacterial Attachment and Protein Adsorption to Coatings Produced by Low Enegy Plasma Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.E.; Kingshott, Peter; Benter, M.;

    Introduction Silicone rubber is among the most biocompatible materials available, exhibiting low levels of extractables, absence of plasticizers and additives and fairly low activation of blood thrombogenesis components. However untreated silicone rubber does not efficiently resist protein...... with a surface less prone to the adsorption of biological matter. In the current study two different hydrophilic nanoscale coatings were produced by low energy plasma polymerization [3] and investigated· f()rl()w ... pr()tein adsorption and bacterial attachment properties. Methods were setup to enable...... the measurement of both initial adhesion of clinically isolated bacteria on silicone and subsequent biofilm formation during prolonged growth under liquid flow. The extend of adsorption of relevant proteins to the surfaces was also investigated using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM...

  12. Reconstitution of nanomachine driving the assembly of proteins into bacterial outer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 9.5 million people die each year due to infectious diseases caused by pathogens. Many species of pathogenic bacteria require nanomachines acting like a molecular pump that shuttle key disease-causing molecules (proteins) from inside bacteria cells to the outside surface, priming the bacteria for infections. How such proteins are assembled remains an important question in biology. If we can inhibit the nanomachines function in transporting specific violence factors, it would disable the disease process. Therefore it is crucial to understand how the proteins are transported through the nanomachines from the periplasm to the extracellular space. Measuring the activity of the component parts of membrane-embedded nanomachines in solution is a major technological challenge. The translocation assembly module (the TAM) is a nanomachine required for virulence of bacterial pathogens. We have reconstituted a membrane containing the TAM onto a gold surface for characterization by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) and Magnetic Contrast Neutron Reflectrometry (MCNR). We show that dynamic movements within the TamA component of the TAM are initiated in the presence of a substrate protein, Ag43, and that these movements recapitulate an initial stage in membrane protein assembly. The reconstituted system provides a powerful new means to study molecular movements in biological membranes, and the technology is widely applicable to studying the dynamics of diverse cellular nanomachines.

  13. Identification of the interactome between fish plasma proteins and Edwardsiella tarda reveals tissue-specific strategies against bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Huang, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Zaohai; Peng, Xuan-Xian; Peng, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Elucidating the complex pathogen-host interaction is essential for a comprehensive understanding of how these remarkable agents invade their hosts and how the hosts defend against these invaders. During the infection, pathogens interact intensively with host to enable their survival, which can be revealed through their interactome. Edwardsiella tarda is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen causing huge economic loss in aquaculture and a spectrum of intestinal and extraintestinal diseases in humans. E. tarda is an ideal model for host-pathogen investigation as it infects fish in three distinct steps: entering the host, circulating through the blood and establishing infection. We adopted a previous established proteomic approach that inactivated E. tarda cells and covalent crosslink fish plasma proteins were used to capture plasma proteins and bacterial outer membrane proteins, respectively. By the combinatorial use of proteomic and biochemical approaches, six plasma proteins and seven outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were identified. Interactions among these proteins were validated with protein-array, far-Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation. At last, seventeen plasma protein-bacteria protein-protein interaction were confirmed to be involved in the interaction network, forming a complex interactome. Compared to our previous results, different host proteins were detected, whereas some of the bacterial proteins were similar, which indicates that hosts adopt tissue-specific strategies to cope with the same pathogen during infection. Thus, our results provide a robust demonstration of both bacterial initiators and host receptors or interacting proteins to further explore infection and anti-infective mechanisms between hosts and microbes. PMID:27458055

  14. Effects of a Protein Preload on Gastric Emptying, Glycemia, and Gut Hormones After a Carbohydrate Meal in Diet-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jing; Stevens, Julie E.; Cukier, Kimberly; Maddox, Anne F.; Wishart, Judith M.; Jones, Karen L.; Clifton, Peter M.; Horowitz, Michael; Christopher K Rayner

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We evaluated whether a whey preload could slow gastric emptying, stimulate incretin hormones, and attenuate postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eight type 2 diabetic patients ingested 350 ml beef soup 30 min before a potato meal; 55 g whey was added to either the soup (whey preload) or potato (whey in meal) or no whey was given. RESULTS Gastric emptying was slowest after the whey preload (P < 0.0005). The incremental area under the blood glucose cur...

  15. Sea Cucumber Meal as Alternative Protein Source to Fishmeal in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Nutrition: Effects on Growth and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Piccinno, Manuela; Schiavone, Roberta; Zilli, Loredana; Sicuro, Benedetto; Storelli, Carlo; Vilella, Sebastiano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sea cucumber meal on gilthead sea bream growth. Two diets were used: a fishmeal based diet (control) and a diet containing 18% of sea cucumber meal inclusion (HM). A 100-days growth trial was carried out (120 fish, initial mean body weight of 35.28 ± 9.31 g). The experimental plan used was monofactorial, balanced with three replicates for two experimental treatments (fish diet). The diets were isolipidic (CL 15.80 ± 0.5 %), isonit...

  16. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

    OpenAIRE

    C. Basavanta Kumar; Gloridoss, R. G.; K. Chandrapal Singh; T. M. Prabhu; Siddaramanna,; B. N. Suresh; Manegar, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan) on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1) corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated ...

  17. Crystal structure of the Campylobacter jejuni Cj0090 protein reveals a novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold among bacterial lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Paek, Seonghee; Kawai, Fumihiro; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yeo, Hye-Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins play an important role in bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. The genome of Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborn pathogen, is predicted to contain over 20 lipoproteins. However, the functions of the majority of C. jejuni lipoproteins remain unknown. The Cj0090 protein is encoded by a lipoprotein operon composed of cj0089, cj0090, and cj0091. Here, we report the crystal structure of Cj0090 at 1.9 Å resolution, revealing a novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold wit...

  18. The use of C-reactive protein in predicting bacterial co-Infection in children with bronchiolitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Fares; Sawsan Mourad; Mariam Rajab; Nahida Rifai

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bronchiolitis is a potentially life-threatening respiratory illness commonly affecting children who are less than two years of age. Patients with viral lower respiratory tract infection are at risk for co-bacterial infection. Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of C-reactive protein (CRP) in predicting bacterial co-infection in patients hospitalized for bronchiolitis and to correlate the results with the use of antibiotics. Patients and Methods: This is a prospective...

  19. Urokinase-targeted recombinant bacterial protein toxins-a rationally designed and engineered anticancer agent for cancer therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yizhen LIU; Shi-Yan LI

    2009-01-01

    Urokinase-targeted recombinant bacterial protein toxins are a sort of rationally designed and engineered anticancer recombinant fusion proteins representing a novel class of agents for cancer therapy.Bacterial protein toxins have long been known as the primary virulence factor(s) for a variety of pathogenic bacteria and are the most powerful human poisons.On the other hand,it has been well documented that urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR),making up the uPA system,are overexpressed in a variety of human tumors and tumor cell lines.The expression of uPA system is highly correlated with tumor invasion and metastasis.To exploit these characteristics in the design of tumor cell-selective cytotoxins,two prominent bacterial protein toxins,i.e.,the diphtheria toxin and anthrax toxin are deliberately engineered through placing a sequence targeted specifically by the uPA system to form anticancer recombinant fusion proteins.These uPA system-targeted bacterial protein toxins are activated selectively on the surface of uPA systemexpressing tumor cells,thereby killing these cells.This article provides a review on the latest progress in the exploitation of these recombinant fusion proteins as potent tumoricidal agents.It is perceptible that the strategies for cancer therapy are being innovated by this novel therapeutic approach.

  20. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  1. Bacterial-based systems for expression and purification of recombinant Lassa virus proteins of immunological relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cashman Kathleen A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a significant requirement for the development and acquisition of reagents that will facilitate effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lassa fever. In this regard, recombinant Lassa virus (LASV proteins may serve as valuable tools in diverse antiviral applications. Bacterial-based systems were engineered for expression and purification of recombinant LASV nucleoprotein (NP, glycoprotein 1 (GP1, and glycoprotein 2 (GP2. Results Full-length NP and the ectodomains of GP1 and GP2 were generated as maltose-binding protein (MBP fusions in the Rosetta strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli using pMAL-c2x vectors. Average fusion protein yields per liter of culture for MBP-NP, MBP-GP1, and MBP-GP2 were 10 mg, 9 mg, and 9 mg, respectively. Each protein was captured from cell lysates using amylose resin, cleaved with Factor Xa, and purified using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC. Fermentation cultures resulted in average yields per liter of 1.6 mg, 1.5 mg, and 0.7 mg of purified NP, GP1 and GP2, respectively. LASV-specific antibodies in human convalescent sera specifically detected each of the purified recombinant LASV proteins, highlighting their utility in diagnostic applications. In addition, mouse hyperimmune ascitic fluids (MHAF against a panel of Old and New World arenaviruses demonstrated selective cross reactivity with LASV proteins in Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Conclusion These results demonstrate the potential for developing broadly reactive immunological assays that employ all three arenaviral proteins individually and in combination.

  2. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Hage, Rosemary; Zhao, Wanying; Soto-Hernández, Jaricelis; Lee, Sang Yeol; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Boone, Charles; Coplin, David L; Mackey, David

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B' regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000), associates with specific PP2A B' subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B' subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B' subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B' subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family. PMID:27191168

  3. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B' regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000, associates with specific PP2A B' subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B' subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B' subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B' subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family.

  4. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Hage, Rosemary; Zhao, Wanying; Soto-Hernández, Jaricelis; Lee, Sang Yeol; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Boone, Charles; Coplin, David L.; Mackey, David

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B’ regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000), associates with specific PP2A B’ subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B’ subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B’ subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B’ subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family. PMID:27191168

  5. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayegba, E. O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal can replace soybeans meal up to 10% without affecting the growth performance of African catfish.

  6. Two Proteins Form a Heteromeric Bacterial Self-Recognition Complex in Which Variable Subdomains Determine Allele-Restricted Binding

    OpenAIRE

    Cardarelli, Lia; Saak, Christina; Gibbs, Karine A

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Self- versus nonself-recognition in bacteria has been described recently through genetic analyses in multiple systems; however, understanding of the biochemical properties and mechanisms of recognition-determinant proteins remains limited. Here we extend the molecular and biochemical understanding of two recognition-determinant proteins in bacteria. We have found that a heterotypic complex is formed between two bacterial self-recognition proteins, IdsD and IdsE, the genes of which ha...

  7. Identification of multiple physicochemical and structural properties associated with soluble expression of eukaryotic proteins in cell-free bacterial extracts

    OpenAIRE

    AlexanderA.Tokmakov

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial extracts are widely used to synthesize recombinant proteins. Vast data volumes have been accumulated in cell-free expression databases, covering a whole range of existing proteins. It makes possible comprehensive bioinformatics analysis and identification of multiple features associated with protein solubility and aggregation. In the present paper, an approach to identify the multiple physicochemical and structural properties of amino acid sequences associated with soluble expressio...

  8. Allosteric effects of chromophore interaction with dimeric near-infrared fluorescent proteins engineered from bacterial phytochromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, Olesya V; Baloban, Mikhail; Bublikov, Grigory S; Shcherbakova, Daria M; Stepanenko, Olga V; Turoverov, Konstantin K; Kuznetsova, Irina M; Verkhusha, Vladislav V

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent proteins (FPs) engineered from bacterial phytochromes attract attention as probes for in vivo imaging due to their near-infrared (NIR) spectra and use of available in mammalian cells biliverdin (BV) as chromophore. We studied spectral properties of the iRFP670, iRFP682 and iRFP713 proteins and their mutants having Cys residues able to bind BV either in both PAS (Cys15) and GAF (Cys256) domains, in one of these domains, or without these Cys residues. We show that the absorption and fluorescence spectra and the chromophore binding depend on the location of the Cys residues. Compared with NIR FPs in which BV covalently binds to Cys15 or those that incorporate BV noncovalently, the proteins with BV covalently bound to Cys256 have blue-shifted spectra and higher quantum yield. In dimeric NIR FPs without Cys15, the covalent binding of BV to Сys256 in one monomer allosterically inhibits the covalent binding of BV to the other monomer, whereas the presence of Cys15 allosterically promotes BV binding to Cys256 in both monomers. The NIR FPs with both Cys residues have the narrowest blue-shifted spectra and the highest quantum yield. Our analysis resulted in the iRFP713/Val256Cys protein with the highest brightness in mammalian cells among available NIR FPs. PMID:26725513

  9. Re-evaluation of a bacterial antifreeze protein as an adhesin with ice-binding activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaiqi Guo

    Full Text Available A novel role for antifreeze proteins (AFPs may reside in an exceptionally large 1.5-MDa adhesin isolated from an Antarctic Gram-negative bacterium, Marinomonas primoryensis. MpAFP was purified from bacterial lysates by ice adsorption and gel electrophoresis. We have previously reported that two highly repetitive sequences, region II (RII and region IV (RIV, divide MpAFP into five distinct regions, all of which require mM Ca(2+ levels for correct folding. Also, the antifreeze activity is confined to the 322-residue RIV, which forms a Ca(2+-bound beta-helix containing thirteen Repeats-In-Toxin (RTX-like repeats. RII accounts for approximately 90% of the mass of MpAFP and is made up of ∼120 tandem 104-residue repeats. Because these repeats are identical in DNA sequence, their number was estimated here by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Structural homology analysis by the Protein Homology/analogY Recognition Engine (Phyre2 server indicates that the 104-residue RII repeat adopts an immunoglobulin beta-sandwich fold that is typical of many secreted adhesion proteins. Additional RTX-like repeats in RV may serve as a non-cleavable signal sequence for the type I secretion pathway. Immunodetection shows both repeated regions are uniformly distributed over the cell surface. We suggest that the development of an AFP-like domain within this adhesin attached to the bacterial outer surface serves to transiently bind the host bacteria to ice. This association would keep the bacteria within the upper reaches of the water column where oxygen and nutrients are potentially more abundant. This novel envirotactic role would give AFPs a third function, after freeze avoidance and freeze tolerance: that of transiently binding an organism to ice.

  10. Effect of the ultrasonic and microwave on extraction of peanut protein from peanut meal%超声波和微波对花生粕水溶蛋白浸出率影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 杨光; 秦娴

    2012-01-01

    以花生粕为原料,用超声波微波协同法对花生粕进行处理,以花生粕水溶蛋白浸出率为指标.结果表明,超声波水溶蛋白最佳浸出条件为600W,40 kHz,9 min,再进行微波提取水溶蛋白,最佳浸出条件为:300 W,90s.在此条件下,花生粕水溶蛋白的浸出率为27.2%,蛋白质含量为88.6%.该方法提取的蛋白质的可利用性增大,对今后运用于食品及其他领域有重要意义.%Peanut meal were processed with ultrasound and ultrasonic microwave synergy as a raw material. Water-soluble protein of the peanut meal extraction rate indicators. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were as follows:ultrasound at 600 W,40 kHz,9 min,microwave at 300 W, 90 s. At this condition extracting peanut protein was 27.2% and protein content was 88.6%. The protein showed good functional properties and could be applied widely.

  11. Stealth Proteins: In Silico Identification of a Novel Protein Family Rendering Bacterial Pathogens Invisible to Host Immune Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available There are a variety of bacterial defense strategies to survive in a hostile environment. Generation of extracellular polysaccharides has proved to be a simple but effective strategy against the host's innate immune system. A comparative genomics approach led us to identify a new protein family termed Stealth, most likely involved in the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides. This protein family is characterized by a series of domains conserved across phylogeny from bacteria to eukaryotes. In bacteria, Stealth (previously characterized as SacB, XcbA, or WefC is encoded by subsets of strains mainly colonizing multicellular organisms, with evidence for a protective effect against the host innate immune defense. More specifically, integrating all the available information about Stealth proteins in bacteria, we propose that Stealth is a D-hexose-1-phosphoryl transferase involved in the synthesis of polysaccharides. In the animal kingdom, Stealth is strongly conserved across evolution from social amoebas to simple and complex multicellular organisms, such as Dictyostelium discoideum, hydra, and human. Based on the occurrence of Stealth in most Eukaryotes and a subset of Prokaryotes together with its potential role in extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, we propose that metazoan Stealth functions to regulate the innate immune system. Moreover, there is good reason to speculate that the acquisition and spread of Stealth could be responsible for future epidemic outbreaks of infectious diseases caused by a large variety of eubacterial pathogens. Our in silico identification of a homologous protein in the human host will help to elucidate the causes of Stealth-dependent virulence. At a more basic level, the characterization of the molecular and cellular function of Stealth proteins may shed light on fundamental mechanisms of innate immune defense against microbial invasion.

  12. Stealth proteins: in silico identification of a novel protein family rendering bacterial pathogens invisible to host immune defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sperisen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available There are a variety of bacterial defense strategies to survive in a hostile environment. Generation of extracellular polysaccharides has proved to be a simple but effective strategy against the host's innate immune system. A comparative genomics approach led us to identify a new protein family termed Stealth, most likely involved in the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides. This protein family is characterized by a series of domains conserved across phylogeny from bacteria to eukaryotes. In bacteria, Stealth (previously characterized as SacB, XcbA, or WefC is encoded by subsets of strains mainly colonizing multicellular organisms, with evidence for a protective effect against the host innate immune defense. More specifically, integrating all the available information about Stealth proteins in bacteria, we propose that Stealth is a D-hexose-1-phosphoryl transferase involved in the synthesis of polysaccharides. In the animal kingdom, Stealth is strongly conserved across evolution from social amoebas to simple and complex multicellular organisms, such as Dictyostelium discoideum, hydra, and human. Based on the occurrence of Stealth in most Eukaryotes and a subset of Prokaryotes together with its potential role in extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, we propose that metazoan Stealth functions to regulate the innate immune system. Moreover, there is good reason to speculate that the acquisition and spread of Stealth could be responsible for future epidemic outbreaks of infectious diseases caused by a large variety of eubacterial pathogens. Our in silico identification of a homologous protein in the human host will help to elucidate the causes of Stealth-dependent virulence. At a more basic level, the characterization of the molecular and cellular function of Stealth proteins may shed light on fundamental mechanisms of innate immune defense against microbial invasion.

  13. Use of Copra Meal in Poultry and Ruminant Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tugay Ayasan

    2016-01-01

    Copra meal (CM) is an important feed ingredient and the by-product of the oil extraction from dried coconut kernels. This product, although copra meal has a moderate protein content (15-25%); because of a high cellulose content (11.63-16.00%) and some limiting amino acids (particularly lysine and methionine), limits its use as a basic source of protein in poultry due to insufficient. Copra meals are more suitable common supplements as both an energy and protein source for ruminants. In this...

  14. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in alfalfa meal, sugar beet pulp, and wheat bran compared to wheat and protein ingredients for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, M; Rademacher, M; Sauer, W C; Blank, R; Mosenthin, R

    2014-03-01

    A total of 11 (8 + 3 for replacement) barrows with an initial BW of 23 kg and fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum were used in 2 consecutive experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in 7 assay feed ingredients according to 2 consecutive duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square designs. In Exp. 1, 3 corn starch-based assay diets were formulated to contain 170 g CP/kg (as-fed basis) from either soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM), or meat-and-bone meal (MBM) and 1 assay diet that contained 136 g CP/kg (as-fed basis) from wheat as commonly used feed ingredients for pigs. In Exp. 2, the pigs were fed 4 assay diets formulated to contain 170 g CP/kg (as-fed basis) from either the same SBM as in Exp. 1 or a combination of this SBM and alfalfa meal (AM), sugar beet pulp (SB), or wheat bran (WB) to compare the SID of AA in these feed ingredients with those used in Exp. 1. The SID of AA in CM was lower compared to SBM (P wheat. Among fiber rich feed ingredients, SID values were lower in SB compared to WB (P feed ingredients are used in diet formulation for pigs. PMID:24492581

  15. Camelina meal supplementation to beef cattle: I. Effects on performance, DMI, and acute-phase protein response of feeder steers following transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixty Angus x Hereford steers were ranked by BW on d -28 of the study and allocated to 20 drylot pens which were randomly assigned to receive: 1) supplement containing (as-fed basis) 84% corn, 14% soybean meal, and 2% mineral mix (CO) offered during preconditioning (PC; d -28 to 0) and feedlot recei...

  16. Substituição da Proteína do Farelo de Soja pela Proteína do Farelo de Canola em Rações para Alevinos de Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus V. Replacement of Soybean Meal Protein by Canola Meal Protein in "Curimbatá" (Prochilodus lineatus V. Fingerling Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a influência da substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC, em rações para alevinos de curimbatá, foram utilizados 120 animais com peso médio de 1,88 ± 0,82 g e comprimento total médio de 5,40 ± 0,99 cm, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições em aquários de vidro (50 L, com cinco alevinos por unidade experimental. As rações foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas (26,00%, isocálcicas (0,90% e isofosfóricas (0,70%, com níveis crescentes de substituição da proteína do FS pela do FC (0,00; 20,00; 40,00; 60,00; 80,00 e 100,00%, o que correspondeu a 0,00; 8,03; 16,10; 24,10; 32,15 e 43,12% de inclusão do FC nas rações e fornecidas por um período de 30 dias. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água foram medidos a cada sete dias. Observou-se redução linear do ganho de peso e da taxa de eficiência protéica e aumento linear da taxa de conversão alimentar, com aumento da inclusão do FC nas rações. A taxa de sobrevivência e o custo de ração/kg ganho não foram afetados com o uso do FC nas rações. Os valores da temperatura da água, do pH e da condutividade elétrica permaneceram dentro dos níveis adequados. Concluiu-se que o aumento dos níveis de inclusão da proteína do farelo de canola nas rações para alevinos de curimbatá acarretou redução no desempenho dos mesmos.The influence of the substitution of soybean meal protein (SM by canola meal protein (CM in Prochilodus lineatus fingerling diets was verified. One hundred and twenty specimens, averaging weight 1.88±0.82g and total length 5.40±0.99cm, was assigned to a completely randomized randomized design, with six treatments and four replicates, in a 50 L glass aquarium, with five fingerlings in each experimental unit. Isoprotein (26.00%, isocalcium (0.90% and isophosphorus (0.70% diets were formulated with increasing replacement

  17. LocateP: Genome-scale subcellular-location predictor for bacterial proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Miaomiao

    2008-03-01

    current tools especially where the N-terminally anchored and the SPIase-cleaved secreted proteins are concerned. Overall, the accuracy of LocateP was always higher than 90%. LocateP was then used to predict the SCLs of all proteins encoded by completed Gram-positive bacterial genomes. The results are stored in the database LocateP-DB http://www.cmbi.ru.nl/locatep-db1. Conclusion LocateP is by far the most accurate and detailed protein SCL predictor for Gram-positive bacteria currently available.

  18. Communication: Microsecond dynamics of the protein and water affect electron transfer in a bacterial bc{sub 1} complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V., E-mail: dmitrym@asu.edu [Department of Physics and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871504, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Cross-membrane electron transport between cofactors localized in proteins of mitochondrial respiration and bacterial photosynthesis is the source of all biological energy. The statistics and dynamics of nuclear fluctuations in these protein/membrane/water heterogeneous systems are critical for their energetic efficiency. The results of 13 μs of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the membrane-bound bc{sub 1} bacterial complex are analyzed here. The reaction is affected by a broad spectrum of nuclear modes, with the slowest dynamics in the range of time-scales ∼0.1-1.6 μs contributing half of the reaction reorganization energy. Two reorganization energies are required to describe protein electron transfer due to dynamical arrest of protein conformations on the observation window. This mechanistic distinction allows significant lowering of activation barriers for reactions in proteins.

  19. Cross-phosphorylation of bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases on key regulatory residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eShi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria possess protein serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases which resemble eukaryal kinases in their capacity to phosphorylate multiple substrates. We hypothesized that the analogy might extend further, and bacterial kinases may also undergo mutual phosphorylation and activation, which is currently considered as a hallmark of eukaryal kinase networks. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the capacity of all members of four different classes of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases present in the firmicute model organism Bacillus subtilis to phosphorylate each other in vitro and interact with each other in vivo. The interactomics data suggested a high degree of connectivity among all types of kinases, while phosphorylation assays revealed equally wide-spread cross-phosphorylation events. Our findings suggest that the Hanks-type kinases PrkC, PrkD and YabT exhibit the highest capacity to phosphorylate other B. subtilis kinases, while the BY-kinase PtkA and the two-component-like kinases RsbW and SpoIIAB show the highest propensity to be phosphorylated by other kinases. Analysis of phosphorylated residues on several selected recipient kinases suggests that most cross-phosphorylation events concern key regulatory residues. Therefore, cross-phosphorylation events are very likely to influence the capacity of recipient kinases to phosphorylate substrates downstream in the signal transduction cascade. We therefore conclude that bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases probably engage in a network-type behavior previously described only in eukaryal cells.

  20. Antiadhesive Properties of Arabinogalactan Protein from Ribes nigrum Seeds against Bacterial Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Messing

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruit extracts from black currants (Ribes nigrum L. are traditionally used for treatment of gastritis based on seed polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach cells. For detailed investigations an arabinogalactan protein (F2 was isolated from seeds and characterized concerning molecular weight, carbohydrate, amino acid composition, linkage, configuration and reaction with β-glucosyl Yariv. Functional testing of F2 was performed by semiquantitative in situ adhesion assay on sections of human gastric mucosa and by quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori strain J99 and human stomach AGS cells. Bacterial adhesins affected were identified by overlay assay with immobilized ligands. 125I-radiolabeled F2 served for binding studies to H. pylori and interaction experiments with BabA and SabA. F2 had no cytotoxic effects against H. pylori and AGS cells; but inhibited bacterial binding to human gastric cells. F2 inhibited the binding of BabA and fibronectin-binding adhesin to its specific ligands. Radiolabeled F2 bound non-specifically to different strains of H. pylori; and to BabA deficient mutant. F2 did not lead to subsequent feedback regulation or increased expression of adhesins or virulence factors. From these data the non-specific interactions between F2 and the H. pylori lead to moderate antiadhesive effects.

  1. Antiadhesive properties of arabinogalactan protein from ribes nigrum seeds against bacterial adhesion of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Jutta; Niehues, Michael; Shevtsova, Anna; Borén, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fruit extracts from black currants (Ribes nigrum L.) are traditionally used for treatment of gastritis based on seed polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach cells. For detailed investigations an arabinogalactan protein (F2) was isolated from seeds and characterized concerning molecular weight, carbohydrate, amino acid composition, linkage, configuration and reaction with β-glucosyl Yariv. Functional testing of F2 was performed by semiquantitative in situ adhesion assay on sections of human gastric mucosa and by quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori strain J99 and human stomach AGS cells. Bacterial adhesins affected were identified by overlay assay with immobilized ligands. ¹²⁵I-radiolabeled F2 served for binding studies to H. pylori and interaction experiments with BabA and SabA. F2 had no cytotoxic effects against H. pylori and AGS cells; but inhibited bacterial binding to human gastric cells. F2 inhibited the binding of BabA and fibronectin-binding adhesin to its specific ligands. Radiolabeled F2 bound non-specifically to different strains of H. pylori; and to BabA deficient mutant. F2 did not lead to subsequent feedback regulation or increased expression of adhesins or virulence factors. From these data the non-specific interactions between F2 and the H. pylori lead to moderate antiadhesive effects. PMID:24662083

  2. Evaluation of millet residue meal based diets as feed for the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Karikari,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the nutritive value of millet residue meal with fish meal, soybean meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2 as protein source. The treatments were labelled according to protein source as fish meal diet, soybean meal diet and fish-soybean meal diet. Thirty nulliparous mixed-breed rabbits of an initial mean (±SD body weight of 1852.6±122.7 g were used in a completely randomised design with 10 rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were allowed four weeks to adjust to the experimental diets before breeding was initiated. The feed intake during gestation and the reproductive data of the rabbits were assessed over two reproductive cycles. Does on the fish meal diet had poorer (P<0.05 DMI, daily growth rate and FCR than those on the soybean meal diet during the pre-breeding period. Does on the fish meal diet delivered less (P<0.05 number of kits at birth and weaned less kits compared to those on the soybean meal diet. Those on the soybean meal diet were heaviest (P<0.05 at mating and at kindling. They out-performed does on the fish meal diet in most of the parameters measured. Parity did not affect reproductive performance, but growth rate of the does had a positive linear relationship with DMI (r= 0.77; P<0.01 and a negative linear relationship with FCR (r= -0.83; P<0.01 during the pre-breeding period. It was concluded that millet residue meal may be a better feed source for rabbit does if soybean meal rather than fish meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2 is used to improve the protein content.

  3. UTILIZING CORN GERM MEAL IN PLYWOOD GLUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of corn germ meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive. This research is part of our laboratory’s efforts to develop new uses for the proteinaceous co-products from cereal and soybean processing. We were previously successful in formulating a s...

  4. Acute phase proteins in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in the course of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowski, M; Lobos, M; Kuydowicz, J; Krakowiak, M; Kubasiewicz-Ujma, B

    1995-08-01

    We carried out estimations of the following acute phase proteins: C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), alpha-2-ceruloplasmin (CER), and alpha-2-haptoglobin (HPT) in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with bacterial meningitis (BM, n = 30) and viral meningitis (VM, n = 30). We have shown that determinations of concentrations of AAG and CRP in serum and CER in CSF are useful in differentiation between BM and VM. The diagnostic power of these three tests (the areas under their ROC curves equal 0.942, 0.929, and 0.931, respectively) is bigger, though statistically not significantly, than that of traditional parameters of BM in CSF, i.e., total protein concentration and white blood cell count. Determination of AAG, CRP, and AAT in serum is a valuable monitoring marker in the course of BM treatment. Convenience of serum sampling constitutes an advantage over traditional BM parameters in CSF. PMID:8521602

  5. Optimized localization of bacterial infections with technetium-99m labelled human immunoglobulin after protein charge selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the scintigraphic detection of bacterial infections a protein charge-purified fraction of polyclonal human immunoglobulin was applied as a radiopharmaceutical. This purification was achieved by attaching the immunoglobulin to an anion-exchanger column and by obtaining the column-bound fraction with buffer. The binding to bacteria in vitro and the target to non-target ratios of an experimental thigh infection with Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice were evaluated to compare the purified and the unpurified immunoglobulin. The percentage of binding to all gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria used in this study was significantly (P99mTc-labelled protein charge-purified polyclonal human immunoglobulin was administered intravenously. At all time intervals the target (infected thighs) to non-target (non-infected thighs) ratios for both infections were significantly higher (P99mTc-labelled protein charge-purified immunoglobulin localizes both a gram-positive and a gram-negative thigh infection more intensely and faster than 99mTc-labelled unpurified immunoglobulin. (orig.)

  6. Symmetry and scale orient Min protein patterns in shaped bacterial sculptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fabai; van Schie, Bas G. C.; Keymer, Juan E.; Dekker, Cees

    2015-08-01

    The boundary of a cell defines the shape and scale of its subcellular organization. However, the effects of the cell's spatial boundaries as well as the geometry sensing and scale adaptation of intracellular molecular networks remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that living bacterial cells can be ‘sculpted’ into defined shapes, such as squares and rectangles, which are used to explore the spatial adaptation of Min proteins that oscillate pole-to-pole in rod-shaped Escherichia coli to assist cell division. In a wide geometric parameter space, ranging from 2 × 1 × 1 to 11 × 6 × 1 μm3, Min proteins exhibit versatile oscillation patterns, sustaining rotational, longitudinal, diagonal, stripe and even transversal modes. These patterns are found to directly capture the symmetry and scale of the cell boundary, and the Min concentration gradients scale with the cell size within a characteristic length range of 3-6 μm. Numerical simulations reveal that local microscopic Turing kinetics of Min proteins can yield global symmetry selection, gradient scaling and an adaptive range, when and only when facilitated by the three-dimensional confinement of the cell boundary. These findings cannot be explained by previous geometry-sensing models based on the longest distance, membrane area or curvature, and reveal that spatial boundaries can facilitate simple molecular interactions to result in far more versatile functions than previously understood.

  7. Structure of the Bacterial Cytoskeleton Protein Bactofilin by NMR Chemical Shifts and Sequence Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Maher M; Wang, Yong; Boomsma, Wouter; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten

    2016-06-01

    Bactofilins constitute a recently discovered class of bacterial proteins that form cytoskeletal filaments. They share a highly conserved domain (DUF583) of which the structure remains unknown, in part due to the large size and noncrystalline nature of the filaments. Here, we describe the atomic structure of a bactofilin domain from Caulobacter crescentus. To determine the structure, we developed an approach that combines a biophysical model for proteins with recently obtained solid-state NMR spectroscopy data and amino acid contacts predicted from a detailed analysis of the evolutionary history of bactofilins. Our structure reveals a triangular β-helical (solenoid) conformation with conserved residues forming the tightly packed core and polar residues lining the surface. The repetitive structure explains the presence of internal repeats as well as strongly conserved positions, and is reminiscent of other fibrillar proteins. Our work provides a structural basis for future studies of bactofilin biology and for designing molecules that target them, as well as a starting point for determining the organization of the entire bactofilin filament. Finally, our approach presents new avenues for determining structures that are difficult to obtain by traditional means. PMID:27276252

  8. EXPRESSION OF BACTERIAL PROTEIN-A IN TOBACCO LEADS TO ENHANCED RESISTANCE TO STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Roy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is the most commonly used plant for expression of transgenes from a variety of organisms because it can be easily grown and transformed, it provides abundant amounts of fresh tissue and has a well-established cell culture system. As bacterial enzymes can be synthesized in tobacco, here we explore the possibility of in planta expression of staphylococcal protein-A(PA which is an antibody, an important group among biopharmaceuticals. In our study we have shown that the tobacco plants harboring PA gene could combat the crown gall infection and also effective in resisting abiotic stress conditions. Transgenic plants when subjected to interact with wild variety of Agrobacterium shows its enhanced capability to resist the gall formation. And when transgenic tobacco plants were grown in presence of 200mM NaCl and/or MG(Methylglyoxal solution, shows their increased tolerance towards salinity stress and high MG stress. So far transgenic tobacco plants are concerned, improvements in the expression of recombinant proteins and their recovery from tobacco may also enhance production and commercial use of this protein.

  9. Temporal expression of bacterial proteins instructs host CD4 T cell expansion and Th17 development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Joo Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens can substantially alter gene expression within an infected host depending on metabolic or virulence requirements in different tissues, however, the effect of these alterations on host immunity are unclear. Here we visualized multiple CD4 T cell responses to temporally expressed proteins in Salmonella-infected mice. Flagellin-specific CD4 T cells expanded and contracted early, differentiated into Th1 and Th17 lineages, and were enriched in mucosal tissues after oral infection. In contrast, CD4 T cells responding to Salmonella Type-III Secretion System (TTSS effectors steadily accumulated until bacterial clearance was achieved, primarily differentiated into Th1 cells, and were predominantly detected in systemic tissues. Thus, pathogen regulation of antigen expression plays a major role in orchestrating the expansion, differentiation, and location of antigen-specific CD4 T cells in vivo.

  10. Studies of fish meal in aquafeeds%鱼粉在水产饲料中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 解绶启; 刘建康

    2004-01-01

    As a main protein source in aquafeeds, fish meal has been extensively studied. Fish sources, freshness, processing temperature, lipid quality and microbiological index are five main aspects of the evaluation of fish meal quality. This paper reviewed the researches on fish meal including the evaluation of fish meal quality, the use of fishmeal and the environmental problems. Biogenic amine is the main potential toxin in decomposed fish meal including mainly histamine, cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine and most studies showed that they could affect the fish growth performance and health. The determination of protein digestibility of fish meal includes pepsin-digestion method, animal test, capillary electrophoresis, etc. The content of phosphorus in fish meal and its utilization can introduce pollution to water bodies and the use of alternative protein and improvement of utilization of fish meal can help to reduce the pollution from fish meal.

  11. The effects of poultry meal source and ash level on nursery pig performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, T P; DeRouchey, J M; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; Dritz, S S

    2004-09-01

    Weanling pigs (total of 560) were used in two experiments to determine the effects of poultry meal in nursery diets on pig performance. In Exp. 1,210 barrows and gilts (initially 7.4 kg and 21 +/- 2 d of age) were fed one of five diets, which included a control diet with no specialty protein products or (as-fed basis) the control with 2.5 or 5.0% fish meal, or 2.9 or 5.9% poultry meal (11.8% ash). Poultry meal replaced fish meal on an equal lysine basis. Overall (d 0 to 28), pigs fed diets containing fish meal had greater (P improvement observed in pigs fed the diet containing 2.5% fish meal. Pigs fed diets containing fish meal had improved (P lysine basis. Overall (d 0 to 15), there were no differences in ADG and ADFI (P = 0.14); however, pigs fed diets containing fish meal or poultry meal had improved (linear, P < 0.01) G:F compared with pigs fed the control diet. Pigs fed diets containing low-ash poultry meal had greater (P < 0.01) G:F compared with pigs fed diets containing high-ash poultry meal. Based on these data, quality control specifications, such as ash content, need to be considered when using poultry meal as an animal protein replacement in diets for nursery pigs. PMID:15446491

  12. Canola meal on starting pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Peñuela-Sierra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional values and evaluate the performance of piglets fed on canola meal. In experiment I, a digestibility assay was conducted using fourteen barrow pigs, with an initial body weight of 20.62±3.30 kg. The evaluated feedstuff was canola meal, with a level of 250 g/kg in the basal diet (corn + soybean meal-based. The experimental unit consisted of one pig, with a total of seven experimental units per diet. The values as (fed basis of digestible (DE and metabolizable (ME energy of canola meal were 2,995 kcal/kg and 2,796 kcal/kg, respectively. In experiment II, ileal digestibility assays were carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility coefficient and digestible amino acids. Three crossbred pigs were used, with a BW of 38.6±1.98 kg. The treatments consisted of two diets, with a single source of protein (canola meal and one protein-free diet (OFD. The values of digestible amino acids in canola meal were as follows: lysine: 11.8 g/kg; methionine+cystine: 9.1 g/kg; threonine: 7.9 g/kg; tryptophan: 2.4 g/kg; leucine: 15.7 g/kg; and isoleucine: 8.7 g/kg. In experiment III, 60 piglets (BW= 15.08±0.72 kg to 30.26±2.78 kg were allotted in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four diets with increasing levels of canola meal (50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg, six replicates and experimental unit consisted of two pigs. Additionally, a control diet was formulated containing 0.0 g/kg CM. Regression analysis indicates that there was no effect (P?0.05 of the level of canola meal inclusion on pigs performance. The performance results suggest that it is feasible to use up to 200 g/kg of canola meal in starting pigs diet, without impairing performance and the feeding cost.

  13. Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajishengallis, George; Martin, Michael; Sojar, Hakimuddin T.; Sharma, Ashu; Schifferle, Robert E.; DeNardin, Ernesto; Russell, Michael W.; Genco, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important signal transducers that mediate inflammatory reactions induced by microbes through pattern recognition of virulence molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoproteins. We investigated whether proinflammatory cytokine responses induced by certain bacterial protein adhesins may also depend on TLRs. In differentiated THP-1 mononuclear cells stimulated by LPS-free recombinant fimbrillin (rFimA) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, cytokine release was abrogated by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to CD14 and TLR4 but not to TLR2. Similar experiments using anti-β2 integrin MAbs suggested that β2 integrins (CD11/CD18) also play a role in cytokine induction by rFimA or native fimbriae. Minor fimbriae (distinct from the fimA-encoded major fimbriae) of P. gingivalis induced proinflammatory cytokine release in a CD14- and TLR2-dependent mode. Cytokine induction by BspA, a leucine-rich repeat protein from Bacteroides forsythus, depended heavily on CD14 and TLR2. We also found that the ability of the streptococcal protein AgI/II to stimulate cytokine release depended partially on CD14 and TLR4, and the AgI/II segment that possibly interacts with these receptors was identified as its N-terminal saliva-binding region. When THP-1 cells were exposed to rFimA for 24 h, surface expression of CD14 and CD18 was decreased and the cells became hyporesponsive to cytokine induction by a second challenge with rFimA. However, tolerance induction was abolished when the THP-1 cells were pretreated with rFimA in the presence of either anti-CD14 MAb or anti-TLR4 MAb. Induction of cross-tolerance between rFimA and LPS correlated with downregulation of the pattern recognition receptors involved. Our data suggest that the CD14-TLR2/4 system is involved in cytokine production and tolerance induction upon interaction with certain proinflammatory bacterial protein adhesins. PMID:11874886

  14. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...

  15. Optimized localization of bacterial infections with technetium-99m labelled human immunoglobulin after protein charge selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welling, M. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands)); Feitsma, H.I.J. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands)); Calame, W. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands)); Ensing, G.J. (Mallinckrodt Medical, Petten (Netherlands)); Goedemans, W. (Mallinckrodt Medical, Petten (Netherlands)); Pauwels, E.K.J. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands))

    1994-10-01

    To improve the scintigraphic detection of bacterial infections a protein charge-purified fraction of polyclonal human immunoglobulin was applied as a radiopharmaceutical. This purification was achieved by attaching the immunoglobulin to an anion-exchanger column and by obtaining the column-bound fraction with buffer. The binding to bacteria in vitro and the target to non-target ratios of an experimental thigh infection with Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae in mice were evaluated to compare the purified and the unpurified immunoglobulin. The percentage of binding to all gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria used in this study was significantly (P<0.03) higher for the purified than for the unpurified immunoglobulin. For the in vivo study, mice were infected in the thigh muscle with Staph. aureus or K. pneumoniae. After 18 h 0.1 mg of technetium-99m labelled polyclonal immunoglobulin or [sup 99m]Tc-labelled protein charge-purified polyclonal human immunoglobulin was administered intravenously. At all time intervals the target (infected thighs) to non-target (non-infected thighs) ratios for both infections were significantly higher (P<0.03) for protein charge-purified polyclonal immunoglobulin than for unpurified polyclonal human immunoglobulin. Already within 1 h the infected tissues could be detected by the purified immunoglobulin. It is concluded that [sup 99m]Tc-labelled protein charge-purified immunoglobulin localizes both a gram-positive and a gram-negative thigh infection more intensely and faster than [sup 99m]Tc-labelled unpurified immunoglobulin. (orig.)

  16. Effects of a high fat meal matrix and protein complexation on the bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins using the TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM-1)

    OpenAIRE

    Ribnicky, David M.; Roopchand, Diana E.; Oren, Andrew; Grace, Mary; Poulev, Alexander; Lila, Mary Ann; Havenaar, Robert; Raskin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    The TNO intestinal model (TIM-1) of the human upper gastrointestinal tract was used to compare intestinal absorption/bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins under different digestive conditions. Blueberry polyphenol-rich extract was delivered to TIM-1 in the absence or presence of a high-fat meal. HPLC analysis of seventeen anthocyanins showed that delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-arabinoside and petunidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible in fed st...

  17. The influence of straw meal on the crude protein and amino acid metabolism and the digestibility of crude nutrients in broiler breeding hens. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolization of the straw N and the influence of the straw on N excretion in urine were studied in 2 experiments with colostomized broiler hens and with 15N-labelled wheat straw as well as 15N-labelled wheat. In experiment 1 the test animals divided up into 4 groups received 0 g, 20 g, 30 g and 40 g straw meal per animal and day in addition to 120 g mixed feed. The daily 15N excess (15N') intake from the straw was 18.4 mg, 27.5 mg and 36.7 mg. The amount of 15N' daily consumed with the labelled wheat in experiment 2 was 119.7 mg. 40 g straw meal resulted in a significantly increased amount of urine (p 15N' of the labelled wheat was not influenced by the straw meal supplement. The productive 15N' of the straw increased from 3.8 mg/animal and day (20 g straw) to 13.4 mg/animal and day (40 g straw). In contrast to 15N wheat, straw as a 15N source resulted in a lower labelling of uric acid N in comparison with urine N. It can be assumed that the changed metabolization of the straw N is influenced by microbial processes in the intestines. (author)

  18. Surface-modified nanoparticles as a new, versatile, and mechanically robust nonadhesive coating : Suppression of protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, P. F.; Currie, E. P. K.; Thies, J. C.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Norde, W.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of surface-modified silica nanoparticles, chemically grafted with acrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) groups, and the ability of the resulting crosslinked coatings to inhibit protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion are explored. Water contact angles, nanoindentation, and atomic

  19. Bacterial pathogen gene regulation: a DNA-structure-centred view of a protein-dominated domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Charles J; Colgan, Aoife; Dorman, Matthew J

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms used by bacterial pathogens to regulate the expression of their genes, especially their virulence genes, have been the subject of intense investigation for several decades. Whole genome sequencing projects, together with more targeted studies, have identified hundreds of DNA-binding proteins that contribute to the patterns of gene expression observed during infection as well as providing important insights into the nature of the gene products whose expression is being controlled by these proteins. Themes that have emerged include the importance of horizontal gene transfer to the evolution of pathogens, the need to impose regulatory discipline upon these imported genes and the important roles played by factors normally associated with the organization of genome architecture as regulatory principles in the control of virulence gene expression. Among these architectural elements is the structure of DNA itself, its variable nature at a topological rather than just at a base-sequence level and its ability to play an active (as well as a passive) part in the gene regulation process. PMID:27252403

  20. Optimization of Mutation Pressure in Relation to Properties of Protein-Coding Sequences in Bacterial Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Błażej

    Full Text Available Most mutations are deleterious and require energetically costly repairs. Therefore, it seems that any minimization of mutation rate is beneficial. On the other hand, mutations generate genetic diversity indispensable for evolution and adaptation of organisms to changing environmental conditions. Thus, it is expected that a spontaneous mutational pressure should be an optimal compromise between these two extremes. In order to study the optimization of the pressure, we compared mutational transition probability matrices from bacterial genomes with artificial matrices fulfilling the same general features as the real ones, e.g., the stationary distribution and the speed of convergence to the stationarity. The artificial matrices were optimized on real protein-coding sequences based on Evolutionary Strategies approach to minimize or maximize the probability of non-synonymous substitutions and costs of amino acid replacements depending on their physicochemical properties. The results show that the empirical matrices have a tendency to minimize the effects of mutations rather than maximize their costs on the amino acid level. They were also similar to the optimized artificial matrices in the nucleotide substitution pattern, especially the high transitions/transversions ratio. We observed no substantial differences between the effects of mutational matrices on protein-coding sequences in genomes under study in respect of differently replicated DNA strands, mutational cost types and properties of the referenced artificial matrices. The findings indicate that the empirical mutational matrices are rather adapted to minimize mutational costs in the studied organisms in comparison to other matrices with similar mathematical constraints.

  1. Diabetes type 2 - meal planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/007429.htm Diabetes type 2 - meal planning To use the sharing features on this page, ... foods have carbohydrates. This will help with meal planning so that you can keep your blood sugar ...

  2. Effects of partially replacing dietary soybean meal or cottonseed meal with completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier) on production, cytokines, adhesive gut bacteria, and disease resistance in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × Oreochromis aureus ♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Li; Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yalin; Du, Zhenyu; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    We formulated experimental diets for hybrid tilapia to investigate the effects of replacing dietary soybean meal (SBM) or cottonseed meal (CSM) by completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier; abbreviated as CHFM), with emphasis on fish growth, the composition of adhesive gut bacteria, intestinal and hepatic immune responses, and disease resistance. A series of four isonitrogenous (33% crude protein) and isolipidic (6% crude lipid) diets were formulated to replace the isonitrogenous percentages of CSM or SBM by 6% or 12% CHFM. Quadruplicate groups of healthy and uniformly sized hybrid tilapia were assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were hand fed three times a day for 8 weeks at a rearing temperature of 25-28 °C. The growth performance of hybrid tilapia fed diets with partial replacement of dietary SBM or CSM with CHFM was comparable to the group of fish fed the control diet. The CHFM-containing diets affected the intestinal autochthonous bacterial community in similar ways. All CHFM-containing diets stimulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 in the intestine but suppressed its expression in the liver. Only the CHFM6/SBM diet stimulated the expression of interleukin-1β in intestine, and no effects were observed in all diets to the expression of interleukin-1β in liver. Thus, regarding the immune response in the intestine and liver, CHFM is a good alternative protein source that induces less stress in the host. CHFM did not affect disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in hybrid tilapia. These data suggest that CHFM is a good alternative to partially replace SBM and CSM in tilapia feed. PMID:25304546

  3. Bio-based materials from crambe and carinata industrial oilseed meals

    OpenAIRE

    Newson, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Protein-based plastics are considered as a new route for valorisation of oilseed meal from the industrial oil crops Crambe abyssinia (crambe) and Brassica carinata (carinata) as they cannot be used for animal feed or human food. To convert oilseed meals into protein-based plastic films compression moulding was used with varying processing temperature, chemical additives and protein extraction conditions. Twin screw extrusion was utilized to make films from blends of crambe meal and wheat glut...

  4. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, Robert T

    2010-05-12

    Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C) and human (37°C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of

  5. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Susan A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C and human (37°C temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect

  6. Purification and functional analysis of the recombinant protein isolated from E. coli by employing three different methods of bacterial lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA MOJSIN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the purification of the human recombinant protein expressed in E. coli using the GSTGene Fusion System, by applying various methods of bacterial lysis: sonication, freeze/thaw and beadbeating, is presented. The study was an attempt to compare the properties of the proteins obtained by the sonication method, recommended by manufacturers but inaccessible for many researchers, with those obtained using two other readily available lysis methods. The data show that all purified proteins were soluble and intact with the highest protein yield being obtained via the freeze/thaw method. The results of functional analysis indicate that the proteins purified using the sonication and freeze/thaw methods of lysis exhibited similar DNA binding affinity, while the protein purified by beadbeating was also functional but with a lower binding affinity. The conclusion of this study is that all three lysis methods could be successfully employed for protein purification.

  7. The Influence of Alcalase Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Soybean Antigen Proteins in Soybean Meal%碱性蛋白酶水解对豆粕中大豆抗原蛋白的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王章存; 李乐静; 赵学伟; 崔胜文; 胡金强; 王吉中

    2013-01-01

    Soybean ranks among the "big 8" of the most allergenic food. The globulins 7S (β- conglycinin) and 11S (glycinin ) , the major stored proteins of soybean, are also the primary antigen proteins. The changes of the two antigen proteins were investigated during the Alcalase enzymatic hydrolysis process of soybean meal. The results showed that the primary antigen proteins such as α', α,β - subunits of globulin 7S (β- conglycinin) were hydro-lyzed completely after 10 min of enzymatic hydrolysis,and so was the acidic subunit of globulin (US) after 60 minutes of enzymatic hydrolysis. And meanwhile, the new components of 23 ku and below 14 ku mass fractions appeared. The 95.1% of soybean meal protein was soluble in water after enzymatic hydrolysis,while 68. 1% in trichlo-roacetic acid ( TCA ).%大豆是八大食物过敏源之一,其中主要蛋白成分7S和11S球蛋白也是致敏性较强的抗原蛋白.本试验研究了豆粕在Alcalase酶水解过程中7S和11S两种大豆抗原蛋白的变化.结果表明,酶解10 min时7S伴球蛋白的α'、α和β亚基、酶解60 min时11S球蛋白的酸性亚基等主要抗原蛋白成分即被完全水解,同时新产生了23 ku和大量14 ku以下组分;酶解豆粕中95.1%的蛋白可溶于水,其中68.1%蛋白质可溶于三氯乙酸.

  8. The use of C-reactive protein in predicting bacterial co-Infection in children with bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Fares

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is a potentially life-threatening respiratory illness commonly affecting children who are less than two years of age. Patients with viral lower respiratory tract infection are at risk for co-bacterial infection. Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of C-reactive protein (CRP in predicting bacterial co-infection in patients hospitalized for bronchiolitis and to correlate the results with the use of antibiotics. Patients and Methods: This is a prospective study that included patients diagnosed with bronchiolitis admitted to Makassed General Hospital in Beirut from October 2008 to April 2009. A tracheal aspirate culture was taken from all patients with bronchiolitis on admission to the hospital. Blood was drawn to test C-reactive protein level, white cell count, transaminases level, and blood sugar level. Results: Forty-nine patients were enrolled in the study and were divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with positive tracheal aspirate culture and Group 2 included those with negative culture. All patients with a CRP level ≥2 mg/dL have had bacterial co-infection. White cell count, transaminases and blood sugar levels were not predictive for bacterial co-infection. The presence of bacterial co-infection increased the length of hospital stay in the first group by 2 days compared to those in the second group. Conclusion: Bacterial co-infection is frequent in infants with moderate to severe bronchiolitis and requires admission. Our data showed that a CRP level greater than 1.1 mg/dL raised suspicion for bacterial co-infection. Thus, a tracheal aspirate should be investigated microbiologically in all hospitalized patients in order to avoid unnecessary antimicrobial therapy and to shorten the duration of the hospital stay.

  9. Host and bacterial proteins that repress recruitment of LC3 to Shigella early during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh A Baxt

    Full Text Available Shigella spp. are intracytosolic gram-negative pathogens that cause disease by invasion and spread through the colonic mucosa, utilizing host cytoskeletal components to form propulsive actin tails. We have previously identified the host factor Toca-1 as being recruited to intracellular S. flexneri and being required for efficient bacterial actin tail formation. We show that at early times during infection (40 min., the type three-secreted effector protein IcsB recruits Toca-1 to intracellular bacteria and that recruitment of Toca-1 is associated with repression of recruitment of LC3, as well as with repression of recruitment of the autophagy marker NDP52, around these intracellular bacteria. LC3 is best characterized as a marker of autophagosomes, but also marks phagosomal membranes in the process LC3-associated phagocytosis. IcsB has previously been demonstrated to be required for S. flexneri evasion of autophagy at late times during infection (4-6 hr by inhibiting binding of the autophagy protein Atg5 to the Shigella surface protein IcsA (VirG. Our results suggest that IcsB and Toca-1 modulation of LC3 recruitment restricts LC3-associated phagocytosis and/or LC3 recruitment to vacuolar membrane remnants. Together with published results, our findings suggest that IcsB inhibits innate immune responses in two distinct ways, first, by inhibiting LC3-associated phagocytosis and/or LC3 recruitment to vacuolar membrane remnants early during infection, and second, by inhibiting autophagy late during infection.

  10. Thermal properties of defatted meal, concentrate, and protein isolate of baru nuts (Dipteryx alata Vog. Propriedades térmicas de farinha desengordurada, concentrado e isolado proteico de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog., a species of legume found in the Brazilian savannas, was investigated in this study for the composition of its flesh and seed. Thermal analyses, Thermogravimetry (TG, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC were used to investigate the proteins in defatted meal, concentrate, and protein isolate. The protein concentrate was extracted at pH 10, followed by a precipitation at the isoelectric point to obtain the isolate that was spray dried. The thermogravimetric curves were obtained under a nitrogen atmosphere with a 100 mL/minutes flow. The initial, final and peak temperatures and mass loss were analyzed. Within the performed temperature ranges studied, the defatted meal and concentrate presented four steps of mass loss, while the isolate showed only two steps. The protein content of defatted meal from Baru nuts was higher than that of the isolate. On the other hand, there was a reduction in enthalpy, which suggests that the process applied to obtain the baru concentrate and isolate led to protein denaturation.Componentes de polpa e de semente de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog., leguminosa do cerrado brasileiro, foram objetos de estudo neste trabalho. Análises térmicas, Termogravimetria (TG e Calorimetria Exploratória Diferencial (DSC foram utilizadas na investigação de proteínas em farinha desengordurada, concentrado e isolado proteico. A extração do concentrado proteico foi em pH 10, seguida de precipitação no ponto isoelétrico para obter o isolado, o qual foi seco por atomização. As curvas termogravimétricas foram obtidas em atmosfera de nitrogênio em vazão de 100 mL/minutos. As temperaturas iniciais, finais e de pico foram analisadas, assim como a perda de massa. Na faixa de temperatura avaliada, a farinha desengordurada e o concentrado apresentaram quatro etapas de perda de massa, enquanto que o isolado apenas duas etapas. O conteúdo de proteína da farinha desengordurada da semente de Baru foi mais

  11. Mustard meal weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic production systems can be a labor intensive and expensive process. Mustard meal (MM) is phytotoxic and a potential pre-emergent and preplant-incorporated organic herbicide for controlling germinating and emerging weed seedlings. Unfortunately, MM may also adversely impact s...

  12. Toxicological evaluation of mowrah (Madhuca latifolia Macbride) seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, K M; Gandhi, V M; Mulky, M J

    1996-01-01

    Mowrah (M. latifolia) seeds yield 40-50% edible fat and the meal contains saponins besides protein and high level of carbohydrates. The toxicity of the meal was evaluated as it has a potential for use in animal feedstuffs. The meal was fed to young and adult rats at levels of 10 to 40% in diet. The animals showed marked inhibition of feed intake and loss of body weight resulting in mortalities. Histopathological examination revealed a gradation of damage from slight erosion of the tip of villi of intestinal mucous membrane to complete necrosis and destruction of it, with increasing amounts of mowrah seed meal in diets. The other significant change was a severe vacuolar degeneration of kidney tubular cells. Detoxification or complete removal of the toxins is necessary for utilization of the meal as animal feedingstuff. PMID:8698410

  13. Influence of a Regular, Standardized Meal on Clinical Chemistry Analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe; Gelati, Matteo; Montagnana, Martina; Danese, Elisa; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Background Preanalytical variability, including biological variability and patient preparation, is an important source of variability in laboratory testing. In this study, we assessed whether a regular light meal might bias the results of routine clinical chemistry testing. Methods We studied 17 healthy volunteers who consumed light meals containing a standardized amount of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. We collected blood for routine clinical chemistry tests before the meal and 1, 2, and 4 hr thereafter. Results One hour after the meal, triglycerides (TG), albumin (ALB), uric acid (UA), phosphatase (ALP), Ca, Fe, and Na levels significantly increased, whereas blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and P levels decreased. TG, ALB, Ca, Na, P, and total protein (TP) levels varied significantly. Two hours after the meal, TG, ALB, Ca, Fe, and Na levels remained significantly high, whereas BUN, P, UA, and total bilirubin (BT) levels decreased. Clinically significant variations were recorded for TG, ALB, ALT, Ca, Fe, Na, P, BT, and direct bilirubin (BD) levels. Four hours after the meal, TG, ALB, Ca, Fe, Na, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), P, Mg, and K levels significantly increased, whereas UA and BT levels decreased. Clinically significant variations were observed for TG, ALB, ALT, Ca, Na, Mg, K, C-reactive protein (CRP), AST, UA, and BT levels. Conclusions A significant variation in the clinical chemistry parameters after a regular meal shows that fasting time needs to be carefully considered when performing tests to prevent spurious results and reduce laboratory errors, especially in an emergency setting. PMID:22779065

  14. Effects of feeding canola meal or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles as a major protein source in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa, T; Kiran, D; Abeysekara, S

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding canola meal (CM) or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (W-DDGS) as the major source of protein in diets varying in crude protein (CP) content on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein production, omasal nutrient flow, and production performance in lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 29-d periods (21 d of dietary adaptation and 8 d of measurements) and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The treatment factors were (1) source of supplemental protein (CM vs. W-DDGS) and (2) dietary CP content (15 vs. 17%; DM basis). Diets contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate, and were fed twice daily at 0900 and 1600 h as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by dietary treatments; however, milk yield in cows that were fed CM was numerically greater (+1.1 kg/d) when compared with cows fed W-DDGS. Feeding CM increased milk lactose content compared with feeding W-DDGS. Milk urea nitrogen and ruminal NH3-N concentrations were greater in cows fed the high-CP compared with those fed the low-CP diet. The rumen-degradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-degradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained W-DDGS. Total N flow at the omasal canal was not affected by diet; however, omasal flow of NH3-N was greater in cows fed CM when compared with those fed W-DDGS. The rumen-undegradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the high-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-undegradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the

  15. Isoleucine and valine supplementation of a low-protein corn-wheat-soybean meal-based diet for piglets: growth performance and nitrogen balance

    OpenAIRE

    Lordelo, M.M.; Gaspar, A.M.; Le Bellego, L; Freire, J.P.B.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Ile and Val supplementation of a low-CP, corn-wheat-soybean meal-based piglet diet on growth performance, incidence of diarrhea, and N balance were studied using 60 Landrace × Duroc male piglets in a 4-wk experiment. The 60 individually caged piglets were divided into 5 dietary treatments, each consisting of 12 piglets. Diet 1 was a positive control diet (20% CP); diet 2 was a low-CP negative control diet (17% CP); diets 3, 4, and 5 were low-CP diets to ...

  16. Surfactant protein D augments bacterial association but attenuates major histocompatibility complex class II presentation of bacterial antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Lo, Bernice; Evans, Kathy;

    2006-01-01

    Development of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), is associated with lipid dysregulation and inflammation. As the host defense lectin surfactant protein D (SP-D) has multiple effects in lipid homeostasis and inflammation, the correlation between SP-D concentrations and development of d...

  17. Bacterial effector binding to ribosomal protein s3 subverts NF-kappaB function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Gao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Enteric bacterial pathogens cause food borne disease, which constitutes an enormous economic and health burden. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC causes a severe bloody diarrhea following transmission to humans through various means, including contaminated beef and vegetable products, water, or through contact with animals. EHEC also causes a potentially fatal kidney disease (hemolytic uremic syndrome for which there is no effective treatment or prophylaxis. EHEC and other enteric pathogens (e.g., enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia utilize a type III secretion system (T3SS to inject virulence proteins (effectors into host cells. While it is known that T3SS effectors subvert host cell function to promote diarrheal disease and bacterial transmission, in many cases, the mechanisms by which these effectors bind to host proteins and disrupt the normal function of intestinal epithelial cells have not been completely characterized. In this study, we present evidence that the E. coli O157:H7 nleH1 and nleH2 genes encode T3SS effectors that bind to the human ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3, a subunit of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappaB transcriptional complexes. NleH1 and NleH2 co-localized with RPS3 in the cytoplasm, but not in cell nuclei. The N-terminal region of both NleH1 and NleH2 was required for binding to the N-terminus of RPS3. NleH1 and NleH2 are autophosphorylated Ser/Thr protein kinases, but their binding to RPS3 is independent of kinase activity. NleH1, but not NleH2, reduced the nuclear abundance of RPS3 without altering the p50 or p65 NF-kappaB subunits or affecting the phosphorylation state or abundance of the inhibitory NF-kappaB chaperone IkappaBalpha NleH1 repressed the transcription of a RPS3/NF-kappaB-dependent reporter plasmid, but did not inhibit the transcription of RPS3-independent reporters. In contrast, NleH2 stimulated RPS3-dependent transcription, as well

  18. Study of total dry matter and protein extraction from canola meal as affected by the pH, salt addition and use of zeta-potential/turbidimetry analysis to optimize the extraction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzhova, Alina; Mondor, Martin; Benali, Marzouk; Aider, Mohammed

    2016-06-15

    Total dry matter and proteins were differentially and preferentially extracted from canola meal (CM) under different conditions. The effect of the extraction medium pH, CM concentration and salt concentrations were found to have different influences on the extractability of total dry matter and proteins from CM. The pH of the extracting medium had the most significant effect. The maximal total dry matter (42.8±1.18%) extractability was obtained with 5% CM at pH 12 without salt addition, whereas the maximal for total protein (58.12±1.47%) was obtained with 15% CM under the same conditions. The minimal extractability for the dry matter (26.63±0.67%) was obtained with 5% CM at pH 10 without salt added and the minimal protein extractability was observed in a 10% CM at pH 10, in 0.01 NaCl. Turbidity and ζ-potential measurements indicated that pH 5 was the optimum condition for the highest protein extraction yield. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that salt addition contributes to higher solubility of canola proteins specifically cruciferin fraction, although it reduces napin extraction. PMID:26868572

  19. Nucleotide and partner-protein control of bacterial replicative helicase structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strycharska, Melania S; Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Lyubimov, Artem Y; Erzberger, Jan P; O'Shea, Valerie L; Bustamante, Carlos J; Berger, James M

    2013-12-26

    Cellular replication forks are powered by ring-shaped, hexameric helicases that encircle and unwind DNA. To better understand the molecular mechanisms and control of these enzymes, we used multiple methods to investigate the bacterial replicative helicase, DnaB. A 3.3 Å crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus DnaB, complexed with nucleotide, reveals a newly discovered conformational state for this motor protein. Electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering studies confirm the state seen crystallographically, showing that the DnaB ATPase domains and an associated N-terminal collar transition between two physical states in a nucleotide-dependent manner. Mutant helicases locked in either collar state are active but display different capacities to support critical activities such as duplex translocation and primase-dependent RNA synthesis. Our findings establish the DnaB collar as an autoregulatory hub that controls the ability of the helicase to transition between different functional states in response to both nucleotide and replication initiation/elongation factors. PMID:24373746

  20. Bacterial cocaine esterase: a protein-based therapy for cocaine overdose and addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Diwahar; Woods, James H; Sunahara, Roger K

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine is highly addictive and there are no pharmacotherapeutic drugs available to treat acute cocaine toxicity or chronic abuse. Antagonizing an inhibitor such as cocaine using a small molecule has proven difficult. The alternative approach is to modify cocaine’s pharmacokinetic properties by sequestering or hydrolyzing it in serum and limiting access to its sites of action. We took advantage of a bacterial esterase (CocE) that has evolved to hydrolyze cocaine and have developed it as a therapeutic that rapidly and specifically clears cocaine from the subject. Native enzyme was unstable at 37°C, thus limiting CocE’s potential. Innovative computational methods based on the protein’s structure helped elucidate its mechanism of destabilization. Novel protein engineering methodologies were applied to substantially improve its stability in vitro and in vivo. These improvements rendered CocE as a powerful and efficacious therapeutic to treat cocaine intoxication and lead the way towards developing a therapy for addiction. PMID:22300094

  1. Mitomycin resistance in mammalian cells expressing the bacterial mitomycin C resistance protein MCRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcourt, M F; Penketh, P G; Hodnick, W F; Johnson, D A; Sherman, D H; Rockwell, S; Sartorelli, A C

    1999-08-31

    The mitomycin C-resistance gene, mcrA, of Streptomyces lavendulae produces MCRA, a protein that protects this microorganism from its own antibiotic, the antitumor drug mitomycin C. Expression of the bacterial mcrA gene in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells causes profound resistance to mitomycin C and to its structurally related analog porfiromycin under aerobic conditions but produces little change in drug sensitivity under hypoxia. The mitomycins are prodrugs that are enzymatically reduced and activated intracellularly, producing cytotoxic semiquinone anion radical and hydroquinone reduction intermediates. In vitro, MCRA protects DNA from cross-linking by the hydroquinone reduction intermediate of these mitomycins by oxidizing the hydroquinone back to the parent molecule; thus, MCRA acts as a hydroquinone oxidase. These findings suggest potential therapeutic applications for MCRA in the treatment of cancer with the mitomycins and imply that intrinsic or selected mitomycin C resistance in mammalian cells may not be due solely to decreased bioactivation, as has been hypothesized previously, but instead could involve an MCRA-like mechanism. PMID:10468636

  2. Conformation of protein secreted across bacterial outer membranes: a study of enterotoxin translocation from Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The secretion of enterotoxin by Vibrio cholerae is punctuated by the transient entry of the toxin subunits into the periplasm. In this paper, the authors show that the subunits oligomerize into an assembled holotoxin within the periplasm prior to their secretion across the outer membrane. The rate of toxin assembly was studied by pulse-labeling cells with [35S]-methionine and then monitoring the turnover of radiolabeled subunits as they assembled within the periplasm. The subunits entered the periplasm as monomers and assembled into oligomers with a half-time of ≅ 1 min. Since assembly was a rapid event compared to the rate of toxin efflux from the periplasm, which had a half-time of ≅ 13 min, they conclude that all of the subunits that pass through the periplasm assemble before they traverse the outer membrane. The average concentration of subunit monomers and assembled holotoxin within the periplasm was calculated to be ≅ 20 and ≅ 260 μg/ml, respectively. This indicates that the periplasm is a suitably concentrated milieu where spontaneous toxin assembly can occur. These findings suggest that protein movement across bacterial outer membranes, in apparent contrast to export across other biological membranes, involves translocation of polypeptides that have already folded into tertiary and even quaternary conformations

  3. Immunological study of the outer membrane proteins of Vibrio harveyi: insights that link immunoprotectivity to interference with bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lan-ping; Hu, Yong-hua; Sun, Bo-guang; Sun, Li

    2013-10-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a bacterial pathogen that affects marine vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, we identified 13 outer membrane proteins (OMPs) from a pathogenic V. harveyi strain and analyzed their immunological properties. In vivo immunogenicity analysis showed that antibodies specific to recombinant proteins of the 13 OMPs were detected in the antiserum of V. harveyi-infected rat. When used as subunit vaccines to immunize Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), all OMPs were able to elicit specific serum antibody production in the vaccinated fish; however, only two OMPs (OMP173 and OMP214) induced high levels (>70%) of relative percent survival. Pre-incubation of V. harveyi with the antisera of protective OMPs significantly impaired bacterial infectivity against peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), whereas the antisera of non-protective OMPs had no apparent effect on infection. OMP173 antibodies could bind whole V. harveyi cells and exhibit bactericidal effect in a complement-dependent manner. Passive immunization showed that fish received OMP173 antiserum before being infected with V. harveyi exhibited significantly reduced mortality rate and lower bacterial loads in liver, spleen, and kidney. Finally, treatment of FG cells with OMP173 prior to V. harveyi infection protected the cells from bacterial invasion to a significant extent. Take together, these results indicate that two of the examined OMPs induce protective immunity through production of specific antibodies that block bacterial invasion, and that one OMP is likely to be involved in host cell interaction during the infection process. Thus, the immunoprotectivity of the OMPs is probably associated with functional participations of the OMPs in bacterial infection. PMID:23932987

  4. Effects of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mofleh S. Awawdeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal (soypass meal; SPM on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs. In Experiment 1, lasting for eight weeks, 39 Awassi ewes and their lambs were randomly assigned to three diets. Diets were formulated by replacing soybean meal from the basal diet (CON-SBM; n=13 with 50% (50% SPM; n=13 and 100% (100% SPM; n=13 SPM. Initial and final weights of the ewes were not different (P>0.55 among diets. Total gain and average daily gain (ADG of lambs were similar (P=0.44 among diets. Ewes fed the CON-SBM diet tended (P0.38 in milk component percentages among diets were observed. In Experiment 2, lasting for 63 days, twenty weaned lambs were used to determine the effects of replacing soybean meal with SPM on growth performance. Diets were either soybean meal (SBM; n=10 or SPM (SPM; n=10. Nutrient intake and digestibility were not different between diets. However, rumen undegradable protein intake was greater (P0.05 between the diets. Results suggest that replacement of soybean meal with soypass meal is not likely to produce any production benefits in nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs except for the slight improvement of milk yield.

  5. Visualizing the Translocation and Localization of Bacterial Type III Effector Proteins by Using a Genetically Encoded Reporter System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawthorne, Jayde A; Audry, Laurent; McQuitty, Claire; Dean, Paul; Christie, John M; Enninga, Jost; Roe, Andrew J

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) effector proteins are critical determinants of infection for many animal and plant pathogens. However, monitoring of the translocation and delivery of these important virulence determinants has proved to be technically challenging. Here, we used a genetically engineered LOV (light-oxygen-voltage) sensing domain derivative to monitor the expression, translocation, and localization of bacterial T3SS effectors. We found theEscherichia coliO157:H7 bacterial effector fusion Tir-LOV was functional following its translocation and localized to the host cell membrane in discrete foci, demonstrating that LOV-based reporters can be used to visualize the effector translocation with minimal manipulation and interference. Further evidence for the versatility of the reporter was demonstrated by fusing LOV to the C terminus of theShigella flexnerieffector IpaB. IpaB-LOV localized preferentially at bacterial poles before translocation. We observed the rapid translocation of IpaB-LOV in a T3SS-dependent manner into host cells, where it localized at the bacterial entry site within membrane ruffles. PMID:26921426

  6. Structure of the complex between teicoplanin and a bacterial cell-wall peptide: use of a carrier-protein approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economou, Nicoleta J.; Zentner, Isaac J. [Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 North 15th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102 (United States); Lazo, Edwin; Jakoncic, Jean; Stojanoff, Vivian [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Weeks, Stephen D.; Grasty, Kimberly C.; Cocklin, Simon; Loll, Patrick J. [Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 North 15th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Using a carrier-protein strategy, the structure of teicoplanin bound to its bacterial cell-wall target has been determined. The structure reveals the molecular determinants of target recognition, flexibility in the antibiotic backbone and intrinsic radiation sensitivity of teicoplanin. Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are commonly treated with glycopeptide antibiotics such as teicoplanin. This drug inhibits bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis by binding and sequestering a cell-wall precursor: a d-alanine-containing peptide. A carrier-protein strategy was used to crystallize the complex of teicoplanin and its target peptide by fusing the cell-wall peptide to either MBP or ubiquitin via native chemical ligation and subsequently crystallizing the protein–peptide–antibiotic complex. The 2.05 Å resolution MBP–peptide–teicoplanin structure shows that teicoplanin recognizes its ligand through a combination of five hydrogen bonds and multiple van der Waals interactions. Comparison of this teicoplanin structure with that of unliganded teicoplanin reveals a flexibility in the antibiotic peptide backbone that has significant implications for ligand recognition. Diffraction experiments revealed an X-ray-induced dechlorination of the sixth amino acid of the antibiotic; it is shown that teicoplanin is significantly more radiation-sensitive than other similar antibiotics and that ligand binding increases radiosensitivity. Insights derived from this new teicoplanin structure may contribute to the development of next-generation antibacterials designed to overcome bacterial resistance.

  7. Structure of the complex between teicoplanin and a bacterial cell-wall peptide: use of a carrier-protein approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a carrier-protein strategy, the structure of teicoplanin bound to its bacterial cell-wall target has been determined. The structure reveals the molecular determinants of target recognition, flexibility in the antibiotic backbone and intrinsic radiation sensitivity of teicoplanin. Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are commonly treated with glycopeptide antibiotics such as teicoplanin. This drug inhibits bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis by binding and sequestering a cell-wall precursor: a d-alanine-containing peptide. A carrier-protein strategy was used to crystallize the complex of teicoplanin and its target peptide by fusing the cell-wall peptide to either MBP or ubiquitin via native chemical ligation and subsequently crystallizing the protein–peptide–antibiotic complex. The 2.05 Å resolution MBP–peptide–teicoplanin structure shows that teicoplanin recognizes its ligand through a combination of five hydrogen bonds and multiple van der Waals interactions. Comparison of this teicoplanin structure with that of unliganded teicoplanin reveals a flexibility in the antibiotic peptide backbone that has significant implications for ligand recognition. Diffraction experiments revealed an X-ray-induced dechlorination of the sixth amino acid of the antibiotic; it is shown that teicoplanin is significantly more radiation-sensitive than other similar antibiotics and that ligand binding increases radiosensitivity. Insights derived from this new teicoplanin structure may contribute to the development of next-generation antibacterials designed to overcome bacterial resistance

  8. Ras GTPase-like protein MglA, a controller of bacterial social-motility in Myxobacteria, has evolved to control bacterial predation by Bdellovibrio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Milner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus invade Gram-negative bacteria in a predatory process requiring Type IV pili (T4P at a single invasive pole, and also glide on surfaces to locate prey. Ras-like G-protein MglA, working with MglB and RomR in the deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, regulates adventurous gliding and T4P-mediated social motility at both M. xanthus cell poles. Our bioinformatic analyses suggested that the GTPase activating protein (GAP-encoding gene mglB was lost in Bdellovibrio, but critical residues for MglA(Bd GTP-binding are conserved. Deletion of mglA(Bd abolished prey-invasion, but not gliding, and reduced T4P formation. MglA(Bd interacted with a previously uncharacterised tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR domain protein Bd2492, which we show localises at the single invasive pole and is required for predation. Bd2492 and RomR also interacted with cyclic-di-GMP-binding receptor CdgA, required for rapid prey-invasion. Bd2492, RomR(Bd and CdgA localize to the invasive pole and may facilitate MglA-docking. Bd2492 was encoded from an operon encoding a TamAB-like secretion system. The TamA protein and RomR were found, by gene deletion tests, to be essential for viability in both predatory and non-predatory modes. Control proteins, which regulate bipolar T4P-mediated social motility in swarming groups of deltaproteobacteria, have adapted in evolution to regulate the anti-social process of unipolar prey-invasion in the "lone-hunter" Bdellovibrio. Thus GTP-binding proteins and cyclic-di-GMP inputs combine at a regulatory hub, turning on prey-invasion and allowing invasion and killing of bacterial pathogens and consequent predatory growth of Bdellovibrio.

  9. Lactoferrin Decreases the Intestinal Inflammation Triggered by a Soybean Meal-Based Diet in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Pilar E; Solís, Camila J; De la Paz, Javiera F; Alaurent, Trevor G S; Caruffo, Mario; Hernández, Adrián J; Dantagnan, Patricio; Feijóo, Carmen G

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation is a harmful condition in fish that can be triggered by the ingestion of soybean meal. Due to the positive costs-benefits ratio of including soybean meal in farmed fish diets, identifying additives with intestinal anti-inflammatory effects could contribute to solving the issues caused by this plant protein. This study evaluated the effect of incorporating lactoferrin (LF) into a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation in zebrafish. Larvae were fed with diets containing 50% soybean meal (50SBM) or 50SBM supplemented with LF to 0.5, 1, 1.5 g/kg (50SBM+LF0.5; 50SBM+LF1.0; 50SBM+LF1.5). The 50SBM+LF1.5 diet was the most efficient and larvae had a reduced number of neutrophils in the intestine compared with 50SBM larvae and an indistinguishable number compared with control larvae. Likewise, the transcription of genes involved in neutrophil migration and intestinal mucosal barrier functions (mmp9, muc2.2, and β-def-1) were increased in 50SBM larvae but were normally expressed in 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae. To determine the influence of intestinal inflammation on the general immune response, larvae were challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. Larvae with intestinal inflammation had increased mortality rate compared to control larvae. Importantly, 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae had a mortality rate lower than control larvae. These results demonstrate that LF displays a dual effect in zebrafish, acting as an intestinal anti-inflammatory agent and improving performance against bacterial infection. PMID:27247950

  10. Lactoferrin Decreases the Intestinal Inflammation Triggered by a Soybean Meal-Based Diet in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar E. Ulloa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal inflammation is a harmful condition in fish that can be triggered by the ingestion of soybean meal. Due to the positive costs-benefits ratio of including soybean meal in farmed fish diets, identifying additives with intestinal anti-inflammatory effects could contribute to solving the issues caused by this plant protein. This study evaluated the effect of incorporating lactoferrin (LF into a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation in zebrafish. Larvae were fed with diets containing 50% soybean meal (50SBM or 50SBM supplemented with LF to 0.5, 1, 1.5 g/kg (50SBM+LF0.5; 50SBM+LF1.0; 50SBM+LF1.5. The 50SBM+LF1.5 diet was the most efficient and larvae had a reduced number of neutrophils in the intestine compared with 50SBM larvae and an indistinguishable number compared with control larvae. Likewise, the transcription of genes involved in neutrophil migration and intestinal mucosal barrier functions (mmp9, muc2.2, and β-def-1 were increased in 50SBM larvae but were normally expressed in 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae. To determine the influence of intestinal inflammation on the general immune response, larvae were challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. Larvae with intestinal inflammation had increased mortality rate compared to control larvae. Importantly, 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae had a mortality rate lower than control larvae. These results demonstrate that LF displays a dual effect in zebrafish, acting as an intestinal anti-inflammatory agent and improving performance against bacterial infection.

  11. Structure and Function of a Bacterial Microcompartment Shell Protein Engineered to Bind a [4Fe-4S] Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussignargues, Clément; Pandelia, Maria-Eirini; Sutter, Markus; Plegaria, Jefferson S; Zarzycki, Jan; Turmo, Aiko; Huang, Jingcheng; Ducat, Daniel C; Hegg, Eric L; Gibney, Brian R; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2016-04-27

    Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are self-assembling organelles composed of a selectively permeable protein shell and encapsulated enzymes. They are considered promising templates for the engineering of designed bionanoreactors for biotechnology. In particular, encapsulation of oxidoreductive reactions requiring electron transfer between the lumen of the BMC and the cytosol relies on the ability to conduct electrons across the shell. We determined the crystal structure of a component protein of a synthetic BMC shell, which informed the rational design of a [4Fe-4S] cluster-binding site in its pore. We also solved the structure of the [4Fe-4S] cluster-bound, engineered protein to 1.8 Å resolution, providing the first structure of a BMC shell protein containing a metal center. The [4Fe-4S] cluster was characterized by optical and EPR spectroscopies; it has a reduction potential of -370 mV vs the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) and is stable through redox cycling. This remarkable stability may be attributable to the hydrogen-bonding network provided by the main chain of the protein scaffold. The properties of the [4Fe-4S] cluster resemble those in low-potential bacterial ferredoxins, while its ligation to three cysteine residues is reminiscent of enzymes such as aconitase and radical S-adenosymethionine (SAM) enzymes. This engineered shell protein provides the foundation for conferring electron-transfer functionality to BMC shells. PMID:26704697

  12. Dielectric properties of wheat flour mixed with oat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczycka, D.; Czubaszek, A.; Fujarczuk, M.; Pruski, K.

    2013-03-01

    Possibilities of using electric methods for determining admixtures of oat meal to wheat flour, type 650 are presented. In wheat flour, oat meal and mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30% of the oat meal, moisture, protein, starch and ash content, sedimentation value, yield and softening of wet gluten were determined. In samples containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 100% of oat meal, the dielectric loss factor and conductivity were determined using an impedance analyzer for electromagnetic field frequency ranging from 0.1-20 kHz. It was found that the dielectric loss factor varied for tested material. The best distinguishing between tested mixtures was obtained at the measuring electromagnetic field frequency of 20 kHz. The loss factor was significantly correlated with the yield of wet gluten and the sedimentation value, parameters indicating the amount and quality of gluten proteins in flour.

  13. Improving protein delivery of fibroblast growth factor-2 from bacterial inclusion bodies used as cell culture substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Seras Franzoso, Joaquin; Peebo, Karl; Garcia Fruitós, Elena; Vázquez Gómez, Esther; Rinas, Ursula; Villaverde Corrales, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Altres ajuts: We are indebted CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN, Spain) for funding our research on inclusion bodies. Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) have recently been used to generate biocompatible cell culture interfaces, with diverse effects on cultured cells such as cell adhesion enhancement, stimulation of cell growth or induction of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Additionally, novel applications of IBs as sustained protein delivery systems with...

  14. Comparative proteome analysis of psychrophilic versus mesophilic bacterial species: Insights into the molecular basis of cold adaptation of proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Metpally, Raghu Prasad Rao; Reddy, Boojala Vijay B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cold adapted or psychrophilic organisms grow at low temperatures, where most of other organisms cannot grow. This adaptation requires a vast array of sequence, structural and physiological adjustments. To understand the molecular basis of cold adaptation of proteins, we analyzed proteomes of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacterial species and compared the differences in amino acid composition and substitution patterns to investigate their likely association with growth temperatures....

  15. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude protein extracts from seeds of six different medical plants against standard bacterial strains

    OpenAIRE

    Al Akeel, Raid; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Janardhan, K.; V C Gupta

    2013-01-01

    A huge group of natural antimicrobial compounds are active against a large spectrum of bacterial strains causing infectious threat. The present study was conducted to investigate the crude extracts of antimicrobial protein and peptide efficacy from six medicinal plant seeds. Extraction was carried out in Sodium phosphate citrate buffer, and Sodium acetate buffer using different pH. Antimicrobial activities of these plants were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffus...

  16. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Yinglong Su; Xiong Zheng; Yinguang Chen; Mu Li; Kun Liu

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total n...

  17. Linkage of bacterial protein synthesis and presentation of MHC class I-restricted Listeria monocytogenes-derived antigenic peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Grauling-Halama

    Full Text Available The processing and MHC class I-restricted presentation of antigenic peptides derived from the p60 protein of the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is tightly linked to bacterial protein synthesis. We used non-linear regression analysis to fit a mathematical model of bacterial antigen processing to a published experimental data set showing the accumulation and decay of p60-derived antigenic peptides in L. monocytogenes-infected cells. Two alternative models equally describe the experimental data. The simulation accounting for a stable and a hypothetical rapidly degraded form of antigen predicts that the antigenic peptides p60 217-225 and p60 449-457 are derived from a putative instable form of p60 with an average intracellular half-life of approximately 3 minutes accounting for approximately 31% of all p60 molecules synthesized. The alternative model predicts that both antigenic peptides are processed from p60 degraded intracellularly with a half-life of 109 min and that antigen processing only occurs as long as bacterial protein synthesis is not inhibited. In order to decide between both models the intracellular accumulation of p60 in infected cells was studied experimentally and compared with model predictions. Inhibition of p60 degradation by the proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin revealed that during the first 3 h post infection approximately 30% of synthesized p60 molecules were degraded. This value is significantly lower than the approximately 50% degradation of p60 that would be expected in the presence of the predicted putative short-lived state of p60 and also fits precisely with the predictions of the alternative model, indicating that the tight connection of bacterial protein biosynthesis and antigen processing and presentation of L. monocyctogenes-derived antigenic peptides is not caused by the presence of a highly instable antigenic substrate.

  18. Biscuit meal composition in pig feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Corassa

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compile results of the nutritional composition of the biscuit meal from 14 papers from studies published in journals and reports during 2000 and 2011 to characterize the gross, digestible and metabolizable energy (DE and ME, kcal / kg) for pigs, dry mater (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), mineral matter (MM), crude fiber (CF), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Pt), sodium (Na), total lysine (LIS), methionine plus cystine total (MC), threonine (THR), tryptophan ...

  19. Industrial Rapeseed and Sunflower Meal as Source of Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Vrbiková

    2014-01-01

    In the processing of oilseeds for purposes of vegetable oil’s production solid residues such as flakes, cakes and meal are formed. Those by-products are mainly used to produce feed for animals. But they may also enrich human food with proteins, minerals, valuable vitamins A, E, phenolic acids, polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The expeller cakes, extracted meal or extracts obtained by extraction with organic solvents, are best applied by in bakery products, spiced...

  20. Unusual Heme Binding in the Bacterial Iron Response Regulator Protein (Irr): Spectral Characterization of Heme Binding to Heme Regulatory Motif

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Haruto; Nakagaki, Megumi; Bamba, Ai; Uchida, Takeshi; Hori, Hiroshi; O'Brian, Mark R.; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Ishimori, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    We characterized heme binding in the bacterial iron response regulator (Irr) protein, which is a simple heme-regulated protein having a single “heme-regulatory motif”, HRM, and plays a key role in the iron homeostasis of a nitrogen fixing bacterium. The heme titration to wild-type and mutant Irr clearly showed that Irr has two heme binding sites: one of the heme binding sites is in the HRM, where 29Cys is the axial ligand, and the other one, the secondary heme binding site, is located outside...

  1. The Effect of Hydrolyzed Render Meal, Enzyme Treated Swine Skin Meal, and Cattle Skin Meal on Egg Production Performance, Eggshell Quality, Egg Quality, and Blood Characteristics in Laying Hens

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, M. M.; Cho, J. H.; Kim, I. H.

    2014-01-01

    The trial was conducted to investigate effect of hydrolyzed render meal and skin derived protein meal on the egg production performance, eggshell quality, egg quality and blood characteristics in laying hens. A total of 280 44 week (wk) old (Hy-Line brown) laying hens were used in this 6- wk trial. Birds were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments, 1) BD, basal diet; 2) HRM, basal diet with 2% hydrolyzed render meal; 3) SSM, basal diet with 2% swine skin meal; 4) CHM, basal diet with 2% cattl...

  2. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  3. Ileal digestibility of sunfl ower meal, pea, rapeseed cake, and lupine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Fernández, José Adalberto; Jørgensen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA was evaluated in soybean (Glycine max) meal, sunfl ower (Helianthus annuus) meal, rapeseed cake, and fi eld pea (Pisum sativum) using 10 pigs and in lupine (Lupinus angustifolius) using 7 pigs. Pigs were fi tted with either a T-cannula or a...... soybean meal and pea compared to sunfl ower meal, rapeseed cake, and lupine. The SID of Lys and His were lowest (P < 0.05) in sunfl ower meal, and the SID of Met and Val were lowest (P < 0.05) in lupine. These results imply soybean meal and pea to be a high-digestible protein source relative to sunfl ower...... meal, rapeseed cake, and especially lupine, although all tested feedstuffs seem appropriate for inclusion in diets for organic pigs....

  4. Healthy meals on the menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase in...... sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy....

  5. Industrial Rapeseed and Sunflower Meal as Source of Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Vrbiková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the processing of oilseeds for purposes of vegetable oil’s production solid residues such as flakes, cakes and meal are formed. Those by-products are mainly used to produce feed for animals. But they may also enrich human food with proteins, minerals, valuable vitamins A, E, phenolic acids, polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The expeller cakes, extracted meal or extracts obtained by extraction with organic solvents, are best applied by in bakery products, spiced meat products potato-based products. Fats are mainly stabilized by synthetic antioxidants BHT or BHA. In this work we proved that synthetic antioxidant BHT was not the best stabilizer of the stored sunflower oil. Typical by-products of fat industry were studied as a potential source of cheap natural antioxidants. The whole sunflower or rapeseed meal added into stored sunflower oils in the amount of 20 g kg-1 increased oil’s stability more than 0.1 g kg-1 addition of BHT. In order to increase antioxidant activity of whole meal we carried out its fractionation to obtain five fractions with different particles size. Out of these fractions, fraction 4 with particles size of 0.05 – 0.15 10-3 m was very effective, second only to whole meal, especially to whole sunflower meal. They increased the stability of sunflower oil 1.4 times during storage. By-products such as sunflower or rapeseed meal added directly into sunflower oil can extend its shelf life.

  6. Pre-meal affective state and laboratory test meal intake in adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E; Shomaker, Lauren B; Stephens, Mark; Sbrocco, Tracy; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-09-01

    Loss of control eating confers risk for excess weight gain and exacerbated disordered eating. Affect theory proposes that loss of control eating is used to cope with negative mood states. Self-report data suggest that negative affect may contribute to the etiology of loss of control eating, but this theory has not been well-tested using laboratory paradigms. We examined associations between pre-meal affective states and intake during a laboratory test meal. One-hundred and ten adolescent girls with reported loss of control eating whose body mass index fell between the 75th and 97th percentile for age and sex completed state mood ratings prior to a test-meal. Results indicated that pre-meal state negative affect was associated with greater carbohydrate and less protein consumption, as well as greater snack and dessert and less fruit and dairy intake. All girls experienced significant decreases in negative affect from pre- to post-meal, but intake during the meal was unassociated with post-meal affect. In support of affect theory, negative affective states reported among girls with loss of control may be a driving factor for increased energy-dense food intake, which may play a role in excess weight gain. PMID:23603224

  7. Bacterial Protein Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae by SDS-page Method for Subclinical Mastitis Irradiated Vaccine Materials in Dairy Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. Tuasikal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study have been conducted to isolate and characterize bacterial protein S. agalactiae, which is antigenic and can be used to test immunogenicity of vaccine in order to manufacture irradiated mastitis (inflammation of the udder vaccine in ruminant. The study aims to determine the Molecular Weight (MW bacterial protein S. agalactiae irradiation, which can be used to test the nature of its antigenic caharacteristic. The character of S. agalactiae antigenic stimulates antibody induction of the immune system, in which case is the body's defense system against mastitis disease in cattle. In this study, irradiation of gamma ray is used to attenuate the pathogenicity of bacteria by reducing S. agalactiae antigenic caharacteristic. Previous research, in irradiation dose orientation before antigenic protein isolation of S. agalactiae, indicated that irradiation lethal dose to 50% (LD50 is 17 Gy. The characterization of S. agalactiae bacteria isolate using SDS-page method results in no significance different between irradiated and non-irradiated group, which indicated by MW range 75 – 100 kDa base on marker standard which used, or 99 kDa by the linier equation of Y = 11,60 – 0.05X (where Y = bands distance; X = MW standard protein; r2 = 0.99. In conclusion, 17 Gy irradiation dose does not impair antigenic property of S. agalactiae and therefore, can be applied to produce base material of irradiated vaccine for mastitis

  8. Assessment of Relationship Between Bacterial Stripe Resistance And Leaf Protein Bands In Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talei, D.; Fotokian, M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial stripe as a new rice disease in Iran is more frequent nowadays. The objective of this study was to assessment of resistance in rice varieties together with evaluating of zymogram bands resulted from SDS PAGE electrophoresis of leaf proteins. For this purpose, 30 lines were tested in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference between genotypes for resistance. Mean compare based on field results revealed that Domsiyah had the lowest resistance while Nemat and 7162 demonstrated the highest resistance. Laboratory results showed that there were significant difference between protein bands resulted from sensitive and resistance verities. Twenty bands were observed through SDS PAGE electrophoresis of leaf proteins. The 9th and 12th bands were found in sensitive varieties while were not in resistance genotypes. According to the results of this study, 7162 variety can be considered as the sources of resistance in breeding programs. Meanwhile attending to existence of 9th and 12th bands in sensitive varieties, resistance against bacterial stripe of rice maybe influenced by absence of these proteins.

  9. Alteration of intracellular protein expressions as a key mechanism of the deterioration of bacterial denitrification caused by copper oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yinglong; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Li, Mu; Liu, Kun

    2015-10-01

    The increasing production and utilization of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) result in the releases into the environment. However, the influence of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification, one of the most important pathways to transform nitrate to dinitrogen in environment, has seldom been studied. Here we reported that CuO NPs caused a significant alteration of key protein expressions of a model denitrifier, Paracoccus denitrificans, leading to severe inhibition to denitrification. Total nitrogen removal efficiency was decreased from 98.3% to 62.1% with the increase of CuO NPs from 0.05 to 0.25 mg/L. Cellular morphology and integrity studies indicated that nanoparticles entered the cells. The proteomic bioinformatics analysis showed that CuO NPs caused regulation of proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, electron transfer and substance transport. The down-regulation of GtsB protein (responsible for glucose transport) decreased the production of NADH (electron donor for denitrification). Also, the expressions of key electron-transfer proteins (including NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome) were suppressed by CuO NPs, which adversely affected electrons transfer for denitrification. Further investigation revealed that CuO NPs significantly inhibited the expressions and catalytic activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. These results provided a fundamental understanding of the negative influences of CuO NPs on bacterial denitrification.

  10. Bacterial Protein Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae by SDS-page Method for Subclinical Mastitis Irradiated Vaccine Materials in Dairy Cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study have been conducted to isolate and characterize bacterial protein S. agalactiae, which is antigenic and can be used to test immunogenicity of vaccine in order to manufacture irradiated mastitis (inflammation of the udder) vaccine in ruminant. The study aims to determine the Molecular Weight (MW) bacterial protein S. agalactiae irradiation, which can be used to test the nature of its antigenic caharacteristic. The character of S. agalactiae antigenic stimulates antibody induction of the immune system, in which case is the body's defense system against mastitis disease in cattle. In this study, irradiation of gamma ray is used to attenuate the pathogenicity of bacteria by reducing S. agalactiae antigenic characteristic. Previous research, in irradiation dose orientation before antigenic protein isolation of S. agalactiae, indicated that irradiation lethal dose to 50% (LD50) is 17 Gy. The characterization of S. agalactiae bacteria isolate using SDS-page method results in no significance different between irradiated and non-irradiated group, which indicated by MW range 75 - 100 kDa base on marker standard which used, or 99 kDa by the linier equation of Y = 11,60 - 0.05X (where Y = bands distance; X = MW standard protein); r2 = 0.99. In conclusion, 17 Gy irradiation dose does not impair antigenic property of S. agalactiae and therefore, can be applied to produce base material of irradiated vaccine for mastitis. (author)

  11. Evaluation of corn gluten feed and cottonseed meal as partial replacements for soybean meal and corn in diets for pond raised hybrid catfish Ictalurus punctatus I. furcatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the use of corn gluten feed (CGF) and cottonseed meal (CSM) to partially replace soybean meal and corn in diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, Ictalurus punctatus × I. furcatus. Five 28% protein diets containing various combinations of CGF and CSM were evaluated. Fingerling hybr...

  12. Biscuit meal composition in pig feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Corassa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compile results of the nutritional composition of the biscuit meal from 14 papers from studies published in journals and reports during 2000 and 2011 to characterize the gross, digestible and metabolizable energy (DE and ME, kcal / kg for pigs, dry mater (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, mineral matter (MM, crude fiber (CF, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (Pt, sodium (Na, total lysine (LIS, methionine plus cystine total (MC, threonine (THR, tryptophan (TRI and non-nitrogen extraction (ENN of this product. The mean values were biscuit meal 3681 kcal / kg; 8.93%, 9.07%, 11.61%, 2.71%, 2.64%, 0.12%, 0.21%; 0, 34%, 0.23%, 0.30%, 0.26%, 0.16% and 69.66%, for ME; U, CP, EE, MM, FB; Ca, Pt, Na; LIS; MC , TRE, TRI and NFE, respectively.

  13. Bacterial S-layer protein coupling to lipids: x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weygand, M; Wetzer, B; Pum, D; Sleytr, U B; Cuvillier, N; Kjaer, K; Howes, P B; Lösche, M

    1999-01-01

    The coupling of bacterial surface (S)-layer proteins to lipid membranes is studied in molecular detail for proteins from Bacillus sphaericus CCM2177 and B. coagulans E38-66 recrystallized at dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) monolayers on aqueous buffer. A comparison of the monolayer structure before and after protein recrystallization shows minimal reorganization of the lipid chains. By contrast, the lipid headgroups show major rearrangements. For the B. sphaericus CCM2177 protein underneath DPPE monolayers, x-ray reflectivity data suggest that amino acid side chains intercalate the lipid headgroups at least to the phosphate moieties, and probably further beyond. The number of electrons in the headgroup region increases by more than four per lipid. Analysis of the changes of the deduced electron density profiles in terms of a molecular interpretation shows that the phosphatidylethanolamine headgroups must reorient toward the surface normal to accommodate such changes. In terms of the protein structure (which is as yet unknown in three dimensions), the electron density profile reveals a thickness lz approximately 90 A of the recrystallized S-layer and shows water-filled cavities near its center. The protein volume fraction reaches maxima of >60% in two horizontal sections of the S-layer, close to the lipid monolayer and close to the free subphase. In between it drops to approximately 20%. Four S-layer protein monomers are located within the unit cell of a square lattice with a spacing of approximately 131 A. PMID:9876158

  14. Use of biofuel by-product from the green algae Desmochloris sp. and diatom Nanofrustulum sp. meal in diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algal by-product meals from the Hawaiian biofuels industry were evaluated as protein ingredients in diets for juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 40% protein and were made with fish meal, soybean meal, whole diatom (Nanofrustulum sp.)...

  15. A census of membrane-bound and intracellular signal transduction proteins in bacteria: Bacterial IQ, extroverts and introverts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galperin Michael Y

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of complete microbial genomes showed that intracellular parasites and other microorganisms that inhabit stable ecological niches encode relatively primitive signaling systems, whereas environmental microorganisms typically have sophisticated systems of environmental sensing and signal transduction. Results This paper presents results of a comprehensive census of signal transduction proteins – histidine kinases, methyl-accepting chemotaxis receptors, Ser/Thr/Tyr protein kinases, adenylate and diguanylate cyclases and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases – encoded in 167 bacterial and archaeal genomes, sequenced by the end of 2004. The data have been manually checked to avoid false-negative and false-positive hits that commonly arise during large-scale automated analyses and compared against other available resources. The census data show uneven distribution of most signaling proteins among bacterial and archaeal phyla. The total number of signal transduction proteins grows approximately as a square of genome size. While histidine kinases are found in representatives of all phyla and are distributed according to the power law, other signal transducers are abundant in certain phylogenetic groups but virtually absent in others. Conclusion The complexity of signaling systems differs even among closely related organisms. Still, it usually can be correlated with the phylogenetic position of the organism, its lifestyle, and typical environmental challenges it encounters. The number of encoded signal transducers (or their fraction in the total protein set can be used as a measure of the organism's ability to adapt to diverse conditions, the 'bacterial IQ', while the ratio of transmembrane receptors to intracellular sensors can be used to define whether the organism is an 'extrovert', actively sensing the environmental parameters, or an 'introvert', more concerned about its internal homeostasis. Some of the microorganisms with the

  16. Effect of chia seed meal on baking quality of cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia seed is a good source of dietary fiber and complete proteins; chia seeds contain many health-promoting compounds and can be incorporated into baking goods for high-protein, high-fiber diet. Food grade chia seeds were obtained from a local grocery store and ground into meal using Retsch Model VD...

  17. Performance of broiler chicken fed physically and chemically treated jatropha (Jatropha curcas) seed meal

    OpenAIRE

    Tiurma Pasaribu; E Wina; B. Tangendjaja; S. Iskandar

    2009-01-01

    Jatropha seed meal which is a by-product of biofuel is rich in protein. Its utilization as feed ingredient is limited by the presence of several anti nutritive and toxic compounds. An experiment was conducted at the Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production to evaluate the effect of jatropha seed meal on broiler performance. Jatropha seed meals were treated physically, chemically or their combination to reduce or eliminate the anti nutritive and toxic compounds. Then, the inclusion ...

  18. Manipulating the glycosylation pathway in bacterial and lower eukaryotes for production of therapeutic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2015-01-01

    The medical use of pharmaceutical proteins is rapidly increasing and cheap, fast and efficient production is therefore attractive. Microbial production hosts are promising candidates for development and production of pharmaceutical proteins. However, as most therapeutic proteins are secreted prot...... to produce proteins with humanlike glycan structures setting the stage for production of pharmaceutical proteins in bacteria, yeasts and algae.......The medical use of pharmaceutical proteins is rapidly increasing and cheap, fast and efficient production is therefore attractive. Microbial production hosts are promising candidates for development and production of pharmaceutical proteins. However, as most therapeutic proteins are secreted...... proteins, they are frequently N-glycosylated. This hampers production in microbes as these hosts glycosylate proteins differently. The resulting products may therefore be immunogenic, unstable and show reduced efficacy. Recently, successful glycoengineering of microbes has demonstrated that it is possible...

  19. Oral mucosal lipids are antibacterial against Porphyromonas gingivalis, induce ultrastructural damage, and alter bacterial lipid and protein compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol L Fischer; Katherine S Walters; David R Drake; Deborah V Dawson; Derek R Blanchette; Kim A Brogden; Philip W Wertz

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucosal and salivary lipids exhibit potent antimicrobial activity for a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria;however, little is known about their spectrum of antimicrobial activity or mechanisms of action against oral bacteria. In this study, we examine the activity of two fatty acids and three sphingoid bases against Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity implicated in periodontitis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal concentrations, and kill kinetics revealed variable, but potent, activity of oral mucosal and salivary lipids against P. gingivalis, indicating that lipid structure may be an important determinant in lipid mechanisms of activity against bacteria, although specific components of bacterial membranes are also likely important. Electron micrographs showed ultrastructural damage induced by sapienic acid and phytosphingosine and confirmed disruption of the bacterial plasma membrane. This information, coupled with the association of treatment lipids with P. gingivalis lipids revealed via thin layer chromatography, suggests that the plasma membrane is a likely target of lipid antibacterial activity. Utilizing a combination of two-dimensional in-gel electrophoresis and Western blot followed by mass spectroscopy and N-terminus degradation sequencing we also show that treatment with sapienic acid induces upregulation of a set of proteins comprising a unique P. gingivalis stress response, including proteins important in fatty acid biosynthesis, metabolism and energy production, protein processing, cell adhesion and virulence. Prophylactic or therapeutic lipid treatments may be beneficial for intervention of infection by supplementing the natural immune function of endogenous lipids on mucosal surfaces.

  20. Protein secretion by hybrid bacterial ABC-transporters: specific functions of the membrane ATPase and the membrane fusion protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Binet, R; Wandersman, C

    1995-01-01

    The Erwinia chrysanthemi metalloprotease C and the Serratia marcescens haem acquisition protein HasA are both secreted from Gram-negative bacteria by a signal peptide-independent pathway which requires a C-terminal secretion signal and a specific ABC-transporter made up of three proteins: a membrane ATPase (the ABC-protein), a second inner membrane component belonging to the membrane fusion protein family and an outer membrane polypeptide. HasA and protease C transporters are homologous altho...

  1. REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL BY CANOLA MEAL IN DIETS FOR MAJOR CARPS IN FERTILIZED PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ABBAS, I. AHMED, M. HAFEEZ-UR-REHMAN AND A. MATEEN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in three earthen ponds to evaluate the replacement of fish meal by low cost plant protein (canola meal for major carps in semi-intensive culture system. Each pond was fertilized with cattle manure at the rate of 0.16g N/100g wet fish body weight daily. A control diet (30% CP, formulated by using fish meal, cotton seed meal, maize gluten and rice polish, was designated as T1, while in T2 and T3, the fish meal was replaced with canola meal by 20 and 40%, respectively. Feeding was done at the rate of 4% of wet fish body weight daily for five months. The overall average weight gains in T1, T2 and T3 for three fish species i.e. Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla were 356.6 ± 15.12, 332.6 ± 14.32 and 362.4 ± 12.12; 320.4 ± 14.03, 305.6 ± 14.03 and 337.1 ± 16.02; and 284.6 ± 13.07, 282.2 ± 15.13 and 305.1 ± 17.43g, respectively. Net fish yields (all the species together were 1529.5 ± 13.93, 1327.0 ± 12.19 and 1122.5 ± 10.28 Kg/ha/year under T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The gross fish production was calculated as 2338.5 ± 12.49, 2137.5 ± 11.65 and 1931.5 ± 13.01 Kg/ha/year in T1, T2 and T3 pond, respectively. In all the treatments, Catla catla showed better growth performance, followed by Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala. The treated ponds caused a decrease in fish production when replacement of fish meal was done with canola meal.

  2. A LytM Domain Dictates the Localization of Proteins to the Mother Cell-Forespore Interface during Bacterial Endospore Formation▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Meisner, Jeffrey; Moran, Charles P.

    2010-01-01

    A large number of proteins are known to reside at specific subcellular locations in bacterial cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which many of these proteins are anchored at these locations remains unclear. During endospore formation in Bacillus subtilis, several integral membrane proteins are located specifically at the interface of the two adjacent cells of the developing sporangium, the mother cell and forespore. The mother cell membrane protein SpoIIIAH recognizes the cell-cell i...

  3. The topology of the bacterial co-conserved protein network and its implications for predicting protein function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leach Sonia M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions networks are most often generated from physical protein-protein interaction data. Co-conservation, also known as phylogenetic profiles, is an alternative source of information for generating protein interaction networks. Co-conservation methods generate interaction networks among proteins that are gained or lost together through evolution. Co-conservation is a particularly useful technique in the compact bacteria genomes. Prior studies in yeast suggest that the topology of protein-protein interaction networks generated from physical interaction assays can offer important insight into protein function. Here, we hypothesize that in bacteria, the topology of protein interaction networks derived via co-conservation information could similarly improve methods for predicting protein function. Since the topology of bacteria co-conservation protein-protein interaction networks has not previously been studied in depth, we first perform such an analysis for co-conservation networks in E. coli K12. Next, we demonstrate one way in which network connectivity measures and global and local function distribution can be exploited to predict protein function for previously uncharacterized proteins. Results Our results showed, like most biological networks, our bacteria co-conserved protein-protein interaction networks had scale-free topologies. Our results indicated that some properties of the physical yeast interaction network hold in our bacteria co-conservation networks, such as high connectivity for essential proteins. However, the high connectivity among protein complexes in the yeast physical network was not seen in the co-conservation network which uses all bacteria as the reference set. We found that the distribution of node connectivity varied by functional category and could be informative for function prediction. By integrating of functional information from different annotation sources and using the

  4. Effect of Bacterial Flora on Postimmunization Gastritis following Oral Vaccination of Mice with Helicobacter pylori Heat Shock Protein 60

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Osaki, Takako; Taguchi, Haruhiko; Sato, Noriko; Toyoda, Atushi; Takahashi, Motomichi; Kai, Masanori; Nakata, Noboru; Komatsu, Akio; Atomi, Yutaka; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    In order to assess the efficacy of oral Helicobacter pylori heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) as a vaccine, protection against H. pylori infection in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) C57BL/6 and germfree (GF) IQI mice was examined. Prophylactic oral vaccination of these two strains of mice with either H. pylori HSP60 or Escherichia coli GroEL inhibited H. pylori colonization by 90 to 95% at 3 weeks postinfection (p.i.). However, these mice were only partially protected because bacterial loads increas...

  5. Protein Modification: Bacterial Effectors Rewrite the Rules of Ubiquitylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Jason M; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2016-07-11

    A family of virulence factors from the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila has been discovered to modify human Rab GTPases with ubiquitin. Surprisingly, this modification occurs via a non-canonical mechanism that uses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. PMID:27404243

  6. Assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in contaminated sediments and soils using green fluorescent protein-based bacterial biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based bacterial biosensor Escherichia coli DH5α (pVLCD1) was developed based on the expression of gfp under the control of the cad promoter and the cadC gene of Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258. DH5α (pVLCD1) mainly responded to Cd(II), Pb(II), and Sb(III), the lowest detectable concentrations being 0.1 nmol L-1, 10 nmol L-1, and 0.1 nmol L-1, respectively, with 2 h exposure. The biosensor was field-tested to measure the relative bioavailability of the heavy metals in contaminated sediments and soil samples. The results showed that the majority of heavy metals remained adsorbed to soil particles: Cd(II)/Pb(II) was only partially available to the biosensor in soil-water extracts. Our results demonstrate that the GFP-based bacterial biosensor is useful and applicable in determining the bioavailability of heavy metals with high sensitivity in contaminated sediment and soil samples and suggests a potential for its inexpensive application in environmentally relevant sample tests. - Nonpathogenic GFP-based bacterial biosensor is applicable in determining the bioavailability of heavy metals in environmental samples

  7. Ruminal Degradability of Dry Matter and Crude Protein from Moist Dehulled Lupin and Extruded Rapeseed Meal Degradabilidad Ruminal de la Materia Seca y de la Proteína Cruda de Lupino Descascarado y Torta de Raps Extruidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of ruminal undegradable protein (RUP to the small intestine can be increased if ruminal degradation of dietary protein is reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion on ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP from dehulled lupin (Lupinus albus L. (DL and rapeseed (Brassica napus L. meal (RM. Unextruded soybean (Glicine max L. meal (SBM was used as a control. The DL was extruded at 130 ºC with 20% moisture and RM was extruded at 120 ºC with 20% moisture. Ruminal degradability was evaluated in situ by incubating feed samples for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h of fermentation in the rumen using three rumen-fistulated dairy cows. Values of CP soluble fraction (“a” in SBM, DL, extruded dehulled lupin (EDL, RM, and extruded rapeseed meal (ERM was lower in the extruded feeds (P El flujo de proteína no degradable en el rumen (RUP hacia el intestino delgado puede ser incrementado si se reduce la degradación ruminal de la proteína dietaria. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la extrusión sobre la degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca (DM y proteína cruda (CP de lupino (Lupinus albus L. descascarado (DL y torta de raps (Brassica napus L. (RM. Se utilizó afrecho de soya (Glicine max L. sin extruir (SBM como control. El DL fue extruido a 130 ºC con 20% de humedad y la RM fue extruida a 120 ºC con 20% de humedad. La degradabilidad ruminal se evaluó in situ incubando las muestras de alimentos a 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h de fermentación en tres vacas lecheras con fístula ruminal. Los valores de la fracción soluble de la CP (“a” en SBM, en DL, lupino descascarado extruido (EDL, RM y torta de raps extruida (ERM fue menor en los extruidos (P < 0.05. La fracción lentamente degradable (“b” de SBM, DL, EDL, RM y de ERM fue 858; 593; 622 y 451 y 457 g kg-1, respectivamente, y se incrementó por extrusión (P < 0.05. La extrusión redujo la degradabilidad efectiva

  8. A secretory system for bacterial production of high-profile protein targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Vernet, Erik; Hammarström, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli represents a robust, inexpensive expression host for the production of recombinant proteins. However, one major limitation is that certain protein classes do not express well in a biologically relevant form using standard expression approaches in the cytoplasm of E. coli. To...... improve the usefulness of the E. coli expression platform we have investigated combinations of promoters and selected N-terminal fusion tags for the extracellular expression of human target proteins. A comparative study was conducted on 24 target proteins fused to outer membrane protein A (OmpA), outer...... membrane protein F (OmpF) and osmotically inducible protein Y (OsmY). Based on the results of this initial study, we carried out an extended expression screen employing the OsmY fusion and multiple constructs of a more diverse set of human proteins. Using this high-throughput compatible system, we clearly...

  9. NEW EMBO MEMBER’S REVIEW: Viral and bacterial proteins regulating apoptosis at the mitochondrial level

    OpenAIRE

    Boya, Patricia; Roques, Bernard,; Kroemer, Guido

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) is a critical step of several apoptotic pathways. Some infectious intracellular pathogens can regulate (induce or inhibit) apoptosis of their host cells at the mitochondrial level, by targeting proteins to mitochondrial membranes that either induce or inhibit MMP. Pathogen-encoded mitochondrion-targeted proteins may or may not show amino acid sequence homology to Bcl-2-like proteins. Among the Bcl-2-unrelated, mitochondrion-targeted proteins, seve...

  10. Bacterial Ortholog of Mammalian Translocator Protein (TSPO) with Virulence Regulating Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Chapalain, Annelise; Chevalier, Sylvie; Orange, Nicole; Murillo, Laurence; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Feuilloley, Marc G J

    2009-01-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO), previously designated as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is a protein mainly located in the outer mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells. TSPO is implicated in major physiological functions and functionally associated with other proteins such as the voltage-dependent anionic channel, also designated as mitochondrial porin. Surprisingly, a TSPO-related protein was identified in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides but it was initial...

  11. Identification of the Zinc Finger Protein ZRANB2 as a Novel Maternal Lipopolysaccharide-binding Protein That Protects Embryos of Zebrafish against Gram-negative Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Du, Xiaoyuan; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Shicui

    2016-02-19

    Zinc finger ZRANB2 proteins are widespread in animals, but their functions and mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we clearly demonstrate that ZRANB2 is a newly identified LPS-binding protein present abundantly in the eggs/embryos of zebrafish. We also show that recombinant ZRANB2 (rZRANB2) acts as a pattern recognition receptor capable of identifying the bacterial signature molecule LPS as well as binding the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguilarum, and Aeromonas hydrophila and functions as an antibacterial effector molecule capable of directly killing the bacteria. Furthermore, we reveal that N-terminal residues 11-37 consisting of the first ZnF_RBZ domain are indispensable for ZRANB2 antimicrobial activity. Importantly, microinjection of rZRANB2 into early embryos significantly enhanced the resistance of the embryos against pathogenic A. hydrophila challenge, and this enhanced bacterial resistance was markedly reduced by co-injection of anti-ZRANB2 antibody. Moreover, precipitation of ZRANB2 in the embryo extracts by preincubation with anti-ZRANB2 antibody caused a marked decrease in the antibacterial activity of the extracts against the bacteria tested. In addition, the N-terminal peptide Z1/37 or Z11/37 with in vitro antibacterial activity also promoted the resistance of embryos against A. hydrophila, but the peptide Z38/198 without in vitro antibacterial activity did not. Collectively, these results indicate that ZRANB2 is a maternal LPS-binding protein that can protect the early embryos of zebrafish against pathogenic attacks, a novel role ever assigned to ZRANB2 proteins. This work also provides new insights into the immunological function of the zinc finger proteins that are widely distributed in various animals. PMID:26740623

  12. Surf1, associated with Leigh syndrome in humans, is a heme-binding protein in bacterial oxidase biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Freya A; Hannappel, Achim; Anderka, Oliver; Ludwig, Bernd

    2009-09-18

    Biogenesis of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) relies on a large number of assembly factors, among them the transmembrane protein Surf1. The loss of human Surf1 function is associated with Leigh syndrome, a fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by severe COX deficiency. In the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans, two homologous proteins, Surf1c and Surf1q, were identified, which we characterize in the present study. When coexpressed in Escherichia coli together with enzymes for heme a synthesis, the bacterial Surf1 proteins bind heme a in vivo. Using redox difference spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry, the binding of the heme cofactor to purified apo-Surf1c and apo-Surf1q is quantified: Each of the Paracoccus proteins binds heme a in a 1:1 stoichiometry and with Kd values in the submicromolar range. In addition, we identify a conserved histidine as a residue crucial for heme binding. Contrary to most earlier concepts, these data support a direct role of Surf1 in heme a cofactor insertion into COX subunit I by providing a protein-bound heme a pool. PMID:19625251

  13. Cell-penetrating peptides mediated protein cross-membrane delivery and its use in bacterial vector vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jimei; Xu, Jinmei; Guan, Lingyu; Hu, Tianjian; Liu, Qin; Xiao, Jingfan; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2014-07-01

    It is an attractive strategy to develop a recombinant bacterial vector vaccine by expressing exogenous protective antigen to induce the immune response, and the main concern is how to enhance the cellular internalization of antigen produced by bacterial vector. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short cationic/amphipathic peptides which facilitate cellular uptake of various molecular cargoes and therefore have great potentials in vector vaccine design. In this work, eleven different CPPs were fused to the C-terminus of EGFP respectively, and the resultant EGFP-CPP fusion proteins were expressed and purified to assay their cross-membrane transport in macrophage J774 A.1 cells. Among the tested CPPs, TAT showed an excellent capability to deliver the cargo protein EGFP into cytoplasm. In order to establish an efficient antigen delivery system in Escherichia coli, the EGFP-TAT synthesis circuit was combined with an in vivo inducible lysis circuit PviuA-E in E. coli to form an integrated antigen delivery system, the resultant E. coli was proved to be able to lyse upon the induction of a mimic in vivo signal and thus release intracellular EGFP-TAT intensively, which were assumed to undergo a more efficient intracellular delivery by CPP to evoke protective immune responses. Based on the established antigen delivery system, the protective antigen gene flgD from an invasive intracellular fish pathogen Edwardsiella tarda EIB202, was applied to establish an E. coli recombinant vector vaccine. This E. coli vector vaccine presented superior immune protection (RPS = 63%) under the challenge with E. tarda EIB202, suggesting that the novel antigen delivery system had great potential in bacterial vector vaccine applications. PMID:24746937

  14. Bacterial heme-transport proteins and their heme-coordination modes

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Yong; Guo, Maolin

    2008-01-01

    Efficient iron acquisition is critical for an invading microbe’s survival and virulence. Most of the iron in mammals is incorporated into heme, which can be plundered by certain bacterial pathogens as a nutritional iron source. Utilization of exogenous heme by bacteria involves the binding of heme or hemoproteins to the cell surface receptors, followed by the transport of heme into cells. Once taken into the cytosol, heme is presented to heme oxygenases where the tetrapyrrole ring is cleaved ...

  15. Bacterial cocaine esterase: a protein-based therapy for cocaine overdose and addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimhan, Diwahar; Woods, James H.; Sunahara, Roger K

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine is highly addictive and there are no pharmacotherapeutic drugs available to treat acute cocaine toxicity or chronic abuse. Antagonizing an inhibitor such as cocaine using a small molecule has proven difficult. The alternative approach is to modify cocaine’s pharmacokinetic properties by sequestering or hydrolyzing it in serum and limiting access to its sites of action. We took advantage of a bacterial esterase (CocE) that has evolved to hydrolyze cocaine and have developed it as a the...

  16. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette;

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other...... measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14-18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase...... protein response occurring concomitantly with the hepatic response. This suggests that the acute phase protein response is a more disseminated systemic response than previously thought. The current study provides to our knowledge the first example of porcine extrahepatic expression and regulation of C...

  17. Process Development for Spray Drying a Value-Added Extract from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut meal, the primary byproduct of commercial oil crushing operations, is an excellent source of protein though aflatoxin contamination often limits applications for this material. Naturally aflatoxin contaminated (59 ppb) peanut meal dispersions were adjusted to pH 2.1 or pH 9.1, with or without...

  18. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  19. GPR109A is a G-protein-coupled receptor for the bacterial fermentation product butyrate and functions as a tumor suppressor in colon

    OpenAIRE

    Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Cresci, Gail A.; Liu, Kebin; Ananth, Sudha; Gnanaprakasam, Jaya P.; Browning, Darren D.; Mellinger, John D.; Smith, Sylvia B.; Digby, Gregory J.; Lambert, Nevin A.; Prasad, Puttur D.; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2009-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids, generated in colon by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber, protect against colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Among these bacterial metabolites, butyrate is biologically most relevant. GPR109A is a G-protein-coupled receptor for nicotinate, but recognizes butyrate with low affinity. Millimolar concentrations of butyrate are needed to activate the receptor. Although concentrations of butyrate in colonic lumen are sufficient to activate the receptor m...

  20. Comparative effects of dietary nucleoside-nucleotide mixture and its components on endotoxin induced bacterial translocation and small intestinal injury in protein deficient mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Adjei, A A; Yamauchi, K.; Chan, Y. C.; Konishi, M; Yamamoto, S.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Nucleoside-nucleotide mixture has been shown to improve gut morphology and reduce the incidence of bacterial translocation in protein deficient mice. AIMS--To compare the reparative effect of nucleoside-nucleotide mixture and their individual components on maintenance of gut integrity and bacterial translocation based on their differential metabolism and utilisation. METHODS--ICR (CD-1) mice were randomised into eight groups of 10 animals each and fed 20% casein diet (control), pr...

  1. Engineering bacterial surface displayed human norovirus capsid proteins: A novel system to explore interaction between norovirus and ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengya eNiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (HuNoVs are major contributors to acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks. Many aspects of HuNoVs are poorly understood due to both the current inability to culture HuNoVs, and the lack of efficient small animal models. Surrogates for HuNoVs, such as recombinant viral like particles (VLPs expressed in eukaryotic system or P particles expressed in prokaryotic system, have been used for studies in immunology and interaction between the virus and its receptors. However, it is difficult to use VLPs or P particles to collect or isolate potential ligands binding to these recombinant capsid proteins. In this study, a new strategy was used to collect HuNoVs binding ligands through the use of ice nucleation protein (INP to display recombinant capsid proteins of HuNoVs on bacterial surfaces. The viral protein-ligand complex could be easily separated by a low speed centrifugation step. This system was also used to explore interaction between recombinant capsid proteins of HuNoVs and their receptors. In this system, the VP1 capsid encoding gene (ORF2 and the protruding domain (P domain encoding gene (3’ terminal fragment of ORF2 of HuNoVs GI.1 and GII.4 were fused with 5’ terminal fragment of ice nucleation protein encoding gene (inaQn. The results demonstrated that the recombinant VP1 and P domains of HuNoVs were expressed and anchored on the surface of Escherichia coli BL21 cells after the bacteria were transformed with the corresponding plasmids. Both cell surface displayed VP1 and P domains could be recognized by HuNoVs specific antibodies and interact with the viral histo-blood group antigens receptors. In both cases, displayed P domains had better binding abilities than VP1. This new strategy of using displayed HuNoVs capsid proteins on the bacterial surface could be utilized to separate HuNoVs binding components from complex samples, to investigate interaction between the virus and its receptors, as well as to develop an

  2. A common theme in interaction of bacterial immunoglobulin-binding proteins with immunoglobulins illustrated in the equine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melanie J; Meehan, Mary; Owen, Peter; Woof, Jenny M

    2008-06-20

    The M protein of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi known as fibrinogen-binding protein (FgBP) is a cell wall-associated protein with antiphagocytic activity that binds IgG. Recombinant versions of the seven equine IgG subclasses were used to investigate the subclass specificity of FgBP. FgBP bound predominantly to equine IgG4 and IgG7, with little or no binding to the other subclasses. Competitive binding experiments revealed that FgBP could inhibit the binding of staphylococcal protein A and streptococcal protein G to both IgG4 and IgG7, implicating the Fc interdomain region in binding to FgBP. To identify which of the two IgG Fc domains contributed to the interaction with FgBP, we tested two human IgG1/IgA1 domain swap mutants and found that both domains are required for full binding, with the CH3 domain playing a critical role. The binding site for FgBP was further localized using recombinant equine IgG7 antibodies with single or double point mutations to residues lying at the CH2-CH3 interface. We found that interaction of FgBP with equine IgG4 and IgG7 was able to disrupt C1q binding and antibody-mediated activation of the classical complement pathway, demonstrating an effective means by which S. equi may evade the immune response. The mode of interaction of FgBP with IgG fits a common theme for bacterial Ig-binding proteins. Remarkably, for those interactions studied in detail, it emerges that all the Ig-binding proteins target the CH2-CH3 domain interface, regardless of specificity for IgG or IgA, streptococcal or staphylococcal origin, or host species (equine or human). PMID:18411272

  3. Inflammatory and metabolic responses to high-fat meals with and without dairy products in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Petry, Nicolai; Walther, Barbara; Bütikofer, Ueli; Luginbühl, Werner; Gille, Doreen; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, Philip G; Gijs, Martin A M; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, François P; Laederach, Kurt; Vergères, Guy

    2015-06-28

    Postprandial inflammation is an important factor for human health since chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with chronic diseases. Dairy products have a weak but significant anti-inflammatory effect on postprandial inflammation. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of a high-fat dairy meal (HFD meal), a high-fat non-dairy meal supplemented with milk (HFM meal) and a high-fat non-dairy control meal (HFC meal) on postprandial inflammatory and metabolic responses in healthy men. A cross-over study was conducted in nineteen male subjects. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after consumption of the test meals. Plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at each time point. IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were assessed at baseline and endpoint (6 h). Time-dependent curves of these metabolic parameters were plotted, and the net incremental AUC were found to be significantly higher for TAG and lower for CRP after consumption of the HFM meal compared with the HFD meal; however, the HFM and HFD meals were not different from the HFC meal. Alterations in IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were not significantly different between the test meals. The results suggest that full-fat milk and dairy products (cheese and butter) have no significant impact on the inflammatory response to a high-fat meal. PMID:25990454

  4. Protein complexes in bacterial and yeast mitochondrial membranes differ in their sensitivity towards dissociation by SDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbens, Jacob; Slijper, Monique; de Kruijff, Ben; de Kroon, Anton I P M

    2008-12-01

    Previously, a 2D gel electrophoresis approach was developed for the Escherichia coli inner membrane, which detects membrane protein complexes that are stable in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at room temperature, and dissociate under the influence of trifluoroethanol [R. E. Spelbrink et al., J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005), 28742-8]. Here, the method was applied to the evolutionarily related mitochondrial inner membrane that was isolated from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Surprisingly, only very few proteins were found to be dissociated by trifluoroethanol of which Lpd1p, a component of multiple protein complexes localized in the mitochondrial matrix, is the most prominent. Usage of either milder or more stringent conditions did not yield any additional proteins that were released by fluorinated alcohols. This strongly suggests that membrane protein complexes in yeast are less stable in SDS solution than their E. coli counterparts, which might be due to the overall reduced hydrophobicity of mitochondrial transmembrane proteins. PMID:18817900

  5. Palatable Meal Anticipation in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, Danica; Mistlberger, Ralph; Hsu, Cynthia; Steele, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory...

  6. A secretory system for bacterial production of high-profile protein targets

    OpenAIRE

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Vernet, Erik; Hammarström, Martin; Berthelsen, Jens; Weigelt, Johan; Gräslund, Susanne; Sundström, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli represents a robust, inexpensive expression host for the production of recombinant proteins. However, one major limitation is that certain protein classes do not express well in a biologically relevant form using standard expression approaches in the cytoplasm of E. coli. To improve the usefulness of the E. coli expression platform we have investigated combinations of promoters and selected N-terminal fusion tags for the extracellular expression of human target proteins. A co...

  7. A protein residing at the subunit interface of the bacterial ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonov, D E; Kolb, V A; Nazimov, I V; Spirin, A S

    1999-10-26

    Surface labeling of Escherichia coli ribosomes with the use of the tritium bombardment technique has revealed a minor unidentified ribosome-bound protein (spot Y) that is hidden in the 70S ribosome and becomes highly labeled on dissociation of the 70S ribosome into subunits. In the present work, the N-terminal sequence of the protein Y was determined and its gene was identified as yfia, an ORF located upstream the phe operon of E. coli. This 12.7-kDa protein was isolated and characterized. An affinity of the purified protein Y for the 30S subunit, but not for the 50S ribosomal subunit, was shown. The protein proved to be exposed on the surface of the 30S subunit. The attachment of the 50S subunit resulted in hiding the protein Y, thus suggesting the protein location at the subunit interface in the 70S ribosome. The protein was shown to stabilize ribosomes against dissociation. The possible role of the protein Y as ribosome association factor in translation is discussed. PMID:10535924

  8. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein cannot differentiate bacterial or viral infection in COPD exacerbation requiring emergency department visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang CH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Hao Chang,1 Kuo-Chien Tsao,2,3 Han-Chung Hu,1,4 Chung-Chi Huang,1,4 Kuo-Chin Kao,1,4 Ning-Hung Chen,1,4 Cheng-Ta Yang,1,4 Ying-Huang Tsai,4,5 Meng-Jer Hsieh4,51Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Chang-Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation; 3Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Respiratory Therapy, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chiayi Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Puzi City, TaiwanBackground: Viral and bacterial infections are the most common causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations. Whether serum inflammatory markers can differentiate bacterial from virus infection in patients with COPD exacerbation requiring emergency department (ED visits remains controversial.Methods: Viral culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used to identify the viruses in the oropharynx of patients with COPD exacerbations. The bacteria were identified by the semiquantitative culture of the expectorated sputum. The peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC counts, serum C-reactive protein (CRP, procalcitonin (PCT, and clinical symptoms were compared among patients with different types of infections.Results: Viruses were isolated from 16 (22.2% of the 72 patients enrolled. The most commonly identified viruses were parainfluenza type 3, influenza A, and rhinovirus. A total of 30 (41.7% patients had positive bacterial cultures, with the most commonly found bacteria being Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Five patients (6.9% had both positive sputum cultures and virus identification. The WBC, CRP, and PCT levels of the bacteria-positive and bacteria

  9. Effect of replacement of fish meal by potato protein concentrate in the diet for rainbow trout on feeding rate, digestibility and growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Shougi; Jokumsen, Alfred

    1999-01-01

    increased incorporation levels of PPC. Apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and ash increased with increased proportion of dietary PPC, while there was no significant effect on the apparent digestibility of crude fat. The incorporation of 5.6% PPC decreased growth rate and 8.9% PPC decreased...

  10. Improving bacterial cellulose for blood vessel replacement: functionalization with a chimeric protein containing a cellulose-binding module and an adhesion peptide

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Fábia K.; Costa, Raquel; Domingues, Lucília; Soares, Raquel; Gama, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    Chimeric proteins containing a cellulose-binding module (CBM) and an adhesion peptide (RGD or GRGDY) were produced and used to improve the adhesion of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) to bacterial cellulose (BC). The effect of these proteins on the HMEC–BC interaction was studied. The results obtained demonstrated that recombinant proteins containing adhesion sequences were able to significantly increase the attachment of HMEC to BC surfaces, especially the RGD sequenc...

  11. A novel human tectonin protein with multivalent beta-propeller folds interacts with ficolin and binds bacterial LPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hooi Ping Low

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the human genome database has been completed a decade ago, approximately 50% of the proteome remains hypothetical as their functions are unknown. The elucidation of the functions of these hypothetical proteins can lead to additional protein pathways and revelation of new cascades. However, many of these inferences are limited to proteins with substantial sequence similarity. Of particular interest here is the Tectonin domain-containing family of proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified hTectonin, a hypothetical protein in the human genome database, as a distant ortholog of the limulus galactose binding protein (GBP. Phylogenetic analysis revealed strong evolutionary conservation of hTectonin homologues from parasite to human. By computational analysis, we showed that both the hTectonin and GBP form beta-propeller structures with multiple Tectonin domains, each containing beta-sheets of 4 strands per beta-sheet. hTectonin is present in the human leukocyte cDNA library and immune-related cell lines. It interacts with M-ficolin, a known human complement protein whose ancient homolog, carcinolectin (CL5, is the functional protein partner of GBP during infection. Yeast 2-hybrid assay showed that only the Tectonin domains of hTectonin recognize the fibrinogen-like domain of the M-ficolin. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed real-time interaction between the Tectonin domains 6 & 11 and bacterial LPS, indicating that despite forming 2 beta-propellers with its different Tectonin domains, the hTectonin molecule could precisely employ domains 6 & 11 to recognise bacteria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By virtue of a recent finding of another Tectonin protein, leukolectin, in the human leukocyte, and our structure-function analysis of the hypothetical hTectonin, we propose that Tectonin domains of proteins could play a vital role in innate immune defense, and that this function has been conserved over several

  12. Avoiding acidic region streaking in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: Case study with two bacterial whole cell protein extracts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arnab Roy; Umesh Varshney; Debnath Pal

    2014-09-01

    Acidic region streaking (ARS) is one of the lacunae in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of bacterial proteome. This streaking is primarily caused by nucleic acid (NuA) contamination and poses major problem in the downstream processes like image analysis and protein identification. Although cleanup and nuclease digestion are practiced as remedial options, these strategies may incur loss in protein recovery and perform incomplete removal of NuA. As a result, ARS has remained a common observation across publications, including the recent ones. In this work, we demonstrate how ultrasound wave can be used to shear NuA in plain ice-cooled water, facilitating the elimination of ARS in the 2DE gels without the need for any additional sample cleanup tasks. In combination with a suitable buffer recipe, IEF program and frequent paper-wick changing approach, we are able to reproducibly demonstrate the production of clean 2DE gels with improved protein recovery and negligible or no ARS. We illustrate our procedure using whole cell protein extracts from two diverse organisms, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Our designed protocols are straightforward and expected to provide good 2DE gels without ARS, with comparable times and significantly lower cost.

  13. Recombinant expression and purification of 'virus-like' bacterial encapsulin protein cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurup, W.F.; Cornelissen, J.J.L.M.; Koay, M.S.T.; Orner, Brendan P.

    2014-01-01

    Ultracentrifugation, particularly the use of sucrose or cesium chloride density gradients, is a highly reliable and efficient technique for the purification of virus-like particles and protein cages. Since virus-like particles and protein cages have a unique size compared to cellular macromolecules

  14. The F-box protein MAX2 contributes to resistance to bacterial phytopathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    PiisilÀ, Maria; Keceli, Mehmet A; Brader, GÌnter; Jakobson, Liina; Jõesaar, Indrek; Sipari, Nina; Kollist, Hannes; Palva, E. T.; Kariola, Tarja

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Arabidopsis thaliana F-box protein MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2) has previously been characterized for its role in plant development. MAX2 appears essential for the perception of the newly characterized phytohormone strigolactone, a negative regulator of polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis. Results A reverse genetic screen for F-box protein ...

  15. Optimum dietary protein requirement for Amazonian Tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818, fed fish meal free diets Exigência protéica de juvenis de tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818, alimentados com rações livres de farinha de peixe

    OpenAIRE

    César Augusto Oishi; Lawrence C Nwanna; Manoel Pereira Filho

    2010-01-01

    Fish meal free diets were formulated to contain graded protein levels as 25% (diet 1), 30% (diet 2), 35% (diet 3) and 40% (diet 4). The diets were fed to tambaqui juveniles (Colossoma macropomum) (46.4 ± 6.3g) in randomly designed recirculating systems for 60 days, to determine the optimum protein requirement for the fish. The final weight of the fish, weight gain (28.1, 28.5, 32.2, 28.0g) and specific growth rate increased (P>0.05) consistently with increasing dietary protein up to treatment...

  16. Prebiotics affect nutrient digestibility but not faecal ammonia in dogs fed increased dietary protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesta, M; Roosen, W; Janssens, G P J; Millet, S; De Wilde, R

    2003-12-01

    An increased protein content and less digestible protein sources in the diet can induce bad faecal odour. The present study investigated the effect of adding prebiotics to dog diets enriched with animal-derived protein sources on apparent digestibilities and faecal ammonia concentration. In three subsequent periods eight healthy beagle dogs were fed a commercial dog diet that was gradually supplemented by up to 50 % with meat and bone meal (MBM), greaves meal (GM) or poultry meal (PM) respectively. Afterwards, 3 % fructo-oligosaccharides or 3 % isomalto-oligosaccharides were substituted for 3 % of the total diet. Supplementation with animal-derived protein sources did not decrease the apparent N digestibility significantly but oligosaccharides did. On the other hand the bacterial N content (% DM) in the faeces was highest in the oligosaccharide groups followed by the protein-supplemented groups and lowest in the control groups. When the apparent N digestibility was corrected for bacterial N no significant differences were noted anymore except for the GM group where the corrected N digestibility was still lower after oligosaccharide supplementation. The amount of faecal ammonia was significantly increased by supplementing with protein or oligosaccharides in the MBM and GM groups but not in the PM group. When apparent N digestibility is interpreted, a correction for bacterial N should be taken into account, especially when prebiotics are added to the diet. Oligosaccharides did not reduce the faecal ammonia concentrations as expected. PMID:14641959

  17. Mutant bacterial sodium channels as models for local anesthetic block of eukaryotic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Natalie E; Corry, Ben

    2016-05-01

    Voltage gated sodium channels are the target of a range of local anesthetic, anti-epileptic and anti-arrhythmic compounds. But, gaining a molecular level understanding of their mode of action is difficult as we only have atomic resolution structures of bacterial sodium channels not their eukaryotic counterparts. In this study we used molecular dynamics simulations to demonstrate that the binding sites of both the local anesthetic benzocaine and the anti-epileptic phenytoin to the bacterial sodium channel NavAb can be altered significantly by the introduction of point mutations. Free energy techniques were applied to show that increased aromaticity in the pore of the channel, used to emulate the aromatic residues observed in eukaryotic Nav1.2, led to changes in the location of binding and dissociation constants of each drug relative to wild type NavAb. Further, binding locations and dissociation constants obtained for both benzocaine (660 μM) and phenytoin (1 μ M) in the mutant channels were within the range expected from experimental values obtained from drug binding to eukaryotic sodium channels, indicating that these mutant NavAb may be a better model for drug binding to eukaryotic channels than the wild type. PMID:26852716

  18. Kosmotropes enhance the yield of antibody purified by affinity chromatography using immobilized bacterial immunoglobulin binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, That T; Narinesingh, Dyer

    2008-01-01

    The yield of antibody purified using affinity chromatography on immobilized Protein A or Protein G was increased up to 5-fold (500%) by including kosmotropic salts in the binding buffer. The binding buffer is used to equilibrate the affinity column before applying a sample to the column and also to dilute the sample prior to loading onto the affinity column to optimize conditions for a maximal binding of antibodies to affinity gels. In this study, the kosmotropic salts that were effective in greatly increasing antibody binding to Protein A included both inorganic and organic salts of ammonium; sodium; or potassium sulfate, phosphate, polycarboxylates; for example, succinate, citrate, isocitrate, N-(2-hydroxyethylene diamine triacetate (HEDTA), ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), and ethylene glycol-O,O'-bis(2-aminoethyl)-N,N,N'N'-tetra acetate(EGTA). On an equal-molar basis, the greater the number of carboxylic groups within the polycarboxylate molecule, the greater the increase in the yield of the purified antibody that was observed. The data show that kosmotropes can be used as effective additives to enhance the binding of immunoglobulins to Protein A or Protein G gels with a resultant increase in the yield of the purified antibodies. Thus, it appears that strongly hydrated anions (citrate, sulfate, and phosphate) and weakly hydrated cations (ammonium, potassium) increase the yield of antibody purified on either Protein A or Protein G affinity gels. PMID:18080884

  19. Differential Acute Postprandial Effects of Processed Meat and Isocaloric Vegan Meals on the Gastrointestinal Hormone Response in Subjects Suffering from Type 2 Diabetes and Healthy Controls: A Randomized Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Belinova; Hana Kahleova; Hana Malinska; Ondrej Topolcan; Jindra Vrzalova; Olena Oliyarnyk; Ludmila Kazdova; Martin Hill; Terezie Pelikanova

    2014-01-01

    Background The intake of meat, particularly processed meat, is a dietary risk factor for diabetes. Meat intake impairs insulin sensitivity and leads to increased oxidative stress. However, its effect on postprandial gastrointestinal hormone (GIH) secretion is unclear. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of two standardized isocaloric meals: a processed hamburger meat meal rich in protein and saturated fat (M-meal) and a vegan meal rich in carbohydrates (V-meal). We hypothesized that the...

  20. Immunotoxicity of nucleic acid reduced BioProtein - a bacterial derived single cell protein - in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølck, Anne-marie; Poulsen, Morten; Christensen, Hanne Risager;

    2002-01-01

    NABP induced a humoral immune response and proliferation of phagocytic cell lines, mainly macrophages. The humoral response involved induction of NABP specific IgM and IgG. The proliferation of phagocytic cells involved increase of the white blood cell count of all dosed female groups. Males showed......BioProtein is a single cell protein produced by a mixed methanotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria culture using natural gas as energy source, which has been approved for animal feed. BioProtein contains a large amount of nucleic acids making the product less suitable for human consumption......, hyperplasia of Kupffer cells in the liver, increased granulopoiesis in spleen and bone marrow, and infiltration of lamina propria of the large intestine with eosinophilic granulocytes. The most consistent and pronounced changes were observed in the highest dose group, but even at the lowest dose level some...

  1. Improvement Utilization Efficiency of Sunflower Meal as a Feed for Ruminant Animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was conducted to study the effect of blood, formaldehyde, heating or roasting on sunflower meal including chemical composition, particle size, solubility, in vitro digestion coefficient, dry matter and nitrogen degradability and true nitrogen digestion coefficient. Results of chemical composition indicated that treatments caused high significant (P<0.01) differences in comparison with untreated meal particularly in protein. It was shown that treatment with blood or roasting caused an increase in protein percentage about 7.75% and 3.81%; respectively. Treatments casued a highly significant (P<0.01) increase in particle size and reduction in small particle ratio in comparison with untreated meal. Superiority was for blood treatment. Meanwhile, solubility results reflected no significant differences between used solutions . Different treatments tended to reduce solubility compared to untreated meal. Significant reduction (p<0.01) in nitrogen solubility was for treating meal with blood or roasting . Results indicated that treatment tended to reduce (P<0.01) dry and organic mater digestion coefficients in comparison with untreated meal. Dry matter and nitrogen degradability was greatly reduced (P<0.01) compared to untreated meal, especially blood and roasting treatments . True nitrogen digestion coefficient showed high significance (P<0.01) due to treatment . This study indicated that sunflower meal protein could be protected effectively from degradation in rumen by treatment with blood or roasting without any inverse effect on nitrogen digestion and absorbability in ruminant animal abomasum and small intestine. (authors) 32 refs., 6 tabs

  2. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study

    OpenAIRE

    Demmer, Elieke; VAN LOAN, MARTA D.; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S.; Gertz, Erik R.; German, J. Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M.; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week ...

  3. A bacterial type III secretion assay for delivery of fungal effector proteins into wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Mago, Rohit; Staskawicz, Brian J; Ayliffe, Michael A; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Dodds, Peter N

    2014-03-01

    Large numbers of candidate effectors from fungal pathogens are being identified through whole-genome sequencing and in planta expression studies. Although Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression has enabled high-throughput functional analysis of effectors in dicot plants, this assay is not effective in cereal leaves. Here, we show that a nonpathogenic Pseudomonas fluorescens engineered to express the type III secretion system (T3SS) of P. syringae and the wheat pathogen Xanthomonas translucens can deliver fusion proteins containing T3SS signals from P. syringae (AvrRpm1) and X. campestris (AvrBs2) avirulence (Avr) proteins, respectively, into wheat leaf cells. A calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase reporter protein was delivered effectively into wheat and barley by both bacteria. Absence of any disease symptoms with P. fluorescens makes it more suitable than X. translucens for detecting a hypersensitive response (HR) induced by an effector protein with avirulence activity. We further modified the delivery system by removal of the myristoylation site from the AvrRpm1 fusion to prevent its localization to the plasma membrane which could inhibit recognition of an Avr protein. Delivery of the flax rust AvrM protein by the modified delivery system into transgenic tobacco leaves expressing the corresponding M resistance protein induced a strong HR, indicating that the system is capable of delivering a functional rust Avr protein. In a preliminary screen of effectors from the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, we identified one effector that induced a host genotype-specific HR in wheat. Thus, the modified AvrRpm1:effector-Pseudomonas fluorescens system is an effective tool for large-scale screening of pathogen effectors for recognition in wheat. PMID:24156769

  4. Inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium Invasion by Host Cell Expression of Secreted Bacterial Invasion Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Steve A.; Jones, Bradley D.

    1998-01-01

    Pathogenic Salmonella species initiate infection of a host by inducing their own uptake into intestinal epithelial cells. An invasive phenotype is conferred to this pathogen by a number of proteins that are components of a type III secretion system. During the invasion process, the bacteria utilize this secretion system to release proteins that enter the host cell and apparently interact with unknown host cell components that induce alterations in the actin cytoskeleton. To investigate the ro...

  5. Inhibition of bacterial aggregation by serum- and blood-derived proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Malamud, D; Brown, C; Goldman, R

    1984-01-01

    Human and animal sera contain potent inhibitors of saliva-mediated aggregation of oral streptococci. The inhibitors consist of a high-molecular-weight heat-labile factor and a lower-molecular-weight heat-activated factor. The latter appears to be serum albumin. Analyses of purified blood-derived proteins indicated that several high-molecular-weight proteins (fibrinogen, fibronectin, and ferritin) were able to inhibit aggregation at low concentrations. These data suggest that high-molecular-we...

  6. A Bacterial Virulence Protein Promotes Pathogenicity by Inhibiting the Bacterium's Own F1Fo ATP Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Jin; Pontes, Mauricio H.; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Several intracellular pathogens including Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis require the virulence protein MgtC to survive within macrophages and to cause a lethal infection in mice. We now report that, unlike secreted virulence factors that target the host vacuolar ATPase to withstand phagosomal acidity, the MgtC protein acts on Salmonella's own F1Fo ATP synthase. This complex couples proton translocation to ATP synthesis/ hydrolysis and is required for virulence. We establis...

  7. Skin Firming, Skin Smoothing, Skin Blemishes Elimination and Anti-aging Effects of Increased Protein Intake in the Form of Voandzeia hypogeal Seed Meal

    OpenAIRE

    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the effect of excess calorie intake on the human body showed that it resulted in accumulation of excess body fat; the darkening of the skin colour and the development of a bumpy skin. Problem statement: The present study investigated the effects of increased protein intake on the human skin and on body fat. The skin firming, skin smoothing and skin colour lightening effects of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract has already been established. The anti-obesity, body calming and anti-agi...

  8. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Cho, Christine [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Govindappa, Sowmya [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Apicella, Michael A. [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Ramaswamy, S., E-mail: ramas@instem.res.in [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  9. The role of lipids in membrane insertion and translocation of bacterial proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dalen, Annemieke; de Kruijff, Ben

    2004-11-11

    Phospholipids are essential building blocks of membranes and maintain the membrane permeability barrier of cells and organelles. They provide not only the bilayer matrix in which the functional membrane proteins reside, but they also can play direct roles in many essential cellular processes. In this review, we give an overview of the lipid involvement in protein translocation across and insertion into the Escherichia coli inner membrane. We describe the key and general roles that lipids play in these processes in conjunction with the protein components involved. We focus on the Sec-mediated insertion of leader peptidase. We describe as well the more direct roles that lipids play in insertion of the small coat proteins Pf3 and M13. Finally, we focus on the role of lipids in membrane assembly of oligomeric membrane proteins, using the potassium channel KcsA as model protein. In all cases, the anionic lipids and lipids with small headgroups play important roles in either determining the efficiency of the insertion and assembly process or contributing to the directionality of the insertion process. PMID:15546660

  10. Detergent disruption of bacterial inner membranes and recovery of protein translocation activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolation of the integral membrane components of protein translocation requires methods for fractionation and functional reconstitution. The authors treated inner-membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli with mixtures of octyl β-D-glucoside, phospholipids, and an integral membrane carrier protein under conditions that extract most of the membrane proteins into micellar solution. Upon dialysis, proteoliposomes were reconstituted that supported translocation of radiochemically pure [35S]pro-OmpA (the precursor of outer membrane protein A). Translocation into these proteoliposomes required ATP hydrolysis and membrane proteins, indicating that the reaction is that of the inner membrane. The suspension of membranes in detergent was separated into supernatant and pellet fractions by ultracentrifugation. After reconstitution, translocation activity was observed in both fractions, but processing by leader peptidase of translocated pro-OmpA to OmpA was not detectable in the reconstituted pellet fraction. Processing activity was restored by addition of pure leader peptidase as long as this enzyme was added before detergent removal, indicating that the translocation activity is not associated with detergent-resistant membrane vesicles. These results show that protein translocation activity can be recovered from detergent-disrupted membrane vesicles, providing a first step towards the goal of isolating the solubilized components

  11. ParB Partition Proteins: Complex Formation and Spreading at Bacterial and Plasmid Centromeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, active partition systems contribute to the faithful segregation of both chromosomes and low-copy-number plasmids. Each system depends on a site-specific DNA binding protein to recognize and assemble a partition complex at a centromere-like site, commonly called parS. Many plasmid, and all chromosomal centromere-binding proteins are dimeric helix-turn-helix DNA binding proteins, which are commonly named ParB. Although the overall sequence conservation among ParBs is not high, the proteins share similar domain and functional organization, and they assemble into similar higher-order complexes. In vivo, ParBs "spread," that is, DNA binding extends away from the parS site into the surrounding non-specific DNA, a feature that reflects higher-order complex assembly. ParBs bridge and pair DNA at parS and non-specific DNA sites. ParB dimers interact with each other via flexible conformations of an N-terminal region. This review will focus on the properties of the HTH centromere-binding protein, in light of recent experimental evidence and models that are adding to our understanding of how these proteins assemble into large and dynamic partition complexes at and around their specific DNA sites. PMID:27622187

  12. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states

  13. Structural and functional similarity between the bacterial type III secretion system needle protein PrgI and the eukaryotic apoptosis Bcl-2 proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Shortridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional similarity is challenging to identify when global sequence and structure similarity is low. Active-sites or functionally relevant regions are evolutionarily more stable relative to the remainder of a protein structure and provide an alternative means to identify potential functional similarity between proteins. We recently developed the FAST-NMR methodology to discover biochemical functions or functional hypotheses of proteins of unknown function by experimentally identifying ligand binding sites. FAST-NMR utilizes our CPASS software and database to assign a function based on a similarity in the structure and sequence of ligand binding sites between proteins of known and unknown function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The PrgI protein from Salmonella typhimurium forms the needle complex in the type III secretion system (T3SS. A FAST-NMR screen identified a similarity between the ligand binding sites of PrgI and the Bcl-2 apoptosis protein Bcl-xL. These ligand binding sites correlate with known protein-protein binding interfaces required for oligomerization. Both proteins form membrane pores through this oligomerization to release effector proteins to stimulate cell death. Structural analysis indicates an overlap between the PrgI structure and the pore forming motif of Bcl-xL. A sequence alignment indicates conservation between the PrgI and Bcl-xL ligand binding sites and pore formation regions. This active-site similarity was then used to verify that chelerythrine, a known Bcl-xL inhibitor, also binds PrgI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A structural and functional relationship between the bacterial T3SS and eukaryotic apoptosis was identified using our FAST-NMR ligand affinity screen in combination with a bioinformatic analysis based on our CPASS program. A similarity between PrgI and Bcl-xL is not readily apparent using traditional global sequence and structure analysis, but was only identified because of conservation in

  14. Production of recombinant proteins and metabolites in yeasts: when are these systems better than bacterial production systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Danilo; Gasser, Brigitte; Fossati, Tiziana; Maurer, Michael; Branduardi, Paola; Sauer, Michael; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2011-02-01

    Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technologies allow the production of a wide range of peptides, proteins and metabolites from naturally non-producing cells. Since human insulin was the first heterologous compound produced in a laboratory in 1977, rDNA technology has become one of the most important technologies developed in the 20th century. Recombinant protein and metabolites production is a multi-billion dollar market. The development of a new product begins with the choice of the cell factory. The final application of the compound dictates the main criteria that should be taken into consideration: (1) quality, (2) quantity, (3) yield and (4) space time yield of the desired product. Quantity and quality are the most predominant requirements that must be considered for the commercial production of a protein. Quantity and yield are the requirements for the production of a metabolite. Finally, space time yield is crucial for any production process. It therefore becomes clear why the perfect host does not exist yet, and why-despite important advances in rDNA applications in higher eukaryotic cells-microbial biodiversity continues to represent a potential source of attractive cell factories. In this review, we compare the advantages and limitations of the principal yeast and bacterial workhorse systems. PMID:21125266

  15. Functional characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus small capsid protein by bacterial artificial chromosome-based mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic investigation of interactions amongst KSHV capsid proteins was undertaken in this study to comprehend lesser known KSHV capsid assembly mechanisms. Interestingly the interaction patterns of the KSHV small capsid protein, ORF65 suggested its plausible role in viral capsid assembly pathways. Towards further understanding this, ORF65-null recombinant mutants (BAC-Δ65 and BAC-stop65) employing a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system were generated. No significant difference was found in both overall viral gene expression and lytic DNA replication between stable monolayers of 293T-BAC36 (wild-type) and 293T-BAC-ORF65-null upon induction with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, though the latter released 30-fold fewer virions to the medium than 293T-BAC36 cells. Sedimentation profiles of capsid proteins of ORF65-null recombinant mutants were non-reflective of their organization into the KSHV capsids and were also undetectable in cytoplasmic extracts compared to noticeable levels in nuclear extracts. These observations collectively suggested the pivotal role of ORF65 in the KSHV capsid assembly processes.

  16. PROTEIN QUALITY CONTROL IN BACTERIAL CELLS: INTEGRATED NETWORKS OF CHAPERONES AND ATP-DEPENDENT PROTEASES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FLANAGAN,J.M.BEWLEY,M.C.

    2002-10-01

    It is generally accepted that the information necessary to specify the native, functional, three-dimensional structure of a protein is encoded entirely within its amino acid sequence; however, efficient reversible folding and unfolding is observed only with a subset of small single-domain proteins. Refolding experiments often lead to the formation of kinetically-trapped, misfolded species that aggregate, even in dilute solution. In the cellular environment, the barriers to efficient protein folding and maintenance of native structure are even larger due to the nature of this process. First, nascent polypeptides must fold in an extremely crowded environment where the concentration of macromolecules approaches 300-400 mg/mL and on average, each ribosome is within its own diameter of another ribosome (1-3). These conditions of severe molecular crowding, coupled with high concentrations of nascent polypeptide chains, favor nonspecific aggregation over productive folding (3). Second, folding of newly-translated polypeptides occurs in the context of their vehtorial synthesis process. Amino acids are added to a growing nascent chain at the rate of {approx}5 residues per set, which means that for a 300 residue protein its N-terminus will be exposed to the cytosol {approx}1 min before its C-terminus and be free to begin the folding process. However, because protein folding is highly cooperative, the nascent polypeptide cannot reach its native state until a complete folding domain (50-250 residues) has emerged from the ribosome. Thus, for a single-domain protein, the final steps in ffolding are only completed post-translationally since {approx}40 residues of a nascent chain are sequestered within the exit channel of the ribosome and are not available for folding (4). A direct consequence of this limitation in cellular folding is that during translation incomplete domains will exist in partially-folded states that tend to expose hydrophobic residues that are prone to

  17. PROTEIN QUALITY CONTROL IN BACTERIAL CELLS: INTEGRATED NETWORKS OF CHAPERONES AND ATP-DEPENDENT PROTEASES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FLANAGAN,J.M.; BEWLEY,M.C.

    2001-12-03

    It is generally accepted that the information necessary to specify the native, functional, three-dimensional structure of a protein is encoded entirely within its amino acid sequence; however, efficient reversible folding and unfolding is observed only with a subset of small single-domain proteins. Refolding experiments often lead to the formation of kinetically-trapped, misfolded species that aggregate, even in dilute solution. In the cellular environment, the barriers to efficient protein folding and maintenance of native structure are even larger due to the nature of this process. First, nascent polypeptides must fold in an extremely crowded environment where the concentration of macromolecules approaches 300-400 mg/mL and on average, each ribosome is within its own diameter of another ribosome (1-3). These conditions of severe molecular crowding, coupled with high concentrations of nascent polypeptide chains, favor nonspecific aggregation over productive folding (3). Second, folding of newly-translated polypeptides occurs in the context of their vehtorial synthesis process. Amino acids are added to a growing nascent chain at the rate of -5 residues per set, which means that for a 300 residue protein its N-terminus will be exposed to the cytosol {approx}1 min before its C-terminus and be free to begin the folding process. However, because protein folding is highly cooperative, the nascent polypeptide cannot reach its native state until a complete folding domain (50-250 residues) has emerged from the ribosome. Thus, for a single-domain protein, the final steps in folding are only completed post-translationally since {approx}40 residues of a nascent chain are sequestered within the exit channel of the ribosome and are not available for folding (4). A direct consequence of this limitation in cellular folding is that during translation incomplete domains will exist in partially-folded states that tend to expose hydrophobic residues that are prone to aggregation and

  18. PROTEIN QUALITY CONTROL IN BACTERIAL CELLS: INTEGRATED NETWORKS OF CHAPERONES AND ATP-DEPENDENT PROTEASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that the information necessary to specify the native, functional, three-dimensional structure of a protein is encoded entirely within its amino acid sequence; however, efficient reversible folding and unfolding is observed only with a subset of small single-domain proteins. Refolding experiments often lead to the formation of kinetically-trapped, misfolded species that aggregate, even in dilute solution. In the cellular environment, the barriers to efficient protein folding and maintenance of native structure are even larger due to the nature of this process. First, nascent polypeptides must fold in an extremely crowded environment where the concentration of macromolecules approaches 300-400 mg/mL and on average, each ribosome is within its own diameter of another ribosome (1-3). These conditions of severe molecular crowding, coupled with high concentrations of nascent polypeptide chains, favor nonspecific aggregation over productive folding (3). Second, folding of newly-translated polypeptides occurs in the context of their vehtorial synthesis process. Amino acids are added to a growing nascent chain at the rate of -5 residues per set, which means that for a 300 residue protein its N-terminus will be exposed to the cytosol(approx)1 min before its C-terminus and be free to begin the folding process. However, because protein folding is highly cooperative, the nascent polypeptide cannot reach its native state until a complete folding domain (50-250 residues) has emerged from the ribosome. Thus, for a single-domain protein, the final steps in folding are only completed post-translationally since(approx)40 residues of a nascent chain are sequestered within the exit channel of the ribosome and are not available for folding (4). A direct consequence of this limitation in cellular folding is that during translation incomplete domains will exist in partially-folded states that tend to expose hydrophobic residues that are prone to aggregation and

  19. Monitoring Dynamic Protein Expression in Single Living E. Coli. Bacterial Cells by Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J W; Winhold, H; Corzett, M H; Ulloa, J M; Cosman, M; Balhorn, R; Huser, T

    2007-01-09

    Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) is a novel, nondestructive, and label-free method that can be used to quantitatively measure changes in cellular activity in single living cells. Here, we demonstrate its use to monitor changes in a population of E. coli cells that occur during overexpression of a protein, the extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(1-120)) Raman spectra were acquired of individual E. coli cells suspended in solution and trapped by a single tightly focused laser beam. Overexpression of MOG(1-120) in transformed E. coli Rosetta-Gami (DE3)pLysS cells was induced by addition of isopropyl thiogalactoside (IPTG). Changes in the peak intensities of the Raman spectra from a population of cells were monitored and analyzed over a total duration of three hours. Data was also collected for concentrated purified MOG(1-120) protein in solution, and the spectra compared with that obtained for the MOG(1-120) expressing cells. Raman spectra of individual, living E. coli cells exhibit signatures due to DNA and protein molecular vibrations. Characteristic Raman markers associated with protein vibrations, such as 1257 cm{sup -1}, 1340 cm{sup -1}, 1453 cm{sup -1} and 1660 cm{sup -1}, are shown to increase as a function of time following the addition of IPTG. Comparison of these spectra and the spectra of purified MOG protein indicates that the changes are predominantly due to the induction of MOG protein expression. Protein expression was found to occur mostly within the second hour, with a 470% increase relative to the protein expressed in the first hour. A 230% relative increase between the second and third hour indicates that protein expression begins to level off within the third hour. It is demonstrated that LTRS has sufficient sensitivity for real-time, nondestructive, and quantitative monitoring of biological processes, such as protein expression, in single living cells. Such capabilities, which are not currently available in

  20. Cloning, expression, purification and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of a mycobacterial protein implicated in bacterial survival in macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of MSMEG-5817 is described. Mycobacterium species have developed numerous strategies to avoid the antimycobacterial actions of macrophages, enabling them to survive within the generally inhospitable environment of the cell. The recently identified MSMEG-5817 protein from M. smegmatis is highly conserved in Mycobacterium spp. and is required for bacterial survival in macrophages. Here, the cloning, expression, purification and crystallization of MSMEG-5817 is reported. Crystals of MSMEG-5817 were grown in 1.42 M Li2SO4, 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 7.7, 0.1 M sodium citrate tribasic dihydrate. Native and multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) data sets have been collected and structure determination is in progress

  1. Bacteriophage Tailspikes and Bacterial O-Antigens as a Model System to Study Weak-Affinity Protein-Polysaccharide Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu; Gohlke, Ulrich; Engström, Olof; Hamark, Christoffer; Scheidt, Tom; Kunstmann, Sonja; Heinemann, Udo; Widmalm, Göran; Santer, Mark; Barbirz, Stefanie

    2016-07-27

    Understanding interactions of bacterial surface polysaccharides with receptor protein scaffolds is important for the development of antibiotic therapies. The corresponding protein recognition domains frequently form low-affinity complexes with polysaccharides that are difficult to address with experimental techniques due to the conformational flexibility of the polysaccharide. In this work, we studied the tailspike protein (TSP) of the bacteriophage Sf6. Sf6TSP binds and hydrolyzes the high-rhamnose, serotype Y O-antigen polysaccharide of the Gram-negative bacterium Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) as a first step of bacteriophage infection. Spectroscopic analyses and enzymatic cleavage assays confirmed that Sf6TSP binds long stretches of this polysaccharide. Crystal structure analysis and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy using an enhanced method to interpret the data permitted the detailed description of affinity contributions and flexibility in an Sf6TSP-octasaccharide complex. Dodecasaccharide fragments corresponding to three repeating units of the O-antigen in complex with Sf6TSP were studied computationally by molecular dynamics simulations. They showed that distortion away from the low-energy solution conformation found in the octasaccharide complex is necessary for ligand binding. This is in agreement with a weak-affinity functional polysaccharide-protein contact that facilitates correct placement and thus hydrolysis of the polysaccharide close to the catalytic residues. Our simulations stress that the flexibility of glycan epitopes together with a small number of specific protein contacts provide the driving force for Sf6TSP-polysaccharide complex formation in an overall weak-affinity interaction system. PMID:27045683

  2. Proteomic analysis of growth phase-dependent expression of Legionella pneumophila proteins which involves regulation of bacterial virulence traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hayashi

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila, which is a causative pathogen of Legionnaires' disease, expresses its virulent traits in response to growth conditions. In particular, it is known to become virulent at a post-exponential phase in vitro culture. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of differences in expression between the exponential phase and post-exponential phase to identify candidates associated with L. pneumophila virulence using 2-Dimentional Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. Of 68 identified proteins that significantly differed in expression between the two growth phases, 64 were up-regulated at a post-exponential phase. The up-regulated proteins included enzymes related to glycolysis, ketone body biogenesis and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB biogenesis, suggesting that L. pneumophila may utilize sugars and lipids as energy sources, when amino acids become scarce. Proteins related to motility (flagella components and twitching motility-associated proteins were also up-regulated, predicting that they enhance infectivity of the bacteria in host cells under certain conditions. Furthermore, 9 up-regulated proteins of unknown function were found. Two of them were identified as novel bacterial factors associated with hemolysis of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs. Another 2 were found to be translocated into macrophages via the Icm/Dot type IV secretion apparatus as effector candidates in a reporter assay with Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase. The study will be helpful for virulent analysis of L. pneumophila from the viewpoint of physiological or metabolic modulation dependent on growth phase.

  3. Effect of dietary protein level (as substitution of maize with soybean meal on growth rate and feed efficiency of the Cinta Senese pig in the growing-fattening period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Franci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide first indications on the protein requirement of Cinta Senese pigs. The effect of various dietary protein contents on in vita performance was tested. Sixty Cinta Senese pigs were equally distributed in four dietary groups, balanced for sex (barrow and gilt and live weight. At the start of the trial, pigs were approximately 130 d old and weighed an average 46.6 kg. Groups were fed four diets with different protein content (approximately 8, 10, 13 and 16%, named 8% P, 10% P, 13% P, 16% P, respectively, obtained by using different maize/soybean meal ratios. Diets were administered to pigs during the entire growing-fattening period in a controlled dose of 90 g/kg W0.75, until a maximum of 2.5 kg/d pro capite. Feed distributed per pen was recorded daily and individual weight and ultrasonic backfat thickness were periodically recorded. The trial lasted approximately 250 d and finished when animals reached the target slaughter weight of 145 kg. The 8% P diet determined a lower growth rate than the other diets; after 250 d, pigs receiving this diet were 20 kg lighter than those receiving the other diets. The 10% P diet determined body weights always lower than the 13% P and 16% P diets, but the difference decreased in the middle of the trial period. The pigs fed 13% P and 16% P diets showed the same growth rate. Moreover, through the whole growth period, the 8% P diet produced higher fat thickness than the other three diets, which showed similar results. The 8% P diet determined the highest FCIs. The 16% P diet showed the best feed conversion until approximately 70 kg of l.w., but after this weight it became progressively less efficient than the 10% P and 13% P diets. Consequently, the cumulative intake of that diet was the lowest only for the first 60 kg of gain. The 10% P diet gave the best FCI starting from 80 kg of l.w. In consideration of the cost of protein feed and the need to reduce N pollution, the 10% P diet could be

  4. Norepinephrine turnover in brown adipose tissue is stimulated by a single meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glick, Z.; Raum, W.J.

    1986-07-01

    A single meal stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in rats. In the present study the role of norepinephrine in this thermogenic response was assessed from the rate of its turnover in BAT after a single test meal. For comparison, norepinephrine turnover was determined in the heart and spleen. A total of 48 male Wistar rats (200 g) were trained to eat during two feeding sessions per day. On the experimental day, one group (n = 24) was meal deprived and the other (n = 24) was given a low-protein high-carbohydrate test meal for 2 h. The synthesis inhibition method with ..cap alpha..-methyl-p-tyrosine was employed to determine norepinephrine turnover from its concentration at four hourly time points after the meal. Tissue concentrations of norepinephrine were determined by radioimmunoassay. Norepinephrine concentration and turnover rate were increased more than threefold in BAT of the meal-fed compared with the meal-deprived rats. Neither were significantly altered by the meal in the heart or spleen. The data suggest that norepinephrine mediates a portion of the thermic effect of meals that originate in BAT.

  5. Norepinephrine turnover in brown adipose tissue is stimulated by a single meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single meal stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in rats. In the present study the role of norepinephrine in this thermogenic response was assessed from the rate of its turnover in BAT after a single test meal. For comparison, norepinephrine turnover was determined in the heart and spleen. A total of 48 male Wistar rats (200 g) were trained to eat during two feeding sessions per day. On the experimental day, one group (n = 24) was meal deprived and the other (n = 24) was given a low-protein high-carbohydrate test meal for 2 h. The synthesis inhibition method with α-methyl-p-tyrosine was employed to determine norepinephrine turnover from its concentration at four hourly time points after the meal. Tissue concentrations of norepinephrine were determined by radioimmunoassay. Norepinephrine concentration and turnover rate were increased more than threefold in BAT of the meal-fed compared with the meal-deprived rats. Neither were significantly altered by the meal in the heart or spleen. The data suggest that norepinephrine mediates a portion of the thermic effect of meals that originate in BAT

  6. BacHbpred: Support Vector Machine Methods for the Prediction of Bacterial Hemoglobin-Like Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, MuthuKrishnan; Puri, Munish; Dikshit, Kanak L; Lefevre, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The recent upsurge in microbial genome data has revealed that hemoglobin-like (HbL) proteins may be widely distributed among bacteria and that some organisms may carry more than one HbL encoding gene. However, the discovery of HbL proteins has been limited to a small number of bacteria only. This study describes the prediction of HbL proteins and their domain classification using a machine learning approach. Support vector machine (SVM) models were developed for predicting HbL proteins based upon amino acid composition (AC), dipeptide composition (DC), hybrid method (AC + DC), and position specific scoring matrix (PSSM). In addition, we introduce for the first time a new prediction method based on max to min amino acid residue (MM) profiles. The average accuracy, standard deviation (SD), false positive rate (FPR), confusion matrix, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were analyzed. We also compared the performance of our proposed models in homology detection databases. The performance of the different approaches was estimated using fivefold cross-validation techniques. Prediction accuracy was further investigated through confusion matrix and ROC curve analysis. All experimental results indicate that the proposed BacHbpred can be a perspective predictor for determination of HbL related proteins. BacHbpred, a web tool, has been developed for HbL prediction. PMID:27034664

  7. Activation of Neutrophils via IP3 Pathway Following Exposure to Demodex-Associated Bacterial Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Fred; Banville, Nessa; Bergin, David A; Smedman, Christian; Paulie, Staffan; Reeves, Emer; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory condition that predominantly affects the skin of the face. Sera from rosacea patients display elevated reactivity to proteins from a bacterium (Bacillus oleronius) originally isolated from a Demodex mite from a rosacea patient suggesting a possible role for bacteria in the induction and persistence of this condition. This work investigated the ability of B. oleronius proteins to activate neutrophils and demonstrated activation via the IP3 pathway. Activated neutrophils displayed increased levels of IP1 production, F-actin formation, chemotaxis, and production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 following stimulation by pure and crude B. oleronius protein preparations (2 μg/ml), respectively. In addition, neutrophils exposed to pure and crude B. oleronius proteins (2 μg/ml) demonstrated increased release of internally stored calcium (Ca(2+)), a hallmark of the IP3 pathway of neutrophil activation. Neutrophils play a significant role in the inflammation associated with rosacea, and this work demonstrates how B. oleronius proteins can induce neutrophil recruitment and activation. PMID:26433579

  8. Systematic protein interactome analysis of glycosaminoglycans revealed YcbS as a novel bacterial virulence factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Felix Shih-Hsiang; Sutandy, Fx Reymond; Syu, Guan-Da; Chen, Yi-Wen; Lin, Jun-Mu; Chen, Chien-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Microbial pathogens have evolved several strategies for interacting with host cell components, such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Some microbial proteins involved in host-GAG binding have been described; however, a systematic study on microbial proteome-mammalian GAG interactions has not been conducted. Here, we used Escherichia coli proteome chips to probe four typical mammalian GAGs, heparin, heparan sulphate (HS), chondroitin sulphate B (CSB), and chondroitin sulphate C (CSC), and identified 185 heparin-, 62 HS-, 98 CSB-, and 101 CSC-interacting proteins. Bioinformatics analyses revealed the unique functions of heparin- and HS-specific interacting proteins in glycine, serine, and threonine metabolism. Among all the GAG-interacting proteins, three were outer membrane proteins (MbhA, YcbS, and YmgH). Invasion assays confirmed that mutant E. coli lacking ycbS could not invade the epithelial cells. Introducing plasmid carrying ycbS complemented the invading defects at ycbS lacking E. coli mutant, that can be further improved by overexpressing ycbS. Preblocking epithelial cells with YcbS reduced the percentage of E. coli invasions. Moreover, we observed that whole components of the ycb operon were crucial for invasion. The displacement assay revealed that YcbS binds to the laminin-binding site of heparin and might affect the host extracellular matrix structure by displacing heparin from laminin. PMID:27323865

  9. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Salas-Durán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to meassure the effect of shrimp meal (SM in commercial laying hen diets. From April to September 2013, in Costa Rica, Pleuroncodes planipes was used to obtain a meal (SM with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40.67%, ether extract (11.05%, crude fiber (7.12%, ash (27.48%, calcium (9.03%, phosphorus (2.66%, amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84% and acidity (8.34. Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p<0.05. The hens fed with 5% SM laid heavier eggs. It is suggested to evaluate a level of SM inclusion up to 15% in laying hens diets.

  10. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude protein extracts from seeds of six different medical plants against standard bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Akeel, Raid; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Janardhan, K; Gupta, V C

    2014-04-01

    A huge group of natural antimicrobial compounds are active against a large spectrum of bacterial strains causing infectious threat. The present study was conducted to investigate the crude extracts of antimicrobial protein and peptide efficacy from six medicinal plant seeds. Extraction was carried out in Sodium phosphate citrate buffer, and Sodium acetate buffer using different pH. Antimicrobial activities of these plants were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffusion Assay. Extremely strong activity was observed in the seed extracts of Allium ascolinicum extracted in sodium phosphate citrate buffer at pH (5.8) against Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition 17 mm, 17 mm and 15 mm and Rumex vesicarius at pH (7.6), Ammi majus at pH (6.8), Cichorium intybus at pH (7.4) and Cucumis sativus at pH (7.8) also showed better sensitivity against the bacterial strains with zone of inhibition ranges 16-10 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Antibacterial activity pattern of different plant extracts prepared in sodium acetate buffer pH (6.5), among all the plant seed extracts used Foeniculum vulgare had shown good inhibition in all the bacterial strains used, with zone of inhibition ranges 11-12.5 mm, The extracts of C. intybus and C. sativus were found to be effective with zone of inhibition 11-6 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Most of the strains found to have shown better sensitivity compared with the standard antibiotic Chloramphenicol (25 mcg). Our results showed that the plants used for our study are the richest source for antimicrobial proteins and peptides and they may be used for industrial extraction and isolation of antimicrobial compounds which may find a place in medicine industry as constituents of antibiotics. PMID:24600307

  11. Activation of phagocytic cells by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms: effects of extracellular matrix proteins and the bacterial stress protein GroEL on netosis and MRP-14 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapunt, Ulrike; Gaida, Matthias M; Meyle, Eva; Prior, Birgit; Hänsch, Gertrud M

    2016-07-01

    The recognition and phagocytosis of free-swimming (planktonic) bacteria by polymorphonuclear neutrophils have been investigated in depth. However, less is known about the neutrophil response towards bacterial biofilms. Our previous work demonstrated that neutrophils recognize activating entities within the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of biofilms (the bacterial heat shock protein GroEL) and that this process does not require opsonization. Aim of this study was to evaluate the release of DNA by neutrophils in response to biofilms, as well as the release of the inflammatory cytokine MRP-14. Neutrophils were stimulated with Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms, planktonic bacteria, extracted EPS and GroEL. Release of DNA and of MRP-14 was evaluated. Furthermore, tissue samples from patients suffering from biofilm infections were collected and evaluated by histology. MRP-14 concentration in blood samples was measured. We were able to show that biofilms, the EPS and GroEL induce DNA release. MRP-14 was only released after stimulation with EPS, not GroEL. Histology of tissue samples revealed MRP-14 positive cells in association with neutrophil infiltration and MRP-14 concentration was elevated in blood samples of patients suffering from biofilm infections. Our data demonstrate that neutrophil-activating entities are present in the EPS and that GroEL induces DNA release by neutrophils. PMID:27109773

  12. Impacts of pH-mediated EPS structure on probiotic bacterial pili-whey proteins interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgain, Jennifer; Scher, Joel; Lebeer, Sarah; Vanderleyden, Jos; Corgneau, Magda; Guerin, Justine; Caillet, Céline; Duval, Jérôme F L; Francius, Gregory; Gaiani, Claire

    2015-10-01

    Probiotic bacteria are routinely incorporated into dairy foods because of the health benefits they can provide when consumed. In this work, the marked pH-dependence of the pili/EPS organization at the outer surface of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is characterized in detail by Single Cell Force Microscopy and cell electrophoretic mobility measurements analyzed according to formalisms for nanomechanical contact and soft particle electrokinetics, respectively. At pH 6.8, LGG pili are easily accessible by AFM tips functionalized with whey proteins for specific binding, while at pH 4.8 the collapsed EPS surface layer significantly immobilized the LGG pili. This resulted in their reduced accessibility to the specific whey-coated AFM tip, and to stronger whey protein-pili rupture forces. Thus, pili interactions with whey proteins are screened to an extent that depends on the pH-mediated embedment of the pili within the EPS layer. PMID:26209966

  13. A bacterial ATP-dependent, enhancer binding protein that activates the housekeeping RNA polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, William C.; Kranz, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    A commonly accepted view of gene regulation in bacteria that has emerged over the last decade is that promoters are transcriptionally activated by one of two general mechanisms. The major type involves activator proteins that bind to DNA adjacent to where the RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme binds, usually assisting in recruitment of the RNAP to the promoter. This holoenzyme uses the housekeeping ς70 or a related factor, which directs the core RNAP to the promoter and assists in melting the DNA near the RNA start site. A second type of mechanism involves the alternative sigma factor (called ς54 or ςN) that directs RNAP to highly conserved promoters. In these cases, an activator protein with an ATPase function oligomerizes at tandem sites far upstream from the promoter. The nitrogen regulatory protein (NtrC) from enteric bacteria has been the model for this family of activators. Activation of the RNAP/ς54 holoenzyme to form the open complex is mediated by the activator, which is tethered upstream. Hence, this class of protein is sometimes called the enhancer binding protein family or the NtrC class. We describe here a third system that has properties of each of these two types. The NtrC enhancer binding protein from the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter capsulatus, is shown in vitro to activate the housekeeping RNAP/ς70 holoenzyme. Transcriptional activation by this NtrC requires ATP binding but not hydrolysis. Oligomerization at distant tandem binding sites on a supercoiled template is also necessary. Mechanistic and evolutionary questions of these systems are discussed. PMID:9637689

  14. Horizontal gene transfer of zinc and non-zinc forms of bacterial ribosomal protein S4

    OpenAIRE

    Luthey-Schulten Zaida; Roberts Elijah; Chen Ke

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The universal ribosomal protein S4 is essential for the initiation of small subunit ribosomal assembly and translational accuracy. Being part of the information processing machinery of the cell, the gene for S4 is generally thought of as being inherited vertically and has been used in concatenated gene phylogenies. Here we report the evolution of ribosomal protein S4 in relation to a broad sharing of zinc/non-zinc forms of the gene and study the scope of horizontal gene tr...

  15. Processing of commercial peanut cake into food-grade meal and its utilization in preparation of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, P V; Chavan, J K; Patil, P B; Kadam, S S

    1990-04-01

    The commercial cake produced during expeller pressing of peanuts was extracted with n-hexane, and 80% ethanol followed by sieving through 80 mesh, to remove residual oil, pigments, bitter taste and fibrous material. The processed meal exhibited comparable composition with defatted peanut flour prepared in the laboratory by solvent extraction of full-fat peanut meal. However, the processed cake meal exhibited low methionine content and in vitro protein digestibility as compared with defatted peanut flour. The processed cake meal can be blended with wheat flour to the extent of 10% (w/w) to prepare acceptable cookies with improved protein and mineral contents. PMID:2385572

  16. Haematology, Blood Chemistry and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Grasshopper Meal as a Substitute for Fish Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Njidda* and C. E. Isidahomen1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with grasshopper meal on haematology, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Forty rabbits of mixed breeds, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with eight rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were fed with diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5% grasshopper meal in diets designated as T1 (control, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of nine weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation, while blood samples were collected for analysis. The result of the experiment showed significant differences (P0.05 on haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The results also revealed significant differences (P0.05 on serum albumin and total protein. The results of carcass characteristics showed significant differences among treatments (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, skin pelt, tail, feet and abdominal fat. The slaughter weight and carcass weight were better in groups receiving 2.5% grass hopper meal (50% fish meal replacement. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of 2.50% grasshopper meal as a replacement for fish meal (50% replacement has no adverse effects on the haematological parameters, serum biochemistry and carcass characteristics of rabbits.

  17. Phosphoproteome analysis of streptomyces development reveals extensive protein phosphorylation accompanying bacterial differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manteca, Angel; Ye, Juanying; Sánchez, Jesús;

    2011-01-01

    bacteria encoding the largest number of eukaryotic type kinases, the biological role of protein phosphorylation in this bacterium has not been extensively studied before. In this issue, the variations of the phosphoproteome of S. coelicolor were characterized. Most distinct Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation...

  18. Heterologously expressed bacterial and human multidrug resistance proteins confer cadmium resistance to Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achard-Joris, M; van Saparoea, HBV; Driessen, AJM; Bourdineaud, JP; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The human MDR1 gene is induced by cadmium exposure although no resistance to this metal is observed in human cells overexpressing hMDR1. To access the role of MDR proteins in cadmium resistance, human MDR1, Lactococcus lactis lmrA, and Oenococcus oeni omrA were expressed in an Escherichia coli tolC

  19. Role of bacterial virulence proteins in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielse, C.B.; Ram, A.F.J.; Hooykaas, P.J.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2004-01-01

    The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori was optimized using defined co-cultivation conditions, which resulted in a reproducible and efficient transformation system. Optimal co-cultivation conditions were used to study the role of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence proteins

  20. Optimization of microwave-assisted alkaline extraction condition of protein from peanut meal%微波辅助碱法提取花生粕蛋白质工艺条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔涛; 赵雪淞; 刘民; 张丹

    2013-01-01

    Peanut protein was obtained through microwave-assisted alkaline extraction and acid precipitation from peanut meal.Compared with alkali extraction,peanut protein extraction yield could be enhanced by 18.00% through microwave assisted method,and the effect was remarkable.Four extraction parameters including ratio of material and liquid,pH,microwave extraction power and microwave extraction time were optimized by orthogonal experiment based on single factor investigation.The influences of these factors on different degree was an order of microwave extraction power>pH>microwave extraction time>ratio of material and liquid.The optimum conditions of microwave-assisted alkaline extraction were as follows:ratio of material and liquid 1∶10(g/mL),pH10.0,microwave extraction power 480W and microwave extraction time 4 minutes.Under these conditions,the maximum protein extraction rate of 85.43% was obtained.%采用微波辅助碱提酸沉法从花生粕中提取花生分离蛋白.相比于碱提法,采用微波辅助法可以将花生粕蛋白质的提取率提高18.00%,效果显著.在单因素实验基础上,以料液比、碱提pH、微波提取功率、微波提取时间为考察因素,采用正交实验优化最佳提取工艺.四因素对花生粕蛋白质提取率影响顺序为:微波提取功率>碱提pH>微波提取时间>料液比,最佳工艺条件为:料液比为1∶10(g/mL),提取pH10,微波输出功率为480W,微波提取时间4min.在此条件下,花生粕蛋白质最高提取率可达85.43%.

  1. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis protein from hot pressed rapeseed meal using central composite design%中心组合设计优化高温菜籽粕中蛋白的酶解工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党斌; 孙小凤

    2012-01-01

    Protein peptide has some of the biological activity and easily absorbed,applications of peptide in special food,pharmaceutical and biodegradable plastics have a potential prospect.This paper taking rapeseed protein from hot pressed rapeseed meal by ultrasonic wave as raw materials,and it is enzymatic hydrolysis using alkali protease.The single factor experiments and central composite design were adopted to study the effects of substrate concentration,enzymatic hydrolysis temperature,enzyme activity,pH value on degree of hydrolysis,the optimum process conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were determined,then enzymatic hydrolysis regression model were established,substrate concentration 3%,enzymatic hydrolysis temperature 46 ℃,enzyme activity12000U/g,pH value 9.57,enzymatic hydrolysis time3 h,the degree of hydrolysis of rapeseed protein by this new process was 23.96%.It will lay the better foundation for further enzymatic hydrolysis,and it is economical feasible.%蛋白肽具有一定的生物活性且容易吸收,广泛应用在食品、医药和化妆品等领域,显示出了诱人的应用前景。研究以超声波法从热榨春油菜菜籽粕中提取的蛋白为原料,利用碱性蛋白酶进行酶解制备菜籽蛋白肽。通过单因素试验及中心组合设计试验研究了底物浓度、酶解温度、酶用量、pH等因素对菜籽蛋白水解度的影响,确定了碱性蛋白酶酶解菜籽蛋白的最佳工艺条件,建立了回归数学模型。结果表明:在底物浓度为3%,酶解温度为46℃,酶用量为12000U/g,pH为9.57的条件下酶解3h,菜籽蛋白的水解度达23.96%。为进一步酶解打下良好的基础,是一条经济可行的工艺路线。

  2. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    parameters, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion is...... the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental...

  3. Possible evidence of amide bond formation between sinapinic acid and lysine-containing bacterial proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) at 355 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously reported the apparent formation of matrix adducts of 3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (sinapinic acid or SA) via covalent attachment to disulfide bond-containing proteins (HdeA, HdeB and YbgS) from bacterial cell lysates ionized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALD...

  4. Probióticos em rações para frangos de corte utilizando farinha de carne e ossos com diferentes níveis de contaminação bacteriana Use of probiotics in broiler rations containing bone and meat meal with different levels of bacterial contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Soares Teixeira

    2003-08-01

    na incidência de diarréia, quando se utilizou farinha de carne e ossos com médio e alto nível de contaminação bacteriana.Aiming to study the effects of probiotics on performance of broiler chickens fed on diets containing bone and meat meal with different levels of bacterial contamination, an experiment was carried out in the Federal University of Lavras . 576 one-day-old broiler chicken of the Hubbard line, of both sexes, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized, in a 4 X 3 scheme (4 rations and 3 probiotics with 4 replications, being 12 birds per plot, housed in cages. The treatments were made up of 4 rations, one with no meat meal and with bicalcic phosphate (check and the other three with meat meal with high, medium and lower levels of contamination (1.0x104, 4.5x103 and 1.0x103 ufc/g, respectively. Each of these rations were fed: without probiotic; with a probiotic containing about 3 billion viable cells pergram of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus faecium e Sacharomices cerevisae, at the a dose of 10 g/ton; and a probiotic containing Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus acidófillus, Lactobacillus plantarum e Lactobacillus sp., at the concentration of 3 X1010 ufc/g of this product, added to water (1.33 g/L in the first 24 hours of chick's life. It was found that there was not any significant effects (P<0.05 on the weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion, for the birds fed on the ration with low level contamination. The inclusion of bone and meat meal resulted in a better feed conversion for the birds fed on the rations with high and medium contamination. It was observed a reduction on the appearance of diarrhea, during the first week chick's life, when the probiotics were used and an increase when bone and meat meal with medium and high level of contamination.

  5. Expressing a bacterial mercuric ion binding protein in plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ju-Liang; Chen, Ching-Yi; Chiu, Meng-Hsuen; Chein, Mei-Fang; Chang, Jo-Shu; Endo, Ginro; Huang, Chieh-Chen

    2009-01-30

    A specific mercuric ion binding protein (MerP) originating from transposon TnMERI1 of Bacillus megaterium strain MB1 isolated from Minamata Bay displayed good adsorption capability for a variety of heavy metals. In this study, the Gram-positive MerP protein was expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis to create a model system for phytoremediation of heavy metals. Under control of an actin promoter, the transgenic Arabidpsis showed higher tolerance and accumulation capacity for mercury, cadium and lead when compared with the control plant. Results from confocal microscopy analysis also indicate that MerP was localized at the cell membrane and vesicles of plant cells. The developed transgenic plants possessing excellent metal-accumulative ability could have potential applications in decontamination of heavy metals. PMID:18538925

  6. A Gram-Negative Bacterial Secreted Protein Types Prediction Method Based on PSI-BLAST Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of secreted protein types based solely on sequence data remains to be a challenging problem. In this study, we extract the long-range correlation information and linear correlation information from position-specific score matrix (PSSM). A total of 6800 features are extracted at 17 different gaps; then, 309 features are selected by a filter feature selection method based on the training set. To verify the performance of our method, jackknife and independent dataset tests are performed on the test set and the reported overall accuracies are 93.60% and 100%, respectively. Comparison of our results with the existing method shows that our method provides the favorable performance for secreted protein type prediction.

  7. Influence of intestinal inflammation on bacterial protein expression in monoassociated mice

    OpenAIRE

    Schumann, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased numbers of intestinal E. coli are observed in inflammatory bowel disease, but the reasons for this proliferation and it exact role in intestinal inflammation are unknown. Aim of this PhD-project was to identify E. coli proteins involved in E. coli’s adaptation to the inflammatory conditions in the gut and to investigate whether these factors affect the host. Furthermore, the molecular basis for strain-specific differences between probiotic and harmful E. coli in their re...

  8. Tyrosine protein kinase inhibitors block invasin-promoted bacterial uptake by epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenshine, I.; Duronio, V; Finlay, B B

    1992-01-01

    The ability to enter into (invade) mammalian cells is an essential virulence determinant of many pathogenic bacteria and intracellular parasites. These organisms are internalized by host cells upon attachment to their surface. However, the mechanisms used by intracellular parasites to induce internalization into host cells have not been defined. We found that the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine blocks invasion by some pathogenic bacteria, including Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia ...

  9. Antiadhesive Properties of Arabinogalactan Protein from Ribes nigrum Seeds against Bacterial Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Jutta Messing; Michael Niehues; Anna Shevtsova; Thomas Borén; Andreas Hensel

    2014-01-01

    Fruit extracts from black currants (Ribes nigrum L.) are traditionally used for treatment of gastritis based on seed polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach cells. For detailed investigations an arabinogalactan protein (F2) was isolated from seeds and characterized concerning molecular weight, carbohydrate, amino acid composition, linkage, configuration and reaction with beta-glucosyl Yariv. Functional testing of F2 was performed by semiquantitative in situ...

  10. Bacterial protein translocation requires only one copy of the SecY complex in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eunyong; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of proteins across the plasma membrane in bacteria requires a channel formed from the SecY complex, which cooperates with either a translating ribosome in cotranslational translocation or the SecA ATPase in post-translational translocation. Whether translocation requires oligomers of the SecY complex is an important but controversial issue: it determines channel size, how the permeation of small molecules is prevented, and how the channel interacts with the ribosome and SecA. He...

  11. Bacterial protein translocation: kinetic and thermodynamic role of ATP and the protonmotive force

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The energetic mechanism of preprotein export in Escherichia coli has been a source of controversy for many years. In vitro studies of translocation reactions that use purified soluble and membrane components have now clarified the main features of this mechanism. Translocation occurs through consecutive steps which each have distinct energy requirements. Initiation of translocation requires ATP and the SecA protein. Most of the further steps can be driven by the protonmotive force (Δp).

  12. A bacterial ATP-dependent, enhancer binding protein that activates the housekeeping RNA polymerase

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, William C.; Kranz, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    A commonly accepted view of gene regulation in bacteria that has emerged over the last decade is that promoters are transcriptionally activated by one of two general mechanisms. The major type involves activator proteins that bind to DNA adjacent to where the RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme binds, usually assisting in recruitment of the RNAP to the promoter. This holoenzyme uses the housekeeping ς70 or a related factor, which directs the core RNAP to the promoter and assists in melting the D...

  13. Binary Bacterial Toxins: Biochemistry, Biology, and Applications of Common Clostridium and Bacillus Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Holger; Aktories, Klaus; Popoff, Michel R.; Stiles, Bradley G.

    2004-01-01

    Certain pathogenic species of Bacillus and Clostridium have developed unique methods for intoxicating cells that employ the classic enzymatic “A-B” paradigm for protein toxins. The binary toxins produced by B. anthracis, B. cereus, C. botulinum, C. difficile, C. perfringens, and C. spiroforme consist of components not physically associated in solution that are linked to various diseases in humans, animals, or insects. The “B” components are synthesized as precursors that are subsequently acti...

  14. Inhibition of bacterial conjugation by phage M13 and its protein g3p: quantitative analysis and model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lin

    Full Text Available Conjugation is the main mode of horizontal gene transfer that spreads antibiotic resistance among bacteria. Strategies for inhibiting conjugation may be useful for preserving the effectiveness of antibiotics and preventing the emergence of bacterial strains with multiple resistances. Filamentous bacteriophages were first observed to inhibit conjugation several decades ago. Here we investigate the mechanism of inhibition and find that the primary effect on conjugation is occlusion of the conjugative pilus by phage particles. This interaction is mediated primarily by phage coat protein g3p, and exogenous addition of the soluble fragment of g3p inhibited conjugation at low nanomolar concentrations. Our data are quantitatively consistent with a simple model in which association between the pili and phage particles or g3p prevents transmission of an F plasmid encoding tetracycline resistance. We also observe a decrease in the donor ability of infected cells, which is quantitatively consistent with a reduction in pili elaboration. Since many antibiotic-resistance factors confer susceptibility to phage infection through expression of conjugative pili (the receptor for filamentous phage, these results suggest that phage may be a source of soluble proteins that slow the spread of antibiotic resistance genes.

  15. Quantitative Mass Spectrometry for Bacterial Protein Toxins — A Sensitive, Specific, High-Throughput Tool for Detection and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Kalb

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Matrix-assisted laser-desorption time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS is a valuable high-throughput tool for peptide analysis. Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization (LC-ESI tandem-MS provides sensitive and specific quantification of small molecules and peptides. The high analytic power of MS coupled with high-specificity substrates is ideally suited for detection and quantification of bacterial enzymatic activities. As specific examples of the MS applications in disease diagnosis and select agent detection, we describe recent advances in the analyses of two high profile protein toxin groups, the Bacillus anthracis toxins and the Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins. The two binary toxins produced by B. anthracis consist of protective antigen (PA which combines with lethal factor (LF and edema factor (EF, forming lethal toxin and edema toxin respectively. LF is a zinc-dependent endoprotease which hydrolyzes specific proteins involved in inflammation and immunity. EF is an adenylyl cyclase which converts ATP to cyclic-AMP. Toxin-specific enzyme activity for a strategically designed substrate, amplifies reaction products which are detected by MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS. Pre-concentration/purification with toxin specific monoclonal antibodies provides additional specificity. These combined technologies have achieved high specificity, ultrasensitive detection and quantification of the anthrax toxins. We also describe potential applications to diseases of high public health impact, including Clostridium difficile glucosylating toxins and the Bordetella pertussis adenylyl cyclase.

  16. Acyl-acyl carrier protein as a source of fatty acids for bacterial bioluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse-chase experiments with [3H]tetradecanoic acid and ATP showed that the bioluminescence-related 32-kDa acyltransferase from Vibrio harveyi can specifically catalyze the deacylation of a 3H-labeled 18-kDa protein observed in extracts of this bacterium. The 18-kDa protein has been partially purified and its physical and chemical properties strongly indicate that it is fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP). Both this V. harveyi [3H]acylprotein and [3H]palmitoyl-ACP from Escherichia coli were substrates in vitro for either the V. harveyi 32-kDa acyltransferase or the analogous enzyme (34K) from Photobacterium phosphoreum. TLC analysis indicated that the hexane-soluble product of the reaction is fatty acid. No significant cleavage of either E. coli or V. harveyi tetradecanoyl-ACP was observed in extracts of these bacteria unless the 32-kDa or 34K acyltransferase was present. Since these enzymes are believed to be responsible for the supply of fatty acids for reduction to form the aldehyde substrate of luciferase, the above results suggest that long-chain acyl-ACP is the source of fatty acids for bioluminescence

  17. Bacterial surface layer proteins as a novel capillary coating material for capillary electrophoretic separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía; Stigter, Edwin C A; Lindenburg, Petrus W; Hankemeier, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    A novel concept for stable coating in capillary electrophoresis, based on recrystallization of surface layer proteins on hydrophobized fused silica capillaries, was demonstrated. Surface layer protein A (SlpA) from Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria was extracted, purified and used for coating pre-silanized glass substrates presenting different surface wettabilities (either hydrophobic or hydrophilic). Contact angle determination on SlpA-coated hydrophobic silica slides showed that the surfaces turned to hydrophilic after coating (53 ± 5°), due to a protein monolayer formation by protein-surface hydrophobic interactions. Visualization by atomic force microscopy demonstrated the presence of a SlpA layer on methylated silica slides displaying a surface roughness of 0.44 ± 0.02 nm. Additionally, a protein layer was visualized by fluorescence microscopy in methylated silica capillaries coated with SlpA and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled. The SlpA-coating showed an outstanding stability, even after treatment with 20 mM NaOH (pH 12.3). The electroosmotic flow in coated capillaries showed a partial suppression at pH 7.50 (3.8 ± 0.5 10(-9) m(2) V(-1) s(-1)) when compared with unmodified fused silica (5.9 ± 0.1 10(-8) m(2) V(-1) s(-1)). To demonstrate the potential of this novel coating, the SlpA-coated capillaries were applied for the first time for electrophoretic separation, and proved to be very suitable for the isotachophoretic separation of lipoproteins in human serum. The separations showed a high degree of repeatability (absolute migration times with 1.1-1.8% coefficient-of-variation (CV) within a day) and 2-3% CV inter-capillary reproducibility. The capillaries were stable for more than 100 runs at pH 9.40, and showed to be an exceptional alternative for challenging electrophoretic separations at long-term use. PMID:27155306

  18. The Family Meal Panacea:Exploring How Different Aspects of Family Meal Occurrence, Meal Habits and Meal Enjoyment Relate to Young Children’s Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Skafida, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    The general consensus in the research to date is that family meals are linked to healthier eating habits in children, compared to not eating with the family. Yet, few studies explore what it is about commensality which leads to better food choices among children. Using a representative Scottish sample of five-year-old children, this research explores the extent to which family meal occurrence, meal patterns regarding where, when and with whom children eat and perceived meal enjoyment predict ...

  19. Production of Bioactive Peptides from Soybean Meal by Solid State Fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Protease

    OpenAIRE

    Naifu Wang; Guowei Le; Yonghui Shi; Yuan Zeng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, soybean meal was first solid state fermented with different strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). Among the strains used, Lactobacillus plantarum Lp6 was selected for further studies because of its highest Degree of Hydrolysis (DH) of protein (2.49±0.08%) in soybean meal after 72 h fermentation. Soybean meal fermented with L. plantarum Lp6 can also improve its DPPH radical scavenging and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. The addition of protease into s...

  20. The impact of meal attributes and nudging on healthy meal consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2013-01-01

    We use a field experiment in a lunch restaurant to analyze how meal attributes and a “nudge” impact healthy labeled meal consumption. The nudge consists of increasing the salience of healthy labeled meals by placing them at the top of the menu. We find that certain meal attributes (e.g. poultry and...... red meat) greatly increase both sales and the market share of the healthy labeled meal. We conclude that a careful design of the healthy food supply may be efficient in encouraging healthier meal choices, e.g. supplying healthy labeled versions of popular conventional meals. We find no impact on...

  1. Stainless steel modified with poly(ethylene glycol) can prevent protein adsorption but not bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jiang; Bagge, Dorthe; Gram, Lone;

    2003-01-01

    . The chemical composition and uniformity of the surfaces were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight static secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SSIMS) in the imaging mode. The effects of PEI concentration and different substrate pre-cleaning methods on the structure....... The surface density of PEI was shown to increase with increasing PEI concentration (up to 30 mg/ml), as determined from XPS measurements, and subsequently produced the PEG layer with the highest density of attached chains. In model experiments using beta-lactoglobulin no protein adsorption was detected...

  2. Meat, dairy and plant proteins alter bacterial composition of rat gut bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Yingying Zhu; Xisha Lin; Fan Zhao; Xuebin Shi; He Li; Yingqiu Li; Weiyun Zhu; Xinglian Xu; Chunbao Lu; Guanghong Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Long-term consumption of red meat has been considered a potential risk to gut health, but this is based on clinic investigations, excessive intake of fat, heme and some injurious compounds formed during cooking or additions to processed meat products. Whether intake of red meat protein affects gut bacteria and the health of the host remains unclear. In this work, we compared the composition of gut bacteria in the caecum, by sequencing the V4-V5 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene, obtained from ...

  3. Bacterial single-stranded DNA-binding proteins are phosphorylated on tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Macek, B;

    2006-01-01

    Single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) are required for repair, recombination and replication in all organisms. Eukaryotic SSBs are regulated by phosphorylation on serine and threonine residues. To our knowledge, phosphorylation of SSBs in bacteria has not been reported. A systematic search...... antagonistically by kinase YwqD and phosphatase YwqE. Phosphorylation of B.subtilis SSB increased binding almost 200-fold to single-stranded DNA in vitro. Tyrosine phosphorylation of B.subtilis, S.coelicolor and Escherichia coli SSBs occured while they were expressed in E.coli, indicating that tyrosine...

  4. Immunogenicity of bacterial-expressed recombinant Plasmodium knowlesi merozoite surface protein-142 (MSP-142)

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Fei Wen; Fong, Mun Yik; Lau, Yee Ling; Mahmud, Rohela

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium knowlesi is the fifth Plasmodium species that can infect humans. The Plasmodium merozoite surface protein-142 (MSP-142) is a potential candidate for malaria vaccine. However, limited studies have focused on P. knowlesi MSP-142. Methods A ~42 kDa recombinant P. knowlesi MSP-142 (pkMSP-142) was expressed using an Escherichia coli system. The purified pkMSP-142 was evaluated with malaria and non-malaria human patient sera (n = 189) using Western blots and ELISA. The immunog...

  5. Corn gluten meal application equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has determined that corn gluten meal (CGM) produces an inhibitory effect and reduces root formation in several weed species. One limitation to further evaluation of CGM in field vegetable production is the difficulty in achieving a uniform application to the soil surface. The use o...

  6. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie B. Barr

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence has shown that rising obesity rates closely parallel the increased consumption of processed foods (PF consumption in USA. Differences in postprandial thermogenic responses to a whole-food (WF meal vs. a PF meal may be a key factor in explaining obesity trends, but currently there is limited research exploring this potential link. Objective: The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, thereby conferring a greater net-energy intake. Design: Subjective satiation scores and postprandial energy expenditure were measured for 5–6 h after isoenergetic meals were ingested. The meals were either ‘whole’ or ‘processed’ cheese sandwiches; multi-grain bread and cheddar cheese were deemed whole, while white bread and processed cheese product were considered processed. Meals were comparable in terms of protein (15–20%, carbohydrate (40–50%, and fat (33–39% composition. Subjects were healthy women (n=12 and men (n=5 studied in a crossover design. Results: There were no significant differences in satiety ratings after the two meals. Average energy expenditure for the WF meal (137±14.1 kcal, 19.9% of meal energy was significantly larger than for the PF meal (73.1±10.2 kcal, 10.7% of meal energy. Conclusion: Ingestion of the particular PF meal tested in this study decreases postprandial energy expenditure by nearly 50% compared with the isoenergetic WF meal. This reduction in daily energy expenditure has potential implications for diets comprised heavily of PFs and their associations with obesity.

  7. Deletion of Invasion Protein B in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Influences Bacterial Invasion and Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Songbiao; Zhang, Chunjie; Liao, Chengshui; Li, Jing; Yu, Chuan; Cheng, Xiangchao; Yu, Zuhua; Zhang, Mingliang; Wang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) has a wide host range and causes infections ranging from severe gastroenteritis to systemic infections in human, as well as causing typhoid-like disease in murine models of infection. S. Typhimurium translocates its effector proteins through the Salmonella pathogenicity island-I (SPI-I)-encoded T3SS-I needle complex. This study focuses on invasion protein B (SipB) of S. Typhimurium, which plays an active role in SPI-I invasion efficiency. To test our hypothesis, a sipB deletion mutant was constructed through double-crossover allelic using the suicide vector pRE112ΔsipB, and its biological characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that the SipB does not affect the growth of Salmonella, but the adherence, invasion, and virulence of the mutant were significantly decreased compared with wild-type S. Typhimurium (SL1344). This research indicates that SipB is an important virulence factor in the pathogenicity of S. Typhimurium. PMID:26341924

  8. Protein and Bacterial Antifouling Behavior of Melt-Coextruded Nanofiber Mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si-Eun; Zhang, Cong; Advincula, Abigail A; Baer, Eric; Pokorski, Jonathan K

    2016-04-13

    Antifouling surfaces are important for biomedical devices to prevent secondary infections and mitigate the effects of the foreign body response. Herein, we describe melt-coextruded poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofiber mats grafted with antifouling polymers. Nonwoven PCL fiber mats are produced using a multilayered melt coextrusion process followed by high-pressure hydroentanglement to yield porous patches. The resulting fiber mats show submicrometer cross-sectional fiber dimensions and yield pore sizes that were nearly uniform, with a mean pore size of 1.6 ± 0.9 μm. Several antifouling polymers, including hydrophilic, zwitterionic, and amphipathic molecules, are grafted to the surface of the mats using a two-step procedure that includes photochemistry followed by the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Fiber mats are evaluated using separate adsorption tests for serum proteins and E. coli. The results indicate that poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate)-co-(trifluoroethyl methacrylate) (poly(OEGMEMA-co-TFEMA)) grafted mats exhibit approximately 85% less protein adhesion and 97% less E. coli adsorption when compared to unmodified PCL fibermats. In dynamic antifouling testing, the amphiphilic fluorous polymer surface shows the highest flux and highest rejection value of foulants. The work presented within has implications on the high-throughput production of antifouling microporous patches for medical applications. PMID:27043205

  9. Secondary Structure Preferences of Mn2+ Binding Sites in Bacterial Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Aleksandrovna Khrustaleva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D structures of proteins with coordinated Mn2+ ions from bacteria with low, average, and high genomic GC-content have been analyzed (149 PDB files were used. Major Mn2+ binders are aspartic acid (6.82% of Asp residues, histidine (14.76% of His residues, and glutamic acid (3.51% of Glu residues. We found out that the motif of secondary structure “beta strand-major binder-random coil” is overrepresented around all the three major Mn2+ binders. That motif may be followed by either alpha helix or beta strand. Beta strands near Mn2+ binding residues should be stable because they are enriched by such beta formers as valine and isoleucine, as well as by specific combinations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acid residues characteristic to beta sheet. In the group of proteins from GC-rich bacteria glutamic acid residues situated in alpha helices frequently coordinate Mn2+ ions, probably, because of the decrease of Lys usage under the influence of mutational GC-pressure. On the other hand, the percentage of Mn2+ sites with at least one amino acid in the “beta strand-major binder-random coil” motif of secondary structure (77.88% does not depend on genomic GC-content.

  10. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  11. Effects of meal composition on blood alcohol level, psychomotor performance and subjective state after ingestion of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, F; Hammersley, R; Millar, K

    1998-12-01

    Moderating effects of meal composition on psychomotor performance impairment and feelings after alcohol were examined in a between-subjects design. Fifty-one male volunteers fasted or received either a high carbohydrate (85% energy) or a high protein (94% energy) meal. Alcohol was administered at a dose to achieve a blood alcohol level (BAL) of 60 mg/100 ml, as a placebo. Subjects performed a dual task of primary tracking and secondary reaction time and a five-choice reaction time task. Feelings were also assessed by rating. The high carbohydrate meal reduced BAL at peak and 2 h after drinking, but a high protein meal had no significant effect. Although performance was impaired by alcohol, neither meal significantly reduced impairment and there was no effect of meal type on performance in the placebo condition. However, alcohol increased rated intoxication and the high carbohydrate meal reduced this effect. Subjects who had consumed high protein meals had more negative affect 2 h after alcohol than did subjects who had consumed high carbohydrate meals or fasted. It is concluded that there is only a weak relationship between BAL and performance impairment and food has only limited effects on impairment, although it reduces BAL. PMID:9920688

  12. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious diarrhea - bacterial gastroenteritis; Acute gastroenteritis; Gastroenteritis - bacterial ... Bacterial gastroenteritis can affect 1 person or a group of people who all ate the same food. It is ...

  13. Optimization of alkaline protease extraction technology of protein from rapeseed meal by response surface methodology%响应面法优化碱性蛋白酶提取菜籽饼中可溶性蛋白质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤务霞; 冯程; 韩艳

    2012-01-01

    菜籽饼是油菜籽压榨制油的副产物,是提取蛋白质的良好资源。以菜籽饼为原料,利用碱性蛋白酶提取菜籽饼中的可溶性蛋白质。在系统考察液料比、加酶量、初始pH、提取温度及提取时间对可溶性蛋白质提取率影响的基础上,提取时间恒定在40min,利用响应面实验优化各主效因子,经回归分析获得最优的工艺条件:加酶量6500U/g、酶解温度45℃、初始pH11、液料比17∶1,在此工艺条件下可溶性蛋白质提取率为55.38%。%Rapeseed meal was by-products of pressing rapeseed oil and a good resource of protein extraction. Using rapeseed meal as material,the technology for extracting rapeseed meal protein with alkaline protease was discussed. Based on systematic study of effect of liquid to solid ratio,enzyme dosage,value of initial pH, reaction temperature and reaction time on extraction rate of protein,main effect factors were optimized and optimum technology was received. When reaction time was constantly 40min,the result demonstrated extraction rate of protein was 55.38% under optimum conditions namely that enzyme dosage 6500U/g, reaction temperature 45℃,value of initial pil11 ,ratio of liquid to solid 17:1.

  14. EFFECT OF DIETARY REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL PROTEIN BY SOYBEAN MEAL PROTEIN ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, METABOLISM AND IMMUNITY OF GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)%饲料中豆粕替代鱼粉蛋白对异育银鲫生长、代谢及免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王崇; 雷武; 解绶启; 朱晓鸣; 杨云霞; 韩冬

    2009-01-01

    本实验评价了饲料中豆粕替代鱼粉蛋白后对异育银鲫的生长、饲料利用、氮代谢和鱼体免疫力等的影响.实验设计4种等氮等能的饲料,每种3个重复,分别以豆粕替代饲料中鱼粉蛋白的0(对照,D1)、20%(D2)、80%(D3)和100%(D4).实验在半循环水养殖系统持续16周.鱼的初重约2.32g,实验期间水温23-30℃.结果表明,随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高,摄食率显著升高(p<0.05).特定生长率、饲料转化效率、蛋白沉积率和能量沉积率显著降低(p<0.05);蛋白表观消化率显著升高,干物质和能量表观消化率则显著降低(p<0.05);总氮摄入量、表观氮摄入量、粪氮排出量、非粪氮排泄量、总氮沉积率均随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高呈显著降低的趋势(p<0.05),生产每千克鱼的氮排放量则随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高显著升高(p<0.05);血清葡萄糖和甘油三酯的含量显著升高,而胆固醇的含量显著降低(p<0.05);血清的溶菌酶显著降低,超氧化物歧化酶逐渐升高(p<0.05).%A 16-weeks growth was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of dietary fishmeal by soybean meal on growth performance, feed utilization, nitrogen metabolism and immunity in gibel carp. Four isonitrogenous and isoealoric diets were formulated. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish with the initial weight at about 2. 32 g. Soybean meal was used to replace 0 (Control, D1), 20% (D2), 80% (D3) and 100% (D4) of dietary fishmeal protein. The fish was reared in a semi-recirculating system. During the experiment, water temperature was 23--30℃, photoperiod was 12D: 12L with the light period from 08 : 00 to 20 : 00, dissolved oxygen was above 5 mg/L, ammonia-N (NH4+ -N plus NH3-N) was less than 0. 5 mg/L, pH was about 6. 4. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily (9:00 and 15:00). At the beginning of the experiment, healthy fish (initial body weight about 2. 32 g) were batch weighed after 24h feed

  15. ANALISIS COMPOSICIONAL, MICROBIOLÓGICO Y DIGESTIBILIDAD DE LA PROTEÍNA DE LA HARINA DE LARVAS DE Hermetia illuscens L (DIPTERA:STRATIOMYIIDAE EN ANGELÓPOLIS-ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA COMPOSITIONAL, MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PROTEIN DIGESTIBILITY ANALYSIS OF THE LARVA MEAL OF Hermetia illuscens L. (Diptera:Stratiomyiidae AT ANGELÓPOLIS - ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Patricia Arango Gutiérrez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el valor nutritivo de la harina de las larvas de Hermetia illuscens L. a partir del análisis composicional, prueba de digestibilidad y calidad microbiológica de esta, comparada con una materia prima convencional como la harina de pescado y con otro díptero como es la Musca domestica L. ya que comparten hábitat y ha sido estudiado como materia prima. La harina de las larvas de la mosca negra soldado, por su análisis proximal puede ser considerada un ingrediente proteico. Además presenta una alta digestibilidad. Las características bromatol��gicas asociadas a su calidad microbiológica la convierte en una materia prima promisoria en la alimentación animal.The nutritional value of the larva meal of Hermetia illuscens L. was investigated by means of compositional analysis, digestability tests and its microbiological quality, as compared to other conventional feeds such as fish meal and other Diptera such as Musca domestica L., given that they share the same habitat and have been studied as a food source. The meal of the soldier fly larva could be considered a proteinic ingredient based on its nutritional composition. Also, it had high digestibility. The bromatological characteristics associated with its microbiological quality makes it a promising feed for animal nutrition.

  16. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    the social life of a school class, and how these arrangements involve strategies of both inclusion and exclusion. Two types of school meals are compared in the intervention study: a hot meal based on Nordic ingredients and the normal Danish school meal arrangement in which children bring lunch packs...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...

  17. Ruminal protein metabolism and intestinal amino acid utilization as affected by dietary protein and carbohydrate sources in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, H S; Jordan, R M; Stern, M D

    1991-05-01

    Eight wether lambs fitted with ruminal, duodenal, and ileal cannulas were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to study the effects of carbohydrate and protein sources on ruminal protein metabolism and carbohydrate fermentation and intestinal amino acid (AA) absorption. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial. Carbohydrate sources were corn and barley; protein sources were soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM). Diets contained 15.5% CP, of which 40% was supplied by SBM or FM. Corn or barley provided 39% of dietary DM that contained equal amounts of grass hay and wheat straw. Fish meal diets produced a lower (P less than .05) ruminal NH3 concentration and resulted in less CP degradation and bacterial protein flow to the duodenum than did SBM diets. Replacing SBM with FM increased (P less than .05) ruminal digestion of all fiber fractions. In addition, cellulose and hemicellulose digestibilities in the rumen tended to increase (P greater than .05) when barley replaced corn in the FM diets. Carbohydrate x protein interactions (P less than .05) were observed for OM digestion in the rumen and AA absorption in the small intestine (percentage of AA entering); these interactions were highest for the barley-FM diet. These results suggest that feeding FM with barley, which is high in both degradable carbohydrate and protein, might benefit ruminants more than feeding FM with corn, which is high in degradable carbohydrate but relatively low in degradable protein. PMID:1648551

  18. Phyloproteomic classification of unsequenced organisms by top-down identification of bacterial proteins using capLC-MS/MS on an Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Colin; Edwards, Nathan J; Fenselau, Catherine

    2010-10-01

    Currently, most MS-based proteomic studies of bacteria and archea match experimental data to known amino acid sequences from the target organism. Top-down studies use a protein's molecular weight along with data gathered from MS/MS experiments to identify proteins by database matching. For Erwinia herbicola and Enterobacter cloacae, studied here, the necessary protein sequences are not available in protein sequence repositories. We apply top-down protein fragmentation, but match the experimental data with homologous proteins from related organisms with sequenced genomes, demonstrating considerable shared protein sequence between closely related bacteria. Using this homology-based approach, we are not only able to identify representative proteins, but are also able to place the two target bacteria in their correct phylogeny. Furthermore, we show that the unexpected mass delta between the experimental precursor and matched protein sequence can often be localized and characterized using accurate-mass precursor and fragment ion measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that proteins identified by top-down workflows provide strong experimental evidence for correct, missing, and misannotated bacterial protein sequences, not only in the analyzed organism, but also for homologous proteins in closely related species. PMID:20845332

  19. Consumption of high-fat meal containing cheese compared with vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomized controlled cross-over study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimize CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomized...

  20. In vitro solubility of meat and bone meal protein with different pepsin concentrations Solubilidade in vitro da proteína de farinhas de carne e ossos com diferentes concentraçoes de pepsina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Bellaver

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro protein digestibility of protein sources has been correlated with in vivo digestibility values. However, factors like protein origin, enzyme used and its concentration, pH and processing have been related with the significance of the correlation between the estimates. To address only the enzyme concentration factor, this paper had the objective of testing pepsin at 0.2, 0.02, 0.002 and 0.0002% using the standard AOAC (1995 procedure. Two meat and bone meals (MBM with low and high crude protein (CP content were used to determine the coefficient of solubility of CP in pepsin and HCl (CSCPPEPH. Centrifugation was used to establish the nitrogen (N in the soluble phase, instead of filtration and analysis of N in the residue. The variance analysis and a non-linear asymptotic model were adjusted. The CSCPPEPH under different pepsin concentrations for the two MBM showed higher solubility discrimination with low pepsin concentration. The level of 0.0002% pepsin is better to predict the CP soluble in MBM. This finding implies the assumption that 0.2% pepsin found in the AOAC is not correct for the purpose of determining the range of solubility in high and low CP content in MBM.A digestibilidade in vitro da proteína de fontes protéicas tem sido correlacionada com a digestibilidade in vivo. Entretanto, fatores como a origem protéica, enzima usada e sua concentração, pH e processamento têm sido relacionados com a significância da correlação entre as estimativas. Para atuar somente no fator da concentração enzimática, este trabalho teve por objetivo testar a pepsina nas concentrações de 0,2, 0,02, 0,002 e 0,0002%, utilizando o procedimento padrão do AOAC (1995. Duas farinhas de carne e ossos com baixo ou alto teor de proteína (PB foram usadas para determinar o coeficiente de solubilidade da PB em pepsina e HCl (CSCPPEPH. Centrifugação foi usada para obter o nitrogênio (N na fase solúvel, em vez da filtração e análise do N no

  1. Plant Ribosomal Proteins, RPL12 and RPL19, Play a Role in Nonhost Disease Resistance against Bacterial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Satish; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Ramu, Vemanna S; Wang, Keri; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the molecular mechanism involved in nonhost disease resistance is important to understand the adaptations of plant-pathogen interactions. In this study, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-based forward genetics screen was utilized to identify genes involved in nonhost resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana. Genes encoding ribosomal proteins, RPL12 and RPL19, were identified in the screening. These genes when silenced in N. benthamiana caused a delay in nonhost bacteria induced hypersensitive response (HR) with concurrent increase in nonhost bacterial multiplication. Arabidopsis mutants of AtRPL12 and AtRPL19 also compromised nonhost resistance. The studies on NbRPL12 and NbRPL19 double silenced plants suggested that both RPL12 and RPL19 act in the same pathway to confer nonhost resistance. Our work suggests a role for RPL12 and RPL19 in nonhost disease resistance in N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis. In addition, we show that these genes also play a minor role in basal resistance against virulent pathogens. PMID:26779226

  2. Plant Ribosomal Proteins, RPL12 and RPL19, Play a Role in Nonhost Disease Resistance against Bacterial Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Satish; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Ramu, Vemanna S.; Wang, Keri; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the molecular mechanism involved in nonhost disease resistance is important to understand the adaptations of plant-pathogen interactions. In this study, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-based forward genetics screen was utilized to identify genes involved in nonhost resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana. Genes encoding ribosomal proteins, RPL12 and RPL19, were identified in the screening. These genes when silenced in N. benthamiana caused a delay in nonhost bacteria induced hypersensitive response (HR) with concurrent increase in nonhost bacterial multiplication. Arabidopsis mutants of AtRPL12 and AtRPL19 also compromised nonhost resistance. The studies on NbRPL12 and NbRPL19 double silenced plants suggested that both RPL12 and RPL19 act in the same pathway to confer nonhost resistance. Our work suggests a role for RPL12 and RPL19 in nonhost disease resistance in N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis. In addition, we show that these genes also play a minor role in basal resistance against virulent pathogens. PMID:26779226

  3. Bacterial mitosis: partitioning protein ParA oscillates in spiral-shaped structures and positions plasmids at mid-cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersbach, Gitte; Gerdes, Kenn; Charbon, Gitte Ebersbach

    2004-01-01

    with a single plasmid focus, the focus located preferentially at mid-cell. In cells with two foci, these located at quarter-cell positions. In the absence of ParB and parC1/parC2, ParA-GFP formed stationary helices extending from one end of the nucleoid to the other. In the presence of ParB and parC1/parC2, ParA-GFP......The par2 locus of Escherichia coli plasmid pB171 encodes oscillating ATPase ParA, DNA binding protein ParB and two cis-acting DNA regions to which ParB binds (parC1 and parC2). Three independent techniques were used to investigate the subcellular localization of plasmids carrying par2. In cells...... oscillated in spiral-shaped structures. Amino acid substitutions in ParA simultaneously abolished ParA spiral formation, oscillation and either plasmid localization or plasmid separation at mid-cell. Therefore, our results suggest that ParA spirals position plasmids at the middle of the bacterial nucleoid...

  4. Extraction of protein from high-temperature peanut meal using combination process with steam flash-explosion,alkaline-extraction and acid-precipitation%蒸汽闪爆结合碱溶酸沉法提取高温花生粕中的蛋白质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章玉清; 杨瑞金; 张文斌; 华霄; 赵伟

    2013-01-01

    以高温花生粕为研究对象,研究了蒸汽闪爆结合碱溶酸沉法提取花生蛋白质的工艺及其产品的功能性质.通过单因素实验和正交实验确定优化的工艺条件为:高温花生粕首先用0.3%的稀硫酸在60℃条件下搅拌浸泡2h;用清水洗去表面稀酸后沥干再进行蒸汽闪爆处理,条件为:爆破压力1.6MPa、维压时间5min;最后采用碱溶酸沉法提取蛋白质,条件为:温度60℃、pH9.5、料水比1∶12(g/mL)、浸提时间为2h.在此工艺条件下,高温花生粕中蛋白质的提取率达到52.6%,比传统碱溶酸沉工艺提高了10.8%,且所得蛋白质产品的持水性、乳化性、起泡性和起泡稳定性有了显著提高,分别增强了67.1%、141.0%、131.3%和107.4%.蒸汽闪爆技术结合碱溶酸沉法适用于从高温花生粕中提取蛋白质,不仅可以提高蛋白质的提取率,而且能够改善产品的功能性质.%A combined process with steam flash-explosion,alkaline-extraction and acid-precipitation was used to extract protein from high-temperature peanut meal.Through single factor and orthogonal test,the optimum conditions were figured out.Firstly,the high-temperature peanut meal was soaked in 0.3% sulfuric acid solution at 60℃ for 2h,then drained it and washed with water to remove the acid solution remained in the surface of the meal.The pretreated meal was treated with steam flash-explosion at 1.6MPa for 5min.The protein in the steam flash-exploded meal was extracted by alkaline-extraction and acid-precipitation process.The optimal condition for alkaline-extraction was solid to water ratio:1∶12(g/mL),pH9.5,60℃ and 2h.Under these conditions,the protein extraction rate reached 52.6%,which was 10.8% higher than conventional alkaline extraction and acid-precipitation process.The water holding capacity,emulsifying activity index,foaming capacity and foaming stability of the protein extracted using this combined process were significantly

  5. Breakfast meal composition influences plasma tryptophan to large neutral amino acid ratios of healthy lean young men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of a carbohydrate, a 20% protein, or a carbohydrate +0.3% tryptophan TRP breakfast on plasma large neutral amino acid ratio was studied in 6 healthy men. The carbohydrate-rich meal produced shifts in plasma amino acid concentrations such that plasma TRP/LNAA ratios increased from 0.13 to 0.15 (p<0.04) and the protein meal decreased the ratio from 0.14 to 0.11 (p<0.04) after 1 hour. Addition of 0.3% TRP to the carbohydrate-rich meal increased plasma TRP/LNAA ratios more than 2-fold. The TRP containing meal was thus the only one likely to influence brain 5-HT synthesis, although the difference between the plasma TRP/LNAA ratios after carbohydrate and protein breakfasts suggests that the brain may distinguish, by synthesizing more or less 5-HT, the composition of breakfast meals. (Author)

  6. Production of Bioactive Peptides from Soybean Meal by Solid State Fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naifu Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, soybean meal was first solid state fermented with different strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB. Among the strains used, Lactobacillus plantarum Lp6 was selected for further studies because of its highest Degree of Hydrolysis (DH of protein (2.49±0.08% in soybean meal after 72 h fermentation. Soybean meal fermented with L. plantarum Lp6 can also improve its DPPH radical scavenging and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE inhibitory activities. The addition of protease into soybean meal during the fermentation resulted in lowered IC50 of DPPH radical scavenging and ACE inhibitory activities, indicating more bioactive peptides were produced during fermentation. Molecular weight distribution analysis revealed the Extracts from Fermented Soybean Meal (EFSM was mainly composed of oligopeptides. These results indicated that soybean meal fermented with L. plantarum Lp6 and protease could be an easy and cheap method to produce functional food.

  7. Extraction, characterization of components, and potential thermoplastic applications of camelina meal grafted with vinyl monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narendra; Jin, Enqi; Chen, Lihong; Jiang, Xue; Yang, Yiqi

    2012-05-16

    Camelina meal contains oil, proteins, and carbohydrates that can be used to develop value-added bioproducts. In addition to containing valuable polymers, coproducts generated during the production of biofuels are inexpensive and renewable. Camelina is a preferred oilseed crop for biodiesel production because camelina is easier to grow and provides better yields. In this research, the components in camelina meal were extracted and studied for their composition, structure, and properties. The potential of using the camelina meal to develop thermoplastics was also studied by grafting various vinyl monomers. Oil (19%) extracted from camelina meal could be useful for food and fuel applications, and proteins and cellulose in camelina meal could be useful in the development of films, fibers, and thermoplastics. Thermoplastic films developed from grafted camelina meal had excellent wet tensile properties, unlike thermoplastics developed from other biopolymers. Camelina meal grafted with butylmethacrylate (BMA) had high dry and wet tensile strengths of 53.7 and 17.3 MPa, respectively. PMID:22540881

  8. Serum level of C-reactive protein is not a parameter to determine the difference between viral and atypical bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Anyelo; González, Andrea; Delgado, Lineth; Mosquera, Jesús; Valero, Nereida

    2016-02-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase reactant that increases in the circulation in response to a variety of inflammatory stimuli. Elevated levels in serum during several infectious diseases have been reported. In this study, a highly sensitive CRP enzyme immunoassay was used to evaluate serum CRP values in patients with viral and atypical bacterial infections. Patients (n = 139) with different viral or atypical bacterial infections (systemic or respiratory) and healthy controls (n = 40) were tested for circulating CRP values. High levels of IgM antibodies against several viruses: Dengue virus (n = 36), Cytomegalovirus (n = 9), Epstein Barr virus (n = 17), Parvovirus B19 (n = 26), Herpes simplex 1 and 2 virus (n = 3) and Influenza A and B (n = 8) and against atypical bacteria: Legionella pneumophila (n = 15), Mycoplasma pneumoniae (n = 21) and Coxiella burnetii (n = 4) were found. High values of CRP in infected patients compared with controls (P < 0.001) were found; however, no significant differences between viral and atypical bacterial infections were found. Low levels of CRP in respiratory and Coxiella burnetii infections compared with exanthematic viral and other atypical bacterial infections were found. This study suggests that CRP values are useful to define viral and atypical bacterial infections compared with normal values, but, it is not useful to define type of infection. PMID:26241406

  9. Comparative evaluation of Jatropha curcas L. seed meals obtained by different methods of defatting on toxic, antinutritional and nutritive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianhui; Zhang, Hui

    2014-06-01

    Different methods of defatting have a great impact on toxic, antinutritional and nutritive factors in the oilseed meals. In order to find the most suitable methods of defatting for Jatropha curcas seed meals, the Jatropha curcas L. seed meals, defatted by Soxhlet extraction and screw-press were characterized for their toxic, anti-nutritional and nutrient factors in this study. The toxins (phorbolesters, 3.1 and 2.9 mg/g) and some anti-nutritional factors (saponins, 2.9 and 2.6%; phytates, 11.1 and 11.6%) in meals obtained by the two defatting methods were present at high concentrations. However, the trypsin inhibitors activity (TIA) and lectin (2.7 mg/g and 1.5 mg/ml) in the screw-pressed meal were significantly lower, due to the high temperature (120 °C) used in this defatting process. From nutritional side, the values of crude protein (CP), buffer-soluble nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, pepsin insoluble nitrogen, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), as well as essential amino acid index (EAAI), biological value (BV), nutritional index (NI) and protein-digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of the meal obtained by Soxhlet extraction were better than the screw-pressed meal. However, taking practical application into account, from detoxification side, screw-pressed meal is better for detoxification. PMID:24876645

  10. Value Added Processing of Peanut Meal: Enzymatic Hydrolysis to Improve Functional and Nutritional Properties of Water Soluble Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Value added applications are needed for peanut meal, which is the high protein byproduct of commercial peanut oil production. Peanut meal dispersions were hydrolyzed with alcalase, flavourzyme and pepsin in an effort to improve functional and nutritional properties of the resulting water soluble ex...

  11. Changes in leucine kinetics during meal absorption: effects of dietary leucine availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole-body leucine and α/-ketoisocaproate (KIC) metabolism were estimated in mature dogs fed a complete meal, a meal devoid of branched-chain amino acids, and a meal devoid of all amino acids. Using a constant infusion of [4,5-3H]leucine and α-[1-14C]ketoisocaproate (KIC), combined with dietary [5,5,5-2H3]leucine, the rate of whole-body proteolysis, protein synthesis, leucine oxidation, and interconversion leucine and KIC were estimated along with the rate of leucine absorption. Digestion of the complete meal resulted in a decrease in the rate of endogenous proteolysis, a small increase in the estimated rate of leucine entering protein, and a twofold increase in the rate of leucine oxidation. Ingestion of either the meal devoid of branched-chain amino acids or devoid of all amino acids resulted in a decrease in estimates of whole-body rates of proteolysis and protein synthesis, decreased leucine oxidation, and a decrease in the interconversion of leucine and KIC. The decrease in whole-body proteolysis was closely associated with the rise in plasma insulin concentrations following meal ingestion. Together these data suggest that the transition from tissue metabolism to anabolism is the result, at least in part, of decreased whole-body proteolysis. This meal-related decrease in proteolysis is independent of the dietary amino acid composition or content. In contrast, the rate of protein synthesis was sustained only when the meal complete in all amino acids was provided, indicating an overriding control of protein synthesis by amino acid availability

  12. Metabolic Characteristics in Meal of Black Rapeseed and Yellow-Seeded Progeny of Brassica napus-Sinapis alba Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jinjin; Wang, Yue; Xie, Tao; Rong, Hao; Li, Aimin; Fang, Yujie; Wang, Youping

    2015-01-01

    Breeding of yellow-seeded rapeseed (Brassica napus) is preferred over black-seeded rapeseed for the desirable properties of the former. This study evaluated the metabolites and nutritive values of black-seeded rapeseed meal and yellow-seeded meal from the progeny of a B. napus-Sinapis alba hybrid. Yellow-seed meal presented higher protein (35.46% vs. 30.29%), higher sucrose (7.85% vs. 7.29%), less dietary fiber (26.19% vs. 34.63%) and crude fiber (4.56% vs. 8.86%), and less glucosinolates (22.18 vs. 28.19 μmol/g) than black-seeded one. Amounts of ash (3.65% vs. 4.55%), phytic acid (4.98% vs. 5.60%), and total polyphenols (2.67% vs. 2.82%) were decreased slightly in yellow-seeded meal compared with black-seeded meal. Yellow-seeded meal contained more essential amino acids than black-seeded meal. Levels of the mineral elements Fe, Mn, and Zn in yellow-seeded meal were higher than black-seeded meal. By contrast, levels of P, Ca, and Mg were lower in yellow-seeded meal. Moreover, yellow-seeded meal showed lower flavonol (kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin, and their derivatives) content than black-seeded meal. Comparison of metabolites between yellow and black rapeseed confirmed the improved nutritional value of meal from yellow-seeded B. napus, and this would be helpful to the breeding and improvement of rapeseed for animal feeding. PMID:26633322

  13. Desempenho de bezerros da raça Holandesa alimentados com proteína de soja sólida ou líquida Performance of Holstein calves fed soybean meal protein in solid or liquid form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da substituição de metade do total de proteína da dieta na forma sólida (farelo de soja por proteína na forma líquida (leite de soja, com relações sólidos:líquidos de 100,0:0%; 87,5:12,5%; e 75,0:25,0%. Utilizaram-se 24 bezerros machos da raça Holandesa com 60 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três dietas à base de concentrado (80% e feno de capim coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon (20%, balanceadas para nitrogênio e energia. Nas dietas com partes líquidas, o intuito foi manter o reflexo de formação da goteira esofagiana no período experimental de 10 meses, no qual os animais foram mantidos em confinamento, sendo abatidos ao atingirem pesos corporais superiores a 400 kg. Em alguns dos animais, dotados de cânulas de rúmen, foi possível detectar neste órgão apenas pequenas quantidades do leite de soja ingerido, confirmando sucesso na formação da goteira esofagiana. Os ganhos de peso diários apresentaram redução linear (1,399; 1,341; e 1,191 kg à medida que foram fornecidas maiores quantidades de leite de soja. As conversões de matéria seca e proteína bruta em ganhos de peso, durante os últimos 60 dias experimentais, pioraram conforme aumentaram as quantidades de proteína na forma líquida. O fornecimento de proteína na forma líquida na dieta não altera os rendimentos de carcaça em bezerros holandeses.The effects were assessed of substituting half the total diet protein in solid form (soybean meal with liquid form (soybean milk at solid:liquid ratios of: 100.0:0% L; 87.5:12.5% L; 75.0:25.0% L. Twenty-four Holstein breed 60-d male calf steers were assigned to a randomized block design, with three concentrate (80% diets and 20% coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon hay, balanced for nitrogen and energy. In the diets with liquid parts, the intention was to keep the functional reflex of the esophageal groove throughout the 10 months of the experimental period, in which

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation and storage period on the microbial loads and some nutritive components of meat-bone meal and fish meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been carried out to study the effect of different doses of gamma irradiation (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy) on some nutritive components, total energy, microbial load, salmonella microbes and quality characteristics of fish meal and meat-bone meal. The results indicated that there were no significant (P>0.05) changes in the values of dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash and total energy of fish and meat-bone meals as influenced by gamma irradiation (5-20 kGy) treatments in compression with the control. Irradiation and storage treatments had no effects on the crude protein values. Irradiation treatment (5 kGy) of fish and meat-bone meals was effective to decrease their microbial and fungi loads. There were no changes in the fungi loads of fish and meat bone meals as influenced by storage. Salmonella microbes were not indicated in the experimental samples. Irradiation treatments of fish and meat-bone meals had no effects on the total acids values, whereas, increased the peroxide and volatile basic nitrogen values. (author)

  15. Processing of soybean meal into concentrates and testing for Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)

    OpenAIRE

    P. Vindis; B. Mursec; M. Janzekovic; F. Cus

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show how the soybean meal is processed into the feed concentrate andhow the GMO content is tested when the soybean meal is accepted in the feed concentrate factory.Design/methodology/approach: After acceptance of the soybean meal the analysis for the protein and moisturecontend is made by the use of Inframatic. The average monthly sample is sent to an external laboratory for testingfor GMO content. According to the regulations the GMO content must not e...

  16. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 226 - Alternate Foods for Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alternate protein product and on an as prepared basis. f. For an alternate protein product mix... used in the Child and Adult Care Food Program? 1. An alternate protein product used in meals planned... product whether used alone or in combination with meat or meat alternate must meet the following...

  17. 7 CFR Appendix A to Part 225 - Alternate Foods for Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... alternate protein product and on an as prepared basis. f. For an alternate protein product mix... Used in the Summer Food Service Program? 1. An alternate protein product used in meals planned under... product whether used alone or in combination with meat or other meat alternates must meet the...

  18. Sheep response to fish meal supplements for diets based on industrial by-products or native pastures of the Peruvian High Andes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumen degradabilities were determined for various proteins by incubation for 48 h in nylon bags. Values obtained were 37.3% for corn grain and feather meal, 59.6% for alfalfa meal, 63.4% for cottonseed meal, 66.8% for soybean meal and 68.0% for rice polishings. Fish meal protein degradability was less than 45%. Sheep given either cottonseed meal or fish meal as sources of 'bypass' protein did not show differences in daily gain or intake. Fish meal diets gave better feed/gain ratios. Fish meal or urea supplementation of a basal diet containing 4.6% crude protein increased feed intake, daily gain, the feed/gain ratio and wool staple length. Castrated sheep grazing native pastures of the Peruvian Andes (altitude approximately 3800 m) during either the rainy or dry season did not show significant improvement in growth rate with fish meal supplementation. Supplementation of ewes at first mating produced higher weights at the end of gestation, as well as an increase in the number and weight of lambs born, in the weaning rate and in wool weight from the ewes. (author)

  19. On the lipid-bacterial protein interaction studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Delcea, Mihaela; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe Bernd; Toca-Herrera, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between the bacterial S-protein SbpA on different types of lipid membranes has been studied using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation. On one hand, It has been found that the bacterial forms two dimensional nanocrystals on zwitterionic DOPC bilayers and negatively charged DMPG vesicles adsorbed on mica, on zwitterionic DPPC and charged DPPC/DMPG (1:1) monolayers adsorbed on carbon grids. On the other hand, SbpA protein adsorption took place on zwitterionic DOPC bilayers and DOPC/DOPS (4:1) bilayers, previously adsorbed on silicon supports. SbpA adsorption also took place on DPPC/DOPS (1:1) monolayers adsorbed on carbon grids. Finally, neither SbpA adsorption, nor recrystallization was observed on zwitterionic DMPC vesicles (previously adsorbed on polyelectrolyte multilayers), and on DPPC vesicles supported on silicon.

  20. Characterization and Digestibility of Detoxified Castor Oil Meal for Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PA dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT These experiments were performed to determine the chemical composition, coefficients of nutrient and energy metabolizability, amino acid composition, and cytotoxicity of different castor oil meals subjected to different detoxification processes and added to the diet of Japanese quails. In the trial, 180 46-d-old female Japanese quails were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments and with replicates of six bird each. The treatments consisted of following detoxification methods of castor oil meal: Castor oil meal A (CMA - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 20 minutes and drying at 80 °C; castor oil meal B (CMB and C (CMC - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 6 minutes, neutralization with 5% NaOH, and drying under direct sunlight sun for two days (CMB or pelleted (CMC; castor oil meal D (CMD - recovery in alcohol at 110 °C for 15 minutes and drying at 110 °C. Castor oil meal was added replacing 20% of the reference diet. There was slight chemical composition variation (1.21% in crude protein, 6% in dry matter, 2.2% in ether extract and 64 kcal/kg in gross energy among the castor oil meals submitted to the different treatments. The castor oil meal submitted to treatment C showed the highest amino acid values. In the cytotoxicity test, treatment D presented lower ricin activity. Castor oil meals A, C, and D may be included in Japanese quail diets; however, castor oil meal D is recommended due to the simplicity its industrial process, its low toxicity, and metabolizability coefficients obtained.

  1. STATUS OF FISH MEAL AVAILABLE FOR POULTRY RATIONS IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KHATOON, N. Q. HANIF AND N. MALIK

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 184 samples of fish meal were assayed for proximate composition, pepsin digestibility, salt, acid insoluble ash and chromium. The samples were categorized into four groups A, B, C and D on the basis of their crude protein contents which ranged from 55-60, 50-55, 45-50 and 40-45% for four groups, respectively. Group A contained 12.50% samples, 46.20% samples were in group B, 29.89% in group C and 11.41% were in group D. The results showed a variation in nutrient composition among samples. An inverse relationship was observed between fat, ash, pepsin digestibility, chromium and crude protein contents of fish meal. All the samples were adulterated with slightly higher levels of sand and salt than recommended.

  2. Comparative proteome analysis of psychrophilic versus mesophilic bacterial species: Insights into the molecular basis of cold adaptation of proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy Boojala; Metpally Raghu

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cold adapted or psychrophilic organisms grow at low temperatures, where most of other organisms cannot grow. This adaptation requires a vast array of sequence, structural and physiological adjustments. To understand the molecular basis of cold adaptation of proteins, we analyzed proteomes of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacterial species and compared the differences in amino acid composition and substitution patterns to investigate their likely association with growth temp...

  3. Molecular cloning of the crr gene and evidence that it is the structural gene for IIIGlc, a phosphocarrier protein of the bacterial phosphotransferase system.

    OpenAIRE

    Meadow, N.D.; Saffen, D W; Dottin, R P; Roseman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Sugar substrates of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system (PTS) normally prevent bacterial cells from utilizing sugars that are not substrates of this system (diauxic growth, "the glucose effect"). We have previously shown that this type of PTS-mediated repression can be completely reversed by a single mutation, designated crr. Two lines of evidence are presented in this report showing that crr is the structural gene for IIIGlc, one of the proteins of the PTS. First, homog...

  4. Response of sheep fed on concentrate containing feather meal and supplemented with mineral Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulistiani D

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of substitution of protein concentrate with feather meal supplemented with organic chromium mineral on performance of lambs. Twenty five male lambs were fed basal feed of fresh chopped king grass ad libitum and were allotted to either one of five different supplements (five dietary treatments: Control (C; 10% of protein in concentrate was substituted by feather meal (FM; 10% of protein in concentrate was substituted by feather meal supplemented with Cr yeast at 1.5 mg (FMCrOrg; 10% of protein in concentrate was substituted by feather meal supplemented with Cr inorganic which equal to the amount of Cr bound in yeast (FMCr; Concentrate control supplemented with 1.5 mg Cr yeast (CCrOrg. Cr-organic was synthesized by incorporating CrCl3 in fermented rice flour by Rhizopus sp. The mineral is mixed with feather meal as a mineral carrier. Sheep in all treatments received iso protein concentrate. Parameters observed were body weight change, feed consumption and nutrient digestibility. Results shows that there was no significant effect of diet treatments on average daily gain (ADG, dry matter consumption and feed conversion, with the average value of 75.4 gr/day; 74.9 g/BW0.75 and 9.9 respectively, However diet treatment of organic chromium and protein substitution with feather meal (FMCrOrg showed tendency of having higher ADG (83.57 g/h/d. Average nutrient digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and NDF were 68.7; 69.6 and 60.9%, respectively. However NDF digestibility of FMCrOrg tended to be higher than other treatment (67.0%. It is concluded that partial substitution of protein concentrate by feather meal and 1.5 mg Cr-organic supplementation did not affect sheep performance.

  5. Isoforms of a cuticular protein from larvae of the meal beetle, Tenebrio molitor, studied by mass spectrometry in combination with Edman degradation and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haebel, Sophie; Jensen, Charlotte; Andersen, Svend Olav; Roepstorff, Peter

    Allelic variants, electroelution, gel electrophoresis, insect cuticle proteins, mass spectrometry, protein sequencing.......Allelic variants, electroelution, gel electrophoresis, insect cuticle proteins, mass spectrometry, protein sequencing....

  6. Mussel meal diets to growing/finishing pigs: influence on performance and carcass quality

    OpenAIRE

    Wallenbeck, A.; M Neil; lundeheim, N.; Andersson, K.H.

    2014-01-01

    Mussel meal has potential as an alternative protein source for pig since it has high portein content and a balanced Amino acid pattern. Mussels are good filterers of Water and an effective Tool to clean Waters from nitrogen and phosphorus. Using mussel meal as feedstuff in animal production could close the aro-aqua nutrient cycle, bringing nutrients back from the Water to the agro-ecosystem. Session 26 - Theatre 7.

  7. Human Cytolytic Fusion Proteins: Modified Versions of Human Granzyme B and Angiogenin Have the Potential to Replace Bacterial Toxins in Targeted Therapies against CD64+ Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Berges

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Targeted therapies for the treatment of cancer, but also inflammation and autoimmune diseases will reduce major side effects accompanied with conventional treatment modalities. The immunotoxin concept uses bacterial or plant toxins, coupled to antibodies or natural ligands targeting cancer cells. Initially, immunotoxins suffered from drawbacks like nonspecific cytotoxicity. Even the third generation of immunotoxins comprised of truncated antibodies and modified effector molecules experienced clinical set-backs due to immune responses. Long-term treatment of cancer and non-life-threatening chronic inflammatory diseases requires their complete ‘humanization’. This lead to evaluating human cytolytic fusion proteins (hCFPs, based on human apoptosis-inducing proteins. Lacking an endogenous translocation domain dramatically reduces the cell-death inducing capacity of such proteins. Here, we report on optimizing hCFPs, based on the anti-CD64 single chain variable fragment H22(scFv, specifically eliminating CD64+ macrophages and malignant progenitor cells. We replaced the bacterial toxin in H22(scFv-ETA' with the pro-apoptotic human granzyme B or angiogenin. Translocation was promoted by a sophisticated adapter containing a membrane transfer peptide (MTD flanked by endosomal and cytosolic cleavable peptides, thus achieving in vitro cytotoxic activity comparable to bacterial immunotoxins. We demonstrate for the first time that optimized hCFPs, based on granzyme B or angiogenin, can compete with classical ETA-based immunotoxins.

  8. The effect of fish meal replacement by soyabean products on fish growth: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, James

    2009-12-01

    Meta-analysis was applied to quantify the effect of replacement of fish meal by soyabean products in diets on fish growth. Measurement of growth in different units among studies required the use of a standardised effect size (Hedges' d). From a total of ninety-nine studies concentrating on fish meal replacement by defatted soyabean meal, 53 % were eliminated due to, among others, absence of a fish meal control diet (n 18), or no statistical differences or measurement of dispersion (n 6) indicated. Replacement of 4 to 40 % fish meal by soyabean meal (inclusion levels of 71-366 g/kg) resulted in a mean effect size of - 0.1142 (95 % CI - 0.4665, 0.2382) obtained in forty-eight comparisons evaluated with seventeen different fish species. However, at higher fish meal replacement levels the 95 % CI calculated for combined effect sizes did not overlap with zero. With soya protein concentrate replacing 25 to 100 % of fish meal in diets for seven fish species, methionine supplementation (mean - 2.4373 (95 % CI - 3.9004, - 0.9742); n 10) did not have a substantial influence on the magnitude of cumulative effect sizes relative to no supplementation (mean - 2.7306 (95 % CI - 3.7991, - 1.6620); n 16). Information on other soyabean products (full-fat soyabeans, soya flour) used as protein sources in fish diets was found as too limited for analysis and definite conclusions. The present study contributes by putting a numerical value to the magnitude of growth differences in fish when replacing dietary fish meal by soyabean products. PMID:20003609

  9. Influência do tamanho das partículas na solubilização enzimática da proteína do farelo de soja = The influence of particle size in the enzymatic extraction of soybean meal protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Stenzel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a influência do tamanho das partículas na quantidade de proteína solubilizada a partir do farelo de soja. O farelo foi peneirado e cada fração foi submetida à hidrólise enzimática com as proteases Alcalase e Flavourzyme. Ashidrólises foram realizadas a 60ºC, agitação de 100 rpm, concentração de Alcalase 0,5% (proteína/proteína por 3h e concentração de Flavourzyme 1% (proteína/proteína por 5h. A quantidade de proteína solubilizada foi determinada pelo método de Lowry. A análisegranulométrica do farelo mostrou que quase metade da amostra corresponde a partículas maiores que 1,68 mm. O modelo que resultou em melhor ajuste dos dados foi o GGS, e o diâmetro médio de Sauter da amostra foi 1,150 mm. Com relação à hidrólise enzimática,para as duas enzimas foi verificada uma tendência de aumento na quantidade solubilizada para as frações mais finas e maior efetividade da Alcalase na solubilização proteica. The objective of this work was to verify the influence of particlesize in the results of enzymatic extraction of soybean meal protein. The meal was classified in homogeneous fractions, and each was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis with Alcalase and Flavourzyme proteases. The hydrolyses were conducted at 60ºC, with agitation of 100 rpm, 0.5% concentration of Alcalase (protein/protein for three hours, and 1% concentration of Flavourzyme (protein/protein for five hours. The results were analyzed based on the amount of solubilized protein, determined through the Lowry method. The granulometric analysis of the meal showed that almost half of the sample is composed of particles larger that 1.68 mm. The model that resulted in the best adjustment of experimental data was GGS, and the Sauter mean diameter of the sample was 1.150 mm. Regarding enzymatic hydrolysis, a trend of increase in the amount of solubilized proteinwas verified for both enzymes for the finer fractions and greater

  10. Development of a Practical Method to Detect Noroviruses Contamination in Composite Meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hiroyuki; Toho, Miho; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Noda, Mamoru

    2015-09-01

    Various methods to detect foodborne viruses including norovirus (NoV) in contaminated food have been developed. However, a practical method suitable for routine examination that can be applied for the detection of NoVs in oily, fatty, or emulsive food has not been established. In this study, we developed a new extraction and concentration method for detecting NoVs in contaminated composite meals. We spiked NoV-GI.4 or -GII.4 stool suspension into potato salad and stir-fried noodles. The food samples were suspended in homogenizing buffer and centrifuged to obtain a food emulsion. Then, anti-NoV-GI.4 or anti-NoV-GII.4 rabbit serum raised against recombinant virus-like particles or commercially available human gamma globulin and Staphylococcus aureus fixed with formalin as a source of protein A were added to the food emulsion. NoV-IgG-protein A-containing bacterial complexes were collected by centrifugation, and viral RNA was extracted. The detection limits of NoV RNA were 10-35 copies/g food for spiked NoVs in potato salad and stir-fried noodles. Human gamma globulin could also concentrate other NoV genotypes as well as other foodborne viruses, including sapovirus, hepatitis A virus, and adenovirus. This newly developed method can be used as to identify NoV contamination in composite foods and is also possibly applicable to other foodborne viruses. PMID:25796206

  11. Structural and biochemical characterization of bacterial YpgQ protein reveals a metal-dependent nucleotide pyrophosphohydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ye Ji; Park, Sun Cheol; Song, Wan Seok; Kim, Ok-Hee; Oh, Byung-Chul; Yoon, Sung-Il

    2016-07-01

    The optimal balance of cellular nucleotides and the efficient elimination of non-canonical nucleotides are critical to avoiding erroneous mutation during DNA replication. One such mechanism involves the degradation of excessive or abnormal nucleotides by nucleotide-hydrolyzing enzymes. YpgQ contains the histidine-aspartate (HD) domain that is involved in the hydrolysis of nucleotides or nucleic acids, but the enzymatic activity and substrate specificity of YpgQ have never been characterized. Here, we unravel the catalytic activity and structural features of YpgQ to report the first Mn(2+)-dependent pyrophosphohydrolase that hydrolyzes (deoxy)ribonucleoside triphosphate [(d)NTP] to (deoxy)ribonucleoside monophosphate and pyrophosphate using the HD domain. YpgQ from Bacillus subtilis (bsYpgQ) displays a helical structure and assembles into a unique dimeric architecture that has not been observed in other HD domain-containing proteins. Each bsYpgQ monomer accommodates a metal ion and a nucleotide substrate in a cavity located between the N- and C-terminal lobes. The metal cofactor is coordinated by the canonical residues of the HD domain, namely, two histidine residues and two aspartate residues, and is positioned in close proximity to the β-phosphate group of the nucleotide, allowing us to propose a nucleophilic attack mechanism for the nucleotide hydrolysis reaction. YpgQ enzymes from other bacterial species also catalyze pyrophosphohydrolysis but exhibit different substrate specificity. Comparative structural and mutational studies demonstrated that residues outside the major substrate-binding site of bsYpgQ are responsible for the species-specific substrate preference. Taken together, our structural and biochemical analyses highlight the substrate-recognition mode and catalysis mechanism of YpgQ in pyrophosphohydrolysis. PMID:27062940

  12. Tropical forage meals: An alternative for sustainable monogastric species production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utilisation of tropical forage meals for monogastric feeding is nowadays a priority in order to obtain ecological sustainable and low cost productions. The aim of this paper is to offer information of an integral evaluation of physico-chemical characterization and molecular composition of six tropical forage meals: three temporary legumes Canavalia ensiformis (canavalia), Lablab purpureus, (dolicho), Stizolobium aterrimun (mucune) and two shrubs (Morus alba, mulberry: Erythryna poeppigiana, erithrina) and a tree, Tricahnthera gigantean, trichantera. In addition the purpose was also to study the effects of these tropical forage legumes through the gastrointestinal tract of poultry, swine, rabbits and guinea pigs. The last aspect was confirmed with performance experiments under controlled condition for rabbits and guinea pig. Twenty-nine experiments were designed in order to carry out these purposes. Seven were related to physico-chemical and structural characterization of forage meals, 15 corresponds with the study of the sources effects in digestive physiology of poultry (5), swine (3), rabbits (7) and guinea pig (5). Forage meals were elaborated as indicated by. Chemical analyses were conducted according to AOAC (2000), fibrous fraction was determined by Goering and Van Soest and molecular fibre structure was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy Phytochemical screening was carried out by the procedure of Miranda (2000). Extractable tannin content, protein and fibre bound tannin were quantified by Scull, as well as oligosaccharides present in foliage meals. Amino acids were determined according to Biochrom (1986). There were utilised castrated growing pigs (22.5 ± 2 kg) Yorkshirex Landracex Duroc, hybrid HE21 roosters of 50 d of age and broilers of 21-42 d of same genetic line for digestibility and morphophysiological studies. Also there were employed growing hybrids rabbits New Zeland x Semi-giant for digestibility studies in vivo and their cecal inoculum for

  13. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Hjuler, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used as the...... sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... capacity (Xr). This shows that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  14. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll;

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used as the...... sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in...

  15. Levels of Serum Immunoglobulin G Specific to Bacterial Surface Protein A of Tannerella forsythia are Related to Periodontal Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lindsay M.; Dunford, Robert G.; Genco, Robert J.; Sharma, Ashu

    2015-01-01

    Background Tannerella forsythia (Tf) is a Gram-negative anaerobe implicated in the development of periodontal disease. Bacterial surface protein A (BspA) is a surface-expressed and -secreted protein that is recognized as an important virulence factor of Tf. This study was undertaken to determine whether Tf BspA induces an antibody response in periodontal disease. We hypothesized that serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody levels against BspA correlate with the disease of patients. Methods Sera were obtained from 100 patients with cardiac disorders and periodontal disease and 73 patients who experienced myocardial infarction but were periodontally healthy. Sera samples were assayed for anti-BspA antibody (total IgG and IgG subtypes) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antibody levels were measured in ELISA units by using an arbitrary patient as a standard. Results A negative correlation was found with BspA-specific total IgG antibody titers and the severity of disease measured as the clinical attachment level (CAL) when healthy and diseased groups were analyzed separately (healthy group: [−0.23, correlation value] Student’s t value [73 degrees of freedom] = 1.99; P = 0.05; diseased group: [−0.21] t [100 degrees of freedom] = 2.12; P = 0.03]). However, there was a positive correlation ([0.18 correlation value] Student’s t value [173 degrees of freedom] = 2.39; P = 0.017) when healthy and diseased groups were combined. A strong positive correlation ([0.338 correlation value] Student’s t value [173 degrees of freedom] = 4.69; P <0.0001) between the BspA-specific IgG titers and periodontal probing depth was observed when healthy and disease groups were combined. Conclusions Data demonstrated that antibodies to Tf BspA were elicited in patients with periodontal disease, and antibody levels were associated with the disease severity. Furthermore, data suggested that anti-BspA IgG might have a protective function in periodontal disease by minimizing the

  16. Molecular insights into the enzymatic diversity of flavin-trafficking protein (Ftp; formerly ApbE) in flavoprotein biogenesis in the bacterial periplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Ranjit K; Brautigam, Chad A; Liu, Wei Z; Tomchick, Diana R; Norgard, Michael V

    2016-02-01

    We recently reported a flavin-trafficking protein (Ftp) in the syphilis spirochete Treponema pallidum (Ftp_Tp) as the first bacterial metal-dependent FAD pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes FAD into AMP and FMN in the periplasm. Orthologs of Ftp_Tp in other bacteria (formerly ApbE) appear to lack this hydrolytic activity; rather, they flavinylate the redox subunit, NqrC, via their metal-dependent FMN transferase activity. However, nothing has been known about the nature or mechanism of metal-dependent Ftp catalysis in either Nqr- or Rnf-redox-containing bacteria. In the current study, we identified a bimetal center in the crystal structure of Escherichia coli Ftp (Ftp_Ec) and show via mutagenesis that a single amino acid substitution converts it from an FAD-binding protein to a Mg(2+) -dependent FAD pyrophosphatase (Ftp_Tp-like). Furthermore, in the presence of protein substrates, both types of Ftps are capable of flavinylating periplasmic redox-carrying proteins (e.g., RnfG_Ec) via the metal-dependent covalent attachment of FMN. A high-resolution structure of the Ftp-mediated flavinylated protein of Shewanella oneidensis NqrC identified an essential lysine in phosphoester-threonyl-FMN bond formation in the posttranslationally modified flavoproteins. Together, these discoveries broaden our understanding of the physiological capabilities of the bacterial periplasm, and they also clarify a possible mechanism by which flavoproteins are generated. PMID:26626129

  17. Use of soybean cake replacing soybean meal in diets of lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth dos Santos Moura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal fermentation parameters in sheep fed diets containing levels of substitution of soybean meal for soybean cake. The diets consisted of five levels of protein soybean meal (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % by soybean cake. Diets were formulated with 12.5% CP, respecting the forage-to-concentrate ratio of 40:60.Tifton-85 hay was used as forage and the concentrate was formulated with corn, soybean meal, soybean cake and vitamin mineral supplement. Five crossbred lambs castrated, with average weight of 33.7 ± 5.8 kg were used and distributed in a Latin Square 5 × 5. No differences in intake and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, total carbohydrate, non-fiber carbohydrates and total digestible nutrients. Increased linearly in ether extract intake by replacing protein from soybean meal by soybean cake in the diet but with no changes in the digestibility of this component. The nitrogen balance, nitrogen content fecal and urinary retained were not influenced by levels of substitution of soybean meal by soybeans cake in diets. For the index pH and concentration of ammonia nitrogen in rumen fluid did not differ between diets. It was concluded that the soybean cake can be used as an alternative food to replace soybean meal up to 100% unless there are changes in the rumen parameters, balance of nitrogen, intake and nutrient digestibility.

  18. Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage

    OpenAIRE

    Máikal S. Borja; Oliveira, Ronaldo L.; Luciano S. Lima; Adriana R. Bagaldo; Gleidson GP. Carvalho; Cláudio VDM Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis) during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of hi...

  19. Ready-meals with a difference

    OpenAIRE

    Braida, Marina; Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan)

    2008-01-01

    Mintel data shows that the value of the frozen ready-meals market in the UK has been reduced by the effect of price promotion, while chilled ready-meals continue to be a big rival in the market place. This has caused the main players to diversify into premium and luxury range prepared meals. The developing market for food in central and Eastern Europe may also represent an opportunity for increased sales of these products. Most ready-meals are made up of a combination of carbohydrate (eg rice...

  20. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…