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Sample records for bacterial protein meal

  1. Bacterial protein meal in diets for pigs and minks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders;

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on protein turnover rate, and on nucleic acid and creatinine metabolism in growing minks and pigs was investigated in two experiments. In each experiment, 16 animals were allocated to four experimental diets. The diets...

  2. Bacterial protein meal in diets for growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Kjos, N.P.;

    2007-01-01

    blocks according to age. One pig from each litter was fed one of the four experimental diets. Soya-bean meal was replaced with BPM on the basis of digestible protein, and the BPM contents in the four diets were 0% (BP0), 5% (BP5), 10% (BP10) and 15% (BP15), corresponding to 0%, 17%, 35% and 52...

  3. Effect of bacterial protein meal on protein and energy metabolism in growing chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This experiment investigates the effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on the protein and energy metabolism, and carcass chemical composition of growing chickens. Seventy-two Ross male chickens were allocated to four diets, each in three replicates with 0% (D0), 2...... for protein and energy retention found in the balance and respiration experiments. It was concluded that the overall protein and energy metabolism as well as carcass composition were not influenced by a dietary content of up to 6% BPM corresponding to 20% of dietary N....

  4. Excretion of purine base derivatives after intake of bacterial protein meal in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, A.

    2007-01-01

    Bacterial protein meal has a high content ofprotein but also of RNA and DNA. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four diets containing increasing levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM), from weaning to 80 kg live weight, to evaluate whether the RNA and DNA contents of BPM influenced the retention...... of nitrogen. It was hypothesised that an increased intake of RNA and DNA would lead to an increased urinary excretion of purine base derivatives and increased plasma concentrations. Retention of nitrogen was unaffected by dietary content of BPM (P=0.08) and the urinary excretion of purine base derivatives...... increased with increasing dietary content of BPM. No differences in fasting plasma concentration of uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine were observed. It can therefore be concluded that increasing levels of dietary BPM maintained protein accretion and led to changes in excretion of purine detrivatices...

  5. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  6. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...... to increase (P = 0.07) with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters....

  7. Nitrogen and energy balance in growing mink (Mustela vison) fed different levels of bacterial protein meal produced with natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Ahlstrøm, Øystein;

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of increasing the dietary content of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on energy and protein metabolism in growing mink kits. Sixteen male mink kits of the standard brown genotype were randomly fed one of four diets: A control (Diet III) and 60.......7% on Diet I to 26.6% on Diet IV, and oxidation of fat increased from 53.8% on Diet I to 63.5% Diet IV. In conclusion, protein and energy metabolism remained unaffected when up to 40% of DN was derived from BPM....

  8. Enzyme assisted protein extraction from rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sari, Y.W.; Bruins, M.E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Oilseed meals that are by-products from oil production are potential resources for protein. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of enzymes in assisting in the extraction of protein from different oilseed meals, namely rapeseed, soybean, and microalgae meals. In addition, microalgae withou

  9. Pea protein concentrate as a substitute for fish meal protein in sea bass diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Badini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pea seeds, even if lower in protein than oilseed meals, have been shown to successfully replace moderate amounts of fish meal protein in diets for carnivorous fish species (Kaushik et al., 1993, Gouveia and Davies, 2000. A further processing of such pulses provides concentrated protein products which look very promising as fish meal substitutes in aquafeeds (Thiessen et al., 2003. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutrient digestibility, growth response, nutrient and energy retention efficiencies and whole body composition of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L. fed complete diets in which a pea protein concentrate (PPC was used to replace graded levels of fish meal protein.

  10. Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Lei; Kobir, Ahasanul; Jers, Carsten;

    2010-01-01

    in exopolysaccharide production, virulence, DNA metabolism, stress response and other key functions of the bacterial cell. BY-kinases act through autophosphorylation (mainly in exopolysaccharide production) and phosphorylation of other proteins, which have in most cases been shown to be activated by tyrosine......Bacteria and Eukarya share essentially the same family of protein-serine/threonine kinases, also known as the Hanks-type kinases. However, when it comes to protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, bacteria seem to have gone their own way. Bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) are bacterial...... and highlighted their importance in bacterial physiology. Having no orthologues in Eukarya, BY-kinases are receiving a growing attention from the biomedical field, since they represent a particularly promising target for anti-bacterial drug design....

  11. PROTEIN OF MEAT AND BONE MEAL FOR PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patieva S. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The modern requirements of intergovernmental standards to the quality and safety of livestock produce provide for the use of highly productive animals capable under small expenses to produce more the high quality produce. In particular, at the formation of meat productivity at pigs the great significance has an achievement of optimal digestion and assimilability of consumed fodder means. In the connection, the study of digestion of meat and bone meal from slaughterhouse wastes of cattle (MCM and poultry (MCBM presents the scientific interest. In the fodder experience on the growing pigs with the fistula of iliac intestines there was investigated the digestion of two types of meat and bone meal from slaughterhouse wastes of cattle (MCM and poultry (MKBM. The iliac accessibility of amino acids of meat and bone meal found itself too low: 49,3 % - 69,3 %. The accessibility of general protein reliably did not differ from the average accessibility on main amino acids - 61,5 %. To count the real iliac accessibility of raw protein and amino acids of meat and bone meal there was determined an endogenous emission of these substances on the casein diet. The real iliac accessibility of protein and individual amino acids did not leave the limits in 73% on МCM and 69% - on МCBМ. The accessibility of lysine, leucine and isoleucine MCBM is reliably higher than the same in MCM (P

  12. Bacterial ice crystal controlling proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorv, Janet S H; Rose, David R; Glick, Bernard R

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  13. A Study on the Meat and Bone Meal and Poultry By-product Meal as Protein Substitutes of Fish Meal in Practical Diets for Litopenaeus vannamei Juveniles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wei; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Baigang; WANG Fuzhen; YU Yu

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal(MBM)and poultry by-product meal(PBM)as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients(ADC)of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences(P>0.05)in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0-60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain(WG,%), body length gain(BLG,%)and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences(P>0.05)in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0-80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

  14. [Chemical and biological characterization of meal and protein isolates from pumpkin seed (Cucurbita moschata)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, J M; Takashima, M K

    1992-12-01

    The present study was carried out in order to check through chemical and biological analyses the nutritional characteristics of pumpkin seed, its delipidized meal and its proteic concentrate, considering its availability, nutritional potential, facility for production in poor soils and the need for new food resources. Another objective was to complement the amino acid pattern of pumpkin with others protein sources for human consumption. The results obtained indicate that: Raw pumpkin seed meal has a proteic values of 37.6% and the delipidized meal 68.8%; The PER values for raw seed meal and delipidized meal were 2.26 and 1.65, respectively; The chemical composition revealed that the delipized pumpkin seed meal was limited in threonine (66.8%); The isolate and seed meal proteins were both complemented with lysine and with cowpea bean meal; Whole pumpkin seed meal obtained from variety Caravelle is a good caloric material (approximately 568 cal/100 g).

  15. Replacement of Soybean Meal with Animal Origin Protein Meals Improved Ramoplanin A2 Production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Deniz; Kayali, Hulya Ayar

    2016-09-01

    Ramoplanin A2 is the last resort antibiotic for treatment of many high morbidity- and mortality-rated hospital infections, and it is expected to be marketed in the forthcoming years. Therefore, high-yield production of ramoplanin A2 gains importance. In this study, meat-bone meal, poultry meal, and fish meal were used instead of soybean meal for ramoplanin A2 production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076. All animal origin nitrogen sources stimulated specific productivity. Ramoplanin A2 levels were determined as 406.805 mg L(-1) in fish meal medium and 374.218 mg L(-1) in poultry meal medium. These levels were 4.25- and 4.09-fold of basal medium, respectively. However, the total yield of poultry meal was higher than that of fish meal, which is also low-priced. In addition, the variations in pH levels, protein levels, reducing sugar levels, extracellular protease, amylase and lipase activities, and intracellular free amino acid levels were monitored during the incubation period. The correlations between ramoplanin production and these variables with respect to the incubation period were determined. The intracellular levels of L-Phe, D-Orn, and L-Leu were found critical for ramoplanin A2 production. The strategy of using animal origin nitrogen sources can be applied for large-scale ramoplanin A2 production. PMID:27142271

  16. Canola meals from different production plants differ in ruminal protein degradability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactation trials have shown that production and N efficiency were improved when dietary soybean meal was replaced with equal crude protein (CP) from canola meal. Three or four canola meal samples were collected from each of 12 Canadian production plants (total = 37), and analyzed for differences in ...

  17. Functional properties of proteins isolated from industrially produced sunflower meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petia Ivanova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein isolate 1 (PI1 and protein isolate 2 (PI2 were prepared from industrially produced sunflower meal by using isoelectric and ethanol precipitation respectively. The water absorption capacity of PI1 was 6 times higher than that of PI2 and was significantly reduced by the presence of 0.03 M and 0.25 M NaCl. Oil absorption capacity of both protein isolates was not influenced by NaCl supplementation. Foam capacity of PI1 and PI2 was pH-dependent. While the foam capacity of both isolates was improved by either 0.03 M or 0.25 M NaCl, the foam stability was negatively influenced by the addition of NaCl at all pH values with except for pH 4. Emulsifying activity of PI1 and PI2 was lowest at pH 4. The emulsions exhibited relatively high stability (> 90% under all studied conditions. Knowledge of the influence of pH and boundary concentrations of NaCl on the functionality of sunflower meal protein isolates could be beneficial for their future potential application in food industry.

  18. Dietary Protein to Maintain Muscle Mass in Aging: A Case for Per-meal Protein Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, C H; Oikawa, S Y; Phillips, S M

    2016-01-01

    It is well accepted that daily protein intake is an important dietary consideration to limit and treat age-related declines in muscle mass, strength, and function. Furthermore, we propose that there is a growing appreciation for the need to consider protein intake on a per-meal basis rather than simply focusing on the total daily protein intake. The existence of a saturable dose-response relationship between muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and the quantity of protein consumed in a single meal/bolus provides the rationale for promoting an even/balanced pattern of daily protein intake. We hypothesize that a balanced/even protein intake pattern with the ingestion a quantity of protein shown to optimally stimulate MPS at each meal may be an effective strategy to alleviate sarcopenic muscle loss. In this review we examine the available evidence supporting the influence of dietary protein intake pattern on muscle protein turnover, muscle mass, and muscle function. We present several practical considerations that, it is proposed, should be taken into account when translating a per-meal protein recommendation into dietary advice for older adults. PMID:26980369

  19. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork – a randomized cross-over meal test study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene D. Kristensen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. Objective: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. Design: In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E% fat were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g; high protein based on legumes (beans and peas, HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g; or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS. Results: HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume (p<0.05. Furthermore, satiety was higher after HP-Legume than HP-Meat (p<0.05. When adjusting for palatability, HP-Legume still resulted in lower composite appetite scores, hunger, prospective consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat (p<0.05. Furthermore, HP-Legume induced higher fullness than LP-Legume (p<0.05. A 12% and 13% lower energy intake, respectively, was seen after HP-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (p<0.01. Conclusion: Vegetable-based meals (beans/peas influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals

  20. Full replacement of menhaden fish meal protein by low-gossypol cottonseed flour protein in the diet of juvenile black sea bass Centropristis striata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight iso-nitrogeneous (46% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (14% crude lipid) diets were formulated and prepared to replace menhaden fish meal (FM) protein (59.5% CP) by low-gossypol glandless meal (GCSM) protein (50.4% CP), solvent-extracted cottonseed meal (SCSM) protein (53.8% protein) and high go...

  1. Bacterial cell division proteins as antibiotic targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. den Blaauwen; J.M. Andreu; O. Monasterio

    2014-01-01

    Proteins involved in bacterial cell division often do not have a counterpart in eukaryotic cells and they are essential for the survival of the bacteria. The genetic accessibility of many bacterial species in combination with the Green Fluorescence Protein revolution to study localization of protein

  2. Rho-modifying bacterial protein toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktories, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    Rho proteins are targets of numerous bacterial protein toxins, which manipulate the GTP-binding proteins by covalent modifications, including ADP ribosylation, glycosylation, adenylylation, proteolytic cleavage and deamidation. Bacterial toxins are important virulence factors but are also potent and efficient pharmacological tools to study the physiological functions of their eukaryotic targets. Recent studies indicate that amazing variations exist in the molecular mechanisms by which toxins attack Rho proteins, which are discussed here.

  3. Recent advances in bacterial heme protein biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Mayfield, Jeffery A.; Dehner, Carolyn A.; Dubois, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in genetics, fed by the burst in genome sequence data, has led to the identification of a host of novel bacterial heme proteins that are now being characterized in structural and mechanistic terms. The following short review highlights very recent work with bacterial heme proteins involved in the uptake, biosynthesis, degradation, and use of heme in respiration and sensing.

  4. The effect of within-meal protein content and taste on subsequent food choice and satiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen-Roose, S.; Mars, M.; Finlayson, G.; Blundell, J.E.; Graaf, de C.

    2011-01-01

    It is posed that protein intake is tightly regulated by the human body. The role of sensory qualities in the satiating effects of protein, however, requires further clarification. Our objective was to determine the effect of within-meal protein content and taste on subsequent food choice and satiety

  5. The nutrient composition of European ready meals: protein, fat, total carbohydrates and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzler, Sonja; Manschein, Martin; Lammer, Guido; Wagner, Karl-Heinz

    2015-04-01

    Despite the increasing social importance of ready meals, only few studies have been conducted on their nutrient composition. Therefore, 32 chilled, frozen and heat-treated ready meals (only main dishes) from the continental European market were analysed for protein, fat, total carbohydrate and energy. Half of the meals were nutritionally imbalanced by providing elevated fat (>30% of energy) and low carbohydrate levels (<50% of energy). Protein was generally above recommendations and ranged from 8.0 to 47.2g per serving. The inter-package variation was high, reaching 19.04 ± 2.90 g/package for fat. After proposing understandable guidelines to improve nutritional quality for the food industry, seven "nutritionally optimised" ready meals were created at the European level and analysed, however success was limited. If product labelling is to be useful for consumers, our results also indicate a need for better quality control to reduce the differences between content and labelling.

  6. Effect of meal size reduction and protein enrichment on intake and satiety in vital community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziylan, Canan; Kremer, Stefanie; Eerens, Jessie; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    Undernutrition risk among community-dwelling older adults is partly caused by inadequate protein intake. Enriching readymade meals with protein could be beneficial in increasing protein intake. Moreover, reduced-size meals could suit older adults with diminished appetite. In this single-blind randomized crossover study with 120 participants (age: 70.5 ± 4.5 y, BMI: 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m(2)), 60 participants consumed four beef meals and another 60 consumed four chicken meals on four different days, once per week. These meals were produced according to a 2 × 2 factorial design: the protein content was either ∼25 g (lower) or ∼30 g (enriched), and the portion size was either 450 g (normal) or of 400 g (reduced). Palatability evaluation, meal intake, and subsequent satiety ratings after 120 min were measured. No significant differences in palatability among meals were found. While absolute intake (g) of the normal-size meals was significantly higher than that of the reduced-size meals, the relative intake (%) of the served meals did not differ between the four meals. Both protein and energy intakes were significantly higher for the enriched meals, regardless of portion size. Protein intakes were 5.4 g and 5.1 g higher in the normal-size and reduced-size enriched beef meals, respectively, and 6.1 g and 7.1 g higher in the enriched chicken meals, respectively. The normal-size enriched beef meal and reduced-size enriched chicken meal led to slightly but significantly higher ratings of satiety than the non-enriched meals. Due to these mixed satiety findings, separate effects of meal-size reduction and protein enrichment could not be distinguished in this study. The intake findings show that palatable protein-enriched meals support higher protein and energy intakes in vital community-dwelling older adults during a single meal.

  7. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  8. Bacterial binding to extracellular proteins - in vitro adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, C.; Fiehn, N.-E.

    1999-01-01

    Viridans streptococci, bacterial adherence, extracellular matrix proteins, surface receptors, endocarditis......Viridans streptococci, bacterial adherence, extracellular matrix proteins, surface receptors, endocarditis...

  9. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R; Glick, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. R...

  10. Fish meals, fish components, and fish protein hydrolysates as potential ingredients in pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folador, J F; Karr-Lilienthal, L K; Parsons, C M; Bauer, L L; Utterback, P L; Schasteen, C S; Bechtel, P J; Fahey, G C

    2006-10-01

    An experiment to determine the chemical composition and protein quality of 13 fish substrates (pollock by-products, n = 5; fish protein hydrolysates, n = 5; and fish meals, n = 3) was conducted. Two of these substrates, salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH) and salmon meal with crushed bones (SMB), were used to determine their palatability as components of dog diets. Pollock by-products differed in concentrations of CP, crude fat, and total AA by 71, 79, and 71%, respectively, and GE by 4.1 kcal/g. Fish protein hydrolysates and fish meals were less variable (approximately 18, 14, and 17%, and 1.4 kcal/g, respectively). Biogenic amine concentrations were much higher in fish protein hydrolysates as compared with pollock by-products and fish meals. Pollock liver and viscera had the highest total fatty acid concentrations; however, red salmon hydrolysate and SMB had the highest total PUFA concentrations (49.63 and 48.60 mg/g, respectively). Salmon protein hydrolysate had the highest protein solubility in 0.2% KOH. Based on calculations using immobilized digestive enzyme assay values, lysine digestibility of fish meal substrates was comparable to in vivo cecectomized rooster assay values and averaged approximately 90.3%. Also, pollock milt, pollock viscera, red salmon hydrolysate, and sole hydrolysate had comparable values as assessed by immobilized digestive enzyme assay and rooster assays. A chick protein efficiency ratio (PER) assay compared SMB and SPH to a whole egg meal control and showed that SMB had high protein quality (PER = 3.5), whereas SPH had poor protein quality (PER value less than 1.5). However, using whole egg meal as the reference protein, both fish substrates were found to be good protein sources with an essential AA index of 1.0 and 0.9 for SMB and SPH, respectively. In the dog palatability experiments, a chicken-based control diet and 2 diets containing 10% of either SPH or SMB were tested. Dogs consumed more of the SPH diet compared with the control

  11. Preparation and characterisation of protein hydrolysates from Indian defatted rice bran meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Misra, Gautam; Ghosh, Santinath

    2008-01-01

    Rice bran meal is a very good source of protein along with other micronutrients. Rice bran meal has been utilized to produce protein isolates and respective protein hydrolysates for potential application in various food products. De-oiled rice bran meal, available from Indian rice bran oil extraction plants, was initially screened by passing through an 80-mesh sieve (yield about 70%). A fraction (yield-30%) rich in fibre and silica was initially discarded from the meal. The protein content of the through fraction increased from 20.8% to 24.1% whereas silica content reduced from 3.1% to 0.4%. Rice bran protein isolate (RPI) was prepared by alkaline extraction followed by acidic precipitation at isoelectric point. This protein isolate was hydrolysed by papain at pH 8.0 and at 37 degrees C for 10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The peptides produced by partial hydrolysis had been evaluated by determining protein solubility, emulsion activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), foam capacity and foam stability (FS). All protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original protein isolate. These improved functional properties of rice bran protein hydrolysates would make it useful for various application especially in food, pharmaceutical and related industries. PMID:18075222

  12. Umami taste amino acids produced by hydrolyzing extracted protein from tomato seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzymatic hydrolysis was performed for extracting protein to prepare umami taste amino acids from defatted tomato seed meal (DTSM) which is a by-product of tomato processing. Papain was used as an enzyme for the hydrolysis of DTSM. The particle size distribution of DTSM, protein concentration and fr...

  13. The Use of Sweet Almond Meal as a Protein Source in Japanese Quails Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjomandi MA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first experiment, the chemical composition, apparent metabolizable energy (AME, AME corrected for nitrogen (AMEn, true metabolizable energy (TME, TME corrected for nitrogen (TMEn values of the sweet almond meal were determined in adult Leghorn cockerels. The second experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of different levels of sweet almond meal at 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg on Japanese quail's growth performance, some blood metabolites, relative weight of different organs, meat quality and egg yolk cholesterol in a completely randomized design with 288 Japanese quails including 4 treatments, 4 replicates and 18 birds per replicate. The metabolizable energy values of sweet almond meal were following: AME = 3734, AMEn = 3648, TME = 3908, TMEn = 3746 kcal/kg as fed basis. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and live weight gain and relative weight of different organs in the birds fed diets with different levels of the sweet almond meal were not statistically different from control. A sweet almond meal at 300 g/kg level showed the lower serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (P < 0.05 compared to control and 100 g/kg sweet almond meal. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on the total cholesterol content of quail's eggs. Malondialdehyde concentration in breast meat samples after 40 days freezing decreased, whereas the level of sweet almond meal increased (P < 0.01. In general, a sweet almond meal without any adverse effect on growth performance is a good source of energy and protein and can be used up to 300 g/kg of the Japanese quail diets.

  14. Regional blood flow in rats after a single low-protein, high-carbohydrate test meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Z; Wickler, S J; Stern, J S; Horwitz, B A

    1984-07-01

    It was previously observed that a single low-protein, high-carbohydrate test meal results in increased in vitro thermic activity of brown adipose tissue. In the present study, we have examined whether such a meal increases the in vivo thermic activity, estimated from measurement of the rate of blood flow. With radioactively labeled microspheres, blood flows into brown fat and several other tissues were determined in meal-deprived (n = 11) and meal-fed (n = 11) rats. The microspheres were injected into the heart of anesthetized animals about 2-2.5 h after the test meal, one injection in the resting state and one during maximal norepinephrine stimulation. In the resting state, blood flow per gram tissue more than doubled in the brown fat (P less than 0.05) and was increased more than 50% in the heart (P less than 0.01) of the fed group. Blood flows into liver and retroperitoneal white fat were reduced by 40 (P less than 0.01) and 30%, respectively, in the fed group. During norepinephrine infusion, significant meal-associated increases in blood flow were evident only in brown fat (P less than 0.05) and the soleus muscle (P less than 0.05), whereas a significant decrease was observed in the liver (P less than 0.05). No statistically significant meal-associated changes in norepinephrine-stimulated blood flow were found in the other tissues examined (i.e., heart, gastrocnemius, and diaphragm muscles, kidneys, white fat, spleen, and adrenals). Our in vivo data thus support the view that brown fat plays a role in the thermic effect of a meal. PMID:6742226

  15. ISOLATED PROTEIN FROM CASTOR BEAN, PEANUT, SOY BEAN AND SAFFLOWER MEALS

    OpenAIRE

    B.Tavasolian; S.Nikpour; B.Makanvand

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean, peanut, Soy bean and safflower protein isolates were prepared. The amino acid content of each of the protein isolates was analysed and the essential amino acid contents were compared with the FAO human requirements. The results indicated that castor bean has the highest oil and the protein content of defatted meal. Safflower 3148 (Marand, Iran) has the highest amount of essential amino acids. Peanut (Gilan Iran) has the lowest content of essential amino acids, however, in compari...

  16. A Novel Hemp Seed Meal Protein Hydrolysate Reduces Oxidative Stress Factors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Girgih, Abraham T.; Alashi, Adeola M.; Rong He; Malomo, Sunday A.; Pema Raj; Thomas Netticadan; Rotimi E Aluko

    2014-01-01

    This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old) SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group) and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w) HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection....

  17. Radiosensitivities of bacterial isolates on minced chicken and poached chicken meal and their elimination following irradiation and chilled storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitivities of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus on poached chicken meal (PCM) and minced chicken substrate (MCS) were determined. Effect of irradiation (0, 1, 2 kGy) on total viable cells (TVC) of PCM components was determined under chilled (3-5 oC) storage (0, 9, 14, 21 days) and challenge testing of the bacterial isolates with irradiation (0, 2, 3 kGy) was also conducted on PCM under chilled storage (0,7, 14, 21, 28 days). Additionally, sensory evaluation of the PCM components was assessed with irradiation (0, 2, 3 kGy) during chilled storage (0, 7, 14, 21 days). D10 of E. coli on PCM and MCS were 0.18 and 0.25 kGy whiles those of S. aureus were 0.27 and 0.29 kGy, respectively. D10 values for PCME. coli. 2 kGy controlled TVC and extended the shelf life of meals to ≥14 days but 3 kGy was required to eliminate E. coli and S. aureus. Sensory qualities of the meal were not affected by an irradiation dose of 3 kGy

  18. Improvement of protein extraction from sunflower meal by hydrolysis with alcalase

    OpenAIRE

    Yust, María del Mar; Pedroche, Joaquín; Megías, Cristina; Girón-Calle, Julio; Alaíz Barragán, Manuel; Millán, Francisco; Vioque, Javier

    2003-01-01

    Extraction of proteins from defatted sunflower meal has been improved by addition of the protease alcalase during alkaline extraction. This method offers several additional advantages as compared to the traditional alkaline extraction without alcalase, which is usually carried out after a sedimentation/flotation step to remove the lignocellulosic fraction. As compared to extraction without alcalase, addition of 0.1% (v/v) alcalase improved the yield of protein extraction from 57.5% to 8...

  19. Improvement of protein extraction from sunflower meal by hydrolysis with alcalase

    OpenAIRE

    Vioque, J.; Millán, F.; Alaiz, M.; Girón-Calle, J.; Megías, C.; Pedroche, J.; Yust, M. M.

    2003-01-01

    Extraction of proteins from defatted sunflower meal has been improved by addition of the protease alcalase during alkaline extraction. This method offers several additional advantages as compared to the traditional alkaline extraction without alcalase, which is usually carried out after a sedimentation/flotation step to remove the lignocellulosic fraction. As compared to extraction without alcalase, addition of 0.1% (v/v) alcalase improved the yield of protein extraction from 57.5% to 87.4%, ...

  20. Ice nucleation protein as a bacterial surface display protein

    OpenAIRE

    Sarhan Mohammed A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Surface display technology can be defined as that phenotype (protein or peptide) which is linked to a genotype (DNA or RNA) through an appropriate anchoring motif. A bacterial surface display system is based on expressing recombinant proteins fused to sorting signals (anchoring motifs) that direct their incorporation on the cell surface.

  1. Detect changes in protein structure of carinata meal during rumen fermentation in relation to basic chemical profile and comparison with canola meal using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy with chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-08-01

    As far as we know, no study has been carried out on whether protein structure changes in the feed during rumen fermentation from other research team. This study was conducted to characterize protein structure spectral changes in carinata meal during ruminal fermentation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT/IR) technique with ATR. The objectives were to find out whether (1) protein internal structure (in terms of protein amide profile and protein secondary structure profile) changed after in situ ruminal fermentation at 0, 12, 24 and 48 h in carinata meal and conventional canola meal was used as a reference; (2) there was any correlation between protein spectral parameters and basic chemical profile in in situ rumen residue samples; and (3) the protein structural chemical make-up of carinata meal differed from canola meal during 48 h rumen incubation. The results showed that protein structure features in both carinata meal and canola meal were altered as incubation time increased (P meal was not distinguished from those from canola meal, suggesting some relationship in structural make-up exhibited between them within protein region during 48 h rumen fermentation. Further studies are still needed to investigate detailed information on structural changes in protein of various feedstuffs in order to fully and deeply understand protein degradation during rumen fermentation on both metabolic basis and molecular biological basis.

  2. Evaluation of standardized ileal digestible valine:lysine, total lysine:crude protein, and replacing fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal with crystalline amino acids on growth performance of nursery pigs from seven to twelve kilograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemechek, J E; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-04-01

    treatments with main effects of low or high level of crystalline AA and 3 animal protein sources (fish meal, meat and bone meal, or poultry byproduct meal). Low- and high-crystalline AA diets contained 4.5 or 1% fish meal, 6 or 1.2% meat and bone meal, and 6 or 1% poultry byproduct meal, respectively. No AA × protein source interactions were observed. From d 0 to 14, no differences in growth performance among protein sources was found, whereas increasing crystalline AA improved (P = 0.04) ADG. In conclusion, crystalline AA can replace fish meal, meat and bone meal, and poultry byproduct meal when balanced for SID AA ratios of Met and Cys:Lys (58%), Thr:Lys (62%), Trp:Lys (16.5%), Val:Lys (65%), and Ile:Lys (52%).

  3. Substitution of Soybean Meal and Cornmeal to Moisture, pH, Bacterial Colony Forming and Shelf Life of Rejected Duck Meatballs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novia Deni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of substitution of soybean meal with cornmeal to moisture, pH, bacterial colony forming and the shelf life of rejected duck meatballs. This research material using duck meat Coast (Indian Runner salvage as much as 4000 grams were obtained from the Livestock Anduring Padang and soybean meal with Mungbean trademarks and cornmeal with cornstarch trademarks respectively of 600 grams were obtained at Raya Padang market. The research method used was experimental method with the random design, which consists of 5 treatments and 4 groups as replication. The treatment given in this study is the substitution of soybean meal and maize by A (100%: 0%, B (75%: 25%, C (50%: 50%, D (25%: 75% and E (0%: 100%. Variables measured were moisture, pH, bacterial colony forming and the shelf life of rejected duck meatballs. The results of this study indicate that substitution of soybean meal and cornmeal significant effect on moisture, pH, bacterial colony forming and shelf life. Substitution of soybean meal and cornmeal by 100%: 0% is the best to produce the rejected duck meatballs with 69.20% moisture, pH 6.44, bacterial colony forming 7.85 x 105 CFU / g, and the shelf life of 22.12 hours.

  4. Gut Commensal E. coli Proteins Activate Host Satiety Pathways following Nutrient-Induced Bacterial Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Jonathan; Tennoune, Naouel; Lucas, Nicolas; Francois, Marie; Legrand, Romain; Jacquemot, Justine; Goichon, Alexis; Guérin, Charlène; Peltier, Johann; Pestel-Caron, Martine; Chan, Philippe; Vaudry, David; do Rego, Jean-Claude; Liénard, Fabienne; Pénicaud, Luc; Fioramonti, Xavier; Ebenezer, Ivor S; Hökfelt, Tomas; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-02-01

    The composition of gut microbiota has been associated with host metabolic phenotypes, but it is not known if gut bacteria may influence host appetite. Here we show that regular nutrient provision stabilizes exponential growth of E. coli, with the stationary phase occurring 20 min after nutrient supply accompanied by bacterial proteome changes, suggesting involvement of bacterial proteins in host satiety. Indeed, intestinal infusions of E. coli stationary phase proteins increased plasma PYY and their intraperitoneal injections suppressed acutely food intake and activated c-Fos in hypothalamic POMC neurons, while their repeated administrations reduced meal size. ClpB, a bacterial protein mimetic of α-MSH, was upregulated in the E. coli stationary phase, was detected in plasma proportional to ClpB DNA in feces, and stimulated firing rate of hypothalamic POMC neurons. Thus, these data show that bacterial proteins produced after nutrient-induced E. coli growth may signal meal termination. Furthermore, continuous exposure to E. coli proteins may influence long-term meal pattern. PMID:26621107

  5. Genetic impact on protein content and hullability of sunflower seeds, and on the quality of sunflower meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauguet Sylvie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed quality, in particular the characteristics of hullability and protein content, has a significant impact on the protein content of the resulting meal. Seeds dehulled before crushing produce a meal with a protein content of approximately 36%; without dehulling, the protein content is typically in the range of 27–29%. This study seeks to assess the effect of sunflower variety on hullability and protein content. Genetic effects were studied by means of seed samples obtained from a network of variety evaluation trials undertaken across the production area in France for sunflowers. For both characteristics, significant differences between cultivars were observed; as a consequence, the potential protein content of their dehulled meals also ranged widely (34–44%. Genetic selection, which provides substantial improvements in both oil content and fatty acid composition, should therefore be expected to enhance the quality of sunflower meal.

  6. Replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, S; Manafi, M; Olfati, Z; Hedyati, M; Latifi, M; Veysi, A

    2016-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets. Experiments were carried out as a completely randomized design where each experiment involved 4 treatments of 6 replicates and 10 chicks in each pen. Soybean meal proteins in a corn-soy control diet were replaced with 15, 30, and 45% of cow skin gelatin (CSG) or corn protein concentrate (CPC), respectively, in experiments 1 and 2. BW and cumulative feed intake were measured at 7, 21, and 42 d of age. Blood characteristics, relative organs weight and length, ileal digesta viscosity, ileal morphology, and cecal coliform and Salmonella population were measured at 42 d of age. Apparent total tract digestibility of protein was determined during 35 to 42 d of age. Replacement of soybean meal with CSG severely inhibited BW gain, decreased feed intake, and increased FCR in broilers during the experimental period (P ≤ 0.01). The inclusion of CPC reduced BW and increased FCR significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at 21 and 42 d of age without any consequence in feed intake. Protein digestibility was reduced and ileal digesta viscosity was increased linearly by increasing the amount of CSG and CPC in the control diet (P ≤ 0.01). Replacement of soybean meal with CSG and CPC did not significantly alter blood cell profile and plasma phosphorus, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Aspartate transaminase, and HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. The inclusion of CSG linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased plasma uric acid concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) when the amount of CSG replacement was 15%. The results of this experiment showed that using CSG and CPC negatively affects broiler performance and therefore is not a suitable alternative to soybean meal in commercial diets. PMID:26574036

  7. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and ruminal protein degradation of canola meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawrang, P. [Agriculture, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: parvinshawrang@yahoo.co.uk; Nikkhah, A.; Zare-Shahneh, A. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, A.A. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-4933, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raisali, G. [Radiation Applications Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi-Shahrebabak, M. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    Gamma irradiation of canola meal (at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy) could alter its ruminal protein degradation characteristics by cross-linking of the polypeptide chains. This processing resulted in decrease (linear effect, P<0.001) of ruminal protein degradation and increase (linear effect, P<0.001) of intestinal protein digestibility. The results showed that gamma irradiation at doses higher than 25 kGy can be used as a cross-linking agent to improve protein properties of supplements in ruminant nutrition.

  8. The effect of within-meal protein content and taste on subsequent food choice and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Mars, Monica; Finlayson, Graham; Blundell, John E; de Graaf, Cees

    2011-09-01

    It is posed that protein intake is tightly regulated by the human body. The role of sensory qualities in the satiating effects of protein, however, requires further clarification. Our objective was to determine the effect of within-meal protein content and taste on subsequent food choice and satiety. We used a cross-over design whereby sixty healthy, unrestrained subjects (twenty-three males and thirty-seven females) with a mean age of 20·8 (SD 2·1) years and a mean BMI of 21·5 (SD 1·6) kg/m2 were offered one of four isoenergetic preloads (rice meal) for lunch: two low in protein (about 7 % energy derived from protein) and two high in protein (about 25 % energy from protein). Both had a sweet and savoury version. At 30 min after preload consumption, subjects were offered an ad libitum buffet, consisting of food products differing in protein content (low/high) and taste (sweet/savoury). In addition, the computerised Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire (LFPQ) was run to assess several components of food reward. The results showed no effect of protein content of the preloads on subsequent food choice. There was an effect of taste; after eating the savoury preloads, choice and intake of sweet products were higher than of savoury products. No such preference was seen after the sweet preloads. No differences in satiety were observed. To conclude, within one eating episode, within-meal protein content in these quantities seems not to have an effect on subsequent food choice. This appears to be mostly determined by taste, whereby savoury taste exerts the strongest modulating effect. The results of the LFPQ provided insight into underlying processes.

  9. Zinc absorption from composite meals. I. The significance of whest extraction rate, zinc, calcium, and protein content in meals based on bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandström, B; Arvidsson, B; Cederblad, A; Björn-Rasmussen, E

    1980-04-01

    The absorption of zinc in man from composite meals based on bread was measured with a radionuclide technique using 65Zn and whole-body counting. Bread was made up from wheat flour of 100 and 72% extraction rate. A lower absolute amount of zinc was absorbed from the white bread compared to the absorption from the same amount of wholemeal bread. When the two types of bread were enriched with zinc chloride the absorption was higher from the white bread than from the wholemeal bread. Addition of calcium in the form of milk products improved the absorption of zinc from a meal with wholemeal bread. A significant positive correlation was found between zinc absorption and the protein content in meals containing milk, cheese, beef, and egg in various combinations with the wholemeal bread.

  10. Enzyme-Enhanced Extraction of Phenolic Compounds and Proteins from Flaxseed Meal

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Dias Ribeiro; Daniel Weingart Barreto; Maria Alice Zarur Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum) meal, the main byproduct of the flaxseed oil extraction process, is composed mainly of proteins, mucilage, and phenolic compounds. The extraction methods of phenolics either commonly employed the use of mixed solvents (dioxane/ethanol, water/acetone, water/methanol, and water/ethanol) or are done with the aid of alkaline, acid, or enzymatic hydrolysis. This work aimed at the study of optimal conditions for a clean process, using renewable solvents and enzymes, f...

  11. Soybean Meal Protein Assay -Cross lab tests and Kjeldhal vs Leco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiqiang (Bill) Xiong; Zu Liya; Chang Biying; Xing Jianjun

    2002-01-01

    @@ Introduction Accuracy/precision of crude protein assay (CP) iscritical for the trade of soybean meal (SBM) and feedformulation. Past experience indicated that the CPassay variation in China could be very large and farbeyond AFCO Analytical Variation (AV%, previouslyPermitted Analytical Variation or PAV%). On CP testprocedures recently there has been a saying that theLeco combustion method was more accurate than theclassical Kjeldahl procedure.

  12. Differential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lene S; Hartvigsen, Merete L; Brader, Lea J;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Enhanced and prolonged postprandial triglyceride responses involve increased cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetes. Dietary fat and carbohydrates profoundly influence postprandial hypertriglyceridemia, whereas little information exists on the effect of proteins. OBJECTIVE......: The objective was to compare the effects of the proteins casein, whey, cod, and gluten on postprandial lipid and incretin responses to a high-fat meal in persons with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: A crossover study was conducted in 12 patients with type 2 diabetes. Blood samples were collected over 8 h after...... and higher after the Whe-meal than after Cod- and Glu-meals in the chylomicron-poor fraction. Free fatty acids were most pronouncedly suppressed after the Whe-meal. The glucose response was lower after the Whe-meal than after the other meals, whereas no significant differences were found in insulin, glucagon...

  13. Fluorescent sensors based on bacterial fusion proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prats Mateu, Batirtze; Kainz, Birgit; Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B.; Toca-Herrera, José L.

    2014-06-01

    Fluorescence proteins are widely used as markers for biomedical and technological purposes. Therefore, the aim of this project was to create a fluorescent sensor, based in the green and cyan fluorescent protein, using bacterial S-layers proteins as scaffold for the fluorescent tag. We report the cloning, expression and purification of three S-layer fluorescent proteins: SgsE-EGFP, SgsE-ECFP and SgsE-13aa-ECFP, this last containing a 13-amino acid rigid linker. The pH dependence of the fluorescence intensity of the S-layer fusion proteins, monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy, showed that the ECFP tag was more stable than EGFP. Furthermore, the fluorescent fusion proteins were reassembled on silica particles modified with cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes. Zeta potential measurements confirmed the particle coatings and indicated their colloidal stability. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that the fluorescence of the fusion proteins was pH dependent and sensitive to the underlying polyelectrolyte coating. This might suggest that the fluorescent tag is not completely exposed to the bulk media as an independent moiety. Finally, it was found out that viscosity enhanced the fluorescence intensity of the three fluorescent S-layer proteins.

  14. Fluorescent sensors based on bacterial fusion proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence proteins are widely used as markers for biomedical and technological purposes. Therefore, the aim of this project was to create a fluorescent sensor, based in the green and cyan fluorescent protein, using bacterial S-layers proteins as scaffold for the fluorescent tag. We report the cloning, expression and purification of three S-layer fluorescent proteins: SgsE-EGFP, SgsE-ECFP and SgsE-13aa-ECFP, this last containing a 13-amino acid rigid linker. The pH dependence of the fluorescence intensity of the S-layer fusion proteins, monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy, showed that the ECFP tag was more stable than EGFP. Furthermore, the fluorescent fusion proteins were reassembled on silica particles modified with cationic and anionic polyelectrolytes. Zeta potential measurements confirmed the particle coatings and indicated their colloidal stability. Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy showed that the fluorescence of the fusion proteins was pH dependent and sensitive to the underlying polyelectrolyte coating. This might suggest that the fluorescent tag is not completely exposed to the bulk media as an independent moiety. Finally, it was found out that viscosity enhanced the fluorescence intensity of the three fluorescent S-layer proteins. (paper)

  15. Replacement of fish meal by protein soybean concentrate in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Litopenaeus vannameifed different levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of soybean protein concentrate (63.07% crude protein, CP to replace fish meal-by product (61.24% CP. The study was conducted in clear water in fifteen 800 L tanks equipped with aeration systems, constant heating (29 ºC, and daily water exchange (30%. Each tank was stocked with 37.5 shrimp/m3 (3.03±0.14 g. Feed was supplied four times a day, at 6% of the initial biomass, adjusted daily. After 42 days, the weight gain of shrimp fed diets with 0 and 25% protein replacement was higher than that observed in shrimp fed 100% replacement, and there were no differences among those fed the other diets. Feed efficiency and survival did not differ among shrimp fed different protein replacements. There was a negative linear trend for growth parameters and feed intake as protein replacement with soybean protein concentrate increased. Fish meal by-product can be replaced by up to 75% of soybean protein concentrate, with no harm to the growth of Pacific white shrimp.

  16. Evaluation of detoxification methods on toxic and antinutritional composition and nutritional quality of proteins in Jatropha curcas meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianhui; Zhang, Hui; Niu, Liya; Wang, Xingguo; Lu, Xia

    2011-04-27

    The Jatropha curcas meal was detoxified by different methods, and the effect of detoxification was evaluated in this study. The method that hydrolysis of enzymes (cellulase plus pectinase) followed by washing with ethanol (65%) had a significant (p antinutritional components, and nutritional quality of proteins. After this treatment, the phorbolesters (PEs) were decreased by 100%. The antinutritional components (phytates, tannins, saponins, protease inhibitor, and lectin activities) were decreased to tolerable levels, which were lower than those in soybean meal. The crude protein in detoxified meal was 74.68%, and the total content of amino acids was 66.87 g/100 g of dry matter. The in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) increased from 82.14 to 92.37%. The pepsin-insoluble nitrogen was only 4.57% of the total nitrogen, and about 90% of the protein was true protein. The protein-digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of the meal was 0.75. The results showed that this treatment was a promising way to detoxify J. curcas meal, and the nutritional quality of detoxified meal can be simultaneously enriched and improved. PMID:21410262

  17. THE DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTROPHORETIC FRACTIONS OF PROTEIN ISOLATES FROM SUNFLOWER MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronova N. S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The food status of Russians is characterized by deficiency of protein. Perspective sources of food protein are the secondary resources of the oil and fat industry received when processing seeds of sunflower, including sunflower meal. Unfortunately, the features of technological process at the oilextracting press exclude a possibility of receiving food protein-containing products from them without the additional processing increasing biological value and improving technical characteristics of proteins. On the basis of the above information, the researches of a protein complex of sunflower cake, development of ways of regulation of its functional and technological properties and increase of biological value is up-to-date. The article presents the analysis of the influence of enzymatic modification on the distribution of electrophoretic fractions of the modified protein isolates

  18. Jojoba seed meal proteins associated with proteolytic and protease inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Madan K; Peri, Irena; Smirnoff, Patricia; Birk, Yehudith; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2002-09-25

    The jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, is a characteristic desert plant native to the Sonoran desert. The jojoba meal after oil extraction is rich in protein. The major jojoba proteins were albumins (79%) and globulins (21%), which have similar amino acid compositions and also showed a labile thrombin-inhibitory activity. SDS-PAGE showed two major proteins at 50 kDa and 25 kDa both in the albumins and in the globulins. The 25 kDa protein has trypsin- and chymotrypsin-inhibitory activities. In vitro digestibility of the globulins and albumins resembled that of casein and soybean protein concentrates and was increased after heat treatment. The increased digestibility achieved by boiling may be attributed to inactivation of the protease inhibitors and denaturation of proteins.

  19. Bacterial protein toxins : tools to study mammalian molecular cell biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wüthrich, I.W.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial protein toxins are genetically encoded proteinaceous macromolecules that upon exposure causes perturbation of cellular metabolism in a susceptible host. A bacterial toxin can work at a distance from the site of infection, and has direct and quantifiable actions. Bacterial protein toxins ca

  20. Novel receptors for bacterial protein toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gudula; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis; Aktories, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    While bacterial effectors are often directly introduced into eukaryotic target cells by various types of injection machines, toxins enter the cytosol of host cells from endosomal compartments or after retrograde transport via Golgi from the ER. A first crucial step of toxin-host interaction is receptor binding. Using optimized protocols and new methods novel toxin receptors have been identified, including metalloprotease ADAM 10 for Staphylococcus aureus α-toxin, laminin receptor Lu/BCAM for Escherichia coli cytotoxic necrotizing factor CNF1, lipolysis stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) for Clostridium difficile transferase CDT and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) 1 for Clostridium perfringens TpeL toxin.

  1. Bacterial Contamination of Hands Increases Risk of Cross-Contamination among Low-Income Puerto Rican Meal Preparers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharod, Jigna Morarji; Paciello, Stefania; Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Damio, Grace; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of microbial contamination of the meal preparer's hands with microbial status of food and kitchen/utensil surfaces during home preparation of a "Chicken and Salad" meal. Design and Setting: Observational home food safety assessment. Before starting meal preparation, participants' hands were tested to estimate…

  2. Impact of a novel protein meal on the gastrointestinal microbiota and host transcriptome of larval zebrafish Danio rerio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene eRurangwa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Larval zebrafish was subjected to a methodological exploration of the gastrointestinal microbiota and transcriptome. Assessed was the impact of two dietary inclusion levels of a novel protein meal (NPM of animal origin (ragworm Nereis virens on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT. Microbial development was assessed over the first 21 days post egg fertilisation (dpf through 16S rRNA gene-based microbial composition profiling by pyrosequencing. Differentially expressed genes in the GIT were demonstrated at 21 dpf by whole transcriptome sequencing (mRNAseq. Larval zebrafish showed rapid temporal changes in microbial colonization but domination occurred by one to three bacterial species generally belonging to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The high iron content of NPM may have led to an increased relative abundance of bacteria that were related to potential pathogens and bacteria with an increased iron metabolism. Functional classification of the 328 differentially expressed genes indicated that the GIT of larvae fed at higher NPM level was more active in transmembrane ion transport and protein synthesis. mRNAseq analysis did not reveal a major activation of genes involved in the immune response or indicating differences in iron uptake and homeostasis in zebrafish fed at the high inclusion level of NPM.

  3. Effect of microwave and enzymatic treatment on the recovery of protein from Indian defatted rice bran meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Kakali; Chakraborty, Chaitali; Barman, Amit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Defatted rice bran meal is an important source of protein along with other micronutrients. Rice bran meal has been utilized to produce protein isolates for potential application in various food products. Attempt has been made to increase the protein solubility by physical means like microwave digestion as well as by microwave digestion followed by homogenization. Simple 40 sec microwave treatment could give the protein recovery of 78.4% as against 28.9% after 1 min of conventional boiling and 40 sec is taken as optimum time for microwave treatment. The protein recovery is further increased by microwave treatment followed by homogenization. Defatted rice bran meal has also been treated with enzyme papain and viscozyme separately to increase the protein solubility. The yield of protein isolate (RPI), prepared by alkaline extraction followed by acidic precipitation is 10.2%, which is further increased to 14.5 & 22.4% by papain, viscozyme modification and 21.1 & 22.3% by microwave treatment and microwave treatment followed by homogenization respectively. A maximum of 82.5 and 82.6% protein has been recovered as soluble protein from de-oiled bran by viscozyme treatment and by 40 sec microwave treatment followed by 10 min of homogenization. So, microwave treatment along with homogenization is a suitable alternative processes in extracting protein from rice bran meal. PMID:23018849

  4. C-reactive protein and bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Jørgensen, P E; Nexø, E;

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to review published articles on the diagnostic accuracy of C-reactive protein (CRP) tests with cerebrospinal fluid and serum in diagnosing bacterial meningitis. The literature from 1980 and onwards was searched using the electronic databases of MEDLINE, and we used summary...... lower. Hence, only a negative test is highly informative in a typical clinical setting. This, as well as the absence of analyses to show if CRP tests contribute independent diagnostic information, relatively to the information held in the traditionally used clinical and biochemical variables, makes...... receiver operating characteristic curve analyses (SROCs) to describe central tendencies and examine possible sources of inter-study variability in the results. We included data from 35 studies of both children and adults: 21 in which CRP had been measured in cerebrospinal fluid, 10 in which CRP had been...

  5. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Anti Mastitis Bacterial Activity of Diet Containing Betel Leaf Meal (Piper betle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Yamin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this experiment was to study the inhibition effect of betel leaf meal (BLM addition into concentrate diet on mastitis causing bacteria and on rumen fermentation condition. The study consisted of five dietary treatments of BLM level in concentrate feed, i.e., 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% and four replicates of each treatment. The treatment diets together with napier grass in ratio of 40 : 60 were fermented using rumen liquor. All treatments were examined their antibacterial activity before and after fermentation. After four hours fermentation, supernatant of each samples were analyzed for VFA, NH3, number of bacteria and protozoa. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility were analyzed after 48 h fermentation. The results showed that before fermentation, 8% BLM addition caused the bigest (P<0.05 inhibition diameter of Staphylococcus spp. growth compared to other lower levels. However after fermentation there were no significant differences among the addition levels of BLM. Two per cent of BLM addition produced higher VFA (P<0.05 than the other addition levels. Ammonia concentration, dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM digestibility were not different among the treatments. Addition of BLM significantly (P<0.01 decreased protozoa number, but did not affect bacterial count. It is concluded that the addition of 2% BLM in concentrate feed can be used effectively to inhibit the growth of mastitis causing bacteria (Staphylococcus spp. and does not disturb rumen fermentation condition.

  6. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M., E-mail: mtaghinejad@iaut.ac.i [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, S.R. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizi, S. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, P.O. Box 57155-1177, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shawrang, P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  7. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.; Ebrahimi, S. R.; Azizi, S.; Shawrang, P.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased ( P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased ( P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved ( P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  8. A novel hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate reduces oxidative stress factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Alashi, Adeola M; He, Rong; Malomo, Sunday A; Raj, Pema; Netticadan, Thomas; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-12-01

    This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old) SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group) and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w) HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection. After a 4-week washout period, the remaining 20-week old SHRs were fed for an additional four weeks and sacrificed for blood collection. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total peroxides (TPx) levels were determined. Results showed that plasma TAC, CAT and SOD levels decreased in the older 20-week old SHRs when compared to the young SHRs. The presence of HMH in the diets led to significant (p < 0.05) increases in plasma SOD and CAT levels in both young and adult SHR groups; these increases were accompanied by decreases in TPx levels. The results suggest that HMH contained antioxidant peptides that reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in SHRs with enhanced antioxidant enzyme levels and total antioxidant capacity.

  9. A Novel Hemp Seed Meal Protein Hydrolysate Reduces Oxidative Stress Factors in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham T. Girgih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This report shows the antioxidant effects of a hemp seed meal protein hydrolysate (HMH in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Defatted hemp seed meal was hydrolyzed consecutively with pepsin and pancreatin to yield HMH, which was incorporated into rat feed as a source of antioxidant peptides. Young (8-week old SHRs were divided into three groups (8 rats/group and fed diets that contained 0.0%, 0.5% or 1.0% (w/w HMH for eight weeks; half of the rats were sacrificed for blood collection. After a 4-week washout period, the remaining 20-week old SHRs were fed for an additional four weeks and sacrificed for blood collection. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and total peroxides (TPx levels were determined. Results showed that plasma TAC, CAT and SOD levels decreased in the older 20-week old SHRs when compared to the young SHRs. The presence of HMH in the diets led to significant (p < 0.05 increases in plasma SOD and CAT levels in both young and adult SHR groups; these increases were accompanied by decreases in TPx levels. The results suggest that HMH contained antioxidant peptides that reduced the rate of lipid peroxidation in SHRs with enhanced antioxidant enzyme levels and total antioxidant capacity.

  10. Effect of different protein types on second meal postprandial glycaemia in normal weight and normoglycemic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winder Tadeu Silva Ton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is a global epidemic affecting 346 million people in the world. The glycemic control is the key for diabetes prevention and management. Some proteins can stimulate insulin release and modulate glycemic response. Objectives: To assess the effect of the consumption of different types of protein (whey protein, soy protein and egg white on a second meal postprandial glycaemia in normal weight and normoglycemic subjects. Methodology: Randomized crossover clinical trial. After an overnight fast of 12-hours, ten subjects attended the laboratory to drink one of the protein shakes (whey, soy or egg white or the control drink. Thirty minutes later, the subjects consumed a glucose solution (25 g glucose. Glycemic response was monitored at times 0 (before glucose solution and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min (after glucose solution consumption. Incremental area under the glycemic curve (iAUC was calculated by the trapezoidal method. Furthermore, glycemic response was assessed by a new method using iG equation. Results: Compared with control, whey and soy protein drinks reduced postprandial iAUC in 56.5% (p = 0.004 and 44.4% (p = 0.029, respectively. Whey protein was the only protein capable of avoiding great fluctuations and a peak in postprandial glycemia. The assessment of glycemic response by iG equation showed positive correlation with iAUC (Pearson 0.985, p < 0.05. Conclusion: The consumption of whey and soy protein 30 minutes before a glucose load resulted in lower iAUC compared with control drink. Whey protein maintained postprandial glycemia more stable.

  11. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M M

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2-3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC-MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7-1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5-86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95-98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  12. Effect of Biostimulation Using Sewage Sludge, Soybean Meal, and Wheat Straw on Oil Degradation and Bacterial Community Composition in a Contaminated Desert Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kindi, Sumaiya; Abed, Raeid M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal, and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities to reach 3.2–3.4 times higher than in the untreated soil, whereas the addition of soybean meal resulted in an insignificant change in the produced CO2, given the high respiration activities of the soybean meal alone. GC–MS analysis revealed that the addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7–1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes was measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5–86.4% of total sequences) of acquired sequences from the untreated soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R = 0.66, P = 0.0001). The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95–98% of the total sequences were affiliated to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils. PMID:26973618

  13. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  14. Use of pet food-grade poultry by-product meal as an alternate protein source in weanling pig diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zier, C E; Jones, R D; Azain, M J

    2004-10-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate pet food-grade poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a replacement protein source for fish meal (FM), blood meal (BM), and spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) in weanling pig diets. In the first study, 200 crossbred pigs (initial BW = 6.5 kg) were weaned (21 d) and randomly allotted to one of four dietary treatments, which included a control and three test diets where PBM was substituted for FM, blood products, or both. Experimental diets were fed during Phase I (d 0 to 5 postweaning) and Phase II (d 5 to 19), and a common Phase III diet was fed from d 19 to 26. Overall (d 0 to 26), there was no difference in performance of pigs fed PBM in place of the other ingredients. However, during Phase I, BW (P trials in a blocked design with product (SDPP or PBM) as the first factor, and lysine level (1.08, 1.28, 1.49%; as-fed basis) as the second factor. Growth rate increased with increasing lysine (P < 0.05), regardless of the source. These results indicate that PBM can be used in nursery diets in place of blood meal and fish meal without affecting performance. Furthermore, although feeding PBM in Phase I diets was not equivalent to SDPP during the first week, there was no overall difference in performance at the end of the nursery phase. PMID:15484958

  15. Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as a protein supplement for broiler chicks production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friday Chima NWORGU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to find out the potential Centrosema (Centrosema pubescens leaf meal as a protein supplement for the broiler chicks production. For this, Ninety unsexed one week old Anak 2000 broiler chicks were used. These selected chicks were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments i.e. A (Centrosema free diet, B (3%, C (6%, D (9% and E (12% with different concentration of C. pubescens leaf meal (CLM. Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 6 birds per replicate. This CLM mainly used to replaced groundnut cake and soybean in the diets. Water and feeds were served adlibitum. The results of study revealed that dietary supplementation of CLM significantly (P<0.05 and progressively depressed final body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio unlike water and feed intakes. Dietary inclusion of 6-12% CLM for broiler chicks reduced weight gain averagely by 12.96% compared to control. The cost of feed per kg live weight gain was N91.86, N96.04 and NI07.59/kg for control, 3 and 12%, respectively. Profit margin was highest in control (N4.11 and birds placed on 3% CLM (N2.66 per bird compared to those fed 9.0-12.0% CLM dietary inclusion, in which average loss was N20.39 per bird. Hence results of study clearly advised that CLM can be add as protein supplements but it should not include more than 3% in the diet of broiler chicks

  16. Replacement of fish meal in juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets using a yeast-derived protein source

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effects of a yeast-derived protein source (NuPro) as a replacement for menhaden fish meal on weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), whole-body composition, and disease resistance in juvenile channel catfish. NuPro replaced 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% o...

  17. Post-Meal Responses of Elongation Factor 2 (eEF2) and Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) to Leucine and Carbohydrate Supplements for Regulating Protein Synthesis Duration and Energy Homeostasis in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Layman, Donald K; Anthony, Tracy G.; Garlick, Peter J.; Wilson, Gabriel J; Moulton, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu) and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2). This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements ...

  18. Nutritive value of four by-product meals as potential protein sources in diets for Octopus maya

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Daniel Méndez Aguilar; Miguel Ángel Olvera Novoa; Sergio Rodríguez Morales; Carlos Rosas Vázquez

    2014-01-01

    The nutritional value of four meals made from animal by-products of squid (SBM), tuna (TBM), poultry (PBM) and pork (POBM), and their potential use in diets for Octopus maya were evaluated. Lyophilized crab-meat meal (CRM) (Callinectes sapidus) was used as a reference for the nutritional requirements of the octopus. CRM had the highest crude protein (CP) content (847.2 g kg1) and the lowest lipid content (27.5 g kg1). SBM and PBM had more than 700 g kg1 CP content, while TBM and POBM had less...

  19. Convergent evolution among immunoglobulin G-binding bacterial proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Frick, I M; Wikström, M.; Forsén, S.; Drakenberg, T; Gomi, H.; Sjöbring, U; Björck, L

    1992-01-01

    Protein G, a bacterial cell-wall protein with high affinity for the constant region of IgG (IgGFc) antibodies, contains homologous repeats responsible for the interaction with IgGFc. A synthetic peptide corresponding to an 11-amino acid-long sequence in the COOH-terminal region of the repeats was found to bind to IgGFc and block the interaction with protein G. Moreover, two other IgGFc-binding bacterial proteins (proteins A and H), which do not contain any sequences homologous to the peptide,...

  20. A controlled trial of protein enrichment of meal replacements for weight reduction with retention of lean body mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowerman Susan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While high protein diets have been shown to improve satiety and retention of lean body mass (LBM, this study was designed to determine effects of a protein-enriched meal replacement (MR on weight loss and LBM retention by comparison to an isocaloric carbohydrate-enriched MR within customized diet plans utilizing MR to achieve high protein or standard protein intakes. Methods Single blind, placebo-controlled, randomized outpatient weight loss trial in 100 obese men and women comparing two isocaloric meal plans utilizing a standard MR to which was added supplementary protein or carbohydrate powder. MR was used twice daily (one meal, one snack. One additional meal was included in the meal plan designed to achieve individualized protein intakes of either 1 2.2 g protein/kg of LBM per day [high protein diet (HP] or 2 1.1 g protein/kg LBM/day standard protein diet (SP. LBM was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Body weight, body composition, and lipid profiles were measured at baseline and 12 weeks. Results Eighty-five subjects completed the study. Both HP and SP MR were well tolerated, with no adverse effects. There were no differences in weight loss at 12 weeks (-4.19 ± 0.5 kg for HP group and -3.72 ± 0.7 kg for SP group, p > 0.1. Subjects in the HP group lost significantly more fat weight than the SP group (HP = -1.65 ± 0.63 kg; SP = -0.64 ± 0.79 kg, P = 0.05 as estimated by BIA. There were no significant differences in lipids nor fasting blood glucose between groups, but within the HP group a significant decrease in cholesterol and LDL cholesterol was noted at 12 weeks. This was not seen in the SP group. Conclusion Higher protein MR within a higher protein diet resulted in similar overall weight loss as the standard protein MR plan over 12 weeks. However, there was significantly more fat loss in the HP group but no significant difference in lean body mass. In this trial, subject compliance with both the

  1. Advances in animal and plant protein sources in place of fish meal%动植物蛋白源替代鱼粉研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周歧存; 麦康森; 刘永坚; 谭北平

    2005-01-01

    With the fast development of aquaculture, fish meal needs increased in recent years, however the quantity of fish catching decreases gradually. Fishmeal is a limited feed resource, and serious concem exists on the future availability of this feedstuff for incorporation in fish diets. Undoubtedly, fish meal is well recognized as the best dietary protein source for most marine carnivorous fishes which required high dietary protein levels compared to omnivorous or herbivorous fish. Fishmeal is known for their high content of essential amino acids and fatty acids, low carbohydrates, high digestibility, low levels of anti-nutritional factors (for fresh fish meal) and is a very good source of minerals and is highly palatable. Thus fish meal is in high demand as the protein source for many formulated diets. However, production of fish meal consumes approximately 35 % of the total global fish catch, and the increasing price and potentially unstable supply in the market could be limiting factors for marine fish culture. There have been strong efforts to define and develop cost-effective protein sources that can, at least partly, substitute for expensive high-quality fish meals in least-cost feed formulations. The search for fish meal substitutes and altemative dietary protein sources is an international research priority that could be of considerable economic advantages. Therefore it is urgent task to find animal and plant protein sources in place of fish meal. Among these, plant feedstuffs have received most attention in recent years, but due to their amino acid unbalances, .presence of anti-nutritional factors and low palatability, a high level of replacement of fish meal with plant feedstuffs in omnivorous fish is generally not well accepted. This paper reviews the research status for other protein sources replacing fish meal based on available information in the literature. Animal and plant protein sources nutrient values are evaluated from the aspect of digestibility

  2. Soybean meal substitution with a yeast-derived microbial protein source in dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbia, J A; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Gehman, A M; Tricarico, J M

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects substituting soybean meal with a yeast-derived microbial protein (YMP) on rumen and blood metabolites, dry matter intake, and milk production of high-producing dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein cows (12 multiparous and 4 primiparous), 93 ± 37 DIM (mean ± SD) at the beginning of the experiment, were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with four 28-d periods. Cows were blocked by parity and production, with 1 square consisting of 4 animals fitted with rumen cannulas. Basal diets, formulated for 16.1% crude protein and 1.56 Mcal/kg of net energy for lactation, contained 40% corn silage, 20% alfalfa hay, and 40% concentrate mix. During each period, cows were fed 1 of 4 treatment diets corresponding to YMP (DEMP; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) concentrations of 0, 1.14, 2.28, and 3.41% DM. Soybean meal (44% CP) was replaced by YMP to attain isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets. Dietary treatments had no effect on pH and on most ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations, with the exception of isovalerate, which decreased linearly with the addition of YMP. Rumen ammonia concentration decreased linearly, whereas free amino acids, total amino acid nitrogen, and soluble proteins weighing more than 10 kDa showed a cubic response on rumen N fractionation. A quadratic response was observed in oligopeptides that weighed between 3 and 10 kDa and peptides under 3kDa when expressed as percentages of total amino acids and total nitrogen. Although nonesterified fatty acid concentration in blood did not differ between treatments, β-hydroxybutyrate and plasma glucose increased linearly as YMP increased. Dry matter intake showed a cubic effect, where cows fed 1.14, and 3.41% YMP had the highest intake. Milk production was not affected by YMP, whereas a trend was observed for a quadratic increase for 4% fat-corrected milk and energy-corrected milk. Medium- and long-chain fatty acid concentrations in milk increased quadratically

  3. In vitro estimation of rumen protein degradability using 35S to label the bacterial mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was carried out in order to simplify a previously developed 15N-method for in vitro estimation of rumen protein degradability. Casein (Cas), whole soybeans (Sb) heated at 120oC for 20 min (SbTherm) and sunflower (Sfl) were incubated at 39oC for 4 hours in a water bathshaker with the following media: McDougall's buffer, strained and enriched with particle associated bacteria rumen fluid (2:1), rapidly (maltose, sucrose, glucose) and more slowly (pectin, soluble starch) degradable carbohydrates with final concentration of 815 mg/100 ml and 21.7 μCi/100 ml of35S (from Na235SO4). After the incubation had been ceased, a bacterial fraction was isolated through differential centrifugation and specific activity of bacterial (Bac) and high speed total solids (TS) nitrogen was measured. The ratio was used to calculate bacterial mass in TS and through the Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration in TS - the net bacterial growth (against control vessels without protein). The level of ammonia-N in the supernate after blank correction was used to find the ammonia-N released from protein degradation. The data showed that the rate (and extend) of degradation for the Cas (as a standard protein) was lower compared to those obtained through the 15N-method but it was higher than the rate derived through another in vitro method. The Cas equivalent of the Sb was higher than the figure we found in a previous experiment with solvent extracted soybean meal suggesting that the 35S-method underestimated the degradability of the Cas. After being tested on a wider range of foodstuffs, the proposed 35S-method might be considered as an alternative procedure which is less laborous than the 15N-method. (author)

  4. Effect of biostimulation using sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw on oil degradation and bacterial community composition in a contaminated desert soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaiya eAl-Kindi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste materials have a strong potential in the bioremediation of oil-contaminated sites, because of their richness in nutrients and their economical feasibility. We used sewage sludge, soybean meal and wheat straw to biostimulate oil degradation in a heavily contaminated desert soil. While oil degradation was assessed by following the produced CO2 and by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, shifts in bacterial community composition were monitored using illumina MiSeq. The addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw to the desert soil stimulated the respiration activities more than the addition of soybean meal. GC-MS analysis revealed that the addition of addition of sewage sludge and wheat straw resulted in 1.7 to 1.8 fold increase in the degraded C14 to C30 alkanes, compared to only 1.3 fold increase in the case of soybean meal addition. The degradation of ≥ 90% of the C14 to C30 alkanes were measured in the soils treated with sewage sludge and wheat straw. MiSeq sequencing revealed that the majority (76.5-86.4% of total sequences of acquired sequences from the original soil belonged to Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Multivariate analysis of operational taxonomic units (OTUs placed the bacterial communities of the soils after the treatments in separate clusters (ANOSIM R=0.66, P=0.0001. The most remarkable shift in bacterial communities was in the wheat straw treatment, where 95-98% of the total sequences belonging to Bacilli. We conclude that sewage sludge and wheat straw are useful biostimulating agents for the cleanup of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  5. Bioavailability of crude protein and lipid from biofloc meals produced in an activated sludge system for white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sabry Neto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared the bioavailability of crude protein and lipid from biofloc meals generated with an activated sludge system using two water sources: wastewater from shrimp experimental culture (BFL-W and, artificially, using clean seawater (BFL-C. The sludge system operated by chemical and organic fertilization three times per week. Sampling of bioflocs occurred every two days during 81 days. To evaluate digestibility, each type of biofloc meal was incorporated into a reference diet (REF at 300 g/kg. Another diet acted as a negative control (NEG by using fish waste meal. The apparent digestibility of bioflocs was estimated by the indirect method using chromic oxide (Cr2O3 as the inert marker at 10 g/kg of the diet. Juvenile L. vannamei of 5.09±0.79 g (n = 440 were stocked at 10 shrimp/tank in 44 tanks of 61 L each that operated under a water recirculating regime. Biofloc meals contained a high ash content (591.0-649.2 g/kg combined with a low crude protein content (95.9-137.3 g/kg. After 26 days, shrimp achieved a final survival of 93.2±0.8% and a biomass gain of 37.1±1.8 g/tank. Final shrimp body weight ranged from 9.01±0.15 to 9.45±0.13 g. The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC of crude protein in the biofloc produced from BFL-W, BFL-C and fish waste meal (NEG reached 26.0, 25.7, and 64.1%, respectively. Similarly, the lipid ADC was 78.9, 67.9, and 85.8%, respectively. This study indicated that biofloc meals had a low protein availability for L. vannamei. However, although low levels of lipid were present, it proved to be available for the species. The dietary inclusion of biofloc meal appears to have a growth-promoting effect on shrimp, which may be associated with trace minerals, or other nutrients not identified in this study.

  6. Substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de coco em rações contendo farelo da castanha de caju para frangos de corte Substitution of soybean meal protein by coconut meal protein on broiler diets containg cashew nut meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos do nível de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do farelo de coco em rações contendo farelo da castanha de caju sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 325 pintos de corte machos, com 1 dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos e 5 repetições de 13 aves. Foram testados os níveis de 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do farelo de coco em rações contendo 20% de farelo de castanha de caju. A substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela do farelo de coco em níveis superiores a 5% promoveu redução linear no consumo de ração, no ganho de peso e na conversão alimentar apenas na fase inicial. Também foi verificado efeito quadrático sobre o rendimento de peito, que aumentou até o nível de 11,50% de substituição. Em todas as fases de criação, a substituição em níveis de até 20% não prejudicou significativamente o desempenho das aves nem alterou as características de carcaça em relação ao grupo controle. Segundo o estudo econômico realizado, a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela do farelo de coco foi economicamente viável até o nível de 20%. Portanto, em rações para frangos de corte contendo 20% de farelo de castanha de caju, a proteína do farelo de soja pode ser substituída pela do farelo de coco em níveis de até 20%.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of substitution level of soybean meal protein by coconut meal protein in rations with cashew nut meal on the performance of broilers. It was used 325 male broiler chicks at one day of age, distributed into complete random designs with five treatments and five repetitions of 13 birds. It was tested the levels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% of substitution of soybean meal protein by coconut meal protein in rations containg 20% of

  7. Assessment of protein quality of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal toasted in the presence of lignosulfonate by amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and Maillard reaction products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, T G; Bikker, P; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine protein quality in processed protein sources using the content of AA, -methylisourea (OMIU)-reactive Lys, Maillard reaction products (MRP), and cross-link products; the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA; and growth performance in growing pigs as criteria. Differences in protein quality were created by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) of soybean meal (SBM) and rapeseed meal (RSM) in the presence of lignosulfonate resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM). The processing treatment was used as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Ten growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 4 diets containing SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM in each of 3 periods. Ileal chyme was collected at the end of each period and analyzed for CP, AA, and OMIU-reactive Lys. Diets were analyzed for furosine and carboxymethyllysine (CML) as an indicator for MRP and lysinoalanine (LAL), which is a cross-link product. The SBM and RSM diets contained furosine, CML, and LAL, indicating that the Maillard reaction and cross-linking had taken place in SBM and RSM, presumably during the oil extraction/desolventizing process. The amounts of furosine, CML, and LAL were elevated in pSBM and pRSM due to further processing. Processing resulted in a reduction in total and OMIU-reactive Lys contents and a decrease in G:F from 0.52 to 0.42 for SBM and 0.46 to 0.39 for RSM ( = 0.006), SID of CP from 83.9 to 71.6% for SBM and 74.9 to 64.6% for RSM ( < 0.001), and SID of AA ( < 0.001), with the largest effects for total and OMIU-reactive Lys. The effects of processing could be substantial and should be taken into account when using processed protein sources in diets for growing pigs. The extent of protein damage may be assessed by additional analyses of MRP and cross-link products. PMID:27065264

  8. Infectious Keratitis: Secreted Bacterial Proteins That Mediate Corneal Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Marquart

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular bacterial infections are universally treated with antibiotics, which can eliminate the organism but cannot reverse the damage caused by bacterial products already present. The three very common causes of bacterial keratitis—Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae—all produce proteins that directly or indirectly cause damage to the cornea that can result in reduced vision despite antibiotic treatment. Most, but not all, of these proteins are secreted toxins and enzymes that mediate host cell death, degradation of stromal collagen, cleavage of host cell surface molecules, or induction of a damaging inflammatory response. Studies of these bacterial pathogens have determined the proteins of interest that could be targets for future therapeutic options for decreasing corneal damage.

  9. Exploring the diversity of protein modifications: special bacterial phosphorylation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Grangeasse, Christophe; Turgay, Kürşad

    2016-01-01

    that has been most thoroughly investigated. Unlike in eukarya, a large diversity of enzyme families has been shown to phosphorylate and dephosphorylate proteins on various amino acids with different chemical properties in bacteria. In this review, after a brief overview of the known bacterial...... phosphorylation systems, we focus on more recently discovered and less widely known kinases and phosphatases. Namely, we describe in detail tyrosine- and arginine-phosphorylation together with some examples of unusual serine-phosphorylation systems and discuss their potential role and function in bacterial...... physiology, and regulatory networks. Investigating these unusual bacterial kinase and phosphatases is not only important to understand their role in bacterial physiology but will help to generally understand the full potential and evolution of protein phosphorylation for signal transduction, protein...

  10. TROPICAL VEGETABLE (AMARANTHUS CRUENTUS LEAF MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT IN BROILER STARTER DIETS: BIONUTRITIONAL EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A FASUYI

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Amaranthus cruentus is a tropical leaf vegetable grown in most tropical regions of the world for its vegetable protein. The fresh matured leaves of the plant were harvested and sun dried until a moisture content of between 12-13% was obtained. The sun dried leaves (Amaranthus cruentus leaf meal, ACLM were milled and analysed for their proximate composition. Crude protein was 23.0%+0.55; crude fat, 5.4%+0.01; crude fibre, 8.8%+0.02; ash, 19.3%+0.01 and gross energy, 3.3+0.01kcal/g all on dry matter basis. Methionine and to a lesser extent, lysine, arginine, leucine and aspartate were high. The ACLM was incorporated into five formulated broiler starter diets at varying inclusion levels. The control diet 1 had no ACLM inclusion. All the six diets including control diet 1 were formulated isocaloric and isonitrogenous and fed to the experimental chicks (n = 540. Birds kept on diet 2 (5% ACLM inclusion level had the best average weight gain (WG of 372.9+29.94g/chick. The feed efficiency (FE value and the protein efficiency ratio (PER for birds on diet 2 were similar (P > 0.05 to values obtained for the reference diet. The nitrogen retention (NR and apparent nitrogen digestibility (AND values obtained for diet 2 were highest at 1.48+0.24gN/chick/day and 63.12%+10.28, respectively. Except for dressed weight and the back of chicken all the organs weights taken were similar (P > 0.05. Haematological examinations were similar (P > 0.05. Results generally indicated that ACLM could be a useful dietary protein source for broiler starter chicks at 5% inclusion level.

  11. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  12. Bacterial protein toxins in human cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosadi, Francesca; Fiorentini, Carla; Fabbri, Alessia

    2016-02-01

    Many bacteria causing persistent infections produce toxins whose mechanisms of action indicate that they could have a role in carcinogenesis. Some toxins, like CDT and colibactin, directly attack the genome by damaging DNA whereas others, as for example CNF1, CagA and BFT, impinge on key eukaryotic processes, such as cellular signalling and cell death. These bacterial toxins, together with other less known toxins, mimic carcinogens and tumour promoters. The aim of this review is to fulfil an up-to-date analysis of toxins with carcinogenic potential that have been already correlated to human cancers. Bacterial toxins-induced carcinogenesis represents an emerging aspect in bacteriology, and its significance is increasingly recognized.

  13. Changes in energy expenditure associated with ingestion of high protein, high fat versus high protein, low fat meals among underweight, normal weight, and overweight females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Barry D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic rate is known to rise above basal levels after eating, especially following protein consumption. Yet, this postprandial rise in metabolism appears to vary among individuals. This study examined changes in energy expenditure in response to ingestion of a high protein, high fat (HPHF meal versus an isocaloric high protein, low fat (HPLF meal in underweight, normal weight, or overweight females (n = 21 aged 19–28 years. Methods Energy expenditure, measured using indirect calorimetry, was assessed before and every 30 minutes for 3.5 hours following consumption of the meals on two separate occasions. Height and weight were measured using standard techniques. Body composition was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results Significant positive correlations were found between body mass index (BMI and baseline metabolic rate (MR (r = 0.539; p = 0.017, between body weight and baseline MR (r = 0.567; p = 0.011, between BMI and average total change in MR (r = 0.591; p = 0.008, and between body weight and average total change in MR (r = 0.464; p = 0.045. Metabolic rate (kcal/min was significantly higher in the overweight group than the normal weight group, which was significantly higher than the underweight group across all times and treatments. However, when metabolic rate was expressed per kg fat free mass (ffm, no significant difference was found in postprandial energy expenditure between the overweight and normal groups. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from the baseline rate did not significantly differ in the underweight (n = 3 or in the overweight subjects (n = 5 following consumption of either meal at any time. Changes in MR (kcal/min and kcal/min/kg ffm from baseline were significantly higher in normal weight subjects (n = 11 across all times following consumption of the HPHF meal versus the HPLF meal. Conclusion There is no diet-induced thermogenic advantage between the HPHF and HPLF meals in

  14. Protein quality control in the bacterial periplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdanovic, Melisa; Clausen, Tim; Kaiser, Markus; Huber, Robert; Ehrmann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Protein quality control involves sensing and treatment of defective or incomplete protein structures. Misfolded or mislocalized proteins trigger dedicated signal transduction cascades that upregulate the production of protein quality-control factors. Corresponding proteases and chaperones either degrade or repair damaged proteins, thereby reducing the level of aggregation-prone molecules. Because the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria is particularly exposed to environmental changes and respective protein-folding stresses connected with the presence of detergents, low or high osmolarity of the medium, elevated temperatures, and the host's immune response, fine-tuned protein quality control systems are essential for survival under these unfavorable conditions. This review discusses recent advances in the identification and characterization of the key cellular factors and the emerging general principles of the underlying molecular mechanisms. PMID:21639788

  15. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Sensory analysis was used to determine the changes due to the storage time on extruded pet food prepared from two different rendered protein meals: (i) beef meat and bone meal (BMBM); (ii) chicken byproduct meal (CPBM). Extrusion is a process where feed is pressed through a die in order to create shapes and increase digestibility. Descriptive sensory analysis using a human panel found an increase in undesirable sensory attributes (e.g., oxidized oil, rancid) in extruded pet food over storage time, especially the one prepared from chicken by product meal without antioxidants. The small increase in oxidized and rancid aromas of BMBM samples did not affect pet owners’ acceptability of the products. CPBM samples without antioxidants showed a notable increase in oxidized and rancid aroma over storage time and, thus, affected product acceptability negatively. This finding indicated that human sensory analysis can be used as a tool to track the changes of pet food characteristics due to storage, as well as estimate the shelf-life of the products. Abstract Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products’ shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners’ acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly

  16. Effect of salseed-meal tannins on protein synthesis, 35S incorporation and cellulose digestibility by rumen microbes in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannins from seed-meal of sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. F.) were fractionated after treatments into ethyl acetate (EA) and lead acetate (LA) fractions. In trial 1, incorporation of 35S from (NH4)235SO4 into microbial protein declined due to the effect of both 2% EA and LA fractions as compared to control. Microbial protein synthesis was depressed significantly (P 35S incorporation and cellulolysis at all levels of both the tannin fractions. It may be inferred that both the tannin fractions from salseed-meal showed antimicrobial activity and LA fraction seems to be more deleterious than EA fraction for rumen metabolism. The experiments were conducted in vitro using rumen liquor of a non-pregnant dry cow having permanent rumen fistula. (auth.)

  17. Lack of effect of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal intake on stress-related mood and eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmens Sofie G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of meals with different macronutrients, especially high in carbohydrates, may influence stress-related eating behavior. We aimed to investigate whether consumption of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meals influences stress-related mood, food reward, i.e. 'liking' and 'wanting', and post-meal energy intake. Methods Participants (n = 38, 19m/19f, age = 25 ± 9 y, BMI = 25.0 ± 3.3 kg/m2 came to the university four times, fasted, once for a stress session receiving a high-protein meal, once for a rest session receiving a high-protein meal, once for a stress session receiving a high-carbohydrate meal and once for a rest session receiving a high-carbohydrate meal (randomized cross-over design. The high-protein and high-carbohydrate test meals (energy percentage protein/carbohydrate/fat 65/5/30 vs. 6/64/30 matched for energy density (4 kJ/g and daily energy requirements (30%. Stress was induced using an ego-threatening test. Pre- and post-meal 'liking' and 'wanting' (for bread, filling, drinks, dessert, snacks, stationery (non-food alternative as control was measured by means of a computer test. Following the post-meal 'wanting' measurement, participants received and consumed their wanted food items (post-meal energy intake. Appetite profile (visual analogue scales, mood state (Profile Of Mood State and State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires, and post-meal energy intake were measured. Results Participants showed increased feelings of depression and anxiety during stress (P Conclusions Consumption of a high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal appears to have limited impact on stress-related eating behavior. Only participants with high disinhibition showed decreased subsequent 'wanting' and energy intake during rest; this effect disappeared under stress. Acute stress overruled effects of consumption of high-protein foods. Trial registration The study was registered in the Dutch Trial Register (NTR1904. The

  18. Using Nigella sativa meal as a substitute source for vegetable protein in rations of native growing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Nasser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 15 growing local bull calves of about 150-200 kg, live body weight and 10-12 months old to investigate the effect of substituting soyabean meal as concentrate feed mixture protein by Nigella sativa meal (NSM at 0 , 60 and 100%. Animals were divided into 3 groups of 5 calves each, according to their live body weight for performing feeding trials. All groups of animals were fed iso-nitrogen (15% CP and iso-caloric (2.7 Mcal/kg. ME diets. Experimental rations were offered at 2.5% of live body weight with 1% of wheat straw. At the end of the feeding trial, which lasted for 105 days, blood samples were collected from all calves to estimate the total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol. Digestibility trial was carried out on three animals of each group to investigate the nutritional value of rations. Economical study was also carried out on experimental animals. Results indicated that there was an improvement in feed intake by 13 and 14% for groups fed a ration containing NSM compared with the group fed the control one. No significant differences were between groups of calves in total body weight gain and blood parameters. The feed conversion ratio improved by 12% for the group of calves fed control ration as compared with other groups. The same cost of producing 1 kg live body weight gain was found. Substituting soybean meal protein at 60 and 100% by NSM protein significantly improved crude fiber, ether extract, EE, and the values of digestion coefficient. It was concluded that NSM could be substituted instead of soyabean meal for growing local calves with out adverse effects on their performance.

  19. Amino acids composition and protein quality evaluation of marine species and meals for feed formulations in cephalopods

    OpenAIRE

    Cerezo Valverde, Jesús; Martínez-Llorens, Silvia; TOMÁS VIDAL, ANA; Jover Cerda, Miguel; Rodriguez, Carmen; Estefanell, Juan; Gairin, Joan I.; Domingues, Pedro Miguel; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Garcia Garcia, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The amino acid composition and protein levels of three species of cephalopods (Octopus vulgaris, Loligo gahi and Todarodes sagittatus), the natural diets of common octopus (O. vulgaris) and different kinds of meals were determined in order to optimise the content of these nutrients in artificial feeds. Arginine, leucine and lysine were the most abundant essential amino acids in cephalopods, while glutamate and aspartate represented the main non-essential amino acids. Arginine and leucine were...

  20. Demodex-associated bacterial proteins induce neutrophil activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Background: Patients with rosacea demonstrate a higher density of Demodex mites in their skin than controls. A bacterium isolated from a Demodex mite from a patient with papulopustular rosacea (PPR) was previously shown to provoke an immune response in patients with PPR or ocular rosacea thus suggesting a possible role for bacterial proteins in the etiology of this condition. Objectives: To examine the response of neutrophils to proteins derived from a bacterium isolated from a Demodex mite. Methods: Bacterial cells were lysed and proteins were partially purified by AKTA-FPLC. Isolated neutrophils were exposed to bacterial proteins and monitored for alterations in migration, degranulation and cytokine production. Results: Neutrophils exposed to proteins from Bacillus cells demonstrated increased levels of migration and elevated release of MMP-9, an enzyme known to degrade collagen and cathelicidin, an antimicrobial peptide. In addition neutrophils exposed to the bacterial proteins demonstrated elevated rates of Il-8 and TNF-alpha production. Conclusions: Proteins produced by a bacterium isolated from a Demodex mite have the ability to increase the migration, degranulation and cytokine production abilities of neutrophils. These results suggest that bacteria may play a role in the inflammatory erythema associated with rosacea.

  1. Improvement of protein extraction from sunflower meal by hydrolysis with alcalase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vioque, J.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of proteins from defatted sunflower meal has been improved by addition of the protease alcalase during alkaline extraction. This method offers several additional advantages as compared to the traditional alkaline extraction without alcalase, which is usually carried out after a sedimentation/flotation step to remove the lignocellulosic fraction. As compared to extraction without alcalase, addition of 0.1% (v/v alcalase improved the yield of protein extraction from 57.5% to 87.4%, providing an extract that is 22% hydrolyzed. In addition, an increment of up to 4.5 times in protein solubility at low pH values is achieved, which correlates with the degree of hydrolysis. The extracts that were obtained in the presence of alcalase had a higher proline and glycine content, suggesting that the protease improves extraction of proline-rich and glycine-rich cell wall proteins that are part of the lignocellulosic fraction. These protein extracts can be directly dried without generation of wastewater, and the resulting fiber-rich material could be used for animal feeding.Se ha mejorado la extracción proteica de la harina desengrasa de girasol mediante la adición de la proteasa alcalasa durante la extracción alcalina. Este método ofrece varias ventajas adicionales en comparación con la extracción alcalina tradicional sin alcalasa, que se desarrolla normalmente mediante un proceso de flotación/sedimentación para retirar la fracción lignocelulósica. En comparación a la extracción sin alcalasa, la adicción de 0.1% (v/v de alcalasa mejora los rendimientos de extracción proteica desde un 57.5% a un 87.4%, dando un extracto con un 22% de grado de hidrólisis. Además se obtiene un incremento de hasta 4.5 veces de la solubilidad proteica a bajos pHs, que se correlaciona con el grado de hidrólisis. Los extractos obtenidos con alcalasa tenían un mayor contenido de prolina y glicina, sugiriendo que la proteasa mejora la extracción de las

  2. Utilization Of Expired Sausage Meal As A Source Of Protein In Feed Formulations For Growth Of Tilapia Oreochromis Sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Fitriadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It has been studied about utilization of expired sausage meal in tilapia Oreochromis sp. feed formulations with the aim to assess the level of the specific growth rate feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio. Five experimental feed contained 25 crude protein in feed which substituted with expired sausage meal as much as A 0 B 10 C 20 D 30 and E 40. Test fish used tilapia Oreochromis sp. Weight 4.5 1.26 gram with a maintenance period of 30 days in a controlled aquarium. The results of this research were the best expired sausage meal dose that can deliver growth rate and feed efficiency was best to feed treatment A. This evidenced by the survival value of 90.00 0.00 for specific growth rate of 1.29 0 09 weight day for a feed conversion ratio of 1.94 0.01 and for protein efficiency ratio of 1.96 0.01.

  3. UTILIZATION OF CORN GLUTEN MEAL AS A PROTEIN SOURCE IN DIETS FOR GILTHEAD SEA BREAM (Sparus aurata L. JUVENILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yiğit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of corn gluten meal (CGM was evaluated as a partial fish meal (FM substitute in practical diets for gilthead sea bream juveniles. Four test diets (isonitrogenous and isoca¬loric, 52% protein and 10% lipid, 19 kJ/g diet containing increasing levels of CGM were for¬mulated to replace anchovy meal at levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. Triplicate groups of ju¬venile sea bream (initial body weight of 1.5 g were reared in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS over 45 days at 18±2°C. Fish fed a diet containing 10% of CGM showed com¬parable growth performance similar to the control diet containing FM as the sole protein source. No mortality was observed in all treatment groups. Dietary CGM inclusion levels of 20% and 30% showed lower growth performance, feed utilization, and protein efficiency com¬pared to the control and the 10% CGM inclusion diets. However these values were not signifi¬cantly different among fish fed the CGM10 and CGM20 diets. Economical analyses also con¬firmed the growth related experimental results in terms of best profit obtained with the 10% CGM inclusion diet. Results in the present study showed that CGM alone without any amino acid supplements can substitute FM up to 10% with no adverse effects on growth performance, feed utilization, or economical inputs in gilthead sea bream juveniles.

  4. Evaluation of a rendered poultry mortality-soybean meal product as a supplemental protein source for pig diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, R O; Brendemuhl, J H; Leak, F W; Hess, J B

    2004-04-01

    Dehydrated/rendered broiler mortality-soybean meal products (DPS) were evaluated in two trials as high-protein feedstuffs for pig diets. Broiler mortalities, collected and frozen on-farm and transported to a central facility, were minced, blended with soybean meal, and dried with a final product temperature of 120 to 130 degrees C. The final DPS products used contained approximately 30 and 45% (DM basis) dried broiler mortality for the first and second trials, respectively (DPS1 and DPS2). The first trial involved 50 young, growing pigs (9 to 26 kg) and the second, 72 growing and finishing pigs (27 to 111 kg). The trials compared corn-based diets containing either soybean meal (SBM; 48%) or DPS products as the supplemental protein source. The DPS products averaged 50% CP and 2.9% total lysine; crude fat content of DPS used in the first trial was 8%, and for the second, 14.6% (as-fed basis). The ADG of pigs fed the DPS diets in either trial was similar to that of pigs fed the SBM control diets. In the second trial, pigs fed DPS2 had an overall average G:F ratio that was 9% better (P mincing, blending with SBM, and dehydration of frozen stored on-farm broiler mortalities produced a safe and nutritious protein feedstuff for pigs, while also offering a viable disposal option. PMID:15080329

  5. [Elimination of toxic compounds, biological evaluation and partial characterization of the protein from jojoba meal (Simmondsia chinensis [Link] Schneider].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Juárez, L A; Trejo González, A

    1989-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a new methodology to remove the toxic compounds present in jojoba meal and flour. Also, to perform the biological evaluation of the detoxified products and to chemically characterize the protein fractions. Jojoba meal and seed without testa were deffated with hexane and detoxified with a 7:3 isopropanol-water mixture which removed 86% of total phenolic compounds and 100% of simmondsins originally present, the resulting products had reduced bitterness and caused no deaths on experimental animals. NPR values obtained for diets containing such products were significantly different from those obtained with the casein control (p less than 0.05). Total protein was made up of three different fractions: the water-soluble fraction was the most abundant (61.8%), followed by the salt-soluble (23.6%), and the alkaline soluble fraction (14.6%). The nitrogen solubility curves showed that the isoelectric point for the water-soluble and salt-soluble fractions was pH 3.0, while that of the alkaline fraction fell in the range of 4.5-5.0. All fractions had a maximum solubility at pH 7.0. The methodology reported here, offers a viable solution to eliminate toxic compounds from jojoba meal or seeds, and upgrades the potential use of products such as animal feed or raw material for the production of protein isolates.

  6. Prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes Salmonella invasion.

    OpenAIRE

    MacBeth, K J; Lee, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have found that prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes the ability of Salmonella typhimurium to enter HEp-2 cells. Our results suggest that an essential invasion factor has a functional half-life that is seen as a gradual loss of invasiveness in the absence of protein synthesis. Therefore, Salmonella invasiveness appears to be a transient phenotype that is lost unless protein synthesis is maintained. This finding may explain why salmonellae grown to stationary phase ...

  7. Utilisation of Giant African snail (Achatina fulica meal as protein source for laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siaka Seriba Diarra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A 12-week experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of substituting Giant African snail meal for fish meal in laying hens diet. Four diets were formulated to contain snail meal as replacement for fish meal at 0 (control, 33, 67 and 100 %. A total of 120 Shaver Brown pullets aged 18 weeks were allocated to the dietary treatments in a randomised design. Each treatment consisted of three replicates and ten birds per replicate. Feed intake increased only for the 33% treatment as compared to the 67% replacement diet but did not differ from the other treatments. There were no significant treatment effects on egg performance parameters observed (egg production, egg weight, total egg mass, feed conversion ratio and percent shell. The overall feed cost of egg production reduced on the snail mealbased diets. The organoleptic evaluation of boiled eggs revealed no difference between the treatments. Based on these results it was concluded that total replacement of fish meal with cooked snail meat meal does not compromise laying performance or egg quality. The substitution is beneficial in terms of production cost reduction and the reduction of snails will have a beneficial impact especially where these snails are a serious agricultural pest. The manual collection and processing of snails can also become a source of rural income.

  8. Growh performance, nitrogen balance and urinary purine derivatives in growing-furring mink (Mustela vison) fed bacterial protein produced from natural gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlstrøm, Ø.; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl;

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial protein meal (BPM), containing 70% crude protein and produced on natural gas, was evaluated versus fish meal as protein source for mink in the growing-furring period (June 29-November 26). BPM, rich in nucleic acids, accounted for 0 (control), 20 and 40% of dietary crude protein......, except for males on the 8% BPM diet. Balance experiments carried out with 18 and 28 weeks old males, revealed similar digestibility of main nutrients except for fat that were reduced with BPM inclusion. N-retentions were similar for the dietary groups. Daily excretion of urine was lower with the 8% BPM...... diet than with the other diets. Excretion of urinary purine derivativ es (allantoin, xanthine), decreased or was not consistently affected (hypoxanthine, uric acid) by the dietary level of BPM, indicating that nucleic acids from BPM were utilized in vivo. The skin characteristics and fur quality were...

  9. Bacteriological study of fish meal in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of fish-meal production in Peru is pointed out, and the methods of manufacture are described. The bacteriological status at different stages of the fish-meal production process is reviewed. It is stated that the bacterial count of fish meal is related to the bacterial count of fish pools, the environmental sanitation in ship holds and factories and the method of preserving the fish meal. (author). 7 refs, 4 tabs

  10. Processing of soybean meal and 00-rapeseed meal reduces protein digestibility and pig growth performance but does not affect nitrogen solubilization along the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulshof, T G; van der Poel, A F B; Hendriks, W H; Bikker, P

    2016-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of processing of soybean meal (SBM) and 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on N solubilization in chyme, CP digestibility along the small intestine, metabolic load as determined by organ weight, body composition, and growth performance in growing pigs. The SBM and RSM were processed by secondary toasting (at 95°C for 30 min) in the presence of lignosulfonate, resulting in processed SBM (pSBM) and processed RSM (pRSM) as a model for overprocessed protein sources. Fifty-four growing pigs were each fed 1 of the 6 experimental diets. Four of the diets contained SBM, pSBM, RSM, or pRSM as the sole protein source. The remaining 2 experimental diets contained pSBM or pRSM and were supplemented with crystalline AA to the same standardized ileal digestible AA levels as the SBM or RSM diet. Pigs were slaughtered at 40 kg, and organ weights were recorded. The organs plus blood and empty carcass were analyzed for CP content. The small intestine was divided into 3 segments, and chyme samples were taken from the last meter of each segment. Chyme of the SBM, pSBM, RSM, and pRSM diets was centrifuged to separate the soluble and insoluble fractions, and N content was determined in the latter. The amount of insoluble N as a fraction of N in chyme at each small intestinal segment was not affected by processing. Diet type, comprising effects of processing and supplementing crystalline AA, affected ( < 0.05) the G:F and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP. Processing reduced G:F from 0.56 to 0.38 for SBM and 0.49 to 0.40 for RSM, whereas supplementing crystalline AA increased G:F to the level of the SBM and RSM diets. Processing reduced the SID of CP from 87.2% to 69.2% for SBM and 71.0% to 52.2% for RSM. Diet type affected ( < 0.05) the CP content in the empty body, with processing reducing this content from 170 to 144 g/kg empty BW for SBM and 157 to 149 g/kg empty BW for RSM and supplementing crystalline AA restoring this content

  11. Studies on substitutional protein sources for fish meal in the diet of Japanese flounder; Hirame shiryo ni okeru miriyo shigen no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, K.; Furuta, T.; Sakaguchi, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    Effectiveness of livestock industry wastes and vegetable protein added to fish meal in fish farming is tested by feeding the Japanese flounder. In the experiment, a part or the whole of the fish meal protein is replaced by the meat meal (MM), meat and bone meal (MBM), corngluten meal (CGM), or dried silkworm pupa meal (SPM), and fries of the Japanese flounder are fed on the new diets for eight weeks. On a diet containing 60% or less of MM, no change is detected in the fish in terms of increase in weight, protein efficiency ratio, and blood components, indicating that 60% at the highest of fish meal may be replaced by MM. In the case of MBM, it can occupy approximately 20%. As for CGM, the proper substitution rate is approximately 40%. Essential amino acids that the new diets may lack are added for an approximately 10% improvement on the result. The SPM substitution works up to 40%, when, however, the blood components are degraded. The proper substitution rate is therefore placed at approximately 20%. 38 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. In Vitro Rumen Fermentation and Anti Mastitis Bacterial Activity of Diet Containing Betel Leaf Meal (Piper betle L.)

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Yamin; A. Sudarman; D. Evvyernie

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this experiment was to study the inhibition effect of betel leaf meal (BLM) addition into concentrate diet on mastitis causing bacteria and on rumen fermentation condition. The study consisted of five dietary treatments of BLM level in concentrate feed, i.e., 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, and 8% and four replicates of each treatment. The treatment diets together with napier grass in ratio of 40 : 60 were fermented using rumen liquor. All treatments were examined their antibacterial activity be...

  13. The Chaotic Structure of Bacterial Virulence Protein Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevdanur Genc

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial virulence proteins, which have been class ified on structure of virulence, causes several diseases. For instance, Adhesins play an important role in th e host cells. They are inserted DNA sequences for a variety of virulence properties. Several important methods conducted for the prediction of bacterial virulence proteins for finding new drugs or vaccines. In this study, we propose a method for feature sele ction about classification of bacterial virulence protein. The features are constituted dir ectly from the amino acid sequence of a given protein. Amino acids form proteins, which are criti cal to life, and have many important functions in living cells. They occurring with diff erent physicochemical properties by a vector of 20 numerical values, and collected in AAIndex datab ases of known 544 indices. For all that, this approach have two steps. Firstly , the amino acid sequence of a given protein analysed with Lyapunov Exponents that they have a chaotic structure in accordance wi th the chaos theory. After that, if the results show chara cterization over the complete distribution in the phase space from the point of deterministic sys tem, it means related protein will show a chaotic structure. Empirical results revealed that generated feature v ectors give the best performance with chaotic structure of physicochemical features of amino acid s with Adhesins and non-Adhesins data sets.

  14. Rapeseed protein in a high-fat mixed meal alleviates postprandial systemic and vascular oxidative stress and prevents vascular endothelial dysfunction in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magné, Joëlle; Huneau, Jean François; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Delemasure, Stéphanie; Rochette, Luc; Tomé, Daniel; Mariotti, François

    2009-09-01

    High-saturated fat and high-sucrose meals induce vascular endothelial dysfunction, the early hallmark of atherogenesis. The impact of dietary protein on vascular homeostasis remains misunderstood. In this study, we investigated whether rapeseed protein, an emergent arginine- and cysteine-rich protein, can acutely modulate the onset of adverse effects induced by a high-saturated fat meal (HFM). In a series of crossover experiments, healthy rats received 3 HFM (saturated fat: 60%; sucrose: 20%; protein: 20% energy) with the protein source being either total milk protein (MP; control), rapeseed protein (RP), or MP supplemented with cysteine and arginine to the same level as in RP (MP+AA). Endothelium-related vascular reactivity, measured as an acetylcholine-induced transient decrease in blood pressure, and plasma triglycerides, hydroperoxides, cyclic GMP (cGMP), and free 3-nitrotyrosine were measured before and 2, 4, and 6 h after meals. Superoxide anion production, expressed as ethidine fluorescence, was measured in the aorta 6 h after meals. Whereas plasma triglycerides rose similarly in all meals, the decrease in vascular reactivity after MP was attenuated after MP+AA and entirely prevented after RP. The type of meal had no consistent effect on plasma cGMP and free 3-nitrotyrosine over the postprandial period. The postprandial increase in plasma hydroperoxides differed according to the meal, and concentrations were 43% lower 6 h after MP+AA and RP than after MP. Aortic superoxide anion production was 36% lower 6 h after RP than MP. These results show that substituting rapeseed protein for milk protein markedly reduces vascular and oxidative disturbances induced by an HFM and this may be mediated in part by cysteine and arginine. PMID:19587122

  15. Salmon testes meal as a functional feed additive in fish meal and plant-protein based diets for rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum)and nile tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus L.) fry

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report that salmon testes meal (TM) produced from Alaskan seafood processing byproducts is a potential protein source for aquafeed formulations. A series of feeding trials was conducted using three different fish species; including Nile tilapia, rainbow trout, and white sturgeon at their early gr...

  16. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 gene polymorphism and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Levent; Filik

    2010-01-01

    I read with great interest the article by Gbele et al published in issue 44 of World J Gastroenterol 2009.The results of their study indicate that-2518 Monocyte chemotactic protein-1(MCP-1)genotype AA is a risk factor for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis.However,there are some items that need to be discussed.

  17. Surface display of proteins by Gram-negative bacterial autotransporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourez Michael

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Expressing proteins of interest as fusions to proteins of the bacterial envelope is a powerful technique with many biotechnological and medical applications. Autotransporters have recently emerged as a good tool for bacterial surface display. These proteins are composed of an N-terminal signal peptide, followed by a passenger domain and a translocator domain that mediates the outer membrane translocation of the passenger. The natural passenger domain of autotransporters can be replaced by heterologous proteins that become displayed at the bacterial surface by the translocator domain. The simplicity and versatility of this system has made it very attractive and it has been used to display functional enzymes, vaccine antigens as well as polypeptides libraries. The recent advances in the study of the translocation mechanism of autotransporters have raised several controversial issues with implications for their use as display systems. These issues include the requirement for the displayed polypeptides to remain in a translocation-competent state in the periplasm, the requirement for specific signal sequences and "autochaperone" domains, and the influence of the genetic background of the expression host strain. It is therefore important to better understand the mechanism of translocation of autotransporters in order to employ them to their full potential. This review will focus on the recent advances in the study of the translocation mechanism of autotransporters and describe practical considerations regarding their use for bacterial surface display.

  18. A feasibility study of non-targeted adulterant screening based on NIRM spectral library of soybean meal to guarantee quality: The example of non-protein nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guanghui; Fan, Xia; Yang, Zengling; Han, Lujia

    2016-11-01

    The quality and safety of soybean meal is a key matter for the livestock breeding and food industries, since it is one of the most important and widely used protein feed raw materials. As driven by commercial interests, new illegal adulterants which are unknown to consumers and regulators emerge constantly. In order to make up for the inadequacy of traditional detection methods, a novel non-targeted adulterant screening method based on a near-infrared microscopy spectral library of soybean meal is proposed. This study focused on the feasibility of non-targeted screening methods for the detection of adulteration in soybean meal. Six types of non-protein nitrogen were taken as examples and partial least squares discriminant analysis was employed to verify the feasibility of this novel method. The results showed that the non-targeted screening method could screen out adulterations in soybean meal with satisfactory results. PMID:27211617

  19. Prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes Salmonella invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBeth, K J; Lee, C A

    1993-01-01

    We have found that prolonged inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis abolishes the ability of Salmonella typhimurium to enter HEp-2 cells. Our results suggest that an essential invasion factor has a functional half-life that is seen as a gradual loss of invasiveness in the absence of protein synthesis. Therefore, Salmonella invasiveness appears to be a transient phenotype that is lost unless protein synthesis is maintained. This finding may explain why salmonellae grown to stationary phase lose their ability to enter cultured cells. In addition, a short-lived capacity to enter cells may be important during infection so that bacterial invasiveness is limited to certain times and host sites during pathogenesis. PMID:8454361

  20. Structural Aspects of Bacterial Outer Membrane Protein Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmettes, Charles; Judd, Andrew; Moraes, Trevor F

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is predominantly populated by β-Barrel proteins and lipid anchored proteins that serve a variety of biological functions. The proper folding and assembly of these proteins is essential for bacterial viability and often plays a critical role in virulence and pathogenesis. The β-barrel assembly machinery (Bam) complex is responsible for the proper assembly of β-barrels into the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, whereas the localization of lipoproteins (Lol) system is required for proper targeting of lipoproteins to the outer membrane. PMID:26621472

  1. Blocking of bacterial biofilm formation by a fish protein coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Klemm, Per

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation on inert surfaces is a significant health and economic problem in a wide range of environmental, industrial, and medical areas. Bacterial adhesion is generally a prerequisite for this colonization process and, thus, represents an attractive target for the development......, this proteinaceous coating is characterized with regards to its biofilm-reducing properties by using a range of urinary tract infectious isolates with various pathogenic and adhesive properties. The antiadhesive coating significantly reduced or delayed biofilm formation by all these isolates under every condition...... examined. The biofilm-reducing activity did, however, vary depending on the substratum physicochemical characteristics and the environmental conditions studied. These data illustrate the importance of protein conditioning layers with respect to bacterial biofilm formation and suggest that antiadhesive...

  2. Inactivation of indispensable bacterial proteins by early proteins of bacteriophages: implication in antibacterial drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, S; Chattoraj, P; Ganguly, T; Chanda, P K; Mandal, N C

    2008-06-01

    Bacteriophages utilize host bacterial cellular machineries for their own reproduction and completion of life cycles. The early proteins that phage synthesize immediately after the entry of their genomes into bacterial cells participate in inhibiting host macromolecular biosynthesis, initiating phage-specific replication and synthesizing late proteins. Inhibition of synthesis of host macromolecules that eventually leads to cell death is generally performed by the physical and/or chemical modification of indispensable host proteins by early proteins. Interestingly, most modified bacterial proteins were shown to take part actively in phage-specific transcription and replication. Research on phages in last nine decades has demonstrated such lethal early proteins that interact with or chemically modify indispensable host proteins. Among the host proteins inhibited by lethal phage proteins, several are not inhibited by any chemical inhibitor available today. Under the context of widespread dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria in recent years, the information of lethal phage proteins and cognate host proteins could be extremely invaluable as they may lead to the identification of novel antibacterial compounds. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about some early phage proteins, their cognate host proteins and their mechanism of action and also describe how the above interacting proteins had been exploited in antibacterial drug discovery. PMID:18537683

  3. Automatic selection of representative proteins for bacterial phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg David

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although there are now about 200 complete bacterial genomes in GenBank, deep bacterial phylogeny remains a difficult problem, due to confounding horizontal gene transfers and other phylogenetic "noise". Previous methods have relied primarily upon biological intuition or manual curation for choosing genomic sequences unlikely to be horizontally transferred, and have given inconsistent phylogenies with poor bootstrap confidence. Results We describe an algorithm that automatically picks "representative" protein families from entire genomes for use as phylogenetic characters. A representative protein family is one that, taken alone, gives an organismal distance matrix in good agreement with a distance matrix computed from all sufficiently conserved proteins. We then use maximum-likelihood methods to compute phylogenetic trees from a concatenation of representative sequences. We validate the use of representative proteins on a number of small phylogenetic questions with accepted answers. We then use our methodology to compute a robust and well-resolved phylogenetic tree for a diverse set of sequenced bacteria. The tree agrees closely with a recently published tree computed using manually curated proteins, and supports two proposed high-level clades: one containing Actinobacteria, Deinococcus, and Cyanobacteria ("Terrabacteria", and another containing Planctomycetes and Chlamydiales. Conclusion Representative proteins provide an effective solution to the problem of selecting phylogenetic characters.

  4. Evaluation of Nutritive Value of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Leaf Meal in Compound Diets for Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton, 1822) Fingerlings after Fermentation with Two Bacterial Strains Isolated from Fish Gut

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Sangbrita; Ray, Arun Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Nine isonitrogenous (30% crude protein approximately) and isocaloric (18.23 kJ g-1) experimental diets (D1-D9) were formulated either with raw or treated (fermented with fish intestinal bacteria) Eichhornia crassipes leaf meal at 20%, 30% and 40% levels replacing other ingredients partially from a fish meal based reference diet (RD). Two specific strains of fish intestinal bacteria, Bacillus subtilis CY5 (isolated from Cyprinus carpio) and B. megaterium CI3 (isolated from Ctenopharyngodon id...

  5. Protein-lipid interactions in the purple bacterial reaction centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael R; Fyfe, Paul K; Roszak, Aleksander W; Isaacs, Neil W; Cogdell, Richard J

    2002-10-11

    The purple bacterial reaction centre uses the energy of sunlight to power energy-requiring reactions such as the synthesis of ATP. During the last 20 years, a combination of X-ray crystallography, spectroscopy and mutagenesis has provided a detailed insight into the mechanism of light energy transduction in the bacterial reaction centre. In recent years, structural techniques including X-ray crystallography and neutron scattering have also been used to examine the environment of the reaction centre. This mini-review focuses on recent studies of the surface of the reaction centre, and briefly discusses the importance of the specific protein-lipid interactions that have been resolved for integral membrane proteins.

  6. Nutritional evaluation of the germ meal and its protein isolate obtained from the carob seed (Ceratonia siliqua) in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouliscos, N J; Malefaki, V

    1980-01-01

    1. Evaluation of the germ meal (CGM) of carob seed (Ceratonia siliqua) and its protein isolate was carried out with weanling rats. Comparisons were made with casein, soya-bean meal, whole defatted egg and a soya-bean protein isolate (Promine-D) as protein sources. The growth-promoting effects and certain biological indices were evaluated using the protein efficiency ratio (PER), biological value (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU) bioassay procedures. 2. The unsupplemented CGM had a PER of 1.66 +/- 0.09 and an NPU of 0.58 +/- 0.013. Addition of DL-methionine at 4, 8 and 12 g/kg diet resulted in a PER of 1.95 +/- 0.11, 2.01 +/- 0.11 and 1.90 +/- 0.11 respectively. The corresponding BV values were 0.80 +/- 0.003, 0.78 +/- 0.015 and 0.74 +/- 0.011, and those for NPU 0.69 +/- 0.013, 0.66 +/- 0.026 and 0.63 +/- 0.020 respectively. The addition of amino acids improved the PER (2.24--2.59), BV (0.78--0.79) and NPU (0.71--0.73) values. 3. The BV and NPU assays for the unsupplemented carob germ isolate were low (BV 0.36 +/- 0.016, NPU 0.35 +/- 0.015). Supplementation with amino acids resulted in a positive increase with values of 0.66 +/- 0.013 and 0.64 +/- 0.013 for BV and NPU respectively.

  7. Bacterial S-layer protein coupling to lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weygand, M.; Wetzer, B.; Pum, D.;

    1999-01-01

    The coupling of bacterial surface (S)-layer proteins to lipid membranes is studied in molecular detail for proteins from Bacillus sphaericus CCM2177 and B. coagulans E38-66 recrystallized at dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) monolayers on aqueous buffer. A comparison of the monolayer...... structure before and after protein recrystallization shows minimal reorganization of the lipid chains. By contrast, the lipid headgroups show major rearrangements. For the B. sphaericus CCM2177 protein underneath DPPE monolayers, x-ray reflectivity data suggest that amino acid side chains intercalate...... the lipid headgroups at least to the phosphate moieties, and probably further beyond. The number of electrons in the headgroup region increases by more than four per lipid. Analysis of the changes of the deduced electron density profiles in terms of a molecular interpretation shows...

  8. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products' shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners' acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly trained descriptive panelists for sensory attributes related to oxidation. Samples without preservatives were chosen for the acceptability test, since the differences in sensory characteristics over storage time were more distinguishable in those samples. Pet owners evaluated samples for aroma, appearance and overall liking. Descriptive sensory analysis detected significant changes in oxidized-related sensory characteristics over storage time. However, the differences for CBPM samples were more pronounced and directional. The consumer study showed no differences in pet owners' acceptability for BMBM samples. However, the noticeable increase in aroma characteristics (rancid aroma 0.33-4.21) in CBPM samples over storage time did have a negative effect on consumer's liking (overall liking 5.52-4.95). PMID:27483326

  9. C-REACTIVE PROTEIN IN BACTERIAL MENINGITIS: DOSE IT HELP TO DIFFERENTIATE BACTERIAL FROM VIRAL MENINGITIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR EMAMI NAEINI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Central nervous system infections are among the most serious conditions in of medical practice. C-reactive Protein has recently been evaluated in terms of its ability to diffeccentiate bacterial from nonbacterial central nervous system inflammations.
    Methods. We studied the frequency of positive CRP in 61 patients who had signs of meningitis. All the specimens referred to one laboratory and were examined by Slide method.
    Results. Positive CRP was found in 97.6 percent of those who were finally diagnosed as bacterial meningitis. The frequency of CRP for other types of meningitis was 16.6 percent (P < 0.05.
    Discussion. In the absence of infection, CSF is free of CRP. Positive CRP may help to the differentiate the different types of meningitis.

  10. Effect of high-level fish meal replacement by plant proteins in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) on growth and body/fillet quality traits

    OpenAIRE

    M. de Francesco; Parisi, G.; Perez Sanchez, J.; Gomez Requeni, P; Medale, Francoise; Kaushik, Sadasivam; M. Mecatti; Poli, B

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile gilthead sea bream (initial body weight ca. 100 g) were reared in an indoor flow through marine water system for 1 year. Fish were fed two isoenergetic [19.2 kJ g−1 dry matter (DM)] and isoproteic (426 g kg−1 DM) diets either based on fish meal (diet FM) or on a mixture of plant protein sources (diet PP), replacing 75% of fish meal protein. The growth trial was conducted in duplicate, two tanks for each dietary treatment. Growth performance and feed utilization were regis...

  11. Ileal digestibility of amino acids in novel organic protein feedstuffs for pigs: Black soldier fly larvae meal(Hermetia illucens)

    OpenAIRE

    Kortelainen, Tiina; Siljander-Rasi, Hilkka; Tuori, Mikko; Partanen, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids in organically produced black soldier fly larvae (Hermeti illucens) meal in growing piglets. The use of Hermetia meal in pig feeding is not allowed for the time being, but feed legislation in the EU concerning the use of Hermetia meal for pigs is in progress. Two batches of Hermetia meal arrived from Switzerland (FiBL Research Institute of Organic Agriculture). In batch 1, fa...

  12. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen;

    2013-01-01

    A new methodology is introduced that allows the design of meal solutions (such as chilled and frozen ready meals, menu choices in catering and food service) based on empirical assessments of fit between meal centres and side components. The necessary input data are collected by means of a consumer......, combined with tomatoes, sweet peppers or lettuce plus wine) and a miscellaneous segment of rarely consumed products....

  13. Easy Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  14. Bacterial Protein Synthesis as a Target for Antibiotic Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenz, Stefan; Wilson, Daniel N

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis occurs on macromolecular machines, called ribosomes. Bacterial ribosomes and the translational machinery represent one of the major targets for antibiotics in the cell. Therefore, structural and biochemical investigations into ribosome-targeting antibiotics provide not only insight into the mechanism of action and resistance of antibiotics, but also insight into the fundamental process of protein synthesis. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of protein synthesis, particularly with respect to X-ray and cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of ribosome complexes, and highlights the different steps of translation that are targeted by the diverse array of known antibiotics. Such findings will be important for the ongoing development of novel and improved antimicrobial agents to combat the rapid emergence of multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria. PMID:27481773

  15. A Study on the Meat and Bone Meal or Poultry By-product Meal as Protein Substitutes of Fishmeal in Concentrated Diets for Paralichthys olivaceus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fishmeal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The experimental diets included 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% MBM or PBM replacement of total fishmeal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric. The results showed that there are no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth performance among the treatments fed with 0%-60% MBM replacement of fishmeal, while the percent weight gain (WG,%), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decrease when fishmeal is replaced by 80% MBM. The result showed also that there are no significant differences (P>0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all treatments fed with the diets with 0%-80% replacements of fishmeal with PBM.

  16. The relative nutritive value of irradiated spray-dried blood powder and heat-sterilized blood meal as measured in combination with whey protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of processing blood meal in which nutritive value of the protein is preserved is described, since appreciable losses occur in the nutritive value of the protein when prepared by heat sterilization with drying at atmospheric pressure in steam jacketed vessels. Blood was spray dried and irradiated at an intensity of 10 kGy. Collectively the heat of spray drying and irradiation was effective in killing both the virus plaque-forming units and the bacteria, thus producing a commercially acceptable sterile product of higher nutritive value. The relative nutritive values (RNV) of 50:50 protein were 0,56 for whey protein concentrate plus heat-sterilized blood meal and 0.90 for whey protein concentrate plus irradiated spray-dried blood powder. Whey protein concentrate used as a control has a RNV of 1,0

  17. Standardized ileal digestibility of proteins and amino acids in sesame expeller and soya bean meal in weaning piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, A; Reis de Souza, T C; Mariscal-Landín, G; Escobar, K; Montaño, S; Bernal, M G

    2015-08-01

    Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of diets containing sesame expeller (SE) and soya bean meal (SBM) was determined using 15 piglets (Genetiporc(®)), weaned at 17 ± 0.4 days with average body weight of 6.4 ± 0.7 kg (Fertilis 20 × G Performance, Genetiporc(®), PIC México, Querétaro, México). Piglets were randomly assigned to three treatments: (i) a reference diet with casein as the sole protein source; (ii) a mixed diet of casein-SE; and (iii) a mixed diet of casein-SBM. The chemical composition of SE and SBM was determined, and AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AAs) were determined for each protein source. SE contained greater quantities of ether extract, neutral detergent fibre, phytic acid, methionine and arginine than SBM. Lysine and proline contents and trypsin inhibitor activity were higher in SBM than in SE. The AID and SID of CP and AA (except for lysine and proline) were similar in SE and SBM. The AID of lysine and proline was higher in SBM than in SE (p < 0.05), and the SID of proline was higher in SE than in SBM (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that SE is an appropriate alternative protein source for early weaned pigs.

  18. Evaluation of plant and animal protein sources as partial or total replacement of fish meal in diets for juvenile Nile tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed system with Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles (mean weight, 2.84 g) to examine the effects of total replacement of fish meal (FM), with and without supplementation of DL-methionine (Met) and L-lysine (Lys), by plant protein sources. Fish were f...

  19. USE OF EXTRUSION-TEXTURIZED WHEY PROTEIN ISOLATES IN PUFFED CORN MEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adding whey protein concentrates or isolates to expanded snack foods would boost their nutritional content; however, adding non-textured whey proteins in amounts larger than 5% interferes with expansion, making the products less crunchy. To counter this effect, whey protein isolate was first extrud...

  20. Holo- And Apo- Structures of Bacterial Periplasmic Heme Binding Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, W.W.; Li, H.; Eakanunkul, S.; Tong, Y.; Wilks, A.; Guo, M.; Poulos, T.L.

    2009-06-01

    An essential component of heme transport in Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is the periplasmic protein that shuttles heme between outer and inner membranes. We have solved the first crystal structures of two such proteins, ShuT from Shigella dysenteriae and PhuT from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Both share a common architecture typical of Class III periplasmic binding proteins. The heme binds in a narrow cleft between the N- and C-terminal binding domains and is coordinated by a Tyr residue. A comparison of the heme-free (apo) and -bound (holo) structures indicates little change in structure other than minor alterations in the heme pocket and movement of the Tyr heme ligand from an 'in' position where it can coordinate the heme iron to an 'out' orientation where it points away from the heme pocket. The detailed architecture of the heme pocket is quite different in ShuT and PhuT. Although Arg{sup 228} in PhuT H-bonds with a heme propionate, in ShuT a peptide loop partially takes up the space occupied by Arg{sup 228}, and there is no Lys or Arg H-bonding with the heme propionates. A comparison of PhuT/ShuT with the vitamin B{sub 12}-binding protein BtuF and the hydroxamic-type siderophore-binding protein FhuD, the only two other structurally characterized Class III periplasmic binding proteins, demonstrates that PhuT/ShuT more closely resembles BtuF, which reflects the closer similarity in ligands, heme and B{sub 12}, compared with ligands for FhuD, a peptide siderophore.

  1. Bacterial Hydrolysis of Protein and Methylated Protein and Its Implications for Studies of Protein Degradation in Aquatic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Richard G.; Kirchman, David L.

    1992-01-01

    Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase was radiolabelled by in vitro translation, resulting in uniformly labelled ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase, and also by reductive methylation. We investigated the degradation of the two forms of radiolabelled protein by natural bacterial populations. Although total hydrolysis of uniformly labelled protein and methylated protein was nearly equal, percent assimilation, respiration, and release as low-molecular-weight material were different. Radioacti...

  2. Defining meal requirements for protein to optimize metabolic roles of amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary protein provides essential amino acids (EAAs) for the synthesis of new proteins plus an array of other metabolic functions; many of these functions are sensitive to postprandial plasma and intracellular amino acid concentrations. Recent research has focused on amino acids as metabolic signal...

  3. Partial replacement of protein in soybean meal by moringa seed cake (Moringa oleifera in bocourti’s catfish (Pangasius bocourti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundit Yuangsoi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken in order to determine the effect of a dietary of moringa seed cake on digestibility, growth performance, blood chemistry and histopathologic of bocourti’s catfish. Fish were fed with diets formulated by 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 of moringa seed cake to replace protein in soybean meal. Fish with mean wet weights of 21.50± 0.25 g per fish were fed experimental diets for 8 weeks. Significant differences (p<0.05 in weight gain, average daily gain and specific growth rate were detected between bocourti’s catfish given the experimental diets. All fish grew normally and no significant difference was observed for survival rate and feed conversion ratio among fish fed tested diets. The highest FCR was generally observed that as moringa seed cake inclusion increased in the diets that were noted to exhibit slightly poor growth performance, feed utilization and pepsin digestibility tested. Blood chemistry and hepatosomatic index did not differ significantly for any of the diet treatments. No histopathological changes were found in distal intestines and liver. The study indicated that the dietary moringa seed cake contains ingredients that could be used for bocourti’s catfish diets possibly not over up to for 500 g kg-1 soybean protein replacement without negative effect on growth, digestibility and histology.

  4. Hearth bread characteristics: Effect of protein quality, protein content, whole meal flour, DATEM, proving time, and their interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aamodt, A.; Magnus, E.M.; Færgestad, E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of protein quality, protein content, ingredients, and baking process of flour blends on hearth loaves were studied. The flour blends varied in protein composition and content. Flours of strong protein quality produced hearth loaves with larger loaf volume, larger bread slice area, and hi

  5. Growth performance and metabolic efficiency in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fed on a diet containing Jatropha platyphylla kernel meal as a protein source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Akinleye, A O; Makkar, H P S; Angulo-Escalante, M A; Becker, K

    2012-02-01

    Jatropha platyphylla is available on the pacific coast from Sinaloa to Michoacán including the Nayarit and Jalisco states in Mexico. The seeds of J. platyphylla are rich in oil and protein, and the kernel meal (JPKM) prepared after oil extraction contains 70-75% crude protein (CP). Contents of essential amino acids (except lysine) are higher in JPKM than in soybean meal (SBM). Phorbol-esters, the main toxin present in most Jatropha species is absent in J. platyphylla. Heat-treated JPKM (H-JPKM) was evaluated as a protein supplement in tilapia feed and compared with that of SBM and fish meal (FM). Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fingerlings (15 fish; av. body mass 13.9 ± 0.17 g) were randomly distributed in three groups with five replicates each. A 12-week experiment was conducted in a respirometer system to evaluate the growth performance, nutrient utilization and energy budget. Nile tilapia fingerlings were fed three iso-nitrogenous diets (36% CP): Control containing FM, and Jatropha and Soybean diets in which 62.5% of FM protein was replaced by H-JPKM and SBM respectively. The growth performance, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, apparent lipid conversion and energy retention did not differ significantly among the three groups. Higher protein productive value was observed in plant protein fed groups. Average metabolic rate, energy expenditure per g protein fed and retained in the body did not differ significantly among the three groups. Conclusively, Nile tilapia fed plant protein (heated JPKM and SBM) and FM protein-based diets exhibited equal average metabolic rate which indicate that JPKM can be used as a protein source in aqua feed.

  6. Ribosome reinitiation at leader peptides increases translation of bacterial proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Semen A; Zverkov, Oleg A; Seliverstov, Alexandr V; Lyubetsky, Vassily A

    2016-04-16

    Short leader genes usually do not encode stable proteins, although their importance in expression control of bacterial genomes is widely accepted. Such genes are often involved in the control of attenuation regulation. However, the abundance of leader genes suggests that their role in bacteria is not limited to regulation. Specifically, we hypothesize that leader genes increase the expression of protein-coding (structural) genes via ribosome reinitiation at the leader peptide in the case of a short distance between the stop codon of the leader gene and the start codon of the structural gene. For instance, in Actinobacteria, the frequency of leader genes at a distance of 10-11 bp is about 70 % higher than the mean frequency within the 1 to 65 bp range; and it gradually decreases as the range grows longer. A pronounced peak of this frequency-distance relationship is also observed in Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetales, Acidobacteria, the Deinococcus-Thermus group, and Planctomycetes. In contrast, this peak falls to the distance of 15-16 bp and is not very pronounced in Firmicutes; and no such peak is observed in cyanobacteria and tenericutes. Generally, this peak is typical for many bacteria. Some leader genes located close to a structural gene probably play a regulatory role as well.

  7. Effects of replacing rapeseed meal with fava bean at 2 concentrate crude protein levels on feed intake, nutrient digestion, and milk production in cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhakka, L; Jaakkola, S; Simpura, I; Kokkonen, T; Vanhatalo, A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the production and physiological responses of dairy cows to the substitution of fava bean for rapeseed meal at 2 protein supplementation levels in grass silage-based diets. We used 6 primiparous and 6 multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows in a cyclic changeover trial with a 2×3 factorial arrangement of treatments. The experimental diets consisted of formic acid-treated timothy-meadow fescue silage and 3 isonitrogenous concentrates containing either rapeseed meal, fava bean, or a 1:1 mixture of rapeseed meal and fava bean at low and high inclusion rates, resulting in concentrate crude protein (CP) levels of 15.4 and 19.0% in dry matter. Silage dry matter intake decreased linearly when rapeseed meal was replaced with fava bean, the negative effect being more distinct at the high CP level than the low (-2.3 vs. -0.9kg/d, respectively). Similarly, milk and milk protein yields decreased linearly with fava bean, the change tending to be greater at the high CP level than the low. Yield of milk fat was lower for fava bean compared with rapeseed meal, the difference showing no interaction with CP level. Especially at the high CP level, milk urea concentration was higher with fava bean compared with rapeseed meal indicating better utilization of protein from the rapeseed meal. The apparent total-tract organic matter digestibility did not differ between treatments at the low CP level, but digestibility was higher for fava bean than for rapeseed meal at the high CP level. Plasma concentrations of essential amino acids, including methionine and lysine, were lower for fava bean than for rapeseed meal. Compared with rapeseed meal, the use of fava bean in dairy cow diets as the sole protein supplement decreased silage intake and milk production in highly digestible formic acid-treated grass silage-based diets.

  8. Surface Proteins of Streptococcus agalactiae and Related Proteins in Other Bacterial Pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Gunnar; Stålhammar-Carlemalm, Margaretha; Areschoug, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is the major cause of invasive bacterial disease, including meningitis, in the neonatal period. Although prophylactic measures have contributed to a substantial reduction in the number of infections, development of a vaccine remains an important goal. While much work in this field has focused on the S. agalactiae polysaccharide capsule, which is an important virulence factor that elicits protective immunity, surface proteins have received incre...

  9. Soybean Meal and Soy Protein Concentrate in Early Diet Elicit Different Nutritional Programming Effects on Juvenile Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Erick; Yúfera, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    There is now strong evidence that early nutrition plays an important role in shaping later physiology. We assessed here whether soy protein concentrate (SPC) or soybean meal (SBM) in early diet would modify zebrafish responses to these products in later life. We fed zebrafish larvae with SPC-, SBM-, or a control-diet for the first 3 days of feeding and then grew all larvae on the control diet up to juveniles. Finally, we assessed the expression in juveniles of genes involved in inflammation/immunity, the breakdown of extracellular matrix, luminal digestion, and intestinal nutrient absorption/trafficking. First feeding SBM had wider, stronger, and more persistent effects on gene expression with respect to SPC. Juveniles fed with SPC at first feeding were more prone to inflammation after refeeding with SPC than fish that never experienced SPC before. Conversely, zebrafish that faced SBM at first feeding were later less responsive to refeeding with SBM through inflammation and had higher expression of markers of peptide absorption and fatty acid transport. Results indicate that some features of inflammation/remodeling, presumably at the intestine, and nutrient absorption/transport in fish can be programmed by early nutrition. These findings sustain the rationale of using zebrafish for depicting molecular mechanisms involved in nutritional programming.

  10. Chemical inhibition of bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase suppresses capsule production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Alistair J; Salim, Angela A; Zhang, Hua; Capon, Robert J; Morona, Renato

    2012-01-01

    Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to date. In order to study this regulation further, we performed a screen to find inhibitors of the phosphatase, CpsB. This led to the observation that a recently discovered marine sponge metabolite, fascioquinol E, inhibited CpsB phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that did not affect the growth of the bacteria. This inhibition resulted in decreased capsule synthesis in D39 and Type 1 S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, concentrations of Fascioquinol E that inhibited capsule also lead to increased attachment of pneumococci to a macrophage cell line, suggesting that this compound would inhibit the virulence of the pathogen. Interestingly, this compound also inhibited the phosphatase activity of the structurally unrelated gram-negative PTP, Wzb, which belongs to separate family of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incubation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which contains a homologous phosphatase, resulted in decreased capsule synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PTPs are critical for Wzy-dependent capsule production across a spectrum of bacteria, and as such represents a valuable new molecular target for the development of anti-virulence antibacterials.

  11. Chemical inhibition of bacterial protein tyrosine phosphatase suppresses capsule production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair J Standish

    Full Text Available Capsule polysaccharide is a major virulence factor for a wide range of bacterial pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae. The biosynthesis of Wzy-dependent capsules in both gram-negative and -positive bacteria is regulated by a system involving a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP and a protein tyrosine kinase. However, how the system functions is still controversial. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen, the system is present in all but 2 of the 93 serotypes found to date. In order to study this regulation further, we performed a screen to find inhibitors of the phosphatase, CpsB. This led to the observation that a recently discovered marine sponge metabolite, fascioquinol E, inhibited CpsB phosphatase activity both in vitro and in vivo at concentrations that did not affect the growth of the bacteria. This inhibition resulted in decreased capsule synthesis in D39 and Type 1 S. pneumoniae. Furthermore, concentrations of Fascioquinol E that inhibited capsule also lead to increased attachment of pneumococci to a macrophage cell line, suggesting that this compound would inhibit the virulence of the pathogen. Interestingly, this compound also inhibited the phosphatase activity of the structurally unrelated gram-negative PTP, Wzb, which belongs to separate family of protein tyrosine phosphatases. Furthermore, incubation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which contains a homologous phosphatase, resulted in decreased capsule synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that PTPs are critical for Wzy-dependent capsule production across a spectrum of bacteria, and as such represents a valuable new molecular target for the development of anti-virulence antibacterials.

  12. Effect of Carbohydrate Sources and Levels of Cotton Seed Meal in Concentrate on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Fermentation and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Young Dairy Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Wanapat, M.; Anantasook, N.; Rowlinson, P.; Pilajun, R.; Gunun, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of levels of cottonseed meal with various carbohydrate sources in concentrate on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial protein synthesis in dairy bulls. Four, 6 months old dairy bulls were randomly assigned to receive four dietary treatments according to a 2×2 factorial arrangement in a 4×4 Latin square design. Factor A was carbohydrate source; cassava chip (CC) and cassava chip+rice bran in the ratio of...

  13. Skin Firming, Skin Smoothing, Skin Blemishes Elimination and Anti-aging Effects of Increased Protein Intake in the Form of Voandzeia hypogeal Seed Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utoh-Nedosa U. Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the effect of excess calorie intake on the human body showed that it resulted in accumulation of excess body fat; the darkening of the skin colour and the development of a bumpy skin. Problem statement: The present study investigated the effects of increased protein intake on the human skin and on body fat. The skin firming, skin smoothing and skin colour lightening effects of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract has already been established. The anti-obesity, body calming and anti-aging effects of VA leaf extract have also been established. Approach: The effects of increased protein intake (in the form of eating of 100 gm Voandzeia hypogeal seed paste meal two times daily, was tested on the skin, anti-obesity and anti-aging effects of VA leaf extract. The study was done for 10 days. Results: The results of the study showed that Voandzeia subterranean (hypogea cooked potentiated the skin tightening, skin smoothing, skin colour lightening and the anti-obesity/anti-aging effects of VA. Leaf extract. These results show that increased Voandezia hypogeal seed paste meal [increased protein intake has skin tightening/clearing/lightening/smoothing and anti-obesity/anti-aging effects]. They also show that cooked Voandzeia hypogeal seed paste meal has a potentiating effect on the skin and body effects of VA leaf extract. Conclusion: From the findings of this study the author to concludes that increased protein intake potentiated the skin firming/skin smoothing/skin colour lightening; body calming; anti-obesity and anti-aging effects of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract. The study also concludes that Voandzeia hypogeal seed meal has skin firming/skin smoothing/skin colour lightening (clearing; body calming; anti-obesity and anti-aging effects.

  14. 罗非鱼低鱼粉饲料中脱酚棉籽蛋白替代鱼粉的研究%Replacement of Fish Meal with Degossypolled Cottonseed Protein in Low Fish Meal Diets for Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林仕梅; 毛述宏; 关勇; 潘瑜; 罗琳; 罗莉

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the feasibility of replacement of fish meal with degossypolled cottonseed protein in low fish meal diets for tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) , three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets were formulated by replacing 0, 50% and 100% fish meal with degossypolled cottonseed protein on basis of a practical diet (fish meal content was 6. 0% and crude protein content in fish meal was 64. 5% ), respectively. A total of 270 male genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) with an average body weight of 50 g were randomly divided into 3 groups with 3 replicates per group and 30 fish per replicate, and the fish in the control group were fed the experimental diet containing 0 degossypolled cottonseed protein. The experiment lasted for 8 weeks. The results showed as follows; the final weight of tilapia in the 50% replacement level group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P 0. 05). No significant differences were found in special growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, feed efficiency and feeding rate of tilapia among all groups (P >0. 05). With increasing replacement level of degossypolled cottonseed protein, the viscerosomatic index of tilapia was significantly increased (P 0. 05). The replacement level of degossypolled cottonseed protein could significantly affect the hepatopancreas digestive enzyme activities of tilapia (P <0. 05) , and the highest values of trypsinase and amylase activities were found in the 50% replacement level group and 100% replacement level group, respectively. With increasing replacement level of degossypolled cottonseed protein, the total antioxidant capacity, activities of su-peroxide dismutase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaolacetic transaminase, and liver glycogen content in hepatopancreas of tilapia were significantly increased ( P <0. 05) , while the malondialdehyde content was significantly decreased (P <0. 05). In conclusion, the suitable replacement levels of fish meal with

  15. Use of larvae meal as protein source in broiler diet: Effect on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Loponte, R; Marono, S; Piccolo, G; Parisi, G; Iaconisi, V; Gasco, L; Nizza, A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of insect meal from larvae ( larvae meal [TML]) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits of broilers. A total of eighty 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were homogenously divided into 2 groups (each consisting of 8 replicates of 5 birds). Up to 62 d of age, the groups were fed 2 isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for the ingredient used as the main protein source: the control group was fed a corn-SBM-based diet, whereas in the TML group, the SBM was completely replaced by TML. Broiler growth performance was measured during the trial. At 62 d of age, 2 broilers per replicate (16 per group) were slaughtered and apparent ileal digestibility coefficients and carcass and meat traits were determined. The use of TML as the main protein source in the broiler diet had no significant effect on most growth performance and carcass traits and chemical and physical properties of meat, the latter being important for marketing purposes. The feed conversion ratio in the entire experimental period (from 30 to 62 d) was improved in the TML group compared with the SBM group ( principal protein contributor to the diet.

  16. Effects of dietary corn gluten meal on growth performance and protein metabolism in relation to IGF-I and TOR gene expression of juvenile cobia ( Rachycentron canadum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiwen; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Liufu, Zhiguo

    2013-09-01

    A growth experiment was conducted on cobia ( Rachycentron canadum, initial weight 108.2 g ± 3.0 g) to investigate the effects of dietary corn gluten meal (CGM) levels on the fish growth, whole body composition and protein metabolism in relation to specific gene expression. Five isonitrogenous (crude protein 45%) and isoenergetic (gross energy 20 kJ g-1) practical diets were formulated by replacing 0% (the control), 17.5%, 35.0%, 52.5%, and 70.0% of fish meal (FM) protein with CGM protein. No significant differences were observed in the survival, feed intake (FI), specific growth rate (SGR), feed efficiency (FE) and protein productive value (PPV) among fish fed diets with 0%, 17.5%, 35.0%, and 52.5% of CGM protein. However, these indices were significantly lower in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein than those in fish fed the control diet ( P protein and lipid contents were significantly lower while the whole-body moisture content was significantly higher in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein compared with the control group ( P protein was replaced by CGM, plasma total protein and cholesterol contents were significantly lower than those in the control group ( P Fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein had significantly lower hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) expression levels than those in the control group ( P levels among dietary treatments. Results of the present study indicated that 52.5% of FM protein could be replaced by CGM in the diets without significant influences on the growth, feed utilization and protein metabolism of juvenile cobia. The present results might be useful for developing cost effective and sustainable cobia dietary formulations.

  17. The effect of temperature and bacterial growth phase on protein extraction by means of electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl-Meglič, Saša; Levičnik, Eva; Luengo, Elisa; Raso, Javier; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-12-01

    Different chemical and physical methods are used for extraction of proteins from bacteria, which are used in variety of fields. But on a large scale, many methods have severe drawbacks. Recently, extraction by means of electroporation showed a great potential to quickly obtain proteins from bacteria. Since many parameters are affecting the yield of extracted proteins, our aim was to investigate the effect of temperature and bacterial growth phase on the yield of extracted proteins. At the same time bacterial viability was tested. Our results showed that the temperature has a great effect on protein extraction, the best temperature post treatment being 4°C. No effect on bacterial viability was observed for all temperatures tested. Also bacterial growth phase did not affect the yield of extracted proteins or bacterial viability. Nevertheless, further experiments may need to be performed to confirm this observation, since only one incubation temperature (4°C) and one incubation time before and after electroporation (0.5 and 1h) were tested for bacterial growth phase. Based on our results we conclude that temperature is a key element for bacterial membrane to stay in a permeabilized state, so more proteins flow out of bacteria into surrounding media. PMID:27561651

  18. Substituição do farelo de soja pela farinha de glúten de milho na alimentação de cabras leiteiras Substitution of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in dairy goat feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Pego de Macedo

    2003-08-01

    the effect of substitution of soybean meal (SM protein by the protein from the corn gluten flour (CGF, in the milk production, milk composition, voluntary intake and plasmatic urea. The experimental design was the triple Latin square 4x4, with four periods of 21 days, being 14 days of adaptation to the diet and seven days for samples collection. The goats were fed and milked in the morning and afternoon. The substitution levels studied were: 0, 10, 30 and 50% of CGF (based in the crude protein. The substitution of the soybean meal by CGM did not affect the intake (kg/day and %BW of dry matter, crude protein and acid detergent fiber, but there was quadratic effect for neutral detergent fiber intake (kg/day and %BW. There was effect on the levels of plasmatic urea nitrogen (PUN, where the smallest values were in the intermediate levels of substitution, being the biggest values for the treatment with only SM. The milk production decreased lineally with the inclusion of CGM. The substitution levels resulted in lineal decrease in the fat production (kg/day, in the milk fat content (% and milk total solids content (%. There was quadratic effect for lactose production, being the smallest value for 31.6% of substitution level. It was no effect on in crude protein in the milk, which average was .083 kg/day. The crude protein content, lactose and total solids did not suffer effect of the substitution levels, being the average values of 2.98, 4.35 and 11.51%, respectively.

  19. 血浆蛋白粉、血球蛋白粉及血粉三者之间的差异%Differences Among the Plasma Protein Powder Blood Protein Powder and Blood Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄百花; 杨朝旭; 张玉民; 高荣玲; 李伟; 刘飞

    2012-01-01

    The differences among the plasma protein powder, blood protein powder and blood meal from sens-es, processing, chemical composition and freshness. The results showed that the plasma protein powder nutrition val-ue higher, blood protein powder protein content was higher, including plasma, blood protein powder processing tech-nology and safety science than blood meal, the freshness of plasma protein pouder and blood protein powder was al- so significantly higher than the blood meal, more safety.%文章主要从感官、加工工艺、化学组成和新鲜度4个方面分析比较血浆蛋白粉、血球蛋白粉和血粉的差异。结果表明,血浆蛋白粉的营养价值较高,血球蛋白粉蛋白含量较高,其中血浆、血球蛋白粉的加工工艺比血粉科学及安全,前两者的新鲜度也明显高于血粉,更易保存。

  20. Post-meal responses of elongation factor 2 (eEF2) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to leucine and carbohydrate supplements for regulating protein synthesis duration and energy homeostasis in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gabriel J; Moulton, Christopher J; Garlick, Peter J; Anthony, Tracy G; Layman, Donald K

    2012-11-13

    Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS) to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu) and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2). This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements of Leu or carbohydrates. Adult (~256 g) male Sprague-Dawley rats were food deprived for 12 h, then either euthanized before a standard meal (time 0) or at 90 or 180 min post-meal. At 135 min post-meal, rats received one of five oral supplements: 270 mg leucine (Leu270), 80:40:40 mg leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu80), 2.63 g carbohydrates (CHO2.6), 1 g carbohydrates (CHO1.0), or water (Sham control). Following the standard meal, MPS increased at 90 min then declined to pre-meal baseline at 180 min. Rats administered Leu270, Leu80, CHO2.6, or CHO1.0 maintained elevated rates of MPS at 180 min, while Sham controls declined from peak values. Leu80 and CHO1.0 treatments maintained MPS, but with values intermediate between Sham controls and Leu270 and CHO2.6 supplements. Consistent with MPS findings, the supplements maintained elongation activity and cellular energy status by preventing increases in AMP/ATP and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC and eEF2. The impact of the supplements on MPS and cellular energy status was in proportion to the energy content within the individual treatments (i.e., Leu270 > Leu80; CHO2.6 > CHO1.0), but the Leu supplements produced a disproportionate anabolic stimulation of MPS, eEF2 and energy status with significantly lower energy content. In summary, the incongruity between MPS and translation initiation at 180 min reflects a block in translation elongation due to reduced

  1. Post-Meal Responses of Elongation Factor 2 (eEF2 and Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK to Leucine and Carbohydrate Supplements for Regulating Protein Synthesis Duration and Energy Homeostasis in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald K. Layman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research demonstrates that the anabolic response of muscle protein synthesis (MPS to a meal is regulated at the level of translation initiation with signals derived from leucine (Leu and insulin to activate mTORC1 signaling. Recent evidence suggests that the duration of the meal response is limited by energy status of the cell and inhibition of translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2. This study evaluates the potential to extend the anabolic meal response with post-meal supplements of Leu or carbohydrates. Adult (~256 g male Sprague-Dawley rats were food deprived for 12 h, then either euthanized before a standard meal (time 0 or at 90 or 180 min post-meal. At 135 min post-meal, rats received one of five oral supplements: 270 mg leucine (Leu270, 80:40:40 mg leucine, isoleucine, and valine (Leu80, 2.63 g carbohydrates (CHO2.6, 1 g carbohydrates (CHO1.0, or water (Sham control. Following the standard meal, MPS increased at 90 min then declined to pre-meal baseline at 180 min. Rats administered Leu270, Leu80, CHO2.6, or CHO1.0 maintained elevated rates of MPS at 180 min, while Sham controls declined from peak values. Leu80 and CHO1.0 treatments maintained MPS, but with values intermediate between Sham controls and Leu270 and CHO2.6 supplements. Consistent with MPS findings, the supplements maintained elongation activity and cellular energy status by preventing increases in AMP/ATP and phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC and eEF2. The impact of the supplements on MPS and cellular energy status was in proportion to the energy content within the individual treatments (i.e., Leu270 > Leu80; CHO2.6 > CHO1.0, but the Leu supplements produced a disproportionate anabolic stimulation of MPS, eEF2 and energy status with significantly lower energy content. In summary, the incongruity between MPS and translation initiation at 180 min reflects a block in translation elongation due to

  2. Total replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal considering nutritional value, performance, feeding behavior, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis of Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Moraes, Gláucia Sabrine; de Souza, Evaristo Jorge Oliveira; Véras, Antonia Sherlânea Chaves; de Paula Almeida, Marina; da Cunha, Márcio Vieira; Torres, Thaysa Rodrigues; da Silva, Camila Sousa; Pereira, Gerfesson Felipe Cavalcanti

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study to assess the effects of mesquite pod addition replacing corn (0, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g/kg in the dry matter basis) on nutrient intake, animal performance, feeding behavior, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and microbial protein synthesis. Twenty-five Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers at 219 ± 22 kg initial body weight and 18 months of age were used. The experiment lasted 84 days, divided into three periods of 28 days. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis using PROC GLM for analysis of variance and PROC REG for regression analysis using the software Statistical Analysis Systems version 9.1. Experimental diets were composed of Tifton 85 hay, soybean meal, ground corn, mesquite pod meal, and mineral salt. Samples of food offered were collected during the last 3 days of each period, and the leftovers were collected daily, with samples bulked per week. At the end of each 28-day period, the remaining animals were weighed to determine total weight gain and average daily gain. The assessment of behavioral patterns was performed through instantaneous scans in 5-min intervals for three consecutive 12-h days. A single urine sample from each animal was collected on the last day of each collection period at about 4 h after the first feeding. The replacement of corn by mesquite pod meal did not significantly influence treatments regarding nutrients intake, animal performance, and feeding behavior. Retained and consumed nitrogen ratio did not statistically differ between replacement levels. Likewise, there were no statistical differences regarding microbial protein synthesis and efficiency between replacement levels. Mesquite pod meal can be used in Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers' diet with total corn replacement. PMID:27387896

  3. Identification and Characterization of Inhibitors of Bacterial Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Losee L.; Xian, Jun; Ali, Syed; Geng, Bolin; Fan, Jun; Mills, Debra M.; Arvanites, Anthony C.; Orgueira, Hernan; Ashwell, Mark A.; Carmel, Gilles; Xiang, Yibin; Moir, Donald T.

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (ENR) catalyzes an essential step in fatty acid biosynthesis. ENR is an attractive target for narrow-spectrum antibacterial drug discovery because of its essential role in metabolism and its sequence conservation across many bacterial species. In addition, the bacterial ENR sequence and structural organization are distinctly different from those of mammalian fatty acid biosynthesis enzymes. High-throughput screening to identify inhibitors of Esch...

  4. Application of tung oil to improve adhesion strength and water resistance of cottonseed meal and protein adhesives on maple veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottonseed meal-based products show promise in serving as environment-friendly wood adhesives. However, their practical utilization is currently limited due to low durability and water resistant properties. In this research, we tested the improvement of adhesion strength and water resistance of cott...

  5. Extraction of phytic acid and preparation of protein isolates from rapeseed meal%菜籽粕植酸提取和分离蛋白的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘丽军; 周俊; 姜绍通; 孙汉巨; 罗水忠; 韩智宏

    2011-01-01

    植酸和蛋白是菜籽粕中2种极具经济价值的成份.为提高菜籽粕的综合利用效果,该文以双低冷榨菜籽粕为原料,采用醋酸溶液提取植酸,在膜分离精制植酸粗提液过程中同时回收蛋白;再对植酸提取后的残余物进行蛋白分离,超滤纯化后获得高纯度的蛋白成品.响应面优化的植酸最适提取条件为:醋酸质量分数0.7%,提取温度48℃,液料比10 mL/g,提取时间1.6 h,该条件下植酸得率为1.865%.植酸粗提液中回收出的蛋白和损失植酸分别占菜籽粕的3.63%和0.395%.超滤精制的分离蛋白可达到70%~90%不同纯度的要求,蛋白中多酚含量显著减少,且植酸与硫苷未检出.%Phytic acid and protein are two kinds of valuable components in rapeseed meal. To improve comprehensive utilization in this research, phytic acid was extracted with acetum from double-low coldpressed rapeseed meal, and protein was recovered from the crude extract of phytic acid by membrane separating technology. The meal residue was dried to extract protein, which was then purified by ultrafiltration to obtain high purity product. Extraction conditions of phytic acid were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) as follows: mass fraction of acetic acid 0.7%,extraction temperature 48℃, liquid-to-solid ratio 10 mL/g, extraction time 1.6 h. Under this condition, extraction yield was 1.865%. Protein recovered and phytic acid loss accounting for rapeseed meal were 3.63% and 0.395% respectively in crude extract of phytic acid. Purity of the protein refined by ultrafiltration was between 70% and 90%, in which the content ofpolyphenols was significantly reduced and no phytic acid and glucosinolates could be detected.

  6. EEVD motif of heat shock cognate protein 70 contributes to bacterial uptake by trophoblast giant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Suk

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The uptake of abortion-inducing pathogens by trophoblast giant (TG cells is a key event in infectious abortion. However, little is known about phagocytic functions of TG cells against the pathogens. Here we show that heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70 contributes to bacterial uptake by TG cells and the EEVD motif of Hsc70 plays an important role in this. Methods Brucella abortus and Listeria monocytogenes were used as the bacterial antigen in this study. Recombinant proteins containing tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR domains were constructed and confirmation of the binding capacity to Hsc70 was assessed by ELISA. The recombinant TPR proteins were used for investigation of the effect of TPR proteins on bacterial uptake by TG cells and on pregnancy in mice. Results The monoclonal antibody that inhibits bacterial uptake by TG cells reacted with the EEVD motif of Hsc70. Bacterial TPR proteins bound to the C-terminal of Hsc70 through its EEVD motif and this binding inhibited bacterial uptake by TG cells. Infectious abortion was also prevented by blocking the EEVD motif of Hsc70. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that surface located Hsc70 on TG cells mediates the uptake of pathogenic bacteria and proteins containing the TPR domain inhibit the function of Hsc70 by binding to its EEVD motif. These molecules may be useful in the development of methods for preventing infectious abortion.

  7. Enzymatic detoxification of jojoba meal and effect of the resulting meal on food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Abderrahime; Bellirou, Ahmed; Boukhatem, Noureddin; Hamal, Abdellah; Bouammali, Boufelja

    2008-05-10

    When defatted jojoba meal is used as animal food, it causes food-intake reduction and growth retardation. Detoxification procedures by chemical, microbiological, and solvent extraction methods are reported by several authors. Here we report a successful detoxification of jojoba meal using enzymes. We establish reaction conditions that yield new meal which has the same nutritional qualities in proteins as the original meal. The enzymatic reaction gives rise to one major compound to which the structure of an amide is assigned on the basis of IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The effect of the resulting jojoba meal on the food intake in rats is checked. In contrast, the detoxified meal containing the amide derivatives shows no toxicological activity since rats receiving oral administration of the obtained meal show normal growth. Thus, it is expected that this meal could be used as an animal feed ingredient.

  8. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Allerton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI: 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2 completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ was consumed with (CHO + WP or without (CHO 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ, or breakfast was omitted (NB. At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0––180 min: 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L, compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05, with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247. There were no post-lunch (0–180 min effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492, insulinemia (p = 0.338 or subjective appetite (p > 0.05. Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  9. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633.

  10. Use of larvae meal as protein source in broiler diet: Effect on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovera, F; Loponte, R; Marono, S; Piccolo, G; Parisi, G; Iaconisi, V; Gasco, L; Nizza, A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this research was to study the effect of insect meal from larvae ( larvae meal [TML]) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and carcass and meat traits of broilers. A total of eighty 30-d-old male Shaver brown broilers were homogenously divided into 2 groups (each consisting of 8 replicates of 5 birds). Up to 62 d of age, the groups were fed 2 isoproteic and isoenergetic diets differing for the ingredient used as the main protein source: the control group was fed a corn-SBM-based diet, whereas in the TML group, the SBM was completely replaced by TML. Broiler growth performance was measured during the trial. At 62 d of age, 2 broilers per replicate (16 per group) were slaughtered and apparent ileal digestibility coefficients and carcass and meat traits were determined. The use of TML as the main protein source in the broiler diet had no significant effect on most growth performance and carcass traits and chemical and physical properties of meat, the latter being important for marketing purposes. The feed conversion ratio in the entire experimental period (from 30 to 62 d) was improved in the TML group compared with the SBM group ( < 0.05). The apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, and CP in broilers fed the SBM diet were greater ( < 0.01) than the other group. The full digestive system in broilers fed SBM had a lower ( < 0.05) absolute and relative weight than that of broilers fed TML. Also, the weight and the percentage of the spleen in the SBM group were lower ( < 0.05) than those in the TML group. The length of the entire intestine in the group fed TML was greater ( < 0.05) than the other group and the same happened when intestinal length was expressed as percentage of broiler BW ( < 0.05). Among the different intestinal tracts, the ileum and ceca of broilers fed TML had a greater ( < 0.05) length than that of broilers fed SBM. Also, ceca weight (as an absolute value or percentage on

  11. Data presenting a modified bacterial expression vector for expressing and purifying Nus solubility-tagged proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Wu, Heng; Terman, Jonathan R

    2016-09-01

    Bacteria are the predominant source for producing recombinant proteins but while many exogenous proteins are expressed, only a fraction of those are soluble. We have found that a new actin regulatory enzyme Mical is poorly soluble when expressed in bacteria but the use of a Nus fusion protein tag greatly increases its solubility. However, available vectors containing a Nus tag have been engineered in a way that hinders the separation of target proteins from the Nus tag during protein purification. We have now used recombinant DNA approaches to overcome these issues and reengineer a Nus solubility tag-containing bacterial expression vector. The data herein present a modified bacterial expression vector useful for expressing proteins fused to the Nus solubility tag and separating such target proteins from the Nus tag during protein purification. PMID:27547802

  12. The effect of mango waste meal in the protein:carbohydrate ratio on performance and body composition of pacamã fish (Lophiosilurus alexandri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the inclusion of peeled-mango waste meal as a source of carbohydrate in the protein:carbohydrate ratio (CP:CH on performance and chemical composition of pacamã (Lophiosilurus alexandri juveniles. One hundred and fifty fish (11.31±0.96g were stocked in sixteen 500 L tanks, fed three times daily (10% of live weight, in a system with water recirculation with biofilter. The treatments consisted of four experimental diets with decreasing levels of the ratio between crude protein and carbohydrate (1.40, 0.94, 0.56 and 0.29, with four replications per treatment. At the end of 60 days, we evaluated animal performance (final average weight gain, specific growth rate, total apparent feed intake, carcass yield, survival and physicochemical composition of the carcass. The protein:carbohydrate ratios affected all performance variables (P0.05. The carcass chemical composition variables were modified, except for mineral matter, pH and moisture. Mango meal can be used at the proportion of up to 15% in the diet for pacamã, establishing a CP:CHO ratio of 1.40 without impairing animal performance and the carcass chemical composition.

  13. Imaging bacterial protein expression using genetically encoded sensors composed of RNA

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Wenjiao; Strack, Rita L.; Jaffrey, Samie R.

    2013-01-01

    We show that the difficulties in imaging the dynamics of protein expression in live bacterial cells can be overcome using fluorescent sensors based on Spinach, an RNA that activates the fluorescence of a small-molecule fluorophore. These RNAs selectively bind target proteins, and exhibit fluorescence increases that enable protein expression to be imaged in living cells. These sensors provide a general strategy to image protein expression in single bacteria in real-time.

  14. Effects of Dietary Corn Gluten Meal on Growth Performance and Protein Metabolism in Relation to IGF-I and TOR Gene Expression of Juvenile Cobia (Rachycentron canadum)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yiwen; AI Qinghui; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Wenbing; XU Wei; ZHANG Yanjiao; LIUFU Zhiguo

    2013-01-01

    A growth experiment was conducted on cobia (Rachycentron canadum,initial weight 108.2g±3.0g) to investigate the effects of dietary com gluten meal (CGM) levels on the fish growth,whole body composition and protein metabolism in relation to specific gene expression.Five isonitrogenous (crude protein 45%) and isoenergetic (gross energy 20kJg-1) practical diets were formulated by replacing 0% (the control),17.5%,35.0%,52.5%,and 70.0% of fish meal (FM) protein with CGM protein.No significant differences were observed in the survival,feed intake (FI),specific growth rate (SGR),feed efficiency (FE) and protein productive value (PPV) among fish fed diets with 0%,17.5%,35.0%,and 52.5% of CGM protein.However,these indices were significantly lower in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein than those in fish fed the control diet (P<0.05).The whole-body crude protein and lipid contents were significantly lower while the whole-body moisture content was significantly higher in fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein compared with the control group (P< 0.05).When 70.0% of FM protein was replaced by CGM,plasma total protein and cholesterol contents were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.05).Fish fed the diet with 70.0% of CGM protein had significantly lower hepatic insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) expression levels than those in the control group (P < 0.05).However,no significant differences were observed in hepatic target of rapamycin (TOR),dorsal muscle IGF-I and TOR expression levels among dietary treatments.Results of the present study indicated that 52.5% of FM protein could be replaced by CGM in the diets without significant influences on the growth,feed utilization and protein metabolism of juvenile cobia.The present results might be useful for developing cost effective and sustainable cobia dietary formulations.

  15. Growth and nitrogen metabolism of sea bass fed graded levels of nucleic acid nitrogen from yeast or RNA extract as partial substitute for protein nitrogen from fish meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaushik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some studies carried out in mammalian models have shown de novo synthesis and salvage of nucleotides to be a costly metabolic process and a dietary supplementation with nucleic acids (NA or nucleotides has been suggested to result in a protein sparing action (Sanderson and He, 1994. On the other hand, high levels of dietary NA could have toxic effects and lead to disturbance in protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in monogastric animals lacking uricase activity, an enzyme involved in NA degradation (Clifford and Story, 1976. So far, there is no clear indication of such effects in fish fed nucleic acid-enriched diets (Tacon and Cooke, 1980; Rumsey et al., 1992; Fournier et al., 2002. The aim of this experiment was to investigate growth response and N metabolism in juvenile sea bass (D. labrax fed diets supplying graded levels of nucleic acid N from dry brewer's yeast or RNA extract as partial substitutes for protein nitrogen provided by fish meal.

  16. Evidence for a bacterial lipopolysaccharide-recognizing G-protein-coupled receptor in the bacterial engulfment by Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Matthew T; Agbedanu, Prince N; Zamanian, Mostafa; Day, Tim A; Carlson, Steve A

    2013-11-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, a worldwide protozoal disease that results in approximately 100,000 deaths annually. The virulence of E. histolytica may be due to interactions with the host bacterial flora, whereby trophozoites engulf colonic bacteria as a nutrient source. The engulfment process depends on trophozoite recognition of bacterial epitopes that activate phagocytosis pathways. E. histolytica GPCR-1 (EhGPCR-1) was previously recognized as a putative G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) used by Entamoeba histolytica during phagocytosis. In the present study, we attempted to characterize EhGPCR-1 by using heterologous GPCR expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We discovered that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an activator of EhGPCR-1 and that LPS stimulates EhGPCR-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, we demonstrated that Entamoeba histolytica prefers to engulf bacteria with intact LPS and that this engulfment process is sensitive to suramin, which prevents the interactions of GPCRs and G-proteins. Thus, EhGPCR-1 is an LPS-recognizing GPCR that is a potential drug target for treatment of amoebiasis, especially considering the well-established drug targeting to GPCRs.

  17. 多菌种固态发酵对豆粕、棉籽粕和花生粕组成的混合蛋白原料的影响%Effect of multi-strain solid state fermentation on mixed protein feed composed of soybean meal, cottonseed meal and peanut meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旺军; 方华; 夏佳吉; 王玲; 季春源

    2011-01-01

    The active bacteria number and nutrient substances were analyzed during mixed culture solid state fermentation by Bacillus subitilis and Lactobacillus bulgaricus ,? With soybean meal, cottonseed meal and peanut meal as mixed solid protein feed. The Results showed that the colony formation unit (cfu) of Bacillus subitilis and Lactobacillus bulgaricus were 3. 1×108 and 4. 45×108 in fermented products, respectively. The content of lactate was 1. 98% {Meanwhile, the large molecular weight of proteins was nearly degraded after fermentation. Compared to the unfermented protein feed,the content of crude protein increased by 7. 89%,and the contents of oligo-peptide increased by 129. 36%. The anti-nutritional factors (stachyose and raffi-nose) almost completely degraded, as well as producing a certain amount of reducing sugar.%以枯草芽孢杆菌和保加利亚乳杆菌为试验菌株,对豆粕、棉籽粕和花生粕组成的混合蛋白原料样品进行多菌种发酵处理,检测发酵过程中的活菌数和营养物质的变化.结果表明:发酵结束后混合蛋白原料样品中枯草芽孢杆菌活菌数为3.1×108 cfu/g,保加利亚乳杆菌活菌数为4.45×108 cfu/g,乳酸含量为1.98%,大分子蛋白几乎完全分解成小分子蛋白,粗蛋白质含量比发酵前提高了7.89%,寡肽含量比发酵前提高了129.36%,抗营养因子(水苏糖和棉籽糖)几乎完全降解,同时产生了一定量的还原糖.

  18. Effect of diets containing potato protein or soya bean meal on the incidence of spontaneously-occurring subclinical necrotic enteritis and the physiological response in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, P S; Rose, S P; Mackenzie, A M; Silva, S S P

    2011-02-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to compare and explain the incidence of spontaneously occurring subclinical necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that were fed on two practical broiler diets that differed in the major protein concentrates (soya bean meal or potato protein concentrates) and examine the relationships between the severity of the disease and the growth performance and physiological responses of the chickens. 2. A total of 840, 20-d-old birds were randomly allocated to 12 pens. Two maize-based nutritionally complete diets that either contained some potato protein or soya bean meal as the major protein supplement were fed for 16 d. Twelve birds were randomly sampled from each pen at the end of the feeding period and their blood sampled and intestinal tracts and livers dissected. 3. The birds fed on the potato protein diet had a significantly 7·7% lower feed intake and a significantly 7·8% lower growth rate compared with the birds fed on the soya-based diet. There were no significant differences in feed conversion efficiency or mortality. There were no differences in the determined apparent metabolisable energy concentrations, however, the apparent dry matter digestibility of the potato protein diet was significantly higher than that of the soya based diet and the apparent crude protein digestibility of the potato protein diet was significantly lower. 4. A significantly higher alpha toxin antibody titre was found in the birds fed on the potato protein diet compared with those fed on the soya protein diet. There was a significantly increased incidence of hepatic lesions in the birds fed on the potato protein diet compared with the birds fed on the soya diet. The mean incidence of intestinal necroses tended to be greater in the birds fed on the potato protein diet (23·6%) compared with the birds fed on the soya-based diet (15·3%). 5. There was a significant linear relationship between ileal digesta sialic acid concentration and serum alpha toxin

  19. Regulation of bacterial RecA protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    The RecA protein is a recombinase functioning in recombinational DNA repair in bacteria. RecA is regulated at many levels. The expression of the recA gene is regulated within the SOS response. The activity of the RecA protein itself is autoregulated by its own C-terminus. RecA is also regulated by the action of other proteins. To date, these include the RecF, RecO, RecR, DinI, RecX, RdgC, PsiB, and UvrD proteins. The SSB protein also indirectly affects RecA function by competing for ssDNA binding sites. The RecO and RecR, and possibly the RecF proteins, all facilitate RecA loading onto SSB-coated ssDNA. The RecX protein blocks RecA filament extension, and may have other effects on RecA activity. The DinI protein stabilizes RecA filaments. The RdgC protein binds to dsDNA and blocks RecA access to dsDNA. The PsiB protein, encoded by F plasmids, is uncharacterized, but may inhibit RecA in some manner. The UvrD helicase removes RecA filaments from RecA. All of these proteins function in a network that determines where and how RecA functions. Additional regulatory proteins may remain to be discovered. The elaborate regulatory pattern is likely to be reprised for RecA homologues in archaeans and eukaryotes. PMID:17364684

  20. Rho-modifying bacterial protein toxins from Photorhabdus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Thomas; Lang, Alexander E; Aktories, Klaus

    2016-06-15

    Photorhabdus bacteria live in symbiosis with entomopathogenic nematodes. The nematodes invade insect larvae, where they release the bacteria, which then produce toxins to kill the insects. Recently, the molecular mechanisms of some toxins from Photorhabdus luminescens and asymbiotica have been elucidated, showing that GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family are targets. The tripartite Tc toxin PTC5 from P. luminescens activates Rho proteins by ADP-ribosylation of a glutamine residue, which is involved in GTP hydrolysis, while PaTox from Photorhabdus asymbiotica inhibits the activity of GTPases by N-acetyl-glucosaminylation at tyrosine residues and activates Rho proteins indirectly by deamidation of heterotrimeric G proteins.

  1. BACTERIAL SOLUTE TRANSPORT PROTEINS IN THEIR LIPID ENVIRONMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TVELD, GI; DRIESSEN, AJM; KONINGS, WN; Veld, Gerda in 't

    1993-01-01

    The cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria is a selective barrier that restricts entry and exit of solutes. Transport of solutes across this membrane is catalyzed by specific membrane proteins. Integral membrane proteins usually require specific lipids for optimal activity and are inhibited by other lipid

  2. Essential bacterial helicases that counteract the toxicity of recombination proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Petit, Marie-Agnès; Ehrlich, Dusko

    2002-01-01

    PcrA, Rep and UvrD are three closely related bacterial helicases with a DExx signature. PcrA is encoded by Gram-positive bacteria and is essential for cell growth. Rep and UvrD are encoded by Gram-negative bacteria, and mutants lacking both helicases are also not viable. To understand the non-viability of the helicase mutants, we characterized spontaneous extragenic suppressors of a Bacillus subtilis pcrA null mutation. Here we report that one of these suppressors maps in recF and that previo...

  3. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Basavanta Kumar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1 corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% de-oiled rice bran. Each of these treatments was allotted to six replicates of ten chicks each. During the 42 days experimental period, growth performance, carcass parameters and intake of metabolizable energy (ME, crude protein (CP and AA were studied. Results: The cumulative body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, carcass cut weights and yields of carcass, breast and thighs were decreased (p<0.05 in T3 compared to T1. The absolute intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine and threonine were not affected while intake of CP and all SLAA were reduced in SLAA deficit diets. The relative intake of ME, lysine, methionine + cysteine, threonine and SLAA reduced in T3 in comparison to T1. The relative weights of internal organs were not affected by treatments while the abdominal fat percentage was increased linearly to the magnitude of SLAA deficiency. Conclusion: The deficiency of SLAA decreased performance, carcass yields and impaired utilization of ME, CP and AA linearly to the magnitude of the deficiency.

  4. Proteolytic activation of human pancreatitis associated protein is required for peptidoglycan binding and bacterial aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Medveczky, Péter; Szmola, Richárd; Sahin-Tóth, Miklós

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatitis associated protein (PAP) is a 16 kDa lectin-like protein, which becomes robustly upregulated in the pancreatic juice during acute pancreatitis. Trypsin cleaves the N terminus of PAP, which in turn forms insoluble fibrils. PAP and its paralog the pancreatic stone protein induce bacterial aggregation and, more recently, PAP was shown to bind to the peptidoglycan of Gram positive bacteria and exert a direct bactericidal effect. However, the role of N-terminal processing in the antib...

  5. A high protein moderate carbohydrate diet fed at discrete meals reduces early progression of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced breast tumorigenesis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singletary Keith W

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in American women. Dietary factors are thought to have a strong influence on breast cancer incidence. This study utilized a meal-feeding protocol with female Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate effects of two ratios of carbohydrate:protein on promotion and early progression of breast tissue carcinomas. Mammary tumors were induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU at 52 d of age. Post-induction, animals were assigned to consume either a low protein high carbohydrate diet (LPHC; 15% and 60% of energy, respectively or a high protein moderate carbohydrate diet (HPMC; 35% and 40% of energy, respectively for 10 wk. Animals were fed 3 meals/day to mimic human absorption and metabolism patterns. The rate of palpable tumor incidence was reduced in HPMC relative to LPHC (12.9 ± 1.4%/wk vs. 18.2 ± 1.3%/wk. At 3 wk, post-prandial serum insulin was larger in the LPHC relative to HPMC (+136.4 ± 33.1 pmol/L vs. +38.1 ± 23.4 pmol/L, while at 10 wk there was a trend for post-prandial IGF-I to be increased in HPMC (P = 0.055. There were no differences in tumor latency, tumor surface area, or cumulative tumor mass between diet groups. The present study provides evidence that reducing the dietary carbohydrate:protein ratio attenuates the development of mammary tumors. These findings are consistent with reduced post-prandial insulin release potentially diminishing the proliferative environment required for breast cancer tumors to progress.

  6. High-Throughput Screening of Bacterial Protein Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, John N.; Gitai, Zemer

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing number of sequenced genomes and subsequent sequence-based analysis has provided tremendous insight into cellular processes; however, the ability to experimentally manipulate this genomic information in the laboratory requires the development of new high-throughput methods. To translate this genomic information into information on protein function, molecular and cell biological techniques are required. One strategy to gain insight into protein function is to observe where e...

  7. Horizontal gene transfer of zinc and non-zinc forms of bacterial ribosomal protein S4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthey-Schulten Zaida

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The universal ribosomal protein S4 is essential for the initiation of small subunit ribosomal assembly and translational accuracy. Being part of the information processing machinery of the cell, the gene for S4 is generally thought of as being inherited vertically and has been used in concatenated gene phylogenies. Here we report the evolution of ribosomal protein S4 in relation to a broad sharing of zinc/non-zinc forms of the gene and study the scope of horizontal gene transfer (HGT of S4 during bacterial evolution. Results In this study we present the complex evolutionary history of ribosomal protein S4 using 660 bacterial genomes from 16 major bacterial phyla. According to conserved characteristics in the sequences, S4 can be classified into C+ (zinc-binding and C- (zinc-free variants, with 26 genomes (mainly from the class Clostridia containing genes for both. A maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree of the S4 sequences was incongruent with the standard bacterial phylogeny, indicating a departure from strict vertical inheritance. Further analysis using the genome content near the S4 genes, which are usually located in a conserved gene cluster, showed not only that HGT of the C- gene had occurred at various stages of bacterial evolution, but also that both the C- and C+ genes were present before the individual phyla diverged. To explain the latter, we theorize that a gene pool existed early in bacterial evolution from which bacteria could sample S4 gene variants, according to environmental conditions. The distribution of the C+/- variants for seven other zinc-binding ribosomal proteins in these 660 bacterial genomes is consistent with that seen for S4 and may shed light on the evolutionary pressures involved. Conclusion The complex history presented for "core" protein S4 suggests the existence of a gene pool before the emergence of bacterial lineages and reflects the pervasive nature of HGT in subsequent bacterial evolution

  8. Behind the lines–actions of bacterial type III effector proteins in plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity of most Gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria depends on the type III secretion (T3S) system, which translocates bacterial effector proteins into plant cells. Type III effectors modulate plant cellular pathways to the benefit of the pathogen and promote bacterial multiplication. One major virulence function of type III effectors is the suppression of plant innate immunity, which is triggered upon recognition of pathogen-derived molecular patterns by plant receptor proteins. Type III effectors also interfere with additional plant cellular processes including proteasome-dependent protein degradation, phytohormone signaling, the formation of the cytoskeleton, vesicle transport and gene expression. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the molecular functions of type III effector proteins with known plant target molecules. Furthermore, plant defense strategies for the detection of effector protein activities or effector-triggered alterations in plant targets are discussed. PMID:27526699

  9. Two meals with different carbohydrate, fat and protein contents render equivalent postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Darwiche, Gassan; Roth, Bodil; Höglund, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to compare postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin between a control breakfast and a moderately low-carbohydrate test breakfast, given randomly after 10-h fast. Blood samples were collected before and repeatedly after the meal. Plasma calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin were analyzed. The total area under the curve (tAUC) and change in AUC from baseline (dAUC) were calculated. Ratios between the test and control values were calculated to investigate equivalence. Healthy volunteers (8 men and 12 women; 46.0 ± 14.5 years) were included. tAUCs of cortisol and triglycerides did not differ between the breakfasts (p = 0.158 versus p = 0.579). Cortisol dAUCs were decreased and triglyceride dAUCs were increased after both breakfasts, with no differences between the breakfasts (p = 0.933 versus p = 0.277). Calprotectin and zonulin levels were unaffected. The meals were bioequivalent for cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin, but not for calprotectin.

  10. Coexisting protist-bacterial community accelerates protein transformation in microcosm experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Vy Thao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Proteins constitute the major portion of labile substances in the marine environment and are an important source of organic matter supporting marine ecosystems. However, previous studies have revealed that specific bacterial membrane proteins are refractory in the oceans. We here show by kinetic analyses of protease degradation activity using inactivated Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa cells as a proteinaceous substrate that bacterial proteases are insufficient to completely hydrolyze proteins, which may partially cause the protein accumulation in seawater. Protease activity was monitored simultaneously in 8 microcosms subjected to differing conditions. Some Pa proteins were retained for 30 days in the presence of bacteria without protists, whereas the Pa proteins were completely disappeared in the presence of both, indicating that these proteins were substantially incorporated into protist biomass. Our result suggests that protists play an important role in the transformation of bacterial proteins in seawater. Our experiments also imply that the functional/taxonomic diversity should be taken into account when considering decomposition activity in marine environments.

  11. Cramble meal: evaluation, improvement and comparison with rapeseed meal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.G.

    1994-01-01

    Crambe abyssinica has gradually been introduced in agriculture as a new oil-bearing crop. Its oil contains 55 to 60% erucic acid (C22:1, Δ13), desirable as lubricants, plastic additives or as a raw material for chemical synthesis. The defatted meal has high protein content which provides potential a

  12. Protein oxidation implicated as the primary determinant of bacterial radioresistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Daly

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In the hierarchy of cellular targets damaged by ionizing radiation (IR, classical models of radiation toxicity place DNA at the top. Yet, many prokaryotes are killed by doses of IR that cause little DNA damage. Here we have probed the nature of Mn-facilitated IR resistance in Deinococcus radiodurans, which together with other extremely IR-resistant bacteria have high intracellular Mn/Fe concentration ratios compared to IR-sensitive bacteria. For in vitro and in vivo irradiation, we demonstrate a mechanistic link between Mn(II ions and protection of proteins from oxidative modifications that introduce carbonyl groups. Conditions that inhibited Mn accumulation or Mn redox cycling rendered D. radiodurans radiation sensitive and highly susceptible to protein oxidation. X-ray fluorescence microprobe analysis showed that Mn is globally distributed in D. radiodurans, but Fe is sequestered in a region between dividing cells. For a group of phylogenetically diverse IR-resistant and IR-sensitive wild-type bacteria, our findings support the idea that the degree of resistance is determined by the level of oxidative protein damage caused during irradiation. We present the case that protein, rather than DNA, is the principal target of the biological action of IR in sensitive bacteria, and extreme resistance in Mn-accumulating bacteria is based on protein protection.

  13. A simple yeast-based strategy to identify host cellular processes targeted by bacterial effector proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Bosis

    Full Text Available Bacterial effector proteins, which are delivered into the host cell via the type III secretion system, play a key role in the pathogenicity of gram-negative bacteria by modulating various host cellular processes to the benefit of the pathogen. To identify cellular processes targeted by bacterial effectors, we developed a simple strategy that uses an array of yeast deletion strains fitted into a single 96-well plate. The array is unique in that it was optimized computationally such that despite the small number of deletion strains, it covers the majority of genes in the yeast synthetic lethal interaction network. The deletion strains in the array are screened for hypersensitivity to the expression of a bacterial effector of interest. The hypersensitive deletion strains are then analyzed for their synthetic lethal interactions to identify potential targets of the bacterial effector. We describe the identification, using this approach, of a cellular process targeted by the Xanthomonas campestris type III effector XopE2. Interestingly, we discover that XopE2 affects the yeast cell wall and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. More generally, the use of a single 96-well plate makes the screening process accessible to any laboratory and facilitates the analysis of a large number of bacterial effectors in a short period of time. It therefore provides a promising platform for studying the functions and cellular targets of bacterial effectors and other virulence proteins.

  14. Effect of Bacillus mucilaginosus on weathering of phosphorite and a preliminary analysis of bacterial proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Shu; LIAN Bin; LIU Congqiang

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of Bacillus mucilaginosus on weathering of phosphorite. Analysis of different proteins was of significance in exploring the molecular biological mechanism in the bacterial weathering process. The concrete methods are described as follows: Mineral powder was put into liquid culture medium and B. mucilaginosus was incubated in the medium. The control (group) had no mineral powder in the medium. The treatments and controls were cultured simultaneously under the same condition. In a few days, the supernatant was filtrated, the main cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, Mn2+, Al3+, Fe3+, K+) were measured by ICP-OES, and the contents of water soluble phosphorus (Pws) and silicon (Siws) were determined by colorimetry. The residual solid was weighed on the filter paper, followed by digestion with concentrated HNO3. The concentrations of the main cations and Pws, Siws in the digest liquid were measured by using the method mentioned above. After the supernatant was centrifuged, the precipitation was used to analyze the protein differences between the treatment groups and the control groups by 2-dimentional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The experimental results showed that apatite and quartz were partially weathered, but kaolinite was dissolved completely. The population of bacteria increased when mineral powder was added in the liquid medium. Software analysis and comparison of the 2-DE pictures of bacterial proteins revealed 1134 visible protein spots in the treatment group, and 729 visible protein spots in the control group. To compare the bacterial protein expression contents of the treatment group with those of the control group, there were 496 different protein spots, including 214 protein spots which indicated that the protein contents increased, 75 protein spots were indicative of a decrease, and 207 proteins were newly synthesized. It is proposed that the increased bacterial contents may be related to some protein expression and activation

  15. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement...... in the school meal project. The anlysis indicates that the pupils have developed knowledge and skills related to novel foods and dishes, and that school meals can contribute to pupils' learning, whether this learning is planned or not. However, if school meals are to be further developes as an arena...

  16. Niobium Uptake and Release by Bacterial Ferric Ion Binding Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbo Shi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferric ion binding proteins (Fbps transport FeIII across the periplasm and are vital for the virulence of many Gram negative bacteria. Iron(III is tightly bound in a hinged binding cleft with octahedral coordination geometry involving binding to protein side chains (including tyrosinate residues together with a synergistic anion such as phosphate. Niobium compounds are of interest for their potential biological activity, which has been little explored. We have studied the binding of cyclopentadienyl and nitrilotriacetato NbV complexes to the Fbp from Neisseria gonorrhoeae by UV-vis spectroscopy, chromatography, ICP-OES, mass spectrometry, and Nb K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. These data suggest that NbV binds strongly to Fbp and that a dinuclear NbV centre can be readily accommodated in the interdomain binding cleft. The possibility of designing niobium-based antibiotics which block iron uptake by pathogenic bacteria is discussed.

  17. 鱼粉质量对中国对虾、真鲷、饲料转化率和蛋白质消化率的影响%Influence of fish meal quality on growth,feed conversion rate and protein digestibility in shrimp (Penaeus chinensis ) and red seabream (Pagrosomus major)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of fishmeal quality on growth,feed conversion ratio and protein digestibility was studied in a growth experiment with shrimp and red seabream.The shrimp and fish were fed three diets varing in the quality of the fishmeal used in the respective feeds: low quality fish meal,good quality fish meal,and Peru fish meal.The experiment lasted for 2 months.The shrimp and fish fed the feed with good quality fish meal showed significantly better feed conversion ratio,weight gain rate,protein digestibility than the other groups.

  18. Sunflower meal concentrations in Massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máikal S. Borja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best sunflower meal concentration in Massai grass silage. Materials and methods. The treatments were composed of 0, 8, 16, and 24% sunflower meal (natural matter basis during ensiling of Massai grass, with four repetitions. Results. The regression equation showed that the inclusion of sunflower meal between 2.14% and 13.91% obtained a silage dry matter between 25 and 35%, which are the values recommended for the production of high quality silage. The addition of sunflower meal showed a linear increase in crude protein, reaching 18% DM with the highest concentration of sunflower meal. The highest feed value index was obtained with the addition of 24% sunflower meal in the silage. The estimated total digestible nutrient of silage increased linearly with sunflower meal concentration. The silage pH values had a quadratic effect, reaching the lowest value (4.1 with 15% sunflower meal addition. Conclusions. Based on the chemical composition and forage quality, a concentration of 14% sunflower meal should be used for high-quality silage with good nutritional value.

  19. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette; Poulsen, Karin T.; Campbell, Fiona M; Eckersall, P. David; Heegaard, Peter M.H.

    2009-01-01

    International audience The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we st...

  20. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein as markers of bacterial infection in patients with solid tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Laura V; Maraldo, Maja V; Mortensen, Christiane E;

    2014-01-01

    infection. In this prospective study, we wanted to investigate the value of procalcitonin (PCT) compared with C-reactive protein (CRP) as an indicator of bacterial infection in adult patients with solid tumours. METHODS: A total of 41 patients with solid tumours admitted to hospital due to fever or clinical...

  1. Stainless steel modified with poly(ethylene glycol) can prevent protein adsorption but not bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jiang; Bagge, Dorthe; Gram, Lone;

    2003-01-01

    The surface of AISI 316 grade stainless steel (SS) was modified with a layer of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (molecular weight 5000) with the aim of preventing protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion. Model SS substrates were first modified to introduce a very high density of reactive amine grou...

  2. Side effects of extra tRNA supplied in a typical bacterial protein production scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karina Marie; Nørholm, Morten H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant protein production is at the core of biotechnology and numerous molecular tools and bacterial strains have been developed to make the process more efficient. One commonly used generic solution is to supply extra copies of low-abundance tRNAs to compensate for the presence of complemen...

  3. Bacterial mimetics of endocrine secretory granules as immobilized in vivo depots for functional protein drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes, María Virtudes; Fernández, Yolanda; Unzueta, Ugutz; Mendoza, Rosa; Seras-Franzoso, Joaquin; Sánchez-Chardi, Alejando; Álamo, Patricia; Toledo-Rubio, Verónica; Ferrer-Miralles, Neus; Vázquez, Esther; Schwartz, Simó; Abasolo, Ibane; Corchero, José Luis; Mangues, Ramon; Villaverde, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In the human endocrine system many protein hormones including urotensin, glucagon, obestatin, bombesin and secretin, among others, are supplied from amyloidal secretory granules. These granules form part of the so called functional amyloids, which within the whole aggregome appear to be more abundant than formerly believed. Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) are non-toxic, nanostructured functional amyloids whose biological fabrication can be tailored to render materials with defined biophysical properties. Since under physiological conditions they steadily release their building block protein in a soluble and functional form, IBs are considered as mimetics of endocrine secretory granules. We have explored here if the in vivo implantation of functional IBs in a given tissue would represent a stable local source of functional protein. Upon intratumoral injection of bacterial IBs formed by a potent protein ligand of CXCR4 we have observed high stability and prevalence of the material in absence of toxicity, accompanied by apoptosis of CXCR4+ cells and tumor ablation. Then, the local immobilization of bacterial amyloids formed by therapeutic proteins in tumors or other tissues might represent a promising strategy for a sustained local delivery of protein drugs by mimicking the functional amyloidal architecture of the mammals’ endocrine system. PMID:27775083

  4. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P < 0·05) without a decrease by 6 h. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for CRP was significantly lower (P < 0·05) in response to the cheese compared with the vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633. PMID:27313852

  5. DMPD: The role of Toll-like receptors and Nod proteins in bacterial infection. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15476921 The role of Toll-like receptors and Nod proteins in bacterial infection. P...hilpott DJ, Girardin SE. Mol Immunol. 2004 Nov;41(11):1099-108. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The role ...of Toll-like receptors and Nod proteins in bacterial infection. PubmedID 15476921 Title The role of Toll-lik

  6. A method for in vivo identification of bacterial small RNA-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Jonathan; Djapgne, Louise; Tran, Bao Quoc; Goo, Young Ah; Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G

    2014-12-01

    Small bacterial regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) have gained immense appreciation over the last decade for their roles in mediating posttranscriptional gene regulation of numerous physiological processes. Several proteins contribute to sRNA stability and regulation, most notably the Hfq RNA-binding protein. However, not all sRNAs rely on Hfq for their stability. It is therefore likely that other proteins contribute to the stability and function of certain bacterial sRNAs. Here, we describe a methodology for identifying in vivo-binding proteins of sRNAs, developed using the iron-responsive PrrF and PrrH sRNAs of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. RNA was isolated from iron-depleted cultures, which were irradiated to cross-link nucleoprotein complexes. Subsequently, PrrF- and PrrH-protein complexes were enriched using cDNA "bait", and enriched RNA-protein complexes were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry to identify PrrF and PrrH associated proteins. This method identified Hfq as a potential PrrF- and PrrH-binding protein. Interestingly, Hfq was identified more often in samples probed with the PrrF cDNA "bait" as compared to the PrrH cDNA "bait", suggesting Hfq has a stronger binding affinity for the PrrF sRNAs in vivo. Hfq binding to the PrrF and PrrH sRNAs was validated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays with purified Hfq protein from P. aeruginosa. As such, this study demonstrates that in vivo cross-linking coupled with sequence-specific affinity chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (SSAC-MS/MS) is an effective methodology for unbiased identification of bacterial sRNA-binding proteins.

  7. The bacterial DNA repair protein Mfd confers resistance to the host nitrogen immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemet, Elisabeth; Leréec, Alain; Tran, Seav-Ly; Royer, Corinne; Barbosa, Isabelle; Sansonetti, Philippe; Lereclus, Didier; Ramarao, Nalini

    2016-01-01

    Production of reactive nitrogen species (NO) is a key step in the immune response following infections. NO induces lesions to bacterial DNA, thus limiting bacterial growth within hosts. Using two pathogenic bacteria, Bacillus cereus and Shigella flexneri, we show that the DNA-repair protein Mfd (Mutation-Frequency-Decline) is required for bacterial resistance to the host-NO-response. In both species, a mutant deficient for mfd does not survive to NO, produced in vitro or by phagocytic cells. In vivo, the ∆mfd mutant is avirulent and unable to survive the NO-stress. Moreover, NO induces DNA-double-strand-breaks and point mutations in the Δmfd mutant. In overall, these observations demonstrate that NO damages bacterial DNA and that Mfd is required to maintain bacterial genomic integrity. This unexpected discovery reveals that Mfd, a typical housekeeping gene, turns out to be a true virulence factor allowing survival and growth of the pathogen in its host, due to its capacity to protect the bacterium against NO, a key molecule of the innate immune defense. As Mfd is widely conserved in the bacterial kingdom, these data highlight a mechanism that may be used by a large spectrum of bacteria to overcome the host immune response and especially the mutagenic properties of NO. PMID:27435260

  8. Determining and comparing protein function in Bacterial genome sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Tammi Camilla

    predictions were made in about 60% of the cases. This project has highlighted the difficulties and challenges in functional annotation and computational analysis of sequence data. It has provided possible solutions for creating reproducible pipelines for comparative genomics as well as constructed a number......In November 2013, there was around 21.000 different prokaryotic genomes sequenced and publicly available, and the number is growing daily with another 20.000 or more genomes expected to be sequenced and deposited by the end of 2014. An important part of the analysis of this data is the functional...... annotation of genes – the descriptions assigned to genes that describe the likely function of the encoded proteins. This process is limited by several factors, including the definition of a function which can be more or less specific as well as how many genes can actually be assigned a function based...

  9. Dissecting the specificity of protein-protein interaction in bacterial two-component signaling: orphans and crosstalks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Procaccini

    Full Text Available Predictive understanding of the myriads of signal transduction pathways in a cell is an outstanding challenge of systems biology. Such pathways are primarily mediated by specific but transient protein-protein interactions, which are difficult to study experimentally. In this study, we dissect the specificity of protein-protein interactions governing two-component signaling (TCS systems ubiquitously used in bacteria. Exploiting the large number of sequenced bacterial genomes and an operon structure which packages many pairs of interacting TCS proteins together, we developed a computational approach to extract a molecular interaction code capturing the preferences of a small but critical number of directly interacting residue pairs. This code is found to reflect physical interaction mechanisms, with the strongest signal coming from charged amino acids. It is used to predict the specificity of TCS interaction: Our results compare favorably to most available experimental results, including the prediction of 7 (out of 8 known interaction partners of orphan signaling proteins in Caulobacter crescentus. Surveying among the available bacterial genomes, our results suggest 15∼25% of the TCS proteins could participate in out-of-operon "crosstalks". Additionally, we predict clusters of crosstalking candidates, expanding from the anecdotally known examples in model organisms. The tools and results presented here can be used to guide experimental studies towards a system-level understanding of two-component signaling.

  10. Jun N-Terminal Protein Kinase Enhances Middle Ear Mucosal Proliferation during Bacterial Otitis Media▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Masayuki; Ebmeyer, Jörg; Pak, Kwang; Austin, Darrell A.; Melhus, Åsa; Webster, Nicholas J. G.; Ryan, Allen F.

    2007-01-01

    Mucosal hyperplasia is a characteristic component of otitis media. The present study investigated the participation of signaling via the Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) mitogen-activated protein kinase in middle ear mucosal hyperplasia in animal models of bacterial otitis media. Otitis media was induced by the inoculation of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae into the middle ear cavity. Western blotting revealed that phosphorylation of JNK isoforms in the middle ear mucosa preceded but paralleled mucosal hyperplasia in this in vivo rat model. Nuclear JNK phosphorylation was observed in many cells of both the mucosal epithelium and stroma by immunohistochemistry. In an in vitro model of primary rat middle ear mucosal explants, bacterially induced mucosal growth was blocked by the Rac/Cdc42 inhibitor Clostridium difficile toxin B, the mixed-lineage kinase inhibitor CEP11004, and the JNK inhibitor SP600125. Finally, the JNK inhibitor SP600125 significantly inhibited mucosal hyperplasia during in vivo bacterial otitis media in guinea pigs. Inhibition of JNK in vivo resulted in a diminished proliferative response, as shown by a local decrease in proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein expression by immunohistochemistry. We conclude that activation of JNK is a critical pathway for bacterially induced mucosal hyperplasia during otitis media, influencing tissue proliferation. PMID:17325051

  11. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sungback; Hwang, Okhwa; Park, Sungkwon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg) fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15%) and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas ch...

  12. THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF MEALS

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, SC; STRUBBE, JH; Woods, Stephen C.

    1994-01-01

    Meals are considered as bouts of behavior that, although necessary for supplying nutrients to the body, result in undesirable perturbations of homeostatically controlled parameters. If the environment dictates that an animal mainly eat very large meals, these meal-associated perturbations become potentially dangerous. When the opportunity to eat a very large meal is regular and predictable, animals adopt strategies that maximize the efficiency of the process while minimizing the threatening h...

  13. Pathogenic Leptospira species express surface-exposed proteins belonging to the bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, James; Barocchi, Michele A; Croda, Julio; Young, Tracy A; Sanchez, Yolanda; Siqueira, Isadora; Bolin, Carole A; Reis, Mitermayer G; Riley, Lee W; Haake, David A; Ko, Albert I

    2003-08-01

    Proteins with bacterial immunoglobulin-like (Big) domains, such as the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin and Escherichia coli intimin, are surface-expressed proteins that mediate host mammalian cell invasion or attachment. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a new family of Big domain proteins, referred to as Lig (leptospiral Ig-like) proteins, in pathogenic Leptospira. Screening of L. interrogans and L. kirschneri expression libraries with sera from leptospirosis patients identified 13 lambda phage clones that encode tandem repeats of the 90 amino acid Big domain. Two lig genes, designated ligA and ligB, and one pseudogene, ligC, were identified. The ligA and ligB genes encode amino-terminal lipoprotein signal peptides followed by 10 or 11 Big domain repeats and, in the case of ligB, a unique carboxy-terminal non-repeat domain. The organization of ligC is similar to that of ligB but contains mutations that disrupt the reading frame. The lig sequences are present in pathogenic but not saprophytic Leptospira species. LigA and LigB are expressed by a variety of virulent leptospiral strains. Loss of Lig protein and RNA transcript expression is correlated with the observed loss of virulence during culture attenuation of pathogenic strains. High-pressure freeze substitution followed by immunocytochemical electron microscopy confirmed that the Lig proteins were localized to the bacterial surface. Immunoblot studies with patient sera found that the Lig proteins are a major antigen recognized during the acute host infection. These observations demonstrate that the Lig proteins are a newly identified surface protein of pathogenic Leptospira, which by analogy to other bacterial immunoglobulin superfamily virulence factors, may play a role in host cell attachment and invasion during leptospiral pathogenesis. PMID:12890019

  14. 响应面优化含紫苏油粕高水分挤压蛋白工艺研究%Optimization of High Moisture Organized Technology of Perilla Oil Meal Protein Product by Design-Expert Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田海娟; 朱珠; 张传智; 王成震

    2015-01-01

    Perilla oil meal and soy protein as a raw material, added wheat gluten, used the high moisture twin-screw extrusion technology, and through the single factor experiment and central composite rotary design to determine the optimal process of Perilla oil meal protein products. The results showed that Perilla oil meal addition was the biggest effected on quality of protein products , followed by extruding temperature and material moisture content. The optimal process parameters were Perilla oil meal addition 10%, moisture content 50%, extrusion temperature 130℃.%以紫苏油粕和大豆蛋白为原料,并加入谷朊粉,采用双螺杆挤压技术,通过单因素试验和中心旋转组合试验确定高水分挤压组织化的植物蛋白产品最优工艺.结果表明,紫苏油粕加入量对高水分挤压蛋白质构与感官品质影响较大,含紫苏油粕高水分挤压组织蛋白产品最佳工艺条件:紫苏油粕10%、物料水分含量50%、挤压温度130℃.

  15. NetPhosBac - A predictor for Ser/Thr phosphorylation sites in bacterial proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin Lee; Soufi, Boumediene; Jers, Carsten;

    2009-01-01

    sites in two bacterial model organisms Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Interestingly, the analysis of these phosphorylation sites revealed that most of them are not characteristic for eukaryotic-type protein kinases, which explains the poor performance of eukaryotic data-trained phosphorylation....... Moreover, NetPhosBac predictions of phosphorylation sites in E. coli proteins were experimentally verified on protein and site-specific levels. In conclusion, NetPhosBac clearly illustrates the advantage of taxa-specific predictors and we hope it will provide a useful asset to the microbiological community....

  16. Effects of high peanut meal with different crude protein level supplemented with amino acids on performance, carcass traits and nitrogen retention of Chinese Yellow broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Z Y; Jiang, S Q; Jiang, Z Y; Zheng, C T; Li, L; Ruan, D; Chen, F; Lin, X J

    2016-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of feeding high peanut meal diets of reduced crude protein (CP) content supplemented with essential amino acids (EAA) on growth performance, carcass traits, biochemical indices in plasma, and nitrogen (N) retention of male and female Lingnan Yellow broilers from day 22 to day 42 of age. Each of four dietary treatments (19%, 18%, 17% or 16% CP, dietary CP level reduced by the reduced dietary peanut meal) contained six replicate pens with 35 birds of each sex (males and females with equal number), separately (1680 in total). The three diets with reduced CP were supplemented with 5 EAA to meet the requirements and provide the same levels as in the 19% CP diet. Average daily gain decreased and feed:gain ratio was worse in both sexes with reduced CP% (linear, p plasma metabolic indices, concentrations of triglycerides and malondialdehyde, showed linear responses to reduced CP% (p Plasma uric acid increased in females (linear, p < 0.05), but not in males, as CP% decreased. Efficiency of N retention increased and N excretion strikingly decreased with lower CP diets (p < 0.001), and both variables showed significant (p < 0.05) linear and quadratic effects. It is concluded that there was a limit to which dietary CP of broilers could be reduced without adverse effects. Dietary CP could be reduced to 17% for males and 18% for females (or 18% when fed together) between day 22 and day 42, if diets are supplemented with synthetic EAA. PMID:27401885

  17. Evaluation of millet residue meal based diets as feed for the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    P. K. Karikari,; G. Darkoh; G. DEKU

    2011-01-01

    This research evaluated the nutritive value of millet residue meal with fish meal, soybean meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2) as protein source. The treatments were labelled according to protein source as fish meal diet, soybean meal diet and fish-soybean meal diet. Thirty nulliparous mixed-breed rabbits of an initial mean (±SD) body weight of 1852.6±122.7 g were used in a completely randomised design with 10 rabbits per treatment. The rabb...

  18. Upregulation of the immune protein gene hemolin in the epidermis during the wandering larval stage of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Tin Tin; Shim, Jae-Kyoung; Rhee, In-Koo; Lee, Kyeong-Yeoll

    2008-08-01

    Expression of hemolin, which generates an immune protein, was up-regulated in wandering fifth instar larval stage of Plodia interpunctella. The mRNA level peaked in the middle of the wandering stage. Major expression was in the epidermis, rather than in the fat body or gut. To test a possible ecdysteroid effect on hemolin induction we treated with RH-5992, an ecdysteroid agonist, and KK-42, which inhibits ecdysteroid biosynthesis in both feeding and wandering fifth instar larvae. When feeding larvae were treated with RH-5992 the hemolin mRNA level was increased. When wandering larvae were treated with KK-42 its level was reduced. In addition, when KK-42-treated larvae were subsequently treated with RH-5992 the hemolin mRNA level was recovered. These results strongly suggest that ecdysteroid up-regulates the expression of hemolin mRNA. Hormonal and bacterial effects on hemolin induction were further analyzed at the tissue level. Major induction of hemolin mRNA was detected following both RH-5992 treatment and bacterial injection in the epidermis of both feeding and wandering larvae. Minor induction of hemolin was detected in the fat body following a bacterial injection, but not RH-5992 treatment. We infer that in P. interpunctella larvae, the epidermis is the major tissue for hemolin induction in naïve insects and in insects manipulated with bacterial and hormonal treatments.

  19. 月见草籽粕分离蛋白的制备%Study on preparation of protein isolation from primrose meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马涛; 吕品

    2009-01-01

    Based on primrose meal, the process conditions and functional properties of protein isolated was prepared on alkali-extraction and acid-isolation.Through orthogonal tests,the best conditions of extraction were: the pH 12,the temperature 45℃, the times of extraction 3, the proportion of the material to liquid 1:12, 1:10, 1:8 respectively and protein deposited at pH6.0, pH3.8.In the product gained through spray drying process the content were 75.5%.%以月见草冷榨浸出粕为材料,初步探索碱提酸沉法制备月见草籽粕分离蛋白的工艺条件及其功能特性通过正交实验得到提取的最佳工艺条件为:pH12,温度45℃,提取3次,料液比分别1:12、1:10、1:8;调pH6.0、3.8二次沉淀,喷雾干燥后产品的粗蛋白含量达75.5%.

  20. Enzymatic Extraction of Alkali Insoluble Protein from High Temperature Rice Bran Meal%高温米糠粕碱不溶蛋白的酶法提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马永强; 殷嘉音; 周雪松; 张娜; 王雪; 杨楠

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of four different proteases in hydrolyzing high temperature rice bran meal for enzymatic extraction of alkali insoluble protein was compared to identify alkaline protease as the best choice. The effects of alkaline protease dose, temperature, pH and hydrolysis time on extraction efficiency were explored by one-factor-at-a-time design. Using orthogonal array design, the optimal conditions of alkaline protease dose, temperature, and pH were determined to be 300 U/g, 55 ℃, and 8.5, respectively. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of alkali insoluble protein was up to 28.9%.%以高温米糠粕为摹础原料,通过酶解能力比较,确定碱性蛋白酶对高温米糠粕中不戚不溶性蛋白的作用效果最佳。通过单因素试验分析酶添加量、作用温度、pH值和酶解时间对蛋白提耳义效果的影响。通过止交试验确定最佳提取丁岂:碱性蛋白酶添加量300U/g、提取温度55℃、pH8.5,蛋白提取率可达28.9%。

  1. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acids composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the interactions of molasses or corn meal [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) sources] with flaxseed meal or a soybean-sunflower meal protein mix [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) sources] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in organic Jersey cows fed...

  2. Phase variation of Opa proteins of Neisseria meningitidis and the effects of bacterial transformation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manish Sadarangani; J Claire Hoe; Katherine Makepeace; Peter Van Der Ley; Andrew J Pollard

    2016-03-01

    Opa proteins are major proteins involved in meningococcal colonization of the nasopharynx and immune interactions. Opa proteins undergo phase variation (PV) due to the presence of the 5′-CTCTT-3′ coding repeat (CR) sequence. The dynamics of PV of meningococcal Opa proteins is unknown. Opa PV, including the effect of transformation on PV, was assessed using a panel of Opa-deficient strains of Neisseria meningitidis. Analysis of Opa expression from UK disease-causing isolates was undertaken. Different opagenes demonstrated variable rates of PV, between 6.4 ×10–4 and 6.9 ×10–3 per cell per generation. opa genes with a longer CR tract had a higher rate of PV (r2=0.77, p=0.1212). Bacterial transformation resulted in a 180-fold increase in PV rate. The majority of opagenes in UK disease isolates (315/463, 68.0%) were in the ‘on’ phase, suggesting the importance of Opa proteins during invasive disease. These data provide valuable information for the first time regarding meningococcal Opa PV. The presence of Opa PV in meningococcal populations and high expression of Opa among invasive strains likely indicates the importance of this protein in bacterial colonization in the human nasopharynx. These findings have potential implications for development of vaccines derived from meningococcal outer membranes.

  3. Brillouin spectroscopy as a new method of screening for increased CSF total protein during bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Zachary; Meng, Zhaokai; Traverso, Andrew J; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a disease of pronounced clinical significance, especially in the developing world. Immediate treatment with antibiotics is essential, and no single test can provide a conclusive diagnosis. It is well established that elevated total protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with bacterial meningitis. Brillouin spectroscopy is a widely used optical technique for noninvasive determination of the elastic moduli of materials. We found that elevated protein levels in CSF alter the fluid elasticity sufficiently to be measurable by Brillouin spectroscopy, with model healthy and diseased fluids distinguishable to marked significance (P = 0.014), which increases with sample concentration by dialysis. Typical raw output of a 2-stage VIPA Brillouin spectrometer: inelastically scattered Brillouin peaks (arrows) and elastically scattered incident radiation (center cross).

  4. [The roles of epigenetics and protein post-translational modifications in bacterial antibiotic resistance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Longxiang; Yu, Zhaoxiao; Guo, Siyao; Li, Ping; Abdalla, Abualgasim Elgaili; Xie, Jianping

    2015-08-01

    The increasing antibiotic resistance is now threatening to take us back to a pre-antibiotic era. Bacteria have evolved diverse resistance mechanisms, on which in-depth research could help the development of new strategies to control antibiotic-resistant infections. Epigenetic alterations and protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) play important roles in multiple cellular processes such as metabolism, signal transduction, protein degradation, DNA replication regulation and stress response. Recent studies demonstrated that epigenetics and PTMs also play vital roles in bacterial antibiotic resistance. In this review, we summarize the regulatory roles of epigenetic factors including DNA methylation and regulatory RNAs as well as PTMs such as phosphorylation and succinylation in bacterial antibiotic resistance, which may provide innovative perspectives on selecting antibacterial targets and developing antibiotics. PMID:26266782

  5. Structural basis of a rationally rewired protein-protein interface critical to bacterial signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornaia, Anna I; Casino, Patricia; Marina, Alberto; Laub, Michael T

    2013-09-01

    Two-component signal transduction systems typically involve a sensor histidine kinase that specifically phosphorylates a single, cognate response regulator. This protein-protein interaction relies on molecular recognition via a small set of residues in each protein. To better understand how these residues determine the specificity of kinase-substrate interactions, we rationally rewired the interaction interface of a Thermotoga maritima two-component system, HK853-RR468, to match that found in a different two-component system, Escherichia coli PhoR-PhoB. The rewired proteins interacted robustly with each other, but no longer interacted with the parent proteins. Analysis of the crystal structures of the wild-type and mutant protein complexes and a systematic mutagenesis study reveal how individual mutations contribute to the rewiring of interaction specificity. Our approach and conclusions have implications for studies of other protein-protein interactions and protein evolution and for the design of novel protein interfaces. PMID:23954504

  6. Mitomycin resistance in mammalian cells expressing the bacterial mitomycin C resistance protein MCRA

    OpenAIRE

    Belcourt, Michael F.; Penketh, Philip G.; Hodnick, William F.; Johnson, David A.; David H Sherman; Rockwell, Sara; Sartorelli, Alan C.

    1999-01-01

    The mitomycin C-resistance gene, mcrA, of Streptomyces lavendulae produces MCRA, a protein that protects this microorganism from its own antibiotic, the antitumor drug mitomycin C. Expression of the bacterial mcrA gene in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells causes profound resistance to mitomycin C and to its structurally related analog porfiromycin under aerobic conditions but produces little change in drug sensitivity under hypoxia. The mitomycins are prodrugs that are enzymatically reduc...

  7. Crystal structure of the Campylobacter jejuni Cj0090 protein reveals a novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold among bacterial lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seonghee; Kawai, Fumihiro; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yeo, Hye-Jeong

    2012-12-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins play an important role in bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. The genome of Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborn pathogen, is predicted to contain over 20 lipoproteins. However, the functions of the majority of C. jejuni lipoproteins remain unknown. The Cj0090 protein is encoded by a lipoprotein operon composed of cj0089, cj0090, and cj0091. Here, we report the crystal structure of Cj0090 at 1.9 Å resolution, revealing a novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold with β-sandwich architecture. The structure suggests that Cj0090 may be involved in protein-protein interactions, consistent with a possible role for bacterial lipoproteins. PMID:22987763

  8. Use of Copra Meal in Poultry and Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Copra meal (CM is an important feed ingredient and the by-product of the oil extraction from dried coconut kernels. This product, although copra meal has a moderate protein content (15-25%; because of a high cellulose content (11.63-16.00% and some limiting amino acids (particularly lysine and methionine, limits its use as a basic source of protein in poultry due to insufficient. Copra meals are more suitable common supplements as both an energy and protein source for ruminants. In this paper, nutritional researches performed with the copra meal usage on poultry and ruminant species have been reviewed.

  9. Recombinant expression and purification of "virus-like" bacterial encapsulin protein cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurup, W Frederik; Cornelissen, Jeroen J L M; Koay, Melissa S T

    2015-01-01

    Ultracentrifugation, particularly the use of sucrose or cesium chloride density gradients, is a highly reliable and efficient technique for the purification of virus-like particles and protein cages. Since virus-like particles and protein cages have a unique size compared to cellular macromolecules and organelles, the rate of migration can be used as a tool for purification. Here we describe a detailed protocol for the purification of recently discovered virus-like assemblies called bacterial encapsulins from Thermotoga maritima and Brevibacterium linens. PMID:25358773

  10. Identification of a novel bacterial outer membrane interleukin-1Β-binding protein from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamari Paino

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a gram-negative opportunistic oral pathogen. It is frequently associated with subgingival biofilms of both chronic and aggressive periodontitis, and the diseased sites of the periodontium exhibit increased levels of the proinflammatory mediator interleukin (IL-1β. Some bacterial species can alter their physiological properties as a result of sensing IL-1β. We have recently shown that this cytokine localizes to the cytoplasm of A. actinomycetemcomitans in co-cultures with organotypic gingival mucosa. However, current knowledge about the mechanism underlying bacterial IL-1β sensing is still limited. In this study, we characterized the interaction of A. actinomycetemcomitans total membrane protein with IL-1β through electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The interacting protein, which we have designated bacterial interleukin receptor I (BilRI, was identified through mass spectrometry and was found to be Pasteurellaceae specific. Based on the results obtained using protein function prediction tools, this protein localizes to the outer membrane and contains a typical lipoprotein signal sequence. All six tested biofilm cultures of clinical A. actinomycetemcomitans strains expressed the protein according to phage display-derived antibody detection. Moreover, proteinase K treatment of whole A. actinomycetemcomitans cells eliminated BilRI forms that were outer membrane specific, as determined through immunoblotting. The protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli in both the outer membrane-associated form and a soluble cytoplasmic form. When assessed using flow cytometry, the BilRI-overexpressing E. coli cells were observed to bind 2.5 times more biotinylated-IL-1β than the control cells, as detected with avidin-FITC. Overexpression of BilRI did not cause binding of a biotinylated negative control protein. In a microplate assay, soluble BilRI bound to IL-1β, but this binding was not specific, as a control

  11. Bacterial conjugation protein MobA mediates integration of complex DNA structures into plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Angel, A M; Gloeckler, V; Hohn, B; Tinland, B

    1999-09-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers T-DNA to plant cells, where it integrates into the genome, a property that is ensured by bacterial proteins VirD2 and VirE2. Under natural conditions, the protein MobA mobilizes its encoding plasmid, RSF1010, between different bacteria. A detailed analysis of MobA-mediated DNA mobilization by Agrobacterium to plants was performed. We compared the ability of MobA to transfer DNA and integrate it into the plant genome to that of pilot protein VirD2. MobA was found to be about 100-fold less efficient than VirD2 in conducting the DNA from the pTi plasmid to the plant cell nucleus. However, interestingly, DNAs transferred by the two proteins were integrated into the plant cell genome with similar efficiencies. In contrast, most of the integrated DNA copies transferred from a MobA-containing strain were truncated at the 5' end. Isolation and analysis of the most conserved 5' ends revealed patterns which resulted from the illegitimate integration of one transferred DNA within another. These complex integration patterns indicate a specific deficiency in MobA. The data conform to a model according to which efficiency of T-DNA integration is determined by plant enzymes and integrity is determined by bacterial proteins. PMID:10482518

  12. Secreted and immunogenic proteins produced by the honeybee bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez, Karina; Anido, Matilde; Evans, Jay D; Zunino, Pablo

    2010-03-24

    American Foulbrood is a severe disease affecting larvae of honeybee Apis mellifera, causing significant decrease in the honeybee population, beekeeping industries and agricultural production. In spite of its importance, little is known about the virulence factors secreted by Paenibacillus larvae during larval infection. The aim of the present work was to perform a first approach to the identification and characterization of P. larvae secretome. P. larvae secreted proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and identified by MALDI-TOF. Protein toxicity was evaluated using an experimental model based on feeding of A. mellifera larvae and immunogenicity was evaluated by Western blot, using an antiserum raised against cells and spores of P. larvae. Ten different proteins were identified among P. larvae secreted proteins, including proteins involved in transcription, metabolism, translation, cell envelope, transport, protein folding, degradation of polysaccharides and motility. Although most of these proteins are cytosolic, many of them have been previously detected in the extracellular medium of different Bacillus spp. cultures and have been related to virulence. The secreted proteins resulted highly toxic and immunogenic when larvae were exposed using an experimental model. This is the first description of proteins secreted by the honeybee pathogen P. larvae. This information may be relevant for the elucidation of bacterial pathogenesis mechanisms. PMID:19781868

  13. Substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1991 Replacement of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in diets for Nile tilapia fingerlings - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeisson Emerson Casimiro Ferrari

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com 5 tratamentos 0%; 25%; 50%; 75% e 100% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho e, com 4 repetições. Os níveis adotados corresponderam a 11,75%; 23%; 35,78% e 47,28% de inclusão de glúten de milho nas rações, as quais foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas em proteína digestível (PD, isocalóricas em energia digestível (ED e com a mesma quantidade de fibra bruta, lisina e metionina. Foram utilizados 100 alevinos com peso médio de 7,47±1,61g, distribuídos em 20 aquários (250L, em sistema de recirculação de água dotado de controle de temperatura. Foi observado efeito quadrático para o ganho de peso, conversão alimentar e taxa de eficiência protéica, sendo os respectivos valores ótimos estimados em 30,69%; 48% e 46,25% de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do glúten de milho e, para o consumo de ração, foi verificado efeito linear. Em função da média referente aos valores estimados para os diferentes parâmetros avaliados, pôde-se concluir que a proteína do glúten de milho pode substituir até 42% (19,82% de inclusão na ração da proteína do farelo de soja em rações para alevinos de tilápia do Nilo.The research was carried out aiming to evaluate the replacement of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. (Cichlidae diets. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of replacement of soybean protein by corn gluten meal protein and 4 replicates. The used levels corresponded to 11.75%, 23%, 35.78% and 42.28% of corn gluten meal inclusion in diets, formulated to be

  14. STUDIES ON THE BACTERIOPHAGE OF D'HERELLE : IX. EVIDENCE OF HYDROLYSIS OF BACTERIAL PROTEIN DURING LYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetler, D M; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1928-07-31

    1. During the process of lysis by bacteriophage, there is an appreciable increase in the amount of free amino acid present in the culture. 2. The increase of free amino acid is due to hydrolysis of bacterial protein.

  15. Replacement of fish meal with rendered animal protein ingredients in diets for mlabar grouper.%利用畜禽加工副产品替代点带石斑鱼饲料中的鱼粉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付闰吉; 纪文秀; 王岩; 谢宁峡

    2011-01-01

    比较网葙养殖点带石斑鱼对宠物级鸡肉粉(简称P-PBM)和一种畜禽蛋白混合物(由饲料级鸡肉粉、羽毛粉和血粉按质量比65:20:15的比例混合而成,简称MM)的利用能力.设5组等蛋白(49%粗蛋白)、等能(19 MJ· kg-1总能)饲料:对照饲料中添加50.0%鱼粉,在其余4组饲料中分别加入15.0%、30.0%的P-PBM或13.9%、27.8%的MM替代对照饲料中鱼粉的30%、60%,每个饲料处理设3个网箱重复,每个网箱中放养30尾鱼[初始体质量(33.4土0.1)g],饲养实验持续10周.结果表明:通过添加P-PBM或MM将点带石斑鱼饲料中鱼粉含量降低到20.0%对鱼摄食、增质量、饲料系数、氮储积效率(NRE)、磷储积效率(PRE)和鱼体组成无明显的不良影响;利用P-PBM部分替代鱼粉后鱼生长速度趋于加快,NRE和PRE趋于升高.本实验结果证实P-PBM是点带石斑鱼的优质饲料蛋白源,将其与鱼粉搭配使用可提高网箱养殖点带石斑鱼的生长性能和食物利用效率.%The potential of malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus) in utilizing pet-grade poultry byproduct meal (P-PBM) and a blend (MM) which was comprised of 65% feed-grade poultry by-product meal, 20% feather meal and 15% blood meal was examined in a 10-week net pen experiment. Five isonitrogenous (49% crude protein) and isocaloric (19 MJ·kg-1 gross energy) diets were established. One diet was formulated to contain 50. 0% herring meal as control, and in the other four diets, 30% and 60% of the fish meal were replaced respectively by either incorporating P-PBM at 15. 0% and 30. 0%, or incorporating MM at 13. 9% and 27. 8%. Each diet treatment had three replicates. Initial body mass of the experimental fish was (33. 4±0. 1) g. The results indicated that reducing dietary fish meal level from 50. 0% to 20. 0%, with P-PBM or MM as alternative protein source, had no significantly negative effect on feed intake, body mass gain, feed conversion ratio, nitrogen

  16. Object-adapted trapping and shape-tracking to probe a bacterial protein chain motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Julian; Koch, Matthias; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The helical bacterium Spiroplasma is a motile plant and anthropod pathogen which swims by propagating pairs of kinks along its cell body. As a well suited model system for bacterial locomotion, understanding the cell's molecular motor is of vital interest also regarding the combat of bacterial diseases. The extensive deformations related to these kinks are caused by a contractile cytoskeletal protein ribbon representing a linear motor in contrast to common rotary motors as, e.g., flagella. We present new insights into the working of this motor through experiments with object-adapted optical traps and shape-tracking techniques. We use the given laser irradiation from the optical trap to hinder bacterial energy (ATP) production through the production of O2 radicals. The results are compared with experiments performed under the influence of an O2-Scavenger and ATP inhibitors, respectively. Our results show clear dependences of the kinking properties on the ATP concentration inside the bacterium. The experiments are supported by a theoretical model which we developed to describe the switching of the ribbon's protein subunits.

  17. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels on Composition of Odorous Compounds and Bacterial Ecology in Pig Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sungback; Hwang, Okhwa; Park, Sungkwon

    2015-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary crude protein (CP) on composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities in pig manure. A total of 48 male pigs (average initial body weight 45 kg) fed diets containing three levels of dietary CP (20%, 17.5%, and 15%) and their slurry samples were collected from the pits under the floor every week for one month. Changes in composition of odorous compounds and bacterial communities were analyzed by gas chromatography and 454 FLX titanium pyrosequencing systems, respectively. Levels of phenols, indoles, short chain fatty acid and branched chain fatty acid were lowest (pp-cresol and skatole with Bacteroides, acetic acid and butyric acid with AM982595_g of Porphyromonadaceae family, and propionic acid with Tissierella. Taken together, administration of 15% CP showed less production of odorous compounds than 20% CP group and this result might be associated with the changes in bacterial communities especially whose roles in protein metabolism. PMID:26194219

  18. Bacterial Protein Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae by SDS-page Method for Subclinical Mastitis Irradiated Vaccine Materials in Dairy Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    B.J. Tuasikal; I.W.T. Wibawan2; F.H. Pasaribu2; S. Estuningsih2

    2012-01-01

    A study have been conducted to isolate and characterize bacterial protein S. agalactiae, which is antigenic and can be used to test immunogenicity of vaccine in order to manufacture irradiated mastitis (inflammation of the udder) vaccine in ruminant. The study aims to determine the Molecular Weight (MW) bacterial protein S. agalactiae irradiation, which can be used to test the nature of its antigenic caharacteristic. The character of S. agalactiae antigenic stimulates antibody induction of th...

  19. Super-Resolution Microscopy and Tracking of DNA-Binding Proteins in Bacterial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphoff, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to detect individual fluorescent molecules inside living cells has enabled a range of powerful microscopy techniques that resolve biological processes on the molecular scale. These methods have also transformed the study of bacterial cell biology, which was previously obstructed by the limited spatial resolution of conventional microscopy. In the case of DNA-binding proteins, super-resolution microscopy can visualize the detailed spatial organization of DNA replication, transcription, and repair processes by reconstructing a map of single-molecule localizations. Furthermore, DNA binding activities can be observed directly by tracking protein movement in real time. This allows identifying subpopulations of DNA-bound and diffusing proteins, and can be used to measure DNA-binding times in vivo. This chapter provides a detailed protocol for super-resolution microscopy and tracking of DNA-binding proteins in Escherichia coli cells. The protocol covers the construction of cell strains and describes data acquisition and analysis procedures, such as super-resolution image reconstruction, mapping single-molecule tracks, computing diffusion coefficients to identify molecular subpopulations with different mobility, and analysis of DNA-binding kinetics. While the focus is on the study of bacterial chromosome biology, these approaches are generally applicable to other molecular processes and cell types. PMID:27283312

  20. Replacing moringa leaf (Moringa oleifera partially by protein replacement in soybean meal of fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bundit Yuangsoi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae is a highly valued plant, distributed in many countries of the tropics and subtropics.The leaves are the protein source with an adequate profile of amino acids. The present study was undertaken in orderto determine the effect of a dietary of moringa leaves on digestibility and growth performance of fancy carp. Fish were fedwith diets containing isonitrogenouse and isoenergetic formulated by 20 and 50 g kg-1 of moringa leaves to replace protein insoybean. Fish were distributed in 500-liter tanks with flow-through water. Every fish was weighed and after the terminalexperiment, all groups’ livers and distal intestines were sampled. All fish grew normally (p>0.05 but fish fed with proteinreplacingmoringa leaves at 50 g kg-1 were noted to exhibit slightly poor growth performance and feed utilization. The studyindicated that the tested moringa leaf diet contains ingredients that could be used for fancy carp diets with possibly notover up to 20 g kg-1 soybean protein replacement without negative effect on growth and digestibility.

  1. Mechanisms of Host-Pathogen Protein Complex Formation and Bacterial Immune Evasion of Streptococcus suis Protein Fhb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueqin; Liu, Peng; Gan, Shuzhen; Zhang, Chunmao; Zheng, Yuling; Jiang, Yongqiang; Yuan, Yuan

    2016-08-12

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (S. suis 2)-induced sepsis and meningitis are often accompanied by bacteremia. The evasion of polymorphonuclear leukocyte-mediated phagocytic clearance is central to the establishment of bacteremia caused by S. suis 2 and is facilitated by the ability of factor H (FH)-binding protein (Fhb) to bind FH on the bacterial surface, thereby impeding alternative pathway complement activation and phagocytic clearance. Here, C3b/C3d was found to bind to Fhb, along with FH, forming a large immune complex. The formation of this immune complex was mediated by domain II of Fhb via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which, to our knowledge, is a new type of interaction. Interestingly, Fhb was found to be associated with the cell envelope and also present in the culture supernatant, where secreted Fhb inhibited complement activation via interactions with domain II, thereby enhancing antiphagocytic clearance by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Thus, Fhb is a multifunctional bacterial protein, which binds host complement component C3 as well as FH and interferes with innate immune recognition in a secret protein manner. S. suis 2 therefore appears to have developed a new strategy to combat host innate immunity and enhance survival in host blood. PMID:27342778

  2. La harina de caña proteica como alimento local en la producción de tilapia roja -Oreochromis spp - The cane meal protein like food local in the production red tilapia - Oreochromis spp-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botello A.L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente trabajo se desarrolló con el objetivo de determinar la respuesta biológica de alevines de tilapia roja (Oreochromis spp. alimentados con diferentes niveles de inclusión de harina de caña proteica.SummaryThe present work was developed with the aim of to determine the answerbiological of alevines of red tilapia (Oreochromis spp. fed with different levels of inclusion of cane meal protein.

  3. La harina de caña proteica como alimento local en la producción de tilapia roja -Oreochromis spp - The cane meal protein like food local in the production red tilapia - Oreochromis spp-

    OpenAIRE

    Botello A.L.; Cisneros M.V.L.; Silvera G.S.; Magalis Cutido. E.; Miranda O.M.; Gómez I.A.; Guerra J; Teresa Viana M.C.; Valdivié M.N.; Ariza E.P.; Girón E.T.G.; Valera Y.R.; Botello A.R.

    2011-01-01

    ResumenEl presente trabajo se desarrolló con el objetivo de determinar la respuesta biológica de alevines de tilapia roja (Oreochromis spp.) alimentados con diferentes niveles de inclusión de harina de caña proteica.SummaryThe present work was developed with the aim of to determine the answerbiological of alevines of red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) fed with different levels of inclusion of cane meal protein.

  4. A review of canola meal as an alternative feed ingredient for ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasuriya, Samiru Sudharaka; Yi, Young-Joo; Yoo, Jaehong; Kang, Nam Kyu; Heo, Jung Min

    2015-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the published data on the canola meal and its suitability for duck as an alternative plant-origin protein source to soybean meal. Canola meal is a legume origin protein source containing comparable amino acid profile to soybean meal and rich in essential minerals and vitamins. Nonetheless, it is known to contain less in energy content than soybean meal. Factors like field conditions and processing methods creates compositional variations among canola meal. Presence of anti-nutritional factors such as phenolic substances, phytate and glucosinolates which are known to reduce growth performance in livestock animals, are the major drawbacks for canola meal to be a competitive plant-origin protein source in the feed industry. This review is focused to address i) nutritional characteristics and feeding value of canola meal for ducks and ii) impacts of feeding canola meal on performances of ducks.

  5. Chirality Switching by Martensitic Transformation in Protein Cylindrical Crystals: Application to Bacterial Flagella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Ricardo Kiyohiro

    Martensitic transformations provide unique engineering properties that, when designed properly, become important parts of new technology. Martensitic transformations have been studied for many years in traditional alloys (iron, steel, titanium, etc.), however there is still much to be learned in regards to these transformations in biological materials. Olson and Hartman showed in 1982 that these transformations are also observed in bacterial flagella and T4 bacteriophage viral sheaths, allowing for propulsion of bacteria in a fluid environment and, for the virus, is responsible for the infection mechanism. This work demonstrates, using the bacterial flagella as an example, that these transformations can be modelled using thermodynamic methods that are also used to model the transformations in alloys. This thesis work attempts to explain the transformations that occur in bacterial flagella, which are capable of small strain, highly reversible martensitic transformations. The first stress/temperature phase diagrams of these flagella were created by adding the mechanical energy of the transformation of the flagella to limited chemical thermodynamics information of the transformation. Mechanical energy is critical to the transformation process because the bacterial body applies a torque to the radius of the flagella. Finally, work has begun and will be completed in regards to understanding the kinetics of the transformation of the flagella. The motion of the transformation interface can be predicted by using a Landau-Ginzburg model. The crystallography of the transformation in bacterial flagella is also being computed to determine the invariant lines of transformation that occur within this cylindrical crystal. This work has shown that it is possible to treat proteins in a similar manner that alloys are treated when using thermodynamic modelling. Much can be learned from translating what is known regarding phase transformations in hard material systems to soft, organic

  6. Cyclic enterobacterial common antigen: Potential contaminant of bacterially expressed protein preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously reported the identification of the cyclic enterobacterial common antigen (ECACYC) polysaccharide in E. coli strains commonly used for heterologous protein expression (PJA Erbel et al., J. Bacteriol.185 (2003): 1995). Following this initial report, interactions among several NMR groups established that characteristic N-acetyl signals of ECACYC have been observed in 15N-1H HSQC spectra of samples of various bacterially-expressed proteins suggesting that this water-soluble carbohydrate is a common contaminant. We provide NMR spectroscopic tools to recognize ECACYC in protein samples, as well as several methods to remove this contaminant. Early recognition of ECA-based NMR signals will prevent time-consuming analyses of this copurifying carbohydrate

  7. Bacterial ortholog of mammalian translocator protein (TSPO with virulence regulating activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise Chapalain

    Full Text Available The translocator protein (TSPO, previously designated as peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor, is a protein mainly located in the outer mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotic cells. TSPO is implicated in major physiological functions and functionally associated with other proteins such as the voltage-dependent anionic channel, also designated as mitochondrial porin. Surprisingly, a TSPO-related protein was identified in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides but it was initially considered as a relict of evolution. In the present study we cloned a tspO gene in Pseudomonas fluorescens MF37, a non-photosynthetic eubacterium and we used bioinformatics tools to identify TSPO in the genome of 97 other bacteria. P. fluorescens TSPO was recognized by antibodies against mouse protein and by PK 11195, an artificial ligand of mitochondrial TSPO. As in eukaryotes, bacterial TSPO appears functionally organized as a dimer and the apparent Kd for PK 11195 is in the same range than for its eukaryotic counterpart. When P. fluorescens MF37 was treated with PK 11195 (10(-5 M adhesion to living or artificial surfaces and biofilm formation activity were increased. Conversely, the apoptotic potential of bacteria on eukaryotic cells was significantly reduced. This effect of PK11195 was abolished in a mutant of P. fluorescens MF37 deficient for its major outer membrane porin, OprF. The present results demonstrate the existence of a bacterial TSPO that shares common structural and functional characteristics with its mammalian counterpart. This protein, apparently involved in adhesion and virulence, reveals the existence of a possible new inter kingdom signalling system and suggests that the human microbiome should be involuntarily exposed to the evolutionary pressure of benzodiazepines and related molecules. This discovery also represents a promising opportunity for the development of alternative antibacterial strategies.

  8. Phorbol esters from Jatropha meal triggered apoptosis, activated PKC-δ, caspase-3 proteins and down-regulated the proto-oncogenes in MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Ahmad, Syahida

    2012-01-01

    Jatropha meal produced from the kernel of Jatropha curcas Linn. grown in Malaysia contains phorbol esters (PEs). The potential benefits of PEs present in the meal as anticancer agent are still not well understood. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effects and mode of actions of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal against breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines. Isolated PEs inhibited cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner of both MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines with the IC₅₀ of 128.6 ± 2.51 and 133.0 ± 1.96 µg PMA equivalents/mL respectively, while the values for the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) as positive control were 114.7 ± 1.73 and 119.6 ± 3.73 µg/mL, respectively. Microscopic examination showed significant morphological changes that resemble apoptosis in both cell lines when treated with PEs and PMA at IC₅₀ concentration after 24 h. Flow cytometry analysis and DNA fragmentation results confirmed the apoptosis induction of PEs and PMA in both cell lines. The PEs isolated from Jatropha meal activated the PKC-δ and down-regulated the proto-oncogenes (c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun). These changes probably led to the activation of Caspase-3 protein and apoptosis cell death occurred in MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines upon 24 h treatment with PEs and PMA. Phorbol esters of Jatropha meal were found to be promising as an alternative to replace the chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer therapy. PMID:22964499

  9. Phorbol Esters from Jatropha Meal Triggered Apoptosis, Activated PKC-δ, Caspase-3 Proteins and Down-Regulated the Proto-Oncogenes in MCF-7 and HeLa Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahida Ahmad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha meal produced from the kernel of Jatropha curcas Linn. grown in Malaysia contains phorbol esters (PEs. The potential benefits of PEs present in the meal as anticancer agent are still not well understood. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effects and mode of actions of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal against breast (MCF-7 and cervical (HeLa cancer cell lines. Isolated PEs inhibited cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner of both MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines with the IC50 of 128.6 ± 2.51 and 133.0 ± 1.96 µg PMA equivalents/mL respectively, while the values for the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA as positive control were 114.7 ± 1.73 and 119.6 ± 3.73 µg/mL, respectively. Microscopic examination showed significant morphological changes that resemble apoptosis in both cell lines when treated with PEs and PMA at IC50 concentration after 24 h. Flow cytometry analysis and DNA fragmentation results confirmed the apoptosis induction of PEs and PMA in both cell lines. The PEs isolated from Jatropha meal activated the PKC-δ and down-regulated the proto-oncogenes (c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun. These changes probably led to the activation of Caspase-3 protein and apoptosis cell death occurred in MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines upon 24 h treatment with PEs and PMA. Phorbol esters of Jatropha meal were found to be promising as an alternative to replace the chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer therapy.

  10. Phorbol esters from Jatropha meal triggered apoptosis, activated PKC-δ, caspase-3 proteins and down-regulated the proto-oncogenes in MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Ahmad, Syahida

    2012-09-10

    Jatropha meal produced from the kernel of Jatropha curcas Linn. grown in Malaysia contains phorbol esters (PEs). The potential benefits of PEs present in the meal as anticancer agent are still not well understood. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effects and mode of actions of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal against breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines. Isolated PEs inhibited cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner of both MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines with the IC₅₀ of 128.6 ± 2.51 and 133.0 ± 1.96 µg PMA equivalents/mL respectively, while the values for the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) as positive control were 114.7 ± 1.73 and 119.6 ± 3.73 µg/mL, respectively. Microscopic examination showed significant morphological changes that resemble apoptosis in both cell lines when treated with PEs and PMA at IC₅₀ concentration after 24 h. Flow cytometry analysis and DNA fragmentation results confirmed the apoptosis induction of PEs and PMA in both cell lines. The PEs isolated from Jatropha meal activated the PKC-δ and down-regulated the proto-oncogenes (c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun). These changes probably led to the activation of Caspase-3 protein and apoptosis cell death occurred in MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines upon 24 h treatment with PEs and PMA. Phorbol esters of Jatropha meal were found to be promising as an alternative to replace the chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer therapy.

  11. Structural studies of bacterial transcriptional regulatory proteins by multidimensional heteronuclear NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkman, B.F.

    1995-02-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to elucidate detailed structural information for peptide and protein molecules. A small peptide was designed and synthesized, and its three-dimensional structure was calculated using distance information derived from two-dimensional NMR measurements. The peptide was used to induce antibodies in mice, and the cross-reactivity of the antibodies with a related protein was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Two proteins which are involved in regulation of transcription in bacteria were also studied. The ferric uptake regulation (Fur) protein is a metal-dependent repressor which controls iron uptake in bacteria. Two- and three-dimensional NMR techniques, coupled with uniform and selective isotope labeling allowed the nearly complete assignment of the resonances of the metal-binding domain of the Fur protein. NTRC is a transcriptional enhancer binding protein whose N-terminal domain is a {open_quote}receiver domain{close_quote} in the family of {open_quote}two-component{close_quote} regulatory systems. Phosphorylation of the N-terminal domain of NTRC activates the initiation of transcription of aeries encoding proteins involved in nitrogen regulation. Three- and four-dimensional NMR spectroscopy methods have been used to complete the resonance assignments and determine the solution structure of the N-terminal receiver domain of the NTRC protein. Comparison of the solution structure of the NTRC receiver domain with the crystal structures of the homologous protein CheY reveals a very similar fold, with the only significant difference being the position of helix 4 relative to the rest of the protein. The determination of the structure of the NTRC receiver domain is the first step toward understanding a mechanism of signal transduction which is common to many bacterial regulatory systems.

  12. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  13. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  14. UGT-29 protein expression and localization during bacterial infection in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Rui-Rui; Lee, Song-Hua; Nathan, Sheila

    2014-09-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is routinely used as an animal model to delineate complex molecular mechanisms involved in the host response to pathogen infection. Following up on an earlier study on host-pathogen interaction, we constructed a ugt-29::GFP transcriptional fusion transgenic worm strain to examine UGT-29 protein expression and localization upon bacterial infection. UGT-29 orthologs can be found in higher organisms including humans and is proposed as a member of the UDP-Glucoronosyl Transferase family of proteins which are involved in phase II detoxification of compounds detrimental to the host organism. Under uninfected conditions, UGT-29::GFP fusion protein was highly expressed in the C. elegans anterior pharynx and intestine, two major organs involved in detoxification. We further evaluated the localization of the enzyme in worms infected with the bacterial pathogen, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The infected ugt-29::GFP transgenic strain exhibited increased fluorescence in the pharynx and intestine with pronounced fluorescence also extending to body wall muscle. This transcriptional fusion GFP transgenic worm is a convenient and direct tool to provide information on UGT detoxification enzyme gene expression and could be a useful tool for a number of diverse applications.

  15. Expression of lysozymes from Erwinia amylovora phages and Erwinia genomes and inhibition by a bacterial protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ina; Gernold, Marina; Schneider, Bernd; Geider, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Genes coding for lysozyme-inhibiting proteins (Ivy) were cloned from the chromosomes of the plant pathogens Erwinia amylovora and Erwinia pyrifoliae. The product interfered not only with activity of hen egg white lysozyme, but also with an enzyme from E. amylovora phage ΦEa1h. We have expressed lysozyme genes from the genomes of three Erwinia species in Escherichia coli. The lysozymes expressed from genes of the E. amylovora phages ΦEa104 and ΦEa116, Erwinia chromosomes and Arabidopsis thaliana were not affected by Ivy. The enzyme from bacteriophage ΦEa1h was fused at the N- or C-terminus to other peptides. Compared to the intact lysozyme, a His-tag reduced its lytic activity about 10-fold and larger fusion proteins abolished activity completely. Specific protease cleavage restored lysozyme activity of a GST-fusion. The bacteriophage-encoded lysozymes were more active than the enzymes from bacterial chromosomes. Viral lyz genes were inserted into a broad-host range vector, and transfer to E. amylovora inhibited cell growth. Inserted in the yeast Pichia pastoris, the ΦEa1h-lysozyme was secreted and also inhibited by Ivy. Here we describe expression of unrelated cloned 'silent' lyz genes from Erwinia chromosomes and a novel interference of bacterial Ivy proteins with a viral lysozyme.

  16. A Simple and Rapid Method for Preparing a Cell-Free Bacterial Lysate for Protein Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaduri, Maya; Shainsky-Roitman, Janna; Goldfeder, Mor; Ivanir, Eran; Benhar, Itai; Shoham, Yuval; Schroeder, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) systems are important laboratory tools that are used for various synthetic biology applications. Here, we present a simple and inexpensive laboratory-scale method for preparing a CFPS system from E. coli. The procedure uses basic lab equipment, a minimal set of reagents, and requires less than one hour to process the bacterial cell mass into a functional S30-T7 extract. BL21(DE3) and MRE600 E. coli strains were used to prepare the S30-T7 extract. The CFPS system was used to produce a set of fluorescent and therapeutic proteins of different molecular weights (up to 66 kDa). This system was able to produce 40–150 μg-protein/ml, with variations depending on the plasmid type, expressed protein and E. coli strain. Interestingly, the BL21-based CFPS exhibited stability and increased activity at 40 and 45°C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most rapid and affordable lab-scale protocol for preparing a cell-free protein synthesis system, with high thermal stability and efficacy in producing therapeutic proteins. PMID:27768741

  17. Role of acute-phase proteins in interleukin-1-induced nonspecific resistance to bacterial infections in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Vogels, M.T.E.; L. Cantoni; Carelli, M.; Sironi, M; Ghezzi, P; van der Meer, J. W M

    1993-01-01

    Treatment with a single low dose (80 to 800 ng) of interleukin-1 (IL-1) 24 h before a lethal bacterial challenge of granulocytopenic and normal mice enhances nonspecific resistance. Since IL-1 induces secretion of acute-phase proteins, liver proteins which possess several detoxifying effects, we investigated the role of these proteins in the IL-1-induced protection. Inhibition of liver protein synthesis with D-galactosamine (GALN) completely inhibited the IL-1-induced synthesis of acute-phase...

  18. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Jin; Jong Hyun Ham; Rosemary Hage; Wanying Zhao; Jaricelis Soto-Hernández; Sang Yeol Lee; Seung-Mann Paek; Min Gab Kim; Charles Boone; Coplin, David L.; David Mackey

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, w...

  19. Branched signal wiring of an essential bacterial cell-cycle phosphotransfer protein

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Jimmy A.; Xu, Qingping; Childers, W. Seth; Mathews, Irimpan I.; Kern, Justin W.; Eckart, Michael; Deacon, Ashley M.; Shapiro, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    Vital to bacterial survival is the faithful propagation of cellular signals, and in Caulobacter crescentus ChpT is an essential mediator within the cell cycle circuit. ChpT functions as a histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein (HPt) that shuttles a phosphoryl group from the receiver domain of CckA, the upstream hybrid histidine kinase (HK), to one of two downstream response regulators (RRs)—CtrA or CpdR—that controls cell cycle progression. To understand how ChpT interacts with multiple...

  20. Heterologously expressed bacterial and human multidrug resistance proteins confer cadmium resistance to Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Achard-Joris, M; van Saparoea, HBV; Driessen, AJM; Bourdineaud, JP; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The human MDR1 gene is induced by cadmium exposure although no resistance to this metal is observed in human cells overexpressing hMDR1. To access the role of MDR proteins in cadmium resistance, human MDR1, Lactococcus lactis lmrA, and Oenococcus oeni omrA were expressed in an Escherichia coli tolC mutant strain which proved to be hypersensitive to cadmium. Both the human and bacterial MDR genes conferred cadmium resistance to E. coli up to 0.4 mM concentration. Protection was abolished by 10...

  1. Biochemical Roles for Conserved Residues in the Bacterial Fatty Acid-binding Protein Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Tyler C; Miller, Darcie J; Jackson, Pamela; Nourse, Amanda; White, Stephen W; Rock, Charles O

    2016-03-18

    Fatty acid kinase (Fak) is a ubiquitous Gram-positive bacterial enzyme consisting of an ATP-binding protein (FakA) that phosphorylates the fatty acid bound to FakB. In Staphylococcus aureus, Fak is a global regulator of virulence factor transcription and is essential for the activation of exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipids. The 1.2-Å x-ray structure of S. aureus FakB2, activity assays, solution studies, site-directed mutagenesis, and in vivo complementation were used to define the functions of the five conserved residues that define the FakB protein family (Pfam02645). The fatty acid tail is buried within the protein, and the exposed carboxyl group is bound by a Ser-93-fatty acid carboxyl-Thr-61-His-266 hydrogen bond network. The guanidinium of the invariant Arg-170 is positioned to potentially interact with a bound acylphosphate. The reduced thermal denaturation temperatures of the T61A, S93A, and H266A FakB2 mutants illustrate the importance of the hydrogen bond network in protein stability. The FakB2 T61A, S93A, and H266A mutants are 1000-fold less active in the Fak assay, and the R170A mutant is completely inactive. All FakB2 mutants form FakA(FakB2)2 complexes except FakB2(R202A), which is deficient in FakA binding. Allelic replacement shows that strains expressing FakB2 mutants are defective in fatty acid incorporation into phospholipids and virulence gene transcription. These conserved residues are likely to perform the same critical functions in all bacterial fatty acid-binding proteins.

  2. Repairing oxidized proteins in the bacterial envelope using respiratory chain electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaris, Alexandra; Ezraty, Benjamin; Henry, Camille; Agrebi, Rym; Vergnes, Alexandra; Oheix, Emmanuel; Bos, Julia; Leverrier, Pauline; Espinosa, Leon; Szewczyk, Joanna; Vertommen, Didier; Iranzo, Olga; Collet, Jean-François; Barras, Frédéric

    2015-12-17

    The reactive species of oxygen and chlorine damage cellular components, potentially leading to cell death. In proteins, the sulfur-containing amino acid methionine is converted to methionine sulfoxide, which can cause a loss of biological activity. To rescue proteins with methionine sulfoxide residues, living cells express methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) in most subcellular compartments, including the cytosol, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Here we report the identification of an enzymatic system, MsrPQ, repairing proteins containing methionine sulfoxide in the bacterial cell envelope, a compartment particularly exposed to the reactive species of oxygen and chlorine generated by the host defence mechanisms. MsrP, a molybdo-enzyme, and MsrQ, a haem-binding membrane protein, are widely conserved throughout Gram-negative bacteria, including major human pathogens. MsrPQ synthesis is induced by hypochlorous acid, a powerful antimicrobial released by neutrophils. Consistently, MsrPQ is essential for the maintenance of envelope integrity under bleach stress, rescuing a wide series of structurally unrelated periplasmic proteins from methionine oxidation, including the primary periplasmic chaperone SurA. For this activity, MsrPQ uses electrons from the respiratory chain, which represents a novel mechanism to import reducing equivalents into the bacterial cell envelope. A remarkable feature of MsrPQ is its capacity to reduce both rectus (R-) and sinister (S-) diastereoisomers of methionine sulfoxide, making this oxidoreductase complex functionally different from previously identified Msrs. The discovery that a large class of bacteria contain a single, non-stereospecific enzymatic complex fully protecting methionine residues from oxidation should prompt a search for similar systems in eukaryotic subcellular oxidizing compartments, including the endoplasmic reticulum.

  3. Use of castor meal (Ricinus communis L. as a source of dietary protein in goats during the mating period: impact on reproductive and metabolic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Moreira Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the total substitution of soybean meal with castor meal, detoxified or non-detoxified, on the response to estrous synchronization, conception rate, early fetal development, presence of IgG, and metabolic-hormonal response. Sixty mixed goats were fed diets without castor meal (WCM, with detoxified castor meal (DCM, and with castor meal (CM during early pregnancy. The goats had their estrous synchronized and were then submitted to the mating season. The number of fetuses was determined by ultrasonography after 25 days of mating and their development was followed until 60 days of gestation. Plasma levels of progesterone (P4, liver enzymes, and urea were determined along with the evaluation of the immunological response. After 15 days of experimental feeding, immunoglobulin G (IgG was detected by western blotting only in goats that received non-detoxified castor meal. There was no effect (p > 0.05 of type of diet on response to estrous synchronization, plasma P4 levels, conception rate, or embryonic/fetal development. In pregnant goats, there was an effect of diet (p 0.05. In addition, plasma levels of LDH in WCM goats and of urea in all types of diet were higher in non-pregnant goats than pregnant goats. In conclusion, it can be inferred that the inclusion of 15% castor meal, whether or not it is detoxified, to the diet of goats does not affect the reproductive performance, embryonic and early fetal development, or blood metabolites.

  4. FRACIONAMENTO DE PROTEÍNAS DE SILAGEM DE CAPIM-ELEFANTE EMURCHECIDO OU COM FARELO DE CACAU PROTEIN FRACTIONING OF SILAGE OF ELEPHANTGRASS WILTED OR WITH COCOA MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Desenvolveu-se o experimento para determinar as frações que compõem as proteínas da silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Camaroon submetido ao emurchecimento ou à adição de diferentes níveis de farelo de cacau. O capim-elefante utilizado foi colhido aos 50 dias de rebrota após o corte de uniformização e submetido aos seguintes tratamentos: capim-elefante emurchecido ao sol por oito horas, e capim-elefante sem emurchecimento com níveis de 0 %, 7 %, 14%, 21 % e 28 % de farelo de cacau (FC (% da matéria natural. Acondicionou-se o material em silos de PVC com capacidade para 5,3 litros, que foram abertos após 45 dias. Para todas as frações de proteínas estimadas, o tratamento emurchecido apresentou valores semelhantes (P>0,05 ao do tratamento sem emurchecimento. As frações protéicas foram influenciadas pelas adições de FC, verificando-se redução dos teores das frações A e B1+B2 e aumentos das frações B3 e C, para os níveis crescentes de FC.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Conservação de forragens, forrageira, Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Cameroon, subproduto, Theobroma cacao L.

    The experiment was conducted to determine the fractions that compose the protein of silage on the submitted elephant grass forage to wilting under the sun light for eight hours. Other treatments involved the same elephant grass without exposing to sun light but with addition of 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28% of cocoa meal (CM at the ensilage processing. The PVC silos used in the experiment were 5.3 liters in capacity, and were opened in 45 days. To all protein-estimated fractions, the wilted treatment showed similar values (P>.05 to the treatment without wilting. The protein fractions were influenced by CM addictions, verifying reduction in contents of A and B1+B2 fractions and increase in B3 and C fractions, with CM increasing levels

  5. Validation of extrusion as a killing step for Enterococcus faecium in a balanced carbohydrate-protein meal by using a response surface design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Andreia; Stratton, Jayne; Weier, Steve; Hartter, Timothy; Plattner, Brian; Rokey, Galen; Hertzel, Gerry; Gompa, Lakshmi; Martinez, Bismarck; Eskridge, Andkent M

    2012-09-01

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis and recalls of low-moisture foods including extruded products highlight the need for the food and feed industries to validate their extrusion processes to ensure the destruction of pathogenic microorganisms. Response surface methodology was employed to study the effect of moisture and temperature on inactivation by extrusion of Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 in a carbohydrate-protein mix. A balanced carbohydrate-protein mix was formulated to different combinations of moisture contents, ranging from 24.9 to 31.1%, and each was inoculated with a pure culture of E. faecium to a final level of 5 log CFU/g. Each mix of various moistures was then extruded in a pilot scale extruder at different temperatures (ranging from 67.5 to 85°C). After the extruder was allowed to equilibrate for 10 min, samples were collected in sterile bags, cooled in dry ice, and stored at 4°C prior to analysis. E. faecium was enumerated with tryptic soy agar and membrane Enterococcus media, followed by incubation at 35°C for 48 h. Each extrusion was repeated twice, with the central point of the design being repeated four times. From each extrusion, three subsamples were collected for microbial counts and moisture determination. Based on the results, the response surface model was y = 185.04 - 3.11X(1) - 4.23X(2) + 0.02X(1)(2) - 0.004X(1)X(2) + 0.08X(2)(2), with a good fit (R(2) = 0.92), which demonstrated the effects of moisture and temperature on the inactivation of E. faecium during extrusion. According to the response surface analysis, the greatest reduction of E. faecium for the inoculation levels studied here (about 5 log) in a carbohydrate-protein meal would occur at the temperature of 81.1°C and moisture content of 28.1%. Other temperature and moisture combinations needed to achieve specific log reductions were plotted in a three-dimensional response surface graph.

  6. The pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein is an intra-species bacterial adhesin that promotes bacterial aggregation in vivo and in biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J Sanchez

    Full Text Available The Pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein (PsrP is a pathogenicity island encoded adhesin that has been positively correlated with the ability of Streptococcus pneumoniae to cause invasive disease. Previous studies have shown that PsrP mediates bacterial attachment to Keratin 10 (K10 on the surface of lung cells through amino acids 273-341 located in the Basic Region (BR domain. In this study we determined that the BR domain of PsrP also mediates an intra-species interaction that promotes the formation of large bacterial aggregates in the nasopharynx and lungs of infected mice as well as in continuous flow-through models of mature biofilms. Using numerous methods, including complementation of mutants with BR domain deficient constructs, fluorescent microscopy with Cy3-labeled recombinant (rBR, Far Western blotting of bacterial lysates, co-immunoprecipitation with rBR, and growth of biofilms in the presence of antibodies and competitive peptides, we determined that the BR domain, in particular amino acids 122-166 of PsrP, promoted bacterial aggregation and that antibodies against the BR domain were neutralizing. Using similar methodologies, we also determined that SraP and GspB, the Serine-rich repeat proteins (SRRPs of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus gordonii, respectively, also promoted bacterial aggregation and that their Non-repeat domains bound to their respective SRRPs. This is the first report to show the presence of biofilm-like structures in the lungs of animals infected with S. pneumoniae and show that SRRPs have dual roles as host and bacterial adhesins. These studies suggest that recombinant Non-repeat domains of SRRPs (i.e. BR for S. pneumoniae may be useful as vaccine antigens to protect against Gram-positive bacteria that cause infection.

  7. Decreased Bacterial Attachment and Protein Adsorption to Coatings Produced by Low Enegy Plasma Polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.E.; Kingshott, Peter; Benter, M.;

    Introduction Silicone rubber is among the most biocompatible materials available, exhibiting low levels of extractables, absence of plasticizers and additives and fairly low activation of blood thrombogenesis components. However untreated silicone rubber does not efficiently resist protein...... by staining with crystal violet with the extent of biofilm formation determined from absorbance measurement of the extracted dye. Flow chamber assay: Measurements of bacterial colonization during prolonged growth in liquid flow were done using a flow chamber (modified version of FCS lc, Oligene, Germany......). Quantification was carried out by a similar method as described above, using crystal violet as a direct measure of the amount of adhering bacteria. Protein adsorption measurements: Gold plated QCMcrystals were spin coated with polystyrene (PS) to create a hydrophobic reference surface similar to silicone. PS...

  8. Single-stranded DNA bound to bacterial cold-shock proteins: preliminary crystallographic and Raman analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienert, Ralf; Zeeb, Markus; Dostál, Lubomir; Feske, Anette; Magg, Christine; Max, Klaas; Welfle, Heinz; Balbach, Jochen; Heinemann, Udo

    2004-04-01

    The cold-shock response has been described for several bacterial species. It is characterized by distinct changes in intracellular protein patterns whereby a set of cold-shock-inducible proteins become abundant. The major cold-shock proteins of Bacillus subtilis (Bs-CspB) and Bacillus caldolyticus (Bc-Csp) are small oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding (OB) fold proteins that have been described as binding single-stranded nucleic acids. Bs-CspB (Mr = 7365) and Bc-Csp (Mr = 7333) were crystallized in the presence of the deoxyhexanucleotide (dT)6. Crystals of (dT)6 with Bs-CspB grew in the orthorhombic space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 49.0, b = 53.2, c = 77.0 A. Crystals with Bc-Csp grew in the primitive orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.3, b = 64.9, c = 31.2 A. These crystals diffract to maximal resolutions of 1.78 and 1.29 A, respectively. The presence of protein and DNA in the crystals was demonstrated by Raman spectroscopy.

  9. Reconstitution of nanomachine driving the assembly of proteins into bacterial outer membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 9.5 million people die each year due to infectious diseases caused by pathogens. Many species of pathogenic bacteria require nanomachines acting like a molecular pump that shuttle key disease-causing molecules (proteins) from inside bacteria cells to the outside surface, priming the bacteria for infections. How such proteins are assembled remains an important question in biology. If we can inhibit the nanomachines function in transporting specific violence factors, it would disable the disease process. Therefore it is crucial to understand how the proteins are transported through the nanomachines from the periplasm to the extracellular space. Measuring the activity of the component parts of membrane-embedded nanomachines in solution is a major technological challenge. The translocation assembly module (the TAM) is a nanomachine required for virulence of bacterial pathogens. We have reconstituted a membrane containing the TAM onto a gold surface for characterization by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation (QCM-D) and Magnetic Contrast Neutron Reflectrometry (MCNR). We show that dynamic movements within the TamA component of the TAM are initiated in the presence of a substrate protein, Ag43, and that these movements recapitulate an initial stage in membrane protein assembly. The reconstituted system provides a powerful new means to study molecular movements in biological membranes, and the technology is widely applicable to studying the dynamics of diverse cellular nanomachines.

  10. Motion of single MreB bacterial actin proteins in Caulobacter show treadmilling in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moerner, W. E.; Kim, Soyeon; Gitai, Zemer; Kinkhabwala, Anika; McAdams, Harley; Shapiro, Lucy

    2006-03-01

    Ensemble imaging of a bacterial actin homologue, the MreB protein, suggests that the MreB proteins form a dynamic filamentous spiral along the long axis of the cell in Caulobacter crescentus. MreB contracts and expands along the cell axis and plays an important role in cell shape and polarity maintenance, as well as chromosome segregation and translocation of the origin of replication during cell division. In this study we investigated the real-time polymerization of MreB in Caulobacter crescentus using single-molecule fluorescence imaging. With time-lapse imaging, polymerized MreB could be distinguished from cytoplasmic MreB monomers, because single monomeric MreB showed fast motion characteristic of Brownian diffusion, while single polymerized MreB displayed slow, directed motion. This directional movement of labeled MreB in the growing polymer implies that treadmilling is the predominant mechanism in MreB filament formation. These single-molecule imaging experiments provide the first available information on the velocity of bacterial actin polymerization in a living cell.

  11. The participation of outer membrane proteins in the bacterial sensitivity to nanosilver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kędziora, Anna; Krzyżewska, Eva; Dudek, Bartłomiej; Bugla-Płoskońska, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    The presented study is to analyze the participation of outer membrane proteins of Gram- negative bacteria in sensitivity to silver nanomaterials. The mechanism of interaction of silver with the bacterial cell is best described in this group of microorganisms. There are several theories regarding the effectiveness of antimicrobial ions and nanosilver, and at the indicated differences in the way they work. Outer membrane proteins of Gram-negative bacteria are involved in the procurement of silver from the environment and contribute to the development mechanisms of resistance to nanometals. They are measurable parameter in the field of cell phenotypic response to the presence of Gram-negative bacteria in the environment silver nanoforms: its properties, chemical composition, content or times of action. Proteomic methods (including two dimensional electrophoresis and MALDI‑TOF MS) are therefore relevant techniques for determining the susceptibility of bacteria to silver and the changes taking place in the outer membrane under the influence: uptime/exposure and physical and chemical parameters of silver nanomaterials. Many products containing nanosilver is still in the research phase in terms of physico‑chemical characteristics and biological activity, others have been already implemented in many industries. During the very fast nanotechnology developing and introduction to the market products based on the nanosilver the bacterial answer to nanosilver is needed.

  12. Disordered patterns in clustered Protein Data Bank and in eukaryotic and bacterial proteomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Yu Lobanov

    Full Text Available We have constructed the clustered Protein Data Bank and obtained clusters of chains of different identity inside each cluster, http://bioinfo.protres.ru/st_pdb/. We have compiled the largest database of disordered patterns (141 from the clustered PDB where identity between chains inside of a cluster is larger or equal to 75% (version of 28 June 2010 by using simple rules of selection. The results of these analyses would help to further our understanding of the physicochemical and structural determinants of intrinsically disordered regions that serve as molecular recognition elements. We have analyzed the occurrence of the selected patterns in 97 eukaryotic and in 26 bacterial proteomes. The disordered patterns appear more often in eukaryotic than in bacterial proteomes. The matrix of correlation coefficients between numbers of proteins where a disordered pattern from the library of 141 disordered patterns appears at least once in 9 kingdoms of eukaryota and 5 phyla of bacteria have been calculated. As a rule, the correlation coefficients are higher inside of the considered kingdom than between them. The patterns with the frequent occurrence in proteomes have low complexity (PPPPP, GGGGG, EEEED, HHHH, KKKKK, SSTSS, QQQQQP, and the type of patterns vary across different proteomes, http://bioinfo.protres.ru/fp/search_new_pattern.html.

  13. De novo generation of infectious prions with bacterially expressed recombinant prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Fei; Wang, Xinhe; Xu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Huaiyi; Yu, Guohua; Yuan, Chonggang; Ma, Jiyan

    2013-12-01

    The prion hypothesis is strongly supported by the fact that prion infectivity and the pathogenic conformer of prion protein (PrP) are simultaneously propagated in vitro by the serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). However, due to sPMCA's enormous amplification power, whether an infectious prion can be formed de novo with bacterially expressed recombinant PrP (rPrP) remains to be satisfactorily resolved. To address this question, we performed unseeded sPMCA with rPrP in a laboratory that has never been exposed to any native prions. Two types of proteinase K (PK)-resistant and self-perpetuating recombinant PrP conformers (rPrP-res) with PK-resistant cores of 17 or 14 kDa were generated. A bioassay revealed that rPrP-res(17kDa) was highly infectious, causing prion disease in wild-type mice with an average survival time of about 172 d. In contrast, rPrP-res(14kDa) completely failed to induce any disease. Our findings reveal that sPMCA is sufficient to initiate various self-perpetuating PK-resistant rPrP conformers, but not all of them possess in vivo infectivity. Moreover, generating an infectious prion in a prion-free environment establishes that an infectious prion can be formed de novo with bacterially expressed rPrP.

  14. Meals served in Danish nursing homes and to meals-on-wheels clients may not offer nutritionally adequate choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Hansen, Kirsten S.

    2010-01-01

    ), extra portions of different menus were made (3 days in a row). The meal samples (total n = 389) were analyzed for content of energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate. The findings were compared with recommendations regarding the foods to be served in Danish institutions. The nutrient content of the meals...... commonly served, including the standard menu (most commonly prepared), the energy and protein dense menu, and two types of texture modified menus (chopped and blended). Also, one portion of a homemade energy and protein dense drink was collected and analyzed. For each of the participating kitchens (N = 10......-on-wheels and nursing home meals, as well as that of the homemade energy and protein dense drink, varied considerably. The nursing home menus seldom or never fulfilled the recommendations. Our findings support the conclusion that meals served in Danish nursing homes and to meals-on-wheels clients do not consistently...

  15. Identification of the interactome between fish plasma proteins and Edwardsiella tarda reveals tissue-specific strategies against bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Huang, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Zaohai; Peng, Xuan-Xian; Peng, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Elucidating the complex pathogen-host interaction is essential for a comprehensive understanding of how these remarkable agents invade their hosts and how the hosts defend against these invaders. During the infection, pathogens interact intensively with host to enable their survival, which can be revealed through their interactome. Edwardsiella tarda is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen causing huge economic loss in aquaculture and a spectrum of intestinal and extraintestinal diseases in humans. E. tarda is an ideal model for host-pathogen investigation as it infects fish in three distinct steps: entering the host, circulating through the blood and establishing infection. We adopted a previous established proteomic approach that inactivated E. tarda cells and covalent crosslink fish plasma proteins were used to capture plasma proteins and bacterial outer membrane proteins, respectively. By the combinatorial use of proteomic and biochemical approaches, six plasma proteins and seven outer membrane proteins (OMPs) were identified. Interactions among these proteins were validated with protein-array, far-Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation. At last, seventeen plasma protein-bacteria protein-protein interaction were confirmed to be involved in the interaction network, forming a complex interactome. Compared to our previous results, different host proteins were detected, whereas some of the bacterial proteins were similar, which indicates that hosts adopt tissue-specific strategies to cope with the same pathogen during infection. Thus, our results provide a robust demonstration of both bacterial initiators and host receptors or interacting proteins to further explore infection and anti-infective mechanisms between hosts and microbes. PMID:27458055

  16. Bacterial-based systems for expression and purification of recombinant Lassa virus proteins of immunological relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cashman Kathleen A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a significant requirement for the development and acquisition of reagents that will facilitate effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Lassa fever. In this regard, recombinant Lassa virus (LASV proteins may serve as valuable tools in diverse antiviral applications. Bacterial-based systems were engineered for expression and purification of recombinant LASV nucleoprotein (NP, glycoprotein 1 (GP1, and glycoprotein 2 (GP2. Results Full-length NP and the ectodomains of GP1 and GP2 were generated as maltose-binding protein (MBP fusions in the Rosetta strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli using pMAL-c2x vectors. Average fusion protein yields per liter of culture for MBP-NP, MBP-GP1, and MBP-GP2 were 10 mg, 9 mg, and 9 mg, respectively. Each protein was captured from cell lysates using amylose resin, cleaved with Factor Xa, and purified using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC. Fermentation cultures resulted in average yields per liter of 1.6 mg, 1.5 mg, and 0.7 mg of purified NP, GP1 and GP2, respectively. LASV-specific antibodies in human convalescent sera specifically detected each of the purified recombinant LASV proteins, highlighting their utility in diagnostic applications. In addition, mouse hyperimmune ascitic fluids (MHAF against a panel of Old and New World arenaviruses demonstrated selective cross reactivity with LASV proteins in Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Conclusion These results demonstrate the potential for developing broadly reactive immunological assays that employ all three arenaviral proteins individually and in combination.

  17. Urokinase-targeted recombinant bacterial protein toxins-a rationally designed and engineered anticancer agent for cancer therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yizhen LIU; Shi-Yan LI

    2009-01-01

    Urokinase-targeted recombinant bacterial protein toxins are a sort of rationally designed and engineered anticancer recombinant fusion proteins representing a novel class of agents for cancer therapy.Bacterial protein toxins have long been known as the primary virulence factor(s) for a variety of pathogenic bacteria and are the most powerful human poisons.On the other hand,it has been well documented that urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR),making up the uPA system,are overexpressed in a variety of human tumors and tumor cell lines.The expression of uPA system is highly correlated with tumor invasion and metastasis.To exploit these characteristics in the design of tumor cell-selective cytotoxins,two prominent bacterial protein toxins,i.e.,the diphtheria toxin and anthrax toxin are deliberately engineered through placing a sequence targeted specifically by the uPA system to form anticancer recombinant fusion proteins.These uPA system-targeted bacterial protein toxins are activated selectively on the surface of uPA systemexpressing tumor cells,thereby killing these cells.This article provides a review on the latest progress in the exploitation of these recombinant fusion proteins as potent tumoricidal agents.It is perceptible that the strategies for cancer therapy are being innovated by this novel therapeutic approach.

  18. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lin; Ham, Jong Hyun; Hage, Rosemary; Zhao, Wanying; Soto-Hernández, Jaricelis; Lee, Sang Yeol; Paek, Seung-Mann; Kim, Min Gab; Boone, Charles; Coplin, David L; Mackey, David

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es) contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B' regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000), associates with specific PP2A B' subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B' subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B' subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B' subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family. PMID:27191168

  19. Direct and Indirect Targeting of PP2A by Conserved Bacterial Type-III Effector Proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial AvrE-family Type-III effector proteins (T3Es contribute significantly to the virulence of plant-pathogenic species of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Ralstonia, Erwinia, Dickeya and Pectobacterium, with hosts ranging from monocots to dicots. However, the mode of action of AvrE-family T3Es remains enigmatic, due in large part to their toxicity when expressed in plant or yeast cells. To search for targets of WtsE, an AvrE-family T3E from the maize pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, we employed a yeast-two-hybrid screen with non-lethal fragments of WtsE and a synthetic genetic array with full-length WtsE. Together these screens indicate that WtsE targets maize protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A heterotrimeric enzyme complexes via direct interaction with B' regulatory subunits. AvrE1, another AvrE-family T3E from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pto DC3000, associates with specific PP2A B' subunit proteins from its susceptible host Arabidopsis that are homologous to the maize B' subunits shown to interact with WtsE. Additionally, AvrE1 was observed to associate with the WtsE-interacting maize proteins, indicating that PP2A B' subunits are likely conserved targets of AvrE-family T3Es. Notably, the ability of AvrE1 to promote bacterial growth and/or suppress callose deposition was compromised in Arabidopsis plants with mutations of PP2A genes. Also, chemical inhibition of PP2A activity blocked the virulence activity of both WtsE and AvrE1 in planta. The function of HopM1, a Pto DC3000 T3E that is functionally redundant to AvrE1, was also impaired in specific PP2A mutant lines, although no direct interaction with B' subunits was observed. These results indicate that sub-component specific PP2A complexes are targeted by bacterial T3Es, including direct targeting by members of the widely conserved AvrE-family.

  20. Effects of a Protein Preload on Gastric Emptying, Glycemia, and Gut Hormones After a Carbohydrate Meal in Diet-Controlled Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jing; Stevens, Julie E.; Cukier, Kimberly; Maddox, Anne F.; Wishart, Judith M.; Jones, Karen L.; Clifton, Peter M.; Horowitz, Michael; Christopher K Rayner

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We evaluated whether a whey preload could slow gastric emptying, stimulate incretin hormones, and attenuate postprandial glycemia in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eight type 2 diabetic patients ingested 350 ml beef soup 30 min before a potato meal; 55 g whey was added to either the soup (whey preload) or potato (whey in meal) or no whey was given. RESULTS Gastric emptying was slowest after the whey preload (P < 0.0005). The incremental area under the blood glucose cur...

  1. Impact of second line limiting amino acids’ deficiency in broilers fed low protein diets with rapeseed meal and de-oiled rice bran

    OpenAIRE

    C. Basavanta Kumar; Gloridoss, R. G.; K. Chandrapal Singh; T. M. Prabhu; Siddaramanna,; B. N. Suresh; Manegar, G. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the impact of deficiency of second line limiting amino acids (SLAA; valine, isoleucine and tryptophan) on the production performance and carcass characteristics of commercial broilers. Materials and Methods: A control (T1) corn-soy diet was formulated to contain all essential AA on standardized ileal digestible basis; While in T2-a ‘moderate SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated by replacement of soybean meal with 6% rapeseed meal and T3-a ‘high SLAA deficit’ diet was formulated ...

  2. Crystal structure of the Campylobacter jejuni Cj0090 protein reveals a novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold among bacterial lipoproteins

    OpenAIRE

    Paek, Seonghee; Kawai, Fumihiro; Choi, Kyoung-Jae; Yeo, Hye-Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins play an important role in bacterial pathogenesis and physiology. The genome of Campylobacter jejuni, a major foodborn pathogen, is predicted to contain over 20 lipoproteins. However, the functions of the majority of C. jejuni lipoproteins remain unknown. The Cj0090 protein is encoded by a lipoprotein operon composed of cj0089, cj0090, and cj0091. Here, we report the crystal structure of Cj0090 at 1.9 Å resolution, revealing a novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold wit...

  3. Substituição parcial e total da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína dos farelos de canola e algodão em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 Partial and total replacement of soybean meal protein by canola or cottonseed meal protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, 1988 fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina Esper Amaro de Faria

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC e farelo de algodão (FA, em dietas para alevinos de piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae, realizou-se um experimento com duração de 60 dias, utilizando-se 300 alevinos, com peso inicial médio de 0,10 g distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. As dietas isoprotéicas foram formuladas de forma a terem o FS, FC, FA, FS+FC, FS+FA e FC+FA como fonte protéica. Os alevinos, alimentados com dietas contendo FS e FS+FA, apresentaram valores de peso final e taxa de eficiência protéica superiores (p 0,05 pelo uso das diferentes dietas. Observou-se redução linear dos valores de peso final, da taxa de eficiência protéica e aumento linear (p The effects of soybean meal (SB protein replacement by canola meal (CN or cottonseed meal (CT protein in diets of Leporinus macrocephalus (Characiformes, Anostomidae fingerlings are provided. Assay was carried out during 60 days. Three hundred fingerlings with mean initial weight of 1.00g were distributed in a block randomized design with six treatments and five replicates. Isoprotein diets contained SB, CN, CT, SB+CN, SB+CT and CN+CT as protein source. Fingerlings fed on diets with SB, SB+CN, SB+CT showed better final mean weight and protein efficiency rate values (p 0.05 by different diets linear reduction (p macrocephalus fingerlings, replacing 50.00% of SB protein.

  4. A functional interaction between ribosomal proteins S7 and S11 within the bacterial ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Francis; Brakier-Gingras, Léa

    2003-11-01

    In this study, we used site-directed mutagenesis to disrupt an interaction that had been detected between ribosomal proteins S7 and S11 in the crystal structure of the bacterial 30 S subunit. This interaction, which is located in the E site, connects the head of the 30 S subunit to the platform and is involved in the formation of the exit channel through which passes the 30 S-bound messenger RNA. Neither mutations in S7 nor mutations in S11 prevented the incorporation of the proteins into the 30 S subunits but they perturbed the function of the ribosome. In vivo assays showed that ribosomes with either mutated S7 or S11 were altered in the control of translational fidelity, having an increased capacity for frameshifting, readthrough of a nonsense codon and codon misreading. Toeprinting and filter-binding assays showed that 30 S subunits with either mutated S7 or S11 have an enhanced capacity to bind mRNA. The effects of the S7 and S11 mutations can be related to an increased flexibility of the head of the 30 S, to an opening of the mRNA exit channel and to a perturbation of the proposed allosteric coupling between the A and E sites. Altogether, our results demonstrate that S7 and S11 interact in a functional manner and support the notion that protein-protein interactions contribute to the dynamics of the ribosome.

  5. Avaliação do desempenho de coelhas alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição parcial ou total ao farelo de soja Evaluation of the performance of female rabbits fed on canola meal in partial and total substitution of crude protein by soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of partial and total substitution of soybean meal crude protein (SBM by canola meal (CM on live weight (LW, daily weight gain (DWG, daily feed intake (DFI and feed conversion (FC in female rabbits are provided. Rabbits were evaluated from weaning period (43 days of age to adult life when they are capable of reproduction (150 days of age. Forty-eight White New Zealand females were used and distributed in four treatments. SBM was substituted at 00%, 33%, 66% and 100% levels by CM. The partial or total substitution of SBM by CM did not change (P > 0.05 the LW after 70 days old. Dunnett’s test showed that, independently of substitution level, FC of animals fed on meal with 33% SBM substitution by CM from age 43 to 90 days and 43 to 150 days was worse than that of animals fed on reference meal. LW120, DWG of 43 – 120-day-old animals receiving 33% SBM substitution by CM and LW150 and DWG of 43 – 150-day-old animals receiving meal with SBM substitution by 33% and 66% of CM were lower than those for animals that received reference meal. Excluding the reference meal, SBM substitution by CM during the periods in which animals were 43 - 120 days old and 43 - 150 days old caused an increase of DFI. Independently of level of inclusion as a substitute for SBM, results show that CM worsened the animals’ performance.Objetivando-se avaliar os efeitos da substiuição parcial e total do farelo de soja pelo farelo de canola sobre o peso, ganho médio diário (GMD, ingestão de alimentos (IA e conversão alimentar (CA em coelhas do desmame (43 dias até a idade de reprodução (150 dias, quarente e oito coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia, foram distribuídas, inteiramente ao acaso, em um experimento com quatro tratamentos e doze repetições. O farelo de soja foi substituído em 00, 33, 66 e 100% pelo farelo de canola. A substituição parcial ou total do farelo de soja não alterarou o peso após os 70 dias de idade. Por meio do uso do teste de

  6. Re-evaluation of a bacterial antifreeze protein as an adhesin with ice-binding activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaiqi Guo

    Full Text Available A novel role for antifreeze proteins (AFPs may reside in an exceptionally large 1.5-MDa adhesin isolated from an Antarctic Gram-negative bacterium, Marinomonas primoryensis. MpAFP was purified from bacterial lysates by ice adsorption and gel electrophoresis. We have previously reported that two highly repetitive sequences, region II (RII and region IV (RIV, divide MpAFP into five distinct regions, all of which require mM Ca(2+ levels for correct folding. Also, the antifreeze activity is confined to the 322-residue RIV, which forms a Ca(2+-bound beta-helix containing thirteen Repeats-In-Toxin (RTX-like repeats. RII accounts for approximately 90% of the mass of MpAFP and is made up of ∼120 tandem 104-residue repeats. Because these repeats are identical in DNA sequence, their number was estimated here by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Structural homology analysis by the Protein Homology/analogY Recognition Engine (Phyre2 server indicates that the 104-residue RII repeat adopts an immunoglobulin beta-sandwich fold that is typical of many secreted adhesion proteins. Additional RTX-like repeats in RV may serve as a non-cleavable signal sequence for the type I secretion pathway. Immunodetection shows both repeated regions are uniformly distributed over the cell surface. We suggest that the development of an AFP-like domain within this adhesin attached to the bacterial outer surface serves to transiently bind the host bacteria to ice. This association would keep the bacteria within the upper reaches of the water column where oxygen and nutrients are potentially more abundant. This novel envirotactic role would give AFPs a third function, after freeze avoidance and freeze tolerance: that of transiently binding an organism to ice.

  7. Stealth Proteins: In Silico Identification of a Novel Protein Family Rendering Bacterial Pathogens Invisible to Host Immune Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available There are a variety of bacterial defense strategies to survive in a hostile environment. Generation of extracellular polysaccharides has proved to be a simple but effective strategy against the host's innate immune system. A comparative genomics approach led us to identify a new protein family termed Stealth, most likely involved in the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides. This protein family is characterized by a series of domains conserved across phylogeny from bacteria to eukaryotes. In bacteria, Stealth (previously characterized as SacB, XcbA, or WefC is encoded by subsets of strains mainly colonizing multicellular organisms, with evidence for a protective effect against the host innate immune defense. More specifically, integrating all the available information about Stealth proteins in bacteria, we propose that Stealth is a D-hexose-1-phosphoryl transferase involved in the synthesis of polysaccharides. In the animal kingdom, Stealth is strongly conserved across evolution from social amoebas to simple and complex multicellular organisms, such as Dictyostelium discoideum, hydra, and human. Based on the occurrence of Stealth in most Eukaryotes and a subset of Prokaryotes together with its potential role in extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, we propose that metazoan Stealth functions to regulate the innate immune system. Moreover, there is good reason to speculate that the acquisition and spread of Stealth could be responsible for future epidemic outbreaks of infectious diseases caused by a large variety of eubacterial pathogens. Our in silico identification of a homologous protein in the human host will help to elucidate the causes of Stealth-dependent virulence. At a more basic level, the characterization of the molecular and cellular function of Stealth proteins may shed light on fundamental mechanisms of innate immune defense against microbial invasion.

  8. Stealth proteins: in silico identification of a novel protein family rendering bacterial pathogens invisible to host immune defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sperisen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available There are a variety of bacterial defense strategies to survive in a hostile environment. Generation of extracellular polysaccharides has proved to be a simple but effective strategy against the host's innate immune system. A comparative genomics approach led us to identify a new protein family termed Stealth, most likely involved in the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides. This protein family is characterized by a series of domains conserved across phylogeny from bacteria to eukaryotes. In bacteria, Stealth (previously characterized as SacB, XcbA, or WefC is encoded by subsets of strains mainly colonizing multicellular organisms, with evidence for a protective effect against the host innate immune defense. More specifically, integrating all the available information about Stealth proteins in bacteria, we propose that Stealth is a D-hexose-1-phosphoryl transferase involved in the synthesis of polysaccharides. In the animal kingdom, Stealth is strongly conserved across evolution from social amoebas to simple and complex multicellular organisms, such as Dictyostelium discoideum, hydra, and human. Based on the occurrence of Stealth in most Eukaryotes and a subset of Prokaryotes together with its potential role in extracellular polysaccharide synthesis, we propose that metazoan Stealth functions to regulate the innate immune system. Moreover, there is good reason to speculate that the acquisition and spread of Stealth could be responsible for future epidemic outbreaks of infectious diseases caused by a large variety of eubacterial pathogens. Our in silico identification of a homologous protein in the human host will help to elucidate the causes of Stealth-dependent virulence. At a more basic level, the characterization of the molecular and cellular function of Stealth proteins may shed light on fundamental mechanisms of innate immune defense against microbial invasion.

  9. Molecular Characterization of Soybean Mosaic Virus NIa Protein and its Processing Event in Bacterial Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong K. Choi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean mosaic virus (SMV-CN18 is an Rsv resistance-breaking (RB isolate to overcome soybean resistance genes Rsv1, Rsv3 and Rsv4. The aim of this study was to characterize nuclear inclusion protein a (NIa protein of RB isolate at the molecular level and demonstrate its processing into genome-linked protein (VPg and NIa-Pro domains in Esherichia coli containing a bacterial expression pET vector inserted with NIa gene. The full-length of NIa gene was synthesized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and its 1298 nucleotides (nt and 432 amino acids (aa were deduced. The nt and aa sequences of NIa gene of SMV-CN18 shared high identities with the corresponding sequences of the NIa gene of the known SMV isolates, suggesting that the NIa is a highly conserved protein. The NIa-Pro domain contains a highly conserved structural motif for proteolysis, while the VPg domain contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS, a putative NTP-binding site and cellular factor-binding sites. The phylogenetic tree revealed that less divergence of NIa protein exists among twelve SMV isolates, which can be supported by a low bootstrap value between clades. In addition, the full-length of NIa gene, amplified by RT-PCR, was ligated into pET-28b E. coli expression vector with an N-terminal His6-tag. Optimal conditions for expression were at 1mM treatment of IPTG at 25°C for 5 hr. The released protein from bacterial lysates remained soluble and proved the processing form of the NIa polyprotein. E. coli expression system shows the processed product of 29 kDa VPg in SDS-PAGE confirmed by western blot analysis in both crude extracts and purified elution products, using Ni2+-NTA resin. The present study indicates that the N-terminal region of NIa which is processed and expressed in bacteria.

  10. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  11. Making novel bio-interfaces through bacterial protein recrystallization on biocompatible polylactide derivative films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejardi, Ainhoa; López, Aitziber Eleta; Sarasua, José R; Sleytr, U B; Toca-Herrera, José L

    2013-09-28

    Fabrication of novel bio-supramolecular structures was achieved by recrystallizing the bacterial surface protein SbpA on amorphous and semicrystalline polylactide derivatives. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the glass transition temperature (T(g)) for (poly-L-lactide)-PLLA, poly(L,D-lactide)-PDLLA, poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-PLGA and poly(lactide-co-caprolactone)-PLCL was 63 °C, 53 °C, 49 °C and 15 °C, respectively. Tensile stress-strain tests indicated that PLLA, PLGA, and PDLLA had a glassy behaviour when tested below T(g). The obtained Young modulus were 1477 MPa, 1330 MPa, 1306 MPa, and 9.55 MPa for PLLA, PLGA, PDLLA, and PLCL, respectively. Atomic force microscopy results confirmed that SbpA recrystallized on every polymer substrate exhibiting the native S-layer P4 lattice (a = b = 13 nm, γ = 90°). However, the polymer substrate influenced the domain size of the S-protein crystal, with the smallest size for PLLA (0.011 μm(2)), followed by PDLLA (0.034 μm(2)), and PLGA (0.039 μm(2)), and the largest size for PLCL (0.09 μm(2)). quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) measurements indicated that the adsorbed protein mass per unit area (~1800 ng cm(-2)) was independent of the mechanical, thermal, and crystalline properties of the polymer support. The slowest protein adsorption rate was observed for amorphous PLCL (the polymer with the weakest mechanical properties and lowest T(g)). QCM-D also monitored protein self-assembly in solution and confirmed that S-layer formation takes place in three main steps: adsorption, self-assembly, and crystal reorganization. Finally, this work shows that biodegradable polylactide derivatives films are a suitable support to form robust biomimetic S-protein layers.

  12. Effect of pH, salt and chemical rinses on bacterial attachment to extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfakar, Siti Shahara; White, Jason D; Ross, Tom; Tamplin, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Microbial contamination of carcass surfaces occurs during slaughter and post-slaughter processing steps, therefore interventions are needed to enhance meat safety and quality. Although many studies have been done at the macro-level, little is known about specific processes that influence bacterial attachment to carcass surfaces, particularly the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. In the present study, the effect of pH and salt (NaCl, KCl and CaCl2) on attachment of Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates to dominant ECM proteins: collagen I, fibronectin, collagen IV and laminin were assessed. Also, the effects of three chemical rinses commonly used in abattoirs (2% acetic acid, 2% lactic acid and 10% trisodium phosphate (TSP)) were tested. Within a pH range of 5-9, there was no significant effect on attachment to ECM proteins, whereas the effect of salt type and concentration varied depending on combination of strain and ECM protein. A concentration-dependant effect was observed with NaCl and KCl (0.1-0.85%) on attachment of E. coli M23Sr, but only to collagen I. One-tenth percent CaCl2 produced the highest level of attachment to ECM proteins for E. coli M23Sr and EC614. In contrast, higher concentrations of CaCl2 increased attachment of E. coli EC473 to collagen IV. Rinses containing TSP produced >95% reduction in attachment to all ECM proteins. These observations will assist in the design of targeted interventions to prevent or disrupt contamination of meat surfaces, thus improving meat safety and quality.

  13. LocateP: Genome-scale subcellular-location predictor for bacterial proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Miaomiao

    2008-03-01

    current tools especially where the N-terminally anchored and the SPIase-cleaved secreted proteins are concerned. Overall, the accuracy of LocateP was always higher than 90%. LocateP was then used to predict the SCLs of all proteins encoded by completed Gram-positive bacterial genomes. The results are stored in the database LocateP-DB http://www.cmbi.ru.nl/locatep-db1. Conclusion LocateP is by far the most accurate and detailed protein SCL predictor for Gram-positive bacteria currently available.

  14. Effect of the ultrasonic and microwave on extraction of peanut protein from peanut meal%超声波和微波对花生粕水溶蛋白浸出率影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 杨光; 秦娴

    2012-01-01

    以花生粕为原料,用超声波微波协同法对花生粕进行处理,以花生粕水溶蛋白浸出率为指标.结果表明,超声波水溶蛋白最佳浸出条件为600W,40 kHz,9 min,再进行微波提取水溶蛋白,最佳浸出条件为:300 W,90s.在此条件下,花生粕水溶蛋白的浸出率为27.2%,蛋白质含量为88.6%.该方法提取的蛋白质的可利用性增大,对今后运用于食品及其他领域有重要意义.%Peanut meal were processed with ultrasound and ultrasonic microwave synergy as a raw material. Water-soluble protein of the peanut meal extraction rate indicators. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were as follows:ultrasound at 600 W,40 kHz,9 min,microwave at 300 W, 90 s. At this condition extracting peanut protein was 27.2% and protein content was 88.6%. The protein showed good functional properties and could be applied widely.

  15. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in alfalfa meal, sugar beet pulp, and wheat bran compared to wheat and protein ingredients for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, M; Rademacher, M; Sauer, W C; Blank, R; Mosenthin, R

    2014-03-01

    A total of 11 (8 + 3 for replacement) barrows with an initial BW of 23 kg and fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum were used in 2 consecutive experiments (Exp. 1 and Exp. 2) to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in 7 assay feed ingredients according to 2 consecutive duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square designs. In Exp. 1, 3 corn starch-based assay diets were formulated to contain 170 g CP/kg (as-fed basis) from either soybean meal (SBM), canola meal (CM), or meat-and-bone meal (MBM) and 1 assay diet that contained 136 g CP/kg (as-fed basis) from wheat as commonly used feed ingredients for pigs. In Exp. 2, the pigs were fed 4 assay diets formulated to contain 170 g CP/kg (as-fed basis) from either the same SBM as in Exp. 1 or a combination of this SBM and alfalfa meal (AM), sugar beet pulp (SB), or wheat bran (WB) to compare the SID of AA in these feed ingredients with those used in Exp. 1. The SID of AA in CM was lower compared to SBM (P feed ingredients, SID values were lower in SB compared to WB (P formulation when these feed ingredients are used in diet formulation for pigs.

  16. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayegba, E. O

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is concluded that Moringa oleifera leaf meal can replace soybeans meal up to 10% without affecting the growth performance of African catfish.

  17. Malaria Vaccine Development: Are Bacterial Flagellin Fusion Proteins the Bridge between Mouse and Humans?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y. Bargieri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past 25 years, the development of an effective malaria vaccine has become one of the biggest riddles in the biomedical sciences. Experimental data using animal infection models demonstrated that it is possible to induce protective immunity against different stages of malaria parasites. Nonetheless, the vast body of knowledge has generated disappointments when submitted to clinical conditions and presently a single antigen formulation has progressed to the point where it may be translated into a human vaccine. In parallel, new means to increase the protective effects of antigens in general have been pursued and depicted, such as the use of bacterial flagellins as carriers/adjuvants. Flagellins activate pathways in the innate immune system of both mice and humans. The recent report of the first Phase I clinical trial of a vaccine containing a Salmonella flagellin as carrier/adjuvant may fuel the use of these proteins in vaccine formulations. Herein, we review the studies on the use of recombinant flagellins as vaccine adjuvants with malarial antigens in the light of the current state of the art of malaria vaccine development. The available information indicates that bacterial flagellins should be seriously considered for malaria vaccine formulations to the development of effective human vaccines.

  18. Cross-phosphorylation of bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases on key regulatory residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei eShi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria possess protein serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases which resemble eukaryal kinases in their capacity to phosphorylate multiple substrates. We hypothesized that the analogy might extend further, and bacterial kinases may also undergo mutual phosphorylation and activation, which is currently considered as a hallmark of eukaryal kinase networks. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the capacity of all members of four different classes of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases present in the firmicute model organism Bacillus subtilis to phosphorylate each other in vitro and interact with each other in vivo. The interactomics data suggested a high degree of connectivity among all types of kinases, while phosphorylation assays revealed equally wide-spread cross-phosphorylation events. Our findings suggest that the Hanks-type kinases PrkC, PrkD and YabT exhibit the highest capacity to phosphorylate other B. subtilis kinases, while the BY-kinase PtkA and the two-component-like kinases RsbW and SpoIIAB show the highest propensity to be phosphorylated by other kinases. Analysis of phosphorylated residues on several selected recipient kinases suggests that most cross-phosphorylation events concern key regulatory residues. Therefore, cross-phosphorylation events are very likely to influence the capacity of recipient kinases to phosphorylate substrates downstream in the signal transduction cascade. We therefore conclude that bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases probably engage in a network-type behavior previously described only in eukaryal cells.

  19. Antiadhesive Properties of Arabinogalactan Protein from Ribes nigrum Seeds against Bacterial Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Messing

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruit extracts from black currants (Ribes nigrum L. are traditionally used for treatment of gastritis based on seed polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach cells. For detailed investigations an arabinogalactan protein (F2 was isolated from seeds and characterized concerning molecular weight, carbohydrate, amino acid composition, linkage, configuration and reaction with β-glucosyl Yariv. Functional testing of F2 was performed by semiquantitative in situ adhesion assay on sections of human gastric mucosa and by quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori strain J99 and human stomach AGS cells. Bacterial adhesins affected were identified by overlay assay with immobilized ligands. 125I-radiolabeled F2 served for binding studies to H. pylori and interaction experiments with BabA and SabA. F2 had no cytotoxic effects against H. pylori and AGS cells; but inhibited bacterial binding to human gastric cells. F2 inhibited the binding of BabA and fibronectin-binding adhesin to its specific ligands. Radiolabeled F2 bound non-specifically to different strains of H. pylori; and to BabA deficient mutant. F2 did not lead to subsequent feedback regulation or increased expression of adhesins or virulence factors. From these data the non-specific interactions between F2 and the H. pylori lead to moderate antiadhesive effects.

  20. Antiadhesive properties of arabinogalactan protein from ribes nigrum seeds against bacterial adhesion of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messing, Jutta; Niehues, Michael; Shevtsova, Anna; Borén, Thomas; Hensel, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Fruit extracts from black currants (Ribes nigrum L.) are traditionally used for treatment of gastritis based on seed polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach cells. For detailed investigations an arabinogalactan protein (F2) was isolated from seeds and characterized concerning molecular weight, carbohydrate, amino acid composition, linkage, configuration and reaction with β-glucosyl Yariv. Functional testing of F2 was performed by semiquantitative in situ adhesion assay on sections of human gastric mucosa and by quantitative in vitro adhesion assay with FITC-labled H. pylori strain J99 and human stomach AGS cells. Bacterial adhesins affected were identified by overlay assay with immobilized ligands. ¹²⁵I-radiolabeled F2 served for binding studies to H. pylori and interaction experiments with BabA and SabA. F2 had no cytotoxic effects against H. pylori and AGS cells; but inhibited bacterial binding to human gastric cells. F2 inhibited the binding of BabA and fibronectin-binding adhesin to its specific ligands. Radiolabeled F2 bound non-specifically to different strains of H. pylori; and to BabA deficient mutant. F2 did not lead to subsequent feedback regulation or increased expression of adhesins or virulence factors. From these data the non-specific interactions between F2 and the H. pylori lead to moderate antiadhesive effects. PMID:24662083

  1. Communication: Microsecond dynamics of the protein and water affect electron transfer in a bacterial bc{sub 1} complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V., E-mail: dmitrym@asu.edu [Department of Physics and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871504, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Cross-membrane electron transport between cofactors localized in proteins of mitochondrial respiration and bacterial photosynthesis is the source of all biological energy. The statistics and dynamics of nuclear fluctuations in these protein/membrane/water heterogeneous systems are critical for their energetic efficiency. The results of 13 μs of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the membrane-bound bc{sub 1} bacterial complex are analyzed here. The reaction is affected by a broad spectrum of nuclear modes, with the slowest dynamics in the range of time-scales ∼0.1-1.6 μs contributing half of the reaction reorganization energy. Two reorganization energies are required to describe protein electron transfer due to dynamical arrest of protein conformations on the observation window. This mechanistic distinction allows significant lowering of activation barriers for reactions in proteins.

  2. Use of Copra Meal in Poultry and Ruminant Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Tugay Ayasan

    2016-01-01

    Copra meal (CM) is an important feed ingredient and the by-product of the oil extraction from dried coconut kernels. This product, although copra meal has a moderate protein content (15-25%); because of a high cellulose content (11.63-16.00%) and some limiting amino acids (particularly lysine and methionine), limits its use as a basic source of protein in poultry due to insufficient. Copra meals are more suitable common supplements as both an energy and protein source for ruminants. In this...

  3. Acute phase proteins in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in the course of bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradowski, M; Lobos, M; Kuydowicz, J; Krakowiak, M; Kubasiewicz-Ujma, B

    1995-08-01

    We carried out estimations of the following acute phase proteins: C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), alpha-2-ceruloplasmin (CER), and alpha-2-haptoglobin (HPT) in serum and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with bacterial meningitis (BM, n = 30) and viral meningitis (VM, n = 30). We have shown that determinations of concentrations of AAG and CRP in serum and CER in CSF are useful in differentiation between BM and VM. The diagnostic power of these three tests (the areas under their ROC curves equal 0.942, 0.929, and 0.931, respectively) is bigger, though statistically not significantly, than that of traditional parameters of BM in CSF, i.e., total protein concentration and white blood cell count. Determination of AAG, CRP, and AAT in serum is a valuable monitoring marker in the course of BM treatment. Convenience of serum sampling constitutes an advantage over traditional BM parameters in CSF. PMID:8521602

  4. Symmetry and scale orient Min protein patterns in shaped bacterial sculptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fabai; van Schie, Bas G. C.; Keymer, Juan E.; Dekker, Cees

    2015-08-01

    The boundary of a cell defines the shape and scale of its subcellular organization. However, the effects of the cell's spatial boundaries as well as the geometry sensing and scale adaptation of intracellular molecular networks remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that living bacterial cells can be ‘sculpted’ into defined shapes, such as squares and rectangles, which are used to explore the spatial adaptation of Min proteins that oscillate pole-to-pole in rod-shaped Escherichia coli to assist cell division. In a wide geometric parameter space, ranging from 2 × 1 × 1 to 11 × 6 × 1 μm3, Min proteins exhibit versatile oscillation patterns, sustaining rotational, longitudinal, diagonal, stripe and even transversal modes. These patterns are found to directly capture the symmetry and scale of the cell boundary, and the Min concentration gradients scale with the cell size within a characteristic length range of 3-6 μm. Numerical simulations reveal that local microscopic Turing kinetics of Min proteins can yield global symmetry selection, gradient scaling and an adaptive range, when and only when facilitated by the three-dimensional confinement of the cell boundary. These findings cannot be explained by previous geometry-sensing models based on the longest distance, membrane area or curvature, and reveal that spatial boundaries can facilitate simple molecular interactions to result in far more versatile functions than previously understood.

  5. EXPRESSION OF BACTERIAL PROTEIN-A IN TOBACCO LEADS TO ENHANCED RESISTANCE TO STRESS CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Roy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco is the most commonly used plant for expression of transgenes from a variety of organisms because it can be easily grown and transformed, it provides abundant amounts of fresh tissue and has a well-established cell culture system. As bacterial enzymes can be synthesized in tobacco, here we explore the possibility of in planta expression of staphylococcal protein-A(PA which is an antibody, an important group among biopharmaceuticals. In our study we have shown that the tobacco plants harboring PA gene could combat the crown gall infection and also effective in resisting abiotic stress conditions. Transgenic plants when subjected to interact with wild variety of Agrobacterium shows its enhanced capability to resist the gall formation. And when transgenic tobacco plants were grown in presence of 200mM NaCl and/or MG(Methylglyoxal solution, shows their increased tolerance towards salinity stress and high MG stress. So far transgenic tobacco plants are concerned, improvements in the expression of recombinant proteins and their recovery from tobacco may also enhance production and commercial use of this protein.

  6. Temporal expression of bacterial proteins instructs host CD4 T cell expansion and Th17 development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Joo Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens can substantially alter gene expression within an infected host depending on metabolic or virulence requirements in different tissues, however, the effect of these alterations on host immunity are unclear. Here we visualized multiple CD4 T cell responses to temporally expressed proteins in Salmonella-infected mice. Flagellin-specific CD4 T cells expanded and contracted early, differentiated into Th1 and Th17 lineages, and were enriched in mucosal tissues after oral infection. In contrast, CD4 T cells responding to Salmonella Type-III Secretion System (TTSS effectors steadily accumulated until bacterial clearance was achieved, primarily differentiated into Th1 cells, and were predominantly detected in systemic tissues. Thus, pathogen regulation of antigen expression plays a major role in orchestrating the expansion, differentiation, and location of antigen-specific CD4 T cells in vivo.

  7. Reduction of total glucosinolates in canola meal via thermal treatment and fungal bioprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    On a worldwide basis, canola (Brassica napus) meal is second only to soybean meal as a protein source for livestock. A general limitation of Brassica spp. meals is the presence of glucosinolates (GLS). GLS and the enzyme myrosinase are compartmentally stored separately in the plant. Upon disruption ...

  8. Evaluation of millet residue meal based diets as feed for the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Karikari,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the nutritive value of millet residue meal with fish meal, soybean meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2 as protein source. The treatments were labelled according to protein source as fish meal diet, soybean meal diet and fish-soybean meal diet. Thirty nulliparous mixed-breed rabbits of an initial mean (±SD body weight of 1852.6±122.7 g were used in a completely randomised design with 10 rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were allowed four weeks to adjust to the experimental diets before breeding was initiated. The feed intake during gestation and the reproductive data of the rabbits were assessed over two reproductive cycles. Does on the fish meal diet had poorer (P<0.05 DMI, daily growth rate and FCR than those on the soybean meal diet during the pre-breeding period. Does on the fish meal diet delivered less (P<0.05 number of kits at birth and weaned less kits compared to those on the soybean meal diet. Those on the soybean meal diet were heaviest (P<0.05 at mating and at kindling. They out-performed does on the fish meal diet in most of the parameters measured. Parity did not affect reproductive performance, but growth rate of the does had a positive linear relationship with DMI (r= 0.77; P<0.01 and a negative linear relationship with FCR (r= -0.83; P<0.01 during the pre-breeding period. It was concluded that millet residue meal may be a better feed source for rabbit does if soybean meal rather than fish meal or fish-soybean meal combination (1:2 is used to improve the protein content.

  9. Studies of fish meal in aquafeeds%鱼粉在水产饲料中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勇; 解绶启; 刘建康

    2004-01-01

    As a main protein source in aquafeeds, fish meal has been extensively studied. Fish sources, freshness, processing temperature, lipid quality and microbiological index are five main aspects of the evaluation of fish meal quality. This paper reviewed the researches on fish meal including the evaluation of fish meal quality, the use of fishmeal and the environmental problems. Biogenic amine is the main potential toxin in decomposed fish meal including mainly histamine, cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine and most studies showed that they could affect the fish growth performance and health. The determination of protein digestibility of fish meal includes pepsin-digestion method, animal test, capillary electrophoresis, etc. The content of phosphorus in fish meal and its utilization can introduce pollution to water bodies and the use of alternative protein and improvement of utilization of fish meal can help to reduce the pollution from fish meal.

  10. Engineered Bacterial Metal-binding Proteins for Nanoscale Self-assembly and heavy Metal Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall Sedlak, Ruth Amanda

    Implementing biological principles in material synthesis and assembly is one way to expand our abilities to efficiently assemble nanoscale materials and devices. Specifically, recent advances in identifying peptides that bind inorganic materials with high affinity and specificity has spurred investigation of protein models for nanoscale inorganic assembly. This dissertation presents the results of my studies of several E. coli proteins engineered to bind inorganic materials through simple peptide motifs. I demonstrate that these proteins modulate the self-assembly of DNA-based nanostructures and can introduce heavy metal tolerance into metal-sensitive bacteria. Chapter 2 explores use of the engineered F plasmid DNA relaxase/helicase TraI for the self-assembly of complex DNA-protein-gold nanostructures. The full-length protein is engineered with a gold binding motif at an internal permissive site (TraI369GBP1-7x), while a truncated version of TraI is engineered with the same gold binding motif at the C-terminus (TraI361GBP1-7x). Both constructs bind gold nanoparticles while maintaining their DNA binding activity, and transmission electron microscopy reveals TraI369GBP1-7x utilizes its non-specific DNA binding activity to decorate single-stranded and double-stranded DNA with gold nanoparticles. The self assembly principles demonstrated in this work will be fundamental to constructing higher ordered hybrid nanostructures through DNA-protein-nanoparticle interactions. Chapter 3 studies the effects of expressing inorganic binding peptides within cells. I identified a silver binding peptide that, when fused to the periplasmic maltose binding protein, protects E. coli from silver toxicity in batch culture and reduces silver ions to silver nanoparticles within the bacterial periplasm. Engineered metal-ion tolerant microorganisms such as this E. coli could potentially be used in applications ranging from remediation to interrogation of biomolecule-metal interactions in vivo

  11. Surface-modified nanoparticles as a new, versatile, and mechanically robust nonadhesive coating: Suppression of protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, P.F.; Currie, E.P.K.; Thies, J.C.; Mei, van der H.C.; Busscher, H.J.; Norde, W.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of surface-modified silica nanoparticles, chemically grafted with acrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) groups, and the ability of the resulting crosslinked coatings to inhibit protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion are explored. Water contact angles, nanoindentation, and atomic

  12. Surface-modified nanoparticles as a new, versatile, and mechanically robust nonadhesive coating : Suppression of protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmes, P. F.; Currie, E. P. K.; Thies, J. C.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Norde, W.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of surface-modified silica nanoparticles, chemically grafted with acrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) groups, and the ability of the resulting crosslinked coatings to inhibit protein adsorption and bacterial adhesion are explored. Water contact angles, nanoindentation, and atomic

  13. Bacterial pathogen gene regulation: a DNA-structure-centred view of a protein-dominated domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Charles J; Colgan, Aoife; Dorman, Matthew J

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms used by bacterial pathogens to regulate the expression of their genes, especially their virulence genes, have been the subject of intense investigation for several decades. Whole genome sequencing projects, together with more targeted studies, have identified hundreds of DNA-binding proteins that contribute to the patterns of gene expression observed during infection as well as providing important insights into the nature of the gene products whose expression is being controlled by these proteins. Themes that have emerged include the importance of horizontal gene transfer to the evolution of pathogens, the need to impose regulatory discipline upon these imported genes and the important roles played by factors normally associated with the organization of genome architecture as regulatory principles in the control of virulence gene expression. Among these architectural elements is the structure of DNA itself, its variable nature at a topological rather than just at a base-sequence level and its ability to play an active (as well as a passive) part in the gene regulation process. PMID:27252403

  14. Optimization of Mutation Pressure in Relation to Properties of Protein-Coding Sequences in Bacterial Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Błażej

    Full Text Available Most mutations are deleterious and require energetically costly repairs. Therefore, it seems that any minimization of mutation rate is beneficial. On the other hand, mutations generate genetic diversity indispensable for evolution and adaptation of organisms to changing environmental conditions. Thus, it is expected that a spontaneous mutational pressure should be an optimal compromise between these two extremes. In order to study the optimization of the pressure, we compared mutational transition probability matrices from bacterial genomes with artificial matrices fulfilling the same general features as the real ones, e.g., the stationary distribution and the speed of convergence to the stationarity. The artificial matrices were optimized on real protein-coding sequences based on Evolutionary Strategies approach to minimize or maximize the probability of non-synonymous substitutions and costs of amino acid replacements depending on their physicochemical properties. The results show that the empirical matrices have a tendency to minimize the effects of mutations rather than maximize their costs on the amino acid level. They were also similar to the optimized artificial matrices in the nucleotide substitution pattern, especially the high transitions/transversions ratio. We observed no substantial differences between the effects of mutational matrices on protein-coding sequences in genomes under study in respect of differently replicated DNA strands, mutational cost types and properties of the referenced artificial matrices. The findings indicate that the empirical mutational matrices are rather adapted to minimize mutational costs in the studied organisms in comparison to other matrices with similar mathematical constraints.

  15. Third order nonlinear optical properties of stacked bacteriochlorophylls in bacterial photosynthetic light-harvesting proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.X.; Laible, P.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemistry Div.; Spano, F.C.; Manas, E.S. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-09-01

    Enhancement of the nonresonant second order molecular hyperpolarizabilities {gamma} were observed in stacked macrocyclic molecular systems, previously in a {micro}-oxo silicon phthalocyanine (SiPcO) monomer, dimer and trimer series, and now in bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla) arrays of light harvesting (LH) proteins. Compared to monomeric BChla in a tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution, the <{gamma}> for each macrocycle was enhanced in naturally occurring stacked macrocyclic molecular systems in the bacterial photosynthetic LH proteins where BChla`s are arranged in tilted face-to-face arrays. In addition, the {gamma} enhancement is more significant in B875 of LH1 than in B850 in LH2. Theoretical modeling of the nonresonant {gamma} enhancement using simplified molecular orbitals for model SiPcO indicated that the energy level of the two photon state is crucial to the {gamma} enhancement when a two photon process is involved, whereas the charge transfer between the monomers is largely responsible when one photon near resonant process is involved. The calculated results can be extended to {gamma} enhancement in B875 and B850 arrays, suggesting that BChla in B875 are more strongly coupled than in B850. In addition, a 50--160 fold increase in <{gamma}> for the S{sub 1} excited state of relative to S{sub 0} of bacteriochlorophyll in vivo was observed which provides an alternative method for probing excited state dynamics and a potential application for molecular switching.

  16. Phosphorus reduction by sifting fish waste meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Lima de Lima

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fish meal is widely included in animal feed because it contains ideal essential amino acids profile, it is rich in energy, essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals and with >80% apparent protein digestibility in peneid shrimp. In human nutrition, studies are investigating the inclusion of fish meal in snacks, cakes, breads and cookies, as an enrichment in calcium, phosphorus, iron, protein and, especially, omega-3 fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids reduces heart diseases and have antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory properties (eicosapentaenoic acid, and are essential to the formation of brain tissue and retina in infants and are important during pregnancy and lactation (docosahexaenoic acid. Fish meal produced from fish waste is rich in minerals (phosphorus, which may cause eutrophication and impair water quality in aquaculture. The aim of this study was to reduce phosphorus content from commercial fish meal produced from waste by sifting (0.60 - 1.00 - 1.18 - 1.40 - 2.36 and 3.35mm mesh sizes. Fish meal samples were collected monthly for 24 months. Proximate composition of subsamples per mesh size was compared to the unsieved sample. Results indicate that sifting through a 0.60mm sieve total phosphorus and ash contents were reduced up to 32% and 36%, respectively, further to increase protein content up to 20%. Average composition of the subsamples was 47.04% ash, 5.56% of total phosphorus and 39.45% protein, suggesting that the residue of the fractionation may be marketed as a mineral and protein supplement.

  17. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...

  18. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam) binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jones, Robert T

    2010-05-12

    Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C) and human (37°C) temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect through mediation of

  19. Photorhabdus adhesion modification protein (Pam binds extracellular polysaccharide and alters bacterial attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Susan A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photorhabdus are Gram-negative nematode-symbiotic and insect-pathogenic bacteria. The species Photorhabdus asymbiotica is able to infect humans as well as insects. We investigated the secreted proteome of a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at different temperatures in order to identify proteins relevant to the infection of the two different hosts. Results A comparison of the proteins secreted by a clinical isolate of P. asymbiotica at simulated insect (28°C and human (37°C temperatures led to the identification of a small and highly abundant protein, designated Pam, that is only secreted at the lower temperature. The pam gene is present in all Photorhabdus strains tested and shows a high level of conservation across the whole genus, suggesting it is both ancestral to the genus and probably important to the biology of the bacterium. The Pam protein shows limited sequence similarity to the 13.6 kDa component of a binary toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis. Nevertheless, injection or feeding of heterologously produced Pam showed no insecticidal activity to either Galleria mellonella or Manduca sexta larvae. In bacterial colonies, Pam is associated with an extracellular polysaccharide (EPS-like matrix, and modifies the ability of wild-type cells to attach to an artificial surface. Interestingly, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR binding studies revealed that the Pam protein itself has adhesive properties. Although Pam is produced throughout insect infection, genetic knockout does not affect either insect virulence or the ability of P. luminescens to form a symbiotic association with its host nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Conclusions We studied a highly abundant protein, Pam, which is secreted in a temperature-dependent manner in P. asymbiotica. Our findings indicate that Pam plays an important role in enhancing surface attachment in insect blood. Its association with exopolysaccharide suggests it may exert its effect

  20. Research on the production of compound protein powder by mixed strain fermentation of soybean meal%混合菌株发酵豆粕生产复合蛋白粉研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳; 崔青曼; 袁春营; 王英光

    2012-01-01

    Six experimental groups were designed with shrimp shell fermentation liquid and soybean as raw materials according to several factors affecting fermentation effect,fermentation effect of different treatment groups were compared by measuring the range of indicators, the results showed that: fermented soybean meal (compound protein powder )compared with raw meal,the former had wine, sensory good, strong acid flavor, trypsin inhibitor and phytic acid content decreased significantly(P<0.05), soluble protein, free amino acid, peptide content increased significantly (P<0.05), protein content increased significantly (P<0.05), it was illustrated that nutritional value of soybean meal had been greatly improved by mixed fermentation. The fifth experimental group was the best in all the experimental groups, fermentation parameters of the group: fermented liquor pH value was 6.5, added the non-sterilized soybean meal, solid-liquid ratio was 1 : 1.8, yeast inoculation quantity was 15% of soybean meal quality,10% glucose of soybean meal quality was added after 12 h fermentation,fermentation temperature was 35 t,fermentation time was 48 h.%以虾壳发酵液和豆粕为原料,根据影响发酵效果的几个因素,设计6组实验,通过测定系列指标,比较不同处理组豆粕的发酵效果.结果表明,发酵豆粕(复合蛋白粉)与原料豆粕相比,感官良好,带有酒香的浓郁酸香味,胰蛋白酶抑制因子和植酸含量显著降低(P<0.05),酸溶蛋白、游离氨基酸、小肽含量显著升高(P<0.05),蛋白质含量显著升高(P<0.05),说明经过混菌发酵,豆粕的营养价值得到极大提高.在各实验组中,以实验5组效果最佳,该组的发酵参数是:发酵原液·pH值6.5,添加未灭菌豆粕,料液比为1:1.8,酿酒酵母接菌量为豆粕质量的15%,发酵后12 h添加豆粕质量10%的葡萄糖,发酵温度35℃,发酵时间48 h.

  1. Receptor interacting protein kinase-2 inhibition by CYLD impairs anti-bacterial immune responses in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina eWex

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon infection with intracellular bacteria, nucleotide oligomerization domain protein 2 (NOD2 recognizes bacterial muramyl dipeptide and binds, subsequently, to receptor-interacting serine/threonine kinase 2 (RIPK2. RIPK2 mediates the activation of immune responses via the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK pathways. Previously, it has been shown that RIPK2 activation dependens on its K63-ubiquitination by the E3 ligases pellino-3 and ITCH, whereas the deubiquitinating enzyme A20 counter-regulates RIPK2 activity by cleaving K63-polyubiquitin chains from RIPK2. Here, we newly identify the deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD as a new interacting partner and inhibitor of RIPK2. We show that CYLD binds to and removes K63-polyubiquitin chains from RIPK2 in Listeria monocytogenes (Lm infected bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM. CYLD-mediated K63-deubiquitination of RIPK2 resulted in an impaired activation of both NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways, reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-12, anti-listerial ROS and NO, and, finally, impaired pathogen control. In turn, RIPK2 inhibition by siRNA prevented activation of NF-κB and ERK1/2 and completely abolished the protective effect of CYLD-deficiency with respect to the production of IL-6, NO, ROS and pathogen control. Noteworthy, CYLD also inhibited autophagy of Listeria in a RIPK2-ERK1/2 dependent manner.The protective function of CYLD-deficiency was dependent on IFN-γ pre-stimulation of infected macrophages. Interestingly, the reduced NF-κB activation in CYLD-expressing macrophages limited the protective effect of IFN-γ by reducing NF-κB-dependent STAT1 activation. Taken together, our study identifies CYLD as an important inhibitor of RIPK2-dependent anti-bacterial immune responses in macrophages.

  2. Purification and functional analysis of the recombinant protein isolated from E. coli by employing three different methods of bacterial lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA MOJSIN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the purification of the human recombinant protein expressed in E. coli using the GSTGene Fusion System, by applying various methods of bacterial lysis: sonication, freeze/thaw and beadbeating, is presented. The study was an attempt to compare the properties of the proteins obtained by the sonication method, recommended by manufacturers but inaccessible for many researchers, with those obtained using two other readily available lysis methods. The data show that all purified proteins were soluble and intact with the highest protein yield being obtained via the freeze/thaw method. The results of functional analysis indicate that the proteins purified using the sonication and freeze/thaw methods of lysis exhibited similar DNA binding affinity, while the protein purified by beadbeating was also functional but with a lower binding affinity. The conclusion of this study is that all three lysis methods could be successfully employed for protein purification.

  3. Sequence context of indel mutations and their effect on protein evolution in a bacterial endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura E; Wernegreen, Jennifer J

    2013-01-01

    Indel mutations play key roles in genome and protein evolution, yet we lack a comprehensive understanding of how indels impact evolutionary processes. Genome-wide analyses enabled by next-generation sequencing can clarify the context and effect of indels, thereby integrating a more detailed consideration of indels with our knowledge of nucleotide substitutions. To this end, we sequenced Blochmannia chromaiodes, an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of carpenter ants, and compared it with the close relative, B. pennsylvanicus. The genetic distance between these species is small enough for accurate whole genome alignment but large enough to provide a meaningful spectrum of indel mutations. We found that indels are subjected to purifying selection in coding regions and even intergenic regions, which show a reduced rate of indel base pairs per kilobase compared with nonfunctional pseudogenes. Indels occur almost exclusively in repeat regions composed of homopolymers and multimeric simple sequence repeats, demonstrating the importance of sequence context for indel mutations. Despite purifying selection, some indels occur in protein-coding genes. Most are multiples of three, indicating selective pressure to maintain the reading frame. The deleterious effect of frameshift-inducing indels is minimized by either compensation from a nearby indel to restore reading frame or the indel's location near the 3'-end of the gene. We observed amino acid divergence exceeding nucleotide divergence in regions affected by frameshift-inducing indels, suggesting that these indels may either drive adaptive protein evolution or initiate gene degradation. Our results shed light on how indel mutations impact processes of molecular evolution underlying endosymbiont genome evolution. PMID:23475937

  4. Host and bacterial proteins that repress recruitment of LC3 to Shigella early during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh A Baxt

    Full Text Available Shigella spp. are intracytosolic gram-negative pathogens that cause disease by invasion and spread through the colonic mucosa, utilizing host cytoskeletal components to form propulsive actin tails. We have previously identified the host factor Toca-1 as being recruited to intracellular S. flexneri and being required for efficient bacterial actin tail formation. We show that at early times during infection (40 min., the type three-secreted effector protein IcsB recruits Toca-1 to intracellular bacteria and that recruitment of Toca-1 is associated with repression of recruitment of LC3, as well as with repression of recruitment of the autophagy marker NDP52, around these intracellular bacteria. LC3 is best characterized as a marker of autophagosomes, but also marks phagosomal membranes in the process LC3-associated phagocytosis. IcsB has previously been demonstrated to be required for S. flexneri evasion of autophagy at late times during infection (4-6 hr by inhibiting binding of the autophagy protein Atg5 to the Shigella surface protein IcsA (VirG. Our results suggest that IcsB and Toca-1 modulation of LC3 recruitment restricts LC3-associated phagocytosis and/or LC3 recruitment to vacuolar membrane remnants. Together with published results, our findings suggest that IcsB inhibits innate immune responses in two distinct ways, first, by inhibiting LC3-associated phagocytosis and/or LC3 recruitment to vacuolar membrane remnants early during infection, and second, by inhibiting autophagy late during infection.

  5. Sequence context of indel mutations and their effect on protein evolution in a bacterial endosymbiont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura E; Wernegreen, Jennifer J

    2013-01-01

    Indel mutations play key roles in genome and protein evolution, yet we lack a comprehensive understanding of how indels impact evolutionary processes. Genome-wide analyses enabled by next-generation sequencing can clarify the context and effect of indels, thereby integrating a more detailed consideration of indels with our knowledge of nucleotide substitutions. To this end, we sequenced Blochmannia chromaiodes, an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of carpenter ants, and compared it with the close relative, B. pennsylvanicus. The genetic distance between these species is small enough for accurate whole genome alignment but large enough to provide a meaningful spectrum of indel mutations. We found that indels are subjected to purifying selection in coding regions and even intergenic regions, which show a reduced rate of indel base pairs per kilobase compared with nonfunctional pseudogenes. Indels occur almost exclusively in repeat regions composed of homopolymers and multimeric simple sequence repeats, demonstrating the importance of sequence context for indel mutations. Despite purifying selection, some indels occur in protein-coding genes. Most are multiples of three, indicating selective pressure to maintain the reading frame. The deleterious effect of frameshift-inducing indels is minimized by either compensation from a nearby indel to restore reading frame or the indel's location near the 3'-end of the gene. We observed amino acid divergence exceeding nucleotide divergence in regions affected by frameshift-inducing indels, suggesting that these indels may either drive adaptive protein evolution or initiate gene degradation. Our results shed light on how indel mutations impact processes of molecular evolution underlying endosymbiont genome evolution.

  6. The Influence of Alcalase Enzymatic Hydrolysis on the Soybean Antigen Proteins in Soybean Meal%碱性蛋白酶水解对豆粕中大豆抗原蛋白的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王章存; 李乐静; 赵学伟; 崔胜文; 胡金强; 王吉中

    2013-01-01

    Soybean ranks among the "big 8" of the most allergenic food. The globulins 7S (β- conglycinin) and 11S (glycinin ) , the major stored proteins of soybean, are also the primary antigen proteins. The changes of the two antigen proteins were investigated during the Alcalase enzymatic hydrolysis process of soybean meal. The results showed that the primary antigen proteins such as α', α,β - subunits of globulin 7S (β- conglycinin) were hydro-lyzed completely after 10 min of enzymatic hydrolysis,and so was the acidic subunit of globulin (US) after 60 minutes of enzymatic hydrolysis. And meanwhile, the new components of 23 ku and below 14 ku mass fractions appeared. The 95.1% of soybean meal protein was soluble in water after enzymatic hydrolysis,while 68. 1% in trichlo-roacetic acid ( TCA ).%大豆是八大食物过敏源之一,其中主要蛋白成分7S和11S球蛋白也是致敏性较强的抗原蛋白.本试验研究了豆粕在Alcalase酶水解过程中7S和11S两种大豆抗原蛋白的变化.结果表明,酶解10 min时7S伴球蛋白的α'、α和β亚基、酶解60 min时11S球蛋白的酸性亚基等主要抗原蛋白成分即被完全水解,同时新产生了23 ku和大量14 ku以下组分;酶解豆粕中95.1%的蛋白可溶于水,其中68.1%蛋白质可溶于三氯乙酸.

  7. The use of C-reactive protein in predicting bacterial co-Infection in children with bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Fares

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is a potentially life-threatening respiratory illness commonly affecting children who are less than two years of age. Patients with viral lower respiratory tract infection are at risk for co-bacterial infection. Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the use of C-reactive protein (CRP in predicting bacterial co-infection in patients hospitalized for bronchiolitis and to correlate the results with the use of antibiotics. Patients and Methods: This is a prospective study that included patients diagnosed with bronchiolitis admitted to Makassed General Hospital in Beirut from October 2008 to April 2009. A tracheal aspirate culture was taken from all patients with bronchiolitis on admission to the hospital. Blood was drawn to test C-reactive protein level, white cell count, transaminases level, and blood sugar level. Results: Forty-nine patients were enrolled in the study and were divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with positive tracheal aspirate culture and Group 2 included those with negative culture. All patients with a CRP level ≥2 mg/dL have had bacterial co-infection. White cell count, transaminases and blood sugar levels were not predictive for bacterial co-infection. The presence of bacterial co-infection increased the length of hospital stay in the first group by 2 days compared to those in the second group. Conclusion: Bacterial co-infection is frequent in infants with moderate to severe bronchiolitis and requires admission. Our data showed that a CRP level greater than 1.1 mg/dL raised suspicion for bacterial co-infection. Thus, a tracheal aspirate should be investigated microbiologically in all hospitalized patients in order to avoid unnecessary antimicrobial therapy and to shorten the duration of the hospital stay.

  8. Diabetes type 2 - meal planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/007429.htm Diabetes type 2 - meal planning To use the sharing features on this page, ... foods have carbohydrates. This will help with meal planning so that you can keep your blood sugar ...

  9. Growth Performance of Clarias Gariepinus Fed Soaked Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal

    OpenAIRE

    Ayegba, E. O.

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates the nutritional potential of soaked-dried Moringa oleifera leaf meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. Four isonitrogenous (35% crude protein) diets were formulated with Moringa leaf replacing soybean meal at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30%. Result obtained revealed declined in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization as dietary replacement of Moringa leaf meal increased beyond 10%. It is con...

  10. Bio-based materials from crambe and carinata industrial oilseed meals

    OpenAIRE

    Newson, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Protein-based plastics are considered as a new route for valorisation of oilseed meal from the industrial oil crops Crambe abyssinia (crambe) and Brassica carinata (carinata) as they cannot be used for animal feed or human food. To convert oilseed meals into protein-based plastic films compression moulding was used with varying processing temperature, chemical additives and protein extraction conditions. Twin screw extrusion was utilized to make films from blends of crambe meal and wheat glut...

  11. Effects of partially replacing dietary soybean meal or cottonseed meal with completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier) on production, cytokines, adhesive gut bacteria, and disease resistance in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ♀ × Oreochromis aureus ♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Li; Liu, Wenshu; Yang, Yalin; Du, Zhenyu; Zhou, Zhigang

    2014-12-01

    We formulated experimental diets for hybrid tilapia to investigate the effects of replacing dietary soybean meal (SBM) or cottonseed meal (CSM) by completely hydrolyzed feather meal (defatted rice bran as the carrier; abbreviated as CHFM), with emphasis on fish growth, the composition of adhesive gut bacteria, intestinal and hepatic immune responses, and disease resistance. A series of four isonitrogenous (33% crude protein) and isolipidic (6% crude lipid) diets were formulated to replace the isonitrogenous percentages of CSM or SBM by 6% or 12% CHFM. Quadruplicate groups of healthy and uniformly sized hybrid tilapia were assigned to each experimental diet. Fish were hand fed three times a day for 8 weeks at a rearing temperature of 25-28 °C. The growth performance of hybrid tilapia fed diets with partial replacement of dietary SBM or CSM with CHFM was comparable to the group of fish fed the control diet. The CHFM-containing diets affected the intestinal autochthonous bacterial community in similar ways. All CHFM-containing diets stimulated the expression of heat shock protein 70 in the intestine but suppressed its expression in the liver. Only the CHFM6/SBM diet stimulated the expression of interleukin-1β in intestine, and no effects were observed in all diets to the expression of interleukin-1β in liver. Thus, regarding the immune response in the intestine and liver, CHFM is a good alternative protein source that induces less stress in the host. CHFM did not affect disease resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in hybrid tilapia. These data suggest that CHFM is a good alternative to partially replace SBM and CSM in tilapia feed. PMID:25304546

  12. Thermal properties of defatted meal, concentrate, and protein isolate of baru nuts (Dipteryx alata Vog. Propriedades térmicas de farinha desengordurada, concentrado e isolado proteico de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Avellaneda Guimarães

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog., a species of legume found in the Brazilian savannas, was investigated in this study for the composition of its flesh and seed. Thermal analyses, Thermogravimetry (TG, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC were used to investigate the proteins in defatted meal, concentrate, and protein isolate. The protein concentrate was extracted at pH 10, followed by a precipitation at the isoelectric point to obtain the isolate that was spray dried. The thermogravimetric curves were obtained under a nitrogen atmosphere with a 100 mL/minutes flow. The initial, final and peak temperatures and mass loss were analyzed. Within the performed temperature ranges studied, the defatted meal and concentrate presented four steps of mass loss, while the isolate showed only two steps. The protein content of defatted meal from Baru nuts was higher than that of the isolate. On the other hand, there was a reduction in enthalpy, which suggests that the process applied to obtain the baru concentrate and isolate led to protein denaturation.Componentes de polpa e de semente de baru (Dipteryx alata Vog., leguminosa do cerrado brasileiro, foram objetos de estudo neste trabalho. Análises térmicas, Termogravimetria (TG e Calorimetria Exploratória Diferencial (DSC foram utilizadas na investigação de proteínas em farinha desengordurada, concentrado e isolado proteico. A extração do concentrado proteico foi em pH 10, seguida de precipitação no ponto isoelétrico para obter o isolado, o qual foi seco por atomização. As curvas termogravimétricas foram obtidas em atmosfera de nitrogênio em vazão de 100 mL/minutos. As temperaturas iniciais, finais e de pico foram analisadas, assim como a perda de massa. Na faixa de temperatura avaliada, a farinha desengordurada e o concentrado apresentaram quatro etapas de perda de massa, enquanto que o isolado apenas duas etapas. O conteúdo de proteína da farinha desengordurada da semente de Baru foi mais

  13. Mustard meal weed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control in organic production systems can be a labor intensive and expensive process. Mustard meal (MM) is phytotoxic and a potential pre-emergent and preplant-incorporated organic herbicide for controlling germinating and emerging weed seedlings. Unfortunately, MM may also adversely impact s...

  14. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  15. Pigments and proteins in green bacterial chlorosomes studied by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, S; Sönksen, C P; Frigaard, N-U;

    2000-01-01

    We have used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for mass determination of pigments and proteins in chlorosomes, the light-harvesting organelles from the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. By applying a small volume (1...... homologs in a small amount of green bacterial cells. In addition to information on pigments, the MALDI spectra also contained peaks from chlorosome proteins. Thus we have been able with high precision to confirm the molecular masses of the chlorosome proteins CsmA and CsmE which have been previously...

  16. Toxicological evaluation of mowrah (Madhuca latifolia Macbride) seed meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, K M; Gandhi, V M; Mulky, M J

    1996-01-01

    Mowrah (M. latifolia) seeds yield 40-50% edible fat and the meal contains saponins besides protein and high level of carbohydrates. The toxicity of the meal was evaluated as it has a potential for use in animal feedstuffs. The meal was fed to young and adult rats at levels of 10 to 40% in diet. The animals showed marked inhibition of feed intake and loss of body weight resulting in mortalities. Histopathological examination revealed a gradation of damage from slight erosion of the tip of villi of intestinal mucous membrane to complete necrosis and destruction of it, with increasing amounts of mowrah seed meal in diets. The other significant change was a severe vacuolar degeneration of kidney tubular cells. Detoxification or complete removal of the toxins is necessary for utilization of the meal as animal feedingstuff. PMID:8698410

  17. Carob pod (Ceratonia siliqua) meal in geese diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahle, M; Coleou, J; Haas, C

    1992-07-01

    1. The apparent and true metabolisable energy values of carob pods meal for geese were measured to be 6.1 MJ/kg and 6.6 MJ/kg respectively. 2. Performance from 5 to 12 weeks was examined in geese fed on four diets containing 0, 100, 200 and 300 g/kg of carob pods meal. 3. The inclusion of carob pods meal up to 200 g/kg in geese diets did not affect the performance. 4. At 300 g/kg performance was highly depressed. 5. The digestibility of protein in the diets decreased linearly with an increase in the level of inclusion of carob pods meal. 6. The length of small intestine, large intestine and caeca and the weight of gizzard expressed per kg of body weight increased with an increase in the level of carob pods meal, which is rich in fibre, in the diets.

  18. Bacterial effector binding to ribosomal protein s3 subverts NF-kappaB function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Gao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Enteric bacterial pathogens cause food borne disease, which constitutes an enormous economic and health burden. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC causes a severe bloody diarrhea following transmission to humans through various means, including contaminated beef and vegetable products, water, or through contact with animals. EHEC also causes a potentially fatal kidney disease (hemolytic uremic syndrome for which there is no effective treatment or prophylaxis. EHEC and other enteric pathogens (e.g., enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia utilize a type III secretion system (T3SS to inject virulence proteins (effectors into host cells. While it is known that T3SS effectors subvert host cell function to promote diarrheal disease and bacterial transmission, in many cases, the mechanisms by which these effectors bind to host proteins and disrupt the normal function of intestinal epithelial cells have not been completely characterized. In this study, we present evidence that the E. coli O157:H7 nleH1 and nleH2 genes encode T3SS effectors that bind to the human ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3, a subunit of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappaB transcriptional complexes. NleH1 and NleH2 co-localized with RPS3 in the cytoplasm, but not in cell nuclei. The N-terminal region of both NleH1 and NleH2 was required for binding to the N-terminus of RPS3. NleH1 and NleH2 are autophosphorylated Ser/Thr protein kinases, but their binding to RPS3 is independent of kinase activity. NleH1, but not NleH2, reduced the nuclear abundance of RPS3 without altering the p50 or p65 NF-kappaB subunits or affecting the phosphorylation state or abundance of the inhibitory NF-kappaB chaperone IkappaBalpha NleH1 repressed the transcription of a RPS3/NF-kappaB-dependent reporter plasmid, but did not inhibit the transcription of RPS3-independent reporters. In contrast, NleH2 stimulated RPS3-dependent transcription, as well

  19. Isoleucine and valine supplementation of a low-protein corn-wheat-soybean meal-based diet for piglets: growth performance and nitrogen balance

    OpenAIRE

    Lordelo, M.M.; Gaspar, A.M.; Le Bellego, L; Freire, J.P.B.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of Ile and Val supplementation of a low-CP, corn-wheat-soybean meal-based piglet diet on growth performance, incidence of diarrhea, and N balance were studied using 60 Landrace × Duroc male piglets in a 4-wk experiment. The 60 individually caged piglets were divided into 5 dietary treatments, each consisting of 12 piglets. Diet 1 was a positive control diet (20% CP); diet 2 was a low-CP negative control diet (17% CP); diets 3, 4, and 5 were low-CP diets to ...

  20. Mass Spectrometric Detection of Bacterial Protein Toxins and Their Enzymatic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalb, Suzanne R; Boyer, Anne E; Barr, John R

    2015-08-31

    Mass spectrometry has recently become a powerful technique for bacterial identification. Mass spectrometry approaches generally rely upon introduction of the bacteria into a matrix-assisted laser-desorption time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer with mass spectrometric recognition of proteins specific to that organism that form a reliable fingerprint. With some bacteria, such as Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium botulinum, the health threat posed by these organisms is not the organism itself, but rather the protein toxins produced by the organisms. One such example is botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), a potent neurotoxin produced by C. botulinum. There are seven known serotypes of BoNT, A-G, and many of the serotypes can be further differentiated into toxin variants, which are up to 99.9% identical in some cases. Mass spectrometric proteomic techniques have been established to differentiate the serotype or toxin variant of BoNT produced by varied strains of C. botulinum. Detection of potent biological toxins requires high analytical sensitivity and mass spectrometry based methods have been developed to determine the enzymatic activity of BoNT and the anthrax lethal toxins produced by B. anthracis. This enzymatic activity, unique for each toxin, is assessed with detection of the toxin-induced cleavage of strategically designed peptide substrates by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry offering unparalleled specificity. Furthermore, activity assays allow for the assessment of the biological activity of a toxin and its potential health risk. Such methods have become important diagnostics for botulism and anthrax. Here, we review mass spectrometry based methods for the enzymatic activity of BoNT and the anthrax lethal factor toxin.

  1. Nucleotide and partner-protein control of bacterial replicative helicase structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strycharska, Melania S; Arias-Palomo, Ernesto; Lyubimov, Artem Y; Erzberger, Jan P; O'Shea, Valerie L; Bustamante, Carlos J; Berger, James M

    2013-12-26

    Cellular replication forks are powered by ring-shaped, hexameric helicases that encircle and unwind DNA. To better understand the molecular mechanisms and control of these enzymes, we used multiple methods to investigate the bacterial replicative helicase, DnaB. A 3.3 Å crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus DnaB, complexed with nucleotide, reveals a newly discovered conformational state for this motor protein. Electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering studies confirm the state seen crystallographically, showing that the DnaB ATPase domains and an associated N-terminal collar transition between two physical states in a nucleotide-dependent manner. Mutant helicases locked in either collar state are active but display different capacities to support critical activities such as duplex translocation and primase-dependent RNA synthesis. Our findings establish the DnaB collar as an autoregulatory hub that controls the ability of the helicase to transition between different functional states in response to both nucleotide and replication initiation/elongation factors. PMID:24373746

  2. Conformation of protein secreted across bacterial outer membranes: a study of enterotoxin translocation from Vibrio cholerae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The secretion of enterotoxin by Vibrio cholerae is punctuated by the transient entry of the toxin subunits into the periplasm. In this paper, the authors show that the subunits oligomerize into an assembled holotoxin within the periplasm prior to their secretion across the outer membrane. The rate of toxin assembly was studied by pulse-labeling cells with [35S]-methionine and then monitoring the turnover of radiolabeled subunits as they assembled within the periplasm. The subunits entered the periplasm as monomers and assembled into oligomers with a half-time of ≅ 1 min. Since assembly was a rapid event compared to the rate of toxin efflux from the periplasm, which had a half-time of ≅ 13 min, they conclude that all of the subunits that pass through the periplasm assemble before they traverse the outer membrane. The average concentration of subunit monomers and assembled holotoxin within the periplasm was calculated to be ≅ 20 and ≅ 260 μg/ml, respectively. This indicates that the periplasm is a suitably concentrated milieu where spontaneous toxin assembly can occur. These findings suggest that protein movement across bacterial outer membranes, in apparent contrast to export across other biological membranes, involves translocation of polypeptides that have already folded into tertiary and even quaternary conformations

  3. Mitomycin resistance in mammalian cells expressing the bacterial mitomycin C resistance protein MCRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcourt, M F; Penketh, P G; Hodnick, W F; Johnson, D A; Sherman, D H; Rockwell, S; Sartorelli, A C

    1999-08-31

    The mitomycin C-resistance gene, mcrA, of Streptomyces lavendulae produces MCRA, a protein that protects this microorganism from its own antibiotic, the antitumor drug mitomycin C. Expression of the bacterial mcrA gene in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary cells causes profound resistance to mitomycin C and to its structurally related analog porfiromycin under aerobic conditions but produces little change in drug sensitivity under hypoxia. The mitomycins are prodrugs that are enzymatically reduced and activated intracellularly, producing cytotoxic semiquinone anion radical and hydroquinone reduction intermediates. In vitro, MCRA protects DNA from cross-linking by the hydroquinone reduction intermediate of these mitomycins by oxidizing the hydroquinone back to the parent molecule; thus, MCRA acts as a hydroquinone oxidase. These findings suggest potential therapeutic applications for MCRA in the treatment of cancer with the mitomycins and imply that intrinsic or selected mitomycin C resistance in mammalian cells may not be due solely to decreased bioactivation, as has been hypothesized previously, but instead could involve an MCRA-like mechanism. PMID:10468636

  4. Surfactant protein D augments bacterial association but attenuates major histocompatibility complex class II presentation of bacterial antigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren; Lo, Bernice; Evans, Kathy;

    2006-01-01

    Development of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), is associated with lipid dysregulation and inflammation. As the host defense lectin surfactant protein D (SP-D) has multiple effects in lipid homeostasis and inflammation, the correlation between SP-D concentrations and development of d.......06-1.92) in the highest quartile. SP-D concentration thus correlates to development of dementia as well as to augmented mortality....

  5. Extraction, characterization of components, and potential thermoplastic applications of camelina meal grafted with vinyl monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Narendra; Jin, Enqi; Chen, Lihong; Jiang, Xue; Yang, Yiqi

    2012-05-16

    Camelina meal contains oil, proteins, and carbohydrates that can be used to develop value-added bioproducts. In addition to containing valuable polymers, coproducts generated during the production of biofuels are inexpensive and renewable. Camelina is a preferred oilseed crop for biodiesel production because camelina is easier to grow and provides better yields. In this research, the components in camelina meal were extracted and studied for their composition, structure, and properties. The potential of using the camelina meal to develop thermoplastics was also studied by grafting various vinyl monomers. Oil (19%) extracted from camelina meal could be useful for food and fuel applications, and proteins and cellulose in camelina meal could be useful in the development of films, fibers, and thermoplastics. Thermoplastic films developed from grafted camelina meal had excellent wet tensile properties, unlike thermoplastics developed from other biopolymers. Camelina meal grafted with butylmethacrylate (BMA) had high dry and wet tensile strengths of 53.7 and 17.3 MPa, respectively.

  6. Structure of the complex between teicoplanin and a bacterial cell-wall peptide: use of a carrier-protein approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Economou, Nicoleta J.; Zentner, Isaac J. [Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 North 15th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102 (United States); Lazo, Edwin; Jakoncic, Jean; Stojanoff, Vivian [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Weeks, Stephen D.; Grasty, Kimberly C.; Cocklin, Simon; Loll, Patrick J. [Drexel University College of Medicine, 245 North 15th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19102 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Using a carrier-protein strategy, the structure of teicoplanin bound to its bacterial cell-wall target has been determined. The structure reveals the molecular determinants of target recognition, flexibility in the antibiotic backbone and intrinsic radiation sensitivity of teicoplanin. Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are commonly treated with glycopeptide antibiotics such as teicoplanin. This drug inhibits bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis by binding and sequestering a cell-wall precursor: a d-alanine-containing peptide. A carrier-protein strategy was used to crystallize the complex of teicoplanin and its target peptide by fusing the cell-wall peptide to either MBP or ubiquitin via native chemical ligation and subsequently crystallizing the protein–peptide–antibiotic complex. The 2.05 Å resolution MBP–peptide–teicoplanin structure shows that teicoplanin recognizes its ligand through a combination of five hydrogen bonds and multiple van der Waals interactions. Comparison of this teicoplanin structure with that of unliganded teicoplanin reveals a flexibility in the antibiotic peptide backbone that has significant implications for ligand recognition. Diffraction experiments revealed an X-ray-induced dechlorination of the sixth amino acid of the antibiotic; it is shown that teicoplanin is significantly more radiation-sensitive than other similar antibiotics and that ligand binding increases radiosensitivity. Insights derived from this new teicoplanin structure may contribute to the development of next-generation antibacterials designed to overcome bacterial resistance.

  7. Effects of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mofleh S. Awawdeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal (soypass meal; SPM on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs. In Experiment 1, lasting for eight weeks, 39 Awassi ewes and their lambs were randomly assigned to three diets. Diets were formulated by replacing soybean meal from the basal diet (CON-SBM; n=13 with 50% (50% SPM; n=13 and 100% (100% SPM; n=13 SPM. Initial and final weights of the ewes were not different (P>0.55 among diets. Total gain and average daily gain (ADG of lambs were similar (P=0.44 among diets. Ewes fed the CON-SBM diet tended (P0.38 in milk component percentages among diets were observed. In Experiment 2, lasting for 63 days, twenty weaned lambs were used to determine the effects of replacing soybean meal with SPM on growth performance. Diets were either soybean meal (SBM; n=10 or SPM (SPM; n=10. Nutrient intake and digestibility were not different between diets. However, rumen undegradable protein intake was greater (P0.05 between the diets. Results suggest that replacement of soybean meal with soypass meal is not likely to produce any production benefits in nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs except for the slight improvement of milk yield.

  8. Ras GTPase-like protein MglA, a controller of bacterial social-motility in Myxobacteria, has evolved to control bacterial predation by Bdellovibrio.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Milner

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus invade Gram-negative bacteria in a predatory process requiring Type IV pili (T4P at a single invasive pole, and also glide on surfaces to locate prey. Ras-like G-protein MglA, working with MglB and RomR in the deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, regulates adventurous gliding and T4P-mediated social motility at both M. xanthus cell poles. Our bioinformatic analyses suggested that the GTPase activating protein (GAP-encoding gene mglB was lost in Bdellovibrio, but critical residues for MglA(Bd GTP-binding are conserved. Deletion of mglA(Bd abolished prey-invasion, but not gliding, and reduced T4P formation. MglA(Bd interacted with a previously uncharacterised tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR domain protein Bd2492, which we show localises at the single invasive pole and is required for predation. Bd2492 and RomR also interacted with cyclic-di-GMP-binding receptor CdgA, required for rapid prey-invasion. Bd2492, RomR(Bd and CdgA localize to the invasive pole and may facilitate MglA-docking. Bd2492 was encoded from an operon encoding a TamAB-like secretion system. The TamA protein and RomR were found, by gene deletion tests, to be essential for viability in both predatory and non-predatory modes. Control proteins, which regulate bipolar T4P-mediated social motility in swarming groups of deltaproteobacteria, have adapted in evolution to regulate the anti-social process of unipolar prey-invasion in the "lone-hunter" Bdellovibrio. Thus GTP-binding proteins and cyclic-di-GMP inputs combine at a regulatory hub, turning on prey-invasion and allowing invasion and killing of bacterial pathogens and consequent predatory growth of Bdellovibrio.

  9. Monoclonal antibodies against DNA-binding tips of DNABII proteins disrupt biofilms in vitro and induce bacterial clearance in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Novotny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of chronic and recurrent bacterial diseases are attributed to the presence of a recalcitrant biofilm that contributes significantly to pathogenesis. As such, these diseases will require an innovative therapeutic approach. We targeted DNABII proteins, an integral component of extracellular DNA (eDNA which is universally found as part of the pathogenic biofilm matrix to develop a biofilm disrupting therapeutic. We show that a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies directed against specific epitopes of a DNABII protein is highly effective to disrupt diverse biofilms in vitro as well as resolve experimental infection in vivo, in both a chinchilla and murine model. Combining this monoclonal antibody cocktail with a traditional antibiotic to kill bacteria newly released from the biofilm due to the action of the antibody cocktail was highly effective. Our results strongly support these monoclonal antibodies as attractive candidates for lead optimization as a therapeutic for resolution of bacterial biofilm diseases.

  10. Improving protein delivery of fibroblast growth factor-2 from bacterial inclusion bodies used as cell culture substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Seras Franzoso, Joaquin; Peebo, Karl; Garcia Fruitós, Elena; Vázquez Gómez, Esther; Rinas, Ursula; Villaverde Corrales, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Altres ajuts: We are indebted CIBER de Bioingeniería, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN, Spain) for funding our research on inclusion bodies. Bacterial inclusion bodies (IBs) have recently been used to generate biocompatible cell culture interfaces, with diverse effects on cultured cells such as cell adhesion enhancement, stimulation of cell growth or induction of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. Additionally, novel applications of IBs as sustained protein delivery systems with...

  11. Linkage of bacterial protein synthesis and presentation of MHC class I-restricted Listeria monocytogenes-derived antigenic peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Grauling-Halama

    Full Text Available The processing and MHC class I-restricted presentation of antigenic peptides derived from the p60 protein of the facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is tightly linked to bacterial protein synthesis. We used non-linear regression analysis to fit a mathematical model of bacterial antigen processing to a published experimental data set showing the accumulation and decay of p60-derived antigenic peptides in L. monocytogenes-infected cells. Two alternative models equally describe the experimental data. The simulation accounting for a stable and a hypothetical rapidly degraded form of antigen predicts that the antigenic peptides p60 217-225 and p60 449-457 are derived from a putative instable form of p60 with an average intracellular half-life of approximately 3 minutes accounting for approximately 31% of all p60 molecules synthesized. The alternative model predicts that both antigenic peptides are processed from p60 degraded intracellularly with a half-life of 109 min and that antigen processing only occurs as long as bacterial protein synthesis is not inhibited. In order to decide between both models the intracellular accumulation of p60 in infected cells was studied experimentally and compared with model predictions. Inhibition of p60 degradation by the proteasome inhibitor epoxomicin revealed that during the first 3 h post infection approximately 30% of synthesized p60 molecules were degraded. This value is significantly lower than the approximately 50% degradation of p60 that would be expected in the presence of the predicted putative short-lived state of p60 and also fits precisely with the predictions of the alternative model, indicating that the tight connection of bacterial protein biosynthesis and antigen processing and presentation of L. monocyctogenes-derived antigenic peptides is not caused by the presence of a highly instable antigenic substrate.

  12. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude protein extracts from seeds of six different medical plants against standard bacterial strains

    OpenAIRE

    Al Akeel, Raid; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Janardhan, K.; V C Gupta

    2013-01-01

    A huge group of natural antimicrobial compounds are active against a large spectrum of bacterial strains causing infectious threat. The present study was conducted to investigate the crude extracts of antimicrobial protein and peptide efficacy from six medicinal plant seeds. Extraction was carried out in Sodium phosphate citrate buffer, and Sodium acetate buffer using different pH. Antimicrobial activities of these plants were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffus...

  13. Substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Maza Ortega

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements on the nutritional characteristics and performance of beef heifers in their postweaning phase on Brachiaria decumbens pastures during the dry season. Twenty-four Nellore beef heifers (average initial age and weight of 8 mo and 210±6 kg, respectively were used. The design was completely randomized, with four treatments and six replicates. Supplements contained approximately 30% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal (0, 50 and 100%. The control animals received only a mineral mixture ad libitum, and those on the other treatments received supplementation at 1.0 kg/animal/day. No differences were found in ADG between supplemented and control animals (P>0.10. Supplementation increased crude protein (CP intake only (P<0.10. The level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal did not affect (P>0.10 the intake of supplemented animals. Supplementation elevated the apparent digestibility coefficients (P<0.10 of OM, CP, NFC and TDN, but not EE or NDFap (P>0.10. A positive linear effect (P<0.10 of the level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed cake was observed on the digestibility of OM, NFC and TDN. Supplementation and the level of substitution had an effect (P<0.10 on the serum urea nitrogen and urine urea nitrogen contents. Supplementation or substitution level had no effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen to the intestine (MICN or efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS (P>0.10. Substitution caused a decreasing linear effect (P<0.10 on microbial nitrogen/nitrogen intake ratio (MICNR. In conclusion, substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements during the dry season does not impair the productive performance of beef heifers.

  14. Lactoferrin Decreases the Intestinal Inflammation Triggered by a Soybean Meal-Based Diet in Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar E. Ulloa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal inflammation is a harmful condition in fish that can be triggered by the ingestion of soybean meal. Due to the positive costs-benefits ratio of including soybean meal in farmed fish diets, identifying additives with intestinal anti-inflammatory effects could contribute to solving the issues caused by this plant protein. This study evaluated the effect of incorporating lactoferrin (LF into a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation in zebrafish. Larvae were fed with diets containing 50% soybean meal (50SBM or 50SBM supplemented with LF to 0.5, 1, 1.5 g/kg (50SBM+LF0.5; 50SBM+LF1.0; 50SBM+LF1.5. The 50SBM+LF1.5 diet was the most efficient and larvae had a reduced number of neutrophils in the intestine compared with 50SBM larvae and an indistinguishable number compared with control larvae. Likewise, the transcription of genes involved in neutrophil migration and intestinal mucosal barrier functions (mmp9, muc2.2, and β-def-1 were increased in 50SBM larvae but were normally expressed in 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae. To determine the influence of intestinal inflammation on the general immune response, larvae were challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. Larvae with intestinal inflammation had increased mortality rate compared to control larvae. Importantly, 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae had a mortality rate lower than control larvae. These results demonstrate that LF displays a dual effect in zebrafish, acting as an intestinal anti-inflammatory agent and improving performance against bacterial infection.

  15. Lactoferrin Decreases the Intestinal Inflammation Triggered by a Soybean Meal-Based Diet in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Pilar E; Solís, Camila J; De la Paz, Javiera F; Alaurent, Trevor G S; Caruffo, Mario; Hernández, Adrián J; Dantagnan, Patricio; Feijóo, Carmen G

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation is a harmful condition in fish that can be triggered by the ingestion of soybean meal. Due to the positive costs-benefits ratio of including soybean meal in farmed fish diets, identifying additives with intestinal anti-inflammatory effects could contribute to solving the issues caused by this plant protein. This study evaluated the effect of incorporating lactoferrin (LF) into a soybean meal-based diet on intestinal inflammation in zebrafish. Larvae were fed with diets containing 50% soybean meal (50SBM) or 50SBM supplemented with LF to 0.5, 1, 1.5 g/kg (50SBM+LF0.5; 50SBM+LF1.0; 50SBM+LF1.5). The 50SBM+LF1.5 diet was the most efficient and larvae had a reduced number of neutrophils in the intestine compared with 50SBM larvae and an indistinguishable number compared with control larvae. Likewise, the transcription of genes involved in neutrophil migration and intestinal mucosal barrier functions (mmp9, muc2.2, and β-def-1) were increased in 50SBM larvae but were normally expressed in 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae. To determine the influence of intestinal inflammation on the general immune response, larvae were challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. Larvae with intestinal inflammation had increased mortality rate compared to control larvae. Importantly, 50SBM+LF1.5 larvae had a mortality rate lower than control larvae. These results demonstrate that LF displays a dual effect in zebrafish, acting as an intestinal anti-inflammatory agent and improving performance against bacterial infection. PMID:27247950

  16. Dielectric properties of wheat flour mixed with oat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczycka, D.; Czubaszek, A.; Fujarczuk, M.; Pruski, K.

    2013-03-01

    Possibilities of using electric methods for determining admixtures of oat meal to wheat flour, type 650 are presented. In wheat flour, oat meal and mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30% of the oat meal, moisture, protein, starch and ash content, sedimentation value, yield and softening of wet gluten were determined. In samples containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 100% of oat meal, the dielectric loss factor and conductivity were determined using an impedance analyzer for electromagnetic field frequency ranging from 0.1-20 kHz. It was found that the dielectric loss factor varied for tested material. The best distinguishing between tested mixtures was obtained at the measuring electromagnetic field frequency of 20 kHz. The loss factor was significantly correlated with the yield of wet gluten and the sedimentation value, parameters indicating the amount and quality of gluten proteins in flour.

  17. Unusual Heme Binding in the Bacterial Iron Response Regulator Protein (Irr): Spectral Characterization of Heme Binding to Heme Regulatory Motif

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Haruto; Nakagaki, Megumi; Bamba, Ai; Uchida, Takeshi; Hori, Hiroshi; O'Brian, Mark R.; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Ishimori, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    We characterized heme binding in the bacterial iron response regulator (Irr) protein, which is a simple heme-regulated protein having a single “heme-regulatory motif”, HRM, and plays a key role in the iron homeostasis of a nitrogen fixing bacterium. The heme titration to wild-type and mutant Irr clearly showed that Irr has two heme binding sites: one of the heme binding sites is in the HRM, where 29Cys is the axial ligand, and the other one, the secondary heme binding site, is located outside...

  18. Coevolved Mutations Reveal Distinct Architectures for Two Core Proteins in the Bacterial Flagellar Motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandini, Alessandro; Kleinjung, Jens; Rasool, Shafqat; Khan, Shahid

    2015-01-01

    Switching of bacterial flagellar rotation is caused by large domain movements of the FliG protein triggered by binding of the signal protein CheY to FliM. FliG and FliM form adjacent multi-subunit arrays within the basal body C-ring. The movements alter the interaction of the FliG C-terminal (FliGC) "torque" helix with the stator complexes. Atomic models based on the Salmonella entrovar C-ring electron microscopy reconstruction have implications for switching, but lack consensus on the relative locations of the FliG armadillo (ARM) domains (amino-terminal (FliGN), middle (FliGM) and FliGC) as well as changes during chemotaxis. The generality of the Salmonella model is challenged by the variation in motor morphology and response between species. We studied coevolved residue mutations to determine the unifying elements of switch architecture. Residue interactions, measured by their coevolution, were formalized as a network, guided by structural data. Our measurements reveal a common design with dedicated switch and motor modules. The FliM middle domain (FliMM) has extensive connectivity most simply explained by conserved intra and inter-subunit contacts. In contrast, FliG has patchy, complex architecture. Conserved structural motifs form interacting nodes in the coevolution network that wire FliMM to the FliGC C-terminal, four-helix motor module (C3-6). FliG C3-6 coevolution is organized around the torque helix, differently from other ARM domains. The nodes form separated, surface-proximal patches that are targeted by deleterious mutations as in other allosteric systems. The dominant node is formed by the EHPQ motif at the FliMMFliGM contact interface and adjacent helix residues at a central location within FliGM. The node interacts with nodes in the N-terminal FliGc α-helix triad (ARM-C) and FliGN. ARM-C, separated from C3-6 by the MFVF motif, has poor intra-network connectivity consistent with its variable orientation revealed by structural data. ARM-C could be

  19. Coevolved Mutations Reveal Distinct Architectures for Two Core Proteins in the Bacterial Flagellar Motor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Pandini

    Full Text Available Switching of bacterial flagellar rotation is caused by large domain movements of the FliG protein triggered by binding of the signal protein CheY to FliM. FliG and FliM form adjacent multi-subunit arrays within the basal body C-ring. The movements alter the interaction of the FliG C-terminal (FliGC "torque" helix with the stator complexes. Atomic models based on the Salmonella entrovar C-ring electron microscopy reconstruction have implications for switching, but lack consensus on the relative locations of the FliG armadillo (ARM domains (amino-terminal (FliGN, middle (FliGM and FliGC as well as changes during chemotaxis. The generality of the Salmonella model is challenged by the variation in motor morphology and response between species. We studied coevolved residue mutations to determine the unifying elements of switch architecture. Residue interactions, measured by their coevolution, were formalized as a network, guided by structural data. Our measurements reveal a common design with dedicated switch and motor modules. The FliM middle domain (FliMM has extensive connectivity most simply explained by conserved intra and inter-subunit contacts. In contrast, FliG has patchy, complex architecture. Conserved structural motifs form interacting nodes in the coevolution network that wire FliMM to the FliGC C-terminal, four-helix motor module (C3-6. FliG C3-6 coevolution is organized around the torque helix, differently from other ARM domains. The nodes form separated, surface-proximal patches that are targeted by deleterious mutations as in other allosteric systems. The dominant node is formed by the EHPQ motif at the FliMMFliGM contact interface and adjacent helix residues at a central location within FliGM. The node interacts with nodes in the N-terminal FliGc α-helix triad (ARM-C and FliGN. ARM-C, separated from C3-6 by the MFVF motif, has poor intra-network connectivity consistent with its variable orientation revealed by structural data. ARM

  20. Bacterial beta-lactamase fragmentation complementation strategy can be used as a method for identifying interacting protein pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hwa; Back, Jung Ho; Hahm, Soo Hyun; Shim, Hye-Young; Park, Min Ju; Ko, Sung Il; Han, Ye Sun

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the applicability of the TEM-1 beta- lactamase fragment complementation (BFC) system to develop a strategy for the screening of protein-protein interactions in bacteria. A BFC system containing a human Fas-associated death domain (hFADD) and human Fas death domain (hFasDD) was generated. The hFADD-hFasDD interaction was verified by cell survivability in ampicillin-containing medium and the colorimetric change of nitrocefin. It was also confirmed by His pull-down assay using cell lysates obtained in selection steps. A coiled-coil helix coiled-coil domain-containing protein 5 (CHCH5) was identified as an interacting protein of human uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG) from the bacterial BFC cDNA library strategy. The interaction between hUNG and CHCH5 was further confirmed with immunoprecipitation using a mammalian expression system. CHCH5 enhanced the DNA glycosylase activity of hUNG to remove uracil from DNA duplexes containing a U/G mismatch pair. These results suggest that the bacterial BFC cDNA library strategy can be effectively used to identify interacting protein pairs.

  1. Biscuit meal composition in pig feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson Corassa

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to compile results of the nutritional composition of the biscuit meal from 14 papers from studies published in journals and reports during 2000 and 2011 to characterize the gross, digestible and metabolizable energy (DE and ME, kcal / kg) for pigs, dry mater (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), mineral matter (MM), crude fiber (CF), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (Pt), sodium (Na), total lysine (LIS), methionine plus cystine total (MC), threonine (THR), tryptophan ...

  2. Industrial Rapeseed and Sunflower Meal as Source of Antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Vrbiková

    2014-01-01

    In the processing of oilseeds for purposes of vegetable oil’s production solid residues such as flakes, cakes and meal are formed. Those by-products are mainly used to produce feed for animals. But they may also enrich human food with proteins, minerals, valuable vitamins A, E, phenolic acids, polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The expeller cakes, extracted meal or extracts obtained by extraction with organic solvents, are best applied by in bakery products, spiced...

  3. Crystal structure of bacterial cell-surface alginate-binding protein with an M75 peptidase motif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Yukie; Ochiai, Akihito [Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Mikami, Bunzo [Laboratory of Applied Structural Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Hashimoto, Wataru [Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Murata, Kousaku, E-mail: kmurata@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Basic and Applied Molecular Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Bacterial alginate-binding Algp7 is similar to component EfeO of Fe{sup 2+} transporter. {yields} We determined the crystal structure of Algp7 with a metal-binding motif. {yields} Algp7 consists of two helical bundles formed through duplication of a single bundle. {yields} A deep cleft involved in alginate binding locates around the metal-binding site. {yields} Algp7 may function as a Fe{sup 2+}-chelated alginate-binding protein. -- Abstract: A gram-negative Sphingomonas sp. A1 directly incorporates alginate polysaccharide into the cytoplasm via the cell-surface pit and ABC transporter. A cell-surface alginate-binding protein, Algp7, functions as a concentrator of the polysaccharide in the pit. Based on the primary structure and genetic organization in the bacterial genome, Algp7 was found to be homologous to an M75 peptidase motif-containing EfeO, a component of a ferrous ion transporter. Despite the presence of an M75 peptidase motif with high similarity, the Algp7 protein purified from recombinant Escherichia coli cells was inert on insulin B chain and N-benzoyl-Phe-Val-Arg-p-nitroanilide, both of which are substrates for a typical M75 peptidase, imelysin, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The X-ray crystallographic structure of Algp7 was determined at 2.10 A resolution by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction. Although a metal-binding motif, HxxE, conserved in zinc ion-dependent M75 peptidases is also found in Algp7, the crystal structure of Algp7 contains no metal even at the motif. The protein consists of two structurally similar up-and-down helical bundles as the basic scaffold. A deep cleft between the bundles is sufficiently large to accommodate macromolecules such as alginate polysaccharide. This is the first structural report on a bacterial cell-surface alginate-binding protein with an M75 peptidase motif.

  4. 29 CFR 785.19 - Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meal. 785.19 Section 785.19 Labor Regulations Relating to... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS HOURS WORKED Application of Principles Rest and Meal Periods § 785.19 Meal. (a) Bona fide meal periods. Bona fide meal periods are not worktime. Bona fide...

  5. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  6. Healthy meals on the menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase...... in sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy....

  7. Localization of a bacterial group II intron-encoded protein in eukaryotic nuclear splicing-related cell compartments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nisa-Martínez

    Full Text Available Some bacterial group II introns are widely used for genetic engineering in bacteria, because they can be reprogrammed to insert into the desired DNA target sites. There is considerable interest in developing this group II intron gene targeting technology for use in eukaryotes, but nuclear genomes present several obstacles to the use of this approach. The nuclear genomes of eukaryotes do not contain group II introns, but these introns are thought to have been the progenitors of nuclear spliceosomal introns. We investigated the expression and subcellular localization of the bacterial RmInt1 group II intron-encoded protein (IEP in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. Following the expression of translational fusions of the wild-type protein and several mutant variants with EGFP, the full-length IEP was found exclusively in the nucleolus, whereas the maturase domain alone targeted EGFP to nuclear speckles. The distribution of the bacterial RmInt1 IEP in plant cell protoplasts suggests that the compartmentalization of eukaryotic cells into nucleus and cytoplasm does not prevent group II introns from invading the host genome. Furthermore, the trafficking of the IEP between the nucleolus and the speckles upon maturase inactivation is consistent with the hypothesis that the spliceosomal machinery evolved from group II introns.

  8. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: meal frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stout Jeffrey R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: Admittedly, research to date examining the physiological effects of meal frequency in humans is somewhat limited. More specifically, data that has specifically examined the impact of meal frequency on body composition, training adaptations, and performance in physically active individuals and athletes is scant. Until more research is available in the physically active and athletic populations, definitive conclusions cannot be made. However, within the confines of the current scientific literature, we assert that: 1. Increasing meal frequency does not appear to favorably change body composition in sedentary populations. 2. If protein levels are adequate, increasing meal frequency during periods of hypoenergetic dieting may preserve lean body mass in athletic populations. 3. Increased meal frequency appears to have a positive effect on various blood markers of health, particularly LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and insulin. 4. Increased meal frequency does not appear to significantly enhance diet induced thermogenesis, total energy expenditure or resting metabolic rate. 5. Increasing meal frequency appears to help decrease hunger and improve appetite control. The following literature review has been prepared by the authors in support of the aforementioned position statement.

  9. Industrial Rapeseed and Sunflower Meal as Source of Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Vrbiková

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the processing of oilseeds for purposes of vegetable oil’s production solid residues such as flakes, cakes and meal are formed. Those by-products are mainly used to produce feed for animals. But they may also enrich human food with proteins, minerals, valuable vitamins A, E, phenolic acids, polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The expeller cakes, extracted meal or extracts obtained by extraction with organic solvents, are best applied by in bakery products, spiced meat products potato-based products. Fats are mainly stabilized by synthetic antioxidants BHT or BHA. In this work we proved that synthetic antioxidant BHT was not the best stabilizer of the stored sunflower oil. Typical by-products of fat industry were studied as a potential source of cheap natural antioxidants. The whole sunflower or rapeseed meal added into stored sunflower oils in the amount of 20 g kg-1 increased oil’s stability more than 0.1 g kg-1 addition of BHT. In order to increase antioxidant activity of whole meal we carried out its fractionation to obtain five fractions with different particles size. Out of these fractions, fraction 4 with particles size of 0.05 – 0.15 10-3 m was very effective, second only to whole meal, especially to whole sunflower meal. They increased the stability of sunflower oil 1.4 times during storage. By-products such as sunflower or rapeseed meal added directly into sunflower oil can extend its shelf life.

  10. Assessment of Relationship Between Bacterial Stripe Resistance And Leaf Protein Bands In Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talei, D.; Fotokian, M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial stripe as a new rice disease in Iran is more frequent nowadays. The objective of this study was to assessment of resistance in rice varieties together with evaluating of zymogram bands resulted from SDS PAGE electrophoresis of leaf proteins. For this purpose, 30 lines were tested in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The analysis of variance showed that there was significant difference between genotypes for resistance. Mean compare based on field results revealed that Domsiyah had the lowest resistance while Nemat and 7162 demonstrated the highest resistance. Laboratory results showed that there were significant difference between protein bands resulted from sensitive and resistance verities. Twenty bands were observed through SDS PAGE electrophoresis of leaf proteins. The 9th and 12th bands were found in sensitive varieties while were not in resistance genotypes. According to the results of this study, 7162 variety can be considered as the sources of resistance in breeding programs. Meanwhile attending to existence of 9th and 12th bands in sensitive varieties, resistance against bacterial stripe of rice maybe influenced by absence of these proteins.

  11. Bacterial Protein Characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae by SDS-page Method for Subclinical Mastitis Irradiated Vaccine Materials in Dairy Cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study have been conducted to isolate and characterize bacterial protein S. agalactiae, which is antigenic and can be used to test immunogenicity of vaccine in order to manufacture irradiated mastitis (inflammation of the udder) vaccine in ruminant. The study aims to determine the Molecular Weight (MW) bacterial protein S. agalactiae irradiation, which can be used to test the nature of its antigenic caharacteristic. The character of S. agalactiae antigenic stimulates antibody induction of the immune system, in which case is the body's defense system against mastitis disease in cattle. In this study, irradiation of gamma ray is used to attenuate the pathogenicity of bacteria by reducing S. agalactiae antigenic characteristic. Previous research, in irradiation dose orientation before antigenic protein isolation of S. agalactiae, indicated that irradiation lethal dose to 50% (LD50) is 17 Gy. The characterization of S. agalactiae bacteria isolate using SDS-page method results in no significance different between irradiated and non-irradiated group, which indicated by MW range 75 - 100 kDa base on marker standard which used, or 99 kDa by the linier equation of Y = 11,60 - 0.05X (where Y = bands distance; X = MW standard protein); r2 = 0.99. In conclusion, 17 Gy irradiation dose does not impair antigenic property of S. agalactiae and therefore, can be applied to produce base material of irradiated vaccine for mastitis. (author)

  12. Manipulating the glycosylation pathway in bacterial and lower eukaryotes for production of therapeutic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2015-01-01

    The medical use of pharmaceutical proteins is rapidly increasing and cheap, fast and efficient production is therefore attractive. Microbial production hosts are promising candidates for development and production of pharmaceutical proteins. However, as most therapeutic proteins are secreted prot...

  13. Meal Elements - a Way of optimising ready to eat Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Jacobsen, Peter

    The aim of this project is to develop a concept for improvement of the quality of food produced in large-scale kitchens. Using meal elements in large-scale kitchens in combination with production planning and over-all structuring of activities generally improves the quality of the meal prepared....

  14. Pre-meal affective state and laboratory test meal intake in adolescent girls with loss of control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzenhofer, Lisa M; Hannallah, Louise; Field, Sara E; Shomaker, Lauren B; Stephens, Mark; Sbrocco, Tracy; Kozlosky, Merel; Reynolds, James; Yanovski, Jack A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-09-01

    Loss of control eating confers risk for excess weight gain and exacerbated disordered eating. Affect theory proposes that loss of control eating is used to cope with negative mood states. Self-report data suggest that negative affect may contribute to the etiology of loss of control eating, but this theory has not been well-tested using laboratory paradigms. We examined associations between pre-meal affective states and intake during a laboratory test meal. One-hundred and ten adolescent girls with reported loss of control eating whose body mass index fell between the 75th and 97th percentile for age and sex completed state mood ratings prior to a test-meal. Results indicated that pre-meal state negative affect was associated with greater carbohydrate and less protein consumption, as well as greater snack and dessert and less fruit and dairy intake. All girls experienced significant decreases in negative affect from pre- to post-meal, but intake during the meal was unassociated with post-meal affect. In support of affect theory, negative affective states reported among girls with loss of control may be a driving factor for increased energy-dense food intake, which may play a role in excess weight gain. PMID:23603224

  15. 酶法处理玉米胚芽粕提取蛋白质的条件初探%Preliminary Study on Conditions Related to Protein Extraction by Enzymatic Processing of Corn Germ Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 王联结; 郑有为

    2011-01-01

    选用提油后的玉米胚芽粕为原料,利用纤维素酶对预处理后的胚芽粕进行水解,通过测定离心液中的糖量,残渣中纤维素水解率及浓缩后蛋白质含量等指标,考察胚芽粕预处理过程及酶解过程中几个主要因素对蛋白提取效果的影响.结果表明,预处理过程中4个因素对蛋白质提取效果影响的次序依次为:浸泡温度>浸泡时间>料液比>样品粒度.酶解过程中3个因素对蛋白质提取效果影响的次序依次为:加酶量>酶解时间>pH.结合正交试验的结果,同时考虑经济节约的原则,得到最佳组合为:浸泡温度35℃,浸泡时间48h,料液比1:12,粒度100目,加酶量2%,酶解时间48h,pH值4.5.最佳条件下测定产品中蛋白质含量可达42.5%.%Oil - extracted corn germ meal was selected as raw material and the pretreated germ meal was hydrolyzed with cellulase. The sugar content of the liquid, cellulose hydrolysis rate of the residue and the protein content of final product were measured to investigate the effects of several major factors in germ meal processing on protein extraction. The results showed that the effects of the pretreatment process factors on protein extraction followed the following order: soaking temperature > soaking time > liquid ratio > sample size. The effects of digestion process factors on the protein extraction sequence were as follows: enzyme dosage > hydrolysis time > pH. As per the results of the orthogonal test and on the basis of the economic saving principle,the best combination is as follows :liquid ratio 1: 12,soaking temperature 35 ℃ ,soaking time 48 h,particle size 100 mesh,enzyme 2% ,hydrolysis time 48h and pH value 4.5. Under the best conditions,the protein content of products reached to 42.5%.

  16. Pigments and proteins in green bacterial chlorosomes studied by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, S; Sönksen, C P; Frigaard, N U;

    2000-01-01

    We have used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for mass determination of pigments and proteins in chlorosomes, the light-harvesting organelles from the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum. By applying a small volume (1...... proportional to peak areas obtained from HPLC analysis of the same sample. The same result was also obtained when whole cells of Chl. tepidum were applied to the target, indicating that MALDI-MS can provide a rapid method for obtaining a semiquantitative determination or finger-print of the bacteriochlorophyll...... homologs in a small amount of green bacterial cells. In addition to information on pigments, the MALDI spectra also contained peaks from chlorosome proteins. Thus we have been able with high precision to confirm the molecular masses of the chlorosome proteins CsmA and CsmE which have been previously...

  17. A census of membrane-bound and intracellular signal transduction proteins in bacteria: Bacterial IQ, extroverts and introverts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galperin Michael Y

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of complete microbial genomes showed that intracellular parasites and other microorganisms that inhabit stable ecological niches encode relatively primitive signaling systems, whereas environmental microorganisms typically have sophisticated systems of environmental sensing and signal transduction. Results This paper presents results of a comprehensive census of signal transduction proteins – histidine kinases, methyl-accepting chemotaxis receptors, Ser/Thr/Tyr protein kinases, adenylate and diguanylate cyclases and c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases – encoded in 167 bacterial and archaeal genomes, sequenced by the end of 2004. The data have been manually checked to avoid false-negative and false-positive hits that commonly arise during large-scale automated analyses and compared against other available resources. The census data show uneven distribution of most signaling proteins among bacterial and archaeal phyla. The total number of signal transduction proteins grows approximately as a square of genome size. While histidine kinases are found in representatives of all phyla and are distributed according to the power law, other signal transducers are abundant in certain phylogenetic groups but virtually absent in others. Conclusion The complexity of signaling systems differs even among closely related organisms. Still, it usually can be correlated with the phylogenetic position of the organism, its lifestyle, and typical environmental challenges it encounters. The number of encoded signal transducers (or their fraction in the total protein set can be used as a measure of the organism's ability to adapt to diverse conditions, the 'bacterial IQ', while the ratio of transmembrane receptors to intracellular sensors can be used to define whether the organism is an 'extrovert', actively sensing the environmental parameters, or an 'introvert', more concerned about its internal homeostasis. Some of the microorganisms with the

  18. NbCSPR underlies age-dependent immune responses to bacterial cold shock protein in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, Isabel M L; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Sklenar, Jan; Holton, Nicholas J; Smakowska, Elwira; Belkhadir, Youssef; Zipfel, Cyril; Rathjen, John P

    2016-03-22

    Plants use receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are typical of whole classes of microbes. After ligand perception, many leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing PRRs interact with the LRR-RK BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1). BAK1 is thus expected to interact with unknown PRRs. Here, we used BAK1 as molecular bait to identify a previously unknown LRR-RLP required for the recognition of the csp22 peptide derived from bacterial cold shock protein. We established a method to identify proteins that interact with BAK1 only after csp22 treatment. BAK1 was expressed transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana and immunopurified after treatment with csp22. BAK1-associated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified several proteins including known BAK1 interactors and a previously uncharacterized LRR-RLP that we termed RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN REQUIRED FOR CSP22 RESPONSIVENESS (NbCSPR). This RLP associates with BAK1 upon csp22 treatment, and NbCSPR-silenced plants are impaired in csp22-induced defense responses. NbCSPR confers resistance to bacteria in an age-dependent and flagellin-induced manner. As such, it limits bacterial growth and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of flowering N. benthamiana plants. Transgenic expression of NbCSPR into Arabidopsis thaliana conferred responsiveness to csp22 and antibacterial resistance. Our method may be used to identify LRR-type RKs and RLPs required for PAMP perception/responsiveness, even when the active purified PAMP has not been defined.

  19. Manipulating the glycosylation pathway in bacterial and lower eukaryotes for production of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2015-12-01

    The medical use of pharmaceutical proteins is rapidly increasing and cheap, fast and efficient production is therefore attractive. Microbial production hosts are promising candidates for development and production of pharmaceutical proteins. However, as most therapeutic proteins are secreted proteins, they are frequently N-glycosylated. This hampers production in microbes as these hosts glycosylate proteins differently. The resulting products may therefore be immunogenic, unstable and show reduced efficacy. Recently, successful glycoengineering of microbes has demonstrated that it is possible to produce proteins with humanlike glycan structures setting the stage for production of pharmaceutical proteins in bacteria, yeasts and algae.

  20. The topology of the bacterial co-conserved protein network and its implications for predicting protein function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leach Sonia M

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein interactions networks are most often generated from physical protein-protein interaction data. Co-conservation, also known as phylogenetic profiles, is an alternative source of information for generating protein interaction networks. Co-conservation methods generate interaction networks among proteins that are gained or lost together through evolution. Co-conservation is a particularly useful technique in the compact bacteria genomes. Prior studies in yeast suggest that the topology of protein-protein interaction networks generated from physical interaction assays can offer important insight into protein function. Here, we hypothesize that in bacteria, the topology of protein interaction networks derived via co-conservation information could similarly improve methods for predicting protein function. Since the topology of bacteria co-conservation protein-protein interaction networks has not previously been studied in depth, we first perform such an analysis for co-conservation networks in E. coli K12. Next, we demonstrate one way in which network connectivity measures and global and local function distribution can be exploited to predict protein function for previously uncharacterized proteins. Results Our results showed, like most biological networks, our bacteria co-conserved protein-protein interaction networks had scale-free topologies. Our results indicated that some properties of the physical yeast interaction network hold in our bacteria co-conservation networks, such as high connectivity for essential proteins. However, the high connectivity among protein complexes in the yeast physical network was not seen in the co-conservation network which uses all bacteria as the reference set. We found that the distribution of node connectivity varied by functional category and could be informative for function prediction. By integrating of functional information from different annotation sources and using the

  1. Biscuit meal composition in pig feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Corassa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compile results of the nutritional composition of the biscuit meal from 14 papers from studies published in journals and reports during 2000 and 2011 to characterize the gross, digestible and metabolizable energy (DE and ME, kcal / kg for pigs, dry mater (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, mineral matter (MM, crude fiber (CF, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (Pt, sodium (Na, total lysine (LIS, methionine plus cystine total (MC, threonine (THR, tryptophan (TRI and non-nitrogen extraction (ENN of this product. The mean values were biscuit meal 3681 kcal / kg; 8.93%, 9.07%, 11.61%, 2.71%, 2.64%, 0.12%, 0.21%; 0, 34%, 0.23%, 0.30%, 0.26%, 0.16% and 69.66%, for ME; U, CP, EE, MM, FB; Ca, Pt, Na; LIS; MC , TRE, TRI and NFE, respectively.

  2. The liposoluble proteome of Mycoplasma agalactiae: an insight into the minimal protein complement of a bacterial membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cacciotto Carla

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasmas are the simplest bacteria capable of autonomous replication. Their evolution proceeded from gram-positive bacteria, with the loss of many biosynthetic pathways and of the cell wall. In this work, the liposoluble protein complement of Mycoplasma agalactiae, a minimal bacterial pathogen causing mastitis, polyarthritis, keratoconjunctivitis, and abortion in small ruminants, was subjected to systematic characterization in order to gain insights into its membrane proteome composition. Results The selective enrichment for M. agalactiae PG2T liposoluble proteins was accomplished by means of Triton X-114 fractionation. Liposoluble proteins were subjected to 2-D PAGE-MS, leading to the identification of 40 unique proteins and to the generation of a reference 2D map of the M. agalactiae liposoluble proteome. Liposoluble proteins from the type strain PG2 and two field isolates were then compared by means of 2D DIGE, revealing reproducible differences in protein expression among isolates. An in-depth analysis was then performed by GeLC-MS/MS in order to achieve a higher coverage of the liposoluble proteome. Using this approach, a total of 194 unique proteins were identified, corresponding to 26% of all M. agalactiae PG2T genes. A gene ontology analysis and classification for localization and function was also carried out on all protein identifications. Interestingly, the 11.5% of expressed membrane proteins derived from putative horizontal gene transfer events. Conclusions This study led to the in-depth systematic characterization of the M. agalactiae liposoluble protein component, providing useful insights into its membrane organization.

  3. Oral mucosal lipids are antibacterial against Porphyromonas gingivalis, induce ultrastructural damage, and alter bacterial lipid and protein compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol L Fischer; Katherine S Walters; David R Drake; Deborah V Dawson; Derek R Blanchette; Kim A Brogden; Philip W Wertz

    2013-01-01

    Oral mucosal and salivary lipids exhibit potent antimicrobial activity for a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria;however, little is known about their spectrum of antimicrobial activity or mechanisms of action against oral bacteria. In this study, we examine the activity of two fatty acids and three sphingoid bases against Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important colonizer of the oral cavity implicated in periodontitis. Minimal inhibitory concentrations, minimal bactericidal concentrations, and kill kinetics revealed variable, but potent, activity of oral mucosal and salivary lipids against P. gingivalis, indicating that lipid structure may be an important determinant in lipid mechanisms of activity against bacteria, although specific components of bacterial membranes are also likely important. Electron micrographs showed ultrastructural damage induced by sapienic acid and phytosphingosine and confirmed disruption of the bacterial plasma membrane. This information, coupled with the association of treatment lipids with P. gingivalis lipids revealed via thin layer chromatography, suggests that the plasma membrane is a likely target of lipid antibacterial activity. Utilizing a combination of two-dimensional in-gel electrophoresis and Western blot followed by mass spectroscopy and N-terminus degradation sequencing we also show that treatment with sapienic acid induces upregulation of a set of proteins comprising a unique P. gingivalis stress response, including proteins important in fatty acid biosynthesis, metabolism and energy production, protein processing, cell adhesion and virulence. Prophylactic or therapeutic lipid treatments may be beneficial for intervention of infection by supplementing the natural immune function of endogenous lipids on mucosal surfaces.

  4. Antimicrobial proteins from snake venoms: direct bacterial damage and activation of innate immunity against Staphylococcus aureus skin infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, R P; Stiles, B G; Gopalakrishnakone, P; Chow, V T K

    2011-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against microbial diseases. Antimicrobial proteins produced by snake venoms have recently attracted significant attention due to their relevance to bacterial infection and potential development into new therapeutic agents. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major human pathogens causing a variety of infections involving pneumonia, toxic shock syndrome, and skin lesions. With the recent emergence of methicillin (MRSA) and vancomycin (VRSA) resistance, S. aureus infection is a serious clinical problem that will have a grave socio-economic impact in the near future. Although S. aureus susceptibility to innate antimicrobial peptides has been reported recently, the protective effect of snake venom phospholipase A₂ (svPLA₂) proteins on the skin from S. aureus infection has been understudied. This review details the protective function of svPLA₂s derived from venoms against skin infections caused by S. aureus. We have demonstrated in vivo that local application of svPLA₂ provides complete clearance of S. aureus within 2 weeks after treatment compared to fusidic acid ointment (FAO). In vitro experiments also demonstrate that svPLA₂ proteins have inhibitory (bacteriostatic) and killing (bactericidal) effects on S. aureus in a dose-dependant manner. The mechanism of bacterial membrane damage and perturbation was clearly evidenced by electron microscopic studies. In summary, svPLA₂s from Viperidae and Elapidae snakes are novel molecules that can activate important mechanisms of innate immunity in animals to endow them with protection against skin infection caused by S. aureus.

  5. Use of biofuel by-product from the green algae Desmochloris sp. and diatom Nanofrustulum sp. meal in diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algal by-product meals from the Hawaiian biofuels industry were evaluated as protein ingredients in diets for juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 40% protein and were made with fish meal, soybean meal, whole diatom (Nanofrustulum sp.)...

  6. Activation of the unfolded protein response is required for defenses against bacterial pore-forming toxin in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry J Bischof

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Pore-forming toxins (PFTs constitute the single largest class of proteinaceous bacterial virulence factors and are made by many of the most important bacterial pathogens. Host responses to these toxins are complex and poorly understood. We find that the endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response (UPR is activated upon exposure to PFTs both in Caenorhabditis elegans and in mammalian cells. Activation of the UPR is protective in vivo against PFTs since animals that lack either the ire-1-xbp-1 or the atf-6 arms of the UPR are more sensitive to PFT than wild-type animals. The UPR acts directly in the cells targeted by the PFT. Loss of the UPR leads to a normal response against unrelated toxins or a pathogenic bacterium, indicating its PFT-protective role is specific. The p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAPK kinase pathway has been previously shown to be important for cellular defenses against PFTs. We find here that the UPR is one of the key downstream targets of the p38 MAPK pathway in response to PFT since loss of a functional p38 MAPK pathway leads to a failure of PFT to properly activate the ire-1-xbp-1 arm of the UPR. The UPR-mediated activation and response to PFTs is distinct from the canonical UPR-mediated response to unfolded proteins both in terms of its activation and functional sensitivities. These data demonstrate that the UPR, a fundamental intracellular pathway, can operate in intrinsic cellular defenses against bacterial attack.

  7. Interaction of Gram-negative bacteria with cationic proteins: Dependence on the surface characteristics of the bacterial cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella R Prokhorenko

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Isabella R Prokhorenko1, Svetlana V Zubova1, Alexandr Yu Ivanov2, Sergey V Grachev31Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Basic Biological Problems; 2Institute of Cell Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia; 3I.M. Sechenov’s Moscow Medical Academy, Moscow, Russia Abstract: Gram-negative bacteria can enter the bloodstream and interact with serum cationic proteins. The character of interaction will depend on the surface characteristics of bacterial cells, which are determined by bacterial chemotype and density of lipopolysaccharide (LPS packing in the cell wall. It was shown that the lysozyme treatment resulted in the increase sensitivity to hypotonic shock. Signifi cant differences to this effect were found between Escherichia coli strain D21 and D21f2 under treatment with physiological protein concentration. On the basis of electrokinetic measurements and studies of the interaction of cells with lysozyme, the hypothesis was formed that the cell wall of the E. coli strain D21f2 contains more LPS and has a higher density of their packing than the cell wall of the E. coli D21 cells. The effect of lysozyme and lactoferrin on the viability of E. coli cells of two different strains was examined. Lysozyme was found to more effectively inhibit the growth of the E. coli D21 bacteria, and lactoferrin suppressed mainly the growth of the E. coli D21f2 bacteria. These results indicate that the differences in LPS core structure of bacterial R-chemotype, which determines surface charge and density of LPS packing, plays an essential role in the mechanisms of interaction of the cationic proteins with the cell wall.Keywords: lipopolysaccharide, Escherichia coli, chemotype, lysozyme, lactoferrin, colony-forming units

  8. Protein Modification: Bacterial Effectors Rewrite the Rules of Ubiquitylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Jason M; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2016-07-11

    A family of virulence factors from the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila has been discovered to modify human Rab GTPases with ubiquitin. Surprisingly, this modification occurs via a non-canonical mechanism that uses nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. PMID:27404243

  9. Effect of chia seed meal on baking quality of cakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia seed is a good source of dietary fiber and complete proteins; chia seeds contain many health-promoting compounds and can be incorporated into baking goods for high-protein, high-fiber diet. Food grade chia seeds were obtained from a local grocery store and ground into meal using Retsch Model VD...

  10. A LytM Domain Dictates the Localization of Proteins to the Mother Cell-Forespore Interface during Bacterial Endospore Formation▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Meisner, Jeffrey; Moran, Charles P.

    2010-01-01

    A large number of proteins are known to reside at specific subcellular locations in bacterial cells. However, the molecular mechanisms by which many of these proteins are anchored at these locations remains unclear. During endospore formation in Bacillus subtilis, several integral membrane proteins are located specifically at the interface of the two adjacent cells of the developing sporangium, the mother cell and forespore. The mother cell membrane protein SpoIIIAH recognizes the cell-cell i...

  11. Effect of Bacterial Flora on Postimmunization Gastritis following Oral Vaccination of Mice with Helicobacter pylori Heat Shock Protein 60

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Osaki, Takako; Taguchi, Haruhiko; Sato, Noriko; Toyoda, Atushi; Takahashi, Motomichi; Kai, Masanori; Nakata, Noboru; Komatsu, Akio; Atomi, Yutaka; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2003-01-01

    In order to assess the efficacy of oral Helicobacter pylori heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) as a vaccine, protection against H. pylori infection in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) C57BL/6 and germfree (GF) IQI mice was examined. Prophylactic oral vaccination of these two strains of mice with either H. pylori HSP60 or Escherichia coli GroEL inhibited H. pylori colonization by 90 to 95% at 3 weeks postinfection (p.i.). However, these mice were only partially protected because bacterial loads increas...

  12. Assessment of heavy metal bioavailability in contaminated sediments and soils using green fluorescent protein-based bacterial biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based bacterial biosensor Escherichia coli DH5α (pVLCD1) was developed based on the expression of gfp under the control of the cad promoter and the cadC gene of Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pI258. DH5α (pVLCD1) mainly responded to Cd(II), Pb(II), and Sb(III), the lowest detectable concentrations being 0.1 nmol L-1, 10 nmol L-1, and 0.1 nmol L-1, respectively, with 2 h exposure. The biosensor was field-tested to measure the relative bioavailability of the heavy metals in contaminated sediments and soil samples. The results showed that the majority of heavy metals remained adsorbed to soil particles: Cd(II)/Pb(II) was only partially available to the biosensor in soil-water extracts. Our results demonstrate that the GFP-based bacterial biosensor is useful and applicable in determining the bioavailability of heavy metals with high sensitivity in contaminated sediment and soil samples and suggests a potential for its inexpensive application in environmentally relevant sample tests. - Nonpathogenic GFP-based bacterial biosensor is applicable in determining the bioavailability of heavy metals in environmental samples

  13. NEW EMBO MEMBER’S REVIEW: Viral and bacterial proteins regulating apoptosis at the mitochondrial level

    OpenAIRE

    Boya, Patricia; Roques, Bernard,; Kroemer, Guido

    2001-01-01

    Mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP) is a critical step of several apoptotic pathways. Some infectious intracellular pathogens can regulate (induce or inhibit) apoptosis of their host cells at the mitochondrial level, by targeting proteins to mitochondrial membranes that either induce or inhibit MMP. Pathogen-encoded mitochondrion-targeted proteins may or may not show amino acid sequence homology to Bcl-2-like proteins. Among the Bcl-2-unrelated, mitochondrion-targeted proteins, seve...

  14. Strategies for production of active eukaryotic proteins in bacterial expression system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Orawan Khow; Sunutcha Suntrarachun

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria have long been the favorite expression system for recombinant protein production. However, the flaw of the system is that insoluble and inactive proteins are co-produced due to codon bias, protein folding, phosphorylation, glycosylation, mRNA stability and promoter strength. Factors are cited and the methods to convert to soluble and active proteins are described, for example a tight control of Escherichia coli milieu, refolding from inclusion body and through fusion technology.

  15. Ruminal Degradability of Dry Matter and Crude Protein from Moist Dehulled Lupin and Extruded Rapeseed Meal Degradabilidad Ruminal de la Materia Seca y de la Proteína Cruda de Lupino Descascarado y Torta de Raps Extruidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of ruminal undegradable protein (RUP to the small intestine can be increased if ruminal degradation of dietary protein is reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion on ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP from dehulled lupin (Lupinus albus L. (DL and rapeseed (Brassica napus L. meal (RM. Unextruded soybean (Glicine max L. meal (SBM was used as a control. The DL was extruded at 130 ºC with 20% moisture and RM was extruded at 120 ºC with 20% moisture. Ruminal degradability was evaluated in situ by incubating feed samples for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h of fermentation in the rumen using three rumen-fistulated dairy cows. Values of CP soluble fraction (“a” in SBM, DL, extruded dehulled lupin (EDL, RM, and extruded rapeseed meal (ERM was lower in the extruded feeds (P El flujo de proteína no degradable en el rumen (RUP hacia el intestino delgado puede ser incrementado si se reduce la degradación ruminal de la proteína dietaria. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la extrusión sobre la degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca (DM y proteína cruda (CP de lupino (Lupinus albus L. descascarado (DL y torta de raps (Brassica napus L. (RM. Se utilizó afrecho de soya (Glicine max L. sin extruir (SBM como control. El DL fue extruido a 130 ºC con 20% de humedad y la RM fue extruida a 120 ºC con 20% de humedad. La degradabilidad ruminal se evaluó in situ incubando las muestras de alimentos a 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h de fermentación en tres vacas lecheras con fístula ruminal. Los valores de la fracción soluble de la CP (“a” en SBM, en DL, lupino descascarado extruido (EDL, RM y torta de raps extruida (ERM fue menor en los extruidos (P < 0.05. La fracción lentamente degradable (“b” de SBM, DL, EDL, RM y de ERM fue 858; 593; 622 y 451 y 457 g kg-1, respectivamente, y se incrementó por extrusión (P < 0.05. La extrusión redujo la degradabilidad efectiva

  16. Studies on Bacterial Proteins Corona Interaction with Saponin Imprinted ZnO Nanohoneycombs and Their Toxic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepali; Ashaduzzaman, Md; Golabi, Mohsen; Shriwastav, Amritanshu; Bisetty, Krishna; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2015-11-01

    Molecular imprinting generates robust, efficient, and highly mesoporous surfaces for biointeractions. Mechanistic interfacial interaction between the surface of core substrate and protein corona is crucial to understand the substantial microbial toxic responses at a nanoscale. In this study, we have focused on the mechanistic interactions between synthesized saponin imprinted zinc oxide nanohoneycombs (SIZnO NHs), average size 80-125 nm, surface area 20.27 m(2)/g, average pore density 0.23 pore/nm and number-average pore size 3.74 nm and proteins corona of bacteria. The produced SIZnO NHs as potential antifungal and antibacterial agents have been studied on Sclerotium rolfsii (S. rolfsii), Pythium debarynum (P. debarynum) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), respectively. SIZnO NHs exhibited the highest antibacterial (∼50%) and antifungal (∼40%) activity against Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) and fungus (P. debarynum), respectively at concentration of 0.1 mol. Scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM) observation showed that the ZnO NHs ruptured the cell wall of bacteria and internalized into the cell. The molecular docking studies were carried out using binding proteins present in the gram negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharide and lipocalin Blc) and gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcal Protein A, SpA). It was envisaged that the proteins present in the bacterial cell wall were found to interact and adsorb on the surface of SIZnO NHs thereby blocking the active sites of the proteins used for cell wall synthesis. The binding affinity and interaction energies were higher in the case of binding proteins present in gram negative bacteria as compared to that of gram positive bacteria. In addition, a kinetic mathematical model (KMM) was developed in MATLAB to predict the internalization in the bacterial cellular uptake of the ZnO NHs for better understanding of their controlled toxicity. The results obtained from KMM exhibited a good

  17. Bacterial heme-transport proteins and their heme-coordination modes

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Yong; Guo, Maolin

    2008-01-01

    Efficient iron acquisition is critical for an invading microbe’s survival and virulence. Most of the iron in mammals is incorporated into heme, which can be plundered by certain bacterial pathogens as a nutritional iron source. Utilization of exogenous heme by bacteria involves the binding of heme or hemoproteins to the cell surface receptors, followed by the transport of heme into cells. Once taken into the cytosol, heme is presented to heme oxygenases where the tetrapyrrole ring is cleaved ...

  18. High Protein Pasta is Not More Satiating than High Fiber Pasta at a Lunch Meal, Nor Does it Decrease Mid-Afternoon Snacking in Healthy Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Renee; Timm, Derek; Ahnen, Rylee; Thomas, William; Slavin, Joanne L

    2016-09-01

    This study compared satiety after high protein pasta (16 g protein, 6 g fiber), high fiber pasta (11 g protein, 8 g fiber) or control pasta (11 g protein, 6 g fiber) in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Participants were 36 healthy and men and women from the University of Minnesota campus. Fasted men and women ate calorie controlled, but macronutrient different pastas at 12:00 pm along with 500 mL of water. The primary outcome was satiety assessed by Visual Analogue Scales at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min daily after consuming the pastas. Secondary outcomes were calories consumed at an ad libitum snack at 3:00 pm, calories from food intake, gastrointestinal tolerance, and palatability. No differences were found among the pasta treatments for satiety, snacking, or gastrointestinal tolerance. Men ate significantly more calories for the rest of the (P = 0.007) after the high protein pasta versus the high fiber pasta (1701 ± 154 compared with 1083 ± 154) with control pasta being intermediate to the other treatments. No significant differences were found for gastrointestinal tolerance, but the palatability ratings showed the high protein pasta was less tasty (P = 0.03) and less pleasant (P = 0.01) than the other 2 pastas. Satisfaction was positively associated with pleasantness and negatively associated with aftertaste. Our results do not support the idea that high protein or high fiber pasta produces a greater satiety response compared to pasta with lower amounts of either nutrient. It is likely that since pasta is already a very satiating food, the subjects were unable to differentiate between the 3 conditions.

  19. Validation of a buffet meal design in an experimental restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allirot, Xavier; Saulais, Laure; Disse, Emmanuel; Roth, Hubert; Cazal, Camille; Laville, Martine

    2012-06-01

    We assessed the reproducibility of intakes and meal mechanics parameters (cumulative energy intake (CEI), number of bites, bite rate, mean energy content per bite) during a buffet meal designed in a natural setting, and their sensitivity to food deprivation. Fourteen men were invited to three lunch sessions in an experimental restaurant. Subjects ate their regular breakfast before sessions A and B. They skipped breakfast before session FAST. The same ad libitum buffet was offered each time. Energy intakes and meal mechanics were assessed by foods weighing and video recording. Intrasubject reproducibility was evaluated by determining intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Mixed-models were used to assess the effects of the sessions on CEI. We found a good reproducibility between A and B for total energy (ICC=0.82), carbohydrate (ICC=0.83), lipid (ICC=0.81) and protein intake (ICC=0.79) and for meal mechanics parameters. Total energy, lipid and carbohydrate intake were higher in FAST than in A and B. CEI were found sensitive to differences in hunger level while the other meal mechanics parameters were stable between sessions. In conclusion, a buffet meal in a normal eating environment is a valid tool for assessing the effects of interventions on intakes.

  20. Protein complexes in bacterial and yeast mitochondrial membranes differ in their sensitivity towards dissociation by SDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbens, Jacob; Slijper, Monique; de Kruijff, Ben; de Kroon, Anton I P M

    2008-12-01

    Previously, a 2D gel electrophoresis approach was developed for the Escherichia coli inner membrane, which detects membrane protein complexes that are stable in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at room temperature, and dissociate under the influence of trifluoroethanol [R. E. Spelbrink et al., J. Biol. Chem. 280 (2005), 28742-8]. Here, the method was applied to the evolutionarily related mitochondrial inner membrane that was isolated from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Surprisingly, only very few proteins were found to be dissociated by trifluoroethanol of which Lpd1p, a component of multiple protein complexes localized in the mitochondrial matrix, is the most prominent. Usage of either milder or more stringent conditions did not yield any additional proteins that were released by fluorinated alcohols. This strongly suggests that membrane protein complexes in yeast are less stable in SDS solution than their E. coli counterparts, which might be due to the overall reduced hydrophobicity of mitochondrial transmembrane proteins. PMID:18817900

  1. Recognition and delivery of effector proteins into eukaryotic cells by bacterial secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambronne, Eric D; Roy, Craig R

    2006-08-01

    The direct transport of virulence proteins from bacterium to host has emerged as a common strategy employed by Gram-negative pathogens to establish infections. Specialized secretion systems function to facilitate this process. The delivery of 'effector' proteins by these secretion systems is currently confined to two functionally similar but mechanistically distinct pathways, termed type III and type IV secretion. The type III secretion pathway is ancestrally related to the multiprotein complexes that assemble flagella, whereas the type IV mechanism probably emerged from the protein complexes that support conjugal transfer of DNA. Although both pathways serve to transport proteins from the bacterium to host, the recognition of the effector protein substrates and the secretion information contained in these proteins appear highly distinct. Here, we review the mechanisms involved in the selection of substrates by each of these transport systems and secretion signal information required for substrate transport. PMID:16734660

  2. Engineering bacterial surface displayed human norovirus capsid proteins: A novel system to explore interaction between norovirus and ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengya eNiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (HuNoVs are major contributors to acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks. Many aspects of HuNoVs are poorly understood due to both the current inability to culture HuNoVs, and the lack of efficient small animal models. Surrogates for HuNoVs, such as recombinant viral like particles (VLPs expressed in eukaryotic system or P particles expressed in prokaryotic system, have been used for studies in immunology and interaction between the virus and its receptors. However, it is difficult to use VLPs or P particles to collect or isolate potential ligands binding to these recombinant capsid proteins. In this study, a new strategy was used to collect HuNoVs binding ligands through the use of ice nucleation protein (INP to display recombinant capsid proteins of HuNoVs on bacterial surfaces. The viral protein-ligand complex could be easily separated by a low speed centrifugation step. This system was also used to explore interaction between recombinant capsid proteins of HuNoVs and their receptors. In this system, the VP1 capsid encoding gene (ORF2 and the protruding domain (P domain encoding gene (3’ terminal fragment of ORF2 of HuNoVs GI.1 and GII.4 were fused with 5’ terminal fragment of ice nucleation protein encoding gene (inaQn. The results demonstrated that the recombinant VP1 and P domains of HuNoVs were expressed and anchored on the surface of Escherichia coli BL21 cells after the bacteria were transformed with the corresponding plasmids. Both cell surface displayed VP1 and P domains could be recognized by HuNoVs specific antibodies and interact with the viral histo-blood group antigens receptors. In both cases, displayed P domains had better binding abilities than VP1. This new strategy of using displayed HuNoVs capsid proteins on the bacterial surface could be utilized to separate HuNoVs binding components from complex samples, to investigate interaction between the virus and its receptors, as well as to develop an

  3. A secretory system for bacterial production of high-profile protein targets

    OpenAIRE

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Vernet, Erik; Hammarström, Martin; Berthelsen, Jens; Weigelt, Johan; Gräslund, Susanne; Sundström, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli represents a robust, inexpensive expression host for the production of recombinant proteins. However, one major limitation is that certain protein classes do not express well in a biologically relevant form using standard expression approaches in the cytoplasm of E. coli. To improve the usefulness of the E. coli expression platform we have investigated combinations of promoters and selected N-terminal fusion tags for the extracellular expression of human target proteins. A co...

  4. A model for the condensation of the bacterial chromosome by the partitioning protein ParB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broedersz, Chase; Wingreen, Ned

    2013-03-01

    The molecular machinery responsible for faithful segregation of the chromosome in bacteria such as Caulobacter crescentus and Bacillus subtilis includes the ParABS a.k.a. Spo0J/Soj partitioning system. In Caulobacter, prior to division, hundreds of ParB proteins bind to the DNA near the origin of replication, and localize to one pole of the cell. Subsequently, the ParB-DNA complex is translocated to the far pole by the binding and retraction of the ParA spindle-like apparatus. Remarkably, the localization of ParB proteins to specific regions of the chromosome appears to be controlled by only a few centromeric parS binding sites. Although lateral interactions between DNA-bound ParB are likely to be important for their localization, the long-range order of ParB domains on the chromosome appears to be inconsistent with a picture in which protein-protein interactions are limited to neighboring DNA-bound proteins. We developed a coarse-grained Brownian dynamics model that allows for lateral and 3D protein-protein interactions among bound ParB proteins. Our model shows how such interactions can condense and organize the DNA spatially, and can control the localization and the long-range order of the DNA-bound proteins.

  5. Proteome-wide identification of predominant subcellular protein localizations in a bacterial model organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stekhoven, Daniel J. [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); Omasits, Ulrich [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland); ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Quebatte, Maxime [Univ. of Basel (Switzerland); Dehio, Christoph [Univ. of Basel (Switzerland); Ahrens, Christian H. [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-03-01

    Proteomics data provide unique insights into biological systems, including the predominant subcellular localization (SCL) of proteins, which can reveal important clues about their functions. Here we analyzed data of a complete prokaryotic proteome expressed under two conditions mimicking interaction of the emerging pathogen Bartonella henselae with its mammalian host. Normalized spectral count data from cytoplasmic, total membrane, inner and outer membrane fractions allowed us to identify the predominant SCL for 82% of the identified proteins. The spectral count proportion of total membrane versus cytoplasmic fractions indicated the propensity of cytoplasmic proteins to co-fractionate with the inner membrane, and enabled us to distinguish cytoplasmic, peripheral innermembrane and bona fide inner membrane proteins. Principal component analysis and k-nearest neighbor classification training on selected marker proteins or predominantly localized proteins, allowed us to determine an extensive catalog of at least 74 expressed outer membrane proteins, and to extend the SCL assignment to 94% of the identified proteins, including 18% where in silico methods gave no prediction. Suitable experimental proteomics data combined with straightforward computational approaches can thus identify the predominant SCL on a proteome-wide scale. Finally, we present a conceptual approach to identify proteins potentially changing their SCL in a condition-dependent fashion.

  6. A common theme in interaction of bacterial immunoglobulin-binding proteins with immunoglobulins illustrated in the equine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melanie J; Meehan, Mary; Owen, Peter; Woof, Jenny M

    2008-06-20

    The M protein of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi known as fibrinogen-binding protein (FgBP) is a cell wall-associated protein with antiphagocytic activity that binds IgG. Recombinant versions of the seven equine IgG subclasses were used to investigate the subclass specificity of FgBP. FgBP bound predominantly to equine IgG4 and IgG7, with little or no binding to the other subclasses. Competitive binding experiments revealed that FgBP could inhibit the binding of staphylococcal protein A and streptococcal protein G to both IgG4 and IgG7, implicating the Fc interdomain region in binding to FgBP. To identify which of the two IgG Fc domains contributed to the interaction with FgBP, we tested two human IgG1/IgA1 domain swap mutants and found that both domains are required for full binding, with the CH3 domain playing a critical role. The binding site for FgBP was further localized using recombinant equine IgG7 antibodies with single or double point mutations to residues lying at the CH2-CH3 interface. We found that interaction of FgBP with equine IgG4 and IgG7 was able to disrupt C1q binding and antibody-mediated activation of the classical complement pathway, demonstrating an effective means by which S. equi may evade the immune response. The mode of interaction of FgBP with IgG fits a common theme for bacterial Ig-binding proteins. Remarkably, for those interactions studied in detail, it emerges that all the Ig-binding proteins target the CH2-CH3 domain interface, regardless of specificity for IgG or IgA, streptococcal or staphylococcal origin, or host species (equine or human). PMID:18411272

  7. A psyllium fiber-enriched meal strongly attenuates postprandial gastrointestinal peptide release in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhunen, Leila J; Juvonen, Kristiina R; Flander, Sanna M; Liukkonen, Kirsi-Helena; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Siloaho, Maritta; Laaksonen, David E; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Uusitupa, Matti I; Poutanen, Kaisa S

    2010-04-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) and protein are essential constituents of a healthy diet and are well known for their high satiety impact. However, little is known about their influence on postprandial gastrointestinal (GI) peptide release. Our aim in this single-blind, randomized, cross-over study was to investigate the effects of DF and/or protein enrichments on satiety-related metabolic and hormonal responses. Sixteen healthy, nonobese volunteers participated in the study and ingested 1 of 5 isoenergetic test meals in a randomized order on separate days. The test meals were as follows: 1) low in protein (2.8 g) and fiber (7.6 g); 2) low in protein (2.6 g) and high in soluble fiber (psyllium, 23.0 g); 3) high in protein (soy, 19.7 g) and low in fiber (6.2 g); 4) high in protein (18.4 g) and fiber (23.0 g); and 5) white wheat bread. Serum insulin and plasma glucose, ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations were determined for 2 h following the meals. In addition, hunger and satiety ratings were collected. Postprandial glucose, insulin, ghrelin, GLP-1, and PYY responses all differed among the meals (P meals decreased glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and PYY responses; in addition, PYY secretion was prolonged compared with the other meals. The postprandial GLP-1 concentration was significantly suppressed after a fiber- and protein-rich meal, in contrast to the initial increases following the other meals. However, postprandial ratings of appetite were mostly similar after the test meals. In conclusion, solid meals enriched with psyllium fiber strongly modified postprandial signals arising from the GI tract. PMID:20147463

  8. Comparative effects of dietary nucleoside-nucleotide mixture and its components on endotoxin induced bacterial translocation and small intestinal injury in protein deficient mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Adjei, A A; Yamauchi, K.; Chan, Y. C.; Konishi, M; Yamamoto, S.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Nucleoside-nucleotide mixture has been shown to improve gut morphology and reduce the incidence of bacterial translocation in protein deficient mice. AIMS--To compare the reparative effect of nucleoside-nucleotide mixture and their individual components on maintenance of gut integrity and bacterial translocation based on their differential metabolism and utilisation. METHODS--ICR (CD-1) mice were randomised into eight groups of 10 animals each and fed 20% casein diet (control), pr...

  9. GPR109A is a G-protein-coupled receptor for the bacterial fermentation product butyrate and functions as a tumor suppressor in colon

    OpenAIRE

    Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Cresci, Gail A.; Liu, Kebin; Ananth, Sudha; Gnanaprakasam, Jaya P.; Browning, Darren D.; Mellinger, John D.; Smith, Sylvia B.; Digby, Gregory J.; Lambert, Nevin A.; Prasad, Puttur D.; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2009-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids, generated in colon by bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber, protect against colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Among these bacterial metabolites, butyrate is biologically most relevant. GPR109A is a G-protein-coupled receptor for nicotinate, but recognizes butyrate with low affinity. Millimolar concentrations of butyrate are needed to activate the receptor. Although concentrations of butyrate in colonic lumen are sufficient to activate the receptor m...

  10. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein cannot differentiate bacterial or viral infection in COPD exacerbation requiring emergency department visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang CH

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Hao Chang,1 Kuo-Chien Tsao,2,3 Han-Chung Hu,1,4 Chung-Chi Huang,1,4 Kuo-Chin Kao,1,4 Ning-Hung Chen,1,4 Cheng-Ta Yang,1,4 Ying-Huang Tsai,4,5 Meng-Jer Hsieh4,51Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Chang-Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, Linkou Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation; 3Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Department of Respiratory Therapy, Chang-Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Chiayi Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang-Gung Medical Foundation, Puzi City, TaiwanBackground: Viral and bacterial infections are the most common causes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations. Whether serum inflammatory markers can differentiate bacterial from virus infection in patients with COPD exacerbation requiring emergency department (ED visits remains controversial.Methods: Viral culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used to identify the viruses in the oropharynx of patients with COPD exacerbations. The bacteria were identified by the semiquantitative culture of the expectorated sputum. The peripheral blood white blood cell (WBC counts, serum C-reactive protein (CRP, procalcitonin (PCT, and clinical symptoms were compared among patients with different types of infections.Results: Viruses were isolated from 16 (22.2% of the 72 patients enrolled. The most commonly identified viruses were parainfluenza type 3, influenza A, and rhinovirus. A total of 30 (41.7% patients had positive bacterial cultures, with the most commonly found bacteria being Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Five patients (6.9% had both positive sputum cultures and virus identification. The WBC, CRP, and PCT levels of the bacteria-positive and bacteria

  11. A novel human tectonin protein with multivalent beta-propeller folds interacts with ficolin and binds bacterial LPS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hooi Ping Low

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the human genome database has been completed a decade ago, approximately 50% of the proteome remains hypothetical as their functions are unknown. The elucidation of the functions of these hypothetical proteins can lead to additional protein pathways and revelation of new cascades. However, many of these inferences are limited to proteins with substantial sequence similarity. Of particular interest here is the Tectonin domain-containing family of proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have identified hTectonin, a hypothetical protein in the human genome database, as a distant ortholog of the limulus galactose binding protein (GBP. Phylogenetic analysis revealed strong evolutionary conservation of hTectonin homologues from parasite to human. By computational analysis, we showed that both the hTectonin and GBP form beta-propeller structures with multiple Tectonin domains, each containing beta-sheets of 4 strands per beta-sheet. hTectonin is present in the human leukocyte cDNA library and immune-related cell lines. It interacts with M-ficolin, a known human complement protein whose ancient homolog, carcinolectin (CL5, is the functional protein partner of GBP during infection. Yeast 2-hybrid assay showed that only the Tectonin domains of hTectonin recognize the fibrinogen-like domain of the M-ficolin. Surface plasmon resonance analysis showed real-time interaction between the Tectonin domains 6 & 11 and bacterial LPS, indicating that despite forming 2 beta-propellers with its different Tectonin domains, the hTectonin molecule could precisely employ domains 6 & 11 to recognise bacteria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By virtue of a recent finding of another Tectonin protein, leukolectin, in the human leukocyte, and our structure-function analysis of the hypothetical hTectonin, we propose that Tectonin domains of proteins could play a vital role in innate immune defense, and that this function has been conserved over several

  12. Avoiding acidic region streaking in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: Case study with two bacterial whole cell protein extracts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arnab Roy; Umesh Varshney; Debnath Pal

    2014-09-01

    Acidic region streaking (ARS) is one of the lacunae in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of bacterial proteome. This streaking is primarily caused by nucleic acid (NuA) contamination and poses major problem in the downstream processes like image analysis and protein identification. Although cleanup and nuclease digestion are practiced as remedial options, these strategies may incur loss in protein recovery and perform incomplete removal of NuA. As a result, ARS has remained a common observation across publications, including the recent ones. In this work, we demonstrate how ultrasound wave can be used to shear NuA in plain ice-cooled water, facilitating the elimination of ARS in the 2DE gels without the need for any additional sample cleanup tasks. In combination with a suitable buffer recipe, IEF program and frequent paper-wick changing approach, we are able to reproducibly demonstrate the production of clean 2DE gels with improved protein recovery and negligible or no ARS. We illustrate our procedure using whole cell protein extracts from two diverse organisms, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Our designed protocols are straightforward and expected to provide good 2DE gels without ARS, with comparable times and significantly lower cost.

  13. A secretory system for bacterial production of high-profile protein targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzsch, Alexander; Vernet, Erik; Hammarström, Martin;

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli represents a robust, inexpensive expression host for the production of recombinant proteins. However, one major limitation is that certain protein classes do not express well in a biologically relevant form using standard expression approaches in the cytoplasm of E. coli. To impr...

  14. Recombinant expression and purification of 'virus-like' bacterial encapsulin protein cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurup, W.F.; Cornelissen, J.J.L.M.; Koay, M.S.T.; Orner, Brendan P.

    2014-01-01

    Ultracentrifugation, particularly the use of sucrose or cesium chloride density gradients, is a highly reliable and efficient technique for the purification of virus-like particles and protein cages. Since virus-like particles and protein cages have a unique size compared to cellular macromolecules

  15. Studies on the Interaction of Riboflavin-5'-Phosphate with Protein with Special Attention to Bacterial Bioluminescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gast, R.

    1978-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is the interaction of FMN with proteins. For one of the proteins studied, the enzyme luciferase from bacteria, further investigations were done on the process of light emission.In chapter 2 and 3 studies are reported on the binding of FMN with relatively simple prote

  16. Effect on hemodynamics of a liquid meal alone and in combination with propranolol in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Simonsen, L; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen patients with alcoholic cirrhosis had splanchnic and systemic hemodynamics assessed before and after ingestion of a standard liquid meal of 700 kcal (consisting of isocaloric proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates). Half of the patients (n = 6) were randomized to a treatment group receiving...... intravenous infusion of propranolol in combination with the meal. No significant effects were observed on systemic hemodynamics after the meal alone. Heart rate (-14%; P less than 0.01) and cardiac index (-24%; P less than 0.01) decreased after meal in combination with propranolol. The mean hepatic venous...... pressure gradient increased significantly after ingestion of the meal alone with a maximal effect after 30 minutes (+13%; P less than 0.05) and returned to baseline values after 2 hours. Meal in combination with propranolol had no significant effect on the hepatic venous pressure gradient. Hepatic blood...

  17. Desempenho de leitões submetidos a diferentes níveis de substituição da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do ovo desidratado = Performance of piglets submitted to different replacement levels of soybean meal protein by dehydrated egg protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína de Cássia Braga Arruda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar de suínos em fase inicial (15 a 30 kg de peso alimentados com quatro diferentes níveis de substituição (0, 3, 6 e 9% da proteína do farelo de soja pela proteína do ovo desidratado. Foram utilizados 32 suínos (16 machos castrados e 16 fêmeas em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições cada, em que a unidade experimental foi composta por um macho e uma fêmea. Os tratamentos foram 0, 3, 6 e 9% de proteína do ovo desidratado em substituição à proteína do farelo de soja. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à regressão linear para os níveis de 3, 6 e 9% de ovo desidratado, e o tratamento-testemunha (0% foi comparado com os demais aplicando o teste Dunnet a 5% de probabilidade. Os níveis de substituição da proteína do farelo de sojapela proteína do ovo desidratado não influenciaram as variáveis de desempenho dos animais na fase inicial, até 9%. Entretanto, avaliando a relação custo-benefício, o tratamentocontrole foi o mais rentável.This study aimed to determine the average daily weight gain, daily feed intake and the feed conversion ratio of pigs in initialphase (15 to 30 kg of weight fed with four different levels of substitution (0, 3, 6 and 9% of soybean meal protein by dehydrated egg protein. Thirty-two pigs (16 castrated males and 16 females were used in a completely randomized blocks statistical design, with fourtreatments and four repetitions each; the experimental unit was composed by a male and a female. The treatments were 0, 3, 6 and 9% of dehydrated egg protein in replacement of soybean meal protein. The data obtained were subjected to linear regression for the levels 3,6 and 9% of dehydrated egg; the witness (0% was compared with the other treatments applying Dunnett’s test at 5% probability. The replacement levels of soybean meal protein by dehydrated egg protein did not influence

  18. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette;

    2009-01-01

    infection in pigs. The lung infection was established with the pig specific respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Quantitative real-time PCR based expression analysis were performed on samples from liver, tracheobronchial lymph node, tonsils, spleen and on blood leukocytes, supplemented......The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other...... with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14-18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase...

  19. Changes in the protein fraction of Merluccius bilinearis muscle under lactic acid bacterial fermentation using a Lactobacillus Acidophilus starter culture (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Elizondo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on the protein fraction of Merluccius bilinearis muscle was evaluated. The non-protein fraction increased progressively with corresponding decreases in the percentage protein (dry weight indicating proteolytic activity during fermentation. Significant increases in the percentages of the amino acids cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tyrosine were observed after two months of fermentation. Percentages of arginine decreased significantly after one week and again after two months of fermentation.

  20. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  1. Process Development for Spray Drying a Value-Added Extract from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut meal, the primary byproduct of commercial oil crushing operations, is an excellent source of protein though aflatoxin contamination often limits applications for this material. Naturally aflatoxin contaminated (59 ppb) peanut meal dispersions were adjusted to pH 2.1 or pH 9.1, with or without...

  2. Phorbol Esters from Jatropha Meal Triggered Apoptosis, Activated PKC-δ, Caspase-3 Proteins and Down-Regulated the Proto-Oncogenes in MCF-7 and HeLa Cancer Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Syahida Ahmad; Norhani Abdullah; Ehsan Oskoueian

    2012-01-01

    Jatropha meal produced from the kernel of Jatropha curcas Linn. grown in Malaysia contains phorbol esters (PEs). The potential benefits of PEs present in the meal as anticancer agent are still not well understood. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effects and mode of actions of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal against breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines. Isolated PEs inhibited cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner of both MCF-7 and HeLa cell li...

  3. Engineering Bacterial Surface Displayed Human Norovirus Capsid Proteins: A Novel System to Explore Interaction Between Norovirus and Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mengya; Yu, Qianqian; Tian, Peng; Gao, Zhiyong; Wang, Dapeng; Shi, Xianming

    2015-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are major contributors to acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks. Many aspects of HuNoVs are poorly understood due to both the current inability to culture HuNoVs, and the lack of efficient small animal models. Surrogates for HuNoVs, such as recombinant viral like particles (VLPs) expressed in eukaryotic system or P particles expressed in prokaryotic system, have been used for studies in immunology and interaction between the virus and its receptors. However, it is difficult to use VLPs or P particles to collect or isolate potential ligands binding to these recombinant capsid proteins. In this study, a new strategy was used to collect HuNoVs binding ligands through the use of ice nucleation protein (INP) to display recombinant capsid proteins of HuNoVs on bacterial surfaces. The viral protein-ligand complex could be easily separated by a low speed centrifugation step. This system was also used to explore interaction between recombinant capsid proteins of HuNoVs and their receptors. In this system, the VP1 capsid encoding gene (ORF2) and the protruding domain (P domain) encoding gene (3' terminal fragment of ORF2) of HuNoVs GI.1 and GII.4 were fused with 5' terminal fragment of INP encoding gene (inaQn). The results demonstrated that the recombinant VP1 and P domains of HuNoVs were expressed and anchored on the surface of Escherichia coli BL21 cells after the bacteria were transformed with the corresponding plasmids. Both cell surface displayed VP1 and P domains could be recognized by HuNoVs specific antibodies and interact with the viral histo-blood group antigens receptors. In both cases, displayed P domains had better binding abilities than VP1. This new strategy of using displayed HuNoVs capsid proteins on the bacterial surface could be utilized to separate HuNoVs binding components from complex samples, to investigate interaction between the virus and its receptors, as well as to develop an oral vaccine for HuNoVs. PMID:26733983

  4. Inflammatory and metabolic responses to high-fat meals with and without dairy products in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Alexandra; Petry, Nicolai; Walther, Barbara; Bütikofer, Ueli; Luginbühl, Werner; Gille, Doreen; Chollet, Magali; McTernan, Philip G; Gijs, Martin A M; Vionnet, Nathalie; Pralong, François P; Laederach, Kurt; Vergères, Guy

    2015-06-28

    Postprandial inflammation is an important factor for human health since chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with chronic diseases. Dairy products have a weak but significant anti-inflammatory effect on postprandial inflammation. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of a high-fat dairy meal (HFD meal), a high-fat non-dairy meal supplemented with milk (HFM meal) and a high-fat non-dairy control meal (HFC meal) on postprandial inflammatory and metabolic responses in healthy men. A cross-over study was conducted in nineteen male subjects. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after consumption of the test meals. Plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at each time point. IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were assessed at baseline and endpoint (6 h). Time-dependent curves of these metabolic parameters were plotted, and the net incremental AUC were found to be significantly higher for TAG and lower for CRP after consumption of the HFM meal compared with the HFD meal; however, the HFM and HFD meals were not different from the HFC meal. Alterations in IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were not significantly different between the test meals. The results suggest that full-fat milk and dairy products (cheese and butter) have no significant impact on the inflammatory response to a high-fat meal. PMID:25990454

  5. Role of bacterial virulence proteins in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielse, C B; Ram, A F J; Hooykaas, P J J; Hondel, C A M J J van den

    2004-05-01

    The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori was optimized using defined co-cultivation conditions, which resulted in a reproducible and efficient transformation system. Optimal co-cultivation conditions were used to study the role of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence proteins in T-DNA transfer. This study revealed that inactivation of either of the regulatory proteins (VirA, VirG), any of the transport pore proteins (VirB), proteins involved in generation of the T-strand (VirD, VirC) or T-strand protection and targeting (VirE2) abolishes or severely reduces the formation of transformants. The results indicate that the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of A. awamori requires an intact T-DNA machinery for efficient transformation; however, the plant host range factors, like VirE3, VirH, and VirF, are not important. PMID:15050546

  6. A Bacterial Virulence Protein Promotes Pathogenicity by Inhibiting the Bacterium's Own F1Fo ATP Synthase

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Jin; Pontes, Mauricio H.; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2013-01-01

    Several intracellular pathogens including Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis require the virulence protein MgtC to survive within macrophages and to cause a lethal infection in mice. We now report that, unlike secreted virulence factors that target the host vacuolar ATPase to withstand phagosomal acidity, the MgtC protein acts on Salmonella's own F1Fo ATP synthase. This complex couples proton translocation to ATP synthesis/ hydrolysis and is required for virulence. We establis...

  7. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangi Setty, Thanuja [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Cho, Christine [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Govindappa, Sowmya [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India); Apicella, Michael A. [Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242-1109 (United States); Ramaswamy, S., E-mail: ramas@instem.res.in [Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, NCBS Campus, GKVK Post, Bangalore, Karnataka 560 065 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states.

  8. Bacterial periplasmic sialic acid-binding proteins exhibit a conserved binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure–function studies of sialic acid-binding proteins from F. nucleatum, P. multocida, V. cholerae and H. influenzae reveal a conserved network of hydrogen bonds involved in conformational change on ligand binding. Sialic acids are a family of related nine-carbon sugar acids that play important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. These sialic acids are incorporated/decorated onto lipooligosaccharides as terminal sugars in multiple bacteria to evade the host immune system. Many pathogenic bacteria scavenge sialic acids from their host and use them for molecular mimicry. The first step of this process is the transport of sialic acid to the cytoplasm, which often takes place using a tripartite ATP-independent transport system consisting of a periplasmic binding protein and a membrane transporter. In this paper, the structural characterization of periplasmic binding proteins from the pathogenic bacteria Fusobacterium nucleatum, Pasteurella multocida and Vibrio cholerae and their thermodynamic characterization are reported. The binding affinities of several mutations in the Neu5Ac binding site of the Haemophilus influenzae protein are also reported. The structure and the thermodynamics of the binding of sugars suggest that all of these proteins have a very well conserved binding pocket and similar binding affinities. A significant conformational change occurs when these proteins bind the sugar. While the C1 carboxylate has been identified as the primary binding site, a second conserved hydrogen-bonding network is involved in the initiation and stabilization of the conformational states

  9. The role of lipids in membrane insertion and translocation of bacterial proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dalen, Annemieke; de Kruijff, Ben

    2004-11-11

    Phospholipids are essential building blocks of membranes and maintain the membrane permeability barrier of cells and organelles. They provide not only the bilayer matrix in which the functional membrane proteins reside, but they also can play direct roles in many essential cellular processes. In this review, we give an overview of the lipid involvement in protein translocation across and insertion into the Escherichia coli inner membrane. We describe the key and general roles that lipids play in these processes in conjunction with the protein components involved. We focus on the Sec-mediated insertion of leader peptidase. We describe as well the more direct roles that lipids play in insertion of the small coat proteins Pf3 and M13. Finally, we focus on the role of lipids in membrane assembly of oligomeric membrane proteins, using the potassium channel KcsA as model protein. In all cases, the anionic lipids and lipids with small headgroups play important roles in either determining the efficiency of the insertion and assembly process or contributing to the directionality of the insertion process. PMID:15546660

  10. ParB Partition Proteins: Complex Formation and Spreading at Bacterial and Plasmid Centromeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funnell, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    In bacteria, active partition systems contribute to the faithful segregation of both chromosomes and low-copy-number plasmids. Each system depends on a site-specific DNA binding protein to recognize and assemble a partition complex at a centromere-like site, commonly called parS. Many plasmid, and all chromosomal centromere-binding proteins are dimeric helix-turn-helix DNA binding proteins, which are commonly named ParB. Although the overall sequence conservation among ParBs is not high, the proteins share similar domain and functional organization, and they assemble into similar higher-order complexes. In vivo, ParBs "spread," that is, DNA binding extends away from the parS site into the surrounding non-specific DNA, a feature that reflects higher-order complex assembly. ParBs bridge and pair DNA at parS and non-specific DNA sites. ParB dimers interact with each other via flexible conformations of an N-terminal region. This review will focus on the properties of the HTH centromere-binding protein, in light of recent experimental evidence and models that are adding to our understanding of how these proteins assemble into large and dynamic partition complexes at and around their specific DNA sites. PMID:27622187

  11. Prebiotics affect nutrient digestibility but not faecal ammonia in dogs fed increased dietary protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesta, M; Roosen, W; Janssens, G P J; Millet, S; De Wilde, R

    2003-12-01

    An increased protein content and less digestible protein sources in the diet can induce bad faecal odour. The present study investigated the effect of adding prebiotics to dog diets enriched with animal-derived protein sources on apparent digestibilities and faecal ammonia concentration. In three subsequent periods eight healthy beagle dogs were fed a commercial dog diet that was gradually supplemented by up to 50 % with meat and bone meal (MBM), greaves meal (GM) or poultry meal (PM) respectively. Afterwards, 3 % fructo-oligosaccharides or 3 % isomalto-oligosaccharides were substituted for 3 % of the total diet. Supplementation with animal-derived protein sources did not decrease the apparent N digestibility significantly but oligosaccharides did. On the other hand the bacterial N content (% DM) in the faeces was highest in the oligosaccharide groups followed by the protein-supplemented groups and lowest in the control groups. When the apparent N digestibility was corrected for bacterial N no significant differences were noted anymore except for the GM group where the corrected N digestibility was still lower after oligosaccharide supplementation. The amount of faecal ammonia was significantly increased by supplementing with protein or oligosaccharides in the MBM and GM groups but not in the PM group. When apparent N digestibility is interpreted, a correction for bacterial N should be taken into account, especially when prebiotics are added to the diet. Oligosaccharides did not reduce the faecal ammonia concentrations as expected. PMID:14641959

  12. Prebiotics affect nutrient digestibility but not faecal ammonia in dogs fed increased dietary protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesta, M; Roosen, W; Janssens, G P J; Millet, S; De Wilde, R

    2003-12-01

    An increased protein content and less digestible protein sources in the diet can induce bad faecal odour. The present study investigated the effect of adding prebiotics to dog diets enriched with animal-derived protein sources on apparent digestibilities and faecal ammonia concentration. In three subsequent periods eight healthy beagle dogs were fed a commercial dog diet that was gradually supplemented by up to 50 % with meat and bone meal (MBM), greaves meal (GM) or poultry meal (PM) respectively. Afterwards, 3 % fructo-oligosaccharides or 3 % isomalto-oligosaccharides were substituted for 3 % of the total diet. Supplementation with animal-derived protein sources did not decrease the apparent N digestibility significantly but oligosaccharides did. On the other hand the bacterial N content (% DM) in the faeces was highest in the oligosaccharide groups followed by the protein-supplemented groups and lowest in the control groups. When the apparent N digestibility was corrected for bacterial N no significant differences were noted anymore except for the GM group where the corrected N digestibility was still lower after oligosaccharide supplementation. The amount of faecal ammonia was significantly increased by supplementing with protein or oligosaccharides in the MBM and GM groups but not in the PM group. When apparent N digestibility is interpreted, a correction for bacterial N should be taken into account, especially when prebiotics are added to the diet. Oligosaccharides did not reduce the faecal ammonia concentrations as expected.

  13. Monitoring Dynamic Protein Expression in Single Living E. Coli. Bacterial Cells by Laser Tweezers Raman Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, J W; Winhold, H; Corzett, M H; Ulloa, J M; Cosman, M; Balhorn, R; Huser, T

    2007-01-09

    Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) is a novel, nondestructive, and label-free method that can be used to quantitatively measure changes in cellular activity in single living cells. Here, we demonstrate its use to monitor changes in a population of E. coli cells that occur during overexpression of a protein, the extracellular domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(1-120)) Raman spectra were acquired of individual E. coli cells suspended in solution and trapped by a single tightly focused laser beam. Overexpression of MOG(1-120) in transformed E. coli Rosetta-Gami (DE3)pLysS cells was induced by addition of isopropyl thiogalactoside (IPTG). Changes in the peak intensities of the Raman spectra from a population of cells were monitored and analyzed over a total duration of three hours. Data was also collected for concentrated purified MOG(1-120) protein in solution, and the spectra compared with that obtained for the MOG(1-120) expressing cells. Raman spectra of individual, living E. coli cells exhibit signatures due to DNA and protein molecular vibrations. Characteristic Raman markers associated with protein vibrations, such as 1257 cm{sup -1}, 1340 cm{sup -1}, 1453 cm{sup -1} and 1660 cm{sup -1}, are shown to increase as a function of time following the addition of IPTG. Comparison of these spectra and the spectra of purified MOG protein indicates that the changes are predominantly due to the induction of MOG protein expression. Protein expression was found to occur mostly within the second hour, with a 470% increase relative to the protein expressed in the first hour. A 230% relative increase between the second and third hour indicates that protein expression begins to level off within the third hour. It is demonstrated that LTRS has sufficient sensitivity for real-time, nondestructive, and quantitative monitoring of biological processes, such as protein expression, in single living cells. Such capabilities, which are not currently available in

  14. PROTEIN QUALITY CONTROL IN BACTERIAL CELLS: INTEGRATED NETWORKS OF CHAPERONES AND ATP-DEPENDENT PROTEASES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FLANAGAN,J.M.BEWLEY,M.C.

    2002-10-01

    It is generally accepted that the information necessary to specify the native, functional, three-dimensional structure of a protein is encoded entirely within its amino acid sequence; however, efficient reversible folding and unfolding is observed only with a subset of small single-domain proteins. Refolding experiments often lead to the formation of kinetically-trapped, misfolded species that aggregate, even in dilute solution. In the cellular environment, the barriers to efficient protein folding and maintenance of native structure are even larger due to the nature of this process. First, nascent polypeptides must fold in an extremely crowded environment where the concentration of macromolecules approaches 300-400 mg/mL and on average, each ribosome is within its own diameter of another ribosome (1-3). These conditions of severe molecular crowding, coupled with high concentrations of nascent polypeptide chains, favor nonspecific aggregation over productive folding (3). Second, folding of newly-translated polypeptides occurs in the context of their vehtorial synthesis process. Amino acids are added to a growing nascent chain at the rate of {approx}5 residues per set, which means that for a 300 residue protein its N-terminus will be exposed to the cytosol {approx}1 min before its C-terminus and be free to begin the folding process. However, because protein folding is highly cooperative, the nascent polypeptide cannot reach its native state until a complete folding domain (50-250 residues) has emerged from the ribosome. Thus, for a single-domain protein, the final steps in ffolding are only completed post-translationally since {approx}40 residues of a nascent chain are sequestered within the exit channel of the ribosome and are not available for folding (4). A direct consequence of this limitation in cellular folding is that during translation incomplete domains will exist in partially-folded states that tend to expose hydrophobic residues that are prone to

  15. PROTEIN QUALITY CONTROL IN BACTERIAL CELLS: INTEGRATED NETWORKS OF CHAPERONES AND ATP-DEPENDENT PROTEASES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FLANAGAN,J.M.; BEWLEY,M.C.

    2001-12-03

    It is generally accepted that the information necessary to specify the native, functional, three-dimensional structure of a protein is encoded entirely within its amino acid sequence; however, efficient reversible folding and unfolding is observed only with a subset of small single-domain proteins. Refolding experiments often lead to the formation of kinetically-trapped, misfolded species that aggregate, even in dilute solution. In the cellular environment, the barriers to efficient protein folding and maintenance of native structure are even larger due to the nature of this process. First, nascent polypeptides must fold in an extremely crowded environment where the concentration of macromolecules approaches 300-400 mg/mL and on average, each ribosome is within its own diameter of another ribosome (1-3). These conditions of severe molecular crowding, coupled with high concentrations of nascent polypeptide chains, favor nonspecific aggregation over productive folding (3). Second, folding of newly-translated polypeptides occurs in the context of their vehtorial synthesis process. Amino acids are added to a growing nascent chain at the rate of -5 residues per set, which means that for a 300 residue protein its N-terminus will be exposed to the cytosol {approx}1 min before its C-terminus and be free to begin the folding process. However, because protein folding is highly cooperative, the nascent polypeptide cannot reach its native state until a complete folding domain (50-250 residues) has emerged from the ribosome. Thus, for a single-domain protein, the final steps in folding are only completed post-translationally since {approx}40 residues of a nascent chain are sequestered within the exit channel of the ribosome and are not available for folding (4). A direct consequence of this limitation in cellular folding is that during translation incomplete domains will exist in partially-folded states that tend to expose hydrophobic residues that are prone to aggregation and

  16. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study

    OpenAIRE

    Demmer, Elieke; VAN LOAN, MARTA D.; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S.; Gertz, Erik R.; German, J. Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M.; Smilowitz, Jennifer T.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week ...

  17. Structural and functional similarity between the bacterial type III secretion system needle protein PrgI and the eukaryotic apoptosis Bcl-2 proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Shortridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional similarity is challenging to identify when global sequence and structure similarity is low. Active-sites or functionally relevant regions are evolutionarily more stable relative to the remainder of a protein structure and provide an alternative means to identify potential functional similarity between proteins. We recently developed the FAST-NMR methodology to discover biochemical functions or functional hypotheses of proteins of unknown function by experimentally identifying ligand binding sites. FAST-NMR utilizes our CPASS software and database to assign a function based on a similarity in the structure and sequence of ligand binding sites between proteins of known and unknown function. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The PrgI protein from Salmonella typhimurium forms the needle complex in the type III secretion system (T3SS. A FAST-NMR screen identified a similarity between the ligand binding sites of PrgI and the Bcl-2 apoptosis protein Bcl-xL. These ligand binding sites correlate with known protein-protein binding interfaces required for oligomerization. Both proteins form membrane pores through this oligomerization to release effector proteins to stimulate cell death. Structural analysis indicates an overlap between the PrgI structure and the pore forming motif of Bcl-xL. A sequence alignment indicates conservation between the PrgI and Bcl-xL ligand binding sites and pore formation regions. This active-site similarity was then used to verify that chelerythrine, a known Bcl-xL inhibitor, also binds PrgI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A structural and functional relationship between the bacterial T3SS and eukaryotic apoptosis was identified using our FAST-NMR ligand affinity screen in combination with a bioinformatic analysis based on our CPASS program. A similarity between PrgI and Bcl-xL is not readily apparent using traditional global sequence and structure analysis, but was only identified because of conservation in

  18. Efficacy of coating activated carbon with milk proteins to prevent binding of bacterial cells from foods for PCR detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opet, Nathan J; Levin, Robert E

    2013-08-01

    Foods contaminated with pathogens are common sources of illness. Currently, the most common and sensitive rapid detection method involves the PCR. However, food matrices are complex and contain inhibitors that limit the sensitivity of the PCR. The use of coated activated carbon can effectively facilitate the removal of PCR inhibitors without binding targeted bacterial cells from food samples. With the use of activated carbon coated with milk proteins, a cell recovery at pH 7.0 of 95.7%±2.0% was obtained, compared to control uncoated activated carbon, which yielded a cell recovery of only 1.1%±0.8%. In addition, the milk protein coated activated carbon was able to absorb similar amounts of soluble compounds as uncoated activated carbon, with the exception of bovine hemoglobin. This suggests that the use of milk proteins to coat activated carbon may therefore serve as a suitable replacement for bentonite in the coating of activated carbon, which has previously been used for the removal of PCR inhibitors from food.

  19. Production of recombinant proteins and metabolites in yeasts: when are these systems better than bacterial production systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Danilo; Gasser, Brigitte; Fossati, Tiziana; Maurer, Michael; Branduardi, Paola; Sauer, Michael; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2011-02-01

    Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technologies allow the production of a wide range of peptides, proteins and metabolites from naturally non-producing cells. Since human insulin was the first heterologous compound produced in a laboratory in 1977, rDNA technology has become one of the most important technologies developed in the 20th century. Recombinant protein and metabolites production is a multi-billion dollar market. The development of a new product begins with the choice of the cell factory. The final application of the compound dictates the main criteria that should be taken into consideration: (1) quality, (2) quantity, (3) yield and (4) space time yield of the desired product. Quantity and quality are the most predominant requirements that must be considered for the commercial production of a protein. Quantity and yield are the requirements for the production of a metabolite. Finally, space time yield is crucial for any production process. It therefore becomes clear why the perfect host does not exist yet, and why-despite important advances in rDNA applications in higher eukaryotic cells-microbial biodiversity continues to represent a potential source of attractive cell factories. In this review, we compare the advantages and limitations of the principal yeast and bacterial workhorse systems. PMID:21125266

  20. Rational design of ultrastable and reversibly photoswitchable fluorescent proteins for super-resolution imaging of the bacterial periplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khatib, Mariam; Martins, Alexandre; Bourgeois, Dominique; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Adam, Virgile

    2016-01-01

    Phototransformable fluorescent proteins are central to several nanoscopy approaches. As yet however, there is no available variant allowing super-resolution imaging in cell compartments that maintain oxidative conditions. Here, we report the rational design of two reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins able to fold and photoswitch in the bacterial periplasm, rsFolder and rsFolder2. rsFolder was designed by hybridisation of Superfolder-GFP with rsEGFP2, and inherited the fast folding properties of the former together with the rapid switching of the latter, but at the cost of a reduced switching contrast. Structural characterisation of the switching mechanisms of rsFolder and rsEGFP2 revealed different scenarios for chromophore cis-trans isomerisation and allowed designing rsFolder2, a variant of rsFolder that exhibits improved switching contrast and is amenable to RESOLFT nanoscopy. The rsFolders can be efficiently expressed in the E. coli periplasm, opening the door to the nanoscale investigation of proteins localised in hitherto non-observable cellular compartments. PMID:26732634

  1. Proteomic analysis of growth phase-dependent expression of Legionella pneumophila proteins which involves regulation of bacterial virulence traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Hayashi

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila, which is a causative pathogen of Legionnaires' disease, expresses its virulent traits in response to growth conditions. In particular, it is known to become virulent at a post-exponential phase in vitro culture. In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of differences in expression between the exponential phase and post-exponential phase to identify candidates associated with L. pneumophila virulence using 2-Dimentional Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. Of 68 identified proteins that significantly differed in expression between the two growth phases, 64 were up-regulated at a post-exponential phase. The up-regulated proteins included enzymes related to glycolysis, ketone body biogenesis and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB biogenesis, suggesting that L. pneumophila may utilize sugars and lipids as energy sources, when amino acids become scarce. Proteins related to motility (flagella components and twitching motility-associated proteins were also up-regulated, predicting that they enhance infectivity of the bacteria in host cells under certain conditions. Furthermore, 9 up-regulated proteins of unknown function were found. Two of them were identified as novel bacterial factors associated with hemolysis of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs. Another 2 were found to be translocated into macrophages via the Icm/Dot type IV secretion apparatus as effector candidates in a reporter assay with Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase. The study will be helpful for virulent analysis of L. pneumophila from the viewpoint of physiological or metabolic modulation dependent on growth phase.

  2. Bacteriophage Tailspikes and Bacterial O-Antigens as a Model System to Study Weak-Affinity Protein-Polysaccharide Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu; Gohlke, Ulrich; Engström, Olof; Hamark, Christoffer; Scheidt, Tom; Kunstmann, Sonja; Heinemann, Udo; Widmalm, Göran; Santer, Mark; Barbirz, Stefanie

    2016-07-27

    Understanding interactions of bacterial surface polysaccharides with receptor protein scaffolds is important for the development of antibiotic therapies. The corresponding protein recognition domains frequently form low-affinity complexes with polysaccharides that are difficult to address with experimental techniques due to the conformational flexibility of the polysaccharide. In this work, we studied the tailspike protein (TSP) of the bacteriophage Sf6. Sf6TSP binds and hydrolyzes the high-rhamnose, serotype Y O-antigen polysaccharide of the Gram-negative bacterium Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) as a first step of bacteriophage infection. Spectroscopic analyses and enzymatic cleavage assays confirmed that Sf6TSP binds long stretches of this polysaccharide. Crystal structure analysis and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy using an enhanced method to interpret the data permitted the detailed description of affinity contributions and flexibility in an Sf6TSP-octasaccharide complex. Dodecasaccharide fragments corresponding to three repeating units of the O-antigen in complex with Sf6TSP were studied computationally by molecular dynamics simulations. They showed that distortion away from the low-energy solution conformation found in the octasaccharide complex is necessary for ligand binding. This is in agreement with a weak-affinity functional polysaccharide-protein contact that facilitates correct placement and thus hydrolysis of the polysaccharide close to the catalytic residues. Our simulations stress that the flexibility of glycan epitopes together with a small number of specific protein contacts provide the driving force for Sf6TSP-polysaccharide complex formation in an overall weak-affinity interaction system. PMID:27045683

  3. Proteins dominate in the surface layers formed on materials exposed to extracellular polymeric substances from bacterial cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Wikieł, Agata J; Dall'Agnol, Leonardo T; Eloy, Pierre; Genet, Michel J; Moura, José J G; Sand, Wolfgang; Dupont-Gillain, Christine C; Rouxhet, Paul G

    2016-01-01

    The chemical compositions of the surface conditioning layers formed by different types of solutions (from isolated EPS to whole culture media), involving different bacterial strains relevant for biocorrosion were compared, as they may influence the initial step in biofilm formation. Different substrata (polystyrene, glass, steel) were conditioned and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Peak decomposition and assignment were validated by correlations between independent spectral data and the ubiquitous presence of organic contaminants on inorganic substrata was taken into account. Proteins or peptides were found to be a major constituent of all conditioning layers and polysaccharides were not present in appreciable concentrations; the proportion of nitrogen which may be due to DNA was lower than 15%. There was no significant difference between the compositions of the adlayers formed from different conditioning solutions, except for the adlayers produced with tightly bound EPS extracted from D. alaskensis.

  4. Protecting the herd: the remarkable effectiveness of the bacterial meningitis polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines in altering transmission dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, David S

    2011-01-01

    Interrupting human-to-human transmission of the agents (Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae) of bacterial meningitis by new capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (PPCVs) has proven to be a remarkable (and unanticipated) contributor to vaccine effectiveness. Herd immunity accounts for ∼50% of the protection by meningococcal serogroup C PPCVs, pneumococcal PPCV7, and H. influenzae b PPCVs. Nasopharyngeal carriage can be reduced ≥75% for vaccine serotypes; the decrease in carriage is correlated with disease reduction in unvaccinated individuals, and the impact of herd immunity lasts for years. Based on these data, models for using herd immunity in vaccine-based prevention strategies are underway for control of meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the immunologic basis of herd immunity and impact on microbial biology need more study, protecting the unvaccinated by altering pathogen transmission dynamics is a powerful effect of PPCVs and increasingly important in vaccine introduction, implementation, and evaluation strategies.

  5. Activation of Neutrophils via IP3 Pathway Following Exposure to Demodex-Associated Bacterial Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Fred; Banville, Nessa; Bergin, David A; Smedman, Christian; Paulie, Staffan; Reeves, Emer; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory condition that predominantly affects the skin of the face. Sera from rosacea patients display elevated reactivity to proteins from a bacterium (Bacillus oleronius) originally isolated from a Demodex mite from a rosacea patient suggesting a possible role for bacteria in the induction and persistence of this condition. This work investigated the ability of B. oleronius proteins to activate neutrophils and demonstrated activation via the IP3 pathway. Activated neutrophils displayed increased levels of IP1 production, F-actin formation, chemotaxis, and production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 following stimulation by pure and crude B. oleronius protein preparations (2 μg/ml), respectively. In addition, neutrophils exposed to pure and crude B. oleronius proteins (2 μg/ml) demonstrated increased release of internally stored calcium (Ca(2+)), a hallmark of the IP3 pathway of neutrophil activation. Neutrophils play a significant role in the inflammation associated with rosacea, and this work demonstrates how B. oleronius proteins can induce neutrophil recruitment and activation. PMID:26433579

  6. BacHbpred: Support Vector Machine Methods for the Prediction of Bacterial Hemoglobin-Like Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, MuthuKrishnan; Puri, Munish; Dikshit, Kanak L; Lefevre, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The recent upsurge in microbial genome data has revealed that hemoglobin-like (HbL) proteins may be widely distributed among bacteria and that some organisms may carry more than one HbL encoding gene. However, the discovery of HbL proteins has been limited to a small number of bacteria only. This study describes the prediction of HbL proteins and their domain classification using a machine learning approach. Support vector machine (SVM) models were developed for predicting HbL proteins based upon amino acid composition (AC), dipeptide composition (DC), hybrid method (AC + DC), and position specific scoring matrix (PSSM). In addition, we introduce for the first time a new prediction method based on max to min amino acid residue (MM) profiles. The average accuracy, standard deviation (SD), false positive rate (FPR), confusion matrix, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) were analyzed. We also compared the performance of our proposed models in homology detection databases. The performance of the different approaches was estimated using fivefold cross-validation techniques. Prediction accuracy was further investigated through confusion matrix and ROC curve analysis. All experimental results indicate that the proposed BacHbpred can be a perspective predictor for determination of HbL related proteins. BacHbpred, a web tool, has been developed for HbL prediction. PMID:27034664

  7. Differential Acute Postprandial Effects of Processed Meat and Isocaloric Vegan Meals on the Gastrointestinal Hormone Response in Subjects Suffering from Type 2 Diabetes and Healthy Controls: A Randomized Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Belinova; Hana Kahleova; Hana Malinska; Ondrej Topolcan; Jindra Vrzalova; Olena Oliyarnyk; Ludmila Kazdova; Martin Hill; Terezie Pelikanova

    2014-01-01

    Background The intake of meat, particularly processed meat, is a dietary risk factor for diabetes. Meat intake impairs insulin sensitivity and leads to increased oxidative stress. However, its effect on postprandial gastrointestinal hormone (GIH) secretion is unclear. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of two standardized isocaloric meals: a processed hamburger meat meal rich in protein and saturated fat (M-meal) and a vegan meal rich in carbohydrates (V-meal). We hypothesized that the...

  8. A bacterial ATP-dependent, enhancer binding protein that activates the housekeeping RNA polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, William C.; Kranz, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    A commonly accepted view of gene regulation in bacteria that has emerged over the last decade is that promoters are transcriptionally activated by one of two general mechanisms. The major type involves activator proteins that bind to DNA adjacent to where the RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme binds, usually assisting in recruitment of the RNAP to the promoter. This holoenzyme uses the housekeeping ς70 or a related factor, which directs the core RNAP to the promoter and assists in melting the DNA near the RNA start site. A second type of mechanism involves the alternative sigma factor (called ς54 or ςN) that directs RNAP to highly conserved promoters. In these cases, an activator protein with an ATPase function oligomerizes at tandem sites far upstream from the promoter. The nitrogen regulatory protein (NtrC) from enteric bacteria has been the model for this family of activators. Activation of the RNAP/ς54 holoenzyme to form the open complex is mediated by the activator, which is tethered upstream. Hence, this class of protein is sometimes called the enhancer binding protein family or the NtrC class. We describe here a third system that has properties of each of these two types. The NtrC enhancer binding protein from the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter capsulatus, is shown in vitro to activate the housekeeping RNAP/ς70 holoenzyme. Transcriptional activation by this NtrC requires ATP binding but not hydrolysis. Oligomerization at distant tandem binding sites on a supercoiled template is also necessary. Mechanistic and evolutionary questions of these systems are discussed. PMID:9637689

  9. Condensation and localization of the partitioning protein ParB on the bacterial chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Broedersz, Chase P.; Wang, Xindan; Meir, Yigal; Loparo, Joseph J.; Rudner, David Z.; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2014-01-01

    The ParABS system is responsible for chromosome and plasmid segregation in many bacteria. A large, coherent ParB–DNA complex forms the partitioning module at the heart of this segregation machinery. Here we provide a simple theoretical model for interacting proteins on DNA to elucidate the structure of the ParB–DNA complex. We show that that both 3D bridging and 1D spreading interactions between DNA-bound ParB proteins are required to ensure the formation of a coherent protein–DNA complex. Th...

  10. Horizontal gene transfer of zinc and non-zinc forms of bacterial ribosomal protein S4

    OpenAIRE

    Luthey-Schulten Zaida; Roberts Elijah; Chen Ke

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The universal ribosomal protein S4 is essential for the initiation of small subunit ribosomal assembly and translational accuracy. Being part of the information processing machinery of the cell, the gene for S4 is generally thought of as being inherited vertically and has been used in concatenated gene phylogenies. Here we report the evolution of ribosomal protein S4 in relation to a broad sharing of zinc/non-zinc forms of the gene and study the scope of horizontal gene tr...

  11. Effect of dietary protein level (as substitution of maize with soybean meal on growth rate and feed efficiency of the Cinta Senese pig in the growing-fattening period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oreste Franci

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide first indications on the protein requirement of Cinta Senese pigs. The effect of various dietary protein contents on in vita performance was tested. Sixty Cinta Senese pigs were equally distributed in four dietary groups, balanced for sex (barrow and gilt and live weight. At the start of the trial, pigs were approximately 130 d old and weighed an average 46.6 kg. Groups were fed four diets with different protein content (approximately 8, 10, 13 and 16%, named 8% P, 10% P, 13% P, 16% P, respectively, obtained by using different maize/soybean meal ratios. Diets were administered to pigs during the entire growing-fattening period in a controlled dose of 90 g/kg W0.75, until a maximum of 2.5 kg/d pro capite. Feed distributed per pen was recorded daily and individual weight and ultrasonic backfat thickness were periodically recorded. The trial lasted approximately 250 d and finished when animals reached the target slaughter weight of 145 kg. The 8% P diet determined a lower growth rate than the other diets; after 250 d, pigs receiving this diet were 20 kg lighter than those receiving the other diets. The 10% P diet determined body weights always lower than the 13% P and 16% P diets, but the difference decreased in the middle of the trial period. The pigs fed 13% P and 16% P diets showed the same growth rate. Moreover, through the whole growth period, the 8% P diet produced higher fat thickness than the other three diets, which showed similar results. The 8% P diet determined the highest FCIs. The 16% P diet showed the best feed conversion until approximately 70 kg of l.w., but after this weight it became progressively less efficient than the 10% P and 13% P diets. Consequently, the cumulative intake of that diet was the lowest only for the first 60 kg of gain. The 10% P diet gave the best FCI starting from 80 kg of l.w. In consideration of the cost of protein feed and the need to reduce N pollution, the 10% P diet could be

  12. Activation of phagocytic cells by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms: effects of extracellular matrix proteins and the bacterial stress protein GroEL on netosis and MRP-14 release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapunt, Ulrike; Gaida, Matthias M; Meyle, Eva; Prior, Birgit; Hänsch, Gertrud M

    2016-07-01

    The recognition and phagocytosis of free-swimming (planktonic) bacteria by polymorphonuclear neutrophils have been investigated in depth. However, less is known about the neutrophil response towards bacterial biofilms. Our previous work demonstrated that neutrophils recognize activating entities within the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) of biofilms (the bacterial heat shock protein GroEL) and that this process does not require opsonization. Aim of this study was to evaluate the release of DNA by neutrophils in response to biofilms, as well as the release of the inflammatory cytokine MRP-14. Neutrophils were stimulated with Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms, planktonic bacteria, extracted EPS and GroEL. Release of DNA and of MRP-14 was evaluated. Furthermore, tissue samples from patients suffering from biofilm infections were collected and evaluated by histology. MRP-14 concentration in blood samples was measured. We were able to show that biofilms, the EPS and GroEL induce DNA release. MRP-14 was only released after stimulation with EPS, not GroEL. Histology of tissue samples revealed MRP-14 positive cells in association with neutrophil infiltration and MRP-14 concentration was elevated in blood samples of patients suffering from biofilm infections. Our data demonstrate that neutrophil-activating entities are present in the EPS and that GroEL induces DNA release by neutrophils. PMID:27109773

  13. Reducing the toxicity of castor seed meal through processing treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The castor plant produces a seed that is high in oil content and composed of approximately 90% ricinoleate. Due to the numerous uses of castor oil and ricinoleate, the oil is in high demand. However, the presence of a protein toxin in the seed meal is a key concern about processing the castor seed t...

  14. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of crude protein extracts from seeds of six different medical plants against standard bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Akeel, Raid; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Janardhan, K; Gupta, V C

    2014-04-01

    A huge group of natural antimicrobial compounds are active against a large spectrum of bacterial strains causing infectious threat. The present study was conducted to investigate the crude extracts of antimicrobial protein and peptide efficacy from six medicinal plant seeds. Extraction was carried out in Sodium phosphate citrate buffer, and Sodium acetate buffer using different pH. Antimicrobial activities of these plants were determined by the microbiological technique using Agar well diffusion Assay. Extremely strong activity was observed in the seed extracts of Allium ascolinicum extracted in sodium phosphate citrate buffer at pH (5.8) against Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with zone of inhibition 17 mm, 17 mm and 15 mm and Rumex vesicarius at pH (7.6), Ammi majus at pH (6.8), Cichorium intybus at pH (7.4) and Cucumis sativus at pH (7.8) also showed better sensitivity against the bacterial strains with zone of inhibition ranges 16-10 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Antibacterial activity pattern of different plant extracts prepared in sodium acetate buffer pH (6.5), among all the plant seed extracts used Foeniculum vulgare had shown good inhibition in all the bacterial strains used, with zone of inhibition ranges 11-12.5 mm, The extracts of C. intybus and C. sativus were found to be effective with zone of inhibition 11-6 mm and some of the strains were found to be resistant. Most of the strains found to have shown better sensitivity compared with the standard antibiotic Chloramphenicol (25 mcg). Our results showed that the plants used for our study are the richest source for antimicrobial proteins and peptides and they may be used for industrial extraction and isolation of antimicrobial compounds which may find a place in medicine industry as constituents of antibiotics. PMID:24600307

  15. Phosphoproteome analysis of streptomyces development reveals extensive protein phosphorylation accompanying bacterial differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manteca, Angel; Ye, Juanying; Sánchez, Jesús;

    2011-01-01

    bacteria encoding the largest number of eukaryotic type kinases, the biological role of protein phosphorylation in this bacterium has not been extensively studied before. In this issue, the variations of the phosphoproteome of S. coelicolor were characterized. Most distinct Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation...

  16. Heterologously expressed bacterial and human multidrug resistance proteins confer cadmium resistance to Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achard-Joris, M; van Saparoea, HBV; Driessen, AJM; Bourdineaud, JP; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The human MDR1 gene is induced by cadmium exposure although no resistance to this metal is observed in human cells overexpressing hMDR1. To access the role of MDR proteins in cadmium resistance, human MDR1, Lactococcus lactis lmrA, and Oenococcus oeni omrA were expressed in an Escherichia coli tolC

  17. Role of bacterial virulence proteins in Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielse, C.B.; Ram, A.F.J.; Hooykaas, P.J.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2004-01-01

    The Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Aspergillus awamori was optimized using defined co-cultivation conditions, which resulted in a reproducible and efficient transformation system. Optimal co-cultivation conditions were used to study the role of Agrobacterium tumefaciens virulence proteins

  18. The oral immunogenicity of BioProtein, a bacterial single-cell protein, is affected by its particulate nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Risager; Larsen, L.C.; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    -culture homogenate induced immunoglobulin A in saliva but there was no systemic response. The antibodies from BP-fed mice cross-reacted with BP-culture homogenate revealing the presence of the same antigenic components in the two products despite the different oral immunogenicity. Thus, ingestion of BP induces...... a persistent mucosal and systemic immune response of which the systemic response can be avoided by ingesting a BP preparation free of whole cells. This indicates the importance of the non-particulate constitution of single-cell protein products intended for human or animal consumption....

  19. The protein's role in triplet energy transfer in bacterial reaction centers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laible, P. D.

    1998-08-14

    When photosynthetic organisms are subjected to high-light conditions in nature, electron transfer becomes blocked as the rate of conversion of light into charge-separated states in the reaction center (RC) exceeds the capacity of the soluble carriers involved in cyclic electron transfer. In that event, a well-characterized T{sub 0}-polarized triplet state {sup T}P, is formed on the primary donor, P, from the P{sup +}H{sub A}{sup {minus}} state (reviewed in [1]). In an aerobic or semi-aerobic environment, the major role of the carotenoid (C), also bound by the RC, is to quench {sup T}P prior to its sensitization of the {sup 1}{Delta}{sub g} singlet state of oxygen--a potentially damaging biological oxidant. The carotenoid performs this function efficiently in most bacterial RCs by rapidly accepting the triplet state from P and dissipating this excited-state energy into heat through internal conversion. The lowest-lying triplet states of P and the carotenoid are sufficiently different that {sup T}P can promote oxygen to its excited singlet state whereas {sup T}C can quench the {sup T}P state (reviewed in [2]).

  20. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Salas-Durán

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to meassure the effect of shrimp meal (SM in commercial laying hen diets. From April to September 2013, in Costa Rica, Pleuroncodes planipes was used to obtain a meal (SM with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40.67%, ether extract (11.05%, crude fiber (7.12%, ash (27.48%, calcium (9.03%, phosphorus (2.66%, amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84% and acidity (8.34. Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p<0.05. The hens fed with 5% SM laid heavier eggs. It is suggested to evaluate a level of SM inclusion up to 15% in laying hens diets.

  1. A Gram-Negative Bacterial Secreted Protein Types Prediction Method Based on PSI-BLAST Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of secreted protein types based solely on sequence data remains to be a challenging problem. In this study, we extract the long-range correlation information and linear correlation information from position-specific score matrix (PSSM). A total of 6800 features are extracted at 17 different gaps; then, 309 features are selected by a filter feature selection method based on the training set. To verify the performance of our method, jackknife and independent dataset tests are performed on the test set and the reported overall accuracies are 93.60% and 100%, respectively. Comparison of our results with the existing method shows that our method provides the favorable performance for secreted protein type prediction.

  2. Use of correspondence discriminant analysis to predict the subcellular location of bacterial proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrière, Guy; Thioulouse, Jean

    2003-02-01

    Correspondence discriminant analysis (CDA) is a multivariate statistical method derived from discriminant analysis which can be used on contingency tables. We have used CDA to separate Gram negative bacteria proteins according to their subcellular location. The high resolution of the discrimination obtained makes this method a good tool to predict subcellular location when this information is not known. The main advantage of this technique is its simplicity. Indeed, by computing two linear formulae on amino acid composition, it is possible to classify a protein into one of the three classes of subcellular location we have defined. The CDA itself can be computed with the ADE-4 software package that can be downloaded, as well as the data set used in this study, from the Pôle Bio-Informatique Lyonnais (PBIL) server at http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr.

  3. Antiadhesive Properties of Arabinogalactan Protein from Ribes nigrum Seeds against Bacterial Adhesion of Helicobacter pylori

    OpenAIRE

    Jutta Messing; Michael Niehues; Anna Shevtsova; Thomas Borén; Andreas Hensel

    2014-01-01

    Fruit extracts from black currants (Ribes nigrum L.) are traditionally used for treatment of gastritis based on seed polysaccharides that inhibit the adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to stomach cells. For detailed investigations an arabinogalactan protein (F2) was isolated from seeds and characterized concerning molecular weight, carbohydrate, amino acid composition, linkage, configuration and reaction with beta-glucosyl Yariv. Functional testing of F2 was performed by semiquantitative in situ...

  4. A bacterial ATP-dependent, enhancer binding protein that activates the housekeeping RNA polymerase

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, William C.; Kranz, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    A commonly accepted view of gene regulation in bacteria that has emerged over the last decade is that promoters are transcriptionally activated by one of two general mechanisms. The major type involves activator proteins that bind to DNA adjacent to where the RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme binds, usually assisting in recruitment of the RNAP to the promoter. This holoenzyme uses the housekeeping ς70 or a related factor, which directs the core RNAP to the promoter and assists in melting the D...

  5. Development of novel protein-Ag nanocomposite for drug delivery and inactivation of bacterial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimala, Kanikireddy; Varaprasad, Kokkarachedu; Sadiku, Rotimi; Ramam, Koduri; Kanny, Krishnan

    2014-02-01

    The potential applications, in the biomedical fields, of curcumin loaded silver nanocomposite were studied by using bovine serum albumin (protein) and acrylamide. The design and development of silver nanoparticles with small size and adequate stability are very important, in addition to their applicability, particularly in bio-medicine. In this study, silver nanoparticles were prepared by chemical reduction method, employing sodium borohydride as the reducing agent for silver nanoparticles. The properties of the protein hydrogels formed were characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. The size and its distribution, and formation of metal nanoparticles were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy indicating the diameter of the silver nanoparticles in the range of 3-8 nm. The thermal study of curcumin-silver nanocomposite hydrogels was determined by thermo-gravimetric analysis. In order to increase the antibacterial activity of theses inorganic nanomaterials, natural biological curcumin was incorporated into the protein hydrogel. The main emphasis in this investigation is to increase the antibacterial activity of the hydrogels by loading curcumin, for advanced medical application and as a model drug.

  6. Acyl-acyl carrier protein as a source of fatty acids for bacterial bioluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse-chase experiments with [3H]tetradecanoic acid and ATP showed that the bioluminescence-related 32-kDa acyltransferase from Vibrio harveyi can specifically catalyze the deacylation of a 3H-labeled 18-kDa protein observed in extracts of this bacterium. The 18-kDa protein has been partially purified and its physical and chemical properties strongly indicate that it is fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP). Both this V. harveyi [3H]acylprotein and [3H]palmitoyl-ACP from Escherichia coli were substrates in vitro for either the V. harveyi 32-kDa acyltransferase or the analogous enzyme (34K) from Photobacterium phosphoreum. TLC analysis indicated that the hexane-soluble product of the reaction is fatty acid. No significant cleavage of either E. coli or V. harveyi tetradecanoyl-ACP was observed in extracts of these bacteria unless the 32-kDa or 34K acyltransferase was present. Since these enzymes are believed to be responsible for the supply of fatty acids for reduction to form the aldehyde substrate of luciferase, the above results suggest that long-chain acyl-ACP is the source of fatty acids for bioluminescence

  7. Processing of commercial peanut cake into food-grade meal and its utilization in preparation of cookies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, P V; Chavan, J K; Patil, P B; Kadam, S S

    1990-04-01

    The commercial cake produced during expeller pressing of peanuts was extracted with n-hexane, and 80% ethanol followed by sieving through 80 mesh, to remove residual oil, pigments, bitter taste and fibrous material. The processed meal exhibited comparable composition with defatted peanut flour prepared in the laboratory by solvent extraction of full-fat peanut meal. However, the processed cake meal exhibited low methionine content and in vitro protein digestibility as compared with defatted peanut flour. The processed cake meal can be blended with wheat flour to the extent of 10% (w/w) to prepare acceptable cookies with improved protein and mineral contents. PMID:2385572

  8. Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis protein from hot pressed rapeseed meal using central composite design%中心组合设计优化高温菜籽粕中蛋白的酶解工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党斌; 孙小凤

    2012-01-01

    Protein peptide has some of the biological activity and easily absorbed,applications of peptide in special food,pharmaceutical and biodegradable plastics have a potential prospect.This paper taking rapeseed protein from hot pressed rapeseed meal by ultrasonic wave as raw materials,and it is enzymatic hydrolysis using alkali protease.The single factor experiments and central composite design were adopted to study the effects of substrate concentration,enzymatic hydrolysis temperature,enzyme activity,pH value on degree of hydrolysis,the optimum process conditions of enzymatic hydrolysis were determined,then enzymatic hydrolysis regression model were established,substrate concentration 3%,enzymatic hydrolysis temperature 46 ℃,enzyme activity12000U/g,pH value 9.57,enzymatic hydrolysis time3 h,the degree of hydrolysis of rapeseed protein by this new process was 23.96%.It will lay the better foundation for further enzymatic hydrolysis,and it is economical feasible.%蛋白肽具有一定的生物活性且容易吸收,广泛应用在食品、医药和化妆品等领域,显示出了诱人的应用前景。研究以超声波法从热榨春油菜菜籽粕中提取的蛋白为原料,利用碱性蛋白酶进行酶解制备菜籽蛋白肽。通过单因素试验及中心组合设计试验研究了底物浓度、酶解温度、酶用量、pH等因素对菜籽蛋白水解度的影响,确定了碱性蛋白酶酶解菜籽蛋白的最佳工艺条件,建立了回归数学模型。结果表明:在底物浓度为3%,酶解温度为46℃,酶用量为12000U/g,pH为9.57的条件下酶解3h,菜籽蛋白的水解度达23.96%。为进一步酶解打下良好的基础,是一条经济可行的工艺路线。

  9. Optimization of microwave-assisted alkaline extraction condition of protein from peanut meal%微波辅助碱法提取花生粕蛋白质工艺条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔涛; 赵雪淞; 刘民; 张丹

    2013-01-01

    Peanut protein was obtained through microwave-assisted alkaline extraction and acid precipitation from peanut meal.Compared with alkali extraction,peanut protein extraction yield could be enhanced by 18.00% through microwave assisted method,and the effect was remarkable.Four extraction parameters including ratio of material and liquid,pH,microwave extraction power and microwave extraction time were optimized by orthogonal experiment based on single factor investigation.The influences of these factors on different degree was an order of microwave extraction power>pH>microwave extraction time>ratio of material and liquid.The optimum conditions of microwave-assisted alkaline extraction were as follows:ratio of material and liquid 1∶10(g/mL),pH10.0,microwave extraction power 480W and microwave extraction time 4 minutes.Under these conditions,the maximum protein extraction rate of 85.43% was obtained.%采用微波辅助碱提酸沉法从花生粕中提取花生分离蛋白.相比于碱提法,采用微波辅助法可以将花生粕蛋白质的提取率提高18.00%,效果显著.在单因素实验基础上,以料液比、碱提pH、微波提取功率、微波提取时间为考察因素,采用正交实验优化最佳提取工艺.四因素对花生粕蛋白质提取率影响顺序为:微波提取功率>碱提pH>微波提取时间>料液比,最佳工艺条件为:料液比为1∶10(g/mL),提取pH10,微波输出功率为480W,微波提取时间4min.在此条件下,花生粕蛋白质最高提取率可达85.43%.

  10. Haematology, Blood Chemistry and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Grasshopper Meal as a Substitute for Fish Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Njidda* and C. E. Isidahomen1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with grasshopper meal on haematology, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Forty rabbits of mixed breeds, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with eight rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were fed with diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5% grasshopper meal in diets designated as T1 (control, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of nine weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation, while blood samples were collected for analysis. The result of the experiment showed significant differences (P0.05 on haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The results also revealed significant differences (P0.05 on serum albumin and total protein. The results of carcass characteristics showed significant differences among treatments (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, skin pelt, tail, feet and abdominal fat. The slaughter weight and carcass weight were better in groups receiving 2.5% grass hopper meal (50% fish meal replacement. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of 2.50% grasshopper meal as a replacement for fish meal (50% replacement has no adverse effects on the haematological parameters, serum biochemistry and carcass characteristics of rabbits.

  11. Complex Role of the Mitochondrial Targeting Signal in the Function of Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Revealed by Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Transgenesis in Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Goro; Ishii, Tomohiro; Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam; Jo, Youngah; Bahat, Assaf; Orly, Joseph; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Parker, Keith L.

    2008-01-01

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) stimulates the regulated production of steroid hormones in the adrenal cortex and gonads by facilitating the delivery of cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane. To explore key aspects of StAR function within bona fide steroidogenic cells, we used a transgenic mouse model to explore the function of StAR proteins in vivo. We first validated this transgenic bacterial artificial chromosome reconstitution system by targeting enhanced green...

  12. Identification and characterization of a novel bacterial virulence factor that shares homology with mammalian Toll/interleukin-1 receptor family proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ruchi M; Salunkhe, Prabhakar; Godzik, Adam; Reed, John C

    2006-01-01

    Many important bacterial virulence factors act as mimics of mammalian proteins to subvert normal host cell processes. To identify bacterial protein mimics of components of the innate immune signaling pathway, we searched the bacterial genome database for proteins with homology to the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain of the mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their adaptor proteins. A previously uncharacterized gene, which we have named tlpA (for TIR-like protein A), was identified in the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis genome that is predicted to encode a protein resembling mammalian TIR domains, We show that overexpression of TlpA in mammalian cells suppresses the ability of mammalian TIR-containing proteins TLR4, IL-1 receptor, and MyD88 to induce the transactivation and DNA-binding activities of NF-kappaB, a downstream target of the TIR signaling pathway. In addition, TlpA mimics the previously characterized Salmonella virulence factor SipB in its ability to induce activation of caspase-1 in a mammalian cell transfection model. Disruption of the chromosomal tlpA gene rendered a virulent serovar Enteritidis strain defective in intracellular survival and IL-1beta secretion in a cell culture infection model using human THP1 macrophages. Bacteria with disrupted tlpA also displayed reduced lethality in mice, further confirming an important role for this factor in pathogenesis. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the bacterial TIR-like protein TlpA is a novel prokaryotic modulator of NF-kappaB activity and IL-1beta secretion that contributes to serovar Enteritidis virulence.

  13. Quantitative Mass Spectrometry for Bacterial Protein Toxins — A Sensitive, Specific, High-Throughput Tool for Detection and Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Kalb

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Matrix-assisted laser-desorption time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS is a valuable high-throughput tool for peptide analysis. Liquid chromatography electrospray ionization (LC-ESI tandem-MS provides sensitive and specific quantification of small molecules and peptides. The high analytic power of MS coupled with high-specificity substrates is ideally suited for detection and quantification of bacterial enzymatic activities. As specific examples of the MS applications in disease diagnosis and select agent detection, we describe recent advances in the analyses of two high profile protein toxin groups, the Bacillus anthracis toxins and the Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins. The two binary toxins produced by B. anthracis consist of protective antigen (PA which combines with lethal factor (LF and edema factor (EF, forming lethal toxin and edema toxin respectively. LF is a zinc-dependent endoprotease which hydrolyzes specific proteins involved in inflammation and immunity. EF is an adenylyl cyclase which converts ATP to cyclic-AMP. Toxin-specific enzyme activity for a strategically designed substrate, amplifies reaction products which are detected by MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS. Pre-concentration/purification with toxin specific monoclonal antibodies provides additional specificity. These combined technologies have achieved high specificity, ultrasensitive detection and quantification of the anthrax toxins. We also describe potential applications to diseases of high public health impact, including Clostridium difficile glucosylating toxins and the Bordetella pertussis adenylyl cyclase.

  14. Inhibition of bacterial conjugation by phage M13 and its protein g3p: quantitative analysis and model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lin

    Full Text Available Conjugation is the main mode of horizontal gene transfer that spreads antibiotic resistance among bacteria. Strategies for inhibiting conjugation may be useful for preserving the effectiveness of antibiotics and preventing the emergence of bacterial strains with multiple resistances. Filamentous bacteriophages were first observed to inhibit conjugation several decades ago. Here we investigate the mechanism of inhibition and find that the primary effect on conjugation is occlusion of the conjugative pilus by phage particles. This interaction is mediated primarily by phage coat protein g3p, and exogenous addition of the soluble fragment of g3p inhibited conjugation at low nanomolar concentrations. Our data are quantitatively consistent with a simple model in which association between the pili and phage particles or g3p prevents transmission of an F plasmid encoding tetracycline resistance. We also observe a decrease in the donor ability of infected cells, which is quantitatively consistent with a reduction in pili elaboration. Since many antibiotic-resistance factors confer susceptibility to phage infection through expression of conjugative pili (the receptor for filamentous phage, these results suggest that phage may be a source of soluble proteins that slow the spread of antibiotic resistance genes.

  15. Palatable meal anticipation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia T Hsu

    Full Text Available The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory behavior, and providing an alternate model by which to study the neurobiology of anticipation in species, such as mice, that are less well adapted to "stuff and starve" feeding schedules. To extend this model to mice, and exploit molecular genetic resources available for that species, we tested the ability of wild-type mice to anticipate a daily palatable meal. We observed that mice with free access to regular chow and limited access to highly palatable snacks of chocolate or "Fruit Crunchies" avidly consumed the snack but did not show anticipatory locomotor activity as measured by running wheels or video-based behavioral analysis. However, male mice receiving a snack of high fat chow did show increased food bin entry prior to access time and a modest increase in activity in the two hours preceding the scheduled meal. Interestingly, female mice did not show anticipation of a daily high fat meal but did show increased activity at scheduled mealtime when that meal was withdrawn. These results indicate that anticipation of a scheduled food reward in mice is behavior, diet, and gender specific.

  16. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  17. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters......, which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...

  18. Immunogenicity of bacterial-expressed recombinant Plasmodium knowlesi merozoite surface protein-142 (MSP-142)

    OpenAIRE

    Cheong, Fei Wen; Fong, Mun Yik; Lau, Yee Ling; Mahmud, Rohela

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium knowlesi is the fifth Plasmodium species that can infect humans. The Plasmodium merozoite surface protein-142 (MSP-142) is a potential candidate for malaria vaccine. However, limited studies have focused on P. knowlesi MSP-142. Methods A ~42 kDa recombinant P. knowlesi MSP-142 (pkMSP-142) was expressed using an Escherichia coli system. The purified pkMSP-142 was evaluated with malaria and non-malaria human patient sera (n = 189) using Western blots and ELISA. The immunog...

  19. A Bacterial Biosensor for Oxidative Stress Using the Constitutively Expressed Redox-Sensitive Protein roGFP2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Arias-Barreiro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A highly specific, high throughput-amenable bacterial biosensor for chemically induced cellular oxidation was developed using constitutively expressed redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein roGFP2 in E. coli (E. coli-roGFP2. Disulfide formation between two key cysteine residues of roGFP2 was assessed using a double-wavelength ratiometric approach. This study demonstrates that only a few minutes were required to detect oxidation using E. coli-roGFP2, in contrast to conventional bacterial oxidative stress sensors. Cellular oxidation induced by hydrogen peroxide, menadione, sodium selenite, zinc pyrithione, triphenyltin and naphthalene became detectable after 10 seconds and reached the maxima between 80 to 210 seconds, contrary to Cd2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+ and sodium arsenite, which induced the oxidation maximum immediately. The lowest observable effect concentrations (in ppm were determined as 1.0 x 10−7 (arsenite, 1.0 x 10−4 (naphthalene, 1.0 x 10−4 (Cu2+, 3.8 x 10−4 (H2O2, 1.0 x 10−3 (Cd2+, 1.0 x 10−3 (Zn2+, 1.0 x 10−2 (menadione, 1.0 (triphenyltin, 1.56 (zinc pyrithione, 3.1 (selenite and 6.3 (Pb2+, respectively. Heavy metal-induced oxidation showed unclear response patterns, whereas concentration-dependent sigmoid curves were observed for other compounds. In vivo GSH content and in vitro roGFP2 oxidation assays together with E. coli-roGFP2 results suggest that roGFP2 is sensitive to redox potential change and thiol modification induced by environmental stressors. Based on redox-sensitive technology, E. coli-roGFP2 provides a fast comprehensive detection system for toxicants that induce cellular oxidation.

  20. Secondary Structure Preferences of Mn2+ Binding Sites in Bacterial Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Aleksandrovna Khrustaleva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 3D structures of proteins with coordinated Mn2+ ions from bacteria with low, average, and high genomic GC-content have been analyzed (149 PDB files were used. Major Mn2+ binders are aspartic acid (6.82% of Asp residues, histidine (14.76% of His residues, and glutamic acid (3.51% of Glu residues. We found out that the motif of secondary structure “beta strand-major binder-random coil” is overrepresented around all the three major Mn2+ binders. That motif may be followed by either alpha helix or beta strand. Beta strands near Mn2+ binding residues should be stable because they are enriched by such beta formers as valine and isoleucine, as well as by specific combinations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acid residues characteristic to beta sheet. In the group of proteins from GC-rich bacteria glutamic acid residues situated in alpha helices frequently coordinate Mn2+ ions, probably, because of the decrease of Lys usage under the influence of mutational GC-pressure. On the other hand, the percentage of Mn2+ sites with at least one amino acid in the “beta strand-major binder-random coil” motif of secondary structure (77.88% does not depend on genomic GC-content.

  1. TatE as a Regular Constituent of Bacterial Twin-arginine Protein Translocases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, Ekaterina; Fröbel, Julia; Blümmel, Anne-Sophie; Müller, Matthias

    2015-12-01

    Twin-arginine translocation (Tat) systems mediate the transmembrane translocation of completely folded proteins that possess a conserved twin-arginine (RR) motif in their signal sequences. Many Tat systems consist of three essential membrane components named TatA, TatB, and TatC. It is not understood why some bacteria, in addition, constitutively express a functional paralog of TatA called TatE. Here we show, in live Escherichia coli cells, that, upon expression of a Tat substrate protein, fluorescently labeled TatE-GFP relocates from a rather uniform distribution in the plasma membrane into a number of discrete clusters. Clustering strictly required an intact RR signal peptide and the presence of the TatABC subunits, suggesting that TatE-GFP associates with functional Tat translocases. In support of this notion, site-specific photo cross-linking revealed interactions of TatE with TatA, TatB, and TatC. The same approach also disclosed a pronounced tendency of TatE and TatA to hetero-oligomerize. Under in vitro conditions, we found that TatE replaces TatA inefficiently. Our collective results are consistent with TatE being a regular constituent of the Tat translocase in E. coli.

  2. EFFECT OF DIETARY RAW CHICKPEA (Cicer arietinum L. SEEDS REPLACEMENT GROUNDNUT MEAL, SESAME MEAL ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND BLOOD CONSTITUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Algam

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chickpea seeds on performance and blood constituents of broilers. One hundred and twenty eight unsexed one day old (Ross broiler chicks were randomly assigned to four approximately isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets labeled as follows: Diet (F0 containing 0% chickpea (control diet, diet (F1 10% chickpea substitute same levels of sesame meal and groundnuts meal, diet (F2 10% chickpea substitute from groundnuts meal only and diet (F3 10% chickpea substitute from sesame meal only. Each treatment had four replicates with 8 birds/ replicate. The study lasted for 8 weeks. Parameters Measured were feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR, pre –slaughter weight, dressing percentage, protein efficiency, some blood parameters (glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, calcium, and phosphorus and profitability. The results showed significant decrease (P0.05 effect on serum glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels. Broiler chicks received diet F3 recorded the highest profitability than other groups.

  3. PG1058 Is a Novel Multidomain Protein Component of the Bacterial Type IX Secretion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veith, Paul D.; Butler, Catherine A.; Nor Muhammad, Nor A.; Chen, Yu-Yen; Slakeski, Nada; Peng, Benjamin; Zhang, Lianyi; Dashper, Stuart G.; Cross, Keith J.; Cleal, Steven M.; Moore, Caroline; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis utilises the Bacteroidetes-specific type IX secretion system (T9SS) to export proteins across the outer membrane (OM), including virulence factors such as the gingipains. The secreted proteins have a conserved carboxy-terminal domain essential for type IX secretion that is cleaved upon export. In P. gingivalis the T9SS substrates undergo glycosylation with anionic lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) and are attached to the OM. In this study, comparative analyses of 24 Bacteroidetes genomes identified ten putative novel components of the T9SS in P. gingivalis, one of which was PG1058. Computer modelling of the PG1058 structure predicted a novel N- to C-terminal architecture comprising a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, a β-propeller domain, a carboxypeptidase regulatory domain-like fold (CRD) and an OmpA_C-like putative peptidoglycan binding domain. Inactivation of pg1058 in P. gingivalis resulted in loss of both colonial pigmentation and surface-associated proteolytic activity; a phenotype common to T9SS mutants. Immunoblot and LC-MS/MS analyses of subcellular fractions revealed T9SS substrates accumulated within the pg1058 mutant periplasm whilst whole-cell ELISA showed the Kgp gingipain was absent from the cell surface, confirming perturbed T9SS function. Immunoblot, TEM and whole-cell ELISA analyses indicated A-LPS was produced and present on the pg1058 mutant cell surface although it was not linked to T9SS substrate proteins. This indicated that PG1058 is crucial for export of T9SS substrates but not for the translocation of A-LPS. PG1058 is a predicted lipoprotein and was localised to the periplasmic side of the OM using whole-cell ELISA, immunoblot and LC-MS/MS analyses of subcellular fractions. The structural prediction and localisation of PG1058 suggests that it may have a role as an essential scaffold linking the periplasmic and OM components of the T9SS. PMID:27711252

  4. The Family Meal Panacea:Exploring How Different Aspects of Family Meal Occurrence, Meal Habits and Meal Enjoyment Relate to Young Children’s Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Skafida, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    The general consensus in the research to date is that family meals are linked to healthier eating habits in children, compared to not eating with the family. Yet, few studies explore what it is about commensality which leads to better food choices among children. Using a representative Scottish sample of five-year-old children, this research explores the extent to which family meal occurrence, meal patterns regarding where, when and with whom children eat and perceived meal enjoyment predict ...

  5. Is the C-terminal insertional signal in Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane proteins species-specific or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramasivam Nagarajan

    2012-09-01

    heterologous overexpression of almost all OMPs should be feasible in E. coli and other Gram-negative bacterial model organisms. This is relevant especially for biotechnology applications, where recombinant OMPs are used e.g. for the development of vaccines. For the species in which the motif is significantly different, we identify the residues mainly responsible for this difference that can now be changed in heterologous expression experiments to yield functional proteins.

  6. Production of Bioactive Peptides from Soybean Meal by Solid State Fermentation with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Protease

    OpenAIRE

    Naifu Wang; Guowei Le; Yonghui Shi; Yuan Zeng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, soybean meal was first solid state fermented with different strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). Among the strains used, Lactobacillus plantarum Lp6 was selected for further studies because of its highest Degree of Hydrolysis (DH) of protein (2.49±0.08%) in soybean meal after 72 h fermentation. Soybean meal fermented with L. plantarum Lp6 can also improve its DPPH radical scavenging and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities. The addition of protease into s...

  7. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... personnel in accordance with section 7(a)(1) of the Act, the public agency may exclude meal time from...

  8. Replacement of fish meal by poultry by-product meal, food grade, in diets for juvenile spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crisantema Hernández

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of replacing fish meal protein at different levels with poultry by product meal food grade (PBM-FG was assessed in diets for spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus. Four diets were formulated, the control diet fish meal was used as the main protein source (FM; the other three diets had increasing levels of PBM-FG replacing 25, 50 or 75% of the fish meal protein respectively. The diets were fed close to apparent satiation, three times a day to quadruplicate groups of juvenile snapper (average body weight 11.0 ± 0.04 g. The fish were randomly distributed into groups of 15 fish in a 120 L seawater tank. The response of snapper to diets containing graded levels of fish meal was evaluated by measuring weight gain, feed efficiency, body composition, hematological parameters and apparent nutrient digestibility during a 12-week period. The replacing of the 25% of fish meal protein by PBM-FG did show a similar trend for feed efficiency and growth performance than control diet. Feed efficiency and growth performance was reduced at 75% level of fish meal protein replacement by PBM-FG, due to deficiencies of lysine and methionine. The final whole-body proximate composition did not differ among treatments. The hematological characteristics were similar among the treatments control, 25 and 50%, but the fish fed PBM-FG 75% showed the lowest levels for total protein and glucose parameters. The dietary dry matter and protein apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs decreased with increasing dietary PBM-FG. High values for lipid ADCs were observed in all diets.

  9. 草鱼幼鱼实用日粮中添加紫花苜蓿草粉效果评价%EVALUATION OF DRY CLOVER MEAL AS A FEED PROTEIN RESOURCE IN PRACTICAL DIETS OF JUVENILE GRASS CARP.CTENOPHARYNGODON INELLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华林; 钟鸣; 冯健; 罗波; 赵海祥

    2011-01-01

    实验旨在评估苜蓿草粉作为草鱼饲料的潜在蛋白原料的可能性.360尾草鱼幼鱼[(8.72±0.34)朗分成6个实验组,每个实验组3个平行组,每组20尾鱼,养殖于250 L循环水族箱中.试验日粮1、2、3、4、5添加2.5%、5%、10%、15%和20%苜蓿草粉,分别占日粮总蛋白的1.75%、3.50%、7.0%、10.5%和14%.对照组日粮以大豆粕、花生粕、棉籽粕和菜籽粕作为对照蛋白源.所有日粮为等蛋白质(粗蛋白28.5%)和等能量(15.92 mJ/kg).实验期为56d,实验各组鱼在整个试验期间,没有出现死亡.2.5%和5%苜蓿草粉日粮组(试验日粮1、2)鱼较对照组鱼生长性能与饲料效益有所提高,10%组(试验日粮3)与对照组无显著性差异,但15%和20%日粮组(试验日粮4、5)鱼较对照组鱼显著性下降(P<0.05).结果表明,苜蓿草粉在草鱼日粮中适宜添加量为7.8%.最多可以添加到10%.%In order to attain a more economically sustainable, environmentally friendly and viable production, the research interest has been directed towards the evaluation and use of unconventional protein sources. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of dried clover (Medicago sativa L.) meal as an alternative protein source for grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella. A 56d feeding trial was carried out on 6 triplicate groups of 20 fish (8.72±0.34) g in 250 L aquaria connected to a re-circulating system. Five test diets were formulated to contain clover meal at levels of 2.5%,5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of the diets or 1.75%, 3.5%, 7.0%, 10.5% and 14.0% of the total plant dietary protein (Diet 1, 2,3, 4 and 5) respectively and one diet acting as a control which included soybean meal, peanut meal, cottonseed meal and rapeseed meal as protein sources. All diets were isonitrogenous (28.5% crude protein) and isoenergetic (15.92 M J/kg).No mortality was observed during the whole test period. Fish in diets with 2.5% and 5% dry clover meal (Diet I and 2

  10. Structural basis of response regulator inhibition by a bacterial anti-activator protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda D Baker

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The complex interplay between the response regulator ComA, the anti-activator RapF, and the signaling peptide PhrF controls competence development in Bacillus subtilis. More specifically, ComA drives the expression of genetic competence genes, while RapF inhibits the interaction of ComA with its target promoters. The signaling peptide PhrF accumulates at high cell density and upregulates genetic competence by antagonizing the interaction of RapF and ComA. How RapF functions mechanistically to inhibit ComA activity and how PhrF in turn antagonizes the RapF-ComA interaction were unknown. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure of RapF in complex with the ComA DNA binding domain. Along with biochemical and genetic studies, the X-ray crystal structure reveals how RapF mechanistically regulates ComA function. Interestingly, we found that a RapF surface mimics DNA to block ComA binding to its target promoters. Furthermore, RapF is a monomer either alone or in complex with PhrF, and it undergoes a conformational change upon binding to PhrF, which likely causes the dissociation of ComA from the RapF-ComA complex. Finally, we compare the structure of RapF complexed with the ComA DNA binding domain and the structure of RapH complexed with Spo0F. This comparison reveals that RapF and RapH have strikingly similar overall structures, and that they have evolved different, non-overlapping surfaces to interact with diverse cellular targets. To our knowledge, the data presented here reveal the first atomic level insight into the inhibition of response regulator DNA binding by an anti-activator. Compounds that affect the interaction of Rap and Rap-like proteins with their target domains could serve to regulate medically and commercially important phenotypes in numerous Bacillus species, such as sporulation in B. anthracis and sporulation and the production of Cry protein endotoxin in B. thuringiensis.

  11. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  12. EFFECT OF DIETARY REPLACEMENT OF FISHMEAL PROTEIN BY SOYBEAN MEAL PROTEIN ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, METABOLISM AND IMMUNITY OF GIBEL CARP (CARASSIUS AURATUS GIBELIO)%饲料中豆粕替代鱼粉蛋白对异育银鲫生长、代谢及免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王崇; 雷武; 解绶启; 朱晓鸣; 杨云霞; 韩冬

    2009-01-01

    本实验评价了饲料中豆粕替代鱼粉蛋白后对异育银鲫的生长、饲料利用、氮代谢和鱼体免疫力等的影响.实验设计4种等氮等能的饲料,每种3个重复,分别以豆粕替代饲料中鱼粉蛋白的0(对照,D1)、20%(D2)、80%(D3)和100%(D4).实验在半循环水养殖系统持续16周.鱼的初重约2.32g,实验期间水温23-30℃.结果表明,随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高,摄食率显著升高(p<0.05).特定生长率、饲料转化效率、蛋白沉积率和能量沉积率显著降低(p<0.05);蛋白表观消化率显著升高,干物质和能量表观消化率则显著降低(p<0.05);总氮摄入量、表观氮摄入量、粪氮排出量、非粪氮排泄量、总氮沉积率均随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高呈显著降低的趋势(p<0.05),生产每千克鱼的氮排放量则随着饲料中豆粕含量的升高显著升高(p<0.05);血清葡萄糖和甘油三酯的含量显著升高,而胆固醇的含量显著降低(p<0.05);血清的溶菌酶显著降低,超氧化物歧化酶逐渐升高(p<0.05).%A 16-weeks growth was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacement of dietary fishmeal by soybean meal on growth performance, feed utilization, nitrogen metabolism and immunity in gibel carp. Four isonitrogenous and isoealoric diets were formulated. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish with the initial weight at about 2. 32 g. Soybean meal was used to replace 0 (Control, D1), 20% (D2), 80% (D3) and 100% (D4) of dietary fishmeal protein. The fish was reared in a semi-recirculating system. During the experiment, water temperature was 23--30℃, photoperiod was 12D: 12L with the light period from 08 : 00 to 20 : 00, dissolved oxygen was above 5 mg/L, ammonia-N (NH4+ -N plus NH3-N) was less than 0. 5 mg/L, pH was about 6. 4. Fish were fed to satiation twice daily (9:00 and 15:00). At the beginning of the experiment, healthy fish (initial body weight about 2. 32 g) were batch weighed after 24h feed

  13. Optimization of alkaline protease extraction technology of protein from rapeseed meal by response surface methodology%响应面法优化碱性蛋白酶提取菜籽饼中可溶性蛋白质的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤务霞; 冯程; 韩艳

    2012-01-01

    菜籽饼是油菜籽压榨制油的副产物,是提取蛋白质的良好资源。以菜籽饼为原料,利用碱性蛋白酶提取菜籽饼中的可溶性蛋白质。在系统考察液料比、加酶量、初始pH、提取温度及提取时间对可溶性蛋白质提取率影响的基础上,提取时间恒定在40min,利用响应面实验优化各主效因子,经回归分析获得最优的工艺条件:加酶量6500U/g、酶解温度45℃、初始pH11、液料比17∶1,在此工艺条件下可溶性蛋白质提取率为55.38%。%Rapeseed meal was by-products of pressing rapeseed oil and a good resource of protein extraction. Using rapeseed meal as material,the technology for extracting rapeseed meal protein with alkaline protease was discussed. Based on systematic study of effect of liquid to solid ratio,enzyme dosage,value of initial pH, reaction temperature and reaction time on extraction rate of protein,main effect factors were optimized and optimum technology was received. When reaction time was constantly 40min,the result demonstrated extraction rate of protein was 55.38% under optimum conditions namely that enzyme dosage 6500U/g, reaction temperature 45℃,value of initial pil11 ,ratio of liquid to solid 17:1.

  14. ANALISIS COMPOSICIONAL, MICROBIOLÓGICO Y DIGESTIBILIDAD DE LA PROTEÍNA DE LA HARINA DE LARVAS DE Hermetia illuscens L (DIPTERA:STRATIOMYIIDAE EN ANGELÓPOLIS-ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA COMPOSITIONAL, MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PROTEIN DIGESTIBILITY ANALYSIS OF THE LARVA MEAL OF Hermetia illuscens L. (Diptera:Stratiomyiidae AT ANGELÓPOLIS - ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Patricia Arango Gutiérrez

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el valor nutritivo de la harina de las larvas de Hermetia illuscens L. a partir del análisis composicional, prueba de digestibilidad y calidad microbiológica de esta, comparada con una materia prima convencional como la harina de pescado y con otro díptero como es la Musca domestica L. ya que comparten hábitat y ha sido estudiado como materia prima. La harina de las larvas de la mosca negra soldado, por su análisis proximal puede ser considerada un ingrediente proteico. Además presenta una alta digestibilidad. Las características bromatol��gicas asociadas a su calidad microbiológica la convierte en una materia prima promisoria en la alimentación animal.The nutritional value of the larva meal of Hermetia illuscens L. was investigated by means of compositional analysis, digestability tests and its microbiological quality, as compared to other conventional feeds such as fish meal and other Diptera such as Musca domestica L., given that they share the same habitat and have been studied as a food source. The meal of the soldier fly larva could be considered a proteinic ingredient based on its nutritional composition. Also, it had high digestibility. The bromatological characteristics associated with its microbiological quality makes it a promising feed for animal nutrition.

  15. Plant Ribosomal Proteins, RPL12 and RPL19, Play a Role in Nonhost Disease Resistance against Bacterial Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, Satish; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Ramu, Vemanna S; Wang, Keri; Mysore, Kirankumar S

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the molecular mechanism involved in nonhost disease resistance is important to understand the adaptations of plant-pathogen interactions. In this study, virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS)-based forward genetics screen was utilized to identify genes involved in nonhost resistance in Nicotiana benthamiana. Genes encoding ribosomal proteins, RPL12 and RPL19, were identified in the screening. These genes when silenced in N. benthamiana caused a delay in nonhost bacteria induced hypersensitive response (HR) with concurrent increase in nonhost bacterial multiplication. Arabidopsis mutants of AtRPL12 and AtRPL19 also compromised nonhost resistance. The studies on NbRPL12 and NbRPL19 double silenced plants suggested that both RPL12 and RPL19 act in the same pathway to confer nonhost resistance. Our work suggests a role for RPL12 and RPL19 in nonhost disease resistance in N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis. In addition, we show that these genes also play a minor role in basal resistance against virulent pathogens. PMID:26779226

  16. Pseudomonas fluorescens filamentous hemagglutinin, an iron-regulated protein, is an important virulence factor that modulates bacterial pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan Sun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens is a common bacterial pathogen to a wide range of aquaculture animals including various species of fish. In this study, we employed proteomic analysis and identified filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA as an iron-responsive protein secreted by TSS, a pathogenic P. fluorescens isolate. In vitro study showed that compared to the wild type, the fha mutant TSSfha (i exhibited a largely similar vegetative growth profile but significantly retarded in the ability of biofilm growth and producing extracellular matrix, (ii displayed no apparent flagella and motility, (iii was defective in the attachment to host cells and unable to form self-aggregation, (iv displayed markedly reduced capacity of hemagglutination and surviving in host serum. In vivo infection analysis revealed that TSSfha was significantly attenuated in the ability of dissemination in fish tissues and inducing host mortality, and that antibody blocking of the natural FHA produced by the wild type TSS impaired the infectivity of the pathogen. Furthermore, when introduced into turbot as a subunit vaccine, recombinant FHA elicited a significant protection against lethal TSS challenge. Taken together, these results indicate for the first time that P. fluorescens FHA is a key virulence factor essential to multiple biological processes associated with pathogenicity.

  17. Pseudomonas fluorescens Filamentous Hemagglutinin, an Iron-Regulated Protein, Is an Important Virulence Factor that Modulates Bacterial Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan-Yuan; Chi, Heng; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens is a common bacterial pathogen to a wide range of aquaculture animals including various species of fish. In this study, we employed proteomic analysis and identified filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) as an iron-responsive protein secreted by TSS, a pathogenic P. fluorescens isolate. In vitro study showed that compared to the wild type, the fha mutant TSSfha (i) exhibited a largely similar vegetative growth profile but significantly retarded in the ability of biofilm growth and producing extracellular matrix, (ii) displayed no apparent flagella and motility, (iii) was defective in the attachment to host cells and unable to form self-aggregation, (iv) displayed markedly reduced capacity of hemagglutination and surviving in host serum. In vivo infection analysis revealed that TSSfha was significantly attenuated in the ability of dissemination in fish tissues and inducing host mortality, and that antibody blocking of the natural FHA produced by the wild type TSS impaired the infectivity of the pathogen. Furthermore, when introduced into turbot as a subunit vaccine, recombinant FHA elicited a significant protection against lethal TSS challenge. Taken together, these results indicate for the first time that P. fluorescens FHA is a key virulence factor essential to multiple biological processes associated with pathogenicity. PMID:27602029

  18. Phyloproteomic classification of unsequenced organisms by top-down identification of bacterial proteins using capLC-MS/MS on an Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, Colin; Edwards, Nathan J; Fenselau, Catherine

    2010-10-01

    Currently, most MS-based proteomic studies of bacteria and archea match experimental data to known amino acid sequences from the target organism. Top-down studies use a protein's molecular weight along with data gathered from MS/MS experiments to identify proteins by database matching. For Erwinia herbicola and Enterobacter cloacae, studied here, the necessary protein sequences are not available in protein sequence repositories. We apply top-down protein fragmentation, but match the experimental data with homologous proteins from related organisms with sequenced genomes, demonstrating considerable shared protein sequence between closely related bacteria. Using this homology-based approach, we are not only able to identify representative proteins, but are also able to place the two target bacteria in their correct phylogeny. Furthermore, we show that the unexpected mass delta between the experimental precursor and matched protein sequence can often be localized and characterized using accurate-mass precursor and fragment ion measurements. Finally, we demonstrate that proteins identified by top-down workflows provide strong experimental evidence for correct, missing, and misannotated bacterial protein sequences, not only in the analyzed organism, but also for homologous proteins in closely related species. PMID:20845332

  19. In vitro solubility of meat and bone meal protein with different pepsin concentrations Solubilidade in vitro da proteína de farinhas de carne e ossos com diferentes concentraçoes de pepsina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Bellaver

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In vitro protein digestibility of protein sources has been correlated with in vivo digestibility values. However, factors like protein origin, enzyme used and its concentration, pH and processing have been related with the significance of the correlation between the estimates. To address only the enzyme concentration factor, this paper had the objective of testing pepsin at 0.2, 0.02, 0.002 and 0.0002% using the standard AOAC (1995 procedure. Two meat and bone meals (MBM with low and high crude protein (CP content were used to determine the coefficient of solubility of CP in pepsin and HCl (CSCPPEPH. Centrifugation was used to establish the nitrogen (N in the soluble phase, instead of filtration and analysis of N in the residue. The variance analysis and a non-linear asymptotic model were adjusted. The CSCPPEPH under different pepsin concentrations for the two MBM showed higher solubility discrimination with low pepsin concentration. The level of 0.0002% pepsin is better to predict the CP soluble in MBM. This finding implies the assumption that 0.2% pepsin found in the AOAC is not correct for the purpose of determining the range of solubility in high and low CP content in MBM.A digestibilidade in vitro da proteína de fontes protéicas tem sido correlacionada com a digestibilidade in vivo. Entretanto, fatores como a origem protéica, enzima usada e sua concentração, pH e processamento têm sido relacionados com a significância da correlação entre as estimativas. Para atuar somente no fator da concentração enzimática, este trabalho teve por objetivo testar a pepsina nas concentrações de 0,2, 0,02, 0,002 e 0,0002%, utilizando o procedimento padrão do AOAC (1995. Duas farinhas de carne e ossos com baixo ou alto teor de proteína (PB foram usadas para determinar o coeficiente de solubilidade da PB em pepsina e HCl (CSCPPEPH. Centrifugação foi usada para obter o nitrogênio (N na fase solúvel, em vez da filtração e análise do N no

  20. Consumption of high-fat meal containing cheese compared with vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomized controlled cross-over study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimize CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomized...