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Sample records for bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces

  1. Cerebral Metabolic Changes Related to Oxidative Metabolism in a Model of Bacterial Meningitis Induced by Lipopolysaccharide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Michael; Rom Poulsen, Frantz; Larsen, Lykke

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction is prominent in the pathophysiology of severe bacterial meningitis. In the present study, we hypothesize that the metabolic changes seen after intracisternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in a piglet model of meningitis is compatible...... with mitochondrial dysfunction and resembles the metabolic patterns seen in patients with bacterial meningitis. METHODS: Eight pigs received LPS injection in cisterna magna, and four pigs received NaCl in cisterna magna as a control. Biochemical variables related to energy metabolism were monitored by intracerebral...... dysfunction with increasing cerebral LPR due to increased lactate and normal pyruvate, PbtO2, and ICP. The metabolic pattern resembles the one observed in patients with bacterial meningitis. Metabolic monitoring in these patients is feasible to monitor for cerebral metabolic derangements otherwise missed...

  2. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Shamima; Hassan, Ferdaus; Tumurkhuu, Gantsetseg; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Koide, Naoki; Naiki, Yoshikazu; Mori, Isamu; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Yokochi, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potent bone resorbing factor. The effect of LPS on osteoclast formation was examined by using murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. LPS-induced the formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGC) in RAW 264.7 cells 3 days after the exposure. MGCs were positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Further, MGC formed resorption pits on calcium-phosphate thin film that is a substrate for osteoclasts. Therefore, LPS was suggested to induce osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 cells. LPS-induced osteoclast formation was abolished by anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α antibody, but not antibodies to macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL). TNF-α might play a critical role in LPS-induced osteoclast formation in RAW 264.7 cells. Inhibitors of NF-κB and stress activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) prevented the LPS-induced osteoclast formation. The detailed mechanism of LPS-induced osteoclast formation is discussed

  3. Cerebral Metabolic Changes Related to Oxidative Metabolism in a Model of Bacterial Meningitis Induced by Lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, M; Poulsen, F R; Larsen, L; Nordström, C H; Nielsen, T H

    2018-03-05

    Cerebral mitochondrial dysfunction is prominent in the pathophysiology of severe bacterial meningitis. In the present study, we hypothesize that the metabolic changes seen after intracisternal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in a piglet model of meningitis is compatible with mitochondrial dysfunction and resembles the metabolic patterns seen in patients with bacterial meningitis. Eight pigs received LPS injection in cisterna magna, and four pigs received NaCl in cisterna magna as a control. Biochemical variables related to energy metabolism were monitored by intracerebral microdialysis technique and included interstitial glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, and glycerol. The intracranial pressure (ICP) and brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO 2 ) were also monitored along with physiological variables including mean arterial pressure, blood glucose, lactate, and partial pressure of O 2 and CO 2 . Pigs were monitored for 60 min at baseline and 240 min after LPS/NaCl injection. After LPS injection, a significant increase in cerebral lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR) compared to control group was registered (p = 0.01). This increase was due to a significant increased lactate with stable and normal values of pyruvate. No significant change in PbtO 2 or ICP was registered. No changes in physiological variables were observed. The metabolic changes after intracisternal LPS injection is compatible with disturbance in the oxidative metabolism and partly due to mitochondrial dysfunction with increasing cerebral LPR due to increased lactate and normal pyruvate, PbtO 2 , and ICP. The metabolic pattern resembles the one observed in patients with bacterial meningitis. Metabolic monitoring in these patients is feasible to monitor for cerebral metabolic derangements otherwise missed by conventional intensive care monitoring.

  4. Effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide preparations of hemopoiesis in ionizing radiation-induced depression of hemopoiesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, M.N.; Golubeva, L.A.; Martirosov, K.S.; Petkevich, N.V.

    1986-01-01

    The therapeutic effects of pyrogend and prodigiosan in radiation-induced depression of hemopoiesis were intestigated in tests on guinea pigs. Both the preparations were shown to produce. The stimulating effect on the postradiation recovery of granulocytopoiesis and lymphopoiesis

  5. Effect of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide Contamination on Gutta Percha- versus Resilon-Induced Human Monocyte Cell Line Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Hadjati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cytotoxic effects of obturation materials were tested in presence and absence of endotoxin on human monocytes in vitro.Human monocytes from THP-1 cell line were cultured. Three millimeters from the tip of each Resilon and gutta percha points were cut and directly placed at the bottom of the culture wells. Cultured cells were exposed to gutta percha (groups G1 and G2 and Resilon (R1 and R2. Ten μg/ml bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS was added to the culture wells in groups G1 and R1. Positive control included the bacterial LPS without the root canal filling material and the negative control contained the cells in culture medium only. Viability of cells was tested in all groups after 24, 48, and 72 hours using the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay for at least 3 times to obtain reproducible results. Optical density values were read and the data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and post hoc statistical test.The results showed that cells in G2 had the lowest rate of viability at 24 hours, but the lowest rate of viable cells was recorded in G1 at 48 and 72 hours. The effect of LPS treatment was not statistically significant. Resilon groups showed cell viability values higher than those of gutta percha groups, although statistically non-significant (P=0.105. Cell viability values were lower in gutta percha than Resilon groups when LPS-treated and LPS-untreated groups were compared independently at each time point.It could be concluded that none of the tested root canal filling materials had toxic effects on cultured human monocyte cells whether in presence or absence of LPS contamination.

  6. DMPD: Structural and functional analyses of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12106784 Structural and functional analyses of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Carof...html) (.csml) Show Structural and functional analyses of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. PubmedID 12106784 Ti...tle Structural and functional analyses of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Authors

  7. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory events ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is used to activate BV-2 microglia. Nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured using Griess assay. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expressional levels were measured by Western blot analysis.

  8. Pleurotus eryngii Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Inflammation in Mice

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    Junya Kawai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus eryngii (P. eryngii is consumed as a fresh cultivated mushroom worldwide and demonstrated to have multiple beneficial effects. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of P. eryngii in mice with acute lung injury (ALI. Intranasal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS (10 μg/site/mouse induced marked lung inflammation (increase in the number of inflammatory cells, protein leakage, and production of nitric oxide in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as well as histopathological damage in the lung, 6 h after treatment. Mice administered heat-treated P. eryngii (0.3–1 g/kg, p.o. (HTPE 1 h before LPS challenge showed decreased pulmonary inflammation and ameliorated histopathological damage. These results suggest that HTPE has anti-inflammatory effects against ALI. Thus, P. eryngii itself may also have anti-inflammatory effects and could be a beneficial food for the prevention of ALI induced by bacterial infection.

  9. Intermittent fasting attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation and memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Andrea R; Yshii, Lidia M; Viel, Tania A; Buck, Hudson S; Mattson, Mark P; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa M

    2014-05-06

    Systemic bacterial infections often result in enduring cognitive impairment and are a risk factor for dementia. There are currently no effective treatments for infection-induced cognitive impairment. Previous studies have shown that intermittent fasting (IF) can increase the resistance of neurons to injury and disease by stimulating adaptive cellular stress responses. However, the impact of IF on the cognitive sequelae of systemic and brain inflammation is unknown. Rats on IF for 30 days received 1 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline intravenously. Half of the rats were subjected to behavioral tests and the other half were euthanized two hours after LPS administration and the hippocampus was dissected and frozen for analyses. Here, we report that IF ameliorates cognitive deficits in a rat model of sepsis by a mechanism involving NF-κB activation, suppression of the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and enhancement of neurotrophic support. Treatment of rats with LPS resulted in deficits in cognitive performance in the Barnes maze and inhibitory avoidance tests, without changing locomotor activity, that were ameliorated in rats that had been maintained on the IF diet. IF also resulted in reduced levels of mRNAs encoding the LPS receptor TLR4 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus. Moreover, IF prevented LPS-induced elevation of IL-1α, IL-1β and TNF-α levels, and prevented the LPS-induced reduction of BDNF levels in the hippocampus. IF also significantly attenuated LPS-induced elevations of serum IL-1β, IFN-γ, RANTES, TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Taken together, our results suggest that IF induces adaptive responses in the brain and periphery that can suppress inflammation and preserve cognitive function in an animal model of systemic bacterial infection.

  10. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide promotes profibrotic activation of intestinal fibroblasts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, J P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts play a critical role in intestinal wound healing. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a cell wall component of commensal gut bacteria. The effects of LPS on intestinal fibroblast activation were characterized. METHODS: Expression of the LPS receptor, toll-like receptor (TLR) 4, was assessed in cultured primary human intestinal fibroblasts using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Fibroblasts were treated with LPS and\\/or transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1. Nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) pathway activation was assessed by inhibitory kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha) degradation and NFkappaB promoter activity. Fibroblast contractility was measured using a fibroblast-populated collagen lattice. Smad-7, a negative regulator of TGF-beta1 signalling, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression were assessed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The NFkappaB pathway was inhibited by IkappaBalpha transfection. RESULTS: TLR-4 was present on the surface of intestinal fibroblasts. LPS treatment of fibroblasts induced IkappaBalpha degradation, enhanced NFkappaB promoter activity and increased collagen contraction. Pretreatment with LPS (before TGF-beta1) significantly increased CTGF production relative to treatment with TGF-beta1 alone. LPS reduced whereas TGF-beta1 increased smad-7 expression. Transfection with an IkappaBalpha plasmid enhanced basal smad-7 expression. CONCLUSION: Intestinal fibroblasts express TLR-4 and respond to LPS by activating NFkappaB and inducing collagen contraction. LPS acts in concert with TGF-beta1 to induce CTGF. LPS reduces the expression of the TGF-beta1 inhibitor, smad-7.

  11. Use of o-phthalaldehyde to detect O-phosphorylethanolamine in bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H Y; Price, R M; Jacobs, D M

    1992-06-01

    We have developed a method to measure O-phosphorylethanolamine groups in bacterial lipopolysaccharide using a fluorescent reagent, o-phthalaldehyde. The optimal excitation and emission wavelengths were 335 nm and 450 nm, respectively. The reaction was pH-dependent with an optimum at pH 10.5. The maximum fluorescence intensity occurred two min after mixing lipopolysaccharide with the reagent at pH 10.5. The assay was linear over a range of 1 microgram to 100 micrograms of lipopolysaccharide. When we compared the amount of primary amine (as O-phosphorylethanolamine) in native and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid-derivatized lipopolysaccharide, we found that 97% of amine groups in native lipopolysaccharide were derivatized by p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide induces autotaxin expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Song; Zhang Junjie

    2009-01-01

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a secreted enzyme with lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, which converts lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid involved in numerous biological activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration. In the present study, we found that bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a well-known initiator of the inflammatory response, induced ATX expression in monocytic THP-1 cells. The activation of PKR, JNK, and p38 MAPK was required for the ATX induction. The LPS-induced ATX in THP-1 cells was characterized as the β isoform. In the presence of LPC, ATX could promote the migrations of THP-1 and Jurkat cells, which was inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), an inhibitor of Gi-mediated LPA receptor signaling. In summary, LPS induces ATX expression in THP-1 cells via a PKR, JNK and p38 MAPK-mediated mechanism, and the ATX induction is likely to enhance immune cell migration in proinflammatory response by regulating LPA levels in the microenvironment.

  13. Allicin Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of allicin, an active component of garlic, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced acute lung injury. Methods: Wistar rats were subjected to LPS intravenous injection with or without allicin treatment to induce acute lung injury (ALI) model. Also, A549 cells were stimulated with LPS in the ...

  14. Retention of bacterial lipopolysaccharide at the site of subcutaneous injection.

    OpenAIRE

    Yokochi, T.; Inoue, Y.; Yokoo, J.; Kimura, Y.; Kato, N.

    1989-01-01

    The tissue distribution of Klebsiella pneumoniae O3 lipopolysaccharide (KO3 LPS) was studied in mice injected subcutaneously (s.c.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 125I-labeled KO3 LPS. Marked retention of KO3 LPS radioactivity could be found at the site of s.c. injection for several weeks. On the other hand, about 85% of the radioactivity rapidly disappeared from the peritoneal cavity within 6 h after i.p. injection. The long-term presence of KO3 LPS at the injection site was also supported...

  15. SIRT2 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ae Sin; Jung, Yu Jin; Kim, Dal; Nguyen-Thanh, Tung [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Kyung Pyo [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sik [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Kwang [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Won, E-mail: kwon@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Internal Medicine, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University, Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Knockout of SIRT2 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression. • Lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production is decreased in SIRT2 KO macrophage. • SIRT2 deficiency suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced ROS production in macrophage. • M1-macrophage related factors are decreased in SIRT2 deficient cells. • SIRT2 deficiency decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NFκB. - Abstract: Introduction: SIRT2 is a NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases and associated with numerous processes such as infection, carcinogenesis, DNA damage and cell cycle regulation. However, the role of SIRT2 in inflammatory process in macrophage remains unclear. Materials and methods: In the present study, we have evaluated the regulatory effects of SIRT2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages isolated from SIRT2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice or Raw264.7 macrophage cells. As inflammatory parameters, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the productions of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and M1-macrophage-related factors were evaluated. We also examined the effects of SIRT2 on activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NFκB) signaling. Results: SIRT2 deficiency inhibits LPS-induced iNOS mRNA and protein expression in bone marrow derived macrophages. SIRT2-siRNA transfection also suppressed LPS-induced iNOS expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. Bone marrow derived macrophages isolated from SIRT2 KO mice produced lower nitric oxide and expressed lower levels of M1-macrophage related markers including iNOS and CD86 in response to LPS than WT mice. Decrease of SIRT2 reduced the LPS-induced reactive oxygen species production. Deficiency of SIRT2 resulted in inhibition of NFκB activation through reducing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 was significantly decreased in SIRT2-deficient macrophages after LPS stimulation. Discussion: Our data suggested that

  16. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Autophagy Is Responsible for Enhanced Osteoclastogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sul, Ok-Joo; Park, Hyun-Jung; Son, Ho-Jung; Choi, Hye-Seon

    2017-11-30

    We hypothesized that inflammation affects number and activity of osteoclasts (OCs) via enhancing autophagy. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced autophagy, osteoclastogenesis, and cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species (ROS) in bone marrow-derived macrophages that were pre-stimulated with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) decreased LPS-induced OC formation and bone resorption, indicating that autophagy is responsible for increasing number and activity of OCs upon LPS stimulus. Knockdown of autophagy-related protein 7 attenuated the effect of LPS on OC-specific genes, supporting a role of LPS as an autophagy inducer in OC. Removal of ROS decreased LPS-induced OC formation as well as autophagy. However, 3-MA did not affect LPS-induced ROS levels, suggesting that ROS act upstream of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase in LPS-induced autophagy. Our results suggest the possible use of autophagy inhibitors targeting OCs to reduce inflammatory bone loss.

  17. Lipopolysaccharide-induced acute renal failure in conscious rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonassen, Thomas E N; Graebe, Martin; Promeneur, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    In conscious, chronically instrumented rats we examined 1) renal tubular functional changes involved in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute renal failure; 2) the effects of LPS on the expression of selected renal tubular water and sodium transporters; and 3) effects of milrinone......-alpha and lactate, inhibited the LPS-induced tachycardia, and exacerbated the acute LPS-induced fall in GFR. Furthermore, Ro-20-1724-treated rats were unable to maintain MAP. We conclude 1) PDE3 or PDE4 inhibition exacerbates LPS-induced renal failure in conscious rats; and 2) LPS treated rats develop an escape......, a phosphodiesterase type 3 (PDE3) inhibitor, and Ro-20-1724, a PDE4 inhibitor, on LPS-induced changes in renal function. Intravenous infusion of LPS (4 mg/kg b.wt. over 1 h) caused an immediate decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proximal tubular outflow without changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP...

  18. Effect of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on structurization properties of bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brill G.E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on the process of dehydration self-organization of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Materials and Methods. The method of wedge dehydration has been used to study the structure formation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Image-phases analysis included their qualitative characteristics, as well as the calculation of quantitative indicators, followed by statistical analysis. Results. UHF-Radiation (1GHz, 0,1 uW/cm2, 10 min has led to the changes in the suspension system of the LPS-saline reflected in the kinetics of structure formation. Conclusion. 1 GHz corresponds to the natural frequency of oscillation of water clusters and, presumably, the effect of UHF on structure of LPS mediates through the changes in water-salt environment. Under these conditions, properties of water molecules of hydration and possibly the properties of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in the molecule of LPS, which can affect the ability of toxin molecules to form aggregates change. Therefore the lipopolysaccharide structure modification may result in the change of its toxic properties.

  19. Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of TRAIL promotes dendritic cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young S; Challa, Sreerupa; Clancy, Lauren; Chan, Francis K-M

    2010-08-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a death-inducing cytokine whose physiological function is not well understood. Here, we show that TRAIL has a role in programming human dendritic cell (DC) differentiation. TRAIL expression was strongly induced in DCs upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) stimulation. Blockade of TRAIL with neutralizing antibody partially inhibited LPS-induced up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and the expression of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-12 (IL-12) p70. In addition, neutralization of TRAIL in LPS-treated DCs inhibited the DC-driven differentiation of T cells into interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) -producing effectors. The effects of TRAIL neutralization in poly(I:C)-treated DCs were similar, except that IL-12 production and the differentiation of effector T cells into IFN-gamma producers were not inhibited. Strikingly, TRAIL stimulation alone was sufficient to induce morphological changes resembling DC maturation, up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules, and enhancement of DC-driven allogeneic T-cell proliferation. However, TRAIL alone did not induce inflammatory cytokine production. We further show that the effects of TRAIL on DC maturation were not the result of the induction of apoptosis, but may involve p38 activation. Hence, our data demonstrate that TRAIL co-operates with other cytokines to facilitate DC functional maturation in response to Toll-like receptor activation.

  20. Dexmedetomidine reduces lipopolysaccharide induced neuroinflammation, sickness behavior, and anhedonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hua Yeh

    Full Text Available Peripheral innate immune response may induce sickness behavior through activating microglia, excessive cytokines production, and neuroinflammation. Dexmedetomidine (Dex has anti-inflammatory effect. We investigated the effects of Dex on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced neuroinflammation and sickness behavior in mice.BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally (i.p. injected with Dex (50 ug/kg or vehicle. One hour later, the mice were injected (i.p. with Escherichia coli LPS (0.33 mg/kg or saline (n = 6 in each group. We analyzed the food and water intake, body weight loss, and sucrose preference of the mice for 24h. We also determined microglia activation and cytokines expression in the brains of the mice. In vitro, we determine cytokines expression in LPS-treated BV-2 microglial cells with or without Dex treatment.In the Dex-pretreated mice, LPS-induced sickness behavior (anorexia, weight loss, and social withdrawal were attenuated and microglial activation was lower than vehicle control. The mRNA expression of TNF-α, MCP-1, indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO, caspase-3, and iNOS were increased in the brain of LPS-challenged mice, which were reduced by Dex but not vehicle.Dexmedetomidine diminished LPS-induced neuroinflammation in the mouse brain and modulated the cytokine-associated changes in sickness behavior.

  1. Lipopolysaccharide-induced Pulpitis Up-regulates TRPV1 in Trigeminal Ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M.-K.; Lee, J.; Duraes, G.; Ro, J.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Tooth pain often accompanies pulpitis. Accumulation of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a product of Gram-negative bacteria, is associated with painful clinical symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying LPS-induced tooth pain are not clearly understood. TRPV1 is a capsaicin- and heat-gated nociceptive ion channel implicated in thermosensation and hyperalgesia under inflammation or injury. Although TRPV1 is expressed in pulpal afferents, it is not known whether the application of LPS to teeth modulates TRPV1 in trigeminal nociceptors. By assessing the levels of protein and transcript of TRPV1 in mouse trigeminal ganglia, we demonstrate that dentinal application of LPS increases the expression of TRPV1. Our results suggest that the up-regulation of TRPV1 in trigeminal nociceptors following bacterial infection could contribute to hyperalgesia under pulpitis conditions. PMID:21712529

  2. Priming, induction and modulation of plant defence responses by bacterial lipopolysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Mari-Anne; Dow, J. Maxwell; Molinaro, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    to the triggering of defence responses or to the priming of the plant to respond more rapidly and/or to a greater degree to subsequent pathogen challenge. LPS from symbiotic bacteria can have quite different effects on plants to those of pathogens. Some details are emerging of the structures within LPS......Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) have multiple roles in plant-microbe interactions. LPS contributes to the low permeability of the outer membrane, which acts as a barrier to protect bacteria from plant-derived antimicrobial substances. Conversely, perception of LPS by plant cells can lead...... that are responsible for induction of these different plant responses. The lipid A moiety is not solely responsible for all of the effects of LPS in plants; core oligosaccharide and O-antigen components can elicit specific responses. Here, we review the effects of LPS in induction of defence-related responses...

  3. Riboflavin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harbi, Naif O; Imam, Faisal; Nadeem, Ahmed; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Korashy, Hesham M; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohammed M; Hafez, Mohamed M; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Nagi, Mahmoud N; Bahashwan, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in humans and animals. It is the central component of the cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and is therefore required by all flavoproteins. Riboflavin also works as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of riboflavin against acute lungs injury induced by the administration of a single intranasal dose (20 μg/rat) of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in experimental rats. Administration of LPS resulted in marked increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level (p riboflavin in a dose-dependent manner (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). Riboflavin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) showed similar protective effects as dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, p.o.). Administration of LPS showed marked cellular changes including interstitial edema, hemorrhage, infiltration of PMNs, etc., which were reversed by riboflavin administration. Histopathological examinations showed normal morphological structures of lungs tissue in the control group. These biochemical and histopathological examination were appended with iNOS and CAT gene expression. The iNOS mRNA expression was increased significantly (p riboflavin significantly (p riboflavin caused a protective effect against LPS-induced ALI. These results suggest that riboflavin may be used to protect against toxic effect of LPS in lungs.

  4. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced acute inflammation in lung by chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinshan; Xue, Jinling; Xu, Bi; Xie, Jiani [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qiao, Juan, E-mail: qjuan@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lu, Yun, E-mail: luyun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control State Key Joint Laboratory, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-02-13

    Highlights: • Chlorination is effective to reduce the inflammation inducing capacity of LPS in lung. • LAL-detected endotoxin activity is not correlated to the potency of inflammation induction. • Alkyl chain of LPS was chlorinated in chlorination process. • LPS aggregate size decreases after chlorination. - Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, also called endotoxin) is a pro-inflammatory constituent of gram negative bacteria and cyanobacteria, which causes a potential health risk in the process of routine urban application of reclaimed water, such as car wash, irrigation, scenic water refilling, etc. Previous studies indicated that the common disinfection treatment, chlorination, has little effect on endotoxin activity removal measured by Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. However, in this study, significant decrease of acute inflammatory effects was observed in mouse lung, while LAL assay still presented a moderate increase of endotoxin activity. To explore the possible mechanisms, the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results showed the chlorination happened in alkyl chain of LPS molecules, which could affect the interaction between LPS and LPS-binding protein. Also the size of LPS aggregates was found to drop significantly after treatment, which could be another results of chlorination caused polarity change. In conclusion, our observation demonstrated that chlorination is effective to reduce the LPS induced inflammation in lung, and it is recommended to use health effect-based methods to assess risk removal of water treatment technologies.

  5. Inhibitory Effects of Ketamine on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Microglial Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Chang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia activated in response to brain injury release neurotoxic factors including nitric oxide (NO and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β. Ketamine, an anesthetic induction agent, is generally reserved for use in patients with severe hypotension or respiratory depression. In this study, we found that ketamine (100 and 250 μM concentration-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced NO and IL-1β release in primary cultured microglia. However, ketamine (100 and 250 μM did not significantly inhibit the LPS-induced TNF-α production in microglia, except at the higher concentration (500 μM. Further study of the molecular mechanisms revealed that ketamine markedly inhibited extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 phosphorylation but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase stimulated by LPS in microglia. These results suggest that microglial inactivation by ketamine is at least partially due to inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

  6. Structural modifications of bacterial lipopolysaccharide that facilitate Gram-negative bacteria evasion of host innate immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motohiro eMatsuura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a cell wall component characteristic of Gram-negative bacteria, is a representative pathogen-associated molecular pattern that allows mammalian cells to recognize bacterial invasion and trigger innate immune responses. The polysaccharide moiety of LPS primary plays protective roles for bacteria such as prevention from complement attacks or camouflage with common host carbohydrate residues. The lipid moiety, termed lipid A, is recognized by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4/MD-2 complex, which transduces signals for activation of host innate immunity. The basic structure of lipid A is a glucosamine disaccharide substituted by phosphate groups and acyl groups. Lipid A with 6 acyl groups (hexa-acylated form has been indicated to be a strong stimulator of the TLR4/MD-2 complex. This type of lipid A is conserved among a wide variety of Gram-negative bacteria, and those bacteria are easily recognized by host cells for activation of defensive innate immune responses. Modifications of the lipid A structure to less-acylated forms have been observed in some bacterial species, and those forms are poor stimulators of the TLR4/MD-2 complex. Such modifications are thought to facilitate bacterial evasion of host innate immunity, thereby enhancing pathogenicity. This hypothesis is supported by studies of Yersinia pestis LPS, which contains hexa-acylated lipid A when the bacterium grows at 27ºC (the temperature of the vector flea, and shifts to contain less-acylated forms when grown at the human body temperature of 37ºC. This alteration of lipid A forms following transmission of Y. pestis from fleas to humans contributes predominantly to the virulence of this bacterium over other virulence factors. A similar role for less-acylated lipid A forms has been indicated in some other bacterial species, such as Francisella tularensis, Helicobacter pylori, and Porphyromonas gingivalis, and further studies to explore this concept are

  7. Lipopolysaccharide induced inflammation in the perivascular space in lungs

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    Pabst Reinhard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipopolysaccharide (LPS contained in tobacco smoke and a variety of environmental and occupational dusts is a toxic agent causing lung inflammation characterized by migration of neutrophils and monocytes into alveoli. Although migration of inflammatory cells into alveoli of LPS-treated rats is well characterized, the dynamics of their accumulation in the perivascular space (PVS leading to a perivascular inflammation (PVI of pulmonary arteries is not well described. Methods Therefore, we investigated migration of neutrophils and monocytes into PVS in lungs of male Sprague-Dawley rats treated intratracheally with E. coli LPS and euthanized after 1, 6, 12, 24 and 36 hours. Control rats were treated with endotoxin-free saline. H&E stained slides were made and immunohistochemistry was performed using a monocyte marker and the chemokine Monocyte-Chemoattractant-Protein-1 (MCP-1. Computer-assisted microscopy was performed to count infiltrating cells. Results Surprisingly, the periarterial infiltration was not a constant finding in each animal although LPS-induced alveolitis was present. A clear tendency was observed that neutrophils were appearing in the PVS first within 6 hours after LPS application and were decreasing at later time points. In contrast, mononuclear cell infiltration was observed after 24 hours. In addition, MCP-1 expression was present in perivascular capillaries, arteries and the epithelium. Conclusion PVI might be a certain lung reaction pattern in the defense to infectious attacks.

  8. The Alternaria alternata Mycotoxin Alternariol Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation.

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    Grover, Shivani; Lawrence, Christopher B

    2017-07-20

    The Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) have been shown to possess genotoxic and cytotoxic properties. In this study, the ability of AOH and AME to modulate innate immunity in the human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and mouse macrophage cell line (RAW264.7) were investigated. During these studies, it was discovered that AOH and to a lesser extent AME potently suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced innate immune responses in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of BEAS-2B cells with AOH resulted in morphological changes including a detached pattern of growth as well as elongated arms. AOH/AME-related immune suppression and morphological changes were linked to the ability of these mycotoxins to cause cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. This model was also used to investigate the AOH/AME mechanism of immune suppression in relation to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). AhR was not found to be important for the immunosuppressive properties of AOH/AME, but appeared important for the low levels of cell death observed in BEAS-2B cells.

  9. Blockade of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Glutamate Receptor Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Renal Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chian-Shiung; Hung, Shun-Fa; Huang, Ho-Shiang; Ma, Ming-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in rat kidney reduces renal perfusion and ultrafiltration. Hypoperfusion-induced ischemia is the most frequent cause of functional insufficiency in the endotoxemic kidney. Here, we used non-hypotensive rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia to examine whether NMDA receptor hyperfunction contributes to acute kidney injury. Lipopolysaccharide-induced renal damage via increased enzymuria and hemodynamic impairments were ameliorated by co-treatment with the NMDA receptor blocker, MK-801. The NMDA receptor NR1 subunit in the rat kidney mainly co-localized with serine racemase, an enzyme responsible for synthesizing the NMDA receptor co-agonist, D-serine. The NMDA receptor hyperfunction in lipopolysaccharide-treated kidneys was demonstrated by NR1 and serine racemase upregulation, particularly in renal tubules, and by increased D-serine levels. Lipopolysaccharide also induced cell damage in cultured tubular cell lines and primary rat proximal tubular cells. This damage was mitigated by MK-801 and by small interfering RNA targeting NR1. Lipopolysaccharide increased cytokine release in tubular cell lines via toll-like receptor 4. The release of interleukin-1β from these cells are the most abundant. An interleukin-1 receptor antagonist not only attenuated cell death but also abolished lipopolysaccharide-induced NR1 and serine racemase upregulation and increases in D-serine secretion, suggesting that interleukin-1β-mediated NMDA receptor hyperfunction participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced tubular damage. The results of this study indicate NMDA receptor hyperfunction via cytokine effect participates in lipopolysaccharide-induced renal insufficiency. Blockade of NMDA receptors may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis-associated renal failure.

  10. Effect of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on structurization properties of bacterial lipopolysaccharide

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    Grigory E. Brill

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — to investigate the effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on the process of dehydration selforganization of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Material and Methods — The method of wedge dehydration has been used to study the structure formation of bacterial LPS. Image-phases analysis included their qualitative characteristics, as well as the calculation of quantitative indicators, followed by statistical analysis. Results — Low-intensity ultra high frequency (UHF radiation (1 GHz, 0.1 μW/cm2, 10 min has led to the changes in the suspension system of the LPS-saline reflected in the kinetics of structure formation. Conclusion — 1 GHz corresponds to the natural frequency of oscillation of water clusters and, presumably, the effect of UHF on structure of LPS mediates through the changes in water-salt environment. Under these conditions, properties of water molecules of hydration and possibly the properties of hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions in the molecule of LPS, which can affect the ability of toxin molecules to form aggregates change. Therefore the LPS structure modification may result in the change of its toxic properties.

  11. Opposing effects of cationic antimicrobial peptides and divalent cations on bacterial lipopolysaccharides

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    Smart, Matthew; Rajagopal, Aruna; Liu, Wing-Ki; Ha, Bae-Yeun

    2017-10-01

    The permeability of the bacterial outer membrane, enclosing Gram-negative bacteria, depends on the interactions of the outer, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer, with surrounding ions and molecules. We present a coarse-grained model for describing how cationic amphiphilic molecules (e.g., antimicrobial peptides) interact with and perturb the LPS layer in a biologically relevant medium, containing monovalent and divalent salt ions (e.g., Mg2+). In our approach, peptide binding is driven by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and is assumed to expand the LPS layer, eventually priming it for disruption. Our results suggest that in parameter ranges of biological relevance (e.g., at micromolar concentrations) the antimicrobial peptide magainin 2 effectively disrupts the LPS layer, even though it has to compete with Mg2+ for the layer. They also show how the integrity of LPS is restored with an increasing concentration of Mg2+. Using the approach, we make a number of predictions relevant for optimizing peptide parameters against Gram-negative bacteria and for understanding bacterial strategies to develop resistance against cationic peptides.

  12. Modulating the bacterial surface with small RNAs: a new twist on PhoP/Q-mediated lipopolysaccharide modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Martin; Kallipolitis, Birgitte; Valentin-Hansen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    Summary In recent years, small non-coding RNAs have emerged as important regulatory components in bacterial stress responses and in bacterial virulence. Many of these are conserved in related species and act on target mRNAs by sequence complementarity. They are tightly controlled...... of bacterial surface properties by regulating lipopolysaccharide modification. The small RNA is expressed as part of the PhoP/PhoQ two-component system that plays a major role in virulence of pathogenic species. This work expands the list of global regulators known to control small RNA expression...

  13. Lipopolysaccharide induces IFN-γ production in human NK cells

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    Leonid M Kanevskiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NK cells have been shown to play a regulatory role in sepsis. According to the current view, NK cells become activated via macrophages or dendritic cells primed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Recently TLR4 gene expression was detected in human NK cells suggesting the possibility of a direct action of LPS on NK cells. In this study, effects of LPS on NK cell cytokine production and cytotoxicity were studied using highly purified human NK cells. LPS induced IFN-γ production in the presence of IL-2 in cell populations containing >98% CD56+ cells. Surprisingly, in the same experiments LPS decreased NK cell degranulation. No significant expression of markers related to blood dendritic cells, monocytes or T or B lymphocytes in the NK cell preparations was observed; the portions of HLA-DRbright, CD14+, CD3+ and CD20+ cells amounted to less than 0.1% within the cell populations. No more than 0.2% of NK cells were shown to be slightly positive for surface TLR4 in our experimental system, although intracellular staining revealed moderate amounts of TLR4 inside the NK cell population. These cells were negative for surface CD14, the receptor participating in LPS recognition by TLR4. Incubation of NK cells with IL-2 or/and LPS did not lead to an increase in TLR4 surface expression. TLR4–CD56+ NK cells isolated by cell sorting secreted IFN-γ in response to LPS. Antibody to TLR4 did not block the LPS-induced increase in IFN-γ production. We have also shown that Re-form of LPS lacking outer core oligosaccharide and O-antigen induces less cytokine production in NK cells than full length LPS. We speculate that the polysaccharide fragments of LPS molecule may take part in LPS-induced IFN-γ production by NK cells. Collectively our data suggest the existence of a mechanism of LPS direct action on NK cells distinct from established TLR4-mediated signaling.

  14. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intervention Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Weight Loss in Mice

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    Ying-Hua Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced sepsis is a critical medical condition, characterized by a severe systemic inflammation and rapid loss of muscle mass. Preventive and therapeutic strategies for this complex disease are still lacking. Here, we evaluated the effect of omega-3 (n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA intervention on LPS-challenged mice with respect to inflammation, body weight and the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 pathway components. LPS administration induced a dramatic loss of body weight within two days. Treatment with n-3 PUFA not only stopped loss of body weight but also gradually reversed it back to baseline levels within one week. Accordingly, the animals treated with n-3 PUFA exhibited markedly lower levels of inflammatory cytokines or markers in plasma and tissues, as well as down-regulation of TLR4 pathway components compared to animals without n-3 PUFA treatment or those treated with omega-6 PUFA. Our data demonstrate that n-3 PUFA intervention can suppress LPS-induced inflammation and weight loss via, at least in part, down-regulation of pro-inflammatory targets of the TLR4 signaling pathway, and highlight the therapeutic potential of n-3 PUFA in the management of sepsis.

  15. Lipopolysaccharide triggers nuclear import of Lpcat1 to regulate inducible gene expression in lung epithelia.

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    Ellis, Bryon; Kaercher, Leah; Snavely, Courtney; Zhao, Yutong; Zou, Chunbin

    2012-07-26

    To report that Lpcat1 plays an important role in regulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inducible gene transcription. Gene expression in Murine Lung Epithelial MLE-12 cells with LPS treatment or Haemophilus influenza and Escherichia coli infection was analyzed by employing quantitative Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction techniques. Nucleofection was used to deliver Lenti-viral system to express or knock down Lpcat1 in MLE cells. Subcellular protein fractionation and Western blotting were utilized to study Lpcat1 nuclear relocation. Lpcat1 translocates into the nucleus from the cytoplasm in murine lung epithelia (MLE) after LPS treatment. Haemophilus influenza and Escherichia coli, two LPS-containing pathogens that cause pneumonia, triggered Lpcat1 nuclear translocation from the cytoplasm. The LPS inducible gene expression profile was determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction after silencing Lpcat1 or overexpression of the enzyme in MLE cells. We detected that 17 out of a total 38 screened genes were upregulated, 14 genes were suppressed, and 7 genes remained unchanged in LPS treated cells in comparison to controls. Knockdown of Lpcat1 by shRNA dramatically changed the spectrum of the LPS inducible gene transcription, as 18 genes out of 38 genes were upregulated, of which 20 genes were suppressed or unchanged. Notably, in Lpcat1 overexpressed cells, 25 genes out of 38 genes were reduced in the setting of LPS treatment. These observations suggest that Lpcat1 relocates into the nucleus in response to bacterial infection to differentially regulate gene transcriptional repression.

  16. Effects of aging on endotoxin tolerance induced by lipopolysaccharides derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Li, Hui; Yang, Mi-Fang; Shu, Wei; Sun, Meng-Jun; Xu, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a bacterially induced chronic inflammatory disease. Exposure of the host to periodontal pathogens and their virulence factors induces a state of hyporesponsiveness to subsequent stimulations, termed endotoxin tolerance. Aging has a profound effect on immune response to bacteria challenge. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of aging on endotoxin tolerance induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) LPS in murine peritoneal macrophages. We studied the cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-10) and Toll-like receptor 2, 4 (TLR2, 4) gene and protein expressions in peritoneal macrophages from young (2-month-old) and middle-aged (12-month-old) ICR mice following single or repeated P. gingivalis LPS or E. coli LPS stimulation. Pretreatment of peritoneal macrophages with P. gingivalis LPS or E. coli LPS resulted in a reduction in TNF-α production and an increase in IL-10 production upon secondary stimulation (plead to the incontrollable periodontal inflammation in older adults.

  17. Induction of Callose Deposition in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum by Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci and Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea

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    Pipit Marianingsih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a major component of outer-membrane gram-negative bacteria, and it can act as a Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP for perception of pathogens by plants. LPS can be recognized by plants, triggering certain plant defense-related responses, including callose deposition. This study investigated induction of callose deposition by bacterial LPS in tobacco. Tobacco leaves were infiltrated with 400 μg/mL and 800 μg/mL LPS extracted from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pta and Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea (Pgl and incubated for 24 h or 48 h. To detect callose deposition, tobacco leaves were cleared in lactophenol solution, stained with aniline blue, and visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Results showed that LPS from Pgl induced more callose deposition in tobacco leaves than did that from Pta. In addition, a Pearson correlation test revealed that incubation period was the most significant factor in callose deposition, followed by the type of LPS bacteria. However, LPS concentration was not significantly corelated to callose deposition in tobacco leaves.

  18. Effects of Acarbose Addition on Ruminal Bacterial Microbiota, Lipopolysaccharide Levels and Fermentation Characteristics

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    Yu-yang Yin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of acarbose addition on changes in ruminal fermentation characteristics and the composition of the ruminal bacterial community in vitro using batch cultures. Rumen fluid was collected from the rumens of three cannulated Holstein cattle fed forage ad libitum that was supplemented with 6 kg of concentrate. The batch cultures consisted of 8 mL of strained rumen fluid in 40 mL of an anaerobic buffer containing 0.49 g of corn grain, 0.21 g of soybean meal, 0.15 g of alfalfa and 0.15g of Leymus chinensis. Acarbose was added to incubation bottles to achieve final concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/mL. After incubation for 24 h, the addition of acarbose linearly decreased (p<0.05 the total gas production and the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, total volatile fatty acids, lactate and lipopolysaccharide (LPS. It also linearly increased (p<0.05 the ratio of acetate to propionate, the concentrations of isovalerate, valerate and ammonia-nitrogen and the pH value compared with the control. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the addition of acarbose decreased (p<0.05 the proportion of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and increased (p<0.05 the percentage of Bacteroidetes, Fibrobacteres, and Synergistetes compared with the control. A principal coordinates analysis plot based on unweighted UniFrac values and molecular variance analysis revealed that the structure of the ruminal bacterial communities in the control was different to that of the ruminal microbiota in the acarbose group. In conclusion, acarbose addition can affect the composition of the ruminal microbial community and may be potentially useful for preventing the occurrence of ruminal acidosis and the accumulation of LPS in the rumen.

  19. Ingestion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide inhibits peripheral taste responses to sucrose in mice

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    Zhu, Xiaobin; He, Lianying; McCluskey, Lynnette Phillips

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental role of the taste system is to discriminate between nutritive and toxic foods. However, it is unknown whether bacterial pathogens that might contaminate food and water modulate the transmission of taste input to the brain. We hypothesized that exogenous, bacterially-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS), modulates neural responses to taste stimuli. Neurophysiological responses from the chorda tympani nerve, which innervates taste cells on the anterior tongue, were unchanged by acute exposure to LPS. Instead, neural responses to sucrose were selectively inhibited in mice that drank LPS during a single overnight period. Decreased sucrose sensitivity appeared 7 days after LPS ingestion, in parallel with decreased lingual expression of Tas1r2 and Tas1r3 transcripts, which are translated to T1R2+T1R3 subunits forming the sweet taste receptor. Tas1r2 and Tas1r3 mRNA expression levels and neural responses to sucrose were restored by 14 days after LPS consumption. Ingestion of LPS, rather than contact with taste receptor cells, appears to be necessary to suppress sucrose responses. Furthermore, mice lacking the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 for LPS were resistant to neurophysiological changes following LPS consumption. These findings demonstrate that ingestion of LPS during a single period specifically and transiently inhibits neural responses to sucrose. We suggest that LPS drinking initiates TLR4-dependent hormonal signals that downregulate sweet taste receptor genes in taste buds. Delayed inhibition of sweet taste signaling may influence food selection and the complex interplay between gastrointestinal bacteria and obesity. PMID:24215981

  20. Methylprednisolone stiffens aortas in lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation in rats.

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    Ya-Hui Ko

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Glucocorticoids are commonly used as therapeutic agents in many acute and chronic inflammatory and auto-immune diseases. The current study investigated the effects of methylprednisolone (a synthetic glucocorticoid on aortic distensibility and vascular resistance in lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation in male Wistar rats. METHODS: Chronic inflammation was induced by implanting a subcutaneous slow-release ALZET osmotic pump (1 mg kg(-1 day(-1 lipopolysaccharide for either 2 or 4 weeks. Arterial wave transit time (τ was derived to describe the elastic properties of aortas using the impulse response function of the filtered aortic input impedance spectra. RESULTS: Long-term lipopolysaccharide challenge enhanced the expression of advanced glycation end products (AGEs in the aortas. Lipopolysaccharide also upregulated the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase to produce high levels of nitric oxide (NO, which resulted in vasodilation, as evidenced by the fall in total peripheral resistance (Rp . However, lipopolysaccharide challenge did not influence the elastic properties of aortas, as shown by the unaltered τ. The NO-mediated vascular relaxation may counterbalance the AGEs-induced arterial stiffening so that the aortic distensibility remained unaltered. Treating lipopolysaccharide-challenged rats with methylprednisolone prevented peripheral vasodilation because of its ability to increase Rp . However, methylprednisolone produced an increase in aorta stiffness, as manifested by the significant decline in τ. The diminished aortic distensibility by methylprednisolone paralleled a significant reduction in NO plasma levels, in the absence of any significant changes in AGEs content. CONCLUSION: Methylprednisolone stiffens aortas and elastic arteries in lipopolysaccharide-induced chronic inflammation in rats, for NO activity may be dominant as a counteraction of AGEs.

  1. Effect of methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. on lipopolysaccharide induced-oxidative stress in rats.

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    Ahmad, Mohammad Parwez; Hussain, Arshad; Siddiqui, Hefazat Hussain; Wahab, Shadma; Adak, Manoranjan

    2015-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress and impairment of normal physiological function generally categorized by increased anxiety and reduced mobility. Therefore, the present study was to find out the effect Methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus (MEAR ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress in rats . LPS-induced oxidative stress in rats was measured by locomotor activity by photoactometer test, anxiety with elevated plus maze test and also studied the oxidative stress markers, nitric oxide and cytokines. The obtained data shows that LPS markedly exhausted (pAsparagus racemosus Willd. is a functionally newer type of cerebroprotective agent.

  2. Prostaglandin E2 and thromboxane B2 release from human monocytes treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, F.C.; Garrison, S.W.; Davis, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the capacity of counterflow-isolated human monocytes to independently synthesize thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) when stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Independent metabolism was confirmed by establishing different specific activities (dpm/ng) of TxB2 and PGE2 released from LPS-treated cells. For metabolites released during the initial 2-hr treatment period, the specific activity of PGE2 was approximately threefold higher than that of TxB2 regardless of labeling with [3H]arachidonic acid (AA) or [14C]AA. Cells that were pulse-labeled for 2 hr with [3H]AA demonstrated a decreasing PGE2 specific activity over 24 hr, whereas the TxB2 specific activity remained unchanged. In contrast, cells continuously exposed to [14C]AA demonstrated an increasing TxB2 specific activity that approached the level of PGE2 by 24 hr. These results suggest the presence of at least 2 cyclooxygenase metabolic compartments in counterflow-isolated monocytes. Although freshly isolated monocytes have been reported to contain variable numbers of adherent platelets, additional experiments demonstrated that counterflow-isolated platelets are not capable of releasing elevated levels of TxB2 or PGE2 when treated with LPS. It is proposed from these findings that at least two subsets of monocytes exist in peripheral blood that can be distinguished on the basis of independent conversion of AA to TxB2 and PGE2

  3. Fluctuations in brain temperature induced by lipopolysaccharides: central and peripheral contributions.

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    Tang, Jeremy S; Kiyatkin, Eugene A

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined changes in central (anterior-preoptic hypothalamus) and peripheral (temporal muscle and facial skin) temperatures in freely moving rats following intravenous administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) at low doses (1 and 10 μg/kg) at thermoneutral conditions (28°C). Recordings were made with high temporal resolution (5-s bin) and the effects of LPS were compared with those induced by a tail-pinch, a standard arousing somato-sensory stimulus. At each dose, LPS moderately elevated brain, muscle, and skin temperatures. In contrast to rapid, monophasic and relatively short hyperthermic responses induced by a tail-pinch, LPS-induced increases in brain and muscle temperatures occurred with ~40 min onset latencies, showed three not clearly defined phases, were slightly larger with the 10 μm/kg dose, and maintained for the entire 4-hour post-injection recording duration. Based on dynamics of brain-muscle and skin-muscle temperature differentials, it appears that the hyperthermic response induced by LPS at the lowest dose originates from enhanced peripheral heat production, with no evidence of brain metabolic activation and skin vasoconstriction. While peripheral heat production also appears to determine the first phase of brain and body temperature elevation with LPS at 10 μg/kg, a further prolonged increase in brain-muscle differentials (onset at ~100 min) suggests metabolic brain activation as a factor contributing to brain and body hyperthermia. At this dose, skin temperature increase was weaker than in temporal muscle, suggesting vasoconstriction as another contributor to brain/body hyperthermia. Therefore, although both LPS at low doses and salient sensory stimuli moderately increase brain and body temperatures, these hyperthermic responses have important qualitative differences, reflecting unique underlying mechanisms.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide induces immune activation and SIV replication in rhesus macaques of Chinese origin.

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    Rong Bao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic immune activation is a hallmark of progressive HIV infection and a key determinant of immunodeficiency in HIV-infected individuals. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the circulation has been implicated as a key factor in HIV infection-related systemic immune activation. We thus investigate the impact of LPS on systemic immune activation in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV-infected rhesus macaques of Chinese origin. METHODS: The animals were inoculated intravenously with SIVmac239. The levels of plasma viral load and host inflammatory cytokines in PBMC were measured by real-time RT-PCR. CD4/CD8 ratio and systemic immune activation markers were examined by flow cytometric analysis of PBMCs. White blood cell and neutrophil counts and C Reactive Protein levels were determined using biochemistry analyzer. The plasma levels of LPS were determined by Tachypleus Amebocyte Lysate (TAL test. RESULTS: The animals inoculated with SIVmac239 became infected as evidenced by the increased plasma levels of SIV RNA and decreased CD4/CD8 ratio. LPS administration of SIV-infected animals induced a transient increase of plasma SIV RNA and immune activation, which was indicated by the elevated expression of the inflammatory cytokines and CD4+HLA-DR+ T cells in PBMCs. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the concept that LPS is a driving factor in systemic immune activation of HIV disease.

  5. LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE INDUCES THE PRODUCTION OF DIAGNOSTIC MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY BY HYBRIDOMA CELLS AGAINST CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA

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    GEK KEE CHUA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to screen and identify the potential inducers in maximizing the production of monoclonal antibody by hybridoma 192 cell line for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia diagnostic. There are nine inducers used in this research, namely lysozyme, aldolase, sodium butyrate, sodium phosphate, potassium phosphate, dimethyl sulfoxide, lipopolysaccharide, essential amino acids, and nonessential amino acids. Hybridoma 192 cell was cultured in 5% CO2 incubator at 37°C and ˃80% humidity in the medium with different concentrations of inducer agents. The inducers were added at the beginning of the culture and the samples were taken after 72 h of culture. The performance of these inducer agents was assessed based on the maximum monoclonal antibody titer achieved using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Lipopolysaccharide was found to increase the maximum monoclonal antibody titer when supplemented at 8 to 12 µg/mL. After optimization using one-factor central composite design at this range, the optimum point was determined to be 8 µg/mL. Verification experiments shows that lipopolysaccharide enhanced the average specific monoclonal antibody production rate by 56% relative to control. In conclusion, lipopolysaccharide at 8 µg/mL is able to increase the monoclonal antibody specific production of hybridoma 192 cell line.

  6. Patterns of Transcriptional Response to 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide in Primary Human Monocytes

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    Silvia N. Kariuki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D, plays an important immunomodulatory role, regulating transcription of genes in the innate and adaptive immune system. The present study examines patterns of transcriptome-wide response to 1,25D, and the bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS in primary human monocytes, to elucidate pathways underlying the effects of 1,25D on the immune system. Monocytes obtained from healthy individuals of African-American and European-American ancestry were treated with 1,25D, LPS, or both, simultaneously. The addition of 1,25D during stimulation with LPS induced significant upregulation of genes in the antimicrobial and autophagy pathways, and downregulation of proinflammatory response genes compared to LPS treatment alone. A joint Bayesian analysis enabled clustering of genes into patterns of shared transcriptional response across treatments. The biological pathways enriched within these expression patterns highlighted several mechanisms through which 1,25D could exert its immunomodulatory role. Pathways such as mTOR signaling, EIF2 signaling, IL-8 signaling, and Tec Kinase signaling were enriched among genes with opposite transcriptional responses to 1,25D and LPS, respectively, highlighting the important roles of these pathways in mediating the immunomodulatory activity of 1,25D. Furthermore, a subset of genes with evidence of interethnic differences in transcriptional response was also identified, suggesting that in addition to the well-established interethnic variation in circulating levels of vitamin D, the intensity of transcriptional response to 1,25D and LPS also varies between ethnic groups. We propose that dysregulation of the pathways identified in this study could contribute to immune-mediated disease risk.

  7. OPTICAL IMAGING OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY FROM HYPEROXIA AND SEPSIS

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    REYHANEH SEPEHR

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders such as acute lung injury (ALI in adults and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD in premature infants. Bacterial infection and oxygen toxicity, which result in pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, contribute to impaired vascular growth and alveolar simplification seen in the lungs of premature infants with BPD. Hyperoxia induces ALI, reduces cell proliferation, causes DNA damage and promotes cell death by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to use an optical imaging technique to evaluate the variations in fluorescence intensities of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes, NADH and FAD in four different groups of rats. The ratio of these fluorescence signals (NADH/FAD, referred to as NADH redox ratio (NADH RR has been used as an indicator of tissue metabolism in injuries. Here, we investigated whether the changes in metabolic state can be used as a marker of oxidative stress caused by hyperoxia and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS exposure in neonatal rat lungs. We examined the tissue redox states of lungs from four groups of rat pups: normoxic (21% O2 pups, hyperoxic (90% O2 pups, pups treated with LPS (normoxic + LPS, and pups treated with LPS and hyperoxia (hyperoxic + LPS. Our results show that hyperoxia oxidized the respiratory chain as reflected by a ~ 31% decrease in lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic lungs. LPS treatment alone or with hyperoxia had no significant effect on lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic or hyperoxic lungs, respectively. Thus, NADH RR serves as a quantitative marker of oxidative stress level in lung injury caused by two clinically important conditions: hyperoxia and LPS exposure.

  8. Lipopolysaccharide-induced neuronal activation in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamus depends on ambient temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel P Wanner

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is associated with either fever or hypothermia, but the mechanisms responsible for switching from one to the other are unknown. In experimental animals, systemic inflammation is often induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS. To identify the diencephalic and brainstem structures involved in the fever-hypothermia switch, we studied the expression of c-Fos protein, a marker of neuronal activation, in rats treated with the same high dose of LPS (0.5 mg/kg, intravenously either in a thermoneutral (30 °C or cool (24 °C environment. At 30 °C, LPS caused fever; at 24 °C, the same dose caused profound hypothermia. Both fever and hypothermia were associated with the induction of c-Fos in many brain areas, including several structures of the anterior preoptic, paraventricular, lateral, and dorsal hypothalamus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the posterior pretectal nucleus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, lateral parabrachial nucleus, area postrema, and nucleus of the solitary tract. Every brain area studied showed a comparable response to LPS at the two different ambient temperatures used, with the exception of two areas: the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH, which we studied together with the adjacent dorsal hypothalamic area (DA, and the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH. Both structures had much stronger c-Fos expression during LPS hypothermia than during fever. We propose that PVH and DMH/DA neurons are involved in a circuit, which - depending on the ambient temperature - determines whether the thermoregulatory response to bacterial LPS will be fever or hypothermia.

  9. The role of lipopolysaccharide injected systemically in the reactivation of collagen-induced arthritis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Shin; Ohsawa, Motoyasu

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the role of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the reactivation of autoimmune disease by using collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice in which autoimmunity to the joint cartilage component type II collagen (CII) was involved.CIA was induced by immunization with CII emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant at the base of the tail (day 0) followed by a booster injection on day 21. Varying doses of LPS from E. coli were i.p. injected on day 50.Arthritis began to develop on day 25 after immunization with CII and reached a peak on day 35. Thereafter, arthritis subsided gradually but moderate joint inflammation was still observed on day 50. An i.p. injection of LPS on day 50 markedly reactivated arthritis on a dose-related fashion. Histologically, on day 55, there were marked oedema of synovium which had proliferated by the day of LPS injection, new formation of fibrin, and intense infiltration of neutrophils accompanied with a large number of mononuclear cells. The reactivation of CIA by LPS was associated with increases in anti-CII IgG and IgG2a antibodies as well as various cytokines including IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α. LPS from S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium, and K. neumoniae and its component, lipid A from E. coli also reactivated the disease. Polymyxin B sulphate suppressed LPS- or lipid A-induced reactivation of CIA.These results suggest that LPS may play an important role in the reactivation of autoimmune joint inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis in humans. PMID:10742285

  10. Effects of aging on endotoxin tolerance induced by lipopolysaccharides derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Sun

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a bacterially induced chronic inflammatory disease. Exposure of the host to periodontal pathogens and their virulence factors induces a state of hyporesponsiveness to subsequent stimulations, termed endotoxin tolerance. Aging has a profound effect on immune response to bacteria challenge. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of aging on endotoxin tolerance induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS and Escherichia coli (E. coli LPS in murine peritoneal macrophages.We studied the cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-10 and Toll-like receptor 2, 4 (TLR2, 4 gene and protein expressions in peritoneal macrophages from young (2-month-old and middle-aged (12-month-old ICR mice following single or repeated P. gingivalis LPS or E. coli LPS stimulation. Pretreatment of peritoneal macrophages with P. gingivalis LPS or E. coli LPS resulted in a reduction in TNF-α production and an increase in IL-10 production upon secondary stimulation (p<0.05, and the markedly lower levels of TNF-α and higher levels of IL-10 were observed in macrophages from young mice compared with those from middle-aged mice (p<0.05. In addition, LPS restimulations also led to the significantly lower expression levels of TLR2, 4 mRNA and protein in macrophages from young mice (p<0.05.Repeated LPS stimulations triggered endotoxin tolerance in peritoneal macrophages and the ability to develop tolerance in young mice was more excellent. The impaired ability to develop endotoxin tolerance resulted from aging might be related to TLR2, 4 and might lead to the incontrollable periodontal inflammation in older adults.

  11. Brucella abortus Induces the Premature Death of Human Neutrophils through the Action of Its Lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Mora-Cartín, Ricardo; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; de Diego, Juana L; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Buret, Andre G; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Moreno, Edgardo

    2015-05-01

    Most bacterial infections induce the activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), enhance their microbicidal function, and promote the survival of these leukocytes for protracted periods of time. Brucella abortus is a stealthy pathogen that evades innate immunity, barely activates PMNs, and resists the killing mechanisms of these phagocytes. Intriguing clinical signs observed during brucellosis are the low numbers of Brucella infected PMNs in the target organs and neutropenia in a proportion of the patients; features that deserve further attention. Here we demonstrate that B. abortus prematurely kills human PMNs in a dose-dependent and cell-specific manner. Death of PMNs is concomitant with the intracellular Brucella lipopolysaccharide (Br-LPS) release within vacuoles. This molecule and its lipid A reproduce the premature cell death of PMNs, a phenomenon associated to the low production of proinflammatory cytokines. Blocking of CD14 but not TLR4 prevents the Br-LPS-induced cell death. The PMNs cell death departs from necrosis, NETosis and classical apoptosis. The mechanism of PMN cell death is linked to the activation of NADPH-oxidase and a modest but steadily increase of ROS mediators. These effectors generate DNA damage, recruitments of check point kinase 1, caspases 5 and to minor extent of caspase 4, RIP1 and Ca++ release. The production of IL-1β by PMNs was barely stimulated by B. abortus infection or Br-LPS treatment. Likewise, inhibition of caspase 1 did not hamper the Br-LPS induced PMN cell death, suggesting that the inflammasome pathway was not involved. Although activation of caspases 8 and 9 was observed, they did not seem to participate in the initial triggering mechanisms, since inhibition of these caspases scarcely blocked PMN cell death. These findings suggest a mechanism for neutropenia in chronic brucellosis and reveal a novel Brucella-host cross-talk through which B. abortus is able to hinder the innate function of PMN.

  12. Brucella abortus Induces the Premature Death of Human Neutrophils through the Action of Its Lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Mora-Cartín, Ricardo; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; de Diego, Juana L.; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Buret, Andre G.; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Moreno, Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    Most bacterial infections induce the activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), enhance their microbicidal function, and promote the survival of these leukocytes for protracted periods of time. Brucella abortus is a stealthy pathogen that evades innate immunity, barely activates PMNs, and resists the killing mechanisms of these phagocytes. Intriguing clinical signs observed during brucellosis are the low numbers of Brucella infected PMNs in the target organs and neutropenia in a proportion of the patients; features that deserve further attention. Here we demonstrate that B. abortus prematurely kills human PMNs in a dose-dependent and cell-specific manner. Death of PMNs is concomitant with the intracellular Brucella lipopolysaccharide (Br-LPS) release within vacuoles. This molecule and its lipid A reproduce the premature cell death of PMNs, a phenomenon associated to the low production of proinflammatory cytokines. Blocking of CD14 but not TLR4 prevents the Br-LPS-induced cell death. The PMNs cell death departs from necrosis, NETosis and classical apoptosis. The mechanism of PMN cell death is linked to the activation of NADPH-oxidase and a modest but steadily increase of ROS mediators. These effectors generate DNA damage, recruitments of check point kinase 1, caspases 5 and to minor extent of caspase 4, RIP1 and Ca++ release. The production of IL-1β by PMNs was barely stimulated by B. abortus infection or Br-LPS treatment. Likewise, inhibition of caspase 1 did not hamper the Br-LPS induced PMN cell death, suggesting that the inflammasome pathway was not involved. Although activation of caspases 8 and 9 was observed, they did not seem to participate in the initial triggering mechanisms, since inhibition of these caspases scarcely blocked PMN cell death. These findings suggest a mechanism for neutropenia in chronic brucellosis and reveal a novel Brucella-host cross-talk through which B. abortus is able to hinder the innate function of PMN. PMID:25946018

  13. Dietary L-arginine supplementation modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammatory response in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory response through LPS/TLR-4 signaling pathway in broilers. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatm...

  14. Gram-Negative Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Activin A Secretion from Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activin A is involved in inflammation. The present study was performed to clarify if lipopolysaccharide, a component of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates activin A secretion from human amniotic epithelial cells and to determine if activin A plays a role in amnionitis. Fetal membranes were obtained during elective cesarean sections performed in full-term pregnancies of patients without systemic disease, signs of premature delivery, or fetal complications. Amniotic epithelial cells were isolated by trypsinization. The activin A concentrations in the culture media were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and cell proliferation was assessed by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation. Amniotic epithelial cells secreted activin A in a cell density-dependent manner, and lipopolysaccharide (10 μg/mL enhanced the secretion at each cell density. Lipopolysaccharide (10–50 μg/mL also stimulated activin A secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Contrary to the effect of activin A secretion, lipopolysaccharide inhibited cell proliferation in amniotic epithelial cells. The present study suggests that lipopolysaccharide stimulation of activin A secretion may be a mechanism in the pathogenesis of amnionitis.

  15. Effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide and X-irradiation on the production of colony-stimulating factor and the maintenance of granulopoiesis in bone marrow culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, H.; Miyanomae, T.; Tsurusawa, M.; Fujita, J.; Mori, K.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and X-irradiation on CSF production and granulopoiesis in long-term bone marrow cultures were studied. Levels of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) increased soon after the refeeding of the culture, but the activity was undetectable at day 7. Addition of LPS induced a significant increase in CSF levels in the culture, followed by an elevated granulopoiesis. The increase in CSF levels was suppressed when culture medium that had been harvested at refeeding on day 7 was added. Although irradiation did not increase CSF production, granulopoiesis was markedly stimulated shortly after irradiation. Thus granulopoiesis in long-term bone marrow culture may also be regulated by humoral factors such as CSF, and the culture system may represent the in vivo response to haemopoietic stimuli. (author)

  16. Muramyl Dipeptide Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption through Increased RANKL Expression in Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiko Ishida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is bacterial cell wall component capable of inducing osteoclast formation and pathological bone resorption. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP, the minimal essential structural unit responsible for the immunological activity of peptidoglycans, is ubiquitously expressed by bacterium. In this study, we investigated the effect of MDP in LPS-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. LPS was administered with or without MDP into the supracalvariae of mice. The number of osteoclasts, the level of mRNA for cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, the ratio of the bone destruction area, the level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase form 5b (TRACP 5b, and C-terminal telopeptides fragments of type I collagen as a marker of bone resorption in mice administrated both LPS and MDP were higher than those in mice administrated LPS or MDP alone. On the other hand, MDP had no effect on osteoclastogenesis in parathyroid hormone administrated mice. MDP enhanced LPS-induced receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL expression and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 expression in vivo and in stromal cells in vitro. MDP also enhanced LPS-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling, including ERK, p38, and JNK, in stromal cells. These results suggest that MDP might play an important role in pathological bone resorption in bacterial infection diseases.

  17. Lipopolysaccharide-induced biliary factors enhance invasion of Salmonella enteritidis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, A F; Moss, N D; Dai, Y; Smith, M S; Collins, A M; Jackson, G D

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the role of the hepatobiliary system in the early pathogenesis of Salmonella enteritidis infection was investigated in a rat model. Intravenous (i.v.) challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has previously been shown to enhance the translocation of normal gut flora. We first confirmed that LPS can similarly promote the invasion of S. enteritidis. Oral infection of outbred Australian Albino Wistar rats with 10(6) to 10(7) CFU of S. enteritidis led to widespread tissue invasion after days. If animals were similarly challenged after intravenous administration of S. enteritidis LPS (3 to 900 microg/kg of body weight), significant invasion of the livers and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) occurred within 24 h, with invasion of the liver increasing in a dose-dependent fashion (P < 0.01). If bile was prevented from reaching the intestine by bile duct ligation or cannulation, bacterial invasion of the liver and MLN was almost totally abrogated (P < 0.001). As i.v. challenge with LPS could induce the delivery of inflammatory mediators into the bile, biliary tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations were measured by bioassay. Biliary concentrations of TNF-alpha rose shortly after LPS challenge, peaked with a mean concentration of 27.0 ng/ml at around 1 h postchallenge, and returned to baseline levels (3.1 ng/ml) after 2.5 h. Although TNF-alpha cannot be directly implicated in the invasion process, we conclude that the invasiveness of the enteric pathogen S. enteritidis is enhanced by the presence of LPS in the blood and that this enhanced invasion is at least in part a consequence of the delivery of inflammatory mediators to the gastrointestinal tract by the hepatobiliary system.

  18. Bee venom ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced memory loss by preventing NF-kappaB pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Sun Mi; Park, Mi Hee; Hwang, Chul Ju; Song, Ho Sueb; Lee, Ung Soo; Han, Sang Bae; Oh, Ki Wan; Ham, Young Wan; Song, Min Jong; Son, Dong Ju; Hong, Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    Background Accumulation of beta-amyloid and neuroinflammation trigger Alzheimer?s disease. We previously found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused neuroinflammation with concomitant accumulation of beta-amyloid peptides leading to memory loss. A variety of anti-inflammatory compounds inhibiting nuclear factor kappaB (NF-?B) activation have showed efficacy to hinder neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis. We also found that bee venom (BV) inhibits NF-?B. Methods A mouse model of LPS-induced me...

  19. Cardiac-Specific Overexpression of Catalase Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction: Role of Autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Turdi, Subat; Han, Xuefeng; Huff, Anna F.; Roe, Nathan D.; Hu, Nan; Gao, Feng; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is a major initiator of sepsis, leading to cardiovascular collapse. Accumulating evidence has indicated a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular complication in sepsis. This study was designed to examine the effect of cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase in LPS-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and the underlying mechanism(s) with a focus on autophagy. Catalase transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were challenged ...

  20. Interleukin-15 is required for maximal lipopolysaccharide-induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Amanda J; Kandiah, Nalaayini; Karimi, Khalil; Clark, David A; Ashkar, Ali A

    2013-06-01

    The maternal immune response during pregnancy is critical for the survival of the fetus yet can be detrimental during infection and inflammation. Previously, IL-15 has been observed to mediate inflammation during LPS-induced sepsis. Therefore, we sought to determine whether IL-15 mediates the inflammatory process during LPS-induced abortion through the use of IL-15(-/-) and WT mice. Administration of 2.5 μg LPS i.p. on gd 7.5 drastically reduced fetal viability in WT mice, whereas it had a minimal effect on fetal survival in IL-15(-/-) mice. The uteroplacental sites of LPS-treated WT mice were characterized by vast structural degradation and inflammation compared with treated IL-15(-/-) and untreated controls. This suggests that IL-15 may mediate the inflammation responsible for LPS-induced resorption. As IL-15(-/-) mice are deficient in NK cells and resistant to LPS-induced abortion, these effects suggest that IL-15 may mediate abortion through their homeostatic and/or activation effects on NK cells. WT uteroplacental units exposed to LPS had an increase in the overall number and effector number of NK cells compared with their control counterparts. Furthermore, NK cell depletion before administration of LPS in WT mice partially restored fetal viability. Overall, this paper suggests that IL-15 mediates the inflammatory environment during LPS-induced fetal resorption, primarily through its effects on NK cells.

  1. The role of lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan, two glycosylated bacterial microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), in plant innate immunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbs, Gitte; Newman, Mari-Anne

    2012-01-01

    innate immune system through the action of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). A greater insight into the mechanisms of MAMP recognition and the description of PRRs for different microbial glycoconjugates will have considerable impact on the improvement of plant health and disease resistance. Here...... to as ‘innate immunity’. Innate immunity is the first line of defence against invading microorganisms in vertebrates and the only line of defence in invertebrates and plants. Bacterial glycoconjugates, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and peptidoglycan (PGN......) from the cell walls of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, have been found to act as elicitors of plant innate immunity. These conserved, indispensable, microbe-specific molecules are also referred to as ‘microbe-associated molecular patterns’ (MAMPs). MAMPs are recognized by the plant...

  2. Function of an anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) isoform isolated from the hemocytes of the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii in protecting against bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chen; Chung, Chien-Pang; Lin, Chang-Yi; Sung, Hung-Hung

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a 780-bp full-length cDNA encoding Macrobrachium rosenbergii anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (MrALF) from hemocytes was cloned and identified. The ALF isoform exhibited immune activities, and its concentration in hemolymph was determined. An in vivo expression study showed that the ALF mRNA level of hemocytes could be induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in an exposure time-dependent manner. Purified recombinant MrALF (rMrALF) expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris SMD1168 eukaryotic protein expression system demonstrated antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative prawn pathogen Aeromonas hydrophila (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)=0.806μM, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)=1.606μM) but not the Gram-positive pathogen Lactococcus garvieae exposed to 25.696μM of rALF. However, rMrALF can bind to Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. An in vivo expression study demonstrated that the ALF concentrations in prawn hemocytes and plasma were 0.176μM and 0.168μM, respectively; following LPS treatment for 6h, the corresponding concentrations were 0.133μM in hemocytes and 0.272μM in plasma. Furthermore, the percentage of hemocytes phagocytosing bacteria cells was higher in hemoyctes previously treated with MrALF than those treated with sterile medium. These results suggest that in the innate immune response of M. rosenbergii, the MrALF from hemocytes may play an opsonin during a bacterial invasion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. How T-cell-dependent and -independent challenges access the brain: vascular and neural responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide and staphylococcal enterotoxin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrats, Jordi; Sawchenko, Paul E

    2009-10-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is widely used to study immune influences on the CNS, and cerebrovascular prostaglandin (PG) synthesis is implicated in mediating LPS influences on some acute phase responses. Other bacterial products, such as staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), impact target tissues differently in that their effects are T-lymphocyte-dependent, yet both LPS and SEB recruit a partially overlapping set of subcortical central autonomic cell groups. We sought to compare neurovascular responses to the two pathogens, and the mechanisms by which they may access the brain. Rats received iv injections of LPS (2 microg/kg), SEB (1mg/kg) or vehicle and were sacrificed 0.5-3h later. Both challenges engaged vascular cells as early 0.5h, as evidenced by induced expression of the vascular early response gene (Verge), and the immediate-early gene, NGFI-B. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression was detected in both endothelial and perivascular cells (PVCs) in response to LPS, but only in PVCs of SEB-challenged animals. The non-selective COX inhibitor, indomethacin (1mg/kg, iv), blocked LPS-induced activation in a subset of central autonomic structures, but failed to alter SEB-driven responses. Liposome mediated ablation of PVCs modulated the CNS response to LPS, did not affect the SEB-induced activational profile. By contrast, disruptions of interoceptive signaling by area postrema lesions or vagotomy (complete or hepatic) markedly attenuated SEB-, but not LPS-, stimulated central activational responses. Despite partial overlap in their neuronal and vascular response profiles, LPS and SEB appear to use distinct mechanisms to access the brain.

  4. Protective effect of carvacrol on acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaosheng; Jia, Aiqing

    2014-08-01

    Carvacrol, the major component of Plectranthus amboinicus, has been known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of carvacrol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia and acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LPS and the mortality of mice for 7 days were observed twice a day. Meanwhile, the protective effect of carvacrol (20, 40 or 80 mg/kg) on LPS-induced endotoxemia were detected. Using an experimental model of LPS-induced ALI, we examined the effect of carvacrol in resolving lung injury. The results showed that carvacrol could improve survival during lethal endotoxemia and attenuate LPS-induced ALI in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanisms of carvacrol may be due to its ability to inhibit NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways, thereby inhibiting inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β production.

  5. The Characteristics and Function of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides and Their Endotoxic Potential in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnauck, Anne; Lentle, Roger G; Kruger, Marlena C

    2016-05-03

    Cross-talk between enteral microbiota and human host is essential for the development and maintenance of the human gastrointestinal and systemic immune systems. The presence of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) lysed from the cell membrane of Gram-negative bacteria in the gut lumen is thought to promote the development of a balanced gut immune response whilst the entry of the same LPS into systemic circulation may lead to a deleterious pro-inflammatory systemic immune response. Recent data suggest that chronically low levels of circulating LPS may be associated with the development of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. This review focuses on the cross-talk between enteral commensal bacteria and the human immune system via LPS. We explain the structural characterisation of the LPS molecule and its function in the bacteria. We then examine how LPS is recognised by various elements of the human immune system and the signalling pathways that are activated by the structure of the LPS molecule and the effect of various concentrations. Further, we discuss the sequelae of this signalling in the gut-associated and systemic immune systems i.e. the neutralisation of LPS and the development of tolerance to LPS.

  6. Lipopolysaccharide induces proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro via TLR4 activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzmann, Nicole; Salamon, Achim [Department of Cell Biology, University Medicine Rostock, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Fiedler, Tomas [Institute for Medical Microbiology, Virology and Hygiene, University Medicine Rostock, Schillingallee 70, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Peters, Kirsten, E-mail: kirsten.peters@med.uni-rostock.de [Department of Cell Biology, University Medicine Rostock, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2017-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are capable of multi-lineage differentiation and support regenerative processes. In bacterial infections, resident MSC can come intocontact with and need to react to bacterial components. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a typical structure of Gram-negative bacteria, increases the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSC. LPS is usually recognized by the toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and induces pro-inflammatory reactions in numerous cell types. In this study, we quantified the protein expression of TLR4 and CD14 on adipose-derived MSC (adMSC) in osteogenic differentiation and investigated the effect of TLR4 activation by LPS on NF-κB activation, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adMSC. We found that TLR4 is expressed on adMSC whereas CD14 is not, and that osteogenic differentiation induced an increase of the amount of TLR4 protein whereas LPS stimulation did not. Moreover, we could show that NF-κB activation via TLR4 occurs upon LPS treatment. Furthermore, we were able to show that competitive inhibition of TLR4 completely abolished the stimulatory effect of LPS on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adMSC. In addition, the inhibition of TLR4 leads to the complete absence of osteogenic differentiation of adMSC, even when osteogenically stimulated. Thus, we conclude that LPS induces proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adMSC in vitro through the activation of TLR4 and that the TLR4 receptor seems to play a role during osteogenic differentiation of adMSC.

  7. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in mouse brain endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chuen-Mao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, an arachidonic acid metabolite converted by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, plays important roles in the regulation of endothelial functions in response to bacterial infection. The enzymatic activity of COX-2 can be down-regulated by heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 induction. However, the mechanisms underlying HO-1 modulating COX-2 protein expression are not known. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the up-regulation of HO-1 regulates COX-2 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an endotoxin produced by Gram negative bacteria, in mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd.3 Methods Cultured bEnd.3 cells were used to investigate LPS-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production. Cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP, an HO-1 inducer, infection with a recombinant adenovirus carried with HO-1 gene (Adv-HO-1, or zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, an HO-1 inhibitor was used to stimulate HO-1 induction or inhibit HO-1 activity. The expressions of COX-2 and HO-1 were evaluated by western blotting. PGE2 levels were detected by an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Hemoglobin (a chelator of carbon monoxide, CO, one of metabolites of HO-1 and CO-RM2 (a CO releasing molecule were used to investigate the mechanisms of HO-1 regulating COX-2 expression. Results We found that LPS-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production were mediated through NF-κB (p65 via activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4. LPS-induced COX-2 expression was inhibited by HO-1 induction by pretreatment with CoPP or infection with Adv-HO-1. This inhibitory effect of HO-1 was reversed by pretreatment with either ZnPP or hemoglobin. Pretreatment with CO-RM2 also inhibited TLR4/MyD88 complex formation, NF-κB (p65 activation, COX-2 expression, and PGE2 production induced by LPS. Conclusions We show here a novel inhibition of HO-1 on LPS-induced COX-2/PGE2 production in bEnd.3. Our results reinforce the emerging role of cerebral endothelium-derived HO-1

  8. Protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Guoxi; Tian, Yinggang; Wang, Haiyu; Liu, Fangning; Xie, Guanghong

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin, a secretory product of the pineal gland, has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the protective effects of melatonin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects and the underlying mechanisms of melatonin on LPS-induced mastitis both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, our results showed that melatonin attenuated LPS-induced mammary histopathologic changes and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Melatonin also inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in mammary tissues. In vitro, melatonin was found to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in mouse mammary epithelial cells. Melatonin also suppressed LPS-induced Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, melatonin was found to up-regulate the expression of PPAR-γ. Inhibition of PPAR-γ by GW9662 reduced the anti-inflammatory effects of melatonin. In conclusion, we found that melatonin, for the first time, had protective effects on LPS-induced mastitis in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of melatonin was through activating PPAR-γ which subsequently inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. n-Butanol extract from Folium isatidis inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages and protects mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lili Jiang,1 Yili Lu,1 Jiahui Jin,1 Lili Dong,1 Fengli Xu,1 Shuangshuang Chen,1 Zhanyue Wang,2 Guang Liang,2 Xiaoou Shan11Department of Pediatrics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, 2Chemical Biology Research Center at The School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Sepsis, which is caused by severe infection, is an important cause of mortality, but effective clinical treatment against sepsis is extremely limited. As the main component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharide (LPS plays a major role in inflammatory responses. Studies have shown beneficial pharmacological effects for Folium isatidis. The present study further illuminated the effects of n-butanol extract from Folium isatidis in LPS-induced septic shock and identified the main active chemical components. Our study showed that pretreatment with n-butanol extract from Folium isatidis not only significantly inhibited LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 production but also markedly and dose dependently enhanced the recruitment of MyD88, the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and the degradation of IκB-α. Additionally, the extract exhibited dramatic protective effects against lung injury and death in mice with septic shock. Eight main active compounds were identified, including organic acids, glycoside, indolinones, and flavonoids. These findings provide a perspective on the respiratory protection offered by n-butanol extract from Folium isatidis in LPS-induced sepsis and outline a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of sepsis.Keywords: Folium isatidis, sepsis, inflammatory cytokine

  10. Ficolins do not alter host immune responses to lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genster, Ninette; Østrup, Olga; Schjalm, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Ficolins are a family of pattern recognition molecules that are capable of activating the lectin pathway of complement. A limited number of reports have demonstrated a protective role of ficolins in animal models of infection. In addition, an immune modulatory role of ficolins has been suggested....... Yet, the contribution of ficolins to inflammatory disease processes remains elusive. To address this, we investigated ficolin deficient mice during a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced model of systemic inflammation. Although murine serum ficolin was shown to bind LPS in vitro, there was no difference...... an unaltered spleen transcriptome profile in ficolin deficient mice compared to wildtype mice. Collectively, results from this study demonstrate that ficolins are not involved in host response to LPS-induced systemic inflammation....

  11. Atomic force microscopy observation of lipopolysaccharide-induced cardiomyocyte cytoskeleton reorganization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqun; Chen, Tangting; Zhou, Xiang; Huang, Qiaobing; Jin, Chunhua

    2013-08-01

    We applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to observe lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intracellular cytoskeleton reorganization in primary cardiomyocytes from neonatal mouse. The nonionic detergent Triton X-100 was used to remove the membrane, soluble proteins, and organelles from the cell. The remaining cytoskeleton can then be directly visualized by AFM. Using three-dimensional technique of AFM, we were able to quantify the changes of cytoskeleton by the "density" and total "volume" of the cytoskeleton fibers. Compared to the control group, the density of cytoskeleton was remarkably decreased and the volume of cytoskeleton was significantly increased after LPS treatment, which suggests that LPS may induce the cytoskeleton reorganization and change the cardiomyocyte morphology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Long non-coding RNAs and enhancer RNAs regulate the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IIott, Nicholas E; Heward, James A; Roux, Benoit; Tsitsiou, Eleni; Fenwick, Peter S; Lenzi, Luca; Goodhead, Ian; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Heger, Andreas; Hall, Neil; Donnelly, Louise E; Sims, David; Lindsay, Mark A

    2014-06-09

    Early reports indicate that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are novel regulators of biological responses. However, their role in the human innate immune response, which provides the initial defence against infection, is largely unexplored. To address this issue, here we characterize the long non-coding RNA transcriptome in primary human monocytes using RNA sequencing. We identify 76 enhancer RNAs (eRNAs), 40 canonical lncRNAs, 65 antisense lncRNAs and 35 regions of bidirectional transcription (RBT) that are differentially expressed in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Crucially, we demonstrate that knockdown of nuclear-localized, NF-κB-regulated, eRNAs (IL1β-eRNA) and RBT (IL1β-RBT46) surrounding the IL1β locus, attenuates LPS-induced messenger RNA transcription and release of the proinflammatory mediators, IL1β and CXCL8. We predict that lncRNAs can be important regulators of the human innate immune response.

  13. Toll-like receptor 4 regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and lactation insufficiency in a mouse model of mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R; Ingman, Wendy V

    2014-05-01

    Lactation mastitis is a debilitating inflammatory breast disease in postpartum women. Disease severity is associated with markers of inflammation rather than bacterial load, suggesting that immune-signaling pathways activated in the host are important in the disease pathology. The role of the innate pattern recognition receptor toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in progression and resolution of mastitislike disease was investigated in a mouse model. Lipopolysaccharide in Matrigel (10 μg/10 μl) was administered into the teat canal of lactating Tlr4 null mutant and wild-type mice to induce a localized area of inflammation. Mastitis induction resulted in a marked influx of RB6-positive neutrophils and F4/80-positive macrophages, which was higher in Tlr4(-/-) mice compared to wild-type mice. Tlr4 null mutation resulted in an altered immune-signaling fingerprint following induction of mastitis, with attenuated serum cytokines, including CXCL1, CCL2, interleukin 1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha compared to wild-type mice. In both genotypes, the localized area of inflammation had resolved after 7 days, and milk protein was evident. However, the mammary glands of wild-type mice exhibited reduced capacity for milk production, with decreased percent area populated with glandular epithelium and decreased abundance of nuclear phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 compared to Tlr4 null mice. This study demonstrates that inflammatory pathways activated in the host are critically important in mastitis disease progression and suggests that lactation insufficiency associated with mastitis may be a consequence of TLR4-mediated inflammation, rather than the bacterial infection itself.

  14. Negative feedback regulation of lipopolysaccharide-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression by heme oxygenase-1 induction in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashino, Takashi; Yamanaka, Rieko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Sekikawa, Kenji; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Shioda, Seiji; Numazawa, Satoshi; Yoshida, Takemi

    2008-04-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced under infectious diseases in macrophages. We performed experiments using various gene deficient mouse-derived macrophages to determine a detailed induction mechanism of HO-1 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the functional role of HO-1 induction in macrophages. LPS (1 microg/mL) maximally induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and HO-1 mRNAs in wild-type (WT) macrophages at 6h and 12h after treatment, respectively, and liberated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) from WT macrophages. LPS also induced iNOS and HO-1 in TNFalpha(-/-) macrophages, but not in iNOS(-/-) macrophages. Interestingly, although LPS strongly induced iNOS, it failed to induce HO-1 almost completely in nuclear-factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)(-/-) macrophages. The LPS-induced iNOS gene expression was suppressed by pretreatment with HO-1 inducers, hemin and Co-protoporphyrin (CoPP), but not with HO-1 inhibitor, Sn-protoporphyrin in WT macrophages. In the Nrf2(-/-) macrophages, the ability of CoPP to induce HO-1 and its inhibitory effect on the LPS-induced iNOS gene expression were lower than seen in WT macrophages. The present findings suggest that HO-1 is induced via NO-induced nuclear translocation of Nrf2, and the enzymatic function of HO-1 inhibits the overproduction of NO in macrophages.

  15. Allergy-inducing nickel concentration is lowered by lipopolysaccharide at both the sensitization and elicitation steps in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinbara, M; Sato, N; Kuroishi, T; Takano-Yamamoto, T; Sugawara, S; Endo, Y

    2011-02-01

    Nickel (Ni) is the major cause of contact allergy. We previously found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a cell-surface component of gram-negative bacteria) markedly promotes Ni allergy in a murine model. Establishing the minimum concentration or amount of Ni needed to induce allergic responses may help us to prevent or reduce such responses. Using the above murine model, we examined the influence of LPS on the minimum allergy-inducing concentrations of Ni (Ni-MAICs) at the sensitization step and at the elicitation step. BALB/c mice were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of a mixture containing various concentrations of LPS and NiCl(2). Ten days later, their ear pinnas were challenged intradermally with a mixture containing various concentrations of LPS and NiCl(2), and ear swelling was measured. Without LPS, the Ni-MAICs at the sensitization and elicitation steps were around 1×10(-2) mol L(-1) and 1×10(-5) mol L(-1) , respectively. Sensitization with NiCl(2) + LPS did not alter the value at elicitation. Surprisingly, LPS markedly reduced these Ni-MAICs (to around 1×10(-6) molL(-1) at sensitization, with 25 μg mL(-1) LPS, and 1×10(-12) mol L(-1) at elicitation, with 0·5 μg mL(-1) LPS). The effect of LPS depended on its concentration and the timing of its injection. Our findings suggest that: (i) Ni-MAIC is higher at sensitization than at elicitation; (ii) once sensitization is established, Ni allergy can easily be induced by a low concentration of Ni; and (iii) a bacterial milieu or infection may greatly facilitate the establishment and elicitation of Ni allergy. © 2010 The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.

  16. Attenuation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced cytotoxicity by tocopherols and tocotrienols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Nishio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces host inflammatory responses and tissue injury and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various age-related diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, vascular diseases, and periodontal disease. Antioxidants, particularly vitamin E, have been shown to suppress oxidative stress induced by LPS, but the previous studies with different vitamin E isoforms gave inconsistent results. In the present study, the protective effects of α- and γ-tocopherols and α- and γ-tocotrienols on the oxidative stress induced by LPS against human lung carcinoma A549 cells were studied. They suppressed intracellular reactive oxygen formation, lipid peroxidation, induction of inflammatory mediator cytokines, and cell death. Tocopherols were incorporated into cultured cells much slower than tocotrienols but could suppress LPS-induced oxidative stress at much lower intracellular concentration than tocotrienols. Considering the bioavailability, it was concluded that α-tocopherol may exhibit the highest protective capacity among the vitamin E isoforms against LPS-induced oxidative stress.

  17. Protective effects of kaempferol on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rongfeng; Fu, Kaiqiang; Lv, Xiaopei; Li, Weishi; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Kaempferol isolated from the root of Zingiberaceae plants galangal and other Chinese herbal medicines have been reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis are unknown and their underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be explored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of kaempferol on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. Kaempferol was injected 1 h before and 12 h after induction of LPS intraperitoneally. The present results showed that kaempferol markedly reduced infiltration of neutrophilic granulocyte, activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO), expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner, which were increased in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Furthermore, kaempferol suppressed the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor IκBα. All results suggest that anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol against the LPS-induced mastitis possibly through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Kaempferol may be a potential therapeutic agent for mastitis.

  18. Biochanin A inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Xiaodong; Ding, Mingfeng; Zhai, Bo; Xiao, Lei; Piao, Taikui; Liu, Ming

    2015-09-01

    Biochanin A, an isoflavone isolated from red clover, cabbage or alfalfa, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity. However, the effects of biochanin A on vascular inflammation have not been investigated. In this study, we investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of biochanin A on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC cells). The HUVEC cells were treated with biochanin A for 12h before exposure to LPS. The expression of ECAMs, including VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, NF-κB and PPAR-γ was detected by Western blotting. The expression of cytokines TNF-α and IL-8 was detected by ELISA. The results showed that biochanin A inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-8 production. Meanwhile, biochanin A also suppressed VCAM-1, ICAM-1, and E-selectin expression induced by LPS. We also found that biochanin A inhibited NF-κB activation induced by LPS. Furthermore, biochanin A could activate PPAR-γ and the anti-inflammatory effects of biochanin A can be reversed by GW9662, a specific antagonist for PPAR-γ. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory effect of biochanin A is associated with activating PPAR-γ, thereby attenuating NF-κB activation and LPS-induced inflammatory response. These findings suggest that biochanin A may be a therapeutic agent for inflammatory cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cepharanthine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mice mastitis by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershun, Zhou; Yunhe, Fu; Zhengkai, Wei; Yongguo, Cao; Naisheng, Zhang; Zhengtao, Yang

    2014-04-01

    Cepharanthine (CEP), a biscoclaurine alkaloid isolated from Stephania cepharantha Hayata, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of CEP on a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CEP on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by inoculation of LPS through the canals of the mammary gland. CEP was administered intraperitoneally at 1 h before and 12 h after induction of LPS. The results show that CEP significantly attenuates the infiltration of neutrophils, suppresses myeloperoxidase activity, and reduces the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Furthermore, CEP inhibited the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 subunit and the degradation of its inhibitor IκBα. All the results suggest that CEP exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-induced mouse mastitis. Accordingly, CEP might be a potential therapeutic agent for mastitis.

  20. Microglial ablation and lipopolysaccharide preconditioning affects pilocarpine-induced seizures in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirrione, M.M.; Mirrione, M.M.; Konomosa, D.K.; Ioradanis, G.; Dewey, S.L.; Agzzid, A.; Heppnerd, F.L.; Tsirka, St.E.

    2010-04-01

    Activated microglia have been associated with neurodegeneration in patients and in animal models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE), however their precise functions as neurotoxic or neuroprotective is a topic of significant investigation. To explore this, we examined the effects of pilocarpine-induced seizures in transgenic mice where microglia/macrophages were conditionally ablated. We found that unilateral ablation of microglia from the dorsal hippocampus did not alter acute seizure sensitivity. However, when this procedure was coupled with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning (1 mg/kg given 24 h prior to acute seizure), we observed a significant pro-convulsant phenomenon. This effect was associated with lower metabolic activation in the ipsilateral hippocampus during acute seizures, and could be attributed to activity in the mossy fiber pathway. These findings reveal that preconditioning with LPS 24 h prior to seizure induction may have a protective effect which is abolished by unilateral hippocampal microglia/macrophage ablation.

  1. Western diet induces colonic nitrergic myenteric neuropathy and dysmotility in mice via saturated fatty acid- and lipopolysaccharide-induced TLR4 signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, François; Chassaing, Benoit; Nezami, Behtash Ghazi; Li, Ge; Tabatabavakili, Sahar; Mwangi, Simon; Uppal, Karan; Liang, Bill; Vijay-Kumar, Matam; Jones, Dean; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Srinivasan, Shanthi

    2017-03-01

    A high-fat diet (60% kcal from fat) is associated with motility disorders inducing constipation and loss of nitrergic myenteric neurons in the proximal colon. Gut microbiota dysbiosis, which occurs in response to HFD, contributes to endotoxaemia. High levels of lipopolysaccharide lead to apoptosis in cultured myenteric neurons that express Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Consumption of a Western diet (WD) (35% kcal from fat) for 6 weeks leads to gut microbiota dysbiosis associated with altered bacterial metabolites and increased levels of plasma free fatty acids. These disorders precede the nitrergic myenteric cell loss observed in the proximal colon. Mice lacking TLR4 did not exhibit WD-induced myenteric cell loss and dysmotility. Lipopolysaccharide-induced in vitro enteric neurodegeneration requires the presence of palmitate and may be a result of enhanced NO production. The present study highlights the critical role of plasma saturated free fatty acids that are abundant in the WD with respect to driving enteric neuropathy and colonic dysmotility. The consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) is associated with myenteric neurodegeneration, which in turn is associated with delayed colonic transit and constipation. We examined the hypothesis that an inherent increase in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) in the HFD together with an HFD-induced alteration in gut microbiota contributes to the pathophysiology of these disorders. C57BL/6 mice were fed a Western diet (WD) (35% kcal from fat enriched in palmitate) or a purified regular diet (16.9% kcal from fat) for 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks. Gut microbiota dysbiosis was investigated by fecal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) measurement and metabolomics (linear trap quadrupole-Fourier transform mass spectrometer) analysis. Plasma FFA and LPS levels were assessed, in addition to colonic and ileal nitrergic myenteric neuron quantifications and motility. Compared to regular diet-fed control mice, WD-fed mice gained significantly more weight

  2. Protective effect of florfenicol on acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuemei; Song, Keji; Xiong, Huanzhang; Li, Hongyu; Chu, Xiao; Deng, Xuming

    2009-12-01

    Florfenicol, an antibiotic used to treat infection, has previously been shown to modulate early cytokine responses and increase mouse survival in endotoxemia. In the present study, we investigated in vivo the effect of florfenicol on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In the mouse model of LPS-induced inflammatory lung injury, we found that pretreatment with a single 100mg/kg dose of florfenicol significantly decreases the W/D ratio of lungs and protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and significantly reduces the number of total cells, neutrophils and macrophages in the BALF at 24h after LPS challenge. In addition, histopathological examination indicates that florfenicol significantly attenuates tissue injury of the lungs in LPS-induced ALI. Furthermore, florfenicol also inhibits the production of several inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) at 6 and 12h, interleukin-6 (IL-6) at 12 and 24h, and interleukin-1ss (IL-1ss) at 12h, in the BALF after LPS challenge. These results suggest that florfenicol protects against LPS-induced ALI in mice.

  3. Taraxacum officinale protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liben; Xiong, Huanzhang; Ping, Jiaqi; Ju, Yulin; Zhang, Xuemei

    2010-07-20

    Taraxacum officinale has been frequently used as a remedy for inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the in vivo protective effect of Taraxacum officinale on acute lung injury (ALI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. Taraxacum officinale at 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg was orally administered once per day for 5 days consecutively, followed by 500 microg/kg LPS was instilled intranasally. The lung wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio, protein concentration and the number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined. Superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and histological change in the lungs were examined. The levels of inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the BALF were measured using ELISA. We found that Taraxacum officinale decreased the lung W/D ratio, protein concentration and the number of neutrophils in the BALF at 24 h after LPS challenge. Taraxacum officinale decreased LPS-induced MPO activity and increased SOD activity in the lungs. In addition, histopathological examination indicated that Taraxacum officinale attenuated tissue injury of the lungs in LPS-induced ALI. Furthermore, Taraxacum officinale also inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the BALF at 6h after LPS challenge in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Taraxacum officinale protects against LPS-induced ALI in mice. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Equine colostral carbohydrates reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrig, J C; Coffeng, L E; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2012-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly in the gut, can be partly or completely mitigated by colostrum- and milk-derived oligosaccharides. Confirmation of this hypothesis could lead to the development of new therapeutic concepts. To demonstrate the influence of equine colostral carbohydrates on the inflammatory response in an in vitro model with equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Carbohydrates were extracted from mare colostrum, and then evaluated for their influence on LPS-induced inflammatory responses in PBMCs isolated from the same mares, mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 was measured as well as the protein levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Equine colostral carbohydrates significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha protein at both times measured and significantly reduced LPS-induced TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 mRNA expression by PBMCs. Moreover, cell viability significantly increased in the presence of high concentrations of colostral carbohydrates. Carbohydrates derived from equine colostrum reduce LPS-induced inflammatory responses of equine PBMCs. Colostrum and milk-derived carbohydrates are promising candidates for new concepts in preventive and regenerative medicine.

  5. Effects of propofol on damage of rat intestinal epithelial cells induced by heat stress and lipopolysaccharides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, J.; Jiang, Y. [Southern Medical University, Nanfang Hospital, Department of Anesthesia, Guangzhou, China, Department of Anesthesia, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Tang, Y.; Chen, B. [Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou, China, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou (China); Sun, X. [Laboratory of Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome, School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Su, L.; Liu, Z. [Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou, China, Department of Intensive Care Unit, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command, Guangzhou (China)

    2013-06-25

    Gut-derived endotoxin and pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as important causative factors of morbidity and death during heat stroke. However, it is still unclear what kind of damage is induced by heat stress. In this study, the rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was treated with heat stress or a combination of heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, propofol, which plays an important role in anti-inflammation and organ protection, was applied to study its effects on cellular viability and apoptosis. Heat stress, LPS, or heat stress combined with LPS stimulation can all cause intestinal epithelial cell damage, including early apoptosis and subsequent necrosis. However, propofol can alleviate injuries caused by heat stress, LPS, or the combination of heat stress and LPS. Interestingly, propofol can only mitigate LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and has no protective role in heat-stress-induced apoptosis. This study developed a model that can mimic the intestinal heat stress environment. It demonstrates the effects on intestinal epithelial cell damage, and indicated that propofol could be used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of heat-stress-induced intestinal injuries.

  6. Neuroprotective Peptide humanin inhibits inflammatory response in astrocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shen-Ting; Zhao, Li; Li, Jian-Hua

    2013-03-01

    Humanin (HN) has been proved to be an extensive neuroprotective peptide against AD-related and unrelated insults, but little is know about the effect of HN in inflammation response. Current studies indicated the receptors of HN have a close relationship with immune system, which led us to hypothesize HN might have a role in inflammatory response. In this study, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce astrocyte inflammation response. This model in vitro allowed us to study the effect of HN on the pure response of astrocyte without the exogenous influence between cells in vivo. Our results showed that 1.0 μg/ml LPS induced a significant activation of astrocyte, shown as the marked increase in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, the cell viability and the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive living cells. Pretreatment with HN (5, 10, 20 μM) led to a significant inhibition in astrocyte overactivation in a concentration dependent manner. We also found pretreatment with HN decreased the level of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) induced by LPS. Furthermore, we noticed HN couldn't completely reverse the above inflammatory injury. Our findings imply that HN partly antagonizes inflammation injury induced by LPS and the protective effect of HN on astrocyte is concentration-dependent.

  7. Cigarette smoke and lipopolysaccharide induce a proliferative airway smooth muscle phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaagsma Johan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is airway remodelling, which includes an increased airway smooth muscle (ASM mass. The mechanisms underlying ASM remodelling in COPD are currently unknown. We hypothesized that cigarette smoke (CS and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a major constituent of CS, organic dust and gram-negative bacteria, that may be involved in recurrent airway infections and exacerbations in COPD patients, would induce phenotype changes of ASM. Methods To this aim, using cultured bovine tracheal smooth muscle (BTSM cells and tissue, we investigated the direct effects of CS extract (CSE and LPS on ASM proliferation and contractility. Results Both CSE and LPS induced a profound and concentration-dependent increase in DNA synthesis in BTSM cells. CSE and LPS also induced a significant increase in BTSM cell number, which was associated with increased cyclin D1 expression and dependent on activation of ERK 1/2 and p38 MAP kinase. Consistent with a shift to a more proliferative phenotype, prolonged treatment of BTSM strips with CSE or LPS significantly decreased maximal methacholine- and KCl-induced contraction. Conclusions Direct exposure of ASM to CSE or LPS causes the induction of a proliferative, hypocontractile ASM phenotype, which may be involved in airway remodelling in COPD.

  8. Effects of propofol on damage of rat intestinal epithelial cells induced by heat stress and lipopolysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.; Jiang, Y.; Tang, Y.; Chen, B.; Sun, X.; Su, L.; Liu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Gut-derived endotoxin and pathogenic bacteria have been proposed as important causative factors of morbidity and death during heat stroke. However, it is still unclear what kind of damage is induced by heat stress. In this study, the rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was treated with heat stress or a combination of heat stress and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, propofol, which plays an important role in anti-inflammation and organ protection, was applied to study its effects on cellular viability and apoptosis. Heat stress, LPS, or heat stress combined with LPS stimulation can all cause intestinal epithelial cell damage, including early apoptosis and subsequent necrosis. However, propofol can alleviate injuries caused by heat stress, LPS, or the combination of heat stress and LPS. Interestingly, propofol can only mitigate LPS-induced intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, and has no protective role in heat-stress-induced apoptosis. This study developed a model that can mimic the intestinal heat stress environment. It demonstrates the effects on intestinal epithelial cell damage, and indicated that propofol could be used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of heat-stress-induced intestinal injuries

  9. Antioxidant properties of lutein contribute to the protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Xin-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lutein is an important eye-protective nutrient. This study investigates the protective effects and mechanisms of lutein on lipopolysaccharides (LPS-induced uveitis in mice. Methods Lutein, suspended in drinking water at a final concentration of 12.5 and 25 mg/mL, was administered to mice at 0.1 mL/10 g body weight for five consecutive days. Control and model group received drinking water only. Uveitis was induced by injecting LPS (100 mg per mouse into the footpad in the model and lutein groups on day 5 after the last drug administration. Eyes of the mice were collected 24 hours after the LPS injection for the detection of indicators using commercial kits and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results LPS-induced uveitis was confirmed by significant pathological damage and increased the nitric oxide level in eye tissue of BALB/C mice 24 hours after the footpad injection. The elevated nitric oxide level was significantly reduced by oral administration of lutein (125 and 500 mg/kg/d for five days before LPS injection. Moreover, lutein decreased the malondialdehyde content, increased the oxygen radical absorbance capacity level, glutathione, the vitamin C contents and total superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx activities. Lutein further increased expressions of copper-zinc SOD, manganese SOD and GPx mRNA. Conclusion The antioxidant properties of lutein contribute to the protection against LPS-induced uveitis, partially through the intervention of inflammation process.

  10. Subversion of innate and adaptive immune activation induced by structurally modified lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastelin-Palacios, Rodolfo; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Pérez-Shibayama, Christian I; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario A; Cervantes-Barragán, Luisa; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes; Ludewig, Burkhard; Cunningham, Adam F; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A; Becker, Ingeborg; Alpuche-Aranda, Celia; Bonifaz, Laura; Gunn, John S; Isibasi, Armando; López-Macías, Constantino

    2011-08-01

    Salmonella are successful pathogens that infect millions of people every year. During infection, Salmonella typhimurium changes the structure of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in response to the host environment, rendering bacteria resistant to cationic peptide lysis in vitro. However, the role of these structural changes in LPS as in vivo virulence factors and their effects on immune responses and the generation of immunity are largely unknown. We report that modified LPS are less efficient than wild-type LPS at inducing pro-inflammatory responses. The impact of this LPS-mediated subversion of innate immune responses was demonstrated by increased mortality in mice infected with a non-lethal dose of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain mixed with the modified LPS moieties. Up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells and CD4(+) T-cell activation were affected by these modified LPS. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing specific antibody responses. Immunization with modified LPS moiety preparations combined with experimental antigens, induced an impaired Toll-like receptor 4-mediated adjuvant effect. Strains of S. typhimurium carrying structurally modified LPS are markedly less efficient at inducing immunity against challenge with virulent S. typhimurium. Hence, changes in S. typhimurium LPS structure impact not only on innate immune responses but also on both humoral and cellular adaptive immune responses. © 2011 The Authors. Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Lipopolysaccharide induces the migration of human dental pulp cells by up-regulating miR-146a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Ching; Hung, Pei-Shih; Tu, Hsi-Feng; Shih, Wen-Yu; Li, Wan-Chun; Chang, Kuo-Wei

    2012-12-01

    MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that play crucial roles in regulating normal and pathologic functions. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the key regulators of pulpal pathogenesis. This study investigated how LPS regulates microRNA expression and affects the phenotype of human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Primary DPCs were established and immortalized to achieve immortalized DPCs (I-DPCs). DPCs and I-DPCs were treated with LPS and examined to identify changes in microRNA expression, cell proliferation, and cell migration. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to detect changes in gene expression. Exogenous miR-146a expression was performed transfection with pre-mir-146a mimic. Knockdown of interleukin receptor-associated kinase (IRAK1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) expression was performed by small interference oligonucleotide transfection. Western blot analysis was used to detect changes in the expression of the IRAK1 and TRAF6 proteins. The differentiation of DPCs was induced by osteogenic medium. I-DPCs had a higher level of human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene than the parental DPCs. Up-regulation of miR-146a expression and an increase in migration was induced by LPS treatment of DPCs and I-DPCs. Exogenous miR-146a expression increased the migration of DPCs and I-DPCs and down-regulated the expression of IRAK1 and TRAF6. Knockdown of IRAK1 and/or TRAF6 increased the migration of DPCs. The results suggested that LPS is able to increase the migration of DPCs by modulating the miR-146a-TRAF6/IRAK1 regulatory cascade. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  12. Early Effects of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation on Foetal Brain Development in Rat

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    Cristina A Ghiani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies in humans and animal models link maternal infection and imbalanced levels of inflammatory mediators in the foetal brain to the aetiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. In a number of animal models, it was shown that exposure to viral or bacterial agents during a period that corresponds to the second trimester in human gestation triggers brain and behavioural abnormalities in the offspring. However, little is known about the early cellular and molecular events elicited by inflammation in the foetal brain shortly after maternal infection has occurred. In this study, maternal infection was mimicked by two consecutive intraperitoneal injections of 200 μg of LPS (lipopolysaccharide/kg to timed-pregnant rats at GD15 (gestational day 15 and GD16. Increased thickness of the CP (cortical plate and hippocampus together with abnormal distribution of immature neuronal markers and decreased expression of markers for neural progenitors were observed in the LPS-exposed foetal forebrains at GD18. Such effects were accompanied by decreased levels of reelin and the radial glial marker GLAST (glial glutamate transporter, and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in maternal serum and foetal forebrains. Foetal inflammation elicited by maternal injections of LPS has discrete detrimental effects on brain development. The early biochemical and morphological changes described in this work begin to explain the sequelae of early events that underlie the neurobehavioural deficits reported in humans and animals exposed to prenatal insults.

  13. CELECOXIB ATTENUATES SYSTEMIC LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED BRAIN INFLAMMATION AND WHITE MATTER INJURY IN THE NEONATAL RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FAN, L.-W.; KAIZAKI, A.; TIEN, L.-T.; PANG, Y.; TANAKA, S.; NUMAZAWA, S.; BHATT, A. J.; CAI, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced white matter injury in the neonatal rat brain is associated with inflammatory processes. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) can be induced by inflammatory stimuli, such as cytokines and pro-inflammatory molecules, suggesting that COX-2 may be considered as the target for anti-inflammation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, can reduce systemic LPS-induced brain inflammation and brain damage. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of LPS (2 mg/kg) was performed in postnatal day 5 (P5) of Sprague-Dawley rat pups and celecoxib (20 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered i.p. 5 min after LPS injection. The body weight and wire hanging maneuver test were performed 24 hr after the LPS exposure, and brain injury was examined after these tests. Systemic LPS exposure resulted in an impairment of behavioral performance and acute brain injury, as indicated by apoptotic death of oligodendrocytes (OLs) and loss of OL immunoreactivity in the neonatal rat brain. Treatments with celecoxib significantly reduced systemic LPS-induced neurobehavioral disturbance and brain damage. Celecoxib administration significantly attenuated systemic LPS-induced increments in the number of activated microglia and astrocytes, concentrations of IL-1β and TNFα, and protein levels of phosphorylated-p38 MAPK in the neonatal rat brain. The protection of celecoxib was also associated with a reduction of systemic LPS-induced COX-2+ cells which were double labeled with GFAP+ (astrocyte) cells. The overall results suggest that celecoxib was capable of attenuating the brain injury and neurobehavioral disturbance induced by systemic LPS exposure, and the protective effects are associated with its anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:23485816

  14. Escin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shutai; Wang, Huaizhou; Qiu, Caiqing; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Taowen; Zhou, Wenjuan; Lu, Zhishan; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui; Liu, Zhonghao

    2012-11-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with gram-negative subgingival microflora infection. Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that escin exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-edematous effects. This study was designed to investigate the in vitro effects of escin on the inflammatory reaction of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs). hPDLs were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The cells were treated with various concentrations of escin. The viability of hPDLs was evaluated using the MTT method. The expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in hPDLs and the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 in the supernatant were measured. Escin significantly attenuated LPS-induced cytotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner in hPDLs. Treatment with escin partly blocked the expression of TLR2. Escin also lowered the increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) induced by LPS. The present findings show that escin exerts a protective effect against LPS-induced inflammation in hPDLs. It was also shown that escin is a promising medicine for the treatment of periodontitis.

  15. Establishment of hydrochloric acid/lipopolysaccharide-induced pelvic inflammatory disease model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yeonsu; Lee, Jaehun; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Yoon, Byung-Il; Han, Jeong-Hee; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Park, Joung Jun; Koo, Deog-Bon; Rhee, Ki-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is one of the most problematic complications experienced by women with sexually transmitted diseases, frequently causes secondary infections after reproductive abnormalities in veterinary animals. Although the uterus is self-protective, it becomes fragile during periods or pregnancy. To investigate PID, bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from gram negative bacteria has been used to induce the disease in several animal models. However, when LPS is applied to the peritoneum, it often causes systemic sepsis leading to death and the PID was not consistently demonstrated. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been used to induce inflammation in the lungs and stomach but not tested for reproductive organs. In this study, we developed a PID model in mice by HCl and LPS sequential intracervical (i.c.) administration. The proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, were detected in the mouse uterus by western blot analysis and cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after HCl (25 mg/kg) administration i.c. followed by four LPS (50 mg/kg) treatments. Moreover, mice exhibited increased infiltration of neutrophils in the endometrium and epithelial layer. These results suggest that ic co-administration of HCl and LPS induces PID in mice. This new model may provide a consistent and reproducible PID model for future research. PMID:26726020

  16. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Spatial Memory and Synaptic Plasticity Impairment Is Preventable by Captopril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Abareshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Renin-angiotensin system has a role in inflammation and also is involved in many brain functions such as learning, memory, and emotion. Neuroimmune factors have been proposed as the contributors to the pathogenesis of memory impairments. In the present study, the effect of captopril on spatial memory and synaptic plasticity impairments induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS was investigated. Methods. The rats were divided and treated into control (saline, LPS (1 mg/kg, LPS-captopril (LPS-Capto; 50 mg/kg captopril before LPS, and captopril groups (50 mg/kg before saline. Morris water maze was done. Long-term potentiation (LTP from CA1 area of hippocampus was assessed by 100 Hz stimulation in the ipsilateral Schaffer collateral pathway. Results. In the LPS group, the spent time and traveled path to reach the platform were longer than those in the control, while, in the LPS-Capto group, they were shorter than those in the LPS group. Moreover, the slope and amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP decreased in the LPS group, as compared to the control group, whereas, in the LPS-Capto group, they increased compared to the LPS group. Conclusion. The results of the present study showed that captopril improved the LPS-induced memory and LTP impairments induced by LPS in rats. Further investigations are required in order to better understand the exact responsible mechanism(s.

  17. A Fermented Whole Grain Prevents Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Dysfunction in Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells

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    Laura Giusti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous and exogenous signals derived by the gut microbiota such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS orchestrate inflammatory responses contributing to development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, bone marrow derived stem cells, promote recovery of damaged endothelium playing a pivotal role in cardiovascular repair. Since healthy nutrition improves EPCs functions, we evaluated the effect of a fermented grain, Lisosan G (LG, on early EPCs exposed to LPS. The potential protective effect of LG against LPS-induced alterations was evaluated as cell viability, adhesiveness, ROS production, gene expression, and NF-kB signaling pathway activation. Our results showed that LPS treatment did not affect EPCs viability and adhesiveness but induced endothelial alterations via activation of NF-kB signaling. LG protects EPCs from inflammation as well as from LPS-induced oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress reducing ROS levels, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defense. Moreover, LG pretreatment prevented NF-kB translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus caused by LPS exposure. In human EPCs, LPS increases ROS and upregulates proinflammatory tone, proapoptotic factors, and antioxidants. LG protects EPCs exposed to LPS reducing ROS, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defenses possibly by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation.

  18. Establishment of hydrochloric acid/lipopolysaccharide-induced pelvic inflammatory disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yeonsu; Lee, Jaehun; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Yoon, Byung-Il; Han, Jeong-Hee; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Park, Joung Jun; Koo, Deog-Bon; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Jung, Bae Dong

    2016-09-30

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), which is one of the most problematic complications experienced by women with sexually transmitted diseases, frequently causes secondary infections after reproductive abnormalities in veterinary animals. Although the uterus is self-protective, it becomes fragile during periods or pregnancy. To investigate PID, bacteria or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) extracted from gram negative bacteria has been used to induce the disease in several animal models. However, when LPS is applied to the peritoneum, it often causes systemic sepsis leading to death and the PID was not consistently demonstrated. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) has been used to induce inflammation in the lungs and stomach but not tested for reproductive organs. In this study, we developed a PID model in mice by HCl and LPS sequential intracervical (i.c.) administration. The proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, were detected in the mouse uterus by western blot analysis and cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay after HCl (25 mg/kg) administration i.c. followed by four LPS (50 mg/kg) treatments. Moreover, mice exhibited increased infiltration of neutrophils in the endometrium and epithelial layer. These results suggest that ic co-administration of HCl and LPS induces PID in mice. This new model may provide a consistent and reproducible PID model for future research.

  19. Static Magnetic Field Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Pulp Cells by Affecting Cell Membrane Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chih Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the causes of dental pulpitis is lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced inflammatory response. Following pulp tissue inflammation, odontoblasts, dental pulp cells (DPCs, and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs will activate and repair damaged tissue to maintain homeostasis. However, when LPS infection is too serious, dental repair is impossible and disease may progress to irreversible pulpitis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether static magnetic field (SMF can attenuate inflammatory response of dental pulp cells challenged with LPS. In methodology, dental pulp cells were isolated from extracted teeth. The population of DPSCs in the cultured DPCs was identified by phenotypes and multilineage differentiation. The effects of 0.4 T SMF on DPCs were observed through MTT assay and fluorescent anisotropy assay. Our results showed that the SMF exposure had no effect on surface markers or multilineage differentiation capability. However, SMF exposure increases cell viability by 15%. In addition, SMF increased cell membrane rigidity which is directly related to higher fluorescent anisotropy. In the LPS-challenged condition, DPCs treated with SMF demonstrated a higher tolerance to LPS-induced inflammatory response when compared to untreated controls. According to these results, we suggest that 0.4 T SMF attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory response to DPCs by changing cell membrane stability.

  20. NPS 2143, a selective calcium-sensing receptor antagonist inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Won; Park, Hyun Ah; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Park, Ji-Won; Lee, Gilhye; Lee, Hee Jae; Lee, Seung Jin; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2017-10-01

    NPS 2143, a novel and selective antagonist of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, we examined the protective effect of NPS 2143 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). NPS 2143 pretreatment significantly inhibited the influx of inflammatory cells and the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the lung of mice with LPS-induced ALI. NPS 2143 decreased the levels of neutrophil elastase (NE) and protein concentration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). NPS 2143 also reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the BALF and serum. In addition, NPS 2143 attenuated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and increased the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the lung. NPS 2143 also downregulated the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the lung. In LPS-stimulated H292 airway epithelial cells, NPS 2143 attenuated the releases of IL-6 and MCP-1. Furthermore, NPS 2143 upregulated the activation of AMPK and downregulated the activation of NF-κB. These results suggest that NPS 2143 could be potential agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases including ALI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 ameliorates systemic lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

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    Yoo, Seong Ho, E-mail: yoosh@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute and Institute of Forensic Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A. [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States); Song, Byoung-Joon, E-mail: bj.song@nih.gov [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Activation of PPARα attenuated LPS-mediated acute lung injury. •Pretreatment with Wy-14643 decreased the levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 in ALI. •Nitrosative stress and lipid peroxidation were downregulated by PPARα activation. •PPARα agonists may be potential therapeutic targets for acute lung injury. -- Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) by its ligands, which include Wy-14643, has been implicated as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy. To address the beneficial efficacy of Wy-14643 for ALI along with systemic inflammation, the in vivo role of PPARα activation was investigated in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Using age-matched Ppara-null and wild-type mice, we demonstrate that the activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 attenuated LPS-mediated ALI. This was evidenced histologically by the significant alleviation of inflammatory manifestations and apoptosis observed in the lung tissues of wild-type mice, but not in the corresponding Ppara-null mice. This protective effect probably resulted from the inhibition of LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitroxidative stress levels. These results suggest that the pharmacological activation of PPARα might have a therapeutic effect on LPS-induced ALI.

  2. Activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 ameliorates systemic lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seong Ho; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Activation of PPARα attenuated LPS-mediated acute lung injury. •Pretreatment with Wy-14643 decreased the levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 in ALI. •Nitrosative stress and lipid peroxidation were downregulated by PPARα activation. •PPARα agonists may be potential therapeutic targets for acute lung injury. -- Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) by its ligands, which include Wy-14643, has been implicated as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy. To address the beneficial efficacy of Wy-14643 for ALI along with systemic inflammation, the in vivo role of PPARα activation was investigated in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Using age-matched Ppara-null and wild-type mice, we demonstrate that the activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 attenuated LPS-mediated ALI. This was evidenced histologically by the significant alleviation of inflammatory manifestations and apoptosis observed in the lung tissues of wild-type mice, but not in the corresponding Ppara-null mice. This protective effect probably resulted from the inhibition of LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitroxidative stress levels. These results suggest that the pharmacological activation of PPARα might have a therapeutic effect on LPS-induced ALI

  3. Protective effect of linalool against lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyuan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Huang, Haiying

    2014-12-01

    Linalool, a natural compound of the essential oils, has been shown to have antinociceptive, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of linalool against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced liver injury in mice. Mice were administered with linalool 1h before receiving LPS (50 μg/kg) and GalN (800 mg/kg). The results demonstrated that linalool had a protective effect on LPS/GalN-induced acute liver injury, as evidenced by the attenuation of hepatic pathological damage, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, MPO activity and serum ALT and AST levels. Linalool alleviated serum and hepatic TNF-α and IL-6 production, as well as hepatic iNOS and COX-2 expression by inhibiting NF-κB activation. Treatment of linalool increased bcl-2 expression and inhibited caspase-3 and caspase-8 expression. In addition, linalool increased Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 expression up-regulation by LPS/GalN. In conclusion, our results suggested that linalool was protected against LPS/GalN-induced liver injury through induction of antioxidant defense via Nrf2 activating and reduction inflammatory response via NF-κB inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lipopolysaccharide induced MAP kinase activation in RAW 264.7 cells attenuated by cerium oxide nanoparticles

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    Vellaisamy Selvaraj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available High mortality rates are associated with the life threatening disease of sepsis. Improvements in septic patient survivability have failed to materialize with currently available treatments. This article represents data regarding a study published in biomaterials (Vellaisamy et al., Biomaterials, 2015, in press. with the purpose of evaluating whether severe sepsis mortality and associated hepatic dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS can be prevented by cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs treatment in male Sprague Dawley rats. Here we provide the information about the method and processing of raw data related to our study publish in Biomaterials and Data in Brief (Vellaisamy et al., Biomaterials, 2015, in press; Vellaisamy et al., Data in Brief, 2015, in press.. The data contained in this article evaluates the contribution of MAPK signaling in LPS induced sepsis. Macrophage cells (RAW 264.7 were treated with a range of cerium oxide nanoparticle concentration in the presence and absence of LPS. Immunoblotting was performed on the cell lysates to evaluate the effect of cerium oxide nanoparticle treatment on LPS induced changes in Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases (MAPK p-38, ERK 1/2, and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation.

  5. Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx Flavonoids Fraction Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

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    Chun-jun Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, belonging to the Labiatae family, is widely used as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor drug for the treatment of different inflammations and cancers. Aim of the Study. To investigate therapeutic effects and possible mechanism of the flavonoids fraction of Rabdosia japonica var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara (RJFs in acute lung injury (ALI mice induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Materials and Methods. Mice were orally administrated with RJFs (6.4, 12.8, and 25.6 mg/kg per day for 7 days, consecutively, before LPS challenge. Lung specimens and the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were isolated for histopathological examinations and biochemical analysis. The level of complement 3 (C3 in serum was quantified by a sandwich ELISA kit. Results. RJFs significantly attenuated LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of the level of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, and significantly reduced complement deposition with decreasing the level of C3 in serum, which was exhibited together with the lowered myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and nitric oxide (NO and protein concentration in BALF. Conclusions. RJFs significantly attenuate LPS-induced ALI via reducing productions of proinflammatory mediators, decreasing the level of complement, and reducing radicals.

  6. Chondroitin Sulfate-Rich Extract of Skate Cartilage Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Damage in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeong Ok; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Baek, Jang-Mi; Kang, Keon-Hee; Kim, Sang-Ho; Roh, Seong-Soo; Park, Chan Hum; Jeong, Kap-Seop; Noh, Jeong-Sook

    2017-01-01

    The protective effects of a chondroitin sulfate-rich extract (CSE) from skate cartilage against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic damage were investigated, and its mechanism of action was compared with that of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from shark cartilage. ICR mice were orally administrated 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) of CS or 400 mg/kg BW of CSE for 3 consecutive days, followed by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg BW). The experimental groups were vehicle treatment without LPS injection (NC group), vehicle treatment with LPS injection (LPS group), CS pretreatment with LPS injection (CS group), and CSE pretreatment with LPS injection (CSE group). Hepatic antioxidant enzyme expression levels in the CS and CSE groups were increased relative to those in the LPS group. In LPS-insulted hepatic tissue, inflammatory factors were augmented relative to those in the NC group, but were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with CS or CSE. Moreover, CS and CSE alleviated the LPS-induced apoptotic factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In addition, CS and CSE effectively decreased the serum lipid concentrations and downregulated hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins expression. In conclusion, the skate CSE could protect against LPS-induced hepatic dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, probably through the regulation of MAPK signaling. PMID:28617322

  7. Vitamin D3 pretreatment regulates renal inflammatory responses during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shen; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Tan, Zhu-Xia; Xie, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Hui; Yu, De-Xin; Xu, De-Xiang

    2015-12-22

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is highly expressed in human and mouse kidneys. Nevertheless, its functions remain obscure. This study investigated the effects of vitamin D3 (VitD3) pretreatment on renal inflammation during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS. In VitD3 + LPS group, mice were pretreated with VitD3 (25 μg/kg) at 48, 24 and 1 h before LPS injection. As expected, an obvious reduction of renal function and pathological damage was observed in LPS-treated mice. VitD3 pretreatment significantly alleviated LPS-induced reduction of renal function and pathological damage. Moreover, VitD3 pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced renal inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. In addition, pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3, the active form of VitD3, alleviated LPS-induced up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human HK-2 cells, a renal tubular epithelial cell line, in a VDR-dependent manner. Further analysis showed that VitD3, which activated renal VDR, specifically repressed LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit in the renal tubules. LPS, which activated renal NF-κB, reciprocally suppressed renal VDR and its target gene. Moreover, VitD3 reinforced the physical interaction between renal VDR and NF-κB p65 subunit. These results provide a mechanistic explanation for VitD3-mediated anti-inflammatory activity during LPS-induced acute kidney injury.

  8. Suppression of the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of MARCKS-related protein (MRP) affects transmigration in activated RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kwang-Rok; Bae, Eun Mi; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Suk, Kyoungho; Lee, Won-Ha

    2009-01-01

    The molecular action mechanism of MRP, one of the protein kinase C (PKC) substrates, has been under intense investigation, but reports on its role in macrophage function remain controversial. The treatment of macrophage cell lines with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced a high level of MRP expression suggesting that MRP plays a role in the function of activated macrophages. In order to investigate the role of MRP in activated RAW264.7 cells, we stably transfected MRP-specific shRNA expression constructs and tested for alterations in macrophage-related functions. The down-regulation of MRP expression resulted in a marked reduction in chemotaxis toward MCP-1 or extracellular matrix proteins. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibitors of PKC significantly inhibited the chemotaxis in RAW264.7 cells. These data reveals the pivotal role of MRP in the transmigration of activated RAW264.7 cells.

  9. Relationship between plasma levels of zonulin, bacterial lipopolysaccharides, D-lactate and markers of inflammation in haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficek, Joanna; Wyskida, Katarzyna; Ficek, Rafał; Wajda, Jarosław; Klein, Dariusz; Witkowicz, Joanna; Rotkegel, Sylwia; Spiechowicz-Zatoń, Urszula; Kocemba-Dyczek, Joanna; Ciepał, Jarosław; Więcek, Andrzej; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Chudek, Jerzy

    2017-04-01

    Increased permeability of the intestinal wall and intestinal dysbiosis may contribute to chronic systemic inflammation, one of the causes of accelerated atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality burden in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between markers of intestinal permeability and inflammation in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Plasma concentration of zonulin, haptoglobin, TNFα, IL6, D-lactates and bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was assessed in blood samples obtained after overnight fast before midweek morning HD session in 150 stable, prevalent HD patients. Daily intake of energy and macronutrients was assessed on the basis of a food frequency questionnaire. Serum hsCRP level was increased in over 70% of patients. Plasma levels of zonulin [11.6 (10.9-12.3) vs 6.8 (5.8-7.8) ng/mL], IL6 [6.2 (1.0-10.3) vs 1.3 (1.0-2.0) pg/mL] and TNFα [5.9 (2.9-11.8) vs 1.6 (1.3-1.8) pg/mL], but not LPS and D-lactates were significantly higher in HD than in healthy controls. D-lactates and LPS levels were weakly associated with IL6 (R = 0.175; p = 0.03, and R = 0.241; p = 0.003). There was a borderline correlation between plasma zonulin and serum hsCRP (R = 0.159; p = 0.07), but not with IL6, LPS and D-lactates. In multiple regression, both serum CRP and plasma IL6 variability were explained by LPS (β = 0.143; p = 0.08 and β = 0.171; p = 0.04, respectively), only. The weak association between plasma D-lactate, LPS and IL6 levels indicates that intestinal flora overgrowth or increased intestinal permeability contributes very slightly to the chronic inflammation development in HD patients.

  10. A dibenzoylmethane derivative inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced NO production in mouse microglial cell line BV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Katsura; Ishida, Natsumi; Kawabe, Kenji; Moriyama, Mitsuaki; Hibino, Satoshi; Choshi, Tominari; Hori, Osamu; Nakamura, Yoichi

    2017-04-05

    Microglial activation has been suggested to play important roles in various neurodegenerative diseases by phagocytosis and producing various factors such as nitric oxide (NO), proinflammatory cytokines. Excessive production of NO, as a consequence of increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in microglia, contributes to the neurodegeneration. During a search for compounds that regulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a dibenzoylmethane derivative, 2,2'-dimethoxydibenzoylmethane (DBM 14-26) was identified as a novel neuroprotective agent (Takano et al., Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 293, C1884-1894, 2007). We previously reported in cultured astrocytes that DBM 14-26 protected hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death and inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production (Takano et al., J. Neurosci. Res. 89, 955-965, 2011). In the present study, we assessed the effects of DBM 14-26 on microglia using the mouse cell line BV-2 and found that DBM 14-26 inhibited LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO production also in microglia. DBM 14-26 also suppressed LPS-induced IL-1β expression. Conditioned medium of BV-2 cells stimulated by LPS significantly decreased cell viability of neuron (human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells) compared with the absence of LPS. Conditioned medium of BV-2 cells stimulated by LPS in the presence of DBM 14-26 did not significantly decreased cell viability of neuron. These results indicate that microglial activation by LPS causes neuronal cell death and DBM 14-26 protect neuron through the inhibition of microglial activation. Functional regulation of microglia by DBM 14-26 could be a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improving effect of Sivelestat on lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats.

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    Yuan, Qing; Jiang, Yan-Wen; Fang, Qiu-Hong

    2014-09-01

    Sepsis causes neutrophil sequestration in the lung, which leads to acute lung injury (ALI). Neutrophil elastase (NE) is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of ALI. This study investigated whether Sivelestat, a specific NE inhibitor, can attenuate ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In vivo, 30 male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 10 each groups) on the basis of the reagent used, which were subjected to LPS injection with or without Sivelestat treatments to induce ALI model. Lung injury was assessed by pulmonary histology, lung wet-weight to dry-weight (W/D) ratio, immunohistochemical analysis of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), the number of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive cells, and gene expression of ICAM-1. In vitro, pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) were stimulated with LPS in the presence and absence of Sivelestat; nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 was measured by immunocytochemistry staining and Western blotting. Infusion of LPS induced lung injury, in vivo, as demonstrated by pulmonary edema with infiltration of neutrophils, the increase in lung W/D ratio, the number of MPO-positive cells and enhanced expression of ICAM-1 and ICAM-1 gene. In vitro, the significant increased release of NF-κB p65 and its subsequent translocation into the nucleus in PMVECs. In contrast, Sivelestat treatment significantly ameliorated the LPS-induced lung injury, as judged by the marked improvement in all these indices. These results indicated that inhibition of NE attenuated LPS-induced lung injury through an inhibition of the inflammatory signaling pathway, besides the direct inhibitory effect on NE. © 2014 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Moderate Exercise Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Associated Maternal and Fetal Morbidities in Pregnant Rats.

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    Karina T Kasawara

    Full Text Available Fetal growth restriction (FGR and coagulopathies are often associated with aberrant maternal inflammation. Moderate-intensity exercise during pregnancy has been shown to increase utero-placental blood flow and to enhance fetal nutrition as well as fetal and placental growth. Furthermore, exercise is known to reduce inflammation. To evaluate the effect of moderate-intensity exercise on inflammation associated with the development of maternal coagulopathies and FGR, Wistar rats were subjected to an exercise regime before and during pregnancy. To model inflammation-induced FGR, pregnant rats were administered daily intraperitoneal injections of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS on gestational days (GD 13.5-16.5 and sacrificed at GD 17.5. Control rats were injected with saline. Maternal hemostasis was assessed by thromboelastography. Moderate-intensity exercise prevented LPS-mediated increases in white blood cell counts measured on GD 17.5 and improved maternal hemostasis profiles. Importantly, our data reveal that exercise prevented LPS-induced FGR. Moderate-intensity exercise initiated before and maintained during pregnancy may decrease the severity of maternal and perinatal complications associated with abnormal maternal inflammation.

  13. Lipopolysaccharide-induced multinuclear cells: Increased internalization of polystyrene beads and possible signals for cell fusion

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    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi, E-mail: nakanim@iwate-med.ac.jp; Yano, Shio; Futai, Masamitsu

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •LPS induces multinuclear cells from murine macrophage-derived RAW264.7 cells. •Large beads are internalized by cells actively fusing to become multinuclear. •The multinuclear cell formation is inhibited by anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL10. •Signal transduction for cell fusion is different from that for inflammation. -- Abstract: A murine macrophage-derived line, RAW264.7, becomes multinuclear on stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria. These multinuclear cells internalized more polystyrene beads than mononuclear cells or osteoclasts (Nakanishi-Matsui, M., Yano, S., Matsumoto, N., and Futai, M., 2012). In this study, we analyzed the time courses of cell fusion in the presence of large beads. They were internalized into cells actively fusing to become multinuclear. However, the multinuclear cells once formed showed only low phagocytosis activity. These results suggest that formation of the multinuclear cells and bead internalization took place simultaneously. The formation of multinuclear cells was blocked by inhibitors for phosphoinositide 3-kinase, phospholipase C, calcineurin, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In addition, interleukin 6 and 10 also exhibited inhibitory effects. These signaling molecules and cytokines may play a crucial role in the LPS-induced multinuclear cell formation.

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide induces CF-like alteration of protein secretion by human tracheal gland cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammouni, W; Figarella, C; Baeza, N; Marchand, S; Merten, M D

    1997-12-18

    Human tracheal gland (HTG) serous cells are now believed to play a major role in the physiopathology of cystic fibrosis. Because of the persistent inflammation and the specific infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lung, we looked for the action of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of this bacteria on human tracheal gland cells in culture by studying the secretion of the secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) which is a specific serous secretory marker of these cells. Treatment with Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in the basal production of SLPI (+ 250 +/- 25%) whilst the SLPI transcript mRNA levels remained unchanged. This LPS-induced increase in secretion was inhibited by glucocorticoides. Furthermore, LPS treatment of HTG cells induces a loss of responsiveness to carbachol and isoproterenol but not to adenosine triphosphate. These findings indicate that HTG cells treated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa LPS have the same behavior as those previously observed with CF-HTG cells. Exploration by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification showed that LPS downregulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mRNA expression in HTG cells indicative of a link between CFTR function and consequent CF-like alteration in protein secretory process.

  15. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction in mice induced by lipopolysaccharide is attenuated by dapsone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ting; Zhao, Lei; Zhan, Rui; He, Qihua; Tong, Yawei; Tian, Xiaosheng; Wang, Hecheng; Zhang, Tao; Fu, Yaoyun; Sun, Yang; Xu, Feng; Guo, Xiangyang; Fan, Dongsheng; Han, Hongbin; Chui, Dehua

    2014-10-24

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction is a key event in the development of many central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as septic encephalopathy and stroke. 4,4'-Diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS, Dapsone) has displayed neuroprotective effect, but whether DDS has protective role on BBB integrity is not clear. This study was designed to examine the effect of DDS on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BBB disruption and oxidative stress in brain vessels. Using in vivo multiphoton imaging, we found that DDS administration significantly restored BBB integrity compromised by LPS. DDS also increased the expression of tight junction proteins occludin, zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) and claudin-5 in brain vessels. Level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was reduced by DDS treatment, which may due to decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity and NOX2 expression. Our results showed that LPS-induced BBB dysfunction could be attenuated by DDS, indicated that DDS has a therapeutic potential for treating CNS infection and other BBB related diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Decrease of plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase activity in lipopolysaccharide induced mongolian gerbil sepsis model.

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    Junwei Yang

    Full Text Available Platelet-activating factor (PAF plays an important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis, and the level of plasma PAF acetylhydrolase (pPAF-AH, which inactivates PAF, decreases in sepsis patients except for the sepsis caused by severe leptospirosis. Usually, increase of pPAF-AH activity was observed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced Syrian hamster and rat sepsis models, while contradictory effects were reported for mouse model in different studies. Here, we demonstrated the in vivo effects of LPS upon the change of pPAF-AH activity in C57BL/6 mice and Mongolian gerbils. After LPS-treatment, the clinical manifestations of Mongolian gerbil model were apparently similar to that of C57BL/6 mouse sepsis model. The pPAF-AH activity increased in C57BL/6 mice after LPS induction, but decreased in Mongolian gerbils, which was similar to that of the human sepsis. It thus suggests that among the LPS-induced rodent sepsis models, only Mongolian gerbil could be used for the study of pPAF-AH related to the pathogenesis of human sepsis. Proper application of this model might enable people to clarify the underline mechanism accounted for the contradictory results between the phase II and phase III clinical trials for the administration of recombinant human pPAF-AH in the sepsis therapy.

  17. Cerium oxide nanoparticles inhibit lipopolysaccharide induced MAP kinase/NF-kB mediated severe sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vellaisamy Selvaraj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The life threatening disease of sepsis is associated with high mortality. Septic patient survivability with currently available treatments has failed to improve. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced sepsis mortality and associated hepatic dysfunction can be prevented by cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2NPs treatment in male Sprague Dawley rats. Here we provide the information about the methods processing of raw data related to our study published in Biomaterials (Selvaraj et al., Biomaterials, 2015, In press and Data in Brief (Selvaraj et al., Data in Brief, 2015, In Press. The data present here provides confirmation of cerium oxide nanoparticle treatments ability to prevent the LPS induced sepsis associated changes in physiological, blood cell count, inflammatory protein and growth factors in vivo. In vitro assays investigation the treated of macrophages cells with different concentrations of cerium oxide nanoparticle demonstrate that concentration of cerium oxide nanoparticles below 1 µg/ml did not significantly influence cell survival as determined by the MTT assay.

  18. Cannabidiol (CBD) enhances lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmaus, Peer W F; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R; Kaminski, Norbert E; Kaplan, Barbara L F

    2013-01-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a plant-derived cannabinoid that has been predominantly characterized as anti-inflammatory. However, it is clear that immune effects of cannabinoids can vary with cannabinoid concentration, or type or magnitude of immune stimulus. The present studies demonstrate that oral administration of CBD enhanced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary inflammation in C57BL/6 mice. The enhanced inflammatory cell infiltrate as observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was comprised mainly of neutrophils, with some monocytes. Concomitantly, CBD enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA production, including tumor necrosis factor-α (Tnfa), interleukins (IL)-5 and -23 (Il6, Il23), and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (Gcsf). These results demonstrate that the CBD-mediated enhancement of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation is mediated at the level of transcription of a variety of pro-inflammatory genes. The significance of these studies is that CBD is part of a therapeutic currently in use for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis patients, and therefore it is important to further understand mechanisms by which CBD alters immune function.

  19. Oxidative stress and sodium methyldithiocarbamate-induced modulation of the macrophage response to lipopolysaccharide in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruett, Stephen B; Cheng, Bing; Fan, Ruping; Tan, Wei; Sebastian, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Sodium methyldithiocarbamate (SMD) is the third most abundantly used conventional pesticide in the United States, and hundreds of thousands of persons are exposed to this compound or its major breakdown product, methylisothiocyanate, at levels greater than recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency. A previous study suggests three mechanisms of action involved to some degree in the inhibition of inflammation and decreased resistance to infection caused by exposure of mice to the compound. One of these mechanisms is oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study was to confirm that this mechanism is involved in the effects of SMD on cytokine production by peritoneal macrophages and to further characterize its role in altered cytokine production. Results indicated that SMD significantly decreased the intracellular concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), suggesting oxidative stress. This was further indicated by the upregulation of genes involved in the "response to oxidative stress" as determined by microarray analysis. These effects were associated with the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of several proinflammatory cytokines. Experimental depletion of GSH with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) partially prevented the decrease in LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6 production caused by SMD and completely prevented the decrease in IL-12. In contrast, BSO plus SMD substantially enhanced the production of IL-10. These results along with results from a previous study are consistent with the hypothesis that SMD causes oxidative stress, which contributes to modulation of cytokine production. However, oxidative stress alone cannot explain the increased IL-10 production caused by SMD.

  20. Possible Mechanisms Involved in Attenuation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Memory Deficits by Methyl Jasmonate in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduviere, Anthony Taghogho; Umukoro, Solomon; Adeoluwa, Olusegun A; Omogbiya, Itivere Adrian; Aluko, Oritoke Modupe

    2016-12-01

    This present study was carried out to investigate the likely mechanisms by which methyl jasmonate (MJ), 'an agent widely used in aromatherapy for neurological disorders, attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced memory deficits in mice. Mice were given intraperitoneal administration of LPS (250 µg/kg) alone or in combination with MJ (10-40 mg/kg), donepezil, DP (1 mg/kg), or vehicle for 7 successive days. Thereafter, memory was assessed using object recognition test (ORT). Acetylcholinesterase and myeloperoxidase activities were estimated in brain tissue homogenates. Brain levels of nitric oxide and markers of oxidative stress as well as histopathologic changes of the prefrontal cortex and cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) of the hippocampal region were also assessed. MJ (10-40 mg/kg) attenuated LPS-induced memory impairment in ORT. Moreover, the increased brain activities of acetylcholinesterase and myeloperoxidase enzymes were suppressed by MJ when compared with control (p memory deficits via mechanisms related to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, myeloperoxidase, oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration.

  1. Emerging role of Lipopolysaccharide binding protein in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasi, Alessandra; Intini, Angelica; Divella, Chiara; Franzin, Rossana; Montemurno, Eustacchio; Grandaliano, Giuseppe; Ronco, Claudio; Fiaccadori, Enrico; Pertosa, Giovanni Battista; Gesualdo, Loreto; Castellano, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis remains a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients, with limited therapeutic options available. Of the several disorders connected with sepsis, acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the major complications. The pathophysiology of sepsis-induced AKI is characterized by severe inflammation in renal parenchyma with endothelial dysfunction, intra-glomerular thrombosis and tubular injury. Endothelial dysfunction is regulated by several mechanisms implicated in cellular de-differentiation, such as endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). Gram-negative bacteria and their cell wall component lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are frequently involved in the pathogenesis of AKI. The host recognition of LPS requires a specific receptor, which belongs to the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family of proteins, called TLR4, and two carrier proteins, namely the LPS-binding protein (LBP) and cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14). In particular, LBP is released as a consequence of Gram-negative infection and maximizes the activation of TLR4 signalling. Recent findings regarding the emerging role of LBP in mediating sepsis-induced AKI, and the possible beneficial effects resulting from the removal of this endogenous adaptor protein, will be discussed in this review. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  2. Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cell apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide

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    Huang, Chunrong; Zheng, Haichong; He, Wanmei; Lu, Guifang; Li, Xia [Department of Medical Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Deng, Yubin, E-mail: dengyub@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Research Center of Translational Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Zeng, Mian, E-mail: zengmian2004@163.com [Department of Medical Intensive Care Unit, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2016-05-20

    Ghrelin is a gastric acyl-peptide that plays an inhibitory role in cell apoptosis. Herein we investigate the protective effects of ghrelin in LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial A549 cells, along with the possible molecular mechanisms. LPS exposure impaired cell viability and increased apoptosis of A549 cells significantly in concentration- and time-dependent manners embodied in increased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 production, coupled with decreased Bcl-2 levels. Simultaneously, LPS remarkably decreased the expression of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinas (ERK) in A549 cells. However, ghrelin'pretreatment ameliorated LPS-caused alterations in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 expression, whereas activated the PI3K/Akt and ERK signaling. These results demonstrate that ghrelin lightens LPS-induced apoptosis of human alveolar epithelial cells partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway and thereby might benefit alleviating septic ALI. -- Graphical abstract: Ghrelin ameliorates the human alveolar epithelial A549 cells apoptosis induced by lipopolysaccharide partly through activating the PI3K/Akt and ERK pathway. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •It has been observed that LPS insult significantly increased apoptosis in A549 cells. •Both Akt and ERK signaling are critical adapter molecules to mediate the ghrelin-mediated proliferative effect. •Ghrelin may have a therapeutic effect in the prevention of LPS-induced apoptosis.

  3. Milk Thistle Extract and Silymarin Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide Induced Lamellar Separation of Hoof Explants in Vitro

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    Nicole Reisinger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of laminitis is not completely identified and the role of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS in this process remains unclear. Phytogenic substances, like milk thistle (MT and silymarin, are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and might therefore have the potential to counteract endotoxin induced effects on the hoof lamellar tissue. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of endotoxins on lamellar tissue integrity and to test if MT and silymarin are capable of inhibiting LPS-induced effects in an in vitro/ex vivo model. In preliminary tests, LPS neutralization efficiency of these phytogenics was determined in an in vitro neutralization assay. Furthermore, tissue explants gained from hooves of slaughter horses were tested for lamellar separation after incubation with different concentrations of LPS. By combined incubation of explants with LPS and either Polymyxin B (PMB; positive control, MT or silymarin, the influence of these substances on LPS-induced effects was assessed. In the in vitro neutralization assay, MT and silymarin reduced LPS concentrations by 64% and 75%, respectively, in comparison PMB reduced 98% of the LPS concentration. In hoof explants, LPS led to a concentration dependent separation. Accordantly, separation force was significantly decreased by 10 µg/mL LPS. PMB, MT and silymarin could significantly improve tissue integrity of explants incubated with 10 µg/mL LPS. This study showed that LPS had a negative influence on the structure of hoof explants in vitro. MT and silymarin reduced endotoxin activity and inhibited LPS-induced effects on the lamellar tissue. Hence, MT and silymarin might be used to support the prevention of laminitis and should be further evaluated for this application.

  4. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protects against lipopolysaccharide induced diaphragm weakness in preterm lambs.

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    Kanakeswary Karisnan

    Full Text Available Chorioamnionitis (inflammation of the fetal membranes is strongly associated with preterm birth and in utero exposure to inflammation significantly impairs contractile function in the preterm lamb diaphragm. The fetal inflammatory response to intra-amniotic (IA lipopolysaccharide (LPS is orchestrated via interleukin 1 (IL-1. We aimed to determine if LPS induced contractile dysfunction in the preterm diaphragm is mediated via the IL-1 pathway. Pregnant ewes received IA injections of recombinant human IL-1 receptor antagonist (rhIL-1ra (Anakinra; 100 mg or saline (Sal 3 h prior to second IA injections of LPS (4 mg or Sal at 119d gestational age (GA. Preterm lambs were killed after delivery at 121d GA (term = 150 d. Muscle fibres dissected from the right hemi-diaphragm were mounted in an in vitro muscle test system for assessment of contractile function. The left hemi-diaphragm was snap frozen for molecular and biochemical analyses. Maximum specific force in lambs exposed to IA LPS (Sal/LPS group was 25% lower than in control lambs (Sal/Sal group; p=0.025. LPS-induced diaphragm weakness was associated with higher plasma IL-6 protein, diaphragm IL-1β mRNA and oxidised glutathione levels. Pre-treatment with rhIL-1ra (rhIL-1ra/LPS ameliorated the LPS-induced diaphragm weakness and blocked systemic and local inflammatory responses, but did not prevent the rise in oxidised glutathione. These findings indicate that LPS induced diaphragm dysfunction is mediated via IL-1 and occurs independently of oxidative stress. Therefore, the IL-1 pathway represents a potential therapeutic target in the management of impaired diaphragm function in preterm infants.

  5. Cardiac-Specific Overexpression of Catalase Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Myocardial Contractile Dysfunction: Role of Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Subat; Han, Xuefeng; Huff, Anna F.; Roe, Nathan D.; Hu, Nan; Gao, Feng; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria is a major initiator of sepsis, leading to cardiovascular collapse. Accumulating evidence has indicated a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular complication in sepsis. This study was designed to examine the effect of cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase in LPS-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and the underlying mechanism(s) with a focus on autophagy. Catalase transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were challenged with LPS (6 mg/kg) and cardiac function was evaluated. Levels of oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis and protein damage were examined using fluorescence microscopy, Western blot, TUNEL assay, caspase-3 activity and carbonyl formation. Kaplan-Meier curve was constructed for survival following LPS treatment. Our results revealed a lower mortality in catalase mice compared with FVB mice following LPS challenge. LPS injection led to depressed cardiac contractile capacity as evidenced by echocardiography and cardiomyocyte contractile function, the effect of which was ablated by catalase overexpression. LPS treatment induced elevated TNF-α level, autophagy, apoptosis (TUNEL, caspase-3 activation, cleaved caspase-3), production of ROS and O2−, and protein carbonyl formation, the effects of which were significantly attenuated by catalase overexpression. Electron microscopy revealed focal myocardial damage characterized by mitochondrial injury following LPS treatment, which was less severe in catalase mice. Interestingly, LPS-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction was prevented by antioxidant NAC and the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Taken together, our data revealed that catalase protects against LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction and mortality, which may be associated with inhibition of oxidative stress and autophagy. PMID:22902401

  6. Cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction: role of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Subat; Han, Xuefeng; Huff, Anna F; Roe, Nathan D; Hu, Nan; Gao, Feng; Ren, Jun

    2012-09-15

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria is a major initiator of sepsis, leading to cardiovascular collapse. Accumulating evidence has indicated a role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cardiovascular complications in sepsis. This study was designed to examine the effect of cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase in LPS-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction and the underlying mechanism(s) with a focus on autophagy. Catalase transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were challenged with LPS (6 mg/kg) and cardiac function was evaluated. Levels of oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis, and protein damage were examined using fluorescence microscopy, Western blot, TUNEL assay, caspase-3 activity, and carbonyl formation. A Kaplan-Meier curve was constructed for survival after LPS treatment. Our results revealed a lower mortality in catalase mice compared with FVB mice after LPS challenge. LPS injection led to depressed cardiac contractile capacity as evidenced by echocardiography and cardiomyocyte contractile function, the effect of which was ablated by catalase overexpression. LPS treatment induced elevated TNF-α level, autophagy, apoptosis (TUNEL, caspase-3 activation, cleaved caspase-3), production of ROS and O(2)(-), and protein carbonyl formation, the effects of which were significantly attenuated by catalase overexpression. Electron microscopy revealed focal myocardial damage characterized by mitochondrial injury after LPS treatment, which was less severe in catalase mice. Interestingly, LPS-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction was prevented by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Taken together, our data revealed that catalase protects against LPS-induced cardiac dysfunction and mortality, which may be associated with inhibition of oxidative stress and autophagy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide induces multinuclear cell from RAW264.7 line with increased phagocytosis activity

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    Nakanishi-Matsui, Mayumi, E-mail: nakanim@iwate-med.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Iwate Medical University, Futai Special Laboratory, Yahaba, Iwate 028-3694 (Japan); Yano, Shio; Matsumoto, Naomi; Futai, Masamitsu [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Iwate Medical University, Futai Special Laboratory, Yahaba, Iwate 028-3694 (Japan)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS induces multinuclear cells from murine macrophage-derived RAW264.7 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The multinuclear cells are formed through cell-cell fusion in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The multinuclear cells do not express osteoclast-specific enzymes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They internalized more and larger beads than mononuclear cells and osteoclasts. -- Abstract: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an outer membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria, induces strong proinflammatory responses, including the release of cytokines and nitric oxide from macrophage. In this study, we found that a murine macrophage-derived line, RAW264.7, became multinuclear through cell-cell fusion after incubation with highly purified LPS or synthetic lipid A in the presence of Ca{sup 2+}. The same cell line is known to differentiate into multinuclear osteoclast, which expresses a specific proton pumping ATPase together with osteoclast markers on stimulation by the extracellular domain of receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (Toyomura, T., Murata, Y., Yamamoto, A., Oka, T., Sun-Wada, G.-H., Wada, Y. and Futai, M., 2003). The LPS-induced multinuclear cells did not express osteoclast-specific enzymes including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin K. During multinuclear cell formation, the cells internalized more and larger polystyrene beads (diameter 6-15 {mu}m) than mononuclear cells and osteoclasts. The internalized beads were located in lysosome-marker positive organelles, which were probably phagolysosomes. The LPS-induced multinuclear cell could be a good model system to study phagocytosis of large foreign bodies.

  8. DHA suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jin, Ji-Young; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2014-04-14

    Several reports have indicated that dietary intake of DHA is associated with lower prevalence of periodontitis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of DHA on the production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in inflammatory periodontal disease, and its mechanisms of action. LPS was isolated from lyophilised P. intermedia ATCC 25,611 cells using the standard hot-phenol-water protocol. Culture supernatants were collected and assayed for NO, IL-1β and IL-6. Real-time PCR analysis was carried out to detect the expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), IL-1β, IL-6 and haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA. Immunoblot analysis was carried out to quantify the expression of iNOS and HO-1 protein and concentrations of signalling proteins. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were determined using an ELISA-based assay kit. DHA significantly attenuated the production of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 at both gene transcription and translation levels in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. DHA induced the expression of HO-1 in cells treated with P. intermedia LPS. Selective inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin IX significantly mitigated the inhibitory effects of DHA on LPS-induced NO production. DHA significantly attenuated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase induced by LPS. In addition, DHA suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-κB by regulating the nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit and inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. Further in vivo studies are needed to better evaluate the potential of DHA in humans as a therapeutic agent to treat periodontal disease.

  9. Effect of azithromycin on Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of interleukin-6 in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jin, Ji-Young; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2014-04-15

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key proinflammatory cytokine which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Host modulatory agents targeting at inhibiting IL-6, therefore, appear to be beneficial in slowing the progression of periodontal disease and potentially reducing destructive aspects of the host response. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin on IL-6 generation in murine macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in inflammatory periodontal disease, and its mechanisms of action. Azithromycin significantly suppressed IL-6 production as well as its mRNA expression in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. LPS-induced activation of JNK and p38 was not affected by azithromycin treatment. Azithromycin failed to prevent P. intermedia LPS from degrading IκB-α. Instead, azithromycin significantly diminished nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit induced with LPS. Azithromycin inhibited P. intermedia LPS-induced STAT1 and STAT3 phosphorylation. In addition, azithromycin up-regulated the mRNA level of SOCS1 in cells treated with LPS. In conclusion, azithromycin significantly attenuated P. intermedia LPS-induced production of IL-6 in murine macrophages via inhibition of NF-κB, STAT1 and STAT3 activation, which is possibly related to the activation of SOCS1 signaling. Further in vivo studies are required to better evaluate the potential of azithromycin in the treatment of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Guillain-Barré syndrome- and Miller Fisher syndrome-associated Campylobacter jejuni lipopolysaccharides induce anti-GM1 and anti-GQ1b Antibodies in rabbits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. de Klerk; H.P. Endtz (Hubert); B.C. Jacobs (Bart); J.D. Laman (Jon); F.G.A. van der Meché (Frans); P.A. van Doorn (Pieter); C.W. Ang (Wim)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractCampylobacter jejuni infections are thought to induce antiganglioside antibodies in patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) by molecular mimicry between C. jejuni lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and gangliosides. We used

  11. Sesquiterpenes from Ulmus davidiana var. japonica with the inhibitory effects on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Choong; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Sung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2007-04-01

    Investigation of antiinflammatory constituents of the stem and root barks of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica resulted in the isolation of three guaiane type sesquiterpenes, torilin, 1-hydroxytorilin, together with a new derivative, (1beta, 7beta, 8beta, 10beta)-1,8,11-trihydroxy-4-guaien-8-angeloyl-3-one named 1-hydroxytorilin A. All the three sesquiterpenes inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in murine microglial BV2 cells.

  12. Inhibitory effect of BMAP-28 on Leptospiral Lipopolysaccharide-Induced TLR2-Dependent Immune Response in Bovine Cells

    OpenAIRE

    GUO, Yijie; Ding, Cuiping; Zhang, Bo; XU, Jun; XUN, Meng; XU, Jiru

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease, leading to serious economic losses in animal production and causing potential hazards to human health. Leptospiral lipopolysaccharide (L-LPS) plays an important role in leptospirosis pathogenicity. Objectives With respect to L-LPS endotoxin-like activity, we examined bovine immune response to L-LPS and the inhibitory ability of bovine myeloid antimicrobial peptide-28 (BMAP-28) against L-LPS-induced immune activation in bovine c...

  13. Praeruptorin D and E attenuate lipopolysaccharide/hydrochloric acid induced acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng-Jiu; Li, Jing-Rong; Zhu, Zheng-Guang; Kong, Huan-Yu; Jin, Hong; Zhang, Jun-Yan; Tian, Yuan-Xin; Li, Zhong-Huang; Wu, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Jia-Jie; Wu, Shu-Guang

    2013-06-15

    Acute lung injury is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and increased microvascular permeability, which causes a high mortality rate worldwide. The dry root of Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn has been long used to treat respiratory diseases in China. In the present study, Praeruptorin A, C, D and E (PA, PC, PD and PE), four pyranocoumarins extracted from this herb, have been investigated for the pharmacological effects in experimental lung injury mouse models. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged mice, PA and PC did not show protective effect against lung injury at the dose of 80 mg/kg. However, PD and PE significantly inhibited the infiltration of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at the same dose. There was no statistically significant difference between PD and PE group. Further study demonstrated that PD and PE suppressed protein extravasations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, attenuated myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the pathological changes in the lung. Both PD and PE suppressed LPS induced Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway activation in the lung by decreasing the cytoplasmic loss of Inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) protein and inhibiting the translocation of p65 from cytoplasm to nucleus. We also extended our study to acid-induced acute lung injury and found that these two compounds protected mice from hydrochloric acid (HCl)-induced lung injury by inhibiting PMNs influx, IL-6 release and protein exudation. Taken together, these results suggested that PD and PE might be useful in the therapy of lung injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential role of an antimicrobial peptide, KLK in inhibiting lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammation.

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    Pornpimon Jantaruk

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are attractive alternatives to antibiotics. Due to their immune modulatory properties, AMPs are at present emerging as promising agents for controlling inflammatory-mediated diseases. In this study, anti-inflammatory potential of an antimicrobial peptide, KLK (KLKLLLLLKLK and its analogs was evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results herein demonstrated that KLK peptide as well as its analogs significantly inhibited the pro-inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in dose-dependent manners, and such inhibitory effects were not due to direct cytotoxicity. When considering inhibition potency, KLK among the test peptides exhibited the most effective activity. The inhibitory activity of KLK peptide also extended to include suppression of LPS-induced production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2. KLK significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 as well as mRNA expression of IL-1β and TNF-α. Moreover, KLK inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB p65 and blocked degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB (IκB. Taken together, these results suggested that the KLK peptide inhibited inflammatory response through the down-regulation of NF-κB mediated activation in macrophages. Since peptide analogs with different amino acid sequences and arrangement were investigated for their anti-inflammatory activities, the residues/structures required for activity were also discussed. Our findings therefore proved anti-inflammatory potential of the KLK peptide and provide direct evidence for therapeutic application of KLK as a novel anti-inflammatory agent.

  15. Boron Induces Lymphocyte Proliferation and Modulates the Priming Effects of Lipopolysaccharide on Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routray, Indusmita; Ali, Shakir

    2016-01-01

    Chemical mediators of inflammation (CMI) are important in host defense against infection. The reduced capacity of host to induce the secretion of these mediators following infection is one of the factors in host susceptibility to infection. Boron, which has been suggested for its role in infection, is reported in this study to increase lymphocyte proliferation and the secretion of CMI by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages in BALB/c mice. Boron was administered to mice orally as borax at different doses for 10 consecutive days, followed by the stimulation of animals with ovalbumin and isolation of splenocytes for proliferation assay. The lymphocyte subsets were determined by flow cytometry in spleen cell suspension. The mediators of inflammation, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and nitric oxide (NO), were measured in culture supernatant of LPS-primed macrophages isolated from borax treated mice. TNF and ILs were measured by ELISA. NO was determined by Griess test. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophages was studied by confocal microscopy. Results showed a significant increase in T and B cell populations, as indicated by an increase in CD4 and CD19, but not CD8, cells. Boron further stimulated the secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, NO and the expression of iNOS by the LPS-primed macrophages. The effect was dose dependent and most significant at a dose level of 4.6 mg/kg b. wt. Taken together, the study concludes that boron at physiological concentration induces lymphocyte proliferation and increases the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by the LPS-primed macrophages, more specifically the M1 macrophages, possibly acting through Toll-like receptor. The study implicates boron as a regulator of the immune and inflammatory reactions and macrophage polarization, thus playing an important role in augmenting host defense against infection, with possible role in cancer and other diseases.

  16. Improved Hepatoprotective Effect of Liposome-Encapsulated Astaxanthin in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hung Chiu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced acute hepatotoxicity is significantly associated with oxidative stress. Astaxanthin (AST, a xanthophyll carotenoid, is well known for its potent antioxidant capacity. However, its drawbacks of poor aqueous solubility and low bioavailability have limited its utility. Liposome encapsulation is considered as an effective alternative use for the improvement of bioavailability of the hydrophobic compound. We hypothesized that AST encapsulated within liposomes (LA apparently shows improved stability and transportability compared to that of free AST. To investigate whether LA administration can efficiently prevent the LPS-induced acute hepatotoxicity, male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = six per group were orally administered liposome-encapsulated AST at 2, 5 or 10 mg/kg-day (LA-2, LA-5, and LA-10 for seven days and then were LPS-challenged (i.p., 5 mg/kg. The LA-10 administered group, but not the other groups, exhibited a significant amelioration of serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (CRE, hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, IL-6, and hepatic nuclear NF-κB and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, suggesting that LA at a 10 mg/kg-day dosage renders hepatoprotective effects. Moreover, the protective effects were even superior to that of positive control N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 200 mg/kg-day. Histopathologically, NAC, free AST, LA-2 and LA-5 partially, but LA-10 completely, alleviated the acute inflammatory status. These results indicate that hydrophobic AST after being properly encapsulated by liposomes improves bioavailability and can also function as potential drug delivery system in treating hepatotoxicity.

  17. Methyl jasmonate attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behaviour in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebesin, Adaeze; Adeoluwa, Olusegun A; Eduviere, Anthony T; Umukoro, Solomon

    2017-11-01

    Depression is a recurrent neuropsychiatric disorder that affects millions of individuals worldwide and impact negatively on the patients' social functions and quality of life. Studies have shown that i.p injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces depressive-like behavior in rodents via induction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Methyl jasmonate (MJ), an isolated compound from jasmine plant has gained reputation in aromatherapy for treatment of depression, nervousness and memory deficits. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of MJ on LPS-induced depressive-like behavior in mice. Mice were given MJ (5-20 mg/kg), imipramine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (10 mL/kg) intraperitoneally for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, treatment was carried out 30 min prior to i.p injection of LPS (830 μg/kg). Twenty four hours after LPS administration, tail suspension, forced swim and sucrose preference tests were carried out. Thereafter, serum corticosterone levels were determined using ELISA. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined in brain tissue homogenates. LPS significantly increased immobility time in the tail suspension and forced swim tests when compared with vehicle (p < 0.05), which indicates depressive-like syndromes. However, the increased immobility time was significantly reduced by MJ (5-20 mg/kg) when compared with LPS-treated group. LPS administration also altered the levels of MDA, GSH, corticosterone and TNF alpha in mice, which was significantly reversed by MJ. These findings suggest that attenuation of LPS-induced depressive-like behavior by MJ may be related to suppression of oxidative stress and release of TNF alpha. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenylated Flavonoids from Cudrania tricuspidata Suppress Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammatory Activities in BV2 Microglial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Cheol; Yoon, Chi-Su; Quang, Tran Hong; Ko, Wonmin; Kim, Jong-Su; Oh, Hyuncheol; Kim, Youn-Chul

    2016-01-01

    In Korea and China, Cudrania tricuspidata Bureau (Moraceae) is an important traditional medicinal plant used to treat lumbago, hemoptysis, and contusions. The C. tricuspidata methanol extract suppressed both production of NO and PGE2 in BV2 microglial cells. Cudraflavanone D (1), isolated from this extract, remarkably suppressed the protein expression of inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, and decreased the levels of NO and PGE2 in BV2 microglial cells exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Cudraflavanone D (1) also decreased IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12, and IL-1β production, blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB heterodimers (p50 and p65) by interrupting the degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitor of IκB-α, and inhibited NF-κB binding. In addition, cudraflavanone D (1) suppressed the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK pathways. This study indicated that cudraflavanone D (1) can be a potential drug candidate for the cure of neuroinflammation. PMID:26907256

  19. Effects of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation on expression of growth-associated genes by corticospinal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieberman AR

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation around cell bodies of primary sensory neurons and retinal ganglion cells enhances expression of neuronal growth-associated genes and stimulates axonal regeneration. We have asked if inflammation would have similar effects on corticospinal neurons, which normally show little response to spinal cord injury. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS was applied onto the pial surface of the motor cortex of adult rats with or without concomitant injury of the corticospinal tract at C4. Inflammation around corticospinal tract cell bodies in the motor cortex was assessed by immunohistochemistry for OX42 (a microglia and macrophage marker. Expression of growth-associated genes c-jun, ATF3, SCG10 and GAP-43 was investigated by immunohistochemistry or in situ hybridisation. Results Application of LPS induced a gradient of inflammation through the full depth of the motor cortex and promoted c-Jun and SCG10 expression for up to 2 weeks, and GAP-43 upregulation for 3 days by many corticospinal neurons, but had very limited effects on neuronal ATF3 expression. However, many glial cells in the subcortical white matter upregulated ATF3. LPS did not promote sprouting of anterogradely labelled corticospinal axons, which did not grow into or beyond a cervical lesion site. Conclusion Inflammation produced by topical application of LPS promoted increased expression of some growth-associated genes in the cell bodies of corticospinal neurons, but was insufficient to promote regeneration of the corticospinal tract.

  20. Plasma and tissue disposition of florfenicol in Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxaemic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, Rubén; Cazanga, Victoria; Jeldres, Jessie Ana; Silva, Pedro P; Riquelme, José; Quiroz, Fernando; Palma, Cristina; Carretta, Maria D; Burgos, Rafael A

    2017-05-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to understand the effects of the acute inflammatory response (AIR) induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on florfenicol (FFC) and FFC-amine (FFC-a) plasma and tissue concentrations. 2. Ten Suffolk Down sheep, 60.5 ± 4.7 kg, were distributed into two experimental groups: group 1 (LPS) treated with three intravenous doses of 1 μg/kg bw of LPS at 24, 16, and 0.75 h (45 min) before FFC treatment; group 2 (Control) was treated with saline solution (SS) in parallel to group 1. An IM dose of 20 mg FFC/kg was administered at 0.75 h after the last injection of LPS or SS. Blood and tissue samples were taken after FFC administration. 3. The plasma AUC 0-4 h values of FFC were higher (p = 0.0313) in sheep treated with LPS (21.8 ± 2.0 μg·min/mL) compared with the control group (12.8 ± 2.3 μg·min/mL). Lipopolysaccharide injections increased FFC concentrations in kidneys, spleen, and brain. Low levels of plasma FFC-a were observed in control sheep (C max  = 0.14 ± 0.01 μg/mL) with a metabolite ratio (MR) of 4.0 ± 0.87%. While in the LPS group, C max increased slightly (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/mL), and MR decreased to 2.8 ± 0.17%. 4. The changes observed in the plasma and tissue concentrations of FFC were attributed to the pathophysiological effects of LPS on renal hemodynamics that modified tissue distribution and reduced elimination of the drug.

  1. Lipopolysaccharide induces H1 receptor expression and enhances histamine responsiveness in human coronary artery endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveendran, Vineesh V; Tan, Xiaoyu; Sweeney, Matthew E; Levant, Beth; Slusser, Joyce; Stechschulte, Daniel J; Dileepan, Kottarappat N

    2011-04-01

    Summary Histamine is a well-recognized modulator of vascular inflammation. We have shown that histamine, acting via H1 receptors (H1R), synergizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2)), PGE(2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by endothelial cells. The synergy between histamine and LPS was partly attributed to histamine -induced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). In this study, we examined whether LPS stimulates the H1R expression in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with resultant enhancement of histamine responsiveness. Incubation of HCAEC with LPS (10-1000 ng/ml) resulted in two-fold to fourfold increases in H1R mRNA expression in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent fashion. In contrast, LPS treatment did not affect H2R mRNA expression. The LPS-induced H1R mRNA expression peaked by 4 hr after LPS treatment and remained elevated above the basal level for 20-24 hr. Flow cytometric and Western blot analyses revealed increased expression of H1R protein in LPS-treated cells. The specific binding of [(3)H]pyrilamine to H1R in membrane proteins from LPS-treated HCAEC was threefold higher than the untreated cells. The LPS-induced H1R expression was mediated through TLR4 as gene silencing by TLR4-siRNA and treatment with a TLR4 antagonist inhibited the LPS effect. When HCAEC were pre-treated with LPS for 24 hr, washed and challenged with histamine, 17-, 10- and 15-fold increases in PGI(2), PGE(2) and IL-6 production, respectively, were noted. Histamine-induced enhancement of the synthesis of PGI(2), PGE(2) and IL-6 by LPS-primed HCAEC was completely blocked by an H1R antagonist. The results demonstrate that LPS, through TLR4 activation, up-regulates the expression and function of H1R and amplifies histamine-induced inflammatory responses in HCAEC. © 2011 The Authors. Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Consequences of alteration in leucine zipper sequence of melittin in its neutralization of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory response in macrophage cells and interaction with lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Raghvendra M; Srivastava, Saurabh; Singh, Manish; Bajpai, Virendra Kumar; Ghosh, Jimut Kanti

    2012-01-13

    The bee venom antimicrobial peptide, melittin, besides showing versatile activity against microorganisms also neutralizes lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory responses in macrophage cells. However, how the amino acid sequence of melittin contributes in its anti-inflammatory properties is mostly unknown. To determine the importance of the leucine zipper sequence of melittin in its neutralization of LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages and interaction with LPS, anti-inflammatory properties of melittin and its three analogues and their interactions with LPS were studied in detail. Two of these analogues, namely melittin Mut-1 (MM-1) and melittin Mut-2 (MM-2), possess leucine to alanine substitutions in the single and double heptadic leucine residue(s) of melittin, respectively, whereas the third analogue is a scrambled peptide (Mel-SCR) that contains the amino acid composition of melittin with minor rearrangement in its leucine zipper sequence. Although MM-1 partly inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 and rat primary macrophage cells in the presence of LPS, MM-2 and Mel-SCR were negligibly active. A progressive decrease in interaction of melittin with LPS, aggregation in LPS, and dissociation of LPS aggregates with alteration in the leucine zipper sequence of melittin was observed. Furthermore, with alteration in the leucine zipper sequence of melittin, these analogues failed to exhibit cellular responses associated with neutralization of LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophage cells by melittin. The data indicated a probable important role of the leucine zipper sequence of melittin in neutralizing LPS-induced proinflammatory responses in macrophage cells as well as in its interaction with LPS.

  3. Differential effect of prostaglandins E1 and E2 on lipopolysaccharide-induced adhesion molecule expression on human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideo K; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Tamura, Ryuji; Katsuno, Goutaro; Xue, Dong; Sugita, Sachi; Mori, Shuji; Yoshino, Tadashi; Tanaka, Noriaki; Nishibori, Masahiro

    2005-04-11

    The effect of prostaglandins E1 and E2 on the 1 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, B7.1, B7.2, CD40 and CD40 ligand (CD40L) on monocytes was examined. Prostaglandin E1 suppressed B7.1 and CD40 expression, but prostaglandin E2 did not effect on any type of adhesion molecule expression. Both prostaglandins inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production and T-cell proliferation of lipopolysaccharide-treated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Among prostaglandin E1 receptors (IP/EP1/EP2/EP3/EP4) agonists, ONO-1301, a prostanoid IP-receptor agonist, prevented B7.1 and CD40 expression. ONO-AE1-259-01 a prostanoid EP2-receptor agonist, ONO-AE1-329, a prostanoid EP4-receptor agonist, and ONO-1301 inhibited TNF-alpha production and T-cell proliferation. Moreover, anti-B7.1 and anti-CD40 Abs prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production and T-cell proliferation. Therefore, the effect of prostaglandin E1 on TNF-alpha production and T-cell proliferation might depend on the inhibition of B7.1 and CD40 expression, but that of prostaglandin E2 might be independent of adhesion molecules expression. In conclusion, the mechanism responsible for the effect of prostaglandin E1 on lipopolysaccharide-induced responses is distinct from that of prostaglandin E2.

  4. Dietary Supplementation with Lactobacillus casei Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Injury in a Porcine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine whether Lactobacillus casei (L. casei could relieve liver injury in piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Piglets were randomly allocated into one of the three groups: control, LPS, and L. casei. The control and LPS groups were fed a corn- and soybean meal-based diet, whereas the L. casei group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 6 × 106 cfu/g L. casei. On Day 31 of the trial, piglets in the LPS and L. casei groups received intraperitoneal administration of LPS (100 µg/kg body weight, while the control group received the same volume of saline. Blood and liver samples were collected for analysis. Results showed that L. casei supplementation decreased the feed/gain ratio (p = 0.027 and diarrhea incidence (p < 0.001, and attenuated LPS-induced liver histomorphological abnormalities. Compared with the control group, LPS challenge dramatically increased glutamyl transpeptidase activity (p = 0.001 in plasma as well as the concentrations of Interleukin 6 (IL-6 (p = 0.048, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α (p = 0.041, and Malondialdehyde (MDA (p = 0.001 in the liver, while decreasing the hepatic SOD activity. LPS also increased (p < 0.05 the mRNA levels for IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4, Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB and Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 in the liver. The adverse effects of LPS challenge were ameliorated by L. casei supplementation. In conclusion, dietary L. casei alleviates LPS-induced liver injury via reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing anti-oxidative capacity.

  5. Modulation by gamithromycin and ketoprofen of in vitro and in vivo porcine lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyns, Heidi; Meyer, Evelyne; Plessers, Elke; Watteyn, Anneleen; van Bergen, Thomas; Schauvliege, Stijn; De Baere, Siegrid; Devreese, Mathias; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2015-12-15

    The immunomodulatory properties of gamithromycin (GAM), ketoprofen (KETO) and their combination (GAM-KETO) were investigated after both in vitro and in vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. The influence of these drugs was measured on the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in both LPS-stimulated porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and LPS-challenged pigs. Additionally, effects on the production of acute phase proteins (APPs), including pig major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as on the development of fever, pulmonary symptoms and sickness behaviour were investigated. Dexamethasone was included as a positive control in the in vitro research. Following an 18h-incubation period with 1.25μg/mL LPS, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 (p<0.05) measured in the PBMC supernatants were significantly increased. Incubation with a high concentration of both GAM and KETO significantly reduced the in vitro levels of all three cytokines. Maximal plasma concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 were observed at 1h and 2.5h following LPS challenge in pigs, respectively. Neither GAM, nor KETO nor the combination GAM-KETO was able to inhibit the in vivo LPS-induced cytokine production. Furthermore, none of the drugs influenced the subsequent APPs production. In contrast, administration of KETO significantly reduced PGE2 production both in vitro and in vivo (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) and prevented the development of fever and severe symptoms, including dyspnoea, anorexia, vomiting and lateral decubitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [FcγRIis involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis of PC12 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanjie; Liang, Yingxia; Zhang, Yan

    2017-06-01

    Objective To investigate the role of IgG Fc receptorI (FcγRI) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced apoptosis of the rat PC12 cells. Methods PC12 cells were treated with different concentrations of LPS (50, 125, 250, 500, 1000 μg/mL) for 24 hours and cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay. The appropriate concentration of LPS (500 μg/mL) was chosen for the following experiments. PC12 cells in the logarithmic growth phase were divided randomly into three groups: the control group without LPS, the 500 μg/mL LPS treated group and the 500 μg/mL LPS plus 0.2 μg/mL FcγRI neutralizer group. After24-hour different treatments, the mRNA and protein levels of FcγRIwere detected by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The apoptosis rate of PC12 cells was determined by flow cytometry combined with annexinV-FITC/PI double staining. The protein expression levels of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and BAX were measured by immunohistochemistry. Results PC12 cell viability decreased in a LPS dose-dependent manner. Compared to the control group, the protein and mRNA expression of FcγRI were upregulated, the expression levels of caspase-3, Bcl-2 and BAX proteins were elevated, and the apoptosis rate of PC12 cells was raised as well in the LPS treated group. Compared to the LPS treated group, the protein and mRNA levels of FcγRI were significantly lower along with significantly reduced expressions of Caspase-3 and BAX and inhibited cell apoptosis in the FcγRIneutralizer treated group, while Bcl-2 protein expression was upregulated. Conclusion FcγRIis involved in the LPS-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

  7. Effect of Inulin on Proteome Changes Induced by Pathogenic Lipopolysaccharide in Human Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Altomare, Annamaria; Barera, Simone; Locato, Vittoria; Cocca, Silvia; Franchin, Cinzia; Arrigoni, Giorgio; Vannini, Candida; Grossi, Sarah; Campomenosi, Paola; Pasqualetti, Valentina; Bracale, Marcella; Alloni, Rossana; De Gara, Laura; Cicala, Michele

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the protective role of inulin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress was evaluated on human colonic mucosa using a proteomic approach. Human colonic mucosa and submucosa were sealed between two chambers, with the luminal side facing upwards and overlaid with Krebs (control), LPS or LPS+ inulin IQ solution. The solutions on the submucosal side (undernatants) were collected following 30 min of mucosal exposure. iTRAQ based analysis was used to analyze the total soluble proteomes from human colonic mucosa and submucosa treated with different undernatants. Human colonic muscle strips were exposed to the undernatants to evaluate the response to acetylcholine. Inulin exposure was able to counteract, in human colonic mucosa, the LPS-dependent alteration of some proteins involved in the intestinal contraction (myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), myosin regulatory subunit (MYL)), to reduce the up-regulation of two proteins involved in the radical-mediated oxidative stress (the DNA-apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase) APEX1 and the T-complex protein 1 subunit eta (CCT7) and to entail a higher level of some detoxification enzymes (the metallothionein-2 MT2A, the glutathione-S-transferase K GSTk, and two UDP- glucuronosyltransferases UGT2B4, UGT2B17). Inulin exposure was also able to prevent the LPS-dependent intestinal muscle strips contraction impairment and the mucosa glutathione level alterations. Exposure of colonic mucosa to inulin seems to prevent LPS-induced alteration in expression of some key proteins, which promote intestinal motility and inflammation, reducing the radical-mediated oxidative stress.

  8. Exogenous normal lymph reduces liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharides in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.L.; Niu, C.Y.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    The liver is one of the target organs damaged by septic shock, wherein the spread of endotoxins begins. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exogenous normal lymph (ENL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, LPS, and LPS+ENL groups. LPS (15 mg/kg) was administered intravenously via the left jugular vein to the LPS and LPS+ENL groups. At 15 min after the LPS injection, saline or ENL without cell components (5 mL/kg) was administered to the LPS and LPS+ENL groups, respectively, at a rate of 0.5 mL/min. Hepatocellular injury indices and hepatic histomorphology, as well as levels of P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and Na + -K + -ATPase, were assessed in hepatic tissues. Liver tissue damage occurred after LPS injection. All levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in plasma as well as the wet/dry weight ratio of hepatic tissue in plasma increased. Similarly, P-selectin, ICAM-1, and MPO levels in hepatic tissues were elevated, whereas Na + -K + -ATPase activity in hepatocytes decreased. ENL treatment lessened hepatic tissue damage and decreased levels of AST, ALT, ICAM-1, and MPO. Meanwhile, the treatment increased the activity of Na + -K + -ATPase. These results indicated that ENL could alleviate LPS-induced liver injury, thereby suggesting an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of liver injury accompanied by severe infection or sepsis

  9. Exogenous normal lymph reduces liver injury induced by lipopolysaccharides in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.G.; Zhang, L.L.; Niu, C.Y.; Zhang, J. [Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, China, Institute of Microcirculation, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei (China)

    2014-02-17

    The liver is one of the target organs damaged by septic shock, wherein the spread of endotoxins begins. This study aimed to investigate the effects of exogenous normal lymph (ENL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, LPS, and LPS+ENL groups. LPS (15 mg/kg) was administered intravenously via the left jugular vein to the LPS and LPS+ENL groups. At 15 min after the LPS injection, saline or ENL without cell components (5 mL/kg) was administered to the LPS and LPS+ENL groups, respectively, at a rate of 0.5 mL/min. Hepatocellular injury indices and hepatic histomorphology, as well as levels of P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase, were assessed in hepatic tissues. Liver tissue damage occurred after LPS injection. All levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in plasma as well as the wet/dry weight ratio of hepatic tissue in plasma increased. Similarly, P-selectin, ICAM-1, and MPO levels in hepatic tissues were elevated, whereas Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity in hepatocytes decreased. ENL treatment lessened hepatic tissue damage and decreased levels of AST, ALT, ICAM-1, and MPO. Meanwhile, the treatment increased the activity of Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase. These results indicated that ENL could alleviate LPS-induced liver injury, thereby suggesting an alternative therapeutic strategy for the treatment of liver injury accompanied by severe infection or sepsis.

  10. Effects of propofol on lipopolysaccharide-induced expression and release of HMGB1 in macrophages

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    Wang, T.; Wei, X.Y.; Liu, B.; Wang, L.J.; Jiang, L.H. [Department of Anesthesiology, the Third Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou (China)

    2015-02-24

    This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression and release of high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in mouse macrophages. Mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups. Expression levels of HMGB1 mRNA were detected using RT-PCR, and cell culture supernatant HMGB1 protein levels were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in macrophages was observed by Western blotting and activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) in the nucleus was detected using ELISA. HMGB1 mRNA expression levels increased significantly in the cell culture supernatant and in cells after 24 h of stimulating RAW264.7 cells with LPS (500 ng/mL). However, HMGB1 mRNA expression levels in the P2 and P3 groups, which received 500 ng/mL LPS with 25 or 50 μmol/mL propofol, respectively, were significantly lower than those in the group receiving LPS stimulation (P<0.05). After stimulation by LPS, HMGB1 protein levels were reduced significantly in the nucleus but were increased in the cytoplasm (P<0.05). Simultaneously, the activity of NF-κB was enhanced significantly (P<0.05). After propofol intervention, HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and NF-κB activity were inhibited significantly (each P<0.05). Thus, propofol can inhibit the LPS-induced expression and release of HMGB1 by inhibiting HMGB1 translocation and NF-κB activity in RAW264.7 cells, suggesting propofol may be protective in patients with sepsis.

  11. Protein Phosphatase 2A in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Murine Lymphatic Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fan Chuang

    Full Text Available The lymphatic endothelium plays an important role in the maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis. It also participates in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms by which lymphatic endothelial cell responds to inflammatory stimuli. In this study, we explored the mechanisms by which lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression in murine lymphatic endothelial cells (SV-LECs. LPS caused increases in cox-2 mRNA and protein levels, as well as in COX-2 promoter luciferase activity in SV-LECs. These actions were associated with protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1, JNK1/2 and p38MAPK activation, and NF-κB subunit p65 and C/EBPβ phosphorylation. PP2A-ASK1 signaling blockade reduced LPS-induced JNK1/2, p38MAPK, p65 and C/EBPβ phosphorylation. Transfection with PP2A siRNA reduced LPS's effects on p65 and C/EBPβ binding to the COX-2 promoter region. Transfected with the NF-κB or C/EBPβ site deletion of COX-2 reporter construct also abrogated LPS's enhancing effect on COX-2 promoter luciferase activity in SV-LECs. Taken together, the induction of COX-2 in SV-LECs exposed to LPS may involve PP2A-ASK1-JNK and/or p38MAPK-NF-κB and/or C/EBPβ cascade.

  12. Lipid composition and lipopolysaccharide binding capacity of lipoproteins in plasma and lymph of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levels, Johannes H. M.; Lemaire, Luciënne C. J. M.; van den Ende, Abraham E.; van Deventer, Sander J. H.; van Lanschot, J. Jan B.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major glycolipid component of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes, is a potent endotoxin responsible for many of the directly or indirectly induced symptoms of infection. Lipoproteins (in particular, high-density lipoproteins) sequester LPS, thereby

  13. Beneficial effect of honokiol on lipopolysaccharide induced anxiety-like behavior and liver damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakhiya, Kunjbihari; Kumar, Parveen; Gurjar, Satendra S; Barua, Chandana C; Hazarika, Naba K

    2015-02-26

    Anxiety disorders are commonly occurring co-morbid neuropsychiatric disorders with chronic inflammatory conditions such as live damage. Numerous studies revealed that peripheral inflammation, oxidative stress and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) play important roles in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders. Honokiol (HNK) is a polyphenol, possessing multiple biological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, antidepressant and hepatoprotection. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of HNK, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety-like behavior and liver damage in mice. Mice (n=6-10/group) were pre-treated with different doses of HNK (2.5 and 5mg/kg; i.p.) for two days, and challenged with saline or LPS (0.83mg/kg; i.p.) on third day. Anxiety-like behavior was monitored using elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT). Animals were sacrificed to evaluate various biochemical parameters in plasma and liver. HNK pre-treatment provided significant (P<0.01) protection against LPS-induced reduction in body weight, food and water intake in mice. HNK at higher dose significantly (P<0.05) attenuated LPS-induced anxiety-like behavior by increasing the number of entries and time spent in open arm in EPM test, and by increasing the frequency in central zone in OFT. HNK pre-treatment ameliorated LPS-induced peripheral inflammation by reducing plasma IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α level, and also improved the plasma BDNF level, prevented liver damage via attenuating transaminases (AST, ALT), liver oxidative stress and TNF-α activity in LPS challenged mice. In conclusion, the current investigation suggests that HNK provided beneficial effect against LPS-induced anxiety-like behavior and liver damage which may be governed by inhibition of cytokines production, oxidative stress and depletion of plasma BDNF level. Our result suggests that HNK could be a therapeutic approach for the treatment of anxiety and other

  14. Impact of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute inflammation on baroreflex-controlled sympathetic arterial pressure regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, Takeshi; Saku, Keita; Kawada, Toru; Kishi, Takuya; Yoshida, Keimei; Nishikawa, Takuya; Mannoji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Sunagawa, Kenji; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces acute inflammation, activates sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and alters hemodynamics. Since the arterial baroreflex is a negative feedback system to stabilize arterial pressure (AP), examining the arterial baroreflex function is a prerequisite to understanding complex hemodynamics under LPS challenge. We investigated the impact of LPS-induced acute inflammation on SNA and AP regulation by performing baroreflex open-loop analysis. Ten anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Acute inflammation was induced by an intravenous injection of LPS (60 μg/kg). We isolated the carotid sinuses from the systemic circulation and controlled carotid sinus pressure (CSP) by a servo-controlled piston pump. We matched CSP to AP to establish the baroreflex closed-loop condition, whereas we decoupled CSP from AP to establish the baroreflex open-loop condition and changed CSP stepwise to evaluate the baroreflex open-loop function. We recorded splanchnic SNA and hemodynamic parameters under baroreflex open- and closed-loop conditions at baseline and at 60 and 120 min after LPS injection. In the baroreflex closed-loop condition, SNA continued to increase after LPS injection, reaching three-fold the baseline value at 120 min (baseline: 94.7 ± 3.6 vs. 120 min: 283.9 ± 31.9 a.u.). In contrast, AP increased initially (until 75 min), then declined to the baseline level. In the baroreflex open-loop condition, LPS reset the neural arc (CSP-SNA relationship) upward to higher SNA, while shifted the peripheral arc (SNA-AP relationship) downward at 120 min after the injection. As a result, the operating point determined by the intersection between function curves of neural arc and peripheral arc showed marked sympatho-excitation without substantial changes in AP. LPS-induced acute inflammation markedly increased SNA via resetting of the baroreflex neural arc, and suppressed the peripheral arc. The balance between the augmented neural arc and suppressed

  15. The role of inflammation induced by radiation or lipopolysaccharides in the metastatic process in a mouse model of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterer, Chantal

    Mortality from breast cancer is primarily due to metastatic disease, which often appears years after treatment of the primary tumor. Radiation as well as bacterial infection induces inflammation, which by releasing cytokines can be implicated in metastatic processes. Using in vitro and in vivo models, the ability of radiation to awaken dormant lung metastases was assessed as well as the capacity of a bacterial infection to enhance metastatic progression in already proliferating lung metastases. As models, we used the D2.0R (dormant) and D2A1 (proliferative) cell lines, which are derived from spontaneous murine mammary tumors. The ability of radiation to awaken dormant D2.0R mammary cancer cells was assessed in a 3-dimension (3D) cell culture system, which resulted in the formation of microspheres of cancer cells. The addition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2; 100ng/m1) or conditioned media from irradiated (5 Gy) CALU-3 human bronchial epithelial cells stimulated the proliferation of the dormant D2.0R cells resulting in microspheres with a larger diameter compared to the untreated cells. Regarding the proliferative D2A1 microspheres, their rate of proliferation was not further increased by adding PGE2 or the conditioned media of irradiated CALU-3 cells. In Balb/c mice bearing dormant lung D2.0R micrometastases, our data showed that a fractionated radiation dose (5x7.5 Gy) to the mammary gland resulted in a significant increase in the development of metastases, as measured 42 days post-irradiation by bioluminescent reaction. We also evaluated whether a bacterial infection could stimulate the growth of D2A1 cancer cells. Gram-negative bacteria release the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that induces an inflammatory response. In lungs of mice treated with LPS, a higher level of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) was measured supporting the induction of an inflammation. This was accompanied by an increase of cell adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1) 5 hours after treatment. The ability

  16. Atherosclerotic plaque disruption induced by stress and lipopolysaccharide in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Mei; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Peng Fei; Ding, Shi Fang; Liu, Chun Xi; Liu, Xiao Ling; Zhao, Yu Xia; Zhang, Yun

    2009-05-01

    To establish an animal model with disruptions of atherosclerotic plaques, 96 male apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice were randomly divided into stress, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), stress+LPS, and control groups (n = 24 each). All mice were fed a high-fat diet throughout the experiment, and carotid atherosclerotic lesions were induced by placement of a constrictive perivascular collar. Four weeks after surgery, mice in the LPS and stress+LPS groups were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (1 mg/kg twice per week for 8 wk). Eight weeks after surgery, mice in the stress and stress+LPS groups were treated with intermittent physical stress (electric foot shock and noise stimulation) for 4 wk. Morphological analysis revealed a plaque disruption rate of 16.7% in control, 34.8% in LPS, 54.2% in stress, and 60.9% in stress+LPS groups. The disruption rates in stress and stress+LPS groups were both significantly higher than those of controls (P = 0.007 and P = 0.002, respectively). Luminal thrombosis secondary to plaque disruption was observed only in the stress+LPS group. Both stress and LPS stimulation significantly decreased fibrous cap thickness and increased macrophage and lipid contents in plaques. Moreover, the combination of stress and LPS stimulation further lowered cap thickness and enhanced accumulation of macrophages and expression of inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Stress activated the sympathetic nervous system, as manifested by increased blood pressure and flow velocity. Plasma fibrinogen levels were remarkably elevated in the stress and stress+LPS groups. In conclusion, stress- and LPS-costimulated apoE(-/-) mice provide a useful model for studies of plaque vulnerability and interventions.

  17. Effect of anti-podoplanin antibody administration during lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lax, Sian; Rayes, Julie; Thickett, David R; Watson, Steve P

    2017-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating pulmonary condition in the critically ill patient. A therapeutic intervention is yet to be found that can prevent progression to ARDS. We recently demonstrated that the interaction between podoplanin expressed on inflammatory alveolar macrophages (iAMs) and its endogenous ligand, platelet C-type lectin-like 2 (CLEC-2), protects against exaggerated lung inflammation during a mouse model of ARDS. In this study, we aim to investigate the therapeutic use of a crosslinking/activating anti-podoplanin antibody (α-PDPN, clone 8.1.1) during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung inflammation in mice. Intravenous administration of α-PDPN was performed 6 hours after intratracheal LPS in wildtype, C57Bl/6 mice. Lung function decline was measured by pulse oximetry as well as markers of local inflammation including bronchoalveolar lavage neutrophilia and cytokine/chemokine expression. In parallel, alveolar macrophages were isolated and cultured in vitro from haematopoietic-specific podoplanin-deficient mice (Pdpn fl/fl VAV1cre + ) and floxed-only controls treated with or without LPS in the presence or absence of α-PDPN. Lung function decline as well as alveolar neutrophil recruitment was significantly decreased in mice treated with the crosslinking/activating α-PDPN in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, in vitro, activation of podoplanin on iAMs regulates their secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These data confirm the importance of the CLEC-2-podoplanin pathway during intratracheal (IT)-LPS and demonstrate the beneficial effect of targeting podoplanin during IT-LPS in mice possibly via modulation of local cytokine/chemokine expression. Moreover, these data suggest that podoplanin-targeted therapies may have a beneficial effect in patients at risk of developing ARDS.

  18. Epidural analgesia with morphine or buprenorphine in ponies with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced carpal synovitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Gabrielle C; Carregaro, Adriano B; Gehrcke, Martielo I; De La Côrte, Flávio D; Lara, Valéria M; Pozzobon, Ricardo; Brass, Karin E

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the analgesia effects of the epidural administration of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) of morphine or 5 μg/kg BW of buprenorphine in ponies with radiocarpal joint synovitis. Six ponies were submitted to 3 epidural treatments: the control group (C) received 0.15 mL/kg BW of a 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution; group M was administered 0.1 mg/kg BW of morphine; and group B was administered 5 μg/kg BW of buprenorphine, both diluted in 0.9% NaCl to a total volume of 0.15 mL/kg BW administered epidurally at 10 s/mL. The synovitis model was induced by injecting 0.5 ng of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the left or right radiocarpal joint. An epidural catheter was later introduced in the lumbosacral space and advanced up to the thoracolumbar level. The treatment started 6 h after synovitis induction. Lameness, maximum angle of carpal flexion, heart rate, systolic arterial pressure, respiratory rate, temperature, and intestinal motility were evaluated before LPS injection (baseline), 6 h after LPS injection (time 0), and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h after treatments. Although the model of synovitis produced clear clinical signs of inflammation, the lameness scores in group C were different from the baseline for only up to 12 h. Both morphine and buprenorphine showed a reduction in the degree of lameness starting at 0.5 and 6 h, respectively. Reduced intestinal motility was observed at 0.5 h in group M and at 0.5 to 1 h in group B. Epidural morphine was a more effective analgesic that lasted for more than 12 h and without side effects. It was concluded that morphine would be a valuable analgesic option to alleviate joint pain in the thoracic limbs in ponies.

  19. Poly(Adp-ribose) synthetase inhibition prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced peroxynitrite mediated damage in diaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdülger, Ali; Cinel, Ismail; Unlü, Ali; Cinel, Leyla; Mavioglu, Ilhan; Tamer, Lülüfer; Atik, Ugur; Oral, Ugur

    2002-07-01

    Although the precise mechanism by which sepsis causes impairment of respiratory muscle contractility has not been fully elucidated, oxygen-derived free radicals are thought to play an important role. In our experimental study, the effects of poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS) inhibition on the diaphragmatic Ca(2+)-ATPase, malondialdehyde (MDA), and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) levels and additionally histopathology of the diaphragm in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxemia are investigated.Thirty-two male Wistar rats, weighing between 180-200 g were randomly divided into four groups. The first group (control; n=8) received saline solution and the second (LPS group; n=8) 10 mgkg(-1) LPS i.p. 3-Aminobenzamide (3-AB) as a PARS inhibitor; was given to the third group (C+3-AB, n=8) 20 min before administration of saline solution while the fourth group (LPS+3-AB, n=8) received 3-AB 20 min before LPS injection. Six hours later, under ketamin/xylasine anesthesia diapraghmatic specimens were obtained and the rats were decapitated. Diaphragmatic specimens were divided into four parts, three for biochemical analyses and one for histopathologic assessment. In the LPS group, tissue Ca(2+)-ATPase levels were found to be decreased and tissue MDA and 3-NT levels were found to be increased (P<0.05). In the LPS+3-AB group, 3-AB pretreatment inhibited the increase in MDA and 3-NT levels and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity remained similar to those in the control group (P<0.05). Histopathologic examination of diaphragm showed edema between muscle fibers only in LPS group. PARS inhibition with 3-AB prevented not only lipid peroxidation but also the decrease of Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in endotoxemia. These results highlights the importance of nitric oxide (NO)-peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-PARS pathway in preventing free radical mediated injury. PARS inhibitors should further be investigated as a new thearapetic alternative in sepsis treatment.

  20. Human mesenchymal stem cells attenuate pulmonary hypertension induced by prenatal lipopolysaccharide treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hsiu-Chu; Lin, Willie; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2016-10-01

    Intra-amniotic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces pulmonary hypertension in newborn rats. This study was designed to test whether human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reduce pulmonary hypertension and alleviate cardiac hypertrophy in prenatal LPS-treated rats. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with LPS (0.5 mg/kg per day) or untreated on gestational days 20 and 21. Human MSCs (3×10(5) cells and 1×10(6) cells) in 0.03 mL of normal saline (NS) were transplanted intratracheally on postnatal day 5. Four study groups were considered: normal, LPS+NS, LPS+MSCs (3×10(5) cells), and LPS+MSCs (1×10(6) cells). On postnatal day 14, lung and heart tissues were collected for measuring the arterial medial wall thickness (MWT) and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) level as markers of pulmonary hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy, respectively. The LPS+NS group exhibited a significantly higher right ventricle (RV)/[left ventricle (LV)+ interventricular septum (IVS)] thickness ratio and MWT, a greater cardiomyocyte width, a greater number of cardiomyocyte nuclei per squared millimeter, and higher β-MHC expression than those observed in the normal group. Human MSC transplantation (3×10(5) cells and 1×10(6) cells) in LPS-treated rats reduced MWT and the RV/(LV+IVS) thickness ratio to normal levels. This improvement in right ventricular hypertrophy was accompanied by a decrease in toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor-κB, and tumor necrosis factor-α expression in the heart. Intratracheal human MSCs transplantation can attenuate pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy in prenatal LPS-treated rats; this attenuation may be associated with suppression of TLR4 expression via paracrine pathways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Role of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells in promoting osteogenic differentiation by influencing p38 MAPK signaling in lipopolysaccharide -induced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuli; Wu, Hongxia; Shen, Ming; Ding, Siyang; Miao, Jing; Chen, Ning, E-mail: 2927410849@qq.com

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease induced by bacterial pathogens, which not only affect connective tissue attachments but also cause alveolar bone loss. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs) under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory conditions. Proliferation levels were measured by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU). Osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization were investigated using chromogenic alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) activity substrate assays, Alizarin red S staining, and RT-PCR analysis of HBMSCs osteogenic marker expression. Oxidative stress induced by LPS was investigated by assaying reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Here, we demonstrated that HAMSCs increased the proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, and SOD activity of LPS-induced HBMSCs, and down-regulated the ROS level. Moreover, our results suggested that the activation of p38 MAPK signal transduction pathway is essential for reversing the LPS-induced bone-destructive processes. SB203580, a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK signaling, significantly suppressed the anti-inflammatory effects in HAMSCs. In conclusion, HAMSCs show a strong potential in treating inflammation-induced bone loss by influencing p38 MAPK signaling. - Highlights: • LPS inhibites osteogenic differentiation in HBMSCs via suppression of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. • HAMSCs promote LPS-induced HBMSCs osteogenic differentiation through p38 MAPK signaling pathway. • HAMSCs reverse LPS-induced oxidative stress in LPS-induced HBMSCs through p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  2. Misoprostol Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production by Equine Leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Medlin Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 are potent immune mediators that exacerbate multiple equine diseases such as sepsis and laminitis. Unfortunately, safe and effective cytokine-targeting therapies are lacking in horses; therefore, novel mechanisms of inhibiting cytokine production are critically needed. One potential mechanism for inhibiting cytokine synthesis is elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP. In human leukocytes, intracellular cAMP production is induced by activation of E-prostanoid (EP receptors 2 and 4. These receptors can be targeted by the EP2/4 agonist and prostaglandin E1 analog, misoprostol. Misoprostol is currently used as a gastroprotectant in horses but has not been evaluated as a cytokine-targeting therapeutic. Thus, we hypothesized that misoprostol treatment would inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated equine leukocytes in an in vitro inflammation model. To test this hypothesis, equine leukocyte-rich plasma (LRP was collected from 12 healthy adult horses and used to model LPS-mediated inflammatory signaling. LRP was treated with varying concentrations of misoprostol either before (pretreated or following (posttreated LPS stimulation. LRP supernatants were assayed for 23 cytokines using an equine-specific multiplex bead immunoassay. Leukocytes were isolated from LRP, and leukocyte mRNA levels of four important cytokines were evaluated via RT-PCR. Statistical differences between treatments were determined using one-way RM ANOVA (Holm–Sidak post hoc testing or Friedman’s RM ANOVA on Ranks (SNK post hoc testing, where appropriate (p < 0.05, n = 3–6 horses. These studies revealed that misoprostol pre- and posttreatment inhibited LPS-induced TNFα and IL-6 protein production in equine leukocytes but had no effect on IL-8 protein. Interestingly, misoprostol pretreatment enhanced IL-1β protein synthesis

  3. Bee Venom Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines through Suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon-Hae Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis, especially its lipopolysaccharides (LPS, is one of major pathogens that cause periodontitis. Bee venom (BV has been widely used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects of BV. However, a direct role and cellular mechanism of BV on periodontitis-like human keratinocytes have not been explored. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of BV against P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS-induced HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The anti-inflammatory effect of BV was demonstrated by various molecular biological methods. The results showed that PgLPS increased the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and interferon (IFN-γ. In addition, PgLPS induced activation of the signaling pathways of inflammatory cytokines-related transcription factors, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB and activator protein 1 (AP-1. BV effectively inhibited those pro-inflammatory cytokines through suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways. These results suggest that administration of BV attenuates PgLPS-induced inflammatory responses. Furthermore, BV may be a useful treatment to anti-inflammatory therapy for periodontitis.

  4. Bee Venom Inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines through Suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 Signaling Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woon-Hae; An, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Gwon, Mi-Gyeong; Gu, Hyemin; Park, Jae-Bok; Sung, Woo Jung; Kwon, Yong-Chul; Park, Kyung-Duck; Han, Sang Mi; Park, Kwan-Kyu

    2016-11-10

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to destruction of tooth supporting tissues. Porphyromonas gingivalis ( P. gingivalis ), especially its lipopolysaccharides (LPS), is one of major pathogens that cause periodontitis. Bee venom (BV) has been widely used as a traditional medicine for various diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects of BV. However, a direct role and cellular mechanism of BV on periodontitis-like human keratinocytes have not been explored. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of BV against P. gingivalis LPS (PgLPS)-induced HaCaT human keratinocyte cell line. The anti-inflammatory effect of BV was demonstrated by various molecular biological methods. The results showed that PgLPS increased the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and interferon (IFN)-γ. In addition, PgLPS induced activation of the signaling pathways of inflammatory cytokines-related transcription factors, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1). BV effectively inhibited those pro-inflammatory cytokines through suppression of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways. These results suggest that administration of BV attenuates PgLPS-induced inflammatory responses. Furthermore, BV may be a useful treatment to anti-inflammatory therapy for periodontitis.

  5. Misoprostol Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Production by Equine Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily Medlin; Messenger, Kristen M.; Sheats, Mary Katherine; Jones, Samuel L.

    2017-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 are potent immune mediators that exacerbate multiple equine diseases such as sepsis and laminitis. Unfortunately, safe and effective cytokine-targeting therapies are lacking in horses; therefore, novel mechanisms of inhibiting cytokine production are critically needed. One potential mechanism for inhibiting cytokine synthesis is elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP). In human leukocytes, intracellular cAMP production is induced by activation of E-prostanoid (EP) receptors 2 and 4. These receptors can be targeted by the EP2/4 agonist and prostaglandin E1 analog, misoprostol. Misoprostol is currently used as a gastroprotectant in horses but has not been evaluated as a cytokine-targeting therapeutic. Thus, we hypothesized that misoprostol treatment would inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated equine leukocytes in an in vitro inflammation model. To test this hypothesis, equine leukocyte-rich plasma (LRP) was collected from 12 healthy adult horses and used to model LPS-mediated inflammatory signaling. LRP was treated with varying concentrations of misoprostol either before (pretreated) or following (posttreated) LPS stimulation. LRP supernatants were assayed for 23 cytokines using an equine-specific multiplex bead immunoassay. Leukocytes were isolated from LRP, and leukocyte mRNA levels of four important cytokines were evaluated via RT-PCR. Statistical differences between treatments were determined using one-way RM ANOVA (Holm–Sidak post hoc testing) or Friedman’s RM ANOVA on Ranks (SNK post hoc testing), where appropriate (p equine leukocytes but had no effect on IL-8 protein. Interestingly, misoprostol pretreatment enhanced IL-1β protein synthesis following 6 h of LPS stimulation, while misoprostol posttreatment inhibited IL-1β protein production after 24 h of LPS stimulation. At the mRNA level, misoprostol pre

  6. The effects of a novel botanical agent on lipopolysaccharide-induced alveolar bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bo-Ah; Lee, Hwa-Sun; Jung, Young-Suk; Kim, Se-Won; Lee, Yong-Wook; Chang, Sun-Hwa; Chung, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Ok-Su; Kim, Young-Joon

    2013-08-01

    The development of host-modulatory agents with low risk of adverse effects has been needed to treat periodontitis, a chronic inflammatory disease. A botanical mixture of extracts from two natural substances, Panax notoginseng and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, was developed as a novel botanical agent synthesized with anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the botanical mixture on the release of inflammatory cytokines and its inhibitory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced alveolar bone loss (ABL) in a rat model. Cytotoxicity was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenol)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay using human gingival fibroblast (hGF) and human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. Human acute monocytic leukemia cell line and hGF cells were cultured to assay tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, respectively. Microcomputed tomography analysis and immunofluoresence analysis were performed to evaluate the efficacy of the botanical mixture to inhibit the destruction of alveolar bone and connective tissue in a rat model. The botanical mixture is cytotoxic at concentrations exceeding 2.5 mg/mL (P botanical mixture to be used in all subsequent in vitro and in vivo experiments. The botanical mixture reduced the release of TNF-α and IL-6 from human monocytic cells and hGF cells in a dose-dependent manner (P botanical mixture significantly reduced the alveolar bone loss in a rat model (P botanical mixture, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 was detected along the alveolar bone crest (ABC), but not around the gingival connective tissue, while in the group with LPS-induced ABL, pronounced expression of MMP-9 around the ABC, periodontal ligament, and gingival connective tissue was found. The botanical mixture showed a potential adjunctive effect in the treatment of periodontitis. However, the present findings are obtained in vitro and in a rat model, so further clinical study is needed

  7. Serratia marcescens Induces Apoptotic Cell Death in Host Immune Cells via a Lipopolysaccharide- and Flagella-dependent Mechanism*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kenichi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Imamura, Katsutoshi; Takano, Shinya; Usui, Kimihito; Suzuki, Kazushi; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Takeshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Injection of Serratia marcescens into the blood (hemolymph) of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, induced the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), followed by caspase activation and apoptosis of blood cells (hemocytes). This process impaired the innate immune response in which pathogen cell wall components, such as glucan, stimulate hemocytes, leading to the activation of insect cytokine paralytic peptide. S. marcescens induced apoptotic cell death of silkworm hemocytes and mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. We searched for S. marcescens transposon mutants with attenuated ability to induce apoptosis of silkworm hemocytes. Among the genes identified, disruption mutants of wecA (a gene involved in lipopolysaccharide O-antigen synthesis), and flhD and fliR (essential genes in flagella synthesis) showed reduced motility and impaired induction of mouse macrophage cell death. These findings suggest that S. marcescens induces apoptosis of host immune cells via lipopolysaccharide- and flagella-dependent motility, leading to the suppression of host innate immunity. PMID:22859304

  8. Characterization of Chemically-Induced Bacterial Ghosts (BGs Using Sodium Hydroxide-Induced Vibrio parahaemolyticus Ghosts (VPGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jung Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acellular bacterial ghosts (BGs are empty non-living bacterial cell envelopes, commonly generated by controlled expression of the cloned lysis gene E of bacteriophage PhiX174. In this study, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ghosts (VPGs were generated by chemically-induced lysis and the method is based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of sodium hydroxide (NaOH, acetic acid, boric acid, citric acid, maleic acid, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. The MIC values of the respective chemicals were 3.125, 6.25, <50.0, 25.0, 6.25, 1.56, and 0.781 mg/mL. Except for boric acid, the lysis efficiency reached more than 99.99% at 5 min after treatment of all chemicals. Among those chemicals, NaOH-induced VPGs appeared completely DNA-free, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Besides, lipopolysaccharides (LPS extracted from the NaOH-induced VPGs showed no distinctive band on SDS-PAGE gel after silver staining. On the other hand, LPS extracted from wild-type bacterial cells, as well as the organic acids-induced VPGs showed triple major bands and LPS extracted from the inorganic acids-induced VPGs showed double bands. It suggests that some surface structures in LPS of the NaOH-induced VPGs may be lost, weakened, or modified by the MIC of NaOH. Nevertheless, Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay revealed that there is no significant difference in endotoxic activity between the NaOH-induced VPGs and wild-type bacterial cells. Macrophages exposed to the NaOH-induced VPGs at 0.5 × 106 CFU/mL showed cell viability of 97.9%, however, the MIC of NaOH did not reduce the cytotoxic effect of wild-type bacterial cells. Like Escherichia coli LPS, the NaOH-induced VPGs are an excellent activator of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and iNOS, anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10, and dual activities (IL-6 in the stimulated macrophage cells. On the other hand, the induction of TNF-α mRNA was remarkable in the macrophages exposed with wild-type cells. Scanning

  9. Characterization of Chemically-Induced Bacterial Ghosts (BGs) Using Sodium Hydroxide-Induced Vibrio parahaemolyticus Ghosts (VPGs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Jung; Oh, Sung; Vinod, Nagarajan; Ji, Seongmi; Noh, Han Byul; Koo, Jung Mo; Lee, Su Hyeong; Kim, Sei Chang; Lee, Ki-Sung; Choi, Chang Won

    2016-11-15

    Acellular bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty non-living bacterial cell envelopes, commonly generated by controlled expression of the cloned lysis gene E of bacteriophage PhiX174. In this study, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ghosts (VPGs) were generated by chemically-induced lysis and the method is based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), acetic acid, boric acid, citric acid, maleic acid, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid. The MIC values of the respective chemicals were 3.125, 6.25, <50.0, 25.0, 6.25, 1.56, and 0.781 mg/mL. Except for boric acid, the lysis efficiency reached more than 99.99% at 5 min after treatment of all chemicals. Among those chemicals, NaOH-induced VPGs appeared completely DNA-free, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Besides, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from the NaOH-induced VPGs showed no distinctive band on SDS-PAGE gel after silver staining. On the other hand, LPS extracted from wild-type bacterial cells, as well as the organic acids-induced VPGs showed triple major bands and LPS extracted from the inorganic acids-induced VPGs showed double bands. It suggests that some surface structures in LPS of the NaOH-induced VPGs may be lost, weakened, or modified by the MIC of NaOH. Nevertheless, Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay revealed that there is no significant difference in endotoxic activity between the NaOH-induced VPGs and wild-type bacterial cells. Macrophages exposed to the NaOH-induced VPGs at 0.5 × 10⁶ CFU/mL showed cell viability of 97.9%, however, the MIC of NaOH did not reduce the cytotoxic effect of wild-type bacterial cells. Like Escherichia coli LPS, the NaOH-induced VPGs are an excellent activator of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and iNOS), anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and dual activities (IL-6) in the stimulated macrophage cells. On the other hand, the induction of TNF-α mRNA was remarkable in the macrophages exposed with wild-type cells. Scanning electron

  10. Glucocorticoid augments lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of the IκBζ-dependent genes encoding the anti-microbial glycoproteins lipocalin 2 and pentraxin 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Soh; Akira, Shizuo; Sumimoto, Hideki

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the most potent inducers of inflammation, activates the transcription factor NF-κB to induce expression of both proinflammatory mediators and anti-microbial glycoproteins such as lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) and pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in macrophages. Glucocorticoids are known to inhibit LPS-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines via glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated transrepression of NF-κB, whereas their effect on induction of anti-microbial effectors has remained to be elucidated. Here we show that the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex) strongly enhances LPS-induced transcription of Lcn2 and Ptx3, although Dex by itself fails to trigger their transcription. In macrophages deficient in IκBζ (an inducible coactivator of NF-κB), Lcn2 and Ptx3 are not activated by LPS either alone or in combination with Dex. Association of GR as well as Brg1 (a subunit of the chromatin remodelling Swi/Snf complex) with a functional glucocorticoid response element in Lcn2 requires both the costimulation with LPS and the presence of IκBζ. Although Ptx3 does not contain the element, LPS induces recruitment of Dex-liganded GR to NF-κB-binding sites in regulatory regions of Ptx3, an event that does not occur in IκBζ-deficient macrophages. Thus glucocorticoids likely regulate infection-induced inflammation by increasing anti-microbial effectors in an IκBζ-dependent manner, while repressing proinflammatory genes. © The Authors 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Recurrent exposure to subclinical lipopolysaccharide increases mortality and induces cardiac fibrosis in mice.

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    Wilbur Y W Lew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating subclinical lipopolysaccharide (LPS occurs in health and disease. Ingesting high fatty meals increases LPS that cause metabolic endotoxemia. Subclinical LPS in periodontal disease may impair endothelial function. The heart may be targeted as cardiac cells express TLR4, the LPS receptor. It was hypothesized that recurrent exposure to subclinical LPS increases mortality and causes cardiac fibrosis. METHODS: C57Bl/6 mice were injected with intraperitoneal saline (control, low dose LPS (0.1 or 1 mg/kg, or moderate dose LPS (10 or 20 mg/kg, once a week for 3 months. Left ventricular (LV function (echocardiography, hemodynamics (tail cuff pressure and electrocardiograms (telemetry were measured. Cardiac fibrosis was assessed by picrosirius red staining and LV expression of fibrosis related genes (QRT-PCR. Adult cardiac fibroblasts were isolated and exposed to LPS. RESULTS: LPS injections transiently increased heart rate and blood pressure (<6 hours and mildly decreased LV function with full recovery by 24 hours. Mice tolerated weekly LPS for 2-3 months with no change in activity, appearance, appetite, weight, blood pressure, LV function, oximetry, or blood chemistries. Mortality increased after 60-90 days with moderate, but not low dose LPS. Arrhythmias occurred a few hours before death. LV collagen fraction area increased dose-dependently from 3.0±0.5% (SEM in the saline control group, to 5.6±0.5% with low dose LPS and 9.7±0.9% with moderate dose LPS (P<0.05 moderate vs low dose LPS, and each LPS dose vs control. LPS increased LV expression of collagen Iα1, collagen IIIα1, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP1, periostin and IL-6 (P<0.05 moderate vs low dose LPS and vs control. LPS increased α-SMA immunostaining of myofibroblasts. LPS dose-dependently increased IL-6 in isolated adult cardiac fibroblasts. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent exposure to subclinical LPS increases mortality and induces cardiac fibrosis.

  12. Peripheral and central mediators of lipopolysaccharide induced suppression of defensive rage behavior in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, S; Bhatt, R S; Zalcman, S S; Siegel, A

    2009-11-10

    Based upon recent findings in our laboratory that cytokines microinjected into the medial hypothalamus or periaqueductal gray (PAG) powerfully modulate defensive rage behavior in cat, the present study determined the effects of peripherally released cytokines following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge upon defensive rage. The study involved initial identification of the effects of peripheral administration of LPS upon defensive rage by electrical stimulation from PAG and subsequent determination of the peripheral and central mechanisms governing this process. The results revealed significant elevation in response latencies for defensive rage from 60 to 300 min, post LPS injection, with no detectable signs of sickness behavior present at 60 min. In contrast, head turning behavior elicited by stimulation of adjoining midbrain sites was not affected by LPS administration, suggesting a specificity of the effects of LPS upon defensive rage. Direct administration of LPS into the medial hypothalamus had no effect on defensive rage, suggesting that the effects of LPS were mediated by peripheral cytokines rather than by any direct actions upon hypothalamic neurons. Complete blockade of the suppressive effects of LPS by peripheral pretreatment with an Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) antibody but not with an anti- interleukin-1 (IL-1) antibody demonstrated that the effects of LPS were mediated through TNF-alpha rather than through an IL-1 mechanism. A determination of the central mechanisms governing LPS suppression revealed that pretreatment of the medial hypothalamus with PGE(2) or 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists each completely blocked the suppressive effects of LPS, while microinjections of a TNF-alpha antibody into the medial hypothalamus were ineffective. Microinjections of -Iodo-N-[2-[4-(methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl) benzamide monohydrochloride (p-MPPI) into lateral hypothalamus (to test for anatomical specificity) had no effect upon

  13. Lipopolysaccharide administration induces sex-dependent behavioural and serotonergic neurochemical signatures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sens, Jonathon; Schneider, Eric; Mauch, Joseph; Schaffstein, Anna; Mohamed, Sara; Fasoli, Kathryn; Saurine, Joseph; Britzolaki, Aikaterini; Thelen, Connor; Pitychoutis, Pothitos M

    2017-02-01

    Challenging the innate immune machinery with the pro-inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in the development of a sickness syndrome characterized by numerous depressive-like behavioural and physiological manifestations, most of which overlap with the clinical symptoms of major depression. Although women are known to mount stronger pro-inflammatory responses during infections and being at higher risk to develop depressive disorders compared to men, the vast majority of experimental studies investigating the neurobiological effects of LPS administration have been conducted in males. Herein, we investigated the behavioural effects of LPS administration (0.83mg/kg) in male and female C57BL/6J mice subjected to tests screening for alterations in locomotor activity (open field test), anorexia (food consumption), anhedonia (sucrose preference test), behavioural despair (forced swim test) and grooming behaviour (splash-test). We further mapped the brain's serotonergic and dopaminergic activity in five limbic brain regions implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression (i.e., prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, and hypothalamus) at two critical time-points post-LPS treatment; at 6h when depression of behavioural activity is maximal, and at 24h when depressive-like symptoms develop independently of obvious locomotor performance impairments associated with acute LPS administration. Our findings indicate that the two sexes present with differential behavioural sensitivity to this immune stressor, as impairment of grooming behaviour in the splash test was more persistent in female mice, and anorexia lasted longer in their male counterparts. Notably, LPS affects the brain's serotonergic neurochemistry in a sex-specific manner, as it induced sustained serotonergic hyperactivity in females at 24h post-LPS administration in all the brain regions examined. Moreover, the kinetics of dopaminergic activation appeared to be sex-differentiated upon

  14. RGD-tagged helical rosette nanotubes aggravate acute lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suri SS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarabjeet Singh Suri1, Steven Mills1, Gurpreet Kaur Aulakh1, Felaniaina Rakotondradany2, Hicham Fenniri2, Baljit Singh11Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon; 2National Institute for Nanotechnology and Department of Chemistry, Edmonton, CanadaAbstract: Rosette nanotubes (RNT are a novel class of self-assembled biocompatible nanotubes that offer a built-in strategy for engineering structure and function through covalent tagging of synthetic self-assembling modules (G∧C motif. In this report, the G∧C motif was tagged with peptide Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Lys (RGDSK-G∧C and amino acid Lys (K-G∧C which, upon co-assembly, generate RNTs featuring RGDSK and K on their surface in predefined molar ratios. These hybrid RNTs, referred to as Kx/RGDSKy-RNT, where x and y refer to the molar ratios of K-G∧C and RGDSK–G∧C, were designed to target neutrophil integrins. A mouse model was used to investigate the effects of intravenous Kx/RGDSKy-RNT on acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced lung inflammation. Healthy male C57BL/6 mice were treated intranasally with Escherichia coli LPS 80 µg and/or intravenously with K90/RGDSK10-RNT. Here we provide the first evidence that intravenous administration of K90/RGDSK10-RNT aggravates the proinflammatory effect of LPS in the mouse. LPS and K90/RGDSK10-RNT treatment groups showed significantly increased infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at all time points compared with the saline control. The combined effect of LPS and K90/RGDSK10-RNT was more pronounced than LPS alone, as shown by a significant increase in the expression of interleukin-1ß, MCP-1, MIP-1, and KC-1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissues. We conclude that K90/RGDSK10-RNT promotes acute lung inflammation, and when used along with LPS, leads to exaggerated immune response in the lung.Keywords: RGD peptide, helical rosette

  15. Sickness behaviour after lipopolysaccharide treatment in ghrelin deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Szentirmai, Éva; Krueger, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone produced mainly by the gastrointestinal system and the brain. Much evidence also indicates a role for ghrelin in sleep and thermoregulation. Further, ghrelin was recently implicated in immune system modulation. Administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces fever, anorexia, and increased non-rapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS) and these actions are mediated primarily by proinflammatory cytokines. Ghrelin reduces LPS-induced fever, ...

  16. Preparation of a lipopolysaccharide from ''Escherichia coli 0111a, 0111b, K58: H21'' bacterial wall, labeled with carbon-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Pineda, D.; Solano, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    A brief description is made of the morphological and chemical structure of lipopolysaccharides, as well as its occurence in nature and its mechanisms of action. It is emphasized the usefulness of the labelled lipopolysaccharide for actual biochemical and biomedical research. The method for the labelling, isolation and purification of carbon-14 lipopolysaccharide is described. (auth.)

  17. Structural elucidation of a novel core oligosaccharide backbone of the lipopolysaccharide from the new bacterial species Agrobacterium larrymoorei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, Antonio; De Castro, Cristina; Lanzetta, Rosa; Parrilli, Michelangelo; Raio, Aida; Zoina, Astolfo

    2003-11-14

    Agrobacterium larrymoorei is a Gram-negative phytopathogenic bacterium, which produces tumours on Ficus benjamina plants and differs from other Agrobacteria both genetically and biochemically. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Agrobacteria. The present paper is the first report on the molecular primary structure of the core region of an Agrobacterium LPS. The following structure of the core and lipid A carbohydrate backbone of an R-form LPS of A. larrymoorei was determined by chemical degradations and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy: [carbohydrate structure: see text] All sugars are alpha-D-pyranoses if not stated otherwise, Kdo is 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid, Qui3NAcyl is 3,6-dideoxy-3-(3-hydroxy-2,3-dimethyl-5-oxoprolylamino)glucose, GlcAN and GalAN are amides of GlcA and GalA.

  18. Cannabidiol reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular changes and inflammation in the mouse brain: an intravital microscopy study

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    Tolón Rosa M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD exhibits antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. The present study was designed to explore its effects in a mouse model of sepsis-related encephalitis by intravenous administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Methods Vascular responses of pial vessels were analyzed by intravital microscopy and inflammatory parameters measured by qRT-PCR. Results CBD prevented LPS-induced arteriolar and venular vasodilation as well as leukocyte margination. In addition, CBD abolished LPS-induced increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 expression as measured by quantitative real time PCR. The expression of the inducible-nitric oxide synthase was also reduced by CBD. Finally, preservation of Blood Brain Barrier integrity was also associated to the treatment with CBD. Conclusions These data highlight the antiinflammatory and vascular-stabilizing effects of CBD in endotoxic shock and suggest a possible beneficial effect of this natural cannabinoid.

  19. The waaL gene is involved in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and plays a role on the bacterial pathogenesis of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yue; Han, Xiangan; Wang, Shaohui; Meng, Qingmei; Zhang, Yuxi; Ding, Chan; Yu, Shengqing

    2014-08-27

    Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes avian colibacillosis, resulting in economically devastating to poultry industries worldwide. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been identified as an important virulence factor of E. coli. The waaL gene encodes O-antigen ligase, which is responsible for attaching the O-antigen to lipid A-core oligosaccharide. In this study, a mutant strain ΔwaaL was constructed from APEC serotype 2 strain DE17. The mutant strain showed a decreased swimming motility and resistance to complement-mediated killing but a similar growth rate in the culture, compared with its parent strain. In addition, the mutant LPS demonstrated different patterns in SDS-PAGE followed by silver staining and western blotting. Besides, the mutant strain significantly decreased its adherence and invasion abilities to DF-1 cells, compared to its parent strain DE17. Deletion of the waaL gene in DE17 reduced the bacterial virulence by 42.2-fold in ducklings, based on measurement of the median lethal dose (LD50). Additional analysis indicated that deletion of the waaL gene increased the biofilm formation ability and reduced the resistance to environmental stress. These results suggest that the waaL gene functions on the APEC LPS synthesis and bacterial pathogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Prostaglandins E1 and E2 inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-18 production in monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hideo K; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Mori, Shuji; Yoshino, Tadashi; Tanaka, Noriaki; Nishibori, Masahiro

    2005-07-11

    The purpose of this present study was to explore the therapeutic potential of prostaglandins E1 and E2 on the systemic inflammatory response evoked by endotoxin. Since interleukin-18, a monocyte-derived cytokine, is increased during sepsis, decreasing the production of interleukin-18 is important in treating this condition. Prostaglandin E1 and E2 inhibited interleukin-18 production in human monocytes treated with lipopolysaccharide and prostanoid IP-, EP2- and EP4-receptor agonists mimicked the effects of prostaglandins E1 and E2. Therefore, prostanoid IP, EP2- and EP4-receptors might be involved in the decrease in interleukin-18 production during sepsis.

  1. 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, a plant-derived oxylipin, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki-Nakano, Nozomi; Kotera, Jun; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-13

    Jasmonates are plant lipid-derived oxylipins that act as key signaling compounds in plant immunity, germination, and development. Although some physiological activities of natural jasmonates in mammalian cells have been investigated, their anti-inflammatory actions in mammalian cells remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether jasmonates protect mouse microglial MG5 cells against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Among the jasmonates tested, only 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) suppressed LPS-induced expression of the typical inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α. In addition, only OPDA reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide production through a decrease in the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Further mechanistic studies showed that OPDA suppressed neuroinflammation by inhibiting nuclear factor κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in LPS-activated MG5 cells. In addition, OPDA induced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), a negative regulator of inflammation, in MG5 cells. Finally, we found that the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signaling cascade induced by OPDA is not involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of OPDA. These results demonstrate that OPDA inhibited LPS-induced cell inflammation in mouse microglial cells via multiple pathways, including suppression of nuclear factor κB, inhibition of p38, and activation of SOCS-1 signaling. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of tylosin, tilmicosin and tulathromycin on inflammatory mediators in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Ayse; Yazar, Enver

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides through kinetic parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. Rats were divided into four groups: lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS + tylosin, LPS + tilmicosin and LPS + tulathromycin. BALF samples were collected at sampling times. TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2α (PGM) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analysed. Area under the curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) values of inflammatory mediators were determined by a pharmacokinetic computer programme. When inflammatory mediator concentrations were compared between the LPS group and other groups for each sampling time, the three macrolides had no pronounced depressor effect on cytokine levels, but they depressed PGM and CRP levels. In addition, tylosin and tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of TNF, while tilmicosin decreased the AUC0-24 level of IL-10. Tylosin and tulathromycin decreased the AUC0-24 of PGM, and all three macrolides decreased the AUC0-24 of CRP. Especially tylosin and tulathromycin may have more expressed anti-inflammatory effects than tilmicosin, via depressing the production of inflammatory mediators in the lung. The AUC may be used for determining the effects of drugs on inflammation. In this study, the antiinflammatory effects of these antibiotics were evaluated with kinetic parameters as a new and different approach.

  3. Activation of camalexin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to perception of bacterial lipopolysaccharides: a gene-to-metabolite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Caryn Ann; Huang, Ju-Chi; Madala, Ntakadzeni Edwin; Dubery, Ian

    2012-07-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), as lipoglycan microbe-associated molecular pattern molecules, trigger activation of signal transduction pathways involved in defence that generate an enhanced defensive capacity in plants. The transcriptional regulation of the genes for tryptophan synthase B, TSB1, and the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases CYP79B2 and CYP71B15, involved in the camalexin biosynthetic pathway, were investigated in response to LPS treatment. GUS-reporter assays for CYP71B15 and CYP79B2 gene promoter activation were performed on transgenic plants and showed positive histochemical staining in response to LPS treatment, indicating activation of the promoters. Quantitative PCR revealed that transcripts of TSB1, CYP79B2 and CYP71B15 exhibited differential, transient up-regulation. TSB1 transcript levels were up-regulated between 6 and 9 h after LPS-induction, while CYP71B15 and CYP79B2 both exhibited maxima at 12 h. To obtain information on the gene-to-metabolite network, the effect of the transcriptome changes on the metabolome was correlated to camalexin production. Increases in camalexin concentration were quantified by ultra pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and both absorbance spectra and elemental composition confirmed its identity. The concentrations increased from 0.03 to 3.7 μg g(-1) fresh weight over a 24-h time period, thus indicating that the up-regulation of the biosynthetic pathway in response to LPS was accompanied by a time-dependent increase in camalexin concentration. Metabolomic analysis through principal component analysis-derived scores plots revealed clusters of sample replicates for 0, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h while loadings plots for LPS data identified camalexin as a biomarker that clearly demonstrated the variability between samples.

  4. Dopamine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production through the formation of dopamine quinone in murine microglia BV-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Yoshioka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA has been suggested to modulate functions of glial cells including microglial cells. To reveal the regulatory role of DA in microglial function, in the present study, we investigated the effect of DA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in murine microglial cell line BV-2. Pretreatment with DA for 24 h concentration-dependently attenuated LPS-induced NO production in BV-2 cells. The inhibitory effect of DA on LPS-induced NO production was not inhibited by SCH-23390 and sulpiride, D1-like and D2-like DA receptor antagonists, respectively. In addition, pretreatment with (−-(6aR,12bR-4,6,6a,7,8,12b-Hexahydro-7-methylindolo[4,3-a]phenanthridin (CY 208–243 and bromocriptine, D1-like and D2-like DA receptor agonists, respectively, did not affect the LPS-induced NO production. N-Acetylcysteine, which inhibits DA oxidation, completely inhibited the effect of DA. Tyrosinase, which catalyzes the oxidation of DA to DA quionone (DAQ, accelerated the inhibitory effect of DA on LPS-induced NO production. These results suggest that DA attenuates LPS-induced NO production through the formation of DAQ in BV-2 cells.

  5. Chlorogenic acid attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mice mastitis by suppressing TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruifeng, Gao; Yunhe, Fu; Zhengkai, Wei; Ershun, Zhou; Yimeng, Li; Minjun, Yao; Xiaojing, Song; Zhengtao, Yang; Naisheng, Zhang

    2014-04-15

    Chlorogenic acid (CGA), one of the most abundant polyphenols in the diet, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of CGA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice mastitis has not been investigated. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate whether CGA could ameliorate the inflammation response in LPS-induced mice mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. CGA was administered intraperitoneally with the dose of 12.5, 25, and 50mg/kg respectively 1h before and 12h after induction of LPS. In this study, the effect of CGA on LPS-induced mice mastitis was assessed through histopathological examination, ELISA assay, and western blot analysis. The results showed that CGA significantly reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 production compared with LPS group. Besides, western blot analysis showed that CGA could inhibit the expression of TLR4 and the phosphorylation of NF-κB and IκB induced by LPS. These results suggested that anti-inflammatory effects of CGA against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, CGA may be a potent therapeutic reagent for the prevention of the immunopathology encountered during Escherichia coli elicited mastitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Leptin potentiates Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of TNF-alpha in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jo

    2010-06-01

    In addition to regulating body weight, leptin is also recognized for its role in the regulation of immune function and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leptin on Prevotella (P.) intermedia lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production in differentiated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. LPS from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 was prepared by the standard hot phenol-water method. THP-1 cells were incubated in the medium supplemented with phorbol myristate acetate to induce differentiation into macrophage-like cells. The amount of TNF-alpha and interleukin-8 secreted into the culture medium was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). TNF-alpha and Ob-R mRNA expression levels were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Leptin enhanced P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha production in a dose-dependent manner. Leptin modulated P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha expression predominantly at the transcriptional level. Effect of leptin on P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha production was not mediated by the leptin receptor. The ability of leptin to enhance P. intermedia LPS-induced TNF-alpha production may be important in the establishment of chronic lesion accompanied by osseous tissue destruction observed in inflammatory periodontal disease.

  7. Dynamic Regulation of Delta-Opioid Receptor in Rat Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons by Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Lv, Yiheng; Fu, Yunjie; Ren, Lili; Wang, Pan; Liu, Baozhu; Huang, Keqiang; Bi, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Delta-opioid receptor (DOR) and its endogenous ligands distribute in trigeminal system and play a very important role in modulating peripheral inflammatory pain. DOR activation can trigger p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and Akt signaling pathways, which participate in anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, our purpose was to determine the dynamic changes of DOR in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons during the process of acute dental pulp inflammation and elucidate its possible mechanism. Forty rats were used to generate lipopolysaccharide-induced acute pulpitis animal models at 6, 12, and 24 hours and sham-operated groups. Acute pulpitis was confirmed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and TG neuron activation was determined by anti-c-Fos immunohistochemistry. DOR protein and gene expression in TG was investigated by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction, and DOR expression in trigeminal nerves and dental pulp was also determined by immunohistochemistry. To further investigate the mechanism of DOR modulating acute inflammation, the change of pErk1/2 and pAkt in TG was examined by immunohistochemistry. Lipopolysaccharide could successfully induce acute pulpitis and activated TG neurons. Acute pulpitis could dynamically increase DOR protein and gene expression at 6, 12, and 24 hours in TG, and DOR dimerization was significantly increased at 12 and 24 hours. Acute pulpitis also induced the dynamic change of DOR protein in trigeminal nerve and dental pulp. Furthermore, ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways were inhibited in TG after acute pulpitis. Increased DOR expression and dimerization may play important roles in peripheral acute inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolation of prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda) lipopolysaccharide and β-1, 3-glucan binding protein gene and its expression in responding to bacterial and viral infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qianqian; Li, Jian; Duan, Yafei; Li, Jitao; Sun, Ming; Zhao, Fazhen

    2016-04-01

    The pattern recognition proteins (PRPs) play a major role in immune response of crustacean to resist pathogens. In the present study, as one of PRPs, lipopolysaccharide and β-1, 3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) gene in the ridge tail white prawn ( Exopalaemon carinicauda) ( EcLGBP) was isolated. The full-length cDNA of EcLGBP was 1338 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 366 amino acid residules. The deduced amino acid sequence of EcLGBP shared high similarities with LGBP and BGBP from other crustaceans. Some conservative domains were predicted in EcLGBP sequence. EcLGBP constitutively expressed in most tissues at different levels, and the highest expression was observed in hepatopancreas. With infection time, the cumulative mortality increased gradually followed by the proliferation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The expression of EcLGBP in response to V. parahaemolyticus infection was up-regulated in hemocytes and hepatopancreas, and the up-regulation in hepatopancreas was earlier than that in hemocytes. EcLGBP expression after WSSV infection increased at 3 h, then significantly decreased in both hemocytes and hepatopancreas. The results indicated that EcLGBP was involved in the immune defense against bacterial and viral infections.

  9. Functional and Evolutionary Characterization of a UDP-Xylose Synthase Gene from the Plant Pathogen Xylella fastidiosa, Involved in the Synthesis of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, Valquíria Campos; Jabes, Daniela Leite; Menegidio, Fabiano Bezerra; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; de Souza, Lucas Rodrigo; Puzer, Luciano; Meneghetti, Maria Cecília Zorél; Lima, Marcelo Andrade; Tersariol, Ivarne Luis Dos Santos; de Oliveira, Regina Costa; Nunes, Luiz R

    2017-02-07

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant-infecting bacillus, responsible for many important crop diseases, such as Pierce's disease of vineyards, citrus variegated chlorosis, and coffee leaf scorch (CLS), among others. Recent genomic comparisons involving two CLS-related strains, belonging to X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca, revealed that one of them carries a frameshift mutation that inactivates a gene encoding an oxidoreductase of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily, which may play important roles in determining structural variations in bacterial glycans and glycoconjugates. However, the exact nature of this SDR has been a matter of controversy, as different annotations of X. fastidiosa genomes have implicated it in distinct reactions. To confirm the nature of this mutated SDR, a comparative analysis was initially performed, suggesting that it belongs to a subgroup of SDR decarboxylases, representing a UDP-xylose synthase (Uxs). Functional assays, using a recombinant derivative of this enzyme, confirmed its nature as XfUxs, and carbohydrate composition analyses, performed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules obtained from different strains, indicate that inactivation of the X. fastidiosa uxs gene affects the LPS structure among CLS-related X. fastidiosa strains. Finally, a comparative sequence analysis suggests that this mutation is likely to result in a morphological and evolutionary hallmark that differentiates two subgroups of CLS-related strains, which may influence interactions between these bacteria and their plant and/or insect hosts.

  10. JNK1 Mediates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced CD14 and SR-AI Expression and Macrophage Foam Cell Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Foam cell formation is the key process in the development of atherosclerosis. The uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL converts macrophages into foam cells. We recently reported that lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced foam cell formation is regulated by CD14 and scavenger receptor AI (SR-AI. In this study, we employed pharmaceutical and gene knockdown approaches to determine the upstream molecular mediators, which control LPS-induced foam cell formation. Our results demonstrated that the specific c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK pathway inhibitor, SP600125, but neither the specific inhibitor of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK kinase MEK1/2, U0126, nor the specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB203580, significantly blocks LPS-induced oxLDL uptake, suggesting that the JNK pathway is the upstream mediator of LPS-induced oxLDL uptake/foam cell formation. To address whether JNK pathway mediates LPS-induced oxLDL uptake is due to JNK pathway-regulated CD14 and SR-AI expression, we assessed whether the pharmaceutical inhibitor of JNK influences LPS-induced expression of CD14 and SR-AI. Our results indicate that JNK pathway mediates LPS-induced CD14 and SR-AI expression. To conclusively address the isoform role of JNK family, we depleted JNK isoforms using the JNK isoform-specific siRNA. Our data showed that the depletion of JNK1, but not JNK2 blocked LPS-induced CD14/SR-AI expression and foam cell formation. Taken together, our results reveal for the first time that JNK1 is the key mediator of LPS-induced CD14 and SR-AI expression in macrophages, leading to LPS-induced oxLDL uptake/foam cell formation. We conclude that the novel JNK1/CD14/SR-AI pathway controls macrophage oxLDL uptake/foam cell formation.

  11. Cannabinoid Receptor CB2 Is Involved in Tetrahydrocannabinol-Induced Anti-Inflammation against Lipopolysaccharide in MG-63 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC is effective in treating osteoarthritis (OA, and the mechanism, however, is still elusive. Activation of cannabinoid receptor CB2 reduces inflammation; whether the activation CB2 is involved in THC-induced therapeutic action for OA is still unknown. Cofilin-1 is a cytoskeleton protein, participating in the inflammation of OA. In this study, MG-63 cells, an osteosarcoma cell-line, were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS to mimic the inflammation of OA. We hypothesized that the activation of CB2 is involved in THC-induced anti-inflammation in the MG-63 cells exposed to LPS, and the anti-inflammation is mediated by cofilin-1. We found that THC suppressed the release of proinflammatory factors, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, and IL-8, decreased nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB expression, and inhibited the upregulation of cofilin-1 protein in the LPS-stimulated MG-63 cells. However, administration of CB2 receptor antagonist or the CB2-siRNA, not CB1 antagonist AM251, partially abolished the THC-induced anti-inflammatory effects above. In addition, overexpression of cofilin-1 significantly reversed the THC-induced anti-inflammatory effects in MG-63 cells. These results suggested that CB2 is involved in the THC-induced anti-inflammation in LPS-stimulated MG-63 cells, and the anti-inflammation may be mediated by cofilin-1.

  12. Study of Nitric Oxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages induced by Brucella Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavoosi G

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Brueclla is a gram negative bacteria that causes Brucellosis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS ", the pathogenic agent of Brucella is composed of O-chain, core oligosaccharide and lipid A. in addition, the structural and biological properties of different LPS extracted from different strains are not identical. The first defense system against LPS is nonspecific immunity that causes macrophage activation. Activated macrophages produce oxygen and nitrogen radicals that enhance the protection against intracellular pathogens.In this experiment LPS was extracted by hot phenol- water procedure and the effect of various LPSs on nitric oxide prodution by peritoneal mouse macrophages was examined.Our results demonstrated that the effect of LPS on nitric oxide production is concentration-dependent we observed the maximum response in concentration of 10-20 microgram per milliliter. Also our results demonstrate that LPS extracted from vaccine Brucella abortus (S 19 had a highe effect on nitric oxide production than the LPS from other strains

  13. 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, a plant-derived oxylipin, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in microglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki-Nakano, Nozomi; Kotera, Jun; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Jasmonates are plant lipid–derived oxylipins that act as key signaling compounds in plant immunity, germination, and development. Although some physiological activities of natural jasmonates in mammalian cells have been investigated, their anti-inflammatory actions in mammalian cells remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether jasmonates protect mouse microglial MG5 cells against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced inflammation. Among the jasmonates tested, only 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) suppressed LPS-induced expression of the typical inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α. In addition, only OPDA reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide production through a decrease in the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Further mechanistic studies showed that OPDA suppressed neuroinflammation by inhibiting nuclear factor κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in LPS-activated MG5 cells. In addition, OPDA induced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), a negative regulator of inflammation, in MG5 cells. Finally, we found that the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signaling cascade induced by OPDA is not involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of OPDA. These results demonstrate that OPDA inhibited LPS-induced cell inflammation in mouse microglial cells via multiple pathways, including suppression of nuclear factor κB, inhibition of p38, and activation of SOCS-1 signaling. -- Highlights: •OPDA attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. •OPDA reduces LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO production. •OPDA suppresses NF-κB and p38 pathways and activates SOCS-1 signaling.

  14. 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, a plant-derived oxylipin, attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in microglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taki-Nakano, Nozomi [Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-B-65 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); Advanced Drug Research Laboratories, Sohyaku. Innovative Research Division, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, 2-2-50, Kawagishi, Toda, Saitama 335-8505 (Japan); Kotera, Jun [Advanced Drug Research Laboratories, Sohyaku. Innovative Research Division, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, 2-2-50, Kawagishi, Toda, Saitama 335-8505 (Japan); Ohta, Hiroyuki, E-mail: ohta.h.ab@m.titech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-B-65 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan); School of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-B-65 Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8501 (Japan)

    2016-05-13

    Jasmonates are plant lipid–derived oxylipins that act as key signaling compounds in plant immunity, germination, and development. Although some physiological activities of natural jasmonates in mammalian cells have been investigated, their anti-inflammatory actions in mammalian cells remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether jasmonates protect mouse microglial MG5 cells against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced inflammation. Among the jasmonates tested, only 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) suppressed LPS-induced expression of the typical inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor α. In addition, only OPDA reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide production through a decrease in the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Further mechanistic studies showed that OPDA suppressed neuroinflammation by inhibiting nuclear factor κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in LPS-activated MG5 cells. In addition, OPDA induced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), a negative regulator of inflammation, in MG5 cells. Finally, we found that the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 signaling cascade induced by OPDA is not involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of OPDA. These results demonstrate that OPDA inhibited LPS-induced cell inflammation in mouse microglial cells via multiple pathways, including suppression of nuclear factor κB, inhibition of p38, and activation of SOCS-1 signaling. -- Highlights: •OPDA attenuates LPS-induced inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. •OPDA reduces LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO production. •OPDA suppresses NF-κB and p38 pathways and activates SOCS-1 signaling.

  15. Structural and functional peculiarities of the lipopolysaccharide of Azospirillum brasilense SR55, isolated from the roots of Triticum durum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Alevtina S; Konnova, Svetlana A; Fedonenko, Yulia P; Zdorovenko, Evelina L; Smol'kina, Olga N; Kachala, Vadim V; Ignatov, Vladimir V

    2011-10-20

    Azospirillum brasilense SR55, isolated from the rhizosphere of Triticum durum, was classified as serogroup II on the basis of serological tests. Such serogroup affiliation is uncharacteristic of wheat-associated Azospirillum species. The lipid A of A. brasilense SR55 lipopolysaccharide contained 3-hydroxytetradecanoic, 3-hydroxyhexadecanoic, hexadecanoic and octadecenoic fatty acids. The structure of the lipopolysaccharide's O polysaccharide was established, with the branched octasaccharide repeating unit being represented by l-rhamnose, l-3-O-Me-rhamnose, d-galactose and d-glucuronic acid. The SR55 lipopolysaccharide induced deformations of wheat root hairs. The lipopolysaccharide was not involved in bacterial cell aggregation, but its use to pretreat wheat roots was conducive to cell adsorption. This study shows that Azospirillum bacteria can utilise their own lipopolysaccharide as a carbon source, which may give them an advantage in competitive natural environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Suppression of RAGE and TLR9 by Ketamine Contributes to Attenuation of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunyan; Song, Yulong; Wang, Hui

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the protective role of ketamine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) by the inhibition of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). ALI was induced in rats by intratracheal instillation of LPS (5 mg/kg), and ketamine (5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1 h after LPS administration. Meanwhile, A549 alveolar epithelial cells were incubated with LPS in the presence or absence of ketamine. After 24 h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were collected. Ketamine posttreatment at doses of 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg decreased LPS-induced evident lung histopathological changes, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, and lung myeloperoxidase activity. In addition, posttreatment with ketamine-inhibited inflammatory cells and inflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and high-mobility group box 1 in BALF. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ketamine-inhibited LPS-induced RAGE and TLR9 protein up-expressions and the phosphorylation of I-κB-α and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 in vivo and in vitro. The results presented here suggest that the protective mechanism of ketamine may be attributed partly to decreased production of inflammatory mediators through the inhibition of RAGE/TLR9-NF-κB pathway.

  17. Aloin Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response and Apoptosis by Inhibiting the Activation of NF-κB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Luo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous herbal-derived natural products are excellent anti-inflammatory agents. Several studies have reported that aloin, the major anthraquinone glycoside obtained from the Aloe species, exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mechanism of this activity is not well understood. In this report, we found that aloin suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and nitric oxide production, and downregulates the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. Aloin inhibits the phosphorylation and acetylation of the NF-κB p65 subunit by suppressing the upstream kinases p38 and Msk1, preventing LPS-induced p65 translocation to the nucleus. We have also shown that aloin inhibits LPS-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these findings suggest that aloin effectively suppresses the inflammatory response, primarily through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling.

  18. Aloin Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response and Apoptosis by Inhibiting the Activation of NF-κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xuan; Zhang, Haowei; Wei, Xiduan; Shi, Mengjuan; Fan, Ping; Xie, Weidong; Zhang, Yaou; Xu, Naihan

    2018-02-26

    Numerous herbal-derived natural products are excellent anti-inflammatory agents. Several studies have reported that aloin, the major anthraquinone glycoside obtained from the Aloe species, exhibits anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mechanism of this activity is not well understood. In this report, we found that aloin suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and nitric oxide production, and downregulates the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Aloin inhibits the phosphorylation and acetylation of the NF-κB p65 subunit by suppressing the upstream kinases p38 and Msk1, preventing LPS-induced p65 translocation to the nucleus. We have also shown that aloin inhibits LPS-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these findings suggest that aloin effectively suppresses the inflammatory response, primarily through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling.

  19. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in rats via suppressing MAPK mediated inflammatory responses and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinglou; Xu, Jun; Li, Jingjing; Du, Lifen; Chen, Tao; Liu, Ping; Peng, Sisi; Wang, Mingwei; Song, Hongping

    2015-05-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is an extremely popular beverage worldwide. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is one of the major catechins isolated from green tea and contributes to its beneficial therapeutic functions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. However, the effect of EGCG on mastitis is not yet known. This study was to investigate the protective potential of EGCG against mastitis in rats. The rat mastitis model was induced by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the duct of mammary gland. The mammary gland was collected after the experimental period. The levels of mammary oxidative stress and inflammatory responses were assessed by measuring the local activities of antioxidant enzymes and the levels of inflammatory cytokines. The mammary expressions of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), nuclear factor κB-p65 (NFκB-p65) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) were evaluated by western blot analysis. It was found that EGCG obviously normalized LPS-induced low activities of antioxidant enzymes as well as decreased the high levels of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, EGCG inhibited the mammary over-expression of MAPKs, NFκB-p65 and HIF-1α. These results indicated that EGCG was able to attenuate LPS-induced mastitis in rats by suppressing MAPK related oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Indirubin Treatment of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mastitis in a Mouse Model and Activity in Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Lun; Liu, Yu-Hui; Peng, Yong-Chong; Ge, Pan; He, Chen-Fei; Liu, Chang; Chen, Ying-Yu; Guo, Ai-Zhen; Hu, Chang-Min

    2017-01-01

    Indirubin is a Chinese medicine extracted from indigo and known to be effective for treating chronic myelogenous leukemia, neoplasia, and inflammatory disease. This study evaluated the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of indirubin in a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced mouse mastitis model. The indirubin mechanism and targets were evaluated in vitro in mouse mammary epithelial cells. In the mouse model, indirubin significantly attenuated the severity of inflammatory lesions, edema, inflammatory hyperemia, milk stasis and local tissue necrosis, and neutrophil infiltration. Indirubin significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity and downregulated the production of tumor necrosis factor- α , interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β ), and IL-6 caused by LPS. In vitro, indirubin inhibited LPS-stimulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. It also downregulated LPS-induced toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression and inhibited phosphorylation of LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF- κ B) P65 protein and inhibitor of kappa B. In addition to its effect on the NF- κ B signaling pathway, indirubin suppressed the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling by inhibiting phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), P38, and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK). Indirubin improved LPS-induced mouse mastitis by suppressing TLR4 and downstream NF- κ B and MAPK pathway inflammatory signals and might be a potential treatment of mastitis and other inflammatory diseases.

  1. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide induces hypothalamic dopaminergic hypoactivity and autistic-like behaviors: Repetitive self-grooming and stereotypies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, Thiago B; Bernardi, Maria M

    2017-07-28

    Previous investigations by our group have shown that prenatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which mimics infection by gram-negative bacteria, induces social, cognitive, and communication deficits. For a complete screening of autistic-like behaviors, the objective of this study was to evaluate if our rat model also induces restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. Thus, we studied the self-grooming microstructure. We also studied the neurochemistry of hypothalamus and frontal cortex, which are brain areas related to autism to better understand central mechanisms involved in our model. Prenatal LPS exposure on gestational day 9.5 increased the head washing episodes (frequency and time), as well as the total self-grooming. However, body grooming, paw/leg licking, tail/genital grooming, and circling behavior/tail chasing did not vary significantly among the groups. Moreover, prenatal LPS induced dopaminergic hypoactivity (HVA metabolite and turnover) in the hypothalamus. Therefore, our rat model induced restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors and the other main symptoms of autism experimentally studied in rodent models and also found in patients. The hypothalamic dopaminergic impairments seem to be associated with the autistic-like behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective Effects of Hydrogen-Rich Saline Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Alveolar Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Pulmonary Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Yun-Qian; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Mao, Yan-Fei; Sun, Xue-Jun; Liu, Yu-Jian; Jiang, Lai

    2017-05-19

    BACKGROUND Fibrotic change is one of the important reasons for the poor prognosis of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The present study investigated the effects of hydrogen-rich saline, a selective hydroxyl radical scavenger, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary fibrosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Male ICR mice were divided randomly into 5 groups: Control, LPS-treated plus vehicle treatment, and LPS-treated plus hydrogen-rich saline (2.5, 5, or 10 ml/kg) treatment. Twenty-eight days later, fibrosis was assessed by determination of collagen deposition, hydroxyproline, and type I collagen levels. Development of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was identified by examining protein expressions of E-cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 content, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were determined. RESULTS Mice exhibited increases in collagen deposition, hydroxyproline, type I collagen contents, and TGF-β1 production in lung tissues after LPS treatment. LPS-induced lung fibrosis was associated with increased expression of α-SMA, as well as decreased expression of E-cadherin. In addition, LPS treatment increased MDA levels but decreased T-AOC, CAT, and SOD activities in lung tissues, indicating that LPS induced pulmonary oxidative stress. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment at doses of 2.5, 5, or 10 ml/kg significantly attenuated LPS-induced pulmonary fibrosis. LPS-induced loss of E-cadherin in lung tissues was largely reversed, whereas the acquisition of α-SMA was dramatically decreased by hydrogen-rich saline treatment. In addition, hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS Hydrogen-rich saline may protect against LPS-induced EMT and pulmonary fibrosis through suppressing oxidative stress.

  3. Protein malnutrition and metronidazole induced intestinal bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to assess the effects of protein malnutrition (PM) associated with antibiotic on growth weight, cecal bacterial overgrowth and enterobacteria translocation. Eighteen Gnotobiotic young Wistar rats (135 ± 2.35 g) were treated orally with antibiotic and submitted to dietary restriction based on maize diet ...

  4. Intestinal permeability induced by lipopolysaccharide and measured by lactulose, rhamnose and mannitol sugars in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, S; Howarth, G S; Kitessa, S M; Tran, C D; Forder, R E A; Hughes, R J

    2017-07-01

    Increased intestinal permeability (IP) can lead to compromised health. Limited in vivo IP research has been conducted in chickens. The objectives of the current study were to develop a model of increased IP utilizing lipopolysaccharide (LPS Escherichia coli O55:B5) and to evaluate IP changes using the lactulose, mannitol and rhamnose (LMR) sugar permeability test. In addition, fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d), d-lactate, zonula occludens (ZO-1) and diamine oxidase (DAO) permeability tests were employed. Male Ross chickens were reared until day 14 on the floor in an animal care facility and then transferred to individual cages in three separate experiments. In each of experiments 1 and 2, 36 chicks were randomly allocated to receive either saline (control) or LPS (n=18/group). Lactulose, mannitol and rhamnose sugar concentration in blood was measured at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min in experiment 1, at 60, 90 and 120 min in experiment 2 and at 90 min in experiment 3 (n=16/group). Lipopolysaccharide was injected intraperitoneally at doses of 0.5, 1 and 1 mg/kg BW in experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively, on days 16, 18 and 20, whereas control received sterile saline. On day 21, only birds in experiments 1 and 2 were fasted for 19.5 h. Chicks were orally gavaged with the LMR sugars (0.25 gL, 0.05 gM, 0.05 gR/bird) followed by blood collection (from the brachial vein) as per time point for each experiment. Only in experiment 3, were birds given an additional oral gavage of FITC-d (2.2 mg/ml per bird) 60 min after the first gavage. Plasma d-lactate, ZO-1 and DAO concentrations were also determined by ELISA in experiment 3 (n=10). Administration of LPS did not affect IP as measured by the LMR sugar test compared with control. This was also confirmed by FITC-d and DAO levels in experiment 3 (P>0.05). The plasma levels of d-lactate were decreased (Psugar can be detected in blood 90 min after the oral gavage. Further studies are needed for the applicability of

  5. Therapeutic Effect of C-Phycocyanin Extracted from Blue Green Algae in a Rat Model of Acute Lung Injury Induced by Lipopolysaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Pak-on; Lee, Hao-Hsien; Kung, Yu-Chien; Tsai, Ming-Fan; Chou, Tz-Chong

    2013-01-01

    C-Phycocyanin (CPC), extracted from blue green algae, is a dietary nutritional supplement due to its several beneficial pharmacological effects. This study was conducted to evaluate whether CPC protects against lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats. Rats were challenged with LPS (5?mg/kg body weight) intratracheally to induce ALI. After 3?h LPS instillation, rats were administrated with CPC (50?mg/kg body weight, i.p.) for another 3?h. Our results showed that post...

  6. Effects of a Natural Prolyl Oligopeptidase Inhibitor, Rosmarinic Acid, on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Wei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosmarinic acid (RA, a polyphenolic phytochemical, is a natural prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor. In the present study, we found that RA exerted potent anti-inflammatory effects in in vivo models of acute lung injury (ALI induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mice were pretreated with RA one hour before challenge with a dose of 0.5 mg/kg LPS. Twenty-four hours after LPS was given, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was obtained to measure pro-inflammatory mediator and total cell counts. RA significantly decreased the production of LPS-induced TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1β compare with the LPS group. When pretreated with RA (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg the lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D ratio of the lung tissue and the number of total cells, neutrophils and macrophages in the BALF were decreased significantly. Furthermore, RA may enhance oxidase dimutase (SOD activity during the inflammatory response to LPS-induced ALI. And we further demonstrated that RA exerts anti-inflammation effect in vivo models of ALI through suppresses ERK/MAPK signaling in a dose dependent manner. These studies have important implications for RA administration as a potential treatment for ALI.

  7. Differential changes in Neuregulin-1 signaling in major brain regions in a lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhai; Jiang, Qiong; Chen, Shuang-Xi; Hu, Cheng-Liang; Shen, Hui-Fan; Huang, Pei-Zhi; Xu, Jun-Ping; Mei, Jin-Ping; Zhang, Ben-Ping; Zhao, Wei-Jiang

    2016-07-01

    Neuregulin 1 (Nrg1) is involved in multiple biological processes in the nervous system. The present study investigated changes in Nrg1 signaling in the major brain regions of mice subjected to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation. At 24 h post‑intraperitoneal injection of LPS, mouse brain tissues, including tissues from the cortex, striatum, hippocampus and hypothalamus, were collected. Reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the expression of Nrg1 and its receptors, Neu and ErbB4, at the mRNA level. Western blotting was performed to determine the levels of these proteins and the protein levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk)1/2 and Akt1. Immunohistochemical staining was utilized to detect the levels of pNeu and pErbB4 in these regions. LPS successfully induced sites of neuroinflammation in these regions, in which changes in Nrg1, Neu and ErbB4 at the mRNA and protein levels were identified compared with controls. LPS induced a reduction in pNeu and pErbB4 in the striatum and hypothalamus, although marginally increased pErbB4 levels were found in the hippocampus. LPS increased the overall phosphorylation of Src but this effect was reduced in the hypothalamus. Moreover, increased phosphorylation of Akt1 was found in the striatum and hippocampus. These data suggest diverse roles for Nrg1 signaling in these regions during the process of neuroinflammation.

  8. Lipopolysaccharide IP-PA1 from Pantoea agglomerans prevents suppression of macrophage function in stress-induced diseases.

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    Nakata, Kazue; Inagawa, Hiroyuki; Soma, Gen-Ichiro

    2011-07-01

    Chronic psychological stress impairs health and induces various diseases by causing an imbalance in the immune, neuropsychiatric and endocrine systems. The primary reason for the development of stress-induced disease is suppression of macrophage function, which plays a pivotal role in innate immunity. In fact, surgical stress has been shown to exacerbate opportunistic infections by significantly suppressing macrophage function. Conversely, administration of macrophage activating substances before surgery, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or Picibanil (OK-432), has been shown to protect against macrophage suppression and the resulting exacerbation of infectious diseases, and against tumor metastasis in the lungs. Thus, if suppression of macrophage function by stress could be safely prevented by use of a macrophage activating substance, the detrimental side effects of stress could be reduced. Recently, we identified a lipopolysaccharide, IP-PA1, derived from Pantoea agglomerans, a symbiotic Gram-negative bacteria found in wheat and other food plants. Oral administration of IP-PA1 demonstrated macrophage activation (priming) and protective effects against infection, allergy and cancer, without any side-effects. In this review, the possibility of using IP-PA1 as a safe, macrophage activating substance for prevention of stress-induced impairments is discussed.

  9. Lipopolysaccharide-induced suppression of periodontal ligament cell proliferation and apoptosis are strengthened under high glucose conditions.

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    Liu, Jianxin; Chen, Shulan; Ren, Weiwei; Liu, Jianing; Yang, Pishan; Chen, Zhenggang; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Fang

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the proliferation and apoptosis of human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells under normal glucose or high glucose conditions. Primary cultures of hPDL cells were prepared from extracted premolars of patients. The cells were incubated with 0, 1, or 10μg/mL LPS under normal glucose (5.5mmol/L) or high glucose (25mmol/L) conditions for 24h or 48h. Cell proliferation was detected using a CCK-8 assay, and cell apoptosis was measured by Hoechst 33258 staining and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) double staining. BCL2 and BAX mRNA and protein levels were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. LPS (10μg/mL) induced significant inhibition of cell proliferation and cell apoptosis, and a significant decrease in the BCL2/BAX ratio in the cells cultured with 5.5mmol/L glucose. These effects of LPS were increased significantly in cells treated with 25mmol/L glucose. Analysis of variance of the factorial design revealed that high glucose and LPS had a significant interaction for cell apoptosis, but not for cell proliferation. High glucose augmented LPS-induced hPDL cell apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition. LPS and high glucose might interact to induce cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alleviation of lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine-induced liver injury in leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 deficient mice

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    Akinori Okumura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2 is a secreted pleiotropic protein that is mainly produced by the liver. We have previously shown that LECT2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory liver diseases. Lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine (LPS/d-GalN-induced acute liver injury is a known animal model of fulminant hepatic failure. Here we found that this hepatic injury was alleviated in LECT2-deficient mice. The levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ, which mediate this hepatitis, had significantly decreased in these mice, with the decrease in IFN-γ production notably greater than that in TNF-α. We therefore analyzed IFN-γ-producing cells in liver mononuclear cells. Flow cytometric analysis showed significantly reduced IFN-γ production in hepatic NK and NKT cells in LECT2-deficient mice compared with in wild-type mice. We also demonstrated a decrease in IFN-γ production in LECT2-deficient mice after systemic administration of recombinant IL-12, which is known to induce IFN-γ in NK and NKT cells. These results indicate that a decrease of IFN-γ production in NK and NKT cells was involved in the alleviation of LPS/d-GalN-induced liver injury in LECT2-deficient mice.

  11. Indenes and tetralenes analogues attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation: An in-vitro and in-vivo study.

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    Mohanty, Shilpa; Gautam, Yashveer; Maurya, Anil Kumar; Negi, Arvind S; Prakash, Om; Khan, Feroz; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar Umrao

    2016-02-05

    In an effort to evaluate novel pharmacological activity of 1-chloro-2-formyl indene and tetralene analogues possessing potential antitubercular and antistaphylococcal agents, we explored its anti-inflammatory potential against lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced inflammation using in-vitro and in-vivo bioassay. Synthesized analogues significantly inhibited the production and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines against LPS-induced inflammation in macrophages isolated from mice. Among all the analogues, TAF-5 (1-Chloro-2-formyl-1-tetralene) exhibited most potent anti-inflammatory activity without any cytotoxic effect. We have further evaluated the therapeutic efficacy and safety of TAF-5 in in-vivo system using LPS-induced sepsis, a systemic inflammation model and acute oral toxicity respectively in mice. Oral administration of TAF-5 inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum, attenuated the organs injuries and improved host survival in dose dependent manner. Acute oral toxicity study showed TAF-5 is non-toxic at higher dose in mice. These results suggest the suitability of indene and tetralene analogues as new chemical entities for further investigation towards the management of inflammation related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interleukin-10 inhibits lipopolysaccharide induced miR-155 precursor stability and maturation.

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    Sylvia T Cheung

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 is essential for attenuating the inflammatory response, which includes reducing the expression of pro-inflammatory microRNA-155 (miR-155 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS activated macrophages. miR-155 enhances the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα and suppresses expression of anti-inflammatory molecules such as SOCS1. Therefore, we examined the mechanism by which IL-10 inhibits miR-155. We found that IL-10 treatment did not affect the transcription of the miR-155 host gene nor the nuclear export of pre-miR-155, but rather destabilized both pri-miR-155 and pre-miR-155 transcripts, as well as interfered with the final maturation of miR-155. This inhibitory effect of IL-10 on miR-155 expression involved the contribution of both the STAT3 transcription factor and the phosphoinositol phosphatase SHIP1. This is the first report showing evidence that IL-10 regulates miRNA expression post-transcriptionally.

  13. Peripheral Lipopolysaccharide Challenge Induces Long-Term Changes in Tyrosine Hydroxylase Regulation in the Adrenal Medulla.

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    Ong, Lin Kooi; Page, Scott; Briggs, Gabrielle D; Guan, Liying; Dun, Matthew D; Verrills, Nicole M; Dunkley, Peter R; Dickson, Phillip W

    2017-08-01

    Immune activation can alter the activity of adrenal chromaffin cells. The effect of immune activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the adrenal medulla in vivo was determined between 1 day and 6 months after LPS injection. The plasma levels of eleven cytokines were reduced 1 day after LPS injection, whereas the level for interleukin-10 was increased. The levels of all cytokines remained at control levels until 6 months when the levels of interleukin-6 and -4 were increased. One day after LPS injection, there was a decrease in TH-specific activity that may be due to decreased phosphorylation of serine 31 and 40. This decreased phosphorylation of serine 31 and 40 may be due to an increased activation of the protein phosphatase PP2A. One week after LPS injection, there was increased TH protein and increased phosphorylation of serine 40 that this was not accompanied by an increase in TH-specific activity. All TH parameters measured returned to basal levels between 1 month and 3 months. Six months after injection there was an increase in TH protein. This was associated with increased levels of the extracellular regulated kinase isoforms 1 and 2. This work shows that a single inflammatory event has the capacity to generate both short-term and long-term changes in TH regulation in the adrenal medulla of the adult animal. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2096-2107, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Dietary L-arginine supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in broiler chickens.

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    Tan, Jianzhuang; Liu, Shasha; Guo, Yuming; Applegate, Todd J; Eicher, Susan D

    2014-04-28

    In the present study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation on the inflammatory response and innate immunity of broiler chickens. Expt 1 was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n 8 cages/treatment; n 6 birds/cage) with three dietary Arg concentrations (1.05, 1.42 and 1.90%) and two immune treatments (injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline) given at an interval of 48 h between 14 and 21 d of age. In Expt 2, correlation between dietary Arg concentration (0.99, 1.39, 1.76, 2.13 or 2.53%) and percentage of circulating B cells (percentage of circulating lymphocytes) was determined. In Expt 1, LPS injection decreased body-weight gain and feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio of the challenged broilers (14-21 d; Psupplementation linearly decreased the percentages of CD11+, CD14+ and B cells in the spleen (Psupplementation decreased (Psupplementation attenuated the overexpression of pro-inflammatory cytokines probably through the suppression of the TLR4 pathway and CD14+ cell percentage. Furthermore, excessive Arg supplementation (1.76%) suppressed the percentages of circulating and splenic B cells.

  15. Acanthopanax trifoliatus inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo

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    Tzu-Mei Chien

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Acanthopanax trifoliatus is a well-known herb that is used for the treatment of bruising, neuralgia, impotence, and gout in Taiwan. This herb exhibits multifunctional activities, including anticancer, anti-inflammation, and antioxidant effects. This paper investigated the in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory effect of A. trifoliatus. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis established the fingerprint chromatogram of the ethyl acetate fraction of A. trifoliatus (EAAT. The anti-inflammatory effect of EAAT was detected using lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation of the mouse macrophage cell line RAW264.7 in vitro and LPS-induced lung injury in vivo. The effects of EAAT on LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 murine macrophages and the mouse model were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. EAAT attenuated the production of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and IL-6 in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with EAAT markedly reduced LPS-induced histological alterations in lung tissues. Furthermore, EAAT significantly reduced the number of total cells and protein concentration levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Western blotting test results revealed that EAAT blocked protein expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, phosphorylation of Nuclear factor-kappa-B Inhibitor alpha (IκB-α protein, and mitogen-activated protein kinases in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells as well as LPS-induced lung injury. This study suggests that A. trifoliatus may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  16. Effects of betaine on lipopolysaccharide-induced memory impairment in mice and the involvement of GABA transporter 2

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    Miwa Masaya

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betaine (glycine betaine or trimethylglycine plays important roles as an osmolyte and a methyl donor in animals. While betaine is reported to suppress expression of proinflammatory molecules and reduce oxidative stress in aged rat kidney, the effects of betaine on the central nervous system are not well known. In this study, we investigated the effects of betaine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced memory impairment and on mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory molecules, glial markers, and GABA transporter 2 (GAT2, a betaine/GABA transporter. Methods Mice were continuously treated with betaine for 13 days starting 1 day before they were injected with LPS, or received subacute or acute administration of betaine shortly before or after LPS injection. Then, their memory function was evaluated using Y-maze and novel object recognition tests 7 and 10-12 days after LPS injection (30 μg/mouse, i.c.v., respectively. In addition, mRNA expression levels in hippocampus were measured by real-time RT-PCR at different time points. Results Repeated administration of betaine (0.163 mmol/kg, s.c. prevented LPS-induced memory impairment. GAT2 mRNA levels were significantly increased in hippocampus 24 hr after LPS injection, and administration of betaine blocked this increase. However, betaine did not affect LPS-induced increases in levels of mRNA related to inflammatory responses. Both subacute administration (1 hr before, and 1 and 24 hr after LPS injection and acute administration (1 hr after LPS injection of betaine also prevented LPS-induced memory impairment in the Y-maze test. Conclusions These data suggest that betaine has protective effects against LPS-induced memory impairment and that prevention of LPS-induced changes in GAT2 mRNA expression is crucial to this ameliorating effect.

  17. Inhibitory effects of coumarin and acetylene constituents from the roots of Angelica furcijuga on D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in mice and on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse peritoneal macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Nishida, Norihisa; Ninomiya, Kiyofumi; Ohgushi, Teruki; Kubo, Mizuho; Morikawa, Toshio; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2006-01-15

    The methanolic extract (200 mg/kg, p.o. and i.p.), principal coumarin constituents (isoepoxypteryxin, anomalin, and praeroside IV), and a polyacetylene constituent (falcarindiol) (25 mg/kg, i.p.) from the roots of Angelica furcijuga protected the liver injury induced by D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice. In in vitro experiments, coumarin constituents (hyuganins A-D, anomalin, pteryxin, isopteryxin, and suksdorfin) and polyacetylene constituents [(-)-falcarinol and falcarindiol] substantially inhibited LPS-induced NO and/or TNF-alpha production in mouse peritoneal macrophages, and isoepoxypteryxin inhibited D-GalN-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, hyuganin A, anomalin, and isopteryxin inhibited the decrease in cell viability by TNF-alpha in L929 cells.

  18. Flavonoids of Polygonum hydropiper L. attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory injury via suppressing phosphorylation in MAPKs pathways.

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    Tao, Junyu; Wei, Yingyi; Hu, Tingjun

    2016-01-22

    Polygonum hydropiper L. is widely used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of dysentery, gastroenteritis. It has been used to relieve swelling and pain, dispel wind and remove dampness, eliminate abundant phlegm and inflammatory for a long time. Previous study showed that antioxidants especially flavonoids pretreatment alleviated sepsis-induced injury in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, the possible anti-inflammatory effect of flavonoids from normal butanol fraction of Polygonum hydropiper L. extract (FNP) against inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. The content of total flavonoid of FNP was determined by the aluminum colorimetric method. The content of rutin, quercetin and quercitrin was determined by HPLC method. Mice received FNP orally 3 days before an intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Total superoxidase dismutase (T-SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured. Tumor necrosis factor-α levels in serum and tissue was measured. mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung were assessed by Real-Time PCR. Histopathological changes were evaluated in lung, ileum and colon. We also investigated FNP on reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression, phosphorylation of MAPKs and AMPK in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. FNP increased the levels of T-SOD, T-AOC, GSH-PX and GSH, decreased the levels of TNF-α, MPO and MDA, attenuate the histopathological lesion in LPS-stimulated mice. FNP inhibited production of inflammatory cytokines, ROS and NO, protein expressions of iNOS and COX-2, phosphorylation of ERK, JNK and c-JUN in MAPKs, promoted phosphorylation of AMPKα suppressed by LPS. These results

  19. Vildagliptin ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis in lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury by inhibiting endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

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    Suzuki, Toshio; Tada, Yuji; Gladson, Santhi; Nishimura, Rintaro; Shimomura, Iwao; Karasawa, Satoshi; Tatsumi, Koichiro; West, James

    2017-10-16

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a late manifestation of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Sepsis is a major cause of ARDS, and its pathogenesis includes endotoxin-induced vascular injury. Recently, endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) was shown to play an important role in pulmonary fibrosis. On the other hand, dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 was reported to improve vascular dysfunction in an experimental sepsis model, although whether DPP-4 affects EndMT and fibrosis initiation during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-EndMT effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin in pulmonary fibrosis after systemic endotoxemic injury. A septic lung injury model was established by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in eight-week-old male mice (5 mg/kg for five consecutive days). The mice were then treated with vehicle or vildagliptin (intraperitoneally, 10 mg/kg, once daily for 14 consecutive days from 1 day before the first administration of LPS.). Flow cytometry, immunohistochemical staining, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis was used to assess cell dynamics and EndMT function in lung samples from the mice. Lung tissue samples from treated mice revealed obvious inflammatory reactions and typical interstitial fibrosis 2 days and 28 days after LPS challenge. Quantitative flow cytometric analysis showed that the number of pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVECs) expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) or S100 calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) increased 28 days after LPS challenge. Similar increases in expression were also confirmed by qPCR of mRNA from isolated PVECs. EndMT cells had higher proliferative activity and migration activity than mesenchymal cells. All of these changes were alleviated by intraperitoneal injection of vildagliptin. Interestingly, vildagliptin and linagliptin significantly attenuated EndMT in the absence of immune

  20. The Neurokinin-1 Receptor Contributes to the Early Phase of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Fever via Stimulation of Peripheral Cyclooxygenase-2 Protein Expression in Mice

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    Eszter Pakai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurokinin (NK signaling is involved in various inflammatory processes. A common manifestation of systemic inflammation is fever, which is usually induced in animal models with the administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS. A role for the NK1 receptor was shown in LPS-induced fever, but the underlying mechanisms of how the NK1 receptor contributes to febrile response, especially in the early phase, have remained unknown. We administered LPS (120 µg/kg, intraperitoneally to mice with the Tacr1 gene, i.e., the gene encoding the NK1 receptor, either present (Tacr1+/+ or absent (Tacr1−/− and measured their thermoregulatory responses, serum cytokine levels, tissue cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression, and prostaglandin (PG E2 concentration. We found that the LPS-induced febrile response was attenuated in Tacr1−/− compared to their Tacr1+/+ littermates starting from 40 min postinfusion. The febrigenic effect of intracerebroventricularly administered PGE2 was not suppressed in the Tacr1−/− mice. Serum concentration of pyrogenic cytokines did not differ between Tacr1−/− and Tacr1+/+ at 40 min post-LPS infusion. Administration of LPS resulted in amplification of COX-2 mRNA expression in the lungs, liver, and brain of the mice, which was statistically indistinguishable between the genotypes. In contrast, the LPS-induced augmentation of COX-2 protein expression was attenuated in the lungs and tended to be suppressed in the liver of Tacr1−/− mice compared with Tacr1+/+ mice. The Tacr1+/+ mice responded to LPS with a significant surge of PGE2 production in the lungs, whereas Tacr1−/− mice did not. In conclusion, the NK1 receptor is necessary for normal fever genesis. Our results suggest that the NK1 receptor contributes to the early phase of LPS-induced fever by enhancing COX-2 protein expression in the periphery. These findings advance the understanding of the crosstalk between NK signaling and the “cytokine-COX-2

  1. Gene expression of the concentration-sensitive sodium channel is suppressed in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Teruki; Yoshida, Shigeru; Hidaka, Yuji

    2017-04-01

    The concentration-sensitive sodium channel (Na C ) is expressed in alveolar type II epithelial cells and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells in mouse lungs. We recently reported that Na C contributes to amiloride-insensitive sodium transport in mouse lungs (Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, 2016). However, details regarding its physiological role in the lung remain unknown. To examine whether Na C is involved in alveolar fluid clearance during an acute lung injury (ALI), we analyzed the relationship between Na C gene expression in the lung and the development of pulmonary edema in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mice. LPS-induced ALI mice were prepared by the intratracheal administration of LPS. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) neutrophils and lung water content (LWCs) were used as a marker of ALI and pulmonary edema, respectively. Na C protein production in the lung was detected by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. The gene expressions of Na C and the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) of LPS-induced ALI mice were examined by quantitative RT-PCR over a time course of 14 days. The BAL neutrophil count increased until day 2 after LPS administration and had nearly recovered by day 6. LWCs in LPS-induced mice gradually increased until day 8 and had recovered by day 14. The expression of the Na C protein in the lungs of LPS-induced mice dramatically decreased from day 2 to day 6, but recovered by day 8. The mRNA expression of Na C decreased in the lung, as well as those for α-, β-, and γ-ENaC during ALI. Thus, Na C expression is suppressed during the development stage of pulmonary edema and then recovers in the convalescent phase. Our results suggest that suppression of the gene expression of Na C is involved in the development of pulmonary edema in ALI.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of linalool in RAW 264.7 macrophages and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Meixia; Cui, Xiurui; Xue, Jiangdong; Chi, Gefu; Gao, Ruijie; Deng, Xuming; Guan, Shuang; Wei, Jingyuan; Soromou, Lanan Wassy; Feng, Haihua; Wang, Dacheng

    2013-03-01

    Inflammation, characterized by redness, swelling, pain and a sensation of heat, is one of the body's self-defense systems. Although the inflammation response has an important role in host survival, it also leads to chronic inflammatory diseases. Linalool is a natural compound of the essential oils in several aromatic plants species. It possesses anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and other bioactive properties. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of linalool on inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and an LPS-induced in vivo lung injury model. We evaluated the effects of linalool on LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators in Raw 264.7 murine macrophages by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. To confirm the anti-inflammatory activity of linalool in vivo, we induced an acute lung injury in an LPS-induced mouse model. Linalool attenuated the production of LPS-induced tumor necrosis-α and interleukin-6 both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, phosphorylation of IκBα protein, p38, c-Jun terminal kinase, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was blocked by linalool. Our in vivo study also found that linalool attenuated lung histopathologic changes in mouse models. The results suggest that linalool inhibits inflammation both in vitro and in vivo, and may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Carbachol ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal epithelial tight junction damage by down-regulating NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase pathways

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    Zhang, Ying [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People' s Republic of China (China); Li, Jianguo, E-mail: 2010lijianguo@sina.cn [Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care Medicine and Emergency Medicine Center, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, Hubei Province, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol reduced the lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol ameliorated the lipopolysaccharide-induced ileal tight junction damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol prevented the LPS-induced NF-{kappa}{beta} and myosin light-chain kinase activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbachol exerted its beneficial effects in an {alpha}7 nicotinic receptor-dependent manner. -- Abstract: Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist that protects the intestines after trauma or burn injury. The present study determines the beneficial effects of carbachol and the mechanisms by which it ameliorates the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal barrier breakdown. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 mg/kg LPS. Results showed that the gut barrier permeability was reduced, the ultrastructural disruption of tight junctions (TJs) was prevented, the redistribution of zonula occludens-1 and claudin-2 proteins was partially reversed, and the nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-{kappa}{beta}) and myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) activation in the intestinal epithelium were suppressed after carbachol administration in LPS-exposed rats. Pretreatment with the {alpha}7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7nAchR) antagonist {alpha}-bungarotoxin blocked the protective action of carbachol. These results suggested that carbachol treatment can protect LPS-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Carbachol exerts its beneficial effect on the amelioration of the TJ damage by inhibiting the NF-{kappa}{beta} and MLCK pathways in an {alpha}7nAchR-dependent manner.

  4. Trans-resveratrol induces a potential anti-lipogenic effect in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated enterocytes.

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    Etxeberria, U; Castilla-Madrigal, R; Lostao, M P; Martínez, J A; Milagro, F I

    2015-12-09

    A DNA microarray analysis was conducted in Caco-2 cells to analyse the protective effects of trans-resveratrol on enterocyte physiology and metabolism in pro-inflammatory conditions. Cells were pre-treated with 50 μΜ of trans-resveratrol and, subsequently, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was added for 48 h. The microarray analysis revealed 121 genes differentially expressed between resveratrol-treated and non-treated cells (B> 0, is the odd thatthe gene is differentially expressed). Inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1), histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG), NADPH oxidase (NOX1) and sprouty homolog 1 (SPRY), were upregulated by LPS treatment, but significantly blocked by trans-resveratrol pre-treatment (padj< 0.05, after adjusting for Benjamini-Hocheberg procedure). Moreover, genes implicated in synthesis of lipids (z-score= -1.195) and concentration of cholesterol (z-score= -0.109), were markedly downregulated by trans-resveratrol. Other genes involved in fat turnover, but also in cell death and survival function, such as transcription factors Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) and amphiregulin (AREG), were also significantly inhibited by trans-resveratrol pre-treatment. RT-qPCR-data confirmed the microarray results. Special mention deserves acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 3 (ACSL3) and endothelial lipase (LIPG), which were downregulated by this stilbene and have been previously associated with fatty acid synthesis and obesity in other tissues. This study envisages that trans-resveratrol might exert an important anti-lipogenic effect at intestinal level under pro-inflammatory conditions, which has not been previously described.

  5. Effects of Bai-Hu decoction on fever induced by lipopolysaccharide

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    Li-Long Jia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the antifebrile effect and mechanisms of Bai-Hu decoction (BHD, a traditional Chinese medical (TCM prescription. The rabbits used in this study received an intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS after being orally administered with BHD, ibuprofen, or saline, and their rectal temperatures were monitored by a copper–constantan thermocouple. Concentrations of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α in serum and hypothalamus were assayed using the commercially available rabbit IL-1β and TNF-α enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits following the manufacturer’s instructions. The BHD treatment group exhibited a significant fall in body temperature in both peaks compared with the LPS group (p<0.05. BHD reduced the concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-α in serum, and of TNF-α in hypothalamus to control the febrile responses at 1 hour. Besides the levels of IL-1β in hypothalamus and serum, the concentration of TNF-α in hypothalamus was decreased remarkably in the BHD group than in the LPS group at 3 hours. The main findings, the partial mechanisms of BHD in reducing biphasic fever elicited by LPS, were that treatments with the crude extract of BHD could remarkably reduce the increased concentrations of IL-1β and TNF-α, not only in serum but also in hypothalamus. The results indicated that BHD would be a valuable candidate for further investigation as a traditional antifebrile and anti-inflammatory natural drug.

  6. Inhibitory effect of ethanol extract of Nannochloropsis oceanica on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, amyloidogenesis and memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Yeon; Hwang, Chul Ju; Lee, Hee Pom; Kim, Hee Sik; Han, Sang-Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2017-07-11

    Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation is implicated in the pathogenesis and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigated the suppressive possibility of ethanol extract of Nannochloropsis oceanica (N. oceanica) on memory deficiency along with the fundamental mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice model. Among several extracts of 32 marine microalgae, ethanol extract of N. oceanica showed the most significant inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) generation, NF-κB activity and β-secretase activity in cultured BV-2 cells, neuronal cells and Raw 264.7 cells. Ethanol extract of N. oceanica (50, 100 mg/kg) also ameliorated LPS (250 μg/kg)-induced memory impairment. We also found that ethanol extract of N. oceanica inhibited the LPS-induced expression of iNOS and COX-2. Furthermore, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA) level as well as glutathione (GSH) level was also decreased by treatment of ethanol extract of N.oceanica. The ethanol extract of N. oceanica also suppresses IκB degradation as well as p50 and p65 translocation into the nucleus in LPS-treated mice brain. Associated with the inhibitory effect on neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, ethanol extract of N. oceanica suppressed Aβ1-42 generation through down-regulation of APP and BACE1 expression in in vivo. These results suggest that ethanol extract of N. oceanica ameliorated memory impairment via anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-amyloidogenic mechanisms.

  7. AWRK6, A Synthetic Cationic Peptide Derived from Antimicrobial Peptide Dybowskin-2CDYa, Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyu Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharides (LPS are major outer membrane components of Gram-negative bacteria and produce strong inflammatory responses in animals. Most antibiotics have shown little clinical anti-endotoxin activity while some antimicrobial peptides have proved to be effective in blocking LPS. Here, the anti-LPS activity of the synthetic peptide AWRK6, which is derived from antimicrobial peptide dybowskin-2CDYa, has been investigated in vitro and in vivo. The positively charged α-helical AWRK6 was found to be effective in blocking the binding of LBP (LPS binding protein with LPS in vitro using ELISA. In a murine endotoxemia model, AWRK6 offered satisfactory protection efficiency against endotoxemia death, and the serum levels of LPS, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were found to be attenuated using ELISA. Further, histopathological analysis suggested that AWRK6 could improve the healing of liver and lung injury in endotoxemia mice. The results of real-time PCR and Western blotting showed that AWRK6 significantly reversed LPS-induced TLR4 overexpression and IκB depression, as well as the enhanced IκB phosphorylation. Additionally, AWRK6 did not produce any significant toxicity in vivo and in vitro. In summary, AWRK6 showed efficacious protection from LPS challenges in vivo and in vitro, by blocking LPS binding to LBP, without obvious toxicity, providing a promising strategy against LPS-induced inflammatory responses.

  8. Effect of acupuncture on Lipopolysaccharide-induced anxiety-like behavioral changes: involvement of serotonin system in dorsal Raphe nucleus.

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    Yang, Tae Young; Jang, Eun Young; Ryu, Yeonhee; Lee, Gyu Won; Lee, Eun Byeol; Chang, Suchan; Lee, Jong Han; Koo, Jin Suk; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Hee Young

    2017-12-11

    Acupuncture has been used as a common therapeutic tool in many disorders including anxiety and depression. Serotonin transporter (SERT) plays an important role in the pathology of anxiety and other mood disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acupuncture on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anxiety-like behaviors and SERT in the dorsal raphe nuclei (DRN). Rats were given acupuncture at ST41 (Jiexi), LI11 (Quchi) or SI3 (Houxi) acupoint in LPS-treated rats. Anxiety-like behaviors of elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT) were measured and expressions of SERT and/or c-Fos were also examined in the DRN using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that 1) acupuncture at ST41 acupoint, but neither LI11 nor SI3, significantly attenuated LPS-induced anxiety-like behaviors in EPM and OFT, 2) acupuncture at ST41 decreased SERT expression increased by LPS in the DRN. Our results suggest that acupuncture can ameliorate anxiety-like behaviors, possibly through regulation of SERT in the DRN.

  9. The Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Metabolome Signature in Arabidopsis thaliana Reveals Dynamic Reprogramming of Phytoalexin and Phytoanticipin Pathways.

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    Finnegan, Tarryn; Steenkamp, Paul A; Piater, Lizelle A; Dubery, Ian A

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), as MAMP molecules, trigger the activation of signal transduction pathways involved in defence. Currently, plant metabolomics is providing new dimensions into understanding the intracellular adaptive responses to external stimuli. The effect of LPS on the metabolomes of Arabidopsis thaliana cells and leaf tissue was investigated over a 24 h period. Cellular metabolites and those secreted into the medium were extracted with methanol and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Multivariate statistical data analyses were used to extract interpretable information from the generated multidimensional LC-MS data. The results show that LPS perception triggered differential changes in the metabolomes of cells and leaves, leading to variation in the biosynthesis of specialised secondary metabolites. Time-dependent changes in metabolite profiles were observed and biomarkers associated with the LPS-induced response were tentatively identified. These include the phytohormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, and also the associated methyl esters and sugar conjugates. The induced defensive state resulted in increases in indole-and other glucosinolates, indole derivatives, camalexin as well as cinnamic acid derivatives and other phenylpropanoids. These annotated metabolites indicate dynamic reprogramming of metabolic pathways that are functionally related towards creating an enhanced defensive capacity. The results reveal new insights into the mode of action of LPS as an activator of plant innate immunity, broadens knowledge about the defence metabolite pathways involved in Arabidopsis responses to LPS, and identifies specialised metabolites of functional importance that can be employed to enhance immunity against pathogen infection.

  10. Propofol pretreatment attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats by activating the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/Akt pathway

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    Zhao, L.L. [Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Hu, G.C. [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhu, S.S. [Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province (China); Li, J.F. [Department of Anesthesiology, Tengzhou Central People' s Hospital, Liaocheng, Shandong Province (China); Liu, G.J. [Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College, Xuzhou, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2014-10-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of propofol pretreatment on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and the role of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway in this procedure. Survival was determined 48 h after LPS injection. At 1 h after LPS challenge, the lung wet- to dry-weight ratio was examined, and concentrations of protein, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined using the bicinchoninic acid method or ELISA. Lung injury was assayed via lung histological examination. PI3K and p-Akt expression levels in the lung tissue were determined by Western blotting. Propofol pretreatment prolonged survival, decreased the concentrations of protein, TNF-α, and IL-6 in BALF, attenuated ALI, and increased PI3K and p-Akt expression in the lung tissue of LPS-challenged rats, whereas treatment with wortmannin, a PI3K/Akt pathway specific inhibitor, blunted this effect. Our study indicates that propofol pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced ALI, partly by activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  11. Metabolomic Analysis Reveals Cyanidins in Black Raspberry as Candidates for Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Murine Macrophages.

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    Jo, Young-Hee; Park, Hyun-Chang; Choi, Seulgi; Kim, Sugyeong; Bao, Cheng; Kim, Hyung Woo; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Lee, Hong Jin; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2015-06-10

    The extracts produced by multisolvent extraction and subfractionation with preparative liquid chromatography of black raspberry (Rubus coreanus Miquel) cultivated in Gochang, South Korea, were tested for their anti-inflammatory effects. The metabolomic profiling and analysis by orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OLPS-DA) suggested that cyanidin, cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), and cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) were key components for the anti-inflammatory responses in the most active fraction BF3-1, where they were present at 0.44, 1.26, and 0.56 μg/mg of BF3-1, respectively. Both BF3-1 and mixture of these cyanidins at the same ratio reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced protein level of iNOS expression and suppressed mRNA and protein expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β through inhibiting the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and STAT3 in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Overall, the results suggested that co-administration of cyanidin, C3G, and C3R is more effective than that of cyanidin alone and that the coexistence of these anthocyanin components in black raspberry plays a vital role in regulating LPS-induced inflammation even at submicromolar concentrations, making it possible to explain the health beneficial activity of its extracts.

  12. Importance of Antibodies to Lipopolysaccharide in Natural and Vaccine-Induced Serum Bactericidal Activity against Neisseria meningitidis Group B▿†

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    Schmiel, Deborah H.; Moran, Elizabeth E.; Keiser, Paul B.; Brandt, Brenda L.; Zollinger, Wendell D.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the specificity of bactericidal antibodies in normal, convalescent, and postvaccination human sera is important in understanding human immunity to meningococcal infections and can aid in the design of an effective group B vaccine. A collection of human sera, including group C and group B convalescent-phase sera, normal sera with naturally occurring cross-reactive bactericidal activity, and some postvaccination sera, was analyzed to determine the specificity of cross-reactive bactericidal antibodies. Analysis of human sera using a bactericidal antibody depletion assay demonstrated that a significant portion of the bactericidal activity could be removed by purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS homologous to that expressed on the bactericidal test strain was most effective, but partial depletion by heterologous LPS suggested the presence of antibodies with various degrees of cross-reactivity. Binding of anti-L3,7 LPS bactericidal antibodies was affected by modification of the core structure, suggesting that these functional antibodies recognized epitopes consisting of both core structures and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT). When the target strain was grown with 5′-cytidinemonophospho-N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-NANA) to increase LPS sialylation, convalescent-phase serum bactericidal titers were decreased by only 2- to 4-fold, and most remaining bactericidal activity was still depleted by LPS. Highly sialylated LPS was ineffective in depleting bactericidal antibodies. We conclude that natural infections caused by strains expressing L3,7 LPS induce persistent, protective bactericidal antibodies and appear to be directed against nonsialylated bacterial epitopes. Additionally, subsets of these bactericidal antibodies are cross-reactive, binding to several different LPS immunotypes, which is a useful characteristic for an effective group B meningococcal vaccine antigen. PMID:21768280

  13. Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin 8 in Human Adenocarcinoma Cell Line HT-29 by Spore Probiotics: B. coagulans and B. subtilis (natto).

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    Azimirad, Masoumeh; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Naji, Tahereh

    2017-03-01

    Probiotics are used as a treatment for different intestinal disorders. They confer health benefits by different ways. This study was aimed to investigate immunomodulatory effect of Bacillus probiotic spores on the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin 8 (IL-8) in HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells. Differentiated intestinal epithelial cell line was used as a model for the study of colonization of purified spores (Bacillus subtilis (natto) and B. coagulans) and their anti-inflammatory effects. MTT assay and trypan blue staining were used for the detection of optimal concentration of the purified spores and LPS. Pre-treatment assay was done by treatment of the cells with the purified spores for 2 h, followed by challenges with LPS for 3 and 18 h. Post-treatment assay was done by initial treatment of the cells with LPS for 18 h, followed by the spores for 3 and 6 h. Levels of IL-8 secretion and its mRNA expression were measured by ELISA and relative Q real-time PCR. Our results showed similar rates of adherence to intestinal epithelial cells by the spore probiotics, while displaying no cytotoxic effect. In the pre-treatment assay, a significant decrease in IL-8, at both protein and mRNA levels, was measured for B. coagulans spores after the addition of LPS, which was higher than those observed for Bacillus subtilis (natto) spores. In the post-treatment assay, while Bacillus subtilis (but not B. coagulans) diminished the LPS-stimulated IL-8 levels after 3 h of incubation, the inhibitory effect was not constant. In conclusion, ability of Bacillus spore probiotics for adherence to intestinal epithelial cell and their anti-inflammatory effects, through interference with LPS/IL-8 signaling, was shown in this study. Further studies are needed to characterize responsible bacterial compounds associated with these effects.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effect of Taraxacum officinale leaves on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Yoon-Jeoung; Cha, Dong-Soo; Ko, Je-Sang; Park, Hyun-Jin; Choi, Hee-Don

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the efficacy and the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of Taraxacum officinale leaves (TOLs), the effect of a methanol extract and its fractions recovered from TOLs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses was studied in the mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7. Cells were pretreated with various concentrations of the methanol extract and its fractions and subsequently incubated with LPS (1 microg/mL). The levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin (PG) E(2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases were analyzed using western blotting. The methanol extract and its fractions inhibited LPS-induced production of NO, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and PGE(2) in a dose-dependent manner. The chloroform fraction significantly suppressed production of NO, PGE(2), and two pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) in a dose-dependent manner with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 66.51, 90.96, 114.76, and 171.06 microg/mL, respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction also inhibited production of the inflammatory molecules. The chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions reduced LPS-induced expressions of iNOS and COX-2 and activation of MAP kinases in a dose-dependent manner. Among the fractions of the methanol extract, the chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited the most effective anti-inflammatory activities. These results show that the anti-inflammatory effects of TOLs are probably due to down-regulation of NO, PGE(2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines and reduced expressions of iNOS and COX-2 via inactivation of the MAP kinase signal pathway.

  15. Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of cell surface receptors and cell activation of neutrophils and monocytes in whole human blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.E. Gomes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS activates neutrophils and monocytes, inducing a wide array of biological activities. LPS rough (R and smooth (S forms signal through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, but differ in their requirement for CD14. Since the R-form LPS can interact with TLR4 independent of CD14 and the differential expression of CD14 on neutrophils and monocytes, we used the S-form LPS from Salmonella abortus equi and the R-form LPS from Salmonella minnesota mutants to evaluate LPS-induced activation of human neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood from healthy volunteers. Expression of cell surface receptors and reactive oxygen species (ROS and nitric oxide (NO generation were measured by flow cytometry in whole blood monocytes and neutrophils. The oxidative burst was quantified by measuring the oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate and the NO production was quantified by measuring the oxidation of 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein diacetate. A small increase of TLR4 expression by monocytes was observed after 6 h of LPS stimulation. Monocyte CD14 modulation by LPS was biphasic, with an initial 30% increase followed by a 40% decrease in expression after 6 h of incubation. Expression of CD11b was rapidly up-regulated, doubling after 5 min on monocytes, while down-regulation of CXCR2 was observed on neutrophils, reaching a 50% reduction after 6 h. LPS induced low production of ROS and NO. This study shows a complex LPS-induced cell surface receptor modulation on human monocytes and neutrophils, with up- and down-regulation depending on the receptor. R- and S-form LPS activate human neutrophils similarly, despite the low CD14 expression, if the stimulation occurs in whole blood.

  16. Auraptene in the Peels of Citrus kawachiensis (Kawachi Bankan Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in the Mouse Brain

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    Satoshi Okuyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of the dried peel powder of Citrus kawachiensis, one of the citrus products of Ehime, Japan, showed that it contained naringin (NGIN; 44.02 ± 0.491 mg/g, narirutin (NRTN; 4.46 ± 0.0563 mg/g, auraptene (AUR; 4.07 ± 0.033 mg/g, and 3,5,6,7,8,3′,4′-heptamethoxyflavone (HMF; 0.27 ± 0.0039 mg/g. When this dried peel powder was orally preadministered at the dose of 1.2 or 2.4 g/kg/day for 7 days into lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- injected mice, an animal model of systemic inflammation, it suppressed (1 LPS-induced loss of body weight and abnormal behavior in the open field, (2 LPS-induced activation of microglia and astrocytes in the hippocampus, and (3 LPS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2, which were coexpressed in astrocytes of these mice. When NGIN or AUR was preadministered to LPS-injected mice at an amount similar to that in the peel powder, AUR, but not NGIN, had the ability to suppress the LPS-induced inflammation in the brain of these model mice. The dried powder of flavedo tissue (the outer colored layer of the mesocarp of a citrus fruit and juice, which contained sufficient amounts of AUR, also had anti-inflammatory effect. These results suggest that AUR was the main ingredient responsible for the anti-inflammatory property of the dried peels of C. kawachiensis.

  17. Dietary broccoli mildly improves neuroinflammation in aged mice but does not reduce lipopolysaccharide-induced sickness behavior.

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    Townsend, Brigitte E; Chen, Yung-Ju; Jeffery, Elizabeth H; Johnson, Rodney W

    2014-11-01

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress and heightened inflammatory response to infection. Dietary interventions to reduce these changes are therefore desirable. Broccoli contains glucoraphanin, which is converted to sulforaphane (SFN) by plant myrosinase during cooking preparation or digestion. Sulforaphane increases antioxidant enzymes including NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase and heme oxygenase I and inhibits inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that dietary broccoli would support an antioxidant response in brain and periphery of aged mice and inhibit lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and sickness. Young adult and aged mice were fed control or 10% broccoli diet for 28 days before an intraperitoneal LPS injection. Social interactions were assessed 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after LPS, and mRNA was quantified in liver and brain at 24 hours. Dietary broccoli did not ameliorate LPS-induced decrease in social interactions in young or aged mice. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression was unaffected by broccoli consumption but was induced by LPS in brain and liver of adult and aged mice. In addition, IL-1β was elevated in brain of aged mice without LPS. Broccoli consumption decreased age-elevated cytochrome b-245 β, an oxidative stress marker, and reduced glial activation markers in aged mice. Collectively, these data suggest that 10% broccoli diet provides a modest reduction in age-related oxidative stress and glial reactivity, but is insufficient to inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. Thus, it is likely that SFN would need to be provided in supplement form to control the inflammatory response to LPS. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Amelioration of Acute Kidney Injury in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome by an Aldose Reductase Inhibitor, Fidarestat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Mizukami, Hiroki; Kamata, Kosuke; Inaba, Wataru; Kato, Noriaki; Hibi, Chihiro; Yagihashi, Soroku

    2012-01-01

    Background Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is a fatal disease because of multiple organ failure. Acute kidney injury is a serious complication of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and its genesis is still unclear posing a difficulty for an effective treatment. Aldose reductase (AR) inhibitor is recently found to suppress lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac failure and its lethality. We studied the effects of AR inhibitor on LPS-induced acute kidney injury and its mechanism. Methods Mice were injected with LPS and the effects of AR inhibitor (Fidarestat 32 mg/kg) before or after LPS injection were examined for the mortality, severity of renal failure and kidney pathology. Serum concentrations of cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α) and their mRNA expressions in the lung, liver, spleen and kidney were measured. We also evaluated polyol metabolites in the kidney. Results Mortality rate within 72 hours was significantly less in LPS-injected mice treated with AR inhibitor both before (29%) and after LPS injection (40%) than untreated mice (90%). LPS-injected mice showed marked increases in blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and cytokines, and AR inhibitor treatment suppressed the changes. LPS-induced acute kidney injury was associated with vacuolar degeneration and apoptosis of renal tubular cells as well as infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. With improvement of such pathological findings, AR inhibitor treatment suppressed the elevation of cytokine mRNA levels in multiple organs and renal sorbitol accumulation. Conclusion AR inhibitor treatment ameliorated LPS-induced acute kidney injury, resulting in the lowered mortality. PMID:22253906

  19. Heat stress prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells by blocking calpain/p38 MAPK signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Feng; Zheng, Dong; Fan, Guo-Chang; Peng, Tianqing; Su, Lei

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMECs) injury including apoptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury during sepsis. Our recent study has demonstrated that calpain activation contributes to apoptosis in PMECs under septic conditions. This study investigated how calpain activation mediated apoptosis and whether heat stress regulated calpain activation in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated PMECs. In cultured mouse primary PMECs, incubation with LPS (1 μg/ml, 24 h) increased active caspase-3 fragments and DNA fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis. These effects of LPS were abrogated by pre-treatment with heat stress (43 °C for 2 h). LPS also induced calpain activation and increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. Inhibition of calpain and p38 MAPK prevented apoptosis induced by LPS. Furthermore, inhibition of calpain blocked p38 MAPK phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated PMECs. Notably, heat stress decreased the protein levels of calpain-1/2 and calpain activities, and blocked p38 MAPK phosphorylation in response to LPS. Additionally, forced up-regulation of calpain-1 or calpain-2 sufficiently induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation and apoptosis in PMECs, both of which were inhibited by heat stress. In conclusion, heat stress prevents LPS-induced apoptosis in PMECs. This effect of heat stress is associated with down-regulation of calpain expression and activation, and subsequent blockage of p38 MAPK activation in response to LPS. Thus, blocking calpain/p38 MAPK pathway may be a novel mechanism underlying heat stress-mediated inhibition of apoptosis in LPS-stimulated endothelial cells.

  20. Role of interferon regulatory factor-1 in lipopolysaccharide-induced mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress responses in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Song-Yun; Zhang, Le-Meng; Ai, Yu-Hang; Pan, Pin-Hua; Zhao, Shuang-Ping; Su, Xiao-Li; Wu, Dong-Dong; Tan, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Li-Na; Tsung, Allan

    2017-10-01

    Sepsis causes many early deaths; both macrophage mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress responses are key factors in its pathogenesis. Although the exact mechanisms responsible for sepsis-induced mitochondrial damage are unknown, the nuclear transcription factor, interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) has been reported to cause mitochondrial damage in several diseases. Previously, we reported that in addition to promoting systemic inflammation, IRF-1 promoted the apoptosis of and inhibited autophagy in macrophages. In the present study, we hypothesized that lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced IRF-1 activation in macrophages may promote mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress. In vitro, LPS was found to promote IRF-1 activation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion, superoxide dismutase (SOD) consumption, malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and mitochondrial depolarization in macrophages in a time- and dose-dependent manner. These effects were abrogated in cells in which IRF-1 was knocked down. Furthermore, IRF-1 overexpression increased LPS-induced oxidative stress responses and mitochondrial damage. In vivo, peritoneal macrophages obtained from IRF-1 knockout (KO) mice produced less ROS and had less mitochondrial depolarization and damage following the administration of LPS, when compared to their wild-type (WT) counterparts. In addition, IRF-1 KO mice exhibited a decreased release of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) following the administration of LPS. Thus, IRF-1 may be a critical factor in augmenting LPS-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in macrophages.

  1. Aspirin reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary inflammation in human models of ARDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, U; Krasnodembskaya, A; Fitzgerald, M; Shyamsundar, M; Kissenpfennig, A; Scott, C; Lefrancais, E; Looney, M R; Verghis, R; Scott, J; Simpson, A J; McNamee, J; McAuley, D F; O'Kane, C M

    2017-11-01

    Platelets play an active role in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Animal and observational studies have shown aspirin's antiplatelet and immunomodulatory effects may be beneficial in ARDS. To test the hypothesis that aspirin reduces inflammation in clinically relevant human models that recapitulate pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in the development of ARDS. Healthy volunteers were randomised to receive placebo or aspirin 75  or 1200 mg (1:1:1) for seven days prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, allocation-concealed study. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 6 hours after inhaling 50 µg of LPS. The primary outcome measure was BAL IL-8. Secondary outcome measures included markers of alveolar inflammation (BAL neutrophils, cytokines, neutrophil proteases), alveolar epithelial cell injury, systemic inflammation (neutrophils and plasma C-reactive protein (CRP)) and platelet activation (thromboxane B2, TXB2). Human lungs, perfused and ventilated ex vivo (EVLP) were randomised to placebo or 24 mg aspirin and injured with LPS. BAL was carried out 4 hours later. Inflammation was assessed by BAL differential cell counts and histological changes. In the healthy volunteer (n=33) model, data for the aspirin groups were combined. Aspirin did not reduce BAL IL-8. However, aspirin reduced pulmonary neutrophilia and tissue damaging neutrophil proteases (Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-8/-9), reduced BAL concentrations of tumour necrosis factor α and reduced systemic and pulmonary TXB2. There was no difference between high-dose and low-dose aspirin. In the EVLP model, aspirin reduced BAL neutrophilia and alveolar injury as measured by histological damage. These are the first prospective human data indicating that aspirin inhibits pulmonary neutrophilic inflammation, at both low and high doses. Further clinical studies are indicated to assess the role of aspirin in the

  2. Slit2 ameliorates renal inflammation and fibrosis after hypoxia-and lipopolysaccharide-induced epithelial cells injury in vitro

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    Zhou, Xiangjun [Department of Urology, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Hubei (China); Yao, Qisheng, E-mail: yymcyqs@126.com [Department of Urology, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Hubei (China); Sun, Xinbo; Gong, Xiaoxin; Yang, Yong; Chen, Congbo [Department of Urology, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine, Hubei (China); Shan, Guang [Department of Urology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Hubei (China)

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxic acute kidney injury (AKI) is often incompletely repaired and leads to chronic kidney disease (CKD), which is characterized by tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. The Slit2 family of secreted glycoproteins is expressed in the kidney, it has been shown to exert an anti-inflammatory activity and prevent ischemic renal injury in vivo. However, whether Slit2 reduces renal fibrosis and inflammation after hypoxic and inflammatory epithelial cells injury in vitro remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether Slit2 ameliorated fibrosis and inflammation in two renal epithelial cells line challenged with hypoxia and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Renal epithelial cells were treated with hypoxia and LPS to induce cell injury. Hoechst staining and Western blot analysis was conducted to examine epithelial cells injury. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis was performed to evaluate tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tested the inflammatory factor interleukin (IL)−1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and Western blot analysis determined the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)−1α, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Results revealed that hypoxia induced epithelial cells apoptosis, inflammatory factor IL-1β and TNF-α release and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. LPS could exacerbate hypoxia -induced epithelial cells apoptosis, IL-1β and TNF-α release and fibrosis. Slit2 reduced the expression of fibronectin, the rate of epithelial cell apoptosis, and the expression of inflammatory factor. Slit2 could also inhibit the expression of TLR4 and NF-κB, but not the expression of HIF-1α. Therefore, Slit2 attenuated inflammation and fibrosis after LPS- and hypoxia-induced epithelial cells injury via the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway, but not depending on the HIF-1α signaling pathway. - Highlights: • Slit2 ameliorates inflammation after hypoxia-and LPS-induced epithelial cells injury

  3. Effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, E-Y; Choe, S-H; Hyeon, J-Y; Choi, J-I; Choi, I S; Kim, S-J

    2015-12-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) has numerous potentially beneficial properties, including antioxidant, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the effect of CAPE on periodontal disease has not been studied before. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of CAPE in ameliorating the production of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in periodontal disease. LPS from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 was isolated by using the standard hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were assayed for nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify inducible NO synthase, IL-1β, IL-6, heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1 mRNA expression. HO-1 protein expression and levels of signaling proteins were assessed by immunoblot analysis. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were analyzed by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based kits. CAPE exerted significant inhibitory effects on P. intermedia LPS-induced production of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as their mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. CAPE-induced HO-1 expression in cells activated with P. intermedia LPS, and selective inhibition of HO-1 activity by tin protoporphyrin IX attenuated the inhibitory effect of CAPE on LPS-induced NO production. CAPE did not interfere with IκB-α degradation induced by P. intermedia LPS. Instead, CAPE decreased nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits induced with LPS, and lessened LPS-induced p50 binding activity. Further, CAPE showed strong inhibitory effects on LPS-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 and 3 phosphorylation. Besides, CAPE significantly elevated SOCS1 mRNA expression in P. intermedia LPS-stimulated cells. Modulation of host response by CAPE may represent an attractive strategy towards the treatment of periodontal disease

  4. Autophagy involved in lipopolysaccharide-induced foam cell formation is mediated by adipose differentiation-related protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xuyang; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Chao; Feng, Jun; Yuan, Zuyi; Zhang, Xiumin; Sui, Wen; Hu, Peizhen; Zheng, Pengfei; Ye, Jing

    2014-01-09

    Autophagy is an essential process for breaking down macromolecules and aged/damaged cellular organelles to maintain cellular energy balance and cellular nutritional status. The idea that autophagy regulates lipid metabolism is an emerging concept with important implications for atherosclerosis. However, the potential role of autophagy and its relationship with lipid metabolism in foam cell formation remains unclear. In this study, we found that autophagy was involved in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced the formation of foam cells and was at least partially dependent on adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP). Foam cell formation was evaluated by Oil red O staining. Autophagic activity was determined by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. ADRP gene expression of ADRP was examined by real-time PCR (RT-PCR). The protein expression of ADRP and LC3 was measured using Western blotting analysis. Intracellular cholesterol and triglyceride levels in foam cells were quantitatively measured by enzymatic colorimetric assays. LPS promoted foam cell formation by inducing lipid accumulation in macrophages. The activation of autophagy with rapamycin (Rap) decreased intracellular cholesterol and triglyceride levels, whereas the inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine (3MA) enhanced the accumulation of lipid droplets. Overexpression of ADRP alone increased the formation of foam cells and consequently autophagic activity. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of ADRP activity with siRNA suppressed the activation of autophagy. Taken together, we propose a novel role for ADRP in the regulation of macrophage autophagy during LPS stimulation. We defined a new molecular pathway in which LPS-induced foam cell formation is regulated through autophagy. These findings facilitate the understanding of the role of autophagy in the development of atherosclerosis.

  5. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediate the lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xue; Wang, Xiaoxuan [Department of Periodontology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Avenue South, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China); Zheng, Ming, E-mail: zhengm@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Peking University Health Science Center, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Luan, Qing Xian, E-mail: kqluanqx@126.com [Department of Periodontology, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology, National Engineering Laboratory for Digital and Material Technology of Stomatology, Beijing Key Laboratory of Digital Stomatology, 22 Zhongguancun Avenue South, Haidian District, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-09-10

    Although periodontal diseases are initiated by bacteria that colonize the tooth surface and gingival sulcus, the host response is believed to play an essential role in the breakdown of connective tissue and bone. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) have been proposed to regulate the activation of the inflammatory response by the innate immune system. However, the role of mtROS in modulating the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to immune stimulation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we showed that LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis stimulated HGFs to increase mtROS production, which could be inhibited by treatment with a mitochondrial-targeted exogenous antioxidant (mito-TEMPO) or transfection with manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). A time-course study revealed that an increase in the concentration of mtROS preceded the expression of inflammatory cytokines in HGFs. Mito-TEMPO treatment or MnSOD transfection also significantly prevented the LPS-induced increase of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, suppressing LPS-induced mtROS generation inhibited the activation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB kinase, as well as the nuclear localization of nuclear factor-κB. These results demonstrate that mtROS generation is a key signaling event in the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response of HGFs. - Highlights: • Inflammation is thought to promote pathogenic changes in periodontitis. • We investigated mtROS as a regulator of inflammation in gingival fibroblasts. • Targeted antioxidants were used to inhibit mtROS production after LPS challenge. • Inhibiting mtROS generation suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • JNK, p38, IKK, and NF-κB were shown to act as transducers of mtROS signaling.

  6. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediate the lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory response in human gingival fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xue; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Zheng, Ming; Luan, Qing Xian

    2016-01-01

    Although periodontal diseases are initiated by bacteria that colonize the tooth surface and gingival sulcus, the host response is believed to play an essential role in the breakdown of connective tissue and bone. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) have been proposed to regulate the activation of the inflammatory response by the innate immune system. However, the role of mtROS in modulating the response of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) to immune stimulation by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we showed that LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis stimulated HGFs to increase mtROS production, which could be inhibited by treatment with a mitochondrial-targeted exogenous antioxidant (mito-TEMPO) or transfection with manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). A time-course study revealed that an increase in the concentration of mtROS preceded the expression of inflammatory cytokines in HGFs. Mito-TEMPO treatment or MnSOD transfection also significantly prevented the LPS-induced increase of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, suppressing LPS-induced mtROS generation inhibited the activation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB kinase, as well as the nuclear localization of nuclear factor-κB. These results demonstrate that mtROS generation is a key signaling event in the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response of HGFs. - Highlights: • Inflammation is thought to promote pathogenic changes in periodontitis. • We investigated mtROS as a regulator of inflammation in gingival fibroblasts. • Targeted antioxidants were used to inhibit mtROS production after LPS challenge. • Inhibiting mtROS generation suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. • JNK, p38, IKK, and NF-κB were shown to act as transducers of mtROS signaling.

  7. Inhibition of tissue transglutaminase attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in glial cells through AKT/mTOR signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yirong; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Rui

    2017-05-01

    In view of the facts that tTG protein expression level and its enzyme activity increase in AD brains of both individuals and transgenic animals and compelling evidence of the involvement of inflammation in AD pathogenesis, tTG could be involved in the inflammation responses in the brain. In the present study, we examined the effects of the irreversible and the competitive inhibitor of tTG on the condition of lipopolysaccharide-induced mimic inflammation models in glial cells. Western blot and tTG enzyme activity assay were applied to detect tTG and isopeptide protein levels and tTG enzyme activity. The production of nitric oxide and the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 were determined by Griess Reagents and Western blot respectively to assess anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, the activation of AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was determined to evaluate the underlying mechanism of anti-inflammatory response. Irreversible and competitive inhibitor of tTG could ameliorate LPS-induced neuroinflammation in glial cells without cytotoxicity. Moreover, AKT/mTOR pathway may be involved in the anti-inflammatory response of tTG inhibitors. Therefore, NTU283 and Cystamine may alleviate inflammatory response in glial cells, probably through, at least partially, inhibiting the activation of AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Our study provided some clues that tTG inhibitors NTU283 and Cystamine might be potential candidates for the treatments of neuroinflammation-related diseases, although more studies needed for further exploration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Propionate Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mastitis in Mice by Restoring Blood–Milk Barrier Disruption and Suppressing Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary glands, is a major disease affecting dairy animal worldwide. Propionate is one of the main short-chain fatty acid that can exert multiple effects on the inflammatory process. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of sodium propionate against lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced mastitis model in mice. The data mainly confirm that inflammation and blood–milk barrier breakdown contribute to progression of the disease in this model. In mice with LPS, sodium propionate attenuates the LPS-induced histopathological changes, inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and interleukin-1β (IL-1β production, myeloperoxidase activity in mammary tissues. Given their importance in the blood–milk barrier, tight junction proteins occludin and claudin-3 are further investigated. Our results show that sodium propionate strikingly increases the expressions of occludin and claudin-3 and reduces the blood–milk barrier permeability in this model. Furthermore, in LPS-stimulated mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs, LPS increased the expressions of phosphorylated (p-p65, p-IκB proteins, which is attenuated by sodium propionate. Finally, we examine the possibility that propionate acts as a histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor, the results show that both sodium propionate and trichostatin A increase the level of histone H3 acetylation and inhibit the increased production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated mMECs. These data suggest that sodium propionate protects against LPS-induced mastitis mainly by restoring blood–milk barrier disruption and suppressing inflammation via NF-κB signaling pathway and HDAC inhibition.

  9. Effect of penehyclidine hydrochloride on β-arrestin-1 expression in lipopolysaccharide-induced human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, J. [Department of Anesthesiology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Xiao, F. [Department of Osteology, Pu Ai Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhang, Z.Z.; Wang, Y.P.; Chen, K.; Wang, Y.L. [Department of Anesthesiology, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2013-12-02

    β-arrestins are expressed proteins that were first described, and are well-known, as negative regulators of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) is a new anti-cholinergic drug that can inhibit biomembrane lipid peroxidation, and decrease cytokines and oxyradicals. However, to date, no reports on the effects of PHC on β-arrestin-1 in cells have been published. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PHC on β-arrestin-1 expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC). Cultured HPMEC were pretreated with PHC, followed by LPS treatment. Muscarinic receptor mRNAs were assayed by real-time quantitative PCR. Cell viability was assayed by the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) conversion test. The dose and time effects of PHC on β-arrestin-1 expression in LPS-induced HPMEC were determined by Western blot analysis. Cell malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured. It was found that the M{sub 3} receptor was the one most highly expressed, and was activated 5 min after LPS challenge. Furthermore, 2 μg/mL PHC significantly upregulated expression of β-arrestin-1 within 10 to 15 min. Compared with the control group, MDA levels in cells were remarkably increased and SOD activities were significantly decreased in LPS pretreated cells, while PHC markedly decreased MDA levels and increased SOD activities. We conclude that PHC attenuated ROS injury by upregulating β-arrestin-1 expression, thereby implicating a mechanism by which PHC may exert its protective effects against LPS-induced pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell injury.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of Heliotropium indicum Linn on lipopolysaccharide-induced uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kyei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of an aqueous whole plant extract of Heliotropium indicum (HIE on endotoxin-induced uveitis in New Zealand white rabbits. METHODS: Clinical signs of uveitis including flares, iris hyperemia and miosis, were sought for and scored in 1.0 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS -induced uveitic rabbits treated orally with HIE (30-300 mg/kg, prednisolone (30 mg/kg, or normal saline (10 mL/kg. The number of polymorphonuclear neutrophils infiltrating, the protein concentration, as well as levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, and monocyte chemmoattrant protein-1 (MCP-1 in the aqueous humor after the various treatments were also determined. A histopathological study of the anterior uveal was performed. RESULTS: The extract and prednisolone-treatment significantly reduced (P≤0.001 both the clinical scores of inflammation (1.0-1.8 compared to 4.40±0.40 in the normal saline-treated rabbits and inflammatory cells infiltration. The level of protein, and the concentrations of TNF-α, PGE2 and MCP-1 in the aqueous humor were also significantly reduced (P≤0.001. Histopathological studies showed normal uveal morphology in the HIE and prednisolone-treated rabbits while normal saline-treated rabbits showed marked infiltration of inflammatory cells. CONCLUSION: The HIE exhibits anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-induced uveitis possibly by reducing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators.

  11. Paricalcitol attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and apoptosis in proximal tubular cells through the prostaglandin E₂ receptor EP4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ah Hong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D is considered to exert a protective effect on various renal diseases but its underlying molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether paricalcitol attenuates inflammation and apoptosis during lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced renal proximal tubular cell injury through the prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂ receptor EP4. Methods: Human renal tubular epithelial (HK-2 cells were pretreated with paricalcitol (2 ng/mL for 1 hour and exposed to LPS (1 μg/mL. The effects of paricalcitol pretreatment in relation to an EP4 blockade using AH-23848 or EP4 small interfering RNA (siRNA were investigated. Results: The expression of cyclooxygenase-2, PGE₂, and EP4 were significantly increased in LPS-exposed HK-2 cells treated with paricalcitol compared with cells exposed to LPS only. Paricalcitol prevented cell death induced by LPS exposure, and the cotreatment of AH-23848 or EP4 siRNA offset these cell-protective effects. The phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB were decreased and the phosphorylation of Akt was increased in LPS-exposed cells with paricalcitol treatment. AH-23848 or EP4 siRNA inhibited the suppressive effects of paricalcitol on p65 NF-κB nuclear translocation and the activation of Akt. The production of proinflammatory cytokines and the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive cells were attenuated by paricalcitol in LPS exposed HK-2 cells. The cotreatment with an EP4 antagonist abolished these anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects. Conclusion: EP4 plays a pivotal role in anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic effects through Akt and NF-κB signaling after paricalcitol pretreatment in LPS-induced renal proximal tubule cell injury.

  12. NLRP3 inflammasome activation in D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver failure: role of heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seok-Joo; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2013-12-01

    D-Galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are commonly used to study mechanisms of hepatic malfunction that result in hepatic inflammation and subsequent fulminant hepatic failure. Inflammasomes are intracellular multiprotein complexes that in response to cellular danger signals trigger the biological maturation of proinflammatory cytokines. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme that induces anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity against oxidative cellular stress. This study examined activation of the NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in GalN/LPS-induced hepatic injury and the role of HO-1 in the signaling pathways of inflammasome. Mice (C57BL/6) were pretreated twice with hemin (HO-1 inducer, 30 mg/kg) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP; HO-1 inhibitor, 10mg/kg) at 12 and 2h before GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (40 μg/kg) administration. HO-1 induction with hemin reversed the lethality induced by GalN/LPS administration, and ZnPP pretreatment blocked this change. Lipid peroxidation markedly increased after GalN/LPS treatment, whereas glutathione content decreased in the GalN/LPS group. These changes were attenuated by hemin, but ZnPP reversed the effects of hemin. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β increased after GalN/LPS treatment; these increases were attenuated by hemin. Hepatic mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and NLRP3 increased after GalN/LPS treatment, and hemin attenuated increases in TNF-α and IL-1β. After GalN/LPS treatment, the hepatic expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 (p10) was increased. In immunoprecipitation studies, hemin attenuated the interaction of NLRP3 with ASC and caspase-1. GalN/LPS induced expression of the thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) gene and the interaction between NLRP3 and TXNIP; again, hemin attenuated these effects. The effects of hemin were reversed by ZnPP. Our findings suggest that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome leads

  13. Lipopolysaccharide-induced blood-brain barrier disruption: roles of cyclooxygenase, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and elements of the neurovascular unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William A; Gray, Alicia M; Erickson, Michelle A; Salameh, Therese S; Damodarasamy, Mamatha; Sheibani, Nader; Meabon, James S; Wing, Emily E; Morofuji, Yoichi; Cook, David G; Reed, May J

    2015-11-25

    Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) occurs in many diseases and is often mediated by inflammatory and neuroimmune mechanisms. Inflammation is well established as a cause of BBB disruption, but many mechanistic questions remain. We used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation and BBB disruption in mice. BBB disruption was measured using (14)C-sucrose and radioactively labeled albumin. Brain cytokine responses were measured using multiplex technology and dependence on cyclooxygenase (COX) and oxidative stress determined by treatments with indomethacin and N-acetylcysteine. Astrocyte and microglia/macrophage responses were measured using brain immunohistochemistry. In vitro studies used Transwell cultures of primary brain endothelial cells co- or tri-cultured with astrocytes and pericytes to measure effects of LPS on transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER), cellular distribution of tight junction proteins, and permeability to (14)C-sucrose and radioactive albumin. In comparison to LPS-induced weight loss, the BBB was relatively resistant to LPS-induced disruption. Disruption occurred only with the highest dose of LPS and was most evident in the frontal cortex, thalamus, pons-medulla, and cerebellum with no disruption in the hypothalamus. The in vitro and in vivo patterns of LPS-induced disruption as measured with (14)C-sucrose, radioactive albumin, and TEER suggested involvement of both paracellular and transcytotic pathways. Disruption as measured with albumin and (14)C-sucrose, but not TEER, was blocked by indomethacin. N-acetylcysteine did not affect disruption. In vivo, the measures of neuroinflammation induced by LPS were mainly not reversed by indomethacin. In vitro, the effects on LPS and indomethacin were not altered when brain endothelial cells (BECs) were cultured with astrocytes or pericytes. The BBB is relatively resistant to LPS-induced disruption with some brain regions more vulnerable than others. LPS-induced disruption appears is

  14. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide induced mammalian cell lines by aqueous extracts of brown seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaswir, Irwandi; Monsur, Hammed Ademola; Simsek, Senay; Amid, Azura; Alam, Zahangir; bin Salleh, Mohammad Noor; Tawakalit, Asiyanbi-Hammed; Octavianti, Fitri

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous extracts obtained from five Malaysian brown seaweeds, Sargassum duplicatum, Sargassum binderi, Sargassum fulvellum, Padina australis, and Turbinaria turbinata, were investigated for their abilities to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines as well as to determine their chemical composition. The percentage yield of extracts varied among species, with P. australis having the lowest yield and T. turbinata having the highest yield. The chemical compositions of the extracts showed that the percentage of sulfate ions as well as uronic acid and total sugar content varied significantly. All extracts contained high fucose and inhibited NO secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Extracts of P. australis and T. turbinata dosed at 200 μg/mL were able to inhibit NO secretion by > 75%. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assays revealed that some extracts were moderately toxic, while others were not. Based on these results, brown seaweed of Malaysian origin should be investigated for the production of additional anti-inflammatory compounds.

  15. Mechanisms of suppression of X-ray-induced transformation of 10T1/2 cells by lipopolysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, Hisako; Yasukawa, Mieko (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)); Nishijima, Masahiro; Wada, Eiko; Kanegasaki, Shiro

    1993-12-01

    X-ray induced neoplastic transformation of C3H/10T1/2 cells was suppressed equally by Lipid A and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We examined the effects of several modifiers of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism in our investigation on the suppression mechanism of LPS. Dexamethasone (DM), an inhibitor of phospholipase A[sub 2] (PLA[sub 2]), abolished the effect of LPS, whereas bromophenacyl bromide (BPB), another inhibitor of PLA[sub 2] did not. AA and aspirin neither changed the transformation frequency nor blocked the effect of LPS. TPA, 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate, slightly enhanced radiation transformation, which was diminished by LPS. We also examined the effects of these modifiers on the release of radioactivity from [sup 3]H-AA-labeled 10T1/2 cells. No definite correlation was found between the change of AA metabolism and suppression of the transformation frequency LPS. LPS, however, enhanced dose-dependent myristoylation of the 22 and 67 kDa proteins of 10T1/2 cells. (author).

  16. A framework to identify gene expression profiles in a model of inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide after treatment with thalidomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva Renata T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thalidomide is an anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic drug currently used for the treatment of several diseases, including erythema nodosum leprosum, which occurs in patients with lepromatous leprosy. In this research, we use DNA microarray analysis to identify the impact of thalidomide on gene expression responses in human cells after lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation. We employed a two-stage framework. Initially, we identified 1584 altered genes in response to LPS. Modulation of this set of genes was then analyzed in the LPS stimulated cells treated with thalidomide. Results We identified 64 genes with altered expression induced by thalidomide using the rank product method. In addition, the lists of up-regulated and down-regulated genes were investigated by means of bioinformatics functional analysis, which allowed for the identification of biological processes affected by thalidomide. Confirmatory analysis was done in five of the identified genes using real time PCR. Conclusions The results showed some genes that can further our understanding of the biological mechanisms in the action of thalidomide. Of the five genes evaluated with real time PCR, three were down regulated and two were up regulated confirming the initial results of the microarray analysis.

  17. Calcitonin protects chondrocytes from lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis and inflammatory response through MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lai-Bo; Man, Zhen-Tao; Li, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xian-Quan; Sun, Shui

    2017-07-01

    Calcitonin (CT) is an anti-absorbent, which has long been used for treatment of osteoporosis. However, little information is available about the effects of CT on osteoarthritis (OA). This study was mainly aimed to explore the effects of CT on the treatment of OA, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Chondrocytes were isolated from immature mice and then were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CT, small interfering (si) RNA against bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, and/or the inhibitors of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathway. Thereafter, cell viability, apoptosis, nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory factors productions, and expression levels of cartilage synthesis protein key factors, cartilage-derived morphogenetic protein (CDMP) 1, SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 9 protein (SOX9), and MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways key factors were determined. CT significantly reversed LPS-induced cell viability decrease, apoptosis increase, the inflammatory factors and NO secretion, the abnormally expression of cartilage synthesis proteins and the activation of MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways (Ppathways statistically further increased the levels of CDMP1 and SOX9 (Ppathways, and could partially abolish CT-modulated the expression changes in CDMP1 and SOX9, and MAPK/Wnt/NF-κB pathways key factors (Ppathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of monocyte membrane proteome perturbation during lipopolysaccharide-induced tolerance using iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Huoming

    2010-07-02

    Human monocytes\\' exposure to low-level lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces temporary monocytic insensitivity to subsequent LPS challenge. The underlying mechanism of this phenomenon could have important clinical utilities in preventing and/or treating severe infections. In this study, we used an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach to comprehensively characterize the membrane proteomes of monocytes before and after LPS exposure. We identified a total of 1651 proteins, of which 53.6% were membrane proteins. Ninety-four percent of the proteins were quantified and 255 proteins were shown to be tightly regulated by LPS. Subcellular location analysis revealed organelle-specific response to LPS exposure: more than 90% of identified mitochondrial membrane proteins were significant downregulated, whereas the majority of proteins from other organelles such as ER, Golgi and ribosome were upregulated. Moreover, we found that the expression of most receptors potentially involved in LPS signal pathway (CD14, toll-like receptor 4, CD11/CD18 complex) were substantially decreased, while the expression of molecules involved in LPS neutralization were enhanced after LPS challenge. Together, these findings could be of significance in understanding the mechanism of LPS tolerance and provide values for designing new approaches for regulating monocytic responses in sepsis patients.

  19. A computational model of lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation: a key signalling pathway in infection-induced preterm labour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma C Sharp

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is the single biggest cause of significant neonatal morbidity and mortality, and the incidence is rising. Development of new therapies to treat and prevent preterm labour is seriously hampered by incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate labour at term and preterm. Computational modelling provides a new opportunity to improve this understanding. It is a useful tool in (i identifying gaps in knowledge and informing future research, and (ii providing the basis for an in silico model of parturition in which novel drugs to prevent or treat preterm labour can be "tested". Despite their merits, computational models are rarely used to study the molecular events initiating labour. Here, we present the first attempt to generate a dynamic kinetic model that has relevance to the molecular mechanisms of preterm labour. Using published data, we model an important candidate signalling pathway in infection-induced preterm labour: that of lipopolysaccharide (LPS -induced activation of Nuclear Factor kappa B. This is the first model of this pathway to explicitly include molecular interactions upstream of Nuclear Factor kappa B activation. We produced a formalised graphical depiction of the pathway and built a kinetic model based on ordinary differential equations. The kinetic model accurately reproduced published in vitro time course plots of Lipopolysaccharide-induced Nuclear Factor kappa B activation in mouse embryo fibroblasts. In this preliminary work we have provided proof of concept that it is possible to build computational models of signalling pathways that are relevant to the regulation of labour, and suggest that models that are validated with wet-lab experiments have the potential to greatly benefit the field.

  20. A computational model of lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation: a key signalling pathway in infection-induced preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gemma C; Ma, Hongwu; Saunders, Philippa T K; Norman, Jane E

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is the single biggest cause of significant neonatal morbidity and mortality, and the incidence is rising. Development of new therapies to treat and prevent preterm labour is seriously hampered by incomplete understanding of the molecular mechanisms that initiate labour at term and preterm. Computational modelling provides a new opportunity to improve this understanding. It is a useful tool in (i) identifying gaps in knowledge and informing future research, and (ii) providing the basis for an in silico model of parturition in which novel drugs to prevent or treat preterm labour can be "tested". Despite their merits, computational models are rarely used to study the molecular events initiating labour. Here, we present the first attempt to generate a dynamic kinetic model that has relevance to the molecular mechanisms of preterm labour. Using published data, we model an important candidate signalling pathway in infection-induced preterm labour: that of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -induced activation of Nuclear Factor kappa B. This is the first model of this pathway to explicitly include molecular interactions upstream of Nuclear Factor kappa B activation. We produced a formalised graphical depiction of the pathway and built a kinetic model based on ordinary differential equations. The kinetic model accurately reproduced published in vitro time course plots of Lipopolysaccharide-induced Nuclear Factor kappa B activation in mouse embryo fibroblasts. In this preliminary work we have provided proof of concept that it is possible to build computational models of signalling pathways that are relevant to the regulation of labour, and suggest that models that are validated with wet-lab experiments have the potential to greatly benefit the field.

  1. Lipopolysaccharide-induced metabolome signature in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals dynamic reprogramming of Phytoalexin and Phytoanticipin pathways

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Finnegan, T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available tentatively identified. These include the phytohormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, and also the associated methyl esters and sugar conjugates. The induced defensive state resulted in increases in indoleÐand other glucosinolates, indole derivatives...

  2. New concept in allergy: Non-allergic rats becomes allergic after induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: As a theory, seemingly it is impossible that allergic diseases, including asthma, are the result of exposure to a transmissible agent. The fact that nearly all children with asthma are allergic, but only a small proportion of allergic children have asthma, at least raises the possibility that other factors are involved. Interestingly, non-allergic children become allergic after their parents came from working in allergic people for several months. Recent research revealed that periodontal pathogens are also transmissible from mother and caregivers to infants.Therefore, it is logical that non-allergic children could become allergic after exposed to periodontopathic bacteria. However, the mechanism is still unclear. Purpose: The objective of this study is to verify a new concept that non-allergic rat may become allergic after exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide. Methods: Randomized control series design experimental study was conducted to 24 male Wistar rats, two experimental groups and one control group. One group was subjected to intrasulcular injection of PgLPS1435/1450. Tissue examination were done for allergy biomarkers with peroxidase immunohistochemistry for leukotriene C4 (LTC4 and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP in bronchus tissue. Serum level examination of interleukin 4 (IL-4, and immunoglobulin E (IgE was done with ELISA. Data were analyzes using ANOVA. Results: after four days, LTC4 and ECP expression increased significantly (p=0.001; even insignificant, IL-4 and IgE serum level also increased. Conclusion: PgLPS is able to stimulate immunocompetent cells which changed the host immune response of non-allergic rats. Therefore, it is possible that they become allergic.Latar belakang: Menurut teori, penularan penyakit alergi termasuk asma merupakan hal yang mustahil. Fakta menunjukkn bahwa hampir semua anak penderita asma mempunyai alergi, tetapi tidak semua anak alergi menderita asma, sehingga mungkin

  3. Combined effect of rifampicin-induced P-glycoprotein expression and lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal sepsis on the effective permeability and pharmacokinetics of an anti-malarial candidate CDRI 97/78 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yeshwant; Hidau, Mahendra Kumar; Krishna, Jampala; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2015-01-01

    1. The study aimed to investigate the influences on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of an anti-malarial drug 97/78 in rats pretreated with orally administered rifampicin and bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). 2. In-situ intestinal absorption studies were conducted on rats pretreated with rifampicin and LPS or both to estimate effective permeability (Peff) of 97/78. In-vivo studies were then conducted to explore 97/78 PK profile under these conditions. In-situ studies revealed that Peff value decreased to 64% (2.7 ± 0.6) × 10(-4 )cm/s in rats pretreated with rifampicin. This decrease was further enhanced very significantly to 4.5% (0.19 ± 0.03) × 10(-4 )cm/s in rats pretreated both with rifampicin and LPS (p97/78 in rifampicin-pretreated rats. This decrease was further augmented to 12-fold upon rifampicin and LPS pretreatment. 3. Orally administered rifampicin decreased the concentration of 97/78 in circulation. This decrease was further enhanced significantly to a very low level by LPS-induced intestinal sepsis.

  4. Differential glucocorticoid-induced closure of the blood-milk barrier during lipopolysaccharide- and lipoteichoic acid-induced mastitis in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wall, Samantha K.; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Ahmadpour, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria invading the mammary gland can cause pathogen-dependent differences in the permeability of the blood-milk barrier leading to the differential paracellular transfer of blood and milk components. Glucocorticoids such as prednisolone (PRED) are known to increase the integrity of the blood......-milk barrier and quickly restore the decreased milk quality associated with mastitis. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of intramammary PRED on the differential permeability of the blood-milk barrier during mastitis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli or lipoteichoic...... be manipulated by intramammary glucocorticoids. The results show that the administration of PRED during mastitis increases the blood-milk barrier integrity but has implications in reducing the transfer of IgG that specifically occurs during E. coli mastitis. In addition, it can also reduce the number...

  5. The Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Metabolome Signature in Arabidopsis thaliana Reveals Dynamic Reprogramming of Phytoalexin and Phytoanticipin Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarryn Finnegan

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs, as MAMP molecules, trigger the activation of signal transduction pathways involved in defence. Currently, plant metabolomics is providing new dimensions into understanding the intracellular adaptive responses to external stimuli. The effect of LPS on the metabolomes of Arabidopsis thaliana cells and leaf tissue was investigated over a 24 h period. Cellular metabolites and those secreted into the medium were extracted with methanol and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used for quantitative and qualitative analyses. Multivariate statistical data analyses were used to extract interpretable information from the generated multidimensional LC-MS data. The results show that LPS perception triggered differential changes in the metabolomes of cells and leaves, leading to variation in the biosynthesis of specialised secondary metabolites. Time-dependent changes in metabolite profiles were observed and biomarkers associated with the LPS-induced response were tentatively identified. These include the phytohormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, and also the associated methyl esters and sugar conjugates. The induced defensive state resulted in increases in indole-and other glucosinolates, indole derivatives, camalexin as well as cinnamic acid derivatives and other phenylpropanoids. These annotated metabolites indicate dynamic reprogramming of metabolic pathways that are functionally related towards creating an enhanced defensive capacity. The results reveal new insights into the mode of action of LPS as an activator of plant innate immunity, broadens knowledge about the defence metabolite pathways involved in Arabidopsis responses to LPS, and identifies specialised metabolites of functional importance that can be employed to enhance immunity against pathogen infection.

  6. Therapeutic effect of urine-derived stem cells for protamine/lipopolysaccharide-induced interstitial cystitis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Luo, Hui; Dong, Xingyou; Liu, Qian; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Teng; Hu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Song, Bo; Li, Longkun

    2017-05-08

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic inflammation disorder mainly within the submucosal and muscular layers of the bladder. As the cause of IC remains unknown, no effective treatments are currently available. Administration of stem cell provides a potential for treatment of IC. This study was conducted using urine-derived stem cells (USCs) for protamine/lipopolysaccharide (PS/LPS)-induced interstitial cystitis in a rodent model. In total, 60 female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three experimental groups (n = 5/group): sham controls; IC model alone; and IC animals intravenously treated with USCs (1.2 × 10 6 suspended in 0.2 ml phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Our data showed that the bladder micturition function was significantly improved in IC animals intravenously treated with USCs compared to those in the IC model alone group. The amount of antioxidants and antiapoptotic protein biomarkers heme oxygenase (HO)-1, NAD(P)H quinine oxidoreductase (NQO)-1, and Bcl-2 within the bladder tissues were significantly higher in IC animals intravenously treated with USCs and lower in the sham controls group as assessed by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. In addition, the expression of autophagy-related protein LC3A was significantly higher in the IC model alone group than that in IC animals intravenously treated with USCs. Inflammatory biomarkers and apoptotic biomarkers (interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, caspase 3, and Bax) and the downstream inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers (endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy-related protein (GRP78, LC3, Beclin1)) in the bladder tissue revealed statistically different results between groups. USCs restored the bladder function and histological construction via suppressing oxidative stress, inflammatory reaction, and apoptotic processes in a PS/LPS-induced IC rodent model, which provides potential for treatment of patients with IC.

  7. Shiga toxin and lipopolysaccharide induce platelet-leukocyte aggregates and tissue factor release, a thrombotic mechanism in hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-lie Ståhl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aggregates formed between leukocytes and platelets in the circulation lead to release of tissue factor (TF-bearing microparticles contributing to a prothrombotic state. As enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC may cause hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS, in which microthrombi cause tissue damage, this study investigated whether the interaction between blood cells and EHEC virulence factors Shiga toxin (Stx and lipopolysaccharide (LPS led to release of TF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The interaction between Stx or LPS and blood cells induced platelet-leukocyte aggregate formation and tissue factor (TF release, as detected by flow cytometry in whole blood. O157LPS was more potent than other LPS serotypes. Aggregates formed mainly between monocytes and platelets and less so between neutrophils and platelets. Stimulated blood cells in complex expressed activation markers, and microparticles were released. Microparticles originated mainly from platelets and monocytes and expressed TF. TF-expressing microparticles, and functional TF in plasma, increased when blood cells were simultaneously exposed to the EHEC virulence factors and high shear stress. Stx and LPS in combination had a more pronounced effect on platelet-monocyte aggregate formation, and TF expression on these aggregates, than each virulence factor alone. Whole blood and plasma from HUS patients (n = 4 were analyzed. All patients had an increase in leukocyte-platelet aggregates, mainly between monocytes and platelets, on which TF was expressed during the acute phase of disease. Patients also exhibited an increase in microparticles, mainly originating from platelets and monocytes, bearing surface-bound TF, and functional TF was detected in their plasma. Blood cell aggregates, microparticles, and TF decreased upon recovery. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By triggering TF release in the circulation, Stx and LPS can induce a prothrombotic state contributing to the pathogenesis of

  8. Lipopolysaccharide-induced weakness in the preterm diaphragm is associated with mitochondrial electron transport chain dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Song

    Full Text Available Diaphragmatic contractility is reduced in preterm lambs after lipopolysaccharide (LPS exposure in utero. The mechanism of impaired fetal diaphragm contractility after LPS exposure is unknown. We hypothesise that in utero exposure to LPS induces a deficiency of mitochondrial complex activity and oxidative damage in the fetal diaphragm. To test this hypothesis, we used a well-established preterm ovine model of chorioamnionitis: Pregnant ewes received intra-amniotic (IA saline or 10 mg LPS, at 2 d or 7 d prior to surgical delivery at 121 d GA (term = 150 d. The fetus was killed humanely immediately after delivery for tissue sampling. Mitochondrial fractions were prepared from the isolated diaphragm and mitochondrial electron transfer chain activities were evaluated using enzymatic assays. Oxidative stress was investigated by quantifying mitochondrial oxidative protein levels and determining antioxidant gene and protein (catalase, superoxide dismutase 2 and glutathione peroxidase 1 expression. The activity of the erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-mediated antioxidant signalling pathway was examined by quantifying the Nrf2 protein content of cell lysate and nuclear extract. A 2 d LPS exposure in utero significantly decreased electron transfer chain complex II and IV activity (p<0.05. A 7 d LPS exposure inhibited superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase expression at gene and protein levels, and Nrf2 pathway activity (p<0.05 compared with control and 2 d LPS groups, respectively. Diaphragm mitochondria accumulated oxidised protein after a 7 d LPS exposure. We conclude that intrauterine exposure to LPS induces mitochondrial oxidative stress and electron chain dysfunction in the fetal diaphragm, that is further exacerbated by impairment of the antioxidant signalling pathway and decreased antioxidant activity.

  9. Inhibitory effects of dynorphin 3-14 on the lipopolysaccharide-induced toll-like receptor 4 signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahiman, Siti Sarah Fazalul; Morgan, Michael; Gray, Paul; Shaw, Paul Nicholas; Cabot, Peter John

    2017-04-01

    Dynorphin 1-17 (DYN 1-17) is biotransformed rapidly to a range of fragments in rodent inflamed tissue with dynorphin 3-14 (DYN 3-14) being the most stable and prevalent. DYN 1-17 has been shown previously to be involved in the regulation of inflammatory response following tissue injury, in which the biotransformation fragments of DYN 1-17 may possess similar features. This study investigated the effects of DYN 3-14 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nuclear factor-kappaB/p65 (NF-κB/p65) nuclear translocation and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in differentiated THP-1 cells. Treatment with DYN 3-14 (10nM) resulted in 35% inhibition of the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65. Furthermore, DYN 3-14 modulated both IL-1β and TNF-α release; inhibiting IL-1β and paradoxically augmenting TNF-α release in a concentration-independent manner. A number of opioids have been implicated in the modulation of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), highlighting the complexity of their immunomodulatory effects. To determine whether DYN 3-14 modulates TLR4, HEK-Blue™ - hTLR4 cells were stimulated with LPS in the presence of DYN 3-14. DYN 3-14 (10μM) inhibited TLR4 activation in a concentration-dependent fashion by suppressing the LPS signals around 300-fold lower than LPS-RS, a potent TLR4 antagonist. These findings indicate that DYN 3-14 is a potential TLR4 antagonist that alters cellular signaling in response to LPS and cytokine release, implicating a role for biotransformed endogenous opioid peptides in immunomodulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acrolein inhalation suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production but does not affect acute airways neutrophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, David Itiro; Poynter, Matthew E; Othman, Ziryan; Hemenway, David; van der Vliet, Albert

    2008-07-01

    Acrolein is a reactive unsaturated aldehyde that is produced during endogenous oxidative processes and is a major bioactive component of environmental pollutants such as cigarette smoke. Because in vitro studies demonstrate that acrolein can inhibit neutrophil apoptosis, we evaluated the effects of in vivo acrolein exposure on acute lung inflammation induced by LPS. Male C57BL/6J mice received 300 microg/kg intratracheal LPS and were exposed to acrolein (5 parts per million, 6 h/day), either before or after LPS challenge. Exposure to acrolein either before or after LPS challenge did not significantly affect the overall extent of LPS-induced lung inflammation, or the duration of the inflammatory response, as observed from recovered lung lavage leukocytes and histology. However, exposure to acrolein after LPS instillation markedly diminished the LPS-induced production of several inflammatory cytokines, specifically TNF-alpha, IL-12, and the Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma, which was associated with reduction in NF-kappaB activation. Our data demonstrate that acrolein exposure suppresses LPS-induced Th1 cytokine responses without affecting acute neutrophilia. Disruption of cytokine signaling by acrolein may represent a mechanism by which smoking contributes to chronic disease in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma.

  11. Black tea extract prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB signaling and attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Sung-Bum

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea has been shown to elicit anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic properties. In this study, we investigated the impact of black tea extract (BTE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced NF-κB signaling in bone marrow derived-macrophages (BMM and determined the therapeutic efficacy of this extract on colon inflammation. Methods The effect of BTE on LPS-induced NF-κB signaling and pro-inflammatory gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. The in vivo efficacy of BTE was assessed in mice with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis. The severity of colitis was measured by weight loss, colon length and histologic scores. Results LPS-induced IL-12p40, IL-23p19, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions were inhibited by BTE. LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. BTE treatment blocked LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. BTE-fed, DSS-exposed mice showed the less weight loss, longer colon length and lower histologic score compared to control diet-fed, DSS-exposed mice. DSS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. An increase of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in DSS-exposed mice was blocked by BTE. Conclusions These results indicate that BTE attenuates colon inflammation through the blockage of NF-κB signaling and apoptosis in DSS-induced experimental colitis model.

  12. Erythropoietin Protects Against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Microgliosis and Abnormal Granule Cell Development in the Ovine Fetal Cerebellum

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    Annie R. A. McDougall

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (EPO ameliorates inflammation-induced injury in cerebral white matter (WM. However, effects of inflammation on the cerebellum and neuroprotective effects of EPO are unknown. Our aims were to determine: (i whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced intrauterine inflammation causes injury to, and/or impairs development of the cerebellum; and (ii whether recombinant human EPO (rhEPO mitigates these changes. At 107 ± 1 days gestational age (DGA; ~0.7 of term, fetal sheep received LPS (~0.9 μg/kg; i.v. or an equivalent volume of saline, followed 1 h later with 5000 IU/kg rhEPO (i.v. or an equivalent volume of saline (i.v.. This generated the following experimental groups: control (saline + saline; n = 6, LPS (LPS + saline, n = 8 and LPS + rhEPO (n = 8. At necropsy (116 ± 1 DGA; ~0.8 of term the brain was perfusion-fixed and stained histologically (H&E and immunostained to identify granule cells (Neuronal Nuclei, NeuN, granule cell proliferation (Ki67, Bergmann glia (glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP, astrogliosis (GFAP and microgliosis (Iba-1. In comparison to controls, LPS fetuses had an increased density of Iba-1-positive microglia (p < 0.005 in the lobular WM; rhEPO prevented this increase (p < 0.05. The thickness of both the proliferative (Ki67-positive and post-mitotic zones (Ki67-negative of the EGL were increased in LPS-exposed fetuses compared to controls (p < 0.05, but were not different between controls and LPS + rhEPO fetuses. LPS also increased (p < 0.001 the density of granule cells (NeuN-positive in the internal granule layer (IGL; rhEPO prevented the increase (p < 0.01. There was no difference between groups in the areas of the vermis (total cross-section, molecular layer (ML, IGL or WM, the density of NeuN-positive granule cells in the ML, the linear density of Bergmann glial fibers, the areal density or somal area of the Purkinje cells, the areal coverage of GFAP-positive astrocytes in the lobular and deep WM, the

  13. Nitric oxide production by hemocytes of larva and pharate prepupa of Galleria mellonella in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide: cytoprotective or cytotoxic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krishnan, Natraj; Hyršl, P.; Šimek, V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 142, 1-2 (2006), s. 103-110 ISSN 1532-0456 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : nitric oxide * hemocytes * lipopolysaccharide Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.991, year: 2006

  14. Preparation of a Lipopolysaccharide from Escherichia coli 01lla, 01llb, k58: h21 bacterial wall, labeled with carbon-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano Aunon, M. L.; Pacheco Lopez, J.; Garcia Pineda, M. D.; Roca, M.; Bayon, A.

    1981-01-01

    A brief description of the morphological and chemical structure of Li po polysaccharides is given, as well as its occurrence in nature and its mechanisms of action. It is emphasized the usefulness for actual biochemical and biomedical research of the labeled Lipopolysaccharide. The method for the labelling, isolation and purification of 14''C-Lipopolysacchari de is described. (Author) 23 refs

  15. Influence of iRoot SP and mineral trioxide aggregate on the activation and polarization of macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhenglin; Zhu, Xiaodan; Li, Yuhong; Yan, Ping; Jiang, Han

    2018-04-02

    Biomaterials could affect the inflammation reaction and wound healing via the activation and polarization of macrophages. However, the influence of iRoot SP and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) on macrophage polarization under inflammatory conditions was not reported although these two root filling materials have been applied extensively in patients undergoing endodontic treatment. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the mechanism how iRoot SP and MTA affect the cell behavior of RAW 264.7 macrophages when stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. The gene expression of three main related pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6) was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in RAW 264.7 macrophages when stimulated by iRoot SP and MTA in the presence of LPS. The protein expression of the M1 and M2 phenotype specific markers, CD11c and CD206, was assessed by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry in RAW 264.7 macrophages. LPS promoted the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 macrophages as compared to the control group. Both iRoot SP and MTA were significantly able to enhance the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 macrophages as compared to LPS group. LPS could increase the expression of CD11c as compared to the control group while iRoot SP and MTA were able to enhance the expression of both CD11c and CD206 as compared to LPS group. iRoot SP and MTA could potentially promote the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 macrophages and induce into M1/M2 phenotype when cultured with LPS.

  16. Ethyl acetate extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. sprouts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Miaw-Ling

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to investigate if food components that exert anti-inflammatory effects may be used for inflammatory disorders by examining alfalfa sprout ethyl acetate extract (ASEA. The cytokine profile and life span of BALB/c mice with acute inflammation after intra-peritoneal (ip injection of 15 mg/kg BW lipopolysaccharide (LPS were determined. The results showed that the life span of LPS-induced inflammatory mice were negatively correlated with serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β at 9 hr after LPS-injection, which indicated that suppressing these cytokines in the late phase of inflammation may be beneficial for survival. The in vitro experiment then showed that ASEA significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1β production and the NF-κB trans-activation activity of mitogen-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. To further evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of ASEA in vivo, BALB/c mice were tube-fed with 25 mg ASEA/kg BW/day in 50 μl sunflower oil, while the control and PDTC (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an anti-inflammatory agent groups were tube-fed with 50 μl sunflower oil/day only. After one week of tube-feeding, the PDTC group was injected with 50 mg/kg BW PDTC and one hour later, all of the mice were injected with 15 mg/kg BW LPS. The results showed that the ASEA and PDTC groups had significantly lower serum TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β levels at 9 hr after LPS challenge, and significantly higher survival rates than the control group. This study suggests that ASEA supplementation can suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alleviate acute inflammatory hazards.

  17. Eupatolide inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression in RAW264.7 cells by inducing proteasomal degradation of TRAF6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongkyu; Tae, Nara; Lee, Jung Joon; Kim, Taeho; Lee, Jeong-Hyung

    2010-06-25

    Inula britannica is a traditional medicinal plant used to treat bronchitis, digestive disorders, and inflammation in Eastern Asia. Here, we identified eupatolide, a sesquiterpene lactone from I. britannica, as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Eupatolide inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) as well as iNOS and COX-2 protein expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Eupatolide dose-dependently decreased the mRNA levels and the promoter activities of COX-2 and iNOS in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, eupatolide significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) reporter genes. Pretreatment of eupatolide inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation and degradation of I kappaB alpha, and phosphorylation of RelA/p65 on Ser-536 as well as the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Akt in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Eupatolide induced proteasomal degradation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), and subsequently inhibited LPS-induced TRAF6 polyubiquitination. These results suggest that eupatolide blocks LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression at the transcriptional level through inhibiting the signaling pathways such as NF-kappaB and MAPKs via proteasomal degradation of TRAF6. Taken together, eupatolide may be a novel anti-inflammatory agent that induces proteasomal degradation of TRAF6, and a valuable compound for modulating inflammatory conditions. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A mouse model of pathological small intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and shedding induced by systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M. Williams

    2013-11-01

    The gut barrier, composed of a single layer of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs held together by tight junctions, prevents the entrance of harmful microorganisms, antigens and toxins from the gut lumen into the blood. Small intestinal homeostasis is normally maintained by the rate of shedding of senescent enterocytes from the villus tip exactly matching the rate of generation of new cells in the crypt. However, in various localized and systemic inflammatory conditions, intestinal homeostasis can be disturbed as a result of increased IEC shedding. Such pathological IEC shedding can cause transient gaps to develop in the epithelial barrier and result in increased intestinal permeability. Although pathological IEC shedding has been implicated in the pathogenesis of conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains limited. We have therefore developed a murine model to study this phenomenon, because IEC shedding in this species is morphologically analogous to humans. IEC shedding was induced by systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS administration in wild-type C57BL/6 mice, and in mice deficient in TNF-receptor 1 (Tnfr1−/−, Tnfr2 (Tnfr2−/−, nuclear factor kappa B1 (Nfκb1−/− or Nfĸb2 (Nfĸb2−/−. Apoptosis and cell shedding was quantified using immunohistochemistry for active caspase-3, and gut-to-circulation permeability was assessed by measuring plasma fluorescence following fluorescein-isothiocyanate–dextran gavage. LPS, at doses ≥0.125 mg/kg body weight, induced rapid villus IEC apoptosis, with peak cell shedding occurring at 1.5 hours after treatment. This coincided with significant villus shortening, fluid exudation into the gut lumen and diarrhea. A significant increase in gut-to-circulation permeability was observed at 5 hours. TNFR1 was essential for LPS-induced IEC apoptosis and shedding, and the fate of the IECs was also dependent on NFκB, with signaling via NFκB1 favoring cell survival and

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of the Salvia sclarea L. ethanolic extract on lipopolysaccharide-induced periodontitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Milica; Kitić, Dušanka; Petrović, Milica B; Jevtović-Stoimenov, Tatjana; Jović, Marko; Petrović, Aleksandar; Živanović, Slavoljub

    2017-03-06

    Salvia sclarea L., clary, is an aromatic plant traditionally used in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases and conditions. Although it has been primarily used as a stomachic, there are data on traditional use of S. sclarea as an agent against gingivitis, stomatitis and aphthae. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of the S. sclarea ethanolic extract on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced periodontitis in rats from the immunological and histopathological standpoint. Periodontal inflammation in rats was induced by repeated injections of LPS from Escherichia coli into the interdental papilla between the first and second right maxillary molars. The extract was administered two times a day by oral gavage (200mg/kg body weight). The inflammatory status was assessed by the measurements of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) of gingival tissues and descriptive analysis of histological sections of periodontium. Chemical characterization of the extract was determined using high performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC). Antioxidant activity of the extract was estimated with two in vitro complementary methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and β-carotene/linoleic acid models. Treatment with S. sclarea extract, compared to the untreated group of the rats, significantly diminished the process of inflammation decreasing the levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, reducing the gingival tissue lesions and preserving bone alveolar resorption. Considerably smaller number of inflammatory cells and larger number of fibroblasts was noticed. The administration of the extract three days earlier did not have significant preventive effects. Rosmarinic acid was the predominant compound in the extract. The extract showed strong antioxidant effects in both test systems. S. sclarea extract manifested anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-induced periodontitis suggesting that it may have a role as a

  20. Single-wall carbon nanohorns inhibited activation of microglia induced by lipopolysaccharide through blocking of Sirt3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lihong; Zhang, Jinqian; Yang, Yang; Wang, Qiang; Gao, Li; Yang, Yanlong; Chang, Tao; Zhang, Xingye; Xiang, Guoan; Cao, Yongmei; Shi, Zujin; Zhao, Ming; Gao, Guodong

    2013-02-01

    Single-wall carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) have been demonstrated to accumulate in cytotoxic levels within organs of various animal models and cell types, which emerge as a wide range of promising biomedical imaging. Septic encephalopathy (SE) is an early sign of sepsis and associated with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality. Microglia activation plays an important role in neuroinflammation, which contributes to neuronal damage. Inhibition of microglia activation may have therapeutic benefits, which can alleviate the progression of neurodegeneration. Therefore, we investigated the functional changes of mice microglia cell lines pre-treated with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced by SWNHs. To address this question, the research about direct role of SWNHs on the growth, proliferation, and apoptosis of microglia cell lines in mice (N9 and BV2) pre-treated with or without LPS had been performed. Our results indicate that the particle diameter of SWNHs in water is between 342 to 712 nm. The images in scanning electron microscope showed that SWNHs on polystyrene surface are individual particles. LPS induced activation of mice microglia, promoted its growth and proliferation, and inhibited its apoptosis. SWNHs inhibited proliferation, delayed mitotic entry, and promoted apoptosis of mice microglia cells. The effects followed gradually increasing cultured time and concentrations of SWNHs, especially in cells pre-treated with LPS. SWNHs induced a significantly increase in G1 phase and inhibition of S phase of mice microglia cells in a dose-manner dependent of SWNHs, especially in cells pre-treated with LPS. The transmission electron microscope images showed that individual spherical SWNH particles smaller than 100 nm in diameters were localized inside lysosomes of mice microglia cells. SWNHs inhibited mitotic entry, growth and proliferation of mice microglia cells, and promoted its apoptosis, especially in cells pre-treated with LPS. SWNHs inhibited expression

  1. Curcumin protects dopaminergic neurons against inflammation-mediated damage and improves motor dysfunction induced by single intranigral lipopolysaccharide injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Sharma, Sheetal; Nehru, Bimla

    2017-06-01

    Various studies have indicated a lower incidence and prevalence of neurological conditions in people consuming curcumin. The ability of curcumin to target multiple cascades, simultaneously, could be held responsible for its neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to investigate the potential of curcumin in minimizing microglia-mediated damage in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced model of PD. Altered microglial functions and increased inflammatory profile of the CNS have severe behavioral consequences. In the current investigation, a single injection of LPS (5 ug/5 µl PBS) was injected into the substantia nigra (SN) of rats, and curcumin [40 mg/kg b.wt (i.p.)] was administered daily for a period of 21 days. LPS triggered an inflammatory response characterized by glial activation [Iba-1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)] and pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-1β) leading to extensive dopaminergic loss and behavioral abnormality in rats. The behavioral observations, biochemical markers, quantification of dopamine and its metabolites (DOPAC and HVA) using HPLC followed by IHC of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were evaluated after 21 days of LPS injection. Curcumin supplementation prevented dopaminergic degeneration in LPS-treated animals by normalizing the altered levels of biomarkers. Also, a significant improvement in TH levels as well as behavioral parameters (actophotometer, rotarod, beam walking and grid walking tests) were seen in LPS injected rats. Curcumin shielded the dopaminergic neurons against LPS-induced inflammatory response, which was associated with suppression of glial activation (microglia and astrocytes) and transcription factor NF-κB as depicted from RT-PCR and EMSA assay. Curcumin also suppressed microglial NADPH oxidase activation as observed from NADPH oxidase activity. The results suggested that one of the important mechanisms by which curcumin mediates its protective effects in the LPS-induced PD

  2. Ameliorating effects of traditional Chinese medicine on lipopolysaccharide -induced microcirculatory disturbances and organ injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Pan, Chun-Sui; Li, Quan; Furukawa, Osamu; Fan, Jing-Yu; Han, Jing-Yan

    2015-03-16

    Gram-negative bacteria are one of the major pathogens associated with severe sepsis and septic shock. LPS is a component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, which causes a systemic, uncontrolled inflammatory response in infected subjects. In microcirculation it manifests multiple insults, including leukocyte and platelet adhesion, ROS and protease overproduction, mast cell degranulation, endothelium hyperpermeabilty, hemorrhage, and microthrombi formation, ultimately results in multiorgan dysfunction, DIC, refractory shock and even death. TCM has been used in China, Korea, Japan and other Asian countries for treatment of a wide range of diseases. In China, the usage of compound traditional preparation to treat inflammation-related diseases dates back to the Han Dynasty and the medical formulary had been developed thousands of years before, which recorded a great number of classical prescriptions for treatment with infectious diseases. This review will summarize the up to date works with respect to the ameliorating effects of compound and single traditional Chinese medicine and active components on LPS-induced inflammation, including clinical trial and experimental studies regarding multiorgan injury and underlying mechanisms.

  3. Structural effects of the Azospirillum lipopolysaccharides in cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matora, L Y; Serebrennikova, O B; Shchyogolev, S Y

    2001-01-01

    The structural influence of Azospirillum lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes (LPPC) on carrot, erythrocyte, and bacterial cell suspensions was explored. The structural potentialities of O-specific polysaccharide fragments of LPS and protein fractions of LPPC were also evaluated. An ability to induce the formation of three kinds of structures in the cell suspensions was revealed depending on the chemical composition of the preparations used. The first and the second ones were connected with effects of cell aggregation (a relatively fast process) and agglutination (a relatively slow process). The third one resulted in phase separation of erythrocyte suspensions (a medium-speed process), with segregating the cells to a separate homogeneous liquid phase.

  4. Comparative effects of the herbal constituent parthenolide (Feverfew on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory gene expression in murine spleen and liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolinski Alexa T

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parthenolide, a major sesquiterpene lactone present in extracts of the herb Feverfew, has been investigated for its inhibitory effects on mediators of inflammation, including the proinflammatory cytokines. Although parthenolide's anti-inflammatory effects have been investigated in vitro, little in vivo data are available. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms for these inhibitory effects are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that parthenolide suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced serum (interleukin IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, IL-1β and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression in mice as indicated by reduced splenic and liver mRNA levels. Methods Mice were co-treated i.p. with LPS (1 mg/kg bw and parthenolide (5 mg/kg bw and blood, spleen and liver collected. Serum was analyzed for IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β by ELISA. Total RNA was extracted from spleen and liver, and real-time RT-PCR was used to determine relative mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and COX-2. Results LPS induced increases in serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations with only IL-6 being suppressed in parthenolide-treated mice. Induction of IL-6 mRNA was reduced, TNF-α and COX-2 mRNAs unchanged, and IL-1β mRNA increased in spleens of parthenolide plus LPS co-treated animals compared to LPS-only. No significant differences were observed in inflammatory gene expression between these two groups in liver samples. Overall, mRNA expression of each proinflammatory gene was much higher in spleen when compared to liver. Conclusion In summary, only one gene, IL-6, was modestly suppressed by parthenolide co-exposure which contrasts with many in vitro studies suggesting anti-inflammatory effects of this compound. Also, LPS evoked greater effects in spleen than liver on expression of proinflammatory genes. Further study of the effects of parthenolide and other herbal constituents on inflammatory gene expression using model

  5. Genistein suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in macrophages and attenuates alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Bae, Seung Han; Ha, Min Hee; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2016-02-01

    Genistein is a major isoflavone subclass of flavonoids found in soybean and a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor. The present study aimed to assess the effect of genistein on the production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen associated with different forms of periodontal disease, and to evaluate its possible influence on alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis as well. LPS was isolated from P. intermedia ATCC 25611 by using the standard hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were analyzed for nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) protein expression was evaluated by immunoblot analysis. Real-time PCR was carried out to measure iNOS and IL-6 mRNA expression. In addition, effect of genistein on alveolar bone loss was evaluated in a rat model of experimental periodontitis using micro-CT analysis. Genistein significantly attenuated P. intermedia LPS-induced production of iNOS-derived NO and IL-6 with attendant decrease in their mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, when genistein was administered to rats, decreases in alveolar bone height and bone volume fraction induced by ligature placement were significantly inhibited. Genistein administration also prevented ligature-induced alterations in the microstructural parameters of trabecular bone, including trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, bone mineral density and structure model index. While additional studies are required, we suggest that genistein could be utilized for the therapy of human periodontitis in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Participation of MCP-induced protein 1 in lipopolysaccharide preconditioning-induced ischemic stroke tolerance by regulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Jian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipopolysaccharide (LPS preconditioning-induced neuroprotection is known to be related to suppression of the inflammatory response in the ischemic area. This study seeks to determine if monocyte chemotactic protein-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1, a recently identified CCCH Zn finger-containing protein, plays a role in focal brain ischemia and to elucidate the mechanisms of LPS-induced ischemic brain tolerance. Methods Transcription and expression of MCPIP1 gene was monitored by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Mouse microglia was prepared from cortices of C57BL/6 mouse brain and primary human microglia was acquired from Clonexpress, Inc. Wild type and MCPIP1 knockout mice were treated with LPS (0.2 mg/kg 24 hours before brain ischemia induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO. The infarct was measured by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC staining. Results MCPIP1 protein and mRNA levels significantly increased in both mouse and human microglia and mouse brain undergoing LPS preconditioning. MCPIP1 mRNA level significantly increased in mice ipsilateral brain than that of contralateral side after MCAO. The mortality of MCPIP1 knockout mice was significantly higher than that of wild-type after MCAO. MCPIP1 deficiency caused significant increase in the infarct volume compared with wild type mice undergoing LPS preconditioning. MCPIP1 deficiency caused significant upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in mouse brain. Furthermore, MCPIP1 deficiency increased c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK activation substantially. Inhibition of JNK signaling decreased the production of proinflammatory cytokines in MCPIP1 knock out mice after MCAO. Conclusions Our data indicate that absence of MCPIP1 exacerbates ischemic brain damage by upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and that MCPIP1 participates in LPS-induced ischemic stroke tolerance.

  7. Cytochrome P4502E1 inhibitor, chlormethiazole, decreases lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in rat Kupffer cells with ethanol treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    To investigate the role of Cytochrome P4502E1 in sensitizing Kupffer cells to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation after ethanol induction. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid ethanol diet, control diet or ethanol diet supplemented with CYP2E1 inhibitor, chlormethiazole (CMZ), for 4'week...

  8. Role of CD14 in a Mouse Model of Acute Lung Inflammation Induced by Different Lipopolysaccharide Chemotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anas, Adam A.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; de Vos, Alex F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Recognition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is required for effective defense against invading gram-negative bacteria. Recently, in vitro studies revealed that CD14 is required for activation of the myeloid differentiation factor (MyD)88-dependent Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 signaling pathway

  9. Lipopolysaccharide induces expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha in rat brain : inhibition by methylprednisolone and by rolipram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttini, M; Mir, A; Appel, K; Wiederhold, KH; Limonta, S; GebickeHaerter, PJ; Boddeke, HWGM

    1997-01-01

    1 We have investigated the effects of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) type TV inhibitor rolipram and of the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone on the induction of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA and protein in brains of rats after peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). 2

  10. The acute phase response induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide modifies the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of florfenicol in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, R; Palma, C; Burgos, R; Jeldres, J A; Espinoza, A; Peñailillo, A K

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute phase response (APR) on the pharmaco-kinetics and biotransformation of florfenicol (FFC) in rabbits. Six rabbits (3.0 ± 0.08 kg body weight (bw)) were distributed through a crossover design with 4 weeks of washout period. Pairs of rabbits similar in bw and sex were assigned to experimental groups: Group 1 (LPS) was treated with three intravenous doses of 1 μg/kg bw of E. coli LPS at intervals of 6 h, and Group 2 (control) was treated with an equivalent volume of saline solution (SS) at the same intervals and frequency of Group 1. At 24 h after the first injection of LPS or SS, an intravenous bolus of 20 mg/kg bw of FFC was administered. Blood samples were collected from the auricular vein before drug administration and at different times between 0.05 and 24.0 h after treatment. FFC and florfenicol-amine (FFC-a) were extracted from the plasma, and their concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A noncompartmental pharmacokinetic model was used for data analysis, and data were compared using the paired Student t-test. The mean values of AUC0-∞ in the endotoxaemic rabbits (26.3 ± 2.7 μg·h/mL) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than values observed in healthy rabbits (17.2 ± 0.97 μg·h/mL). The total mean plasma clearance (CLT ) decreased from 1228 ± 107.5 mL·h/kg in the control group to 806.4 ± 91.4 mL·h/kg in the LPS-treated rabbits. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in the half-life of elimination was observed in the endotoxaemic rabbits (5.59 ± 1.14 h) compared to the values observed in healthy animals (3.44 ± 0.57 h). In conclusion, the administration of repeated doses of 1 μg/kg E. coli LPS induced an APR in rabbits, producing significant modifications in plasma concentrations of FFC leading to increases in the AUC, terminal half-life and mean residence time (MRT), but a

  11. Does heart rate variability reflect the systemic inflammatory response in a fetal sheep model of lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durosier, Lucien D; Cao, Mingju; Frasch, Martin G; Herry, Christophe L; Seely, Andrew J E; Cortes, Marina; Burns, Patrick; Desrochers, André; Fecteau, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Fetal inflammatory response occurs during chorioamnionitis, a frequent and often subclinical inflammation associated with increased risk for brain injury and life-lasting neurologic deficits. No means of early detection exist. We hypothesized that systemic fetal inflammation without septic shock will be reflected in alterations of fetal heart rate (FHR) variability (fHRV) distinguishing baseline versus inflammatory response states.In chronically instrumented near-term fetal sheep (n = 24), we induced an inflammatory response with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injected intravenously (n = 14). Ten additional fetuses served as controls. We measured fetal plasma inflammatory cytokine IL-6 at baseline, 1, 3, 6, 24 and 48 h. 44 fHRV measures were determined continuously every 5 min using continuous individualized multi-organ variability analysis (CIMVA). CIMVA creates an fHRV measures matrix across five signal-analytical domains, thus describing complementary properties of fHRV. Using principal component analysis (PCA), a widely used technique for dimensionality reduction, we derived and quantitatively compared the CIMVA fHRV PCA signatures of inflammatory response in LPS and control groups.In the LPS group, IL-6 peaked at 3 h. In parallel, PCA-derived fHRV composite measures revealed a significant difference between LPS and control group at different time points. For the LPS group, a sharp increase compared to baseline levels was observed between 3 h and 6 h, and then abating to baseline levels, thus tracking closely the IL-6 inflammatory profile. This pattern was not observed in the control group. We also show that a preselection of fHRV measures prior to the PCA can potentially increase the difference between LPS and control groups, as early as 1 h post LPS injection.We propose a fHRV composite measure that correlates well with levels of inflammation and tracks well its temporal profile. Our results highlight the potential role of HRV to study and monitor the

  12. On the translocation of bacteria and their lipopolysaccharides between blood and peripheral locations in chronic, inflammatory diseases: the central roles of LPS and LPS-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Douglas B; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2015-11-01

    We have recently highlighted (and added to) the considerable evidence that blood can contain dormant bacteria. By definition, such bacteria may be resuscitated (and thus proliferate). This may occur under conditions that lead to or exacerbate chronic, inflammatory diseases that are normally considered to lack a microbial component. Bacterial cell wall components, such as the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Gram-negative strains, are well known as potent inflammatory agents, but should normally be cleared. Thus, their continuing production and replenishment from dormant bacterial reservoirs provides an easy explanation for the continuing, low-grade inflammation (and inflammatory cytokine production) that is characteristic of many such diseases. Although experimental conditions and determinants have varied considerably between investigators, we summarise the evidence that in a great many circumstances LPS can play a central role in all of these processes, including in particular cell death processes that permit translocation between the gut, blood and other tissues. Such localised cell death processes might also contribute strongly to the specific diseases of interest. The bacterial requirement for free iron explains the strong co-existence in these diseases of iron dysregulation, LPS production, and inflammation. Overall this analysis provides an integrative picture, with significant predictive power, that is able to link these processes via the centrality of a dormant blood microbiome that can resuscitate and shed cell wall components.

  13. Enterobacter agglomerans lipopolysaccharide-induced changes in pulmonary surfactant as a factor in the pathogenesis of byssinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucca, A J; Brogden, K A; Engen, R

    1988-04-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Enterobacter agglomerans and pulmonary surfactant mixtures were centrifuged in discontinuous sucrose gradients to determine whether LPS bound to surfactant and examined in a Langmuir trough with a Wilhelmy balance to determine whether LPS altered the surface activity of surfactant. The LPS was found to bind to the surfactant and altered its surface tension properties. The binding of LPS to surfactant in the lung may change the physiological properties of surfactant and be a possible mechanism for the pathogenesis of byssinosis.

  14. A low-level diode laser therapy reduces the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced periodontal ligament cell inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T H; Chen, C C; Liu, S L; Lu, Y C; Kao, C T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytologic effects of inflammatory periodontal ligament cells in vitro after low-level laser therapy. Human periodontal ligament cells were cultured, exposed to lipopolysaccharide and subjected to low-level laser treatment of 5 J cm −2 or 10 J cm −2 using a 920 nm diode laser. A periodontal ligament cell attachment was observed under a microscope, and the cell viability was quantified by a mitochondrial colorimetric assay. Lipopolysaccharide-treated periodontal ligament cells were irradiated with the low-level laser, and the expression levels of several inflammatory markers, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-1, and pErk kinase, were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The data were collected and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance; p < 0.05 indicated a statistically significant difference. The low-level laser treatment of periodontal ligament cells increased their ability to attach and survive. After irradiation, the expression levels of iNOS, TNF-α and IL-1 in lipopolysaccharide-exposed periodontal ligament cells decreased over time (p < 0.05). In periodontal ligament cells, low-level diode laser treatment increased the cells’ proliferative ability and decreased the expression of the examined inflammatory mediators. (letters)

  15. Attenuation of Neuroinflammatory Responses in Lipopolysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chenopodiaceae) extract on neuroinflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in BV-2 microglial cells and its antioxidant effects. Methods: Biochemical studies carried out include 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyl-tetrazolium ...

  16. The lipopolysaccharide lipid-a long chain fatty acid is important for rhizobium leguminosarum growth and stress adaptation in free-living and nodule environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizobium bacteria live in soil and plant environments, are capable of inducing symbiotic nodules on legumes, invade these nodules, and develop into bacteroids that fix atmospheric nitrogen into ammonium. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is anchored in the bacterial outer membrane through a specialized lipi...

  17. Sclareol exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in both lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and the λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guan-Jhong; Pan, Chun-Hsu; Wu, Chieh-Hsi

    2012-01-27

    Sclareol (1) is a natural fragrance compound used widely in the cosmetic and food industries. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages and the λ-carrageenan-induced edema mouse paw model were applied to examine the anti-inflammatory potential of 1 and its possible molecular mechanisms. The experimental results obtained demonstrated that this compound inhibited cell growth, nitric oxide (NO) production, and the expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Compound 1 also reduced paw edema, the tissue content of NO, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), malondialdehyde (MDA), iNOS and COX-2 protein expression, and neutrophil infiltration within the tissues after λ-carrageenan stimulation. The present study suggests that the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of 1 might be related to a decrease of inflammatory cytokines and an increase of antioxidant enzyme activity.

  18. The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Exendin-4 Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption via Inhibition of TNF-α Expression in Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ren Shen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor agonists are an effective treatment approach for type 2 diabetes. Recently, anti-inflammatory effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists have also been reported. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces inflammation and osteoclast formation. In this study, we investigated the effect of exendin-4, a widely used GLP-1 receptor agonist, in LPS-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. LPS with or without exendin-4 was administered on mouse calvariae by daily subcutaneous injection. The number of osteoclasts, the ratio of bone resorption pits, and the level of C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX were significantly lower in LPS- and exendin-4-coadministered mice than in mice administered with LPS alone. RANKL and TNF-α mRNA expression levels were lower in the exendin-4- and LPS-coadministered group than in the LPS-administered group. Our in vitro results showed no direct effects of exendin-4 on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, TNF-α-induced osteoclast formation, or LPS-induced RANKL expression in stromal cells. Conversely, TNF-α mRNA expression was inhibited in the exendin-4- and LPS-cotreated macrophages compared with cells treated with LPS alone. These results indicate that the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 may inhibit LPS-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption by inhibiting LPS-induced TNF-α production in macrophages.

  19. Deciphering the dual effect of lipopolysaccharides from plant pathogenic Pectobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Kettani-Halabi; Daniel, Tran; Aurélien, Dauphin; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Rafik, Errakhi; Arbelet-Bonnin, Delphine; Biligui, Bernadette; Florence, Val; Mustapha, Ennaji Moulay; François, Bouteau

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are a component of the outer cell surface of almost all Gram-negative bacteria and play an essential role for bacterial growth and survival. Lipopolysaccharides represent typical microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules and have been reported to induce defense-related responses, including the expression of defense genes and the suppression of the hypersensitive response in plants. However, depending on their origin and the challenged plant, LPS were shown to have complex and different roles. In this study we showed that LPS from plant pathogens Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum induce common and different responses in A. thaliana cells when compared to those induced by LPS from non-phytopathogens Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among common responses to both types of LPS are the transcription of defense genes and their ability to limit of cell death induced by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp carotovorum. However, the differential kinetics and amplitude in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation seemed to regulate defense gene transcription and be determinant to induce programmed cell death in response to LPS from the plant pathogenic Pectobacterium. These data suggest that different signaling pathways could be activated by LPS in A. thaliana cells.

  20. Neocryptotanshinone inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 macrophages by suppression of NF-κB and iNOS signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhong Wu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neocryptotanshinone (NCTS is a natural product isolated from traditional Chinese herb Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. In this study, we investigated its anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage (RAW264.7 cells. MTT results showed that NCTS partly reversed LPS-induced cytotoxicity. Real-time PCR results showed that NCTS suppressed LPS-induced mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1β (IL-1β. Moreover, NCTS could decrease LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production. Western blotting results showed that NCTS could down-regulate LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, p-IκBα, p-IKKβ and p-NF-κB p65 without affecting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. In addition, NCTS inhibited LPS-induced p-NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that NCTS showed anti-inflammatory effect by suppression of NF-κB and iNOS signaling pathways.

  1. Diet-induced obesity progressively alters cognition, anxiety-like behavior and lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior: focus on brain indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Caroline; Dinel, Anne-Laure; Ferreira, Guillaume; Layé, Sophie; Castanon, Nathalie

    2014-10-01

    Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of mood symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions that emerges as significant risk factors for important health complications such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. It is therefore important to identify the dynamic of development and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these neuropsychiatric symptoms. Obesity is also associated with peripheral low-grade inflammation and increased susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases. Excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines and the resulting activation of the brain tryptophan catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) have been shown to promote neurobehavioral complications, particularly depression. In that context, questions arise about the impact of diet-induced obesity on the onset of neuropsychiatric alterations and the increased susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases displayed by obese patients, particularly through brain IDO activation. To answer these questions, we used C57Bl/6 mice exposed to standard diet or western diet (WD; consisting of palatable energy-dense food) since weaning and for 20 weeks. We then measured inflammatory and behavioral responses to a systemic immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in experimental conditions known to alter cognitive and emotional behaviors independently of any motor impairment. We first showed that in absence of LPS, 9 weeks of WD is sufficient to impair spatial recognition memory (in the Y-maze). On the other hand, 18 weeks of WD increased anxiety-like behavior (in the elevated plus-maze), but did not affect depressive-like behavior (in the tail-suspension and forced-swim tests). However, 20 weeks of WD altered LPS-induced depressive-like behavior compared to LPS-treated lean mice and exacerbated hippocampal and hypothalamic proinflammatory cytokine expression and brain IDO activation. Taken together, these results show that WD exposure alters cognition and anxiety in unstimulated

  2. Lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells : Intracellular localization of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta detected with a three-color immunofluorescence technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBont, ESJM; Niemarkt, AE; Tamminga, RYJ; Kimpen, JLL; Kamps, WA; deLeij, LHMF

    1996-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce monocytes to produce various cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta). In the present study, the kinetics of both intracellular and extra cellular accumulation of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta in LPS stimulated

  3. A membrane basis for bacterial identification and discrimination using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehse, Steven J.; Jeyasingham, Narmatha; Diedrich, Jonathan; Palchaudhuri, Sunil

    2009-05-01

    Nanosecond single-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to discriminate between two different genera of Gram-negative bacteria and between several strains of the Escherichia coli bacterium based on the relative concentration of trace inorganic elements in the bacteria. Of particular importance in all such studies to date has been the role of divalent cations, specifically Ca2+ and Mg2+, which are present in the membranes of Gram-negative bacteria and act to aggregate the highly polar lipopolysaccharide molecules. We have demonstrated that the source of emission from Ca and Mg atoms observed in LIBS plasmas from bacteria is at least partially located at the outer membrane by intentionally altering membrane biochemistry and correlating these changes with the observed changes in the LIBS spectra. The definitive assignment of some fraction of the LIBS emission to the outer membrane composition establishes a potential serological, or surface-antigen, basis for the laser-based identification. E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were cultured in three nutrient media: trypticase soy agar as a control, a MacConkey agar with a 0.01% concentration of bile salts including sodium deoxycholate, and a trypticase soy agar with a 0.4% deoxycholate concentration. The higher concentration of deoxycholate is known to disrupt bacterial outer membrane integrity and was expected to induce changes in the observed LIBS spectra. Altered LIBS emission was observed for bacteria cultured in this 0.4% medium and laser ablated in an all-argon environment. These spectra evidenced a reduced calcium emission and in the case of one species, a reduced magnesium emission. Culturing on the lower (0.01%) concentration of bile salts altered the LIBS spectra for both the P. aeruginosa and two strains of E. coli in a highly reproducible way, although not nearly as significantly as culturing in the higher concentration of deoxycholate did. This was possibly due to the accumulation

  4. Curcumin Protects against 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium Ion- and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cytotoxicities in the Mouse Mesencephalic Astrocyte via Inhibiting the Cytochrome P450 2E1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Gui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin is extracted from the rhizomes of the ginger family plant Curcuma longa L., which has a good protection for liver, kidney, and immune system. However, there is little information about its contribution in protection of astrocytes recently. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the protective effect of curcumin, an herbal antioxidant, on 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion- (MPP+- and lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced cytotoxicities, as well as the underlying mechanisms by using primary mouse mesencephalic astrocytes. The results showed that curcumin protected the mesencephalic astrocytes from MPP+- and LPS-induced toxicities along with reducing reactive oxygen species (P<0.05 and maleic dialdehyde (P<0.05 sufficiently. Moreover, curcumin significantly inhibited the cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1 expression (P<0.01 at mRNA level, P<0.05 at protein level and its activity (P<0.05 sufficiently induced by MPP+ and LPS in the mouse mesencephalic astrocytes. And curcumin as well as diallyl sulphide, a CYP2E1 positive inhibitor, ameliorated MPP+- and LPS-induced mouse mesencephalic astrocytes damage. Accordingly, curcumin protects against MPP+- and LPS-induced cytotoxicities in the mouse mesencephalic astrocyte via inhibiting the CYP2E1 expression and activity.

  5. Anti-inflammatory homoeopathic drug dilutions restrain lipopolysaccharide-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines: In vitro and in vivo evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh B Mahajan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced cytokine release and oxidative stress are validated experimental parameters used to test anti-inflammatory activity. We investigated the effects of homoeopathic mother tinctures, 6 CH, 30 CH and 200 CH dilutions of Arnica montana, Thuja occidentalis and Bryonia alba against LPS (1 μg/ml-induced cytokine release from RAW-264.7 cells and human whole-blood culture. Materials and Methods: For in vivo evaluations, mice were orally treated with 0.1 ml drug dilutions twice a day for 5 days followed by an intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 mg/kg LPS. After 24 h, the mice were sacrificed and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide were determined. The extent of oxidative stress was determined in the liver homogenates as contents of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Results: The tested drug dilutions significantly reduced in vitro LPS-induced release of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1 and IL-6 from the RAW-264.7 cells and human whole blood culture. Similar suppression of cytokines was evident in mice serum samples. These drugs also protected mice from the LPS-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue. Conclusions: Our findings substantiate the protective effects of Arnica, Thuja and Bryonia homoeopathic dilutions against LPS-induced cytokine elevations and oxidative stress. This study authenticates the claims of anti-inflammatory efficacy of these homoeopathic drugs.

  6. Maturation of human dendritic cells by monocyte-conditioned medium is dependent upon trace amounts of lipopolysaccharide inducing tumour necrosis factor alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nersting, Jacob; Svenson, Morten; Andersen, Vagn

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the ability of monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM), generated by monocytes cultured on plastic-immobilised immunoglobulin, to stimulate maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). Earlier reports suggest that MCM is a strong inducer of irreversible DC maturation......, whereas we find, that adding a small amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to the MCM-generating cultures is required for the production of a DC-stimulatory MCM. Moreover, compared with addition of LPS directly to the DC cultures, stimulation via MCM cultures increases by several fold the DC......-stimulatory potency of LPS. Maturation by this procedure is mediated mainly by tumour necrosis factor alpha secreted from monocytes during the medium-conditioning period....

  7. Synthesis and evaluation of new α-methylene-γ-lactone carbamates with NO production inhibitory effects in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wen-Hao; Chen, Bing-Yang; Cheng, Xiang-Rong; Yuan, Hu; Chen, Hao; Chang, Wan-Lin; Ye, Ji; Lin, Shan; Sun, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2015-03-26

    A series of new α-methylene-γ-lactone carbamates were synthesized by an asymmetric synthetic route. The activities on inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) release of these compounds were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The results indicated that most of the compounds except one exhibited potent NO inhibitory effect with IC50 value more than 2 μΜ. The cytotoxicities of these compounds were estimated via MTT assays. The results suggested that six compounds were accompanied by low cytotoxicity. The structure-activity relationships were also discussed. The S configuration of C3 on lactones ring would be more helpful to NO inhibitory effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal pattern and effect of sex on lipopolysaccharide-induced stress hormone and cytokine response in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P N; Collier, C T; Carroll, J A; Welsh, T H; Laurenz, J C

    2009-10-01

    The temporal pattern and sex effect of immune and stress hormone responses to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge were assessed using a pig model. Secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 increased in a time-dependent manner following LPS infusion. There was also a time-dependent increase in secretion of the stress-related hormones cortisol, epinephrine (E), and norepinephrine (NE) following LPS, with peak concentrations attained within 30 min. The magnitude of the TNF-alpha and IL-1beta responses were both positively associated (P immune cells in circulation was decreased (P immune cell counts increased (P gilts at 24h post-LPS (P immune- and stress-related hormones.

  9. NCX 4040, a nitric oxide-donating aspirin derivative, inhibits Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Park, Hae Ryoun; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2015-12-05

    In this study, the effects and underlying mechanisms of NCX 4040, a nitric oxide (NO)-donating aspirin derivative, on the production of proinflammatory mediators were examined using murine macrophages exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen implicated in the etiology of periodontal disease. NCX 4040 significantly reduced P. intermedia LPS-induced production of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as their mRNA expression in RAW264.7 cells. Notably, NCX 4040 was much more effective than the parental compound aspirin in reducing LPS-induced production of inflammatory mediators. NCX 4040 induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cells treated with P. intermedia LPS, and the suppressive effect of NCX 4040 on LPS-induced NO production was significantly reversed by SnPP, a competitive HO-1 inhibitor. NCX 4040 did not influence LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38. IκB-α degradation as well as nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activities of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits induced by P. intermedia LPS were significantly reduced by NCX 4040. Besides, LPS-induced phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 was significantly down-regulated by NCX 4040. Further, NCX 4040 elevated the SOCS1 mRNA in cells stimulated with LPS. This study indicates that NCX 4040 inhibits P. intermedia LPS-induced production of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 in murine macrophages through anti-inflammatory HO-1 induction and suppression of NF-κB, STAT1 and STAT3 activation, which is associated with the activation of SOCS1 signaling. NCX 4040 could potentially be a promising tool in the treatment of periodontal disease, although further studies are required to verify this. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phenylpropanoid Defences in Nicotiana tabacum Cells: Overlapping Metabolomes Indicate Common Aspects to Priming Responses Induced by Lipopolysaccharides, Chitosan and Flagellin-22.

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    Msizi I Mhlongo

    Full Text Available Plants have evolved both constitutive and inducible defence strategies to cope with different biotic stimuli and stresses. Exposure of a plant to a challenging stress can lead to a primed state that allows it to launch a more rapid and stronger defence. Here we applied a metabolomic approach to study and compare the responses induced in Nicotiana tabacum cells by microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP molecules, namely lipopolysaccharides (LPS, chitosan (CHT and flagellin-22 (FLG22. Early response metabolites, extracted with methanol, were analysed by UHPLC-MS/MS. Using multivariate statistical tools the metabolic profiles induced by these elicitors were analysed. In the metabolic fingerprint of these agents a total of 19 cinnamic acid derivatives conjugated to quinic acids (chlorogenic acids, shikimic acid, tyramine, polyamines or glucose were found as discriminant biomarkers. In addition, treatment with the phytohormones salicylic acid (SA, methyljasmonic acid (MJ and abscisic acid (ABA resulted in differentially-induced phenylpropanoid pathway metabolites. The results indicate that the phenylpropanoid pathway is activated by these elicitors while hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives are commonly associated with the metabolic response to the MAMPs, and that the activated responses are modulated by both SA and MJ, with ABA not playing a role.

  11. Andrographolide sulfonate ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by down-regulating MAPK and NF-κB pathways.

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    Peng, Shuang; Hang, Nan; Liu, Wen; Guo, Wenjie; Jiang, Chunhong; Yang, Xiaoling; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2016-05-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe, life-threatening medical condition characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs, and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the patient population. New therapies for the treatment of ALI are desperately needed. In the present study, we examined the effect of andrographolide sulfonate, a water-soluble form of andrographolide (trade name: Xi-Yan-Ping Injection), on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI and inflammation. Andrographolide sulfonate was administered by intraperitoneal injection to mice with LPS-induced ALI. LPS-induced airway inflammatory cell recruitment and lung histological alterations were significantly ameliorated by andrographolide sulfonate. Protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum were reduced by andrographolide sulfonate administration. mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue were also suppressed. Moreover, andrographolide sulfonate markedly suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) as well as p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In summary, these results suggest that andrographolide sulfonate ameliorated LPS-induced ALI in mice by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK-mediated inflammatory responses. Our study shows that water-soluble andrographolide sulfonate may represent a new therapeutic approach for treating inflammatory lung disorders.

  12. Andrographolide sulfonate ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice by down-regulating MAPK and NF-κB pathways

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    Shuang Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a severe, life-threatening medical condition characterized by widespread inflammation in the lungs, and is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the patient population. New therapies for the treatment of ALI are desperately needed. In the present study, we examined the effect of andrographolide sulfonate, a water-soluble form of andrographolide (trade name: Xi-Yan-Ping Injection, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ALI and inflammation. Andrographolide sulfonate was administered by intraperitoneal injection to mice with LPS-induced ALI. LPS-induced airway inflammatory cell recruitment and lung histological alterations were significantly ameliorated by andrographolide sulfonate. Protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and serum were reduced by andrographolide sulfonate administration. mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue were also suppressed. Moreover, andrographolide sulfonate markedly suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK as well as p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB. In summary, these results suggest that andrographolide sulfonate ameliorated LPS-induced ALI in mice by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK-mediated inflammatory responses. Our study shows that water-soluble andrographolide sulfonate may represent a new therapeutic approach for treating inflammatory lung disorders.

  13. Effects of intermittent fasting on age-related changes on Na,K-ATPase activity and oxidative status induced by lipopolysaccharide in rat hippocampus.

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    Vasconcelos, Andrea Rodrigues; Kinoshita, Paula Fernanda; Yshii, Lidia Mitiko; Marques Orellana, Ana Maria; Böhmer, Ana Elisa; de Sá Lima, Larissa; Alves, Rosana; Andreotti, Diana Zukas; Marcourakis, Tania; Scavone, Cristoforo; Kawamoto, Elisa Mitiko

    2015-05-01

    Chronic neuroinflammation is a common characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling is linked to glutamate-nitric oxide-Na,K-ATPase isoforms pathway in central nervous system (CNS) and also causes neuroinflammation. Intermittent fasting (IF) induces adaptive responses in the brain that can suppress inflammation, but the age-related effect of IF on LPS modulatory influence on nitric oxide-Na,K-ATPase isoforms is unknown. This work compared the effects of LPS on the activity of α1,α2,3 Na,K-ATPase, nitric oxide synthase gene expression and/or activity, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, 3-nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, and levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in CNS of young and older rats submitted to the IF protocol for 30 days. LPS induced an age-related effect in neuronal nitric oxide synthase activity, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, and levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances in rat hippocampus that was linked to changes in α2,3-Na,K-ATPase activity, 3-nitrotyrosine proteins, and inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression. IF induced adaptative cellular stress-response signaling pathways reverting LPS effects in rat hippocampus of young and older rats. The results suggest that IF in both ages would reduce the risk for deficits on brain function and neurodegenerative disorders linked to inflammatory response in the CNS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pretreatment of Sialic Acid Efficiently Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Renal Failure and Suppresses TLR4/gp91-Mediated Apoptotic Signaling

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    Shih-Ping Hsu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS binding to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 activate NADPH oxidase gp91 subunit-mediated inflammation and oxidative damage. Recognizing the high binding affinity of sialic acid (SA with LPS, we further explored the preventive potential of SA pretreatment on LPS-evoked acute renal failure (ARF. Methods: We determined the effect of intravenous SA 30 min before LPS-induced injury in urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats by evaluating kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. Results: LPS time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation, and increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in the rats. LPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage infiltration and ROS production, and subsequently impaired kidneys with the enhancement of TLR4/NADPH oxidase gp91/Caspase 3/poly-(ADP-ribose-polymerase (PARP-mediated apoptosis in the kidneys. SA pretreatment effectively alleviated LPS-induced ARF. The levels of LPS-increased ED-1 infiltration and ROS production in the kidney were significantly depressed by SA pretreatment. Furthermore, SA pretreatment significantly depressed TLR4 activation, gp91 expression, and Caspase 3/PARP induced apoptosis in the kidneys. Conclusion: We suggest that pretreatment of SA significantly and preventively attenuated LPS-induced detrimental effects on systemic and renal hemodynamics, renal ROS production and renal function, as well as, LPS-activated TLR4/gp91/Caspase3 mediated apoptosis signaling.

  15. Curcumin attenuates lipopolysaccharide/d-galactosamine-induced acute liver injury by activating Nrf2 nuclear translocation and inhibiting NF-kB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi-Lian; Chu, Jin-Guo; Jian, Xiao-Min; Dong, Jin-Zhong; Wang, Li-Ping; Li, Guo-Xiang; Yang, Nai-Bin

    2017-07-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenol in curry spice isolated from the rhizome of turmeric, has been reported to possess versatile biological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antifibrotic, and anticancer activities. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of curcumin was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/d-galactosamine (d-GalN)-induced acute liver injury (ALI) in rats. Experimental ALI was induced with an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of sterile 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) solution containing 8μg LPS and 800mg/kg d-GalN. Curcumin was administered once daily starting three days prior to LPS/d-GalN treatment. Results indicated that curcumin could attenuate hepatic pathological damage, decrease serum ALT and AST levels, and reduce malondialdehyde (MDA) content in experimental ALI rats. Moreover, higher dosages of curcumin pretreatment inhibited NF-κB activation and reduced serum TNF-α and liver TNF-α levels induced by LPS/d-GalN ip injection. Furthermore, we found that curcumin up-regulated the expression of nuclear Nrf2 and Nrf2-dependent antioxidant defense genes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLC), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, and quinone (NQO-1) in a dose-dependent manner. Our results showed that curcumin protected experimental animals against LPS/d-GalN-induced ALI through activation of Nrf2 nuclear translocation and inhibition of NF-κB activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Arctigenin Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pulmonary Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in a Mouse Model via Suppression of MAPK, HO-1, and iNOS Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-zhou; Jiang, Zheng-kui; He, Bao-xia; Liu, Xian-ben

    2015-08-01

    Arctigenin, a bioactive component of Arctium lappa (Nubang), has anti-inflammatory activity. Here, we investigated the effects of arctigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS + DMSO, and LPS + Arctigenin. Mice in the LPS + Arctigenin group were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of arctigenin 1 h before an intratracheal administration of LPS (5 mg/kg). Lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) were collected. Histological changes of the lung were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Arctigenin decreased LPS-induced acute lung inflammation, infiltration of inflammatory cells into BALF, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, arctigenin pretreatment reduced the malondialdehyde level and increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and glutathione peroxidase/glutathione disulfide ratio in the lung. Mechanically, arctigenin significantly reduced the production of nitric oxygen and inducible nitric oxygen synthase (iNOS) expression, enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, and decreased the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Arctigenin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects on LPS-induced acute lung injury, which are associated with modulation of MAPK, HO-1, and iNOS signaling.

  17. Central CRTH2, a second prostaglandin D2 receptor, mediates emotional impairment in the lipopolysaccharide and tumor-induced sickness behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Ryota; Shintani, Norihito; Onaka, Yusuke; Kanoh, Takuya; Wang, Hyper; Takenaga, Risa; Hayata, Atsuko; Hirai, Hiroyuki; Nagata, Kin-ya; Nakamura, Masataka; Kasai, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Ryota; Nagayasu, Kazuki; Nakazawa, Takanobu; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Baba, Akemichi

    2014-02-12

    Chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on T helper type 2 cells (CRTH2) is a second prostaglandin D2 receptor involved in mediating the allergic response; however, its central function is not yet known. Here, we demonstrate that central CRTH2 mediates emotional impairment. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced decreases in social interaction and novel exploratory behavior were observed in wild-type (CRTH2(+/+)) mice but not CRTH2-deficient (CRTH2(-/-)) mice, but both genotypes showed hypolocomotion and anorexia following LPS injection. Tumor (colon 26) inoculation, a more pathologically relevant model, induced decreases in social interaction and novel exploratory behavior in CRTH2(+/+), but not CRTH2(-/-) mice. In addition, the CRTH2 antagonists including clinically available ramatroban reversed impaired social interaction and novel exploratory behavior after either LPS or tumor inoculation in CRTH2(+/+) mice. Finally, LPS-induced c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and central amygdala (CeA) was selectively abolished in CRTH2(-/-) mice. These results show that CRTH2 participates in LPS-induced emotional changes and activation in the PVN and CeA. Our study provides the first evidence that central CRTH2 regulates specific emotional behaviors, and that CRTH2 antagonism has potential as a therapeutic target for behavioral symptoms associated with tumors and infectious diseases.

  18. A Lipopolysaccharide from Pantoea Agglomerans Is a Promising Adjuvant for Sublingual Vaccines to Induce Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses in Mice via TLR4 Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyotoh, Eiji; Okazaki, Arimichi; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Tanimoto, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo; Hori, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A lipopolysaccharide from Pantoea agglomerans (LPSpa) has been applied to various fields for human use as a Toll-like receptor 4 ligand and its safety has been confirmed. Here, we showed for the first time the application of LPSpa as an effective mucosal adjuvant for activating vaccine-induced antigen specific immune responses. Mice sublingually immunized with influenza vaccine (HA split vaccine) with LPSpa induced both HA-specific IgG (systemic) and IgA (mucosal) antibody responses, which led to a significant increase in survival rate against lethal influenza virus challenge compared with subcutaneous vaccination. After sublingual administration of ovalbumin with LPSpa, ovalbumin-specific mucosal IgA responses were induced at both mucosal surfaces close to the immunized site and at remote mucosal surfaces. Sublingual administration of LPSpa evoked local antigen-uptake by dendritic cells in cervical lymph nodes. LPSpa induced cytokine production and the maturation and proliferation of innate immune cells via Toll-like receptor 4 in dendritic cells. Collectively, these results suggest that LPSpa can be used as an effective mucosal adjuvant to stimulate and activate local innate immune cells to improve and enhance mucosal vaccine potency against various pathogens. PMID:25978818

  19. A Lipopolysaccharide from Pantoea Agglomerans Is a Promising Adjuvant for Sublingual Vaccines to Induce Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses in Mice via TLR4 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukasaka, Masahiro; Asari, Daisuke; Kiyotoh, Eiji; Okazaki, Arimichi; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Tanimoto, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo; Hori, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A lipopolysaccharide from Pantoea agglomerans (LPSpa) has been applied to various fields for human use as a Toll-like receptor 4 ligand and its safety has been confirmed. Here, we showed for the first time the application of LPSpa as an effective mucosal adjuvant for activating vaccine-induced antigen specific immune responses. Mice sublingually immunized with influenza vaccine (HA split vaccine) with LPSpa induced both HA-specific IgG (systemic) and IgA (mucosal) antibody responses, which led to a significant increase in survival rate against lethal influenza virus challenge compared with subcutaneous vaccination. After sublingual administration of ovalbumin with LPSpa, ovalbumin-specific mucosal IgA responses were induced at both mucosal surfaces close to the immunized site and at remote mucosal surfaces. Sublingual administration of LPSpa evoked local antigen-uptake by dendritic cells in cervical lymph nodes. LPSpa induced cytokine production and the maturation and proliferation of innate immune cells via Toll-like receptor 4 in dendritic cells. Collectively, these results suggest that LPSpa can be used as an effective mucosal adjuvant to stimulate and activate local innate immune cells to improve and enhance mucosal vaccine potency against various pathogens.

  20. A Lipopolysaccharide from Pantoea Agglomerans Is a Promising Adjuvant for Sublingual Vaccines to Induce Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses in Mice via TLR4 Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Fukasaka

    Full Text Available A lipopolysaccharide from Pantoea agglomerans (LPSpa has been applied to various fields for human use as a Toll-like receptor 4 ligand and its safety has been confirmed. Here, we showed for the first time the application of LPSpa as an effective mucosal adjuvant for activating vaccine-induced antigen specific immune responses. Mice sublingually immunized with influenza vaccine (HA split vaccine with LPSpa induced both HA-specific IgG (systemic and IgA (mucosal antibody responses, which led to a significant increase in survival rate against lethal influenza virus challenge compared with subcutaneous vaccination. After sublingual administration of ovalbumin with LPSpa, ovalbumin-specific mucosal IgA responses were induced at both mucosal surfaces close to the immunized site and at remote mucosal surfaces. Sublingual administration of LPSpa evoked local antigen-uptake by dendritic cells in cervical lymph nodes. LPSpa induced cytokine production and the maturation and proliferation of innate immune cells via Toll-like receptor 4 in dendritic cells. Collectively, these results suggest that LPSpa can be used as an effective mucosal adjuvant to stimulate and activate local innate immune cells to improve and enhance mucosal vaccine potency against various pathogens.

  1. Curcumin attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yunhe; Gao, Ruifeng; Cao, Yongguo; Guo, Mengyao; Wei, Zhengkai; Zhou, Ershun; Li, Yimeng; Yao, Minjun; Yang, Zhengtao; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-05-01

    Curcumin, the main constituent of the spice turmeric, has been reported to have potent anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of curcumin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mice mastitis has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether curcumin could ameliorate the inflammation response in LPS-induced mice mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. The mouse model of mastitis was induced by injection of LPS through the duct of the mammary gland. Curcumin was applied 1h before and 12h after LPS treatment. The results showed that curcumin attenuated the infiltration of inflammatory cells, the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, Western blotting results showed that curcumin inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB p65 and the expression of TLR4. These results indicated that curcumin has protective effect on mice mastitis and the anti-inflammatory mechanism of curcumin on LPS-induced mastitis in mice may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. Curcumin may be a potential therapeutic agent against mastitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ by Rosiglitazone Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Release of High Mobility Group Box 1

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    Jung Seok Hwang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are shown to modulate the pathological status of sepsis by regulating the release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, a well-known late proinflammatory mediator of sepsis. Ligand-activated PPARs markedly inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS induced release of HMGB1 in RAW 264.7 cells. Among the ligands of PPAR, the effect of rosiglitazone, a specific ligand for PPARγ, was superior in the inhibition of HMGB1 release induced by LPS. This effect was observed in cells that received rosiglitazone before LPS or after LPS treatment, indicating that rosiglitazone is effective in both treatment and prevention. Ablation of PPARγ with small interfering RNA or GW9662-mediated inhibition of PPARγ abolished the effect of rosiglitazone on HMGB1 release. Furthermore, the overexpression of PPARγ markedly potentiated the inhibitory effect of rosiglitazone on HMGB1 release. In addition, rosiglitazone inhibited LPS-induced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 signal molecules, suggesting a possible mechanism by which rosiglitazone modulates HMGB1 release. Notably, the administration of rosiglitazone to mice improved survival rates in an LPS-induced animal model of endotoxemia, where reduced levels of circulating HMGB1 were demonstrated. Taken together, these results suggest that PPARs play an important role in the cellular response to inflammation by inhibiting HMGB1 release.

  3. S-Propargyl-cysteine (SPRC) attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in H9c2 cells involved in a hydrogen sulfide-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Long; Liu, Xin-Hua; Gong, Qi-Hai; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2011-06-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the effects of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC), a sulfur-containing amino acid, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in H9c2 cardiac myocytes. We found that SPRC prevented nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation assessed by NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and IκBα degradation, suppressed LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, incubation of H9c2 cells with SPRC induced phosphorylation of Akt in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, SPRC attenuated LPS-induced mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and mRNA expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The effects of SPRC were abolished by cystathionine γ-lyase [CSE-an enzyme that synthesizes hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S)] inhibitor, DL: -propargylglycine (PAG), SPRC-induced Akt phosphorylation and TNF-α release was also abolished by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. Furthermore, SPRC also increased LPS-induced down-regulation expression of CSE and H(2)S level in H9c2 cells. PAG abolished SPRC-induced up-regulation of H(2)S level. Therefore, we concluded that SPRC produced an anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-stimulated H9c2 cells partly through the CSE/H(2)S pathway by impairing IκBα/NF-κB signaling and by activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  4. Interferon-induced protein 56 (IFI56) is induced by VHSV infection but not by bacterial infection in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jee Youn; Ahn, Sang Jung; Kwon, Mun-Gyeong; Seo, Jung Soo; Hwang, Seong Don; Son, Maeng-Hyun

    2017-07-01

    Interferon-inducible protein 56 (IFI56, also known as ISG56/IFIT1, interferon-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 1) is strongly induced in response to interferon and a potent inhibitor of viral replication and translational initiation. Here, we describe the identification of IFI56 (OfIFI56) in olive flounder, its characteristic features, and expression levels in various tissues before and after viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection. The full-length OfIFI56 sequence was identified from rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR. The complete coding sequence of OfIFI56 is 1971 bp in length and encodes 431 amino acids. The putative OfIFI56 protein has multiple tetratricopeptide (TPR) motifs, which regulate diverse biological processes, such as organelle targeting, protein import, and vesicle fusion. Based on sequence analysis, the Larimichthys crocea IFI56 protein (61%) had the highest sequence homology to OfIFI56. In healthy olive flounder, OfIFI56 mRNA expression was detected in many tissues such as intestine, gill, head kidney, heart, spleen, and trunk kidney tissues. After VHSV challenge, OfIFI56 mRNA was significantly up-regulated in these tissues. Additionally, OfIFI56 expression was induced by poly I:C but not by Streptococcus parauberis and S. iniae infection or lipopolysaccharide injection in kidney and spleen tissues of olive flounder. These results demonstrate that piscine OfIFI56 expression is not induced by bacterial infection but is selectively induced by viral infection, especially VHSV, and that OfIFI56 may play an important role in the host response against VHSV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation will increase in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Wen-Qi; Hu, Yu-Juan; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Kong, Wen; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-05-29

    With the increasing popularity of mobile phones, the potential hazards of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the auditory system remain unclear. Apart from RF-EMR, humans are also exposed to various physical and chemical factors. We established a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro model to investigate whether the possible sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (at specific absorption rates: 2, 4 W/kg) will increase. Spiral ganglion neurons (SGN) were obtained from neonatal (1- to 3-day-old) Sprague Dawley® (SD) rats. After the SGN were treated with different concentrations (0, 20, 40, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/ml) of LPS, the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and alkaline comet assay were used to quantify cellular activity and DNA damage, respectively. The SGN were treated with the moderate LPS concentrations before RF-EMR exposure. After 24 h intermittent exposure at an absorption rate of 2 and 4 W/kg, DNA damage was examined by alkaline comet assay, ultrastructure changes were detected by transmission electron microscopy, and expression of the autophagy markers LC3-II and Beclin1 were examined by immunofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was quantified by the dichlorofluorescin-diacetate assay. LPS (100 μg/ml) induced DNA damage and suppressed cellular activity (P 0.05); therefore, 40 μg/ml was used to pretreat the concentration before exposure to RF-EMR. RF-EMR could not directly induce DNA damage. However, the 4 W/kg combined with LPS (40 μg/ml) group showed mitochondria vacuoles, karyopyknosis, presence of lysosomes and autophagosome, and increasing expression of LC3-II and Beclin1. The ROS values significantly increased in the 4 W/kg exposure, 4 W/kg combined with LPS (40 μg/ml) exposure, and H2O2 groups (P electromagnetic radiation could not directly induce DNA damage in normal spiral ganglion neurons, but

  6. Sulforaphane exerts anti-inflammatory effects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice through the Nrf2/ARE pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Tianjie; Xu, Fei; Yan, Xixin; Li, Shuai; Li, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Sulforaphane (1-isothiocyanate-4-methyl sulfonyl butane) is a plant extract (obtained from cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli and cabbage) and is known to exert anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. It stimulates the generation of human or animal cells, which is beneficial to the body. The aim of the current study was to determine whether sulforaphane protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced acute lung injury (ALI) through its anti-inflammatory effects, and to investigate the signaling pathways involved. For this purpose, male BALB/c mice were treated with sulforaphane (50 mg/kg) and 3 days later, ALI was induced by the administration of LPS (5 mg/kg) and we thus established the model of ALI. Our results revealed that sulforaphane significantly decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity (as shown by LDH assay), the wet-to-dry ratio of the lungs and the serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (measured by ELISA), as well as nuclear factor-κB protein expression in mice with LPS-induced ALI. Moreover, treatment with sulforaphane significantly inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein expression (as shown by western blot analysis), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity in mice with LPS-induced ALI. Lastly, we noted that pre-treatment with sulforaphane activated the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway in the mice with LPS-induced ALI. These findings demonstrate that sulforaphane exerts protective effects against LPS-induced ALI through the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Thus, sulforaphane may be a potential a candidate for use in the treatment of ALI.

  7. Efeito do lipopolissacarídio bacteriano sobre o esvaziamento gástrico de ratos: avaliação do pré-tratamento com Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME The effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on the gastric emptying of rats: a pretreatment evaluation using Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Ferro Collares

    2006-09-01

    é-tratados com as mesmas doses do inibidor das óxido nítrico-sintetases e tratados com veículo (40,5% e 38,7%, respectivamente e àqueles pré-tratados com veículo e tratados com a mesma toxina. CONCLUSÃO: O pré-tratamento com Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester numa dose baixa (1 mg/kg determinou redução discreta no efeito de retardo do esvaziamento gástrico determinado pelo lipopolissacarídio in vivo e aumento significativo do retardo com doses mais elevadas (2,5 e 5 mg/kg, doses estas que, per se, não interferem no esvaziamento.BACKGROUND: There is evidence that nitric oxide plays a role in the decrease in gastric emptying induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. AIM: To evaluate the effect of pretreatment with Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester, one competitive inhibitor of the nitric oxide syntases, on the gastric emptying delay induced by lipopolysaccharide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats, SPF, were used after 24 h fast and 1 h-water withdrawn. The pretreatment was done intravenously with vehicle (saline or Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester in the doses of 0.5, 1, 2.5 e 5 mg/kg. After 10 min, the animals were treated iv with lipopolysaccharide (50 mg/kg or received vehicle (saline. The gastric emptying was evaluated 1 h after the lipopolysaccharide administration. A saline solution containing phenol red was used as the test meal. The gastric emptying was indirectly assessed by the determination of percent gastric retention of the test meal 10 min after orogastric administration. RESULTS: The animals pretreated with vehicle and treatment with lipopolysaccharide have significant rise of the gastric retention (average = 57% in comparison with the controls receiving only vehicle (38.1%. The pretreatment with the different doses of Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester did not modify per se the gastric retention in comparison with the animals pretreated with vehicle. Pretreatment with Nw-nitro-L-arginine methyl to ester with the dose of 1 mg/kg determined a

  8. Pre-treatment with Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm uterine contractility, cytokines, and prostaglandins in rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Persing, David; Novy, Miles J.; Sadowsky, Drew W.; Gravett, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Intra-uterine infection, which occurs in the majority of early preterm births, triggers an immune response culminating in preterm labor. We hypothesized that blockade of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune responses by a Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist (TLR4A) would prevent elevations in amniotic fluid (AF) cytokines, prostaglandins, and uterine contractility. Chronically catheterized rhesus monkeys at 128-147 days gestation received intra-amniotic infusions of either: 1) saline (n=6), 2) LPS (0.15-10μg; n=4), or 3) TLR4A pre-treatment with LPS (10 μg) one hour later (n=4). AF cytokines, prostaglandins, and uterine contractility were compared using oneway ANOVA with Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons. Compared to saline controls, LPS induced significant elevations in AF IL-8, TNF-α, PGE2, PGF2α, and uterine contractility (p<0.05). In contrast, TLR4A pre-treatment inhibited LPS-induced uterine activity and was associated with significantly lower AF IL-8, TNF-α, PGE2, and PGF2α versus LPS alone (p<0.05). Toll-like receptor antagonists, together with antibiotics, may delay or prevent infection-associated preterm birth. PMID:18187405

  9. Salidroside attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing nuclear factor-κB and mitogen activated protein kinases activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Depeng; Fu, Yunhe; Zhang, Wen; Su, Gaoli; Liu, Bo; Guo, Mengyao; Li, Fengyang; Liang, Dejie; Liu, Zhicheng; Zhang, Xichen; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng; Yang, Zhengtao

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is defined as inflammation of the mammary gland in domestic dairy animals and humans. Salidroside, a major component isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., has potent anti-inflammatory properties, but whether it can be used in mastitis treatment has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effects of salidroside against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis in mice and the mechanism of action. We used a mouse mastitis model in which mammary gland inflammation was induced by LPS challenge. Salidroside administered 1 h before LPS infusion significantly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced the activity of myeloperoxidase in mammary tissue, and decreased the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies revealed that salidroside down-regulated phosphorylation of LPS-induced nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65 and inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα) in the NF-κB signal pathway, and suppressed phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) in MAPKs signal pathways. This study demonstrates that salidroside is an effective suppressor of inflammation and may be a candidate for the prophylaxis of mastitis.

  10. The Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Human Telomerase-Derived Peptide on P. gingivalis Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Its Mechanism in Human Dental Pulp Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo-Jin Ko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered with inducing pulpal inflammation and has lipopolysaccharide (LPS as an inflammatory stimulator. GV1001 peptide has anticancer and anti-inflammation activity due to inhibiting activation of signaling molecules after penetration into the various types of cells. Therefore, this study examined inhibitory effect of GV1001 on dental pulp cells (hDPCs stimulated by P. gingivalis LPS. The intracellular distribution of GV1001 was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to determine the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines. The role of signaling by MAP kinases (ERK and p38 was explored using Western blot analysis. The effect of GV1001 peptide on hDPCs viability was measured by MTT assay. GV1001 was predominantly located in hDPC cytoplasm. The peptide inhibited P. gingivalis LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production in hDPCs without significant cytotoxicity. Furthermore, GV1001 treatment markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of MAP kinases (ERK and p38 in LPS-stimulated hDPCs. GV1001 may prevent P. gingivalis LPS-induced inflammation of apical tissue. Also, these findings provide mechanistic insight into how GV1001 peptide causes anti-inflammatory actions in LPS-stimulated pulpitis without significantly affecting cell viability.

  11. Licochalcone A Prevents the Loss of Dopaminergic Neurons by Inhibiting Microglial Activation in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-Induced Parkinson’s Disease Models

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    Bingxu Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The neuroprotective effects of Licochalcone A (Lico.A, a flavonoid isolated from the herb licorice, in Parkinson’s disease (PD have not been elucidated. The prominent pathological feature of PD is the loss of dopaminergic neurons. The crucial role of neuroinflammation induced by activated microglia in dopaminergic neurodegeneration has been validated. In this study, we explore the therapeutic effects of Lico.A in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced PD models in vivo and in vitro. We find that Lico.A significantly inhibits LPS-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory mediators and microglial activation by blocking the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB p65 in BV-2 cells. In addition, through cultured primary mesencephalic neuron-glia cell experiments, we illustrate that Lico.A attenuates the decrease in [3H] dopamine (DA uptake and the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir neurons in LPS-induced PD models in vitro. Furthermore, LPS intoxication in rats results in microglial activation, dopaminergic neurodegeneration and significant behavioral deficits in vivo. Lico.A treatment prevents microglial activation and reduction of dopaminergic neuron and ameliorates PD-like behavioral impairments. Thus, these results demonstrate for the first time that the neuroprotective effects of Lico.A are associated with microglia and anti-inflammatory effects in PD models.

  12. Bigelovii A Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Blocking NF-κB and CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Protein δ Pathways

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    Chunguang Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal methods are applied to acute lung injury (ALI and the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, but the mortality rate is still high. Accordingly, further studies dedicated to identify novel therapeutic approaches to ALI are urgently needed. Bigelovii A is a new natural product and may exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, we sought to investigate its effect on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced ALI and the underlying mechanisms. We found that LPS-induced ALI was significantly alleviated by Bigelovii A treatment, characterized by reduction of proinflammatory mediator production, neutrophil infiltration, and lung permeability. Furthermore, Bigelovii A also downregulated LPS-stimulated inflammatory mediator expressions in vitro. Moreover, both NF-κB and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ (C/EBPδ activation were obviously attenuated by Bigelovii A treatment. Additionally, phosphorylation of both p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 (upstream signals of C/EBPδ activation in response to LPS challenge was also inhibited by Bigelovii A. Therefore, Bigelovii A could attenuate LPS-induced inflammation by suppression of NF-κB, inflammatory mediators, and p38 MAPK/ERK1/2—C/EBPδ, inflammatory mediators signaling pathways, which provide a novel theoretical basis for the possible application of Bigelovii A in clinic.

  13. Allium hookeri root extract exerts anti-inflammatory effects by nuclear factor-κB down-regulation in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ja-Young; Lee, Min-Jung; You, Bo-Ram; Jin, Jong-Sik; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Yun, Ye-Rang; Kim, Hyun Ju

    2017-02-23

    Allium hookeri (AH) is widely consumed as a vegetable and herbal medicine in southeastern Asia. AH has been reported antioxidant, antimicrobial, improvement of bone health and antidiabetic effects. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of a methanol extract of AH root (AHE) on inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. Initially, characterization of organic sulfur compounds in AHE was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS). Cells were incubated with LPS and AHE for 24 h. The productions of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and inflammation-related cytokines were examined. Gene and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were assessed by polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Key factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was also determined. AHE contained organosulfur compounds such as alliin and S-allylcysteine by HPLC-ESI-MS. AHE significantly inhibited NO, ROS, and cytokines production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. In addition, AHE treatment inhibited iNOS and COX-2 mRNA and protein levels, leading to a decrease in iNOS-derived NO level. Furthermore, NF-κB activation was, at least in part, suppressed by AHE treatment. Our data suggest that AHE treatment inhibits the inflammation condition through suppression of iNOS and COX-2 expression via NF-κB down-regulation.

  14. Total glucosides of paeony inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced proliferation, migration and invasion in androgen insensitive prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Hui Zhang

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that inflammatory microenvironment promoted prostate cancer progression. This study investigated whether total glucosides of paeony (TGP, the active constituents extracted from the root of Paeonia Lactiflora Pall, suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated proliferation, migration and invasion in androgen insensitive prostate cancer cells. PC-3 cells were incubated with LPS (2.0 μg/mL in the absence or presence of TGP (312.5 μg /mL. As expected, cells at S phase and nuclear CyclinD1, the markers of cell proliferation, were increased in LPS-stimulated PC-3 cells. Migration activity, as determined by wound-healing assay and transwell migration assay, and invasion activity, as determined by transwell invasion assay, were elevated in LPS-stimulated PC-3 cells. Interestingly, TGP suppressed LPS-stimulated PC-3 cells proliferation. Moreover, TGP inhibited LPS-stimulated migration and invasion of PC-3 cells. Additional experiment showed that TGP inhibited activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/p38 in LPS-stimulated PC-3 cells. Correspondingly, TGP attenuated upregulation of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 in LPS-stimulated PC-3 cells. In addition, TGP inhibited nuclear translocation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 in LPS-stimulated PC-3 cells. These results suggest that TGP inhibits inflammation-associated STAT3 activation and proliferation, migration and invasion in androgen insensitive prostate cancer cells.

  15. Minocycline and Risperidone Prevent Microglia Activation and Rescue Behavioral Deficits Induced by Neonatal Intrahippocampal Injection of Lipopolysaccharide in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yu-qiang; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Xianghui; Wu, Renrong; Guo, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jingping

    2014-01-01

    Background Various signs of activation of microglia have been reported in schizophrenia, and it is hypothesized that microglia activation is closely associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Methods Neonatal intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an activator of microglia, was performed in rats at postnatal day 7 (P7), and they were separately given saline, risperidone (0.5 mg/kg), minocycline (40 mg/kg) or a combination of both of them at P42 for consecutive 14 days. Behavioral changes (locomotion activity, social interaction, novel object recognition and prepulse inhibition) were examined and the number of microglia was assessed by using immunohistochemistry in adulthood. Results The adult rats in LPS-injected group showed obvious behavioral alteration (e. g. deficits in social interaction, novel object recognition and prepulse inhibition) and a dramatic increase of number of activated microglial cells in the hippocampus and other brain regions such as cerebral cortex and thalamus compared to those in saline-injected group. Interestingly, application of either minocycline, risperidone or both of them significantly rescued behavioral deficits and attenuated microglia activation. Conclusion Our results suggest that inhibition of microglia activation may be one of mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic effect of minocycline and risperidone. PMID:24705495

  16. Garlic (Allium sativum) stimulates lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from J774A.1 murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jessica; Harfouche, Youssef; De La Cruz, Melissa; Zamora, Martha P; Liu, Yan; Rego, James A; Buckley, Nancy E

    2015-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-α secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-α secretion. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Purple carrot (Daucus carota L.) polyacetylenes decrease lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of inflammatory proteins in macrophage and endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brandon T; Barnes, David M; Reed, Jess D

    2008-05-28

    Carrots ( Daucus carota L.) contain phytochemicals including carotenoids, phenolics, polyacetylenes, isocoumarins, and sesquiterpenes. Purple carrots also contain anthocyanins. The anti-inflammatory activity of extracts and phytochemicals from purple carrots was investigated by determining attenuation of the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A bioactive chromatographic fraction (Sephadex LH-20) reduced LPS inflammatory response. There was a dose-dependent reduction in nitric oxide production and mRNA of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha) and iNOS in macrophage cells. Protein secretions of IL-6 and TNF-alpha were reduced 77 and 66% in porcine aortic endothelial cells treated with 6.6 and 13.3 microg/mL of the LH-20 fraction, respectively. Preparative liquid chromatography resulted in a bioactive subfraction enriched in the polyacetylene compounds falcarindiol, falcarindiol 3-acetate, and falcarinol. The polyacetylenes were isolated and reduced nitric oxide production in macrophage cells by as much as 65% without cytotoxicity. These results suggest that polyacetylenes, not anthocyanins, in purple carrots are responsible for anti-inflammatory bioactivity.

  18. Preferential recruitment of neutrophils by endothelin-1 in acute lung inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide or cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapan Bhavsar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Tapan Bhavsar, Xing Jian Liu, Hardik Patel, Ralph Stephani, Jerome O CantorSt John’s University, School of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, New York, USAAbstract: This study examined the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1 in recruiting inflammatory cells to the lung after induction of injury with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS or cigarette smoke. Hamsters injected with either ET-1 or its precursor peptide (Big ET-1 prior to treatment with LPS or cigarette smoke had markedly increased concentrations of neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF despite a reduction in total numbers of BALF leukocytes. Furthermore, the effect of ET-1 on smoke-exposed animals was reversed by addition of an endothelin-A receptor antagonist. These results are consistent with preferential recruitment of neutrophils by ET-1, and suggest that inhibition of this proinfl ammatory mediator may decrease acute pulmonary inflammation associated with cigarette smoke and other pulmonary toxins.Keywords: endothelin, lipopolysaccahride, cigarette smoke, neutrophils, lung

  19. 14-3-3γ regulates cell viability and milk fat synthesis in lipopolysaccharide-induced dairy cow mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lixin; Zhang, L I; Lin, Y E; Bian, Yanjie; Gao, Xuejun; Qu, B O; Li, Qingzhang

    2016-04-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that 14-3-3γ overexpression was able to inhibit the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokines in dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs) by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways. However, the association between 14-3-3γ overexpression and milk fat synthesis in LPS-induced DCMECs remains unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of 14-3-3γ on cell viability and milk fat synthesis in LPS-induced DCMECs. The results of the MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase activity assay demonstrated that 14-3-3γ overexpression was able to attenuate LPS-induced cytotoxicity in DCMECs, and increase the viability of the cells. In addition, the results of reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction suggested that mRNA expression levels of genes associated with milk fat synthesis, including sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARG), cluster of differentiation 36, acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and fatty acid binding protein-3, were significantly upregulated in cells overexpressing the 14-3-3γ protein. In addition, as compared with the LPS-treated group, the activities of FAS and ACC were significantly increased. Furthermore, western blotting demonstrated that 14-3-3γ overexpression enhanced the protein expression levels of phosphorylated SREBP1 and PPARG. These results suggested that high levels of 14-3-3γ protein were able to attenuate LPS-induced cell damage and promote milk fat synthesis in LPS-induced DCMECs by increasing the cell viability and upregulating the expression levels of transcription factors associated with milk fat synthesis.

  20. Administration of Protein kinase D1 induce an immunomodulatory effect on lipopolysaccharide-induced intestinal inflammation in a co-culture model of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophage cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ditte Søvsø Gundelund; Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    the effects of human PKD1 in relation to intestinal inflammation, using a co-culture model of intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and RAW264.7 macrophages. An inflammatory response was induced in the macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), upregulating the expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF......-α), interleukin- (IL-) 1β, and IL-6 besides increasing the secretion of TNF-α protein. The effect of administering PKD1 to Caco-2 was evaluated in relation to both amelioration of inflammation and the ability to suppress inflammation initiation. Administration of PKD1 (10–100 ng/ml) following induction...

  1. Blastogenic response of bovine lymphocytes to Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide.

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, C L; Winter, A J

    1985-01-01

    Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide was tested in a blastogenesis assay with unfractionated and nylon wool-separated peripheral blood lymphocytes of Brucella-naive cattle and cattle immunized with B. abortus. Our results indicated that in cattle the lipopolysaccharide of B. abortus is not a B-cell mitogen. In immunized animals it stimulated predominantly nylon wool-adherent cells. The lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O128:B12, in contrast, induced a substantially greater proliferative r...

  2. Proteomic analysis of the effects of accumulated heat in the gastrointestinal tract on lipopolysaccharide-induced pneumonia in mice

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    Zi'an Zheng

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: AHGIT aggravated the lung inflammatory damage in the mice with LPS-induced pneumonia. It may affect the mouse substance/energy metabolism, and therefore the immune function, to aggravate the LPS-induced inflammatory damage.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Inulin and Its Role in the Prevention of Human Colonic Muscle Cell Impairment Induced by Lipopolysaccharide Mucosal Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Locato, Vittoria; Cocca, Silvia; Cimini, Sara; Palma, Rossella; Alloni, Rossana; De Gara, Laura; Cicala, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Background Fructans, such as inulin, are dietary fibers which stimulate gastro-intestinal (GI) function acting as prebiotics. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) impairs GI motility, through production of reactive oxygen species. The antioxidant activity of various fructans was tested and the protective effect of inulin on colonic smooth muscle cell (SMC) impairment, induced by exposure of human mucosa to LPS, was assessed in an ex vivo experimental model. Methods The antioxidant capacity of fructans was measured in an in vitro system that simulates cooking and digestion processes. Human colonic mucosa and submucosa, obtained from disease-free margins of resected segments for cancer, were sealed between two chambers, with the mucosal side facing upwards with Krebs solution with or without purified LPS from a pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (O111:B4) and inulin (Frutafit IQ), and the submucosal side facing downwards into Krebs solution. The solutions on the submucosal side were collected following mucosal exposure to Krebs in the absence (N-undernatant) or presence of LPS (LPS-undernatant) or LPS+inulin (LPS+INU-undernatant). Undernatants were tested for their antioxidant activity and the effects on SMCs contractility. Inulin protective effects on mucosa and submucosa layers were assessed measuring the protein oxidation level in the experimental conditions analyzed. Results Antioxidant activity of inulin, which was significantly higher compared to simple sugars, remained unaltered despite cooking and digestion processes. Inulin protected the mucosal and submucosal layers against protein oxidation. Following exposure to LPS-undernatant, a significant decrease in maximal acetylcholine (Ach)-induced contraction was observed when compared to the contraction induced in cells incubated with the N-undernatant (4±1% vs 25±5% respectively, PInulin (35±5%). Conclusions Inulin protects the human colon mucosa from LPS-induced damage and this effect appears to be related to the

  4. Effects of acteoside on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in acute lung injury via regulation of NF-κB pathway in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Wang; Chunhua, Ma, E-mail: machunhuabest@126.com; Shumin, Wang, E-mail: wangshuminch@126.com

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective role of acteoside (AC) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). BalB/c mice intraperitoneally received AC (30, and 60 mg/kg) or dexamethasone (2 mg/kg) 2 h prior to or after intratracheal instillation of LPS. Treatment with AC significantly decreased lung wet-to-dry weight (W/D) ratio and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and ameliorated LPS-induced lung histopathological changes. In addition, AC increased super oxide dismutase (SOD) level and inhibited malondialdehyde (MDA) content, total cell and neutrophil infiltrations, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in LPS-stimulated mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AC inhibited the phosphorylation of IκBα, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65, inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase-α (IKK-α) and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase-β (IKKβ) in LPS-induced inflammation in A549 cells. Our data suggested that LPS evoked the inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells A549. The experimental results indicated that the protective mechanism of AC might be attributed partly to the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine production and NF-κB activation. - Highlights: • Acteoside inhibited inflammation in LPS-induced lung injury in mice. • Acteoside inhibited inflammation in lung epithelial cells A549. • Acteoside inhibited NF-kB activation in LPS-induced mice and lung epithelial cells A549.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide-induced radical formation in the striatum is abolished in Nox2 gp91phox-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Hans-Willi; Vazquez, Juan F; Sommer, Olaf; Heiser, Philip; Morawietz, Henning; Hopt, Ulrich; Schulz, Eberhard; von Dobschütz, Ernst

    2010-01-01

    Encephalopathy associated with septic shock as well as psychiatric disorders can be caused by the central nervous formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) associated with inflammation. The systemic application of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 100 mug/kg i.p.) also serves as a model for major depression and results in enhanced inflammatory processes. which are characterized by the stimulation of microglia or macrophages that then impair normal brain function. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of peripherally applied LPS on the central nervous formation of ROS and IL-6 in wild-type mice and in mice lacking the NADPH oxidase Nox2 subunit gp91phox. Microdialysis was performed in the striatum of the mice. Central nervous ROS were detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy using 1-hydroxy-3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CMH) as reactant, which was infused via a microdialysis probe. IL-6 was measured in microdialysis samples by an immunoassay. Finally, blood samples were taken by heart puncture to detect IL-6 in plasma. In the wild-type mice, LPS significantly increased the ROS formation in the striatum of wild-type mice and resulted in a significantly enhanced IL-6 production. In the mice lacking the NADPH oxidase Nox2 subunit gp91phox, LPS did not enhance ROS formation, while central IL-6 was significantly increased. IL-6 plasma values were enhanced in both types of mice. In conclusion, the gp91phox-containing NADPH oxidase complex is involved in the central nervous ROS formation after peripheral LPS stimulation and might be a pharmacological target in patients with septic shock.

  6. Calorie restriction dose-dependently abates lipopolysaccharide-induced fever, sickness behavior, and circulating interleukin-6 while increasing corticosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Leah; Hazi, Agnes; Paolini, Antonio G; Kent, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    In mice a 50% calorie restriction (CR) for 28days attenuates sickness behavior after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and these mice demonstrate a central anti-inflammatory bias. This study examined the dose-dependent effect of CR on sickness behavior (fever, anorexia, cachexia) and peripheral immune markers post-LPS. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed ad libitum or CR by 50% for 14, 21, or 28days were injected on day 15, 22, or 29 with 50μg/kg of LPS or saline (1mL/500g). Changes in body temperature (Tb), locomotor activity, body weight, and food intake were determined. A separate cohort of rats was fed ad libitum or CR by 50% for 28days and serum levels of corticosterone (CORT), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-10 were determined at 0, 2, and 4h post-LPS. The rats CR for 28days demonstrated the largest attenuation of sickness behavior: no fever, limited reduction in locomotor activity, no anorexia, and reduced cachexia following LPS. Rats CR for 14 and 21days demonstrated a partial attenuation of sickness behavior. Rats CR for 14days demonstrated a larger increase in Tb, larger reduction in locomotor activity, and larger weight loss compared to rats CR for 21days. Serum CORT was increased at 2h post-LPS in ad libitum and CR groups; however it was two times larger in the CR animals. Levels of IL-6 were significantly attenuated at 2h post-LPS in the CR animals. IL-10 levels were similar post-LPS. CR results in an enhanced anti-inflammatory response in the form of increased CORT and diminished pro-inflammatory signals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 by downregulating NADPH oxidase 4 in human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, T; Ham, S A; Hwang, J S; Lee, W J; Paek, K S; Oh, J W; Kim, J H; Do, J T; Han, C W; Kim, J H; Seo, H G

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) in Porphyromonas gingivalis-derived lipopolysaccharide (Pg-LPS)-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). In human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific ligand of PPARδ, inhibited Pg-LPS-induced activation of MMP-2 and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was associated with reduced expression of NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4). These effects were significantly smaller in the presence of small interfering RNA targeting PPARδ or the specific PPARδ inhibitor GSK0660, indicating that PPARδ is involved in these events. In addition, modulation of Nox4 expression by small interfering RNA influenced the effect of PPARδ on MMP-2 activity, suggesting a mechanism in which Nox4-derived ROS modulates MMP-2 activity. Furthermore, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38, but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase, mediated PPARδ-dependent inhibition of MMP-2 activity in HGFs treated with Pg-LPS. Concomitantly, PPARδ-mediated inhibition of MMP-2 activity was associated with the restoration of types I and III collagen to levels approaching those in HGFs not treated with Pg-LPS. These results indicate that PPARδ-mediated downregulation of Nox4 modulates cellular redox status, which in turn plays a critical role in extracellular matrix homeostasis through ROS-dependent regulation of MMP-2 activity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Anthocyanins Downregulate Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in BV2 Microglial Cells by Suppressing the NF-κB and Akt/MAPKs Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Hyun Choi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are naturally occurring polyphenols that impart bright color to fruits, vegetables and plants and have a variety of protective properties, which have generally been attributed to their antioxidant capacity. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory effects of anthocyanins related to neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we determined whether anthocyanins isolated from black soybean seed coats would inhibit pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated murine BV2 microglial cells. Our results showed that anthocyanins significantly inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-1β, without significant cytotoxicity. Anthocyanins also downregulated excessive expression of inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. Moreover, anthocyanins inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB by reducing inhibitor of NF-κB alpha degradation as well as phosphorylating extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt. These findings suggest that anthocyanins may offer substantial therapeutic potential for treating inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by microglial activation.

  9. Increased antigen presentation but impaired T cells priming after upregulation of interferon-beta induced by lipopolysaccharides is mediated by upregulation of B7H1 and GITRL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells are able to present Ag-derived peptides on MHC class I and II molecules and induce T cells priming. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS, an activator of Toll-like 4 receptor (TLR4 signaling, has been demonstrated to facilitate Ag-presentation, up-regulate surface molecules expression but impair T cells priming. In this study, we investigated the effect of LPS on nicotine-enhanced DCs-dependent T cells priming and the mechanisms of LPS orchestrating the immunosuppressive program. We could demonstrate that the treatment with LPS resulted in increased surface molecules expression, enhanced Ag-presentation, up-regulated release of TGF-beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IFN-beta. Concomititantly, the upregulation of IFN-beta in DCs induces the up-regulation of coinhibitory molecules B7H1 and GITRL, which cause an impaired activation of naïve Ag-specific T cells and the induction of T cell tolerance by enhancing B7H1-PD-1 interactions and promoting GITRL-GITL facilitated Treg generation, respectively. These data provide a mechanistic basis for the immunomodulatory action of IFN-beta which might open new possibilities in the development of therapeutic approaches aimed at the control of excessive immune response and persistent infection.

  10. 1,5-Anhydro-D-fructose attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine release via suppression of NF-κB p65 phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Xiaojie; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Nawa, Yuko; Miura, Naoki; Shrestha, Binita; Tancharoen, Salunya; Sameshima, Hisayo; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2009-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates macrophages by activating NF-κB, which contributes to the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. 1,5-anhydro-D-fructose (1,5-AF), a monosaccharide formed from starch and glycogen, exhibits anti-oxidant activity and enhances insulin secretion. This study examined the effects of 1,5-AF on LPS-induced inflammatory reactions and elucidated its molecular mechanisms. Before LPS challenge, mice were pretreated with 1,5-AF (38.5 mg/kg). We found that 1,5-AF pretreatment attenuated cytokine release into the serum, including TNF-α, IL-6 and macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Furthermore, pretreatment with 1,5-AF (500 μg/ml) attenuated cytokine release, and 1,5-AF directly inhibited the nuclear translocalization of the NF-κB p65 subunit in LPS-stimulated murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. This inhibition was responsible for decreased LPS-induced phosphorylation on Ser536 of the NF-κB p65 subunit, which is a posttranslational modification involved in the non-canonical pathway. Collectively, these findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory activity of 1,5-AF occurs via inactivation of NF-κB.

  11. The effects of captopril on lipopolysaccharide induced learning and memory impairments and the brain cytokine levels and oxidative damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abareshi, Azam; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Beheshti, Farimah; Norouzi, Fatemeh; Khazaei, Majid; Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Anaeigoudari, Akbar

    2016-12-15

    Renin-angiotensin system has a role in inflammation and also involves in learning and memory. In the present study, the effects of captopril on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced learning and memory impairments, hippocampal cytokine levels and brain tissues oxidative damage was investigated. The rats were divided and treated : [1] saline (Control), [2] LPS (1mg/kg), [3-5] 10, 50 or 100mg/kg captopril 30min before LPS. The treatment was started since six days before the behavioral experiments and continued during the behavioral tests (LPS injection two h before each behavioral experiment). Administration of LPS prolonged the escape latency and traveled path to find the platform in Morris water maze (MWM) test (Pcaptopril improved performances of the rats in MWM (Pcaptopril (Pcaptopril (Pcaptopril improved the LPS-induced learning and memory impairments in rats which were accompanied with attenuating hippocampal cytokine levels and improving the brain tissues oxidative damage criteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Polar lipids from the marine macroalga Palmaria palmata inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banskota, Arjun H; Stefanova, Roumiana; Sperker, Sandra; Lall, Santosh P; Craigie, James S; Hafting, Jeff T; Critchley, Alan T

    2014-05-01

    The EtOAc soluble fraction of a MeOH/CHCl3 extract of Palmaria palmata showed strong nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in murine RAW264.7 cells. NO inhibition-guided isolation led to identification of three new polar lipids including a sulfoquinovosyl diacylglycerol (SQDG) (2S)-1-O-eicosapentaenoyl-2-O-myristoyl-3-O-(6-sulfo-α-D-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol (1) and two phosphatidylglycerols, 1-O-eicosapentaenoyl-2-O-trans-3-hexadecenoyl-3-phospho-(1'-glycerol)-glycerol (3) and 1-O-eicosapentaenoyl-2-O-palmitoyl-3-phospho-(1'-glycerol)-glycerol (4) from the EtOAc fraction. Seven known lipids were also isolated including a SQDG (2), a phospholipid (5) and five galactolipids (6-10). Structures of the isolated lipids were elucidated by spectral analyses. The isolated SQDGs, phosphatidylglycerols and phospholipid possessed strong and dose-dependent NO inhibitory activity compared to N(G)-methyl-L-arginine acetate salt (L-NMMA), a well-known NO inhibitor used as a positive control. Further study suggested that these polar lipids suppressed NO production through down-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuropeptide Kyotorphin Impacts on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Glucocorticoid-Mediated Inflammatory Response. A Molecular Link to Nociception, Neuroprotection, and Anti-Inflammatory Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Juliana; Lima, Carla; Heras, Montserrat; Bardají, Eduard; Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica; Castanho, Miguel

    2017-08-16

    Neuropeptide kyotorphin (KTP) is a potent analgesic if administered directly into the brain. In contrast, KTP-amide (KTP-NH 2 ) is analgesic, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory following systemic administration, albeit its mechanism of action is unknown. The aim of this study was to shed light on the mechanism of action of KTP-NH 2 at the molecular level. KTP-NH 2 does not inhibit the enkephalinases angiotensin-converting-enzyme and dipeptidyl-peptidase 3. Intravital microscopy showed that KTP-NH 2 decreased the number of rolling leukocytes in a mouse model of inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pretreatment with metyrapone abrogated the action of KTP-NH 2 . Interestingly, stimulating rolling leukocytes using CXCL-1 is also counteracted by the KTP-NH 2 , but this effect is not abrogated by metyrapone. We conclude that KTP-NH 2 has dual action: a glucocorticoid-mediated action, which is dominant in the full-fledged LPS-induced inflammation model, and a glucocorticoid-independent mechanism, which is predominant in models in which leukocyte rolling is stimulated but inflammation is not totally developed.

  14. Bauer ketones 23 and 24 from Echinacea paradoxa var. paradoxa inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and cytokines in RAW264.7 mouse macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaozhu; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Hauck, Catherine; Qu, Luping; Widrlechner, Mark P; Nikolau, Basil J; Murphy, Patricia A; Birt, Diane F

    2012-02-01

    Among the nine Echinacea species, E. purpurea, E. angustifolia and E. pallida, have been widely used to treat the common cold, flu and other infections. In this study, ethanol extracts of these three Echinacea species and E. paradoxa, including its typical variety, E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, were screened in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage cells to assess potential anti-inflammatory activity. E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, rich in polyenes/polyacetylenes, was an especially efficient inhibitor of LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by 46%, 32%, 53% and 26%, respectively, when tested at 20 μg/ml in comparison to DMSO control. By bioactivity-guided fractionation, pentadeca-8Z-ene-11, 13-diyn-2-one (Bauer ketone 23) and pentadeca-8Z, 13Z-dien-11-yn-2-one (Bauer ketone 24) from E. paradoxa var. paradoxa were found primarily responsible for inhibitory effects on NO and PGE2 production. Moreover, Bauer ketone 24 was the major contributor to inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production in LPS-induced mouse macrophage cells. These results provide a rationale for exploring the medicinal effects of the Bauer ketone-rich taxon, E. paradoxa var. paradoxa, and confirm the anti-inflammatory properties of Bauer ketones 23 and 24. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective effects of telmisartan and tempol on lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, and amyloidogenesis: possible role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallaf, Waleed A I; Messiha, Basim A S; Abo-Youssef, Amira M H; El-Sayed, Nesrine S

    2017-07-01

    Angiotensin II has pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant potentials. We investigated the possible protective effects of the Angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan, compared with the superoxide scavenger tempol, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognitive decline and amyloidogenesis. Briefly, mice were allocated into a normal control group, an LPS control group, a tempol treatment group, and 2 telmisartan treatment groups. A behavioral study was conducted followed by a biochemical study via assessment of brain levels of beta amyloid (Aβ) and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) as amyloidogenesis and neuroplasticity markers, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide end products (NOx), neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase (nNOS and iNOS) as inflammatory markers, and superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione reduced (GSH), and nitrotyrosine (NT) as oxido-nitrosative stress markers. Finally, histopathological examination of cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum sections was performed using routine and special Congo red stains. Tempol and telmisartan improved cognition, decreased brain Aβ deposition and BDNF depletion, decreased TNF-α, NOx, nNOS, iNOS, MDA, and NT brain levels, and increased brain SOD and GSH contents, parallel to confirmatory histopathological evidences. In conclusion, tempol and telmisartan are promising drugs in managing cognitive impairment and amyloidogenesis, at least via upregulation of BDNF with inhibition of neuroinflammation and oxido-nitrosative stress.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of egg yolk livetins (α, β, and γ-livetin) fraction and its enzymatic hydrolysates in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meram, Chalamaiah; Wu, Jianping

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the egg yolk livetins (α, β, and γ-livetin) fraction and its hydrolysates, prepared by pepsin and Alcalase, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory effects using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages as an in vitro model. Enzymatic hydrolysis by pepsin and Alcalase successfully transformed the large molecular weight livetins into low molecular mass peptides mostly below 10kDa. Results revealed that livetins and its hydrolysates (peptides) treatment significantly reduced the inflammatory responses as evidenced by inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO) (22.7-39.2%), pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (36.9-43.2%), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) (26.1-50.9%) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) (60.4-69.0%), and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (58.6-62%). Alcalase hydrolysate showed more effects in inhibiting prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) production (30.3%) as well as expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (55.7%). In addition, effect of livetins and its hydrolysates on phagocytic capacity of the macrophages was also evaluated. The results indicate that livetins and its enzymatic hydrolysates significantly (pegg yolk livetins and its hydrolysates with anti-inflammatory activity can potentially be used in health food/nutraceutical/pharmaceutical industry for various applications. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. The SMAC mimetic birinapant attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury by inhibiting the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 degradation in Kupffer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongxiang; Liao, Rui; He, Kun; Zhu, Xiwen; Li, Peizhi; Gong, Jianping

    2017-05-01

    It was demonstrated that second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC) mimetic inhibites tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) degradation and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. However, the effect of Smac mimetic in vivo is not clear. The present study was to investigate the role of Smac mimetic in LPS-induced liver injury in mice and its possible mechanism. An animal model of LPS-induced liver injury was established by intraperitoneally injecting mice with 10mg/kg LPS pretreatment with or without Smac mimetic birinapant (30mg/kg body weight). Birinapant significantly improved the survival rate of endotoxemic mice (P<0.05) and attenuated LPS-induced liver pathologic damage and inflammatory response. IL-1 and TNF-α levels in the serum were markedly decreased in birinapant pretreatment mice compared with control mice (P<0.05).The cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) expression in liver resident macrophage (Kupffer cells, KCs) was significantly decreased in the Birinapant group compared to the Vehicle group (P<0.05). At the same time, total TRAF3 protein abundance in KCs rapidly declined after LPS stimulation in the Vehicle group. However, it remained constant in the Birinapant group. Moreover, K48-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF3 in KCs was markedly impressed in the birinapant group compared with the control group. At last, the JNK and p38 MAPK activation in KCs was significantly inhibited by birinapant pretreatment (P<0.05). These results suggested that birinapant attenuated liver injury and improved survival rates in endotoxemic mice by inhibited the expression of cIAP1, degradation of TRAF3 and aviation of MAPK signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) Mediates Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Inflammatory Responses in Primary Human Osteoarthritic Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Songjiang; Wang, Peimin; Xing, Runlin; Zhao, Linrui; Li, Xiaochen; Zhang, Li; Xiao, Yancheng

    2018-03-01

    Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a membrane-associated cation channel, widely expressed in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Recently, emerging evidences suggested the crucial role of TRPA1 in the disease progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether TRPA1 mediate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in primary human OA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (OA-FLS). The expression of TRPA1 in LPS-treated OA-FLS was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot (WB), and the functionality of TRPA1 channel by Ca 2+ influx measurements. Meanwhile, production of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, and MMP-3 in LPS-treated cells was measured by immunoassay. Histological observation after inhibition of TRPA1 was also performed in rats with LPS-induced inflammatory arthritis. After being induced by LPS, the gene and protein expression of TRPA1 was increased in the time-dependent or dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, Ca 2+ influx mediated by TRPA1 in human OA-FLS was also enhanced. In addition, pharmacological inhibition and gene silencing of TRPA1 downregulated the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-1, and MMP-3 in LPS-treated FLS. Finally, synovial inflammation and cartilage degeneration were also reduced by the TRPA1 antagonist. We found the LPS caused the increased functional expression of TRPA1, the activation of which involved in LPS-reduced inflammatory responses in primary human OA-FLS, and the inhibition of TRPA1 produces protective effect in LPS-induced arthritis.

  19. Evaluation of selective cannabinoid CB(1) and CB(2) receptor agonists in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide-induced interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambaro, Simone; Casu, Maria Antonietta; Mastinu, Andrea; Lazzari, Paolo

    2014-04-15

    Interstitial cystitis is a debilitating bladder inflammation disorder. To date, the understanding of the causes of interstitial cystitis remains largely fragmentary and there is no effective treatment available. Recent experimental results have shown a functional role of the endocannabinoid system in urinary bladder. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of selective cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists in a mouse model of interstitial cystitis. Bladder inflammation was induced in mice by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and whole bladders were removed 24h later. LPS induced a significant increase of the contractile amplitude in spontaneous activity and a hypersensitivity to exogenous acetylcholine-induced contraction of whole-isolated bladder. Next, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of cannabinoidergic compounds by pretreating mice with CB1 or CB2 selective agonist compounds, respectively ACEA and JWH015. Interestingly, JWH015, but not ACEA, antagonized LPS-induced bladder inflammation. Additionally, anti-inflammatory activity was studied by evaluation, leukocytes mucosa infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity, and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL-1α and IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors. JWH015 significantly decreased leukocytes infiltration in both submucosa and mucosa, as well as the myeloperoxydase activity, in LPS treated mice. JWH015 reduced mRNA expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, and TNF-α. LPS treatment increased expression of bladder CB2 but not CB1 mRNA. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that modulation of the cannabinoid CB2 receptors might be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of bladder diseases and conditions characterized by inflammation, such as interstitial cystitis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Endogenous expression pattern of resolvin D1 in a rat model of self-resolution of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Wang, Zai-ping; Gui, Ping; Xia, Weiyi; Xia, Zhengyuan; Zhang, Xing-cai; Deng, Qing-zhu; Xuan, Wei; Marie, Christelle; Wang, Lin-lin; Wu, Qing-ping; Wang, Tingting; Lin, Yun

    2014-11-01

    Resolvin D1 (RvD1), an endogenous lipid mediator derived from docosahexaenoic acid, has been reported to promote a biphasic activity in anti-inflammatory response and regulate inflammatory resolution. The present study aimed to determine the endogenous expression pattern of RvD1 in a rat model of self-resolution of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and inflammation. The ARDS model was induced by administrating LPS (2mg/kg) via tracheotomy in 138 male Sprague-Dawley rats. At specified time points, lung injury and inflammation were respectively assessed by lung histology and analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and cytokine levels. The expression of endogenous RvD1 was detected by high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that histological lung injury peaked between 6h (LPS6h) and day 3, followed by recovery over 4-10 days after LPS administration. Lung tissue polymorph nuclear cell (PMN) was significantly increased at LPS6h, and peaked between 6h to day 2. The levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 were significantly increased at LPS6h and remained higher over day 10 as compared to baseline. Intriguingly, the endogenous RvD1 expression was decreased gradually during the first 3 days, followed by almost completely recovery over days 9-10. The finding indicated that endogenous RvD1 underwent a decrease in expression followed by gradual increase that was basically coincident with the lung injury recovery in a rat model of self-resolution LPS-induced ARDS and inflammation. Our results may help define the optimal therapeutic window for endogenous RvD1 to prevent or treat LPS-induced ARDS and inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ghrelin protects against palmitic acid or lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatocyte apoptosis through inhibition of MAPKs/iNOS and restoration of Akt/eNOS pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuqing; Wang, Jianbo; Yu, Fujun; Li, Zhengyang; Li, Huanqing; Guo, Chuanyong; Fan, Xiaoming

    2016-12-01

    Ghrelin has been shown to exert various biological functions. However, the effect and mechanism of ghrelin on PA- or LPS-induced liver injury remains unknown. Normal human hepatocyte lines (LO2 and 7701) were pretreated with ghrelin (10 -8 M) for 30min before stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or palmitic acid (PA). The proliferation and apoptosis of cells were detected with CCK8, Hoechst staining and flow cytometric analysis. Levels of NO of cell supernatants were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The protein levels and mRNA of target genes of endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) were measured by western blotting, immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The expression of Bax, Bcl2, caspase 3, p-Akt, p-P38 and p-JNK were detected by western blotting. Results of CCK8, Hoechst staining and flow cytometric analysis showed that ghrelin-pretreatment attenuated LPS- or PA- induced cellular proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction. ELISA results revealed that ghrelin pretreatment reduced levels of NO of cell supernatants (Pghrelin- pretreated group were significantly reduced compared with LPS- or PA- treated group, while protein levels of eNOS were restored by ghrelin pretreatment. Results of qRT-PCR showed that mRNA levels of Bax, iNOS were reduced by ghrelin pretreatment, while levels of mRNA of Bcl2 and eNOS were increased (Pghrelin pretreatment, while the protein levels of p-JNK, p-P38 and caspase 3 were reduced. The restoration of eNOS could be reversed by an Akt inhibitor. Ghrelin pretreatment attenuated LPS- or PA-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, which may least partly via inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)/iNOS and restoration of Akt/eNOS pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Glaucocalyxin B Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Parkinson’s Disease by Inhibiting TLR/NF-κB and Activating Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a common neurodegenerative disease in the old population, characterized by dopaminergic neuron loss, inflammation and oxidative stress injury in the substantia nigra. Glaucocalyxin B (GLB, an ent-kauranoid diterpenoid isolated from Rabdosia japonica, has anti-inflammation and anti-tumor effects. However, its effects on PD remain unclear. Methods: PD was introduced in rats via injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS into cerebral corpus striatum, and GLB was given intracerebroventricularly to these rats. Their walking, climbing and sensory states were detected by Stepping, Whisker and Cylinder Tests. The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, CD11b and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule (IBA-1 were detected by immunohischemical staining. The levels of a series of inflammatory factors, oxidative stress-related factors and apoptosis-related factors were measured by real-time PCR, immunoblotting and ELISA. In addition, Toll-like receptor (TLR/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2/heme oxygenase (HO-1 pathways were investigated to illustrate the underlying mechanism. In vitro, microglial cells exposed to LPS were treated with GLB. Results: The injection of LPS caused walking, climbing and sensory disturbances in rats, induced inflammation, oxidative stress response and apoptosis, and activated TLR/NF-κB and Nrf2/ HO-1 pathways in the cerebral tissue. GLB administration attenuated LPS-induced alterations. The TLR/NF-κB pathway was deactivated and Nrf2/HO-1 was activated after application of GLB. In vitro, cytotoxic effects induced by the conditioned medium derived from microglial cells exposed to LPS in PC12 cells were attenuated by GLB. Conclusion: GLB suppresses LPS-induced PD symptoms by modification of TLR/NF-κB and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in vivo and in vitro.

  3. N-acetylcysteine prevents spatial memory impairment induced by chronic early postnatal glutaric acid and lipopolysaccharide in rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda S Rodrigues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I is characterized by accumulation of glutaric acid (GA and neurological symptoms, such as cognitive impairment. Although this disease is related to oxidative stress and inflammation, it is not known whether these processes facilitate the memory impairment. Our objective was to investigate the performance of rat pups chronically injected with GA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS in spatial memory test, antioxidant defenses, cytokines levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and hippocampal volume. We also evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC on theses markers. METHODS: Rat pups were injected with GA (5 umol g of body weight-1, subcutaneously; twice per day; from 5th to 28th day of life, and were supplemented with NAC (150 mg/kg/day; intragastric gavage; for the same period. LPS (2 mg/kg; E.coli 055 B5 or vehicle (saline 0.9% was injected intraperitoneally, once per day, from 25th to 28th day of life. Oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers as well as hippocampal volume were assessed. RESULTS: GA caused spatial learning deficit in the Barnes maze and LPS potentiated this effect. GA and LPS increased TNF-α and IL-1β levels. The co-administration of these compounds potentiated the increase of IL-1β levels but not TNF-α levels in the hippocampus. GA and LPS increased TBARS (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content, reduced antioxidant defenses and inhibited Na+, K+-ATPase activity. GA and LPS co-administration did not have additive effect on oxidative stress markers and Na+, K+ pump. The hippocampal volume did not change after GA or LPS administration. NAC protected against impairment of spatial learning and increase of cytokines levels. NAC Also protected against inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity and oxidative markers. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that inflammatory and oxidative markers may underlie at least in part of the neuropathology of GA-I in this model. Thus, NAC could

  4. Induced mutations for bacterial leaf blight resistance in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, P.; Padmanabhan, S.Y.; Misra, S.N.

    1975-01-01

    Attempts were made for induction of resistance to bacterial leaf blight in some high yielding varieties through physical and chemical mutagens. Positive results could be obtained in Padma through NMU treatments. Further studies on the induction of bacterial leaf blight resistance in the varieties Sona and Vijaya indicated that it was possible to enhance the spectrum of variability in disease reaction by mutagenic treatments. The use of genotypes, possible enhancement of recombination frequencies through treatment of hybrids in the early generation, the choice of mutagen and the screening procedures for bacterial leaf blight resistance in rice are discussed. (author)

  5. Ginkgo biloba extracts attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in acute lung injury by inhibiting the COX-2 and NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Chen, Nan; Ma, Chun-Hua; Tao, Jing; Bao, Jian-An; Zong-Qi, Cheng; Chen, Zu-Tao; Miao, Li-Yan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the role of Ginkgo biloba extract in lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS. G. biloba extract (12 and 24 mg·kg(-1)) and dexamethasone (2 mg·kg(-1)), as a positive control, were given by i.p. injection. The cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted. The degree of animal lung edema was evaluated by measuring the wet/dry weight ratio. The superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were assayed by SOD and MPO kits, respectively. The levels of inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin-1b, and interleukin-6, were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by H&E staining. The levels of NF-κB p65 and COX-2 expression were detected by Western blotting. Compared to the LPS group, the treatment with the G. biloba extract at 12 and 24 mg·kg(-1) markedly attenuated the inflammatory cell numbers in the BALF, decreased NF-κB p65 and COX-2 expression, and improved SOD activity, and inhibited MPO activity. The histological changes of the lungs were also significantly improved. The results indicated that G. biloba extract has a protective effect on LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice. The protective mechanism of G. biloba extract may be partly attributed to the inhibition of NF-κB p65 and COX-2 activation. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inhibition of transcription of tlr4 in vitro is reversed by dexamethasone and correlates with presence of conserved NFκB binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, Camila P., E-mail: mila_bonin@yahoo.com.br [Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Baccarin, Raquel Y.A., E-mail: baccarin@usp.br [Department of Clinics, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Nostell, Katarina, E-mail: katarina.nostell@slu.se [Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7054, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Nahum, Laila A., E-mail: laila@nahum.com.br [Centro de Pesquisas René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Belo Horizonte 30190-002 (Brazil); Faculdade Infórium de Tecnologia, Belo Horizonte 30130-180 (Brazil); Fossum, Caroline, E-mail: caroline.fossum@bvf.slu.se [Department of Biomedicine and Veterinary Public Health, Section for Immunology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, BMC, Box 588, SE 751 23 Uppsala (Sweden); Camargo, Maristela M. de, E-mail: mmcamar@usp.br [Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil)

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► Chimpanzees, horses and humans have regions of similarity on TLR4 and MD2 promoters. ► Rodents have few regions of similarity on TLR4 promoter when compared to primates. ► Conserved NFkB binding sites were found in the promoters of TLR4 and MD2. ► LPS-induced inhibition of TLR4 transcription is reversed by dexamethasone. ► LPS-induced transcription of MD2 is inhibited by dexamethasone. -- Abstract: Engagement of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a master trigger of the deleterious effects of septic shock. Horses and humans are considered the most sensitive species to septic shock, but the mechanisms explaining these phenomena remain elusive. Analysis of tlr4 promoters revealed high similarity among LPS-sensitive species (human, chimpanzee, and horse) and low similarity with LPS-resistant species (mouse and rat). Four conserved nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) binding sites were found in the tlr4 promoter and two in the md2 promoter sequences that are likely to be targets for dexamethasone regulation. In vitro treatment of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (eqPBMC) with LPS decreased transcripts of tlr4 and increased transcription of md2 (myeloid differentiation factor 2) and cd14 (cluster of differentiation 14). Treatment with dexamethasone rescued transcription of tlr4 after LPS inhibition. LPS-induced transcription of md2 was inhibited in the presence of dexamethasone. Dexamethasone alone did not affect transcription of tlr4 and md2.

  7. Picfeltarraenin IA inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cytokine production by the nuclear factor-κB pathway in human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells.

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    Shi, Rong; Wang, Qing; Ouyang, Yang; Wang, Qian; Xiong, Xudong

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of picfeltarraenin IA (IA) on respiratory inflammation by analyzing its effect on interleukin (IL)-8 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) in human pulmonary adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells in culture was also examined. Human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells and the human monocytic leukemia THP-1 cell line were used in the current study. Cell viability was measured using a methylthiazol tetrazolium assay. The production of IL-8 and PGE2 was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of COX2 and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-p65 was examined using western blot analysis. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg/ml) resulted in the increased production of IL-8 and PGE2, and the increased expression of COX2 in the A549 cells. Furthermore, IA (0.1-10 µmol/l) significantly inhibited PGE2 production and COX2 expression in cells with LPS-induced IL-8, in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggested that IA downregulates LPS-induced COX2 expression, and inhibits IL-8 and PGE2 production in pulmonary epithelial cells. Additionally, IA was observed to suppress the expression of COX2 in THP-1 cells, and also to regulate the expression of COX2 via the NF-κB pathway in the A549 cells, but not in the THP-1 cells. These results indicate that IA regulates LPS-induced cytokine release in A549 cells via the NF-κB pathway.

  8. Cordycepin Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α Production via Activating AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK Signaling

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    Jian-Li Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α is elevated during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD, which damages vascular endothelial cells to cause systemic vasculitis. In the current study, we investigated the potential role of cordycepin on TNFα expression in both lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophages and ex vivo cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of KD patients. We found that cordycepin significantly suppressed LPS-induced TNFα expression and production in mouse macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs. Meanwhile, cordycepin alleviated TNFα production in KD patients’ PBMCs. PBMCs from healthy controls had a much lower level of basal TNF-α content than that of KD patients. LPS-induced TNF-α production in healthy controls’ PBMCs was also inhibited by cordycepin. For the mechanism study, we discovered that cordycepin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling in both KD patients’ PBMCs and LPS-stimulated macrophages, which mediated cordycepin-induced inhibition against TNFα production. AMPK inhibition by its inhibitor (compound C or by siRNA depletion alleviated cordycepin’s effect on TNFα production. Further, we found that cordycepin inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS production and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB activation in LPS-stimulate RAW 264.7 cells or healthy controls’ PBMCs. PBMCs of KD patients showed higher basal level of ROS and NF-κB activation, which was also inhibited by cordycepin co-treatment. In conclusion, our data showed that cordycepin inhibited TNFα production, which was associated with AMPK activation as well as ROS and NF-κB inhibition. The results of this study should have significant translational relevance in managing this devastating disease.

  9. Activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway by nicotine ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats.

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    Liu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Jinying; Bao, Junjie; Li, Xiaolan; Ye, Aihua; Zhang, Guozheng; Liu, Huishu

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) exerts a more intense systemic inflammatory response than normal pregnancy. Recently, the role of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) in regulating inflammation has been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of nicotine, a selective cholinergic agonist, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats and to determine the molecular mechanism underlying it. Rats were administered LPS (1.0 μg/kg) via tail vein injection on gestational day 14 to induce preeclampsia-like symptoms. Nicotine (1.0 mg/kg/d) and α-bungarotoxin (1.0 μg/kg/d) were injected subcutaneously into the rats from gestational day 14-19. Clinical symptoms were recorded. Serum and placentas were collected to determine cytokine levels using Luminex. The mRNA and protein expression levels of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) were determined using Real time-PCR and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine the level of activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in placentas. Nicotine significantly ameliorated LPS-induced preeclampsia-like symptoms in pregnant rats (P preeclampsia (P preeclampsia rats. Our findings suggest that the activation of α7nAChR by nicotine attenuates preeclampsia-like symptoms, and this protective effect is likely the result of the inhibition of inflammation via the NF-κB p65 pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A20 Overexpression Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced NF-κB Activation, TRAF6 and CD40 Expression in Rat Peritoneal Mesothelial Cells

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    Xun-Liang Zou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc finger protein A20 is a key negative regulator of inflammation. However, whether A20 may affect inflammation during peritoneal dialysis (PD-associated peritonitis is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of A20 overexpression on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammatory response in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells (RPMCs. Isolated and cultured RPMCs in vitro. Plasmid pGEM-T easy-A20 was transfected into RPMCs by Lipofectamine™2000. The protein expression of A20, phospho-IκBα, IκBα, TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF 6 and CD40 were analyzed by Western blot. The mRNA expression of TRAF6, CD40, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α were determined by real time-PCR. NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in cells culture supernatant were determined by ELISA. Our results revealed that RPMCs overexpression of A20 lead to significant decrease of LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB DNA binding activity (all p < 0.01. In addition, A20 also attenuated the expression of TRAF6, CD40, IL-6 and TNF-α as well as levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in cells culture supernatant (all p < 0.05. However, A20 only partly inhibited CD40 expression. Our study indicated that A20 overexpression may depress the inflammatory response induced by LPS in cultured RPMCs through negatively regulated the relevant function of adaptors in LPS signaling pathway.

  11. Alpinetin attenuates inflammatory responses by interfering toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijin; Mo, Xiaodong; Yu, Jinlong; Huang, Zonghai

    2013-09-01

    Alpinetin, a novel plant flavonoid derived from Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of alpinetin on mastitis has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of alpinetin against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and to clarify the possible mechanism. In the present study, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells and an LPS-induced mouse mastitis model were used to investigate the effect of alpinetin on mastitis and the possible mechanism. In vivo, we observed that alpinetin significantly attenuated the infiltration of neutrophilic granulocytes, and the activation of myeloperoxidase; down-regulated the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6; inhibited the phosphorylation of IκB-α, NF-κB p65 and the expression of TLR4, caused by LPS. In vitro, we also observed that alpinetin inhibited the expression of TLR4 and the production of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in LPS-stimulated primary mouse mammary epithelial cells. However, alpinetin could not inhibit the production of IL-1β and IL-6 in TNF-α-stimulated primary mouse mammary epithelial cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of alpinetin against LPS-induced mastitis may be due to its ability to inhibit TLR4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways. Alpinetin may be a promising potential therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Lipopolysaccharide-induced inhibition of transcription of tlr4 in vitro is reversed by dexamethasone and correlates with presence of conserved NFκB binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, Camila P.; Baccarin, Raquel Y.A.; Nostell, Katarina; Nahum, Laila A.; Fossum, Caroline; Camargo, Maristela M. de

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Chimpanzees, horses and humans have regions of similarity on TLR4 and MD2 promoters. ► Rodents have few regions of similarity on TLR4 promoter when compared to primates. ► Conserved NFkB binding sites were found in the promoters of TLR4 and MD2. ► LPS-induced inhibition of TLR4 transcription is reversed by dexamethasone. ► LPS-induced transcription of MD2 is inhibited by dexamethasone. -- Abstract: Engagement of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a master trigger of the deleterious effects of septic shock. Horses and humans are considered the most sensitive species to septic shock, but the mechanisms explaining these phenomena remain elusive. Analysis of tlr4 promoters revealed high similarity among LPS-sensitive species (human, chimpanzee, and horse) and low similarity with LPS-resistant species (mouse and rat). Four conserved nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) binding sites were found in the tlr4 promoter and two in the md2 promoter sequences that are likely to be targets for dexamethasone regulation. In vitro treatment of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (eqPBMC) with LPS decreased transcripts of tlr4 and increased transcription of md2 (myeloid differentiation factor 2) and cd14 (cluster of differentiation 14). Treatment with dexamethasone rescued transcription of tlr4 after LPS inhibition. LPS-induced transcription of md2 was inhibited in the presence of dexamethasone. Dexamethasone alone did not affect transcription of tlr4 and md2

  13. Free fatty acids, lipopolysaccharide and IL-1α induce adipocyte manganese superoxide dismutase which is increased in visceral adipose tissues of obese rodents.

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    Sabrina Krautbauer

    Full Text Available Excess fat storage in adipocytes is associated with increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and impaired activity of antioxidant mechanisms. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD is a mitochondrial enzyme involved in detoxification of ROS, and objective of the current study is to analyze expression and regulation of MnSOD in obesity. MnSOD is increased in visceral but not subcutaneous fat depots of rodents kept on high fat diets (HFD and ob/ob mice. MnSOD is elevated in visceral adipocytes of fat fed mice and exposure of differentiating 3T3-L1 cells to lipopolysaccharide, IL-1α, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated free fatty acids (FFA upregulates its level. FFA do not alter cytochrome oxidase 4 arguing against overall induction of mitochondrial enzymes. Upregulation of MnSOD in fat loaded cells is not mediated by IL-6, TNF or sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 which are induced in these cells. MnSOD is similarly abundant in perirenal fat of Zucker diabetic rats and non-diabetic animals with similar body weight and glucose has no effect on MnSOD in 3T3-L1 cells. To evaluate whether MnSOD affects adipocyte fat storage, MnSOD was knocked-down in adipocytes for the last three days of differentiation and in mature adipocytes. Knock-down of MnSOD does neither alter lipid storage nor viability of these cells. Heme oxygenase-1 which is induced upon oxidative stress is not altered while antioxidative capacity of the cells is modestly reduced. Current data show that inflammation and excess triglyceride storage raise adipocyte MnSOD which is induced in epididymal adipocytes in obesity.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide-induced toll-like receptor 4 signaling in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma promotes tumor proliferation and regulates inflammatory cytokines expression.

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    Zu, Yukun; Ping, Wei; Deng, Taoran; Zhang, Ni; Fu, Xiangning; Sun, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Emerging evidence suggests toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling contributes to cancer development and progression. However, the consequences of signaling via the TLR4 pathway in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are still unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4 signaling on ESCC cell proliferation, inflammatory cytokines expression, and downstream molecular mechanisms. Seventy-eight ESCC and 26 normal esophageal specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and two cell lines (Eca-109 and TE-1) were used for in vitro studies. LPS, a natural agonist of TLR4, was used to activate TLR4 signaling. The effects of LPS-TLR4 signaling on cell proliferation and inflammatory cytokines regulation were examined. Specific inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (extracellular regulated protein kinase [ERK] and p38) signaling pathways were used to investigate the role of each pathway in LPS-TLR4 signaling. TLR4 protein was increased in ESCC tumor tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues. TLR4 over-expression was significantly correlated with tumor differentiation grade, lymph node metastasis, and UICC stage. LPS-induced activation of TLR4 signaling promoted cancer cell proliferation, increased production of proinflammatory or immunosuppressive cytokines TNF-α, TGF-β and inhibited the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. LPS-TLR4 signaling was associated with the activation of ERK and p38 MAPK signaling pathways. Further inactivation of the two pathways by specific inhibitors attenuated cell proliferation and inflammatory cytokines expression induced by LPS. Our results indicate that LPS-TLR4 signaling in cancer cells contributes to the progression of human ESCC. © 2016 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  15. Secretome of Aggregated Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Modulates the Release of Inflammatory Factors in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

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    Mohammadi Ghahhari, Nastaran; Maghsood, Faezeh; Jahandideh, Saeed; Lotfinia, Majid; Lak, Shirin; Johari, Behrooz; Azarnezhad, Asaad; Kadivar, Mehdi

    2018-07-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have emerged as a potential therapy for various inflammatory diseases. Because of some limitations, several recent studies have suggested the use of embryonic stem cell-derived MSCs (ESC-MSCs) as an alternative for BM-MSCs. Some of the therapeutic effects of the ESC-MSCs are related to the secretion of a broad array of cytokines and growth factors, known as secretome. Harnessing this secretome for therapeutic applications requires the optimization of production of secretary molecules. It has been shown that aggregation of MSCs into 3D spheroids, as a preconditioning strategy, can enhance immunomodulatory potential of such cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of secretome derived from human ESC-MSCs (hESC-MSCs) spheroids on secretion of IL-1β, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In the present study, after immunophenotyping and considering mesodermal differentiation of hESC-MSCs, the cells were non-adherently grown to prepare 3D aggregates, and then conditioned medium or secretome was extracted from the cultures. Afterwards, the anti-inflammatory effects of the secretome were assessed in an in vitro model of inflammation. Results from this study showed that aggregate-prepared secretome from hESC-MSCs was able to significantly decrease the secretion of TNF-α (301.7 ± 5.906, p strategy to increase immunomodulatory characteristics of hESC-MSCs.

  16. Early plant growth and biochemical responses induced by Azospirillum brasilense Sp245 lipopolysaccharides in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings are attenuated by procyanidin B2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Ochoa, Juan; López-Marmolejo, Mariel; Hernández-Esquivel, Alma Alejandra; Méndez-Gómez, Manuel; Suárez-Soria, Laura Nicolasa; Castro-Mercado, Elda; García-Pineda, Ernesto

    2018-03-01

    This study analyzes the effects of procyanidin B2 on early wheat plant growth and plant biochemical responses promoted by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) derived from the rhizobacteria Azospirillum brasilense Sp245. Measurements of leaf, root length, fresh weight, and dry weight showed in vitro plant growth stimulation 4 days after treatment with A. brasilense as well as LPS. Superoxide anion (O 2 ·- ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) levels increased in seedling roots treated with LPS (100 μg mL -1 ). The chlorophyll content in leaf decreased while the starch content increased 24 h after treatment in seedling roots. The LPS treatment induced a high increase in total peroxidase (POX) (EC 1.11.1.7) activity and ionically bound cell wall POX content in roots, when compared to respective controls. Early plant growth and biochemical responses observed in wheat seedlings treated with LPS were inhibited by the addition of procyanidin B2 (5 μg mL -1 ), a B type proanthocyanidin (PAC), plant-derived polyphenolic compound with binding properties of LPS. All results suggest first that the ionically bound cell wall POX enzymes could be a molecular target of A. brasilense LPS, and second that the recognition or association of LPS by plant cells is required to activate plant responses. This last event could play a critical role during plant growth regulation by A. brasilense LPS.

  17. Ulinastatin suppresses lipopolysaccharide induced neuro-inflammation through the downregulation of nuclear factor-κB in SD rat hippocampal astrocyte

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    Li, Yuting; Zhao, Lei; Fu, Huiqun [Department of Anesthesiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100053 Beijing (China); Wu, Yan [Department of Anatomy, Capital Medical University, 100069 Beijing (China); Wang, Tianlong, E-mail: litingliting258@163.com [Department of Anesthesiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100053 Beijing (China)

    2015-03-20

    Astrocyte activation plays a pivotal role in neuroinflammation, which contributes to neuronal damage, so the inhibition of astrocyte activation may alleviate the progression of neurodegeneration. Recent studies have proved that urinary trypsin inhibitor ulinastatin could inhibit NF-kB activation. In our study, the inhibitory effects of ulinastatin on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators were investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-reduced primary astrocyte. Our results showed that ulinastatin significantly inhibited LPS-induced astrogliosis, which is measured by MTT and BrdU. Ulinastatin decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, it significantly decreased both the mRNA and the protein levels of these pro-inflammatory cytokines and also increased the protein levels of IκB-α binded to NF-κB, which blocked NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and prevented its activity. Our results suggest that ulinastatin is able to inhibit neuroinflammation by interfering with NF-κB signaling. The study provides direct evidence of potential therapy methods of ulinastatin for the treatment of neuroinflammatory diseases. - Highlights: • The anti-inflammatory effect of UTI on hippocampal astrocyte. • UTI showed protective effect on neuroinflammation by the downregulation of NF-κB. • UTI led to expression of cytokines decreased in concentration and time dependence.

  18. Fish oil rich diet in comparison to saturated fat rich diet offered protection against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in mice

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    Ziegler Thomas R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objective Systemic chronic inflammation is linked to metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, and heart disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a Gram negative microbial product, triggers inflammation through toll-like-receptor-4 (TLR-4 signaling. It has been reported that dietary fatty acids also modulate inflammation through TLR-4. We investigated whether fish oil (FO rich diet in comparison to saturated fat (SF rich diet would confer protection from pathologies induced by LPS. Methods Twenty C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups. One group received FO-diet and other received SF-diet ad libitum for 60 days. Diets were isocaloric containing 45% energy from fat. After 60-days of feeding, blood was collected after overnight fast. Mice were allowed to recover for 4-days, fasted for 5-hours, challenged with 100 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially, and bled after 2-hours. After 7-days of recuperation, mice were challenged with 500 ng/mL of LPS intraperitonially and observed for physical health. Results Food intake was similar in FO- and SF-fed mice. FO-fed mice compared to SF-fed mice had significantly less body weight gain (P = 0.005, epididymal fat weight (P = 0.005, fasting blood glucose (70.8 vs 83.3 ng/dL; P Conclusion Overall, FO-diet compared to SF-diet offered protection against deleterious effects of LPS in mice.

  19. Arctigenin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS expression in RAW264.7 cells through suppressing JAK-STAT signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xianjuan; Qi, Shimei; Dai, Wuxing; Luo, Lan; Yin, Zhimin

    2011-08-01

    Arctigenin has been demonstrated to have an anti-inflammatory function, but the precise mechanisms of its action remain to be fully defined. In the present study, we determined the effects of arctigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of proinflammatory mediators and the underlying mechanisms involved in RAW264.7 cells. Our results indicated that arctigenin exerted its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting ROS-dependent STAT signaling through its antioxidant activity. Arctigenin also significantly reduced the phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT 3 as well as JAK2 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The inhibitions of STAT1 and STAT 3 by arctigenin prevented their translocation to the nucleus and consequently inhibited expression of iNOS, thereby suppressing the expression of inflammation-associated genes, such as IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1, whose promoters contain STAT-binding elements. However, COX-2 expression was slightly inhibited at higher drug concentrations (50 μM). Our data demonstrate that arctigenin inhibits iNOS expression via suppressing JAK-STAT signaling pathway in macrophages. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Three-spot Seahorse Petroleum Ether Extract on Lipopolysaccharide Induced Macrophage RAW264.7 Inflammatory Cytokine Nitric Oxide and Composition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, LiPing; Shen, XuanRi; Chen, GuoHua; Cao, XianYing; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Three-Spot seahorse is a traditional medicine in Asian countries. However, the alcohol extract is largely unknown for its anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed at elucidating fraction of potent anti-inflammatory activity of seahorse. A systematic solvent extraction method of liquid-liquid fractionation of ethanol crude extract gave four fractions petroleum ether (PE), and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), water saturated butanol (n-BuOH), water (H2O). In this study, PE extract was selected for further study after preliminary screening test, and was connected to silica column chromatography and eluted with different polarity of mobile phases, and obtained four active fractions (Fr I, Fr II, Fr III, Fr IV). Effect of separated fractions on inflammation was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated murine RAW264.7 cells in vitro. The result shows that seahorse extract was capable of inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) significantly in a dose dependent manner and exhibited no notable cytotoxicity on cell viability. IC50 of fraction IV was 36.31 μg/mL, indicating that separated fraction possessed potent NO inhibitory activity against LPS-induced inflammatory response, thus, demonstrated its in vitro anti-inflammatory potentiality, it may be at least partially explained by the presence of anti-inflammation active substances, phenolic compounds, phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. It could be suggested that seahorse lipid-soluble components could be used in functional food and anti-inflammatory drug preparations.

  1. Cellular Metabolomics Revealed the Cytoprotection of Amentoflavone, a Natural Compound, in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Injury of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

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    Weifeng Yao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Amentoflavone is one of the important bioactive flavonoids in the ethylacetate extract of “Cebaiye”, which is a blood cooling and hematostatic herb in traditional Chinese medicine. The previous work in our group has demonstrated that the ethylacetate extract of Cebaiye has a notable antagonistic effect on the injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. The present investigation was designed to assess the effects and possible mechanism of cytoprotection of amentoflavone via metabolomics. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS coupled with multivariate data analysis was used to characterize the variations in the metabolites of HUVECs in response to exposure to LPS and amentoflavone treatment. Seven putative metabolites (glycine, argininosuccinic acid, putrescine, ornithine, spermidine, 5-oxoproline and dihydrouracil were discovered in cells incubated with LPS and/or amentoflavone. Functional pathway analysis uncovered that the changes of these metabolites related to various significant metabolic pathways (glutathione metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, β-alanine metabolism and glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, which may explain the potential cytoprotection function of amentoflavone. These findings also demonstrate that cellular metabolomics through UPLC/QTOF-MS is a powerful tool for detecting variations in a range of intracellular compounds upon toxin and/or drug exposure.

  2. Proteome analysis of the anti-inflammatory response of flavonoids isolated from Korean Citrus aurantium L. in lipopolysaccharide-induced L6 rat skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-A; Park, Hyeon-Soo; Park, Kwang-Il; Hong, Gyeong-Eun; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Zhang, Jue; Han, Dae-Yong; Shin, Sung-Chul; Won, Chung-Gil; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Gon-Sup

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is an important organ in our body and a dynamic composite of proteins. Citrus aurantium L. has been widely used in oriental medicine in Eastern Asia for a long time. It contains over 100 bioactive compounds and flavonoids that regulate the inflammatory response and tumorigenesis, through various mechanisms. In the present study, we investigated changes in the protein pattern using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF/MS) to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of flavonoids isolated from Korean C. aurantium L. in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced L6 cells. L6 skeletal muscle cells were pretreated with flavonoids for 1 h and stimulated with LPS for 24 h. Proteins from the L6 cells of the control, LPS treated and flavonoid treated groups were extracted and resolved by 2-DE using pH 4-7 IPG strips loaded with 150 μg of protein. Forty-one differentially expressed protein spots were identified (more than two-fold was considered significant, p aurantium L.

  3. Melatonin inhibits Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and interleukin-6 in murine macrophages by suppressing NF-κB and STAT1 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Jin, Ji-Young; Lee, Ju-Youn; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2011-03-01

    Although a range of biological and pharmacological activities of melatonin have been reported, little is known about its potential anti-inflammatory efficacy in periodontal disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of melatonin on the production of inflammatory mediators by murine macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a major cause of inflammatory reactions in the periodontium, and sought to determine the underlying mechanisms of action. Melatonin suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) at both gene transcription and translation levels in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. P. intermedia LPS-induced NF-κB-dependent luciferase activity was significantly inhibited by melatonin. Melatonin did not reduce NF-κB transcriptional activity at the level of IκB-α degradation. Melatonin blocked NF-κB signaling through the inhibition of nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NF-κB p50 subunit and suppressed STAT1 signaling. Although further research is required to clarify the detailed mechanism of action, we conclude that melatonin may contribute to blockade of the host-destructive processes mediated by these two proinflammatory mediators and could be a highly efficient modulator of host response in the treatment of inflammatory periodontal disease. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. [Nose-only cigarette smoke exposure plus airway lipopolysaccharide inhalation induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associated pulmonary hypertension in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jiaze; Lu, Wenju; Li, Defu; Liang, Zhihao; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jian

    2015-12-01

    To establish a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and associated pulmonary hypertension (COPD-PH) induced by nose-only cigarette smoking exposure plus airway lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation. There were 24 male C57B6 mice divided into a control group and a model group at random. The model group was given LPS by intranasal inhalation on day 1 and day 14 and exposed to the cigarette smoke in a nose-only exposure system, while the control group was given physiological saline and exposed to normal air. The model establishment was evaluated according the following parameters: the lung function and the right heart pressure, the total and differential cell numbers in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and the pathological changes of lung tissues. The functional residual capacity data of the model group and the control group were (0.402 ± 0.057) and (0.243 ± 0.064) ml respectively (Ppulmonary small vessels occurred in the model group, which indicated ongoing airway and blood vessel remodeling. A COPD-PH mouse model was established by nose-only cigarette smoking exposure plus airway LPS inhalation in a short period of time, and this method was more similar to the smoking behavior of human.

  5. Neonatal manipulation of oxytocin prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in gene expression of growth factors in two developmental stages of the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Jan; Lestanova, Zuzana; Strbak, Vladimir; Havranek, Tomas; Bacova, Zuzana

    2014-10-01

    Oxytocin production and secretion is important for early development of the brain. Long-term consequences of manipulation of oxytocin system might include changes in markers of brain plasticity - cytoskeletal proteins and neurotrophins. The aim of the present study was (1) to determine whether neonatal oxytocin administration affects gene expression of nestin, microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in the brain of two developmental stages of rat and (2) to evaluate whether neonatal oxytocin administration protects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammation. Neonatal oxytocin did not prevent a decrease of body weight in the LPS treated animals. Oxytocin significantly increased gene expression of BDNF in the right hippocampus in 21-day and 2-month old rats of both sexes. Gene expression of NGF and MAP-2 significantly increased in males treated with oxytocin. Both, growth factors and intermediate filament-nestin mRNA levels, were reduced in females exposed to LPS. Oxytocin treatment prevented a decrease in the gene expression of only growth factors. In conclusion, neonatal manipulation of oxytocin has developmental and sex-dependent effect on markers of brain plasticity. These results also indicate, that oxytocin may be protective against inflammation particularly in females. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Portulaca oleracea L. prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced passive avoidance learning and memory and TNF-α impairments in hippocampus of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorbakhshnia, Maryam; Karimi-Zandi, Leila

    2017-02-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that neuroinflammation can impair memory. It has been indicated that Portulaca oleracea Linn. (POL), possess anti-inflammatory activity and might improve memory disruption caused by inflammation. In this study the effect of pre-treatment with the hydro-alcoholic extract of POL on memory retrieval investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treated rats. Male Wistar rats (200-220g) received either a control diet or a diet containing of POL (400mg/kg, p.o.) for 14days. Then, they received injections of either saline or LPS (1mg/kg, i.p.). In all the experimental groups, 4h following the last injection, passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory test was performed. The retention test was done 24h after the training and then the animals were sacrificed. Hippocampal TNF-α levels measured using ELISA as one criteria of LPS-induced neuroinflammation. The results indicated that LPS significantly impaired PAL and memory and increased TNF-α levels in hippocampus tissue. Pre-treatment with POL improved memory in control rats and prevented memory and TNF-α deterioration in LPS treated rats. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the hydro-alcoholic extract of POL may improve memory deficits in LPS treated rats, possibly via inhibition of TNF-α and anti-inflammatory activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. G(ANH)MTETRA, A NATURAL BACTERIAL-CELL WALL BREAKDOWN PRODUCT, INDUCES INTERLEUKIN-1-BETA AND INTERLEUKIN-6 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN MONOCYTES - A STUDY OF THE MOLECULAR MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINE EXPRESSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOKTER, WHA; DIJKSTRA, AJ; KOOPMANS, SB; STULP, BK; KECK, W; HALIE, MR; VELLENGA, E

    1994-01-01

    It is believed that induction of cytokine expression by bacterial cell wall components plays a role in the development and course of sepsis. However, most attention has been focused on lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We studied the ability of

  8. The Lipopolysaccharide-induced metabolome signature in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals dynamic reprogramming of Phytoalexin and Phytoanticipin pathways

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Finnegan, T

    2016-09-22

    Full Text Available tentatively identified. These include the phytohormones salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, and also the associated methyl esters and sugar conjugates. The induced defensive state resulted in increases in indoleÐand other glucosinolates, indole derivatives...

  9. Interleukin-10 does not mediate the inhibitory effect of PDE-4 inhibitors and other cAMP-elevating drugs on lipopolysaccharide-induced tumors necrosis factor-alpha generation from human peripheral blood monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldon, P M; Barnes, P J; Giembycz, M A

    1998-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in mice and LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) generation by murine macrophages and hepatocytes are suppressed markedly by agents that elevate intracellular cAMP. Phosphodiesterase (PDE)-4 inhibitors, beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists, and E-series prostaglandins also attenuate the induction of the TNF-alpha gene in human monocytes in response to bacterial LPS. The mechanism of action of cAMP is unclear, but in the mouse, is believed to involve the generation of this anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10). In this article, we describe the results of studies designed to determine the extent to which IL-10 contributes to the suppression of TNF-alpha generation from LPS-stimulated human monocytes evoked by 8-bromo cyclic AMP (8-Br-cAMP), rolipram, salbutamol, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). LPS evoked a time- and concentration-dependent generation of TNF-alpha (t1/2 = 4.5 h; EC50 = 273 pg/mL), which was inhibited by exogenous human recombinant (h) IL-10 (IC50 = 124 pg/mL), and by rolipram (EC50 = 420 nM), 8-Br-cAMP (EC50 = 77 (microM), PGE2 (EC50 = 15 nM) and salbutamol (EC50 = 20 nM). In addition, 8-Br-cAMP, PGE2; and salbutamol (but not rolipram) augmented significantly LPS-induced IL-10 production (two-to-fivefold) under identical experimental conditions. Pretreatment of monocytes with an anti-IL-10 monoclonal antibody (MAb) that abolished the inhibitory action of a maximally effective concentration of exogenous hrIL-10, failed to attenuate the inhibitory effect of rolipram, PGE2, salbutamol, and 8-Br-cAMP. Anti-IL-10 was similarly inactive when the number of monocytes seeded was increased from 0.5 to 4 x 10(6)/mL or when measurements were made at 42 h post-LPS, a time when the concentration of IL-10 released was maximal. Collectively, these data suggest that in contrast to murine hepatocytes and macrophages, IL-10 does not mediate the inhibitory effect of cAMP-elevating drugs on TNF

  10. Lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary endothelial barrier disruption and lung edema: critical role for bicarbonate stimulation of AC10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols, Jordan; Obiako, Boniface; Ramila, K C; Putinta, Kevin; Schilling, Sarah; Sayner, Sarah L

    2015-12-15

    Bacteria-induced sepsis is a common cause of pulmonary endothelial barrier dysfunction and can progress toward acute respiratory distress syndrome. Elevations in intracellular cAMP tightly regulate pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity; however, cAMP signals are highly compartmentalized: whether cAMP is barrier-protective or -disruptive depends on the compartment (plasma membrane or cytosol, respectively) in which the signal is generated. The mammalian soluble adenylyl cyclase isoform 10 (AC10) is uniquely stimulated by bicarbonate and is expressed in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs). Elevated extracellular bicarbonate increases cAMP in PMVECs to disrupt the endothelial barrier and increase the filtration coefficient (Kf) in the isolated lung. We tested the hypothesis that sepsis-induced endothelial barrier disruption and increased permeability are dependent on extracellular bicarbonate and activation of AC10. Our findings reveal that LPS-induced endothelial barrier disruption is dependent on extracellular bicarbonate: LPS-induced barrier failure and increased permeability are exacerbated in elevated bicarbonate compared with low extracellular bicarbonate. The AC10 inhibitor KH7 attenuated the bicarbonate-dependent LPS-induced barrier disruption. In the isolated lung, LPS failed to increase Kf in the presence of minimal perfusate bicarbonate. An increase in perfusate bicarbonate to the physiological range (24 mM) revealed the LPS-induced increase in Kf, which was attenuated by KH7. Furthermore, in PMVECs treated with LPS for 6 h, there was a dose-dependent increase in AC10 expression. Thus these findings reveal that LPS-induced pulmonary endothelial barrier failure requires bicarbonate activation of AC10. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Zinc protoporphyrin inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-, lipoteichoic acid-, and peptidoglycan-induced nitric oxide production through stimulating iNOS protein ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jyh-Ming; Lin, Hui-Yi; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Wu, Ming-Shun; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Lin, Chien-Huang; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), but not ferric protoporphyrin (FePP), tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), or zinc chloride (ZnCl(2)), at the doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 microM, dose-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN)-induced inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production with an increase in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) protein in RAW264.7 macrophages in a serum-free condition. NO inhibition and HO-1 induction by ZnPP were blocked by the separate addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). A decrease in the iNOS/NO ratio and an increase in HO-1 protein by ZnPP were identified in three different conditions including ZnPP pretreatment, ZnPP co-treatment, and ZnPP post-treatment with LPS and LTA. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs) were detected in LPS-, LTA-, and PGN-treated RAW264.7 cells, and iNOS/NO production was blocked by adding the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, but not the ERK inhibitor, PD98059. However, ZnPP addition potentiated ERK and JNK protein phosphorylation stimulated by LPS, LTA, and PGN. Increases in total protein ubiquitination and ubiquitinated iNOS proteins were detected in ZnPP-treated macrophages elicited by LPS according to Western and immunoprecipitation/Western blotting assays, respectively. The decrease in LPS-induced iNOS protein by ZnPP was reversed by adding the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin. The reduction in HO-1 protein induced by ZnPP via transfection of HO-1 small interfering RNA did not affect the inhibitory effect of ZnPP against LPS-induced iNOS/NO production and protein ubiquitination induced by ZnPP in macrophages. Data of the present study provide the first evidence to support ZnPP effectively inhibiting inflammatory iNOS/NO production through activation of protein ubiquitination in a HO-1-independent manner in macrophages.

  12. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 suppresses Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of nitric oxide and interleukin-1β in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Young; Choe, So-Hui; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, Jeom-Il; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2015-10-05

    This study was performed to analyze the effect of carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3) in alleviating the production of proinflammatory mediators in macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Prevotella intermedia, a pathogen associated with periodontal disease, and its possible mechanisms of action. LPS was isolated using the hot phenol-water method. Culture supernatants were assayed for nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR, and protein expression by immunoblotting. DNA-binding activities of NF-κB subunits were determined using an ELISA-based kit. CORM-3 suppressed the production of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO and IL-1β at both gene transcription and translation levels in P. intermedia LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells. CORM-3 enhanced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cells stimulated with P. intermedia LPS, and inhibition of HO-1 activity by SnPP notably reversed the suppressive effect of CORM-3 on LPS-induced production of NO. LPS-induced phosphorylation of p38 and JNK was not affected by CORM-3. CORM-3 did not influence P. intermedia LPS-induced degradation of IκB-α. Instead, nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and p50 subunits was blocked by CORM-3 in LPS-treated cells. In addition, CORM-3 reduced LPS-induced p65 and p50 binding to DNA. Besides, CORM-3 significantly suppressed P. intermedia LPS-induced phosphorylation of STAT1. Overall, this study indicates that CORM-3 suppresses the production of NO and IL-1β in P. intermedia LPS-activated murine macrophages via HO-1 induction and inhibition of NF-κB and STAT1 pathways. The modulation of host inflammatory response by CORM-3 would be an attractive therapeutic approach to attenuate the progression of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activities of Ampelopsin and Its Protective Effect in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Oxidative Stress Piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiang; Zhang, Jingfei; Ahmad, Hussain; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Ziwei; Wang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant potential of ampelopsin (APS) by using various methods in vitro, as well as to determine effects of APS on LPS-induced oxidative stress in piglets. The results showed that APS exhibited excellent free radical scavenging by DPPH, ABTS, O2•−, H2O2 and ferric reducing antioxidant power. Ampelopsin also protected pig erythrocytes against AAPH-induced apoptosis and hemolysis, decreased total superoxide dismutase activity, and increased lipid peroxidation. Furthermore the results demonstrated that APS enhanced the total antioxidant capacity and decreased the malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in LPS-treated piglets. The results of the present investigation suggest that APS possesses a strong antioxidant activity and alleviates LPS-induced oxidative stress, possibly due to its ability to prevent reactive oxygen species. PMID:25268121

  14. Dienogest inhibits Toll-like receptor 4 expression induced by costimulation of lipopolysaccharide and high-mobility group box 1 in endometrial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Shizuka; Shimizu, Yutaka; Notsu, Tatsuto; Imada, Kazunori; Kyo, Satoru

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effect of dienogest on the expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 in human endometrial epithelial cells. Prospective basic research study. Pharmaceutical research center. None. Not applicable. TLR4 in the immortalized progesterone receptor-expressing human endometrial epithelial cell line, EM-PR, was activated with lipopolysaccharide and high-mobility group box 1 (LPS/HMGB1) in the presence or absence of the synthetic progestin dienogest or endogenous progesterone. The production of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and the mRNA expression of TLR4 were measured with the use of ELISA and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction respectively and nuclear factor (NF)-κB reporter gene assays were performed. The role of TLR4 was assayed with the use of TLR4-siRNA-transfected cells. Coadministration of LPS/HMGB1 induced the production of IL-8, IL-6, and MCP-1, TLR4 mRNA expression, and NF-κB activity in EM-PR cells, and dienogest inhibited all of these parameters. TLR4 knockdown using TLR4 siRNA reduced IL-8 production. Dienogest inhibits TLR4 mRNA expression and subsequent IL-8 production induced by TLR4 agonists via an inhibitory effect on NF-κB activation in human endometrial epithelial cells. This pharmacologic effect of dienogest may contribute to its therapeutic effect on abnormal inflammation of endometrium. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor on cardiac fibrosis and oxidative stress status in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation model in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Abareshi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Renin-angiotensin (Ang-aldosterone system not only plays a key role in the regulation of circulatory homeostasis, but also it acts as a powerful pro-inflammatory mediator. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of captopril (Cap, a known Ang-converting enzyme inhibitor, on inflammation-induced cardiac fibrosis, and heart oxidative stress status in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation in male rats. Methods: Fifty male rats were randomly divided into five groups control, LPS (1 mg/kg/day, LPS + Cap 10 mg/kg, LPS + Cap 50 mg/kg and LPS + Cap 100 mg/kg. After 2 weeks, blood samples were taken, and hearts were harvested for evaluation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and nitric oxide metabolite in serum and tissue hemogenate, histopathology (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome and oxidative stress status. Results: Serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentration were higher in LPS group compared to control and Cap reduced them, significantly. Heart TNF-α and IL-6 contents in LPS group were significantly higher than control (P < 0.05. The administration of Cap significantly decreased inflammatory markers level to control (P < 0.05. The higher levels of malondialdehyde and lower antioxidative markers (total thiol, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the heart were observed in LPS group and treatment by Cap improved them, dose-dependently. Histopathological study revealed cardiac fibrosis and more collagen content in LPS group which significantly improved by Cap treatment. Conclusions: Treatment by Cap reduced cardiac fibrosis possibly through improving oxidative stress status, and it can be considered to increase cardiac compliance in this condition.

  16. The roles of serine protease, intracellular and extracellular phenoloxidase in activation of prophenoloxidase system, and characterization of phenoloxidase from shrimp haemocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide or dopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Peng; Pan, Luqing; Xu, Wujie; Yue, Feng

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dopamine (DA) on the activation of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system of Litopenaeus vannamei. LPS and DA were shown with a negative dose-dependent effect on hyalne cells (HC), semi-granular cells (SGC), large granular cells (LGC), and total haemocyte count (THC). When haemocytes were treated with LPS or DA, serine proteinase activity and intracellular phenoloxidase (PO) activity were significantly reduced, but extracellular PO activity increased significantly. These findings indicated that the reduction in haemocyte counts was mainly because of the degranulation and activation of the proPO system from semi-granule and large granule cells. The PKC inhibitor, chelerythrine, and the TPK inhibitor, genistein, had an inhibitory effect on extracellular PO activity, while serine proteinase and intracellular PO activity increased. This suggests that the LPS and DA induce the activation of proPO in haemocytes via PKC and TPK-related signaling pathways, but serine proteinase may be activated only by PKC, as the genistein effects were not statistically significant. Electrophoresis analysis revealed that POs induced by LPS or DA have the same molecular mass and high diphenolase activity. Two PO bands at 526 kDa and 272 kDa were observed in PAGE, while in the haemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS), only a 272-kDa band was observed. This band was resolved after SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing conditions into two groups of POs, 166 kDa and 126 kDa, and 78.1 kDa and 73.6 kDa, respectively, suggesting that PO in L. vannamei is an oligomer, which may have different compositions intra- and extracellularly.

  17. The ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Pasteurella multocida B:2 to induce clinical and pathological lesions in the nervous system of buffalo calves following experimental inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Jesse Abdullah, Faez Firdaus; Ahmed, Ihsan Muneer; Teik Chung, Eric Lim; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Alwan, Mohammed Jwaid; Mohd Lila, Mohd Azmi

    2017-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. multocida B:2, a causative agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in cattle and buffaloes, is considered as the main virulence factor and contribute in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recent studies provided evidences about the involvement of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS. However, the role of P. multocida B:2 immunogens, especially the LPS is still uncovered. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the role of P. multocida B:2 LPS to induce pathological changes in the nervous system. Nine eight-month-old, clinically healthy buffalo calves were used and distributed into three groups. Calves of Group 1 and 2 were inoculated orally and intravenously with 10 ml of LPS broth extract represent 1 × 10 12  cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2, respectively, while calves of Group 3 were inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline as a control. Significant differences were found in the mean scores for clinical signs, post mortem and histopathological changes especially in Group 2, which mainly affect different anatomic regions of the nervous system, mainly the brain. On the other hand, lower scores have been recorded for clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes in Group 1. These results provide for the first time strong evidence about the ability of P. multocida B:2 LPS to cross the blood brain barrier and induce pathological changes in the nervous system of the affected buffalo calves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide-induced brain activation of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and depressive-like behavior are impaired in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinel, Anne-Laure; André, Caroline; Aubert, Agnès; Ferreira, Guillaume; Layé, Sophie; Castanon, Nathalie

    2014-02-01

    Although peripheral low-grade inflammation has been associated with a high incidence of mood symptoms in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS), much less is known about the potential involvement of brain activation of cytokines in that context. Recently we showed in a mouse model of MetS, namely the db/db mice, an enhanced hippocampal inflammation associated with increased anxiety-like behavior (Dinel et al., 2011). However, depressive-like behavior was not affected in db/db mice. Based on the strong association between depressive-like behavior and cytokine-induced brain activation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), the enzyme that metabolizes tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway, these results may suggest an impairment of brain IDO activation in db/db mice. To test this hypothesis, we measured the ability of db/db mice and their healthy db/+ littermates to enhance brain IDO activity and depressive-like behavior after a systemic immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Here we show that LPS (5 μg/mouse) significantly increased depressive-like behavior (increased immobility time in a forced-swim test, FST) 24h after treatment in db/+ mice, but not in db/db mice. Interestingly, db/db mice also displayed after LPS treatment blunted increase of brain kynurenine/tryptophan ratio compared to their db/+ counterparts, despite enhanced induction of hippocampal cytokine expression (interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α). Moreover, this was associated with an impaired effect of LPS on hippocampal expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that contributes to mood regulation, including under inflammatory conditions. Collectively, these data indicate that the rise in brain tryptophan catabolism and depressive-like behavior induced by innate immune system activation is impaired in db/db mice. These findings could have relevance in improving the management and treatment of inflammation-related complications in MetS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  19. Tempol and perindopril protect against lipopolysaccharide-induced cognition impairment and amyloidogenesis by modulating brain-derived neurotropic factor, neuroinflammation and oxido-nitrosative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammed Ragab Abdel-Aziz; Abo-Youssef, Amira Morad Hussein; Messiha, Basim Anwar Shehata; Khattab, Mahmoud Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    We aim to evaluate the protective role of the central angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor perindopril, compared with the standard reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger tempol, against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cognition impairment and amyloidogenesis in a simulation to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mice were allocated into a control group, an LPS control group (0.8 mg/kg, i.p., once), a tempol (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., 7 days) treatment group, and two perindopril (0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day, p.o., 7 days) treatment groups. A behavioral study was conducted to evaluate spatial and nonspatial memory in mice, followed by a biochemical study involving assessment of brain levels of Aβ and BDNF as Alzheimer and neuroplasticity markers; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nitric oxide end-products (NOx), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) as inflammatory markers; and superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione reduced (GSH), and nitrotyrosine (NT) as oxido-nitrosative stress markers. Finally, histopathological examination of cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum sections was performed using both routine and special staining. Tempol and perindopril improved spatial and nonspatial memory in mice without affecting locomotor activity; decreased brain Aβ deposition and BDNF depletion; decreased brain TNF-α, NOx, nNOS, iNOS, MDA, and NT levels; and increased brain SOD and GSH contents, parallel to confirmatory histopathological findings. Tempol and perindopril may be promising agents against AD progression via suppression of Aβ deposition and BDNF decline, suppression of TNF-α production, support of brain antioxidant status, and amelioration of oxido-nitrosative stress and NT production.

  20. Effect of nitric oxide-releasing derivative of indomethacin on Prevotella intermedia lipopolysaccharide-induced production of proinflammatory mediators in murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, So-Hui; Choi, Eun-Young; Hyeon, Jin-Yi; Choi, In Soon; Kim, Sung-Jo

    2017-10-14

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of NCX 2121, a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing derivative of indomethacin, upon the generation of proinflammatory mediators using murine macrophages activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Prevotella intermedia, which is one of the pathogens implicated in periodontal diseases. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO, IL-1β and IL-6 as well as their relevant mRNA were significantly attenuated by NCX 2121 in RAW264.7 cells activated by P. intermedia LPS. NCX 2121 was much more effective than the parental compound indomethacin in reducing these proinflammatory mediators. NCX 2121 triggered induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in cells exposed to P. intermedia LPS, and its inhibitory influence upon P. intermedia LPS-elicited NO generation was notably blocked by SnPP treatment. NCX 2121 attenuated NF-κB-dependent SEAP release induced by P. intermedia LPS. NCX 2121 did not display inhibitory action towards IκB-α degradation triggered by LPS. Instead, it significantly diminished nuclear translocation as well as DNA-binding action of NF-κB p50 subunit elicited by P. intermedia LPS. Further, NCX 2121 significantly up-regulated SOCS1 mRNA expression in cells challenged with P. intermedia LPS. In summary, NCX 2121 down-regulates P. intermedia LPS-elicited generation of NO, IL-1β and IL-6 in murine macrophages in a mechanism that involves anti-inflammatory HO-1 induction as well as decrement of NF-κB activation, which may be associated with SOCS1 expression. NCX 2121 may have potential benefits as a host immunomodulatory agent for the therapy of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides Reduce Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin-1β Expression in Cultured Smooth Muscle Cells and in Thoracic Aortas in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Jung Liang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of inflammatory cytokines on vascular walls is a critical event in vascular diseases and inflammation. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an extract of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi polysaccharides (EORPs, which is effective against immunological disorders, on interleukin- (IL- 1β expression by human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs and the underlying mechanism. The lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced IL-1β expression was significantly reduced when HASMCs were pretreated with EORP by Western blot and immunofluorescent staining. Pretreatment with 10 μg/mL EORP decreased LPS-induced ERK, p38, JNK, and Akt phosphorylation. But the increase in IL-1β expression with LPS treatment was only inhibited by pretreatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor, while the JNK and p38 inhibitors had no effect. In addition, EORP reduced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor- (NF- κB p65 in LPS-treated HASMCs. Furthermore, in vivo, IL-1β expression was strongly expressed in thoracic aortas in LPS-treated mice. Oral administration of EORP decreased IL-1β expression. The level of IL-1β expression in LPS-treated or in LPS/EORP-treated group was very low and was similar to that of the saline-treated group in toll-like receptor 4-deficient (TLR4−/− mice. These findings suggest that EORP has the anti-inflammatory property and could prove useful in the prevention of vascular diseases and inflammatory responses.

  2. Induction of heme oxygenas-1 attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyu, Hu; Si, Hongbin; Li, Shumin; Wang, Wenqing; Guo, Jian; Li, Yanyi; Cao, Yongguo; Fu, Yunhe; Zhang, Naisheng

    2017-11-01

    Mastitis is one of most prevalent production disease in dairy herds worldwide, and is responsible for enormous economic losses. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme, which is involved in the response to oxidative stress and inflammatory response. The purpose of this study was to detect the protective effect of HO-1 on LPS-induced mastitis in mice. BALB/c mice were pretreated with hemin (HO-1 inducer) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP; HO-1 inhibitor) at 2h before LPS stimulation. The results showed that the mammary gland damage, production of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, and MPO activity in mammary gland tissues were significantly reduced after pretreated with hemin compared with the group of LPS stimulation only. However, ZnPP reversed the effects of hemin. Furthermore, we found that the levels of ROS and NLRP3 inflammasome were increased after LPS stimulation. The increases were inhibited by hemin and the inhibition of hemin on ROS production and NLRP3 inflammasome activation were blocked by ZnPP. In addition, the results showed that hemin reduced the expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) induced by LPS, and ZnPP attenuated these changes. In conclusion, the results suggested that overproduction of HO-1 may inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and the expression of TXNIP. Induction of HO-1 may be served as a promising method against mastitis induced by LPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibitory effect of baicalin on allergic response in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis guinea pigs and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Hu; Sui, He-Huan; Li, Li; Zhou, Chun-Ling; Huang, Jia-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Baicalin, a flavonoid compound purified from the dry roots of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has generally been used for the treatment of various allergic diseases. However, there is little information about the anti-inflammatory effects of baicalin for allergic rhinitis. This study aims to investigate the anti-allergic effect of baicalin on allergic response in ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis guinea pigs and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human mast cells. Using in vivo models, we evaluated the effect of baicalin on allergic rhinitis symptoms via recording the number of nasal rubs and sneezes. The levels of histamine, OVA-specific immunoglobulin E(IgE), eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and inflammatory cytokines were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The histological changes of nasal mucosa were observed by light microscope after HE staining. In vitro, the release of histamine and β-hexosaminidase of compound 48/80-induced human mast cells were measured by ELISA and PNP-NAG colorimetry, respectively. The productions of inflammatory cytokines of LPS-stimulated human mast cells were determined using ELISA. Western blot was used to test the protein expression of JAK2, p-JAK2, STAT5, p-STAT5, IKKβ, p-IKKβ, IκBα, p-IκBα and NF-κB (p65) of LPS-stimulated human mast cells. The oral administration of baicalin at doses of 50 and 200 mg/kg improved allergic rhinitis symptoms and the histological changes of nasal mucosa and decreased the serum levels of histamine, ECP, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and OVA-specific IgE in OVA-induced allergic rhinitis guinea pigs. In vitro, baicalin suppressed the release of histamine and β-hexosaminidase in compound 48/80-induced human mast cells. In addition, baicalin also inhibited the productions of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α and suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK2, STAT5, IKKβ, IκBα and the nuclear translocation

  4. Antioxidant activity of inulin and its role in the prevention of human colonic muscle cell impairment induced by lipopolysaccharide mucosal exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Pasqualetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fructans, such as inulin, are dietary fibers which stimulate gastro-intestinal (GI function acting as prebiotics. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS impairs GI motility, through production of reactive oxygen species. The antioxidant activity of various fructans was tested and the protective effect of inulin on colonic smooth muscle cell (SMC impairment, induced by exposure of human mucosa to LPS, was assessed in an ex vivo experimental model. METHODS: The antioxidant capacity of fructans was measured in an in vitro system that simulates cooking and digestion processes. Human colonic mucosa and submucosa, obtained from disease-free margins of resected segments for cancer, were sealed between two chambers, with the mucosal side facing upwards with Krebs solution with or without purified LPS from a pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (O111:B4 and inulin (Frutafit IQ, and the submucosal side facing downwards into Krebs solution. The solutions on the submucosal side were collected following mucosal exposure to Krebs in the absence (N-undernatant or presence of LPS (LPS-undernatant or LPS+inulin (LPS+INU-undernatant. Undernatants were tested for their antioxidant activity and the effects on SMCs contractility. Inulin protective effects on mucosa and submucosa layers were assessed measuring the protein oxidation level in the experimental conditions analyzed. RESULTS: Antioxidant activity of inulin, which was significantly higher compared to simple sugars, remained unaltered despite cooking and digestion processes. Inulin protected the mucosal and submucosal layers against protein oxidation. Following exposure to LPS-undernatant, a significant decrease in maximal acetylcholine (Ach-induced contraction was observed when compared to the contraction induced in cells incubated with the N-undernatant (4±1% vs 25±5% respectively, P<0.005 and this effect was completely prevented by pre-incubation of LPS with Inulin (35±5%. CONCLUSIONS: Inulin protects

  5. Attenuation of Neuroinflammatory Responses in Lipopolysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    neuroinflammatory responses induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in BV-2 microglial cells and its antioxidant effects. Methods: Biochemical studies ... [2] and as an anti-aging agent in cosmeceuticals [4]. However, its pharmacological actions on ... in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglia and explored the possible mechanism.

  6. Carum carvi Linn (Umbelliferae) Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to activate BV-2 microglia. Nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured using Griess assay. Inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) levels were evaluated by Western blot analysis. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) production were evaluated by ...

  7. Butyrate Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in Intestinal Cells and Crohn's Mucosa through Modulation of Antioxidant Defense Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ilaria; Luciani, Alessandro; De Cicco, Paola; Troncone, Edoardo; Ciacci, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CrD). High levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) induce the activation of the redox-sensitive nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB), which in turn triggers the inflammatory mediators. Butyrate decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by the lamina propria mononuclear cells in CrD patients via inhibition of NF-κB activation, but how it reduces inflammation is still unclear. We suggest that butyrate controls ROS mediated NF-κB activation and thus mucosal inflammation in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa by triggering intracellular antioxidant defense systems. Intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells and colonic mucosa from 14 patients with CrD and 12 controls were challenged with or without lipopolysaccaride from Escherichia Coli (EC-LPS) in presence or absence of butyrate for 4 and 24 h. The effects of butyrate on oxidative stress, p42/44 MAP kinase phosphorylation, p65-NF-κB activation and mucosal inflammation were investigated by real time PCR, western blot and confocal microscopy. Our results suggest that EC-LPS challenge induces a decrease in Gluthation-S-Transferase-alpha (GSTA1/A2) mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity; enhanced levels of ROS induced by EC-LPS challenge mediates p65-NF-κB activation and inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells and in CrD colonic mucosa. Furthermore butyrate treatment was seen to restore GSTA1/A2 mRNA levels, protein expression and catalytic activity and to control NF-κB activation, COX-2, ICAM-1 and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In conclusion, butyrate rescues the redox machinery and controls the intracellular ROS balance thus switching off EC-LPS induced inflammatory response in intestinal epithelial cells and in CrD colonic mucosa. PMID:22412931

  8. Acrolein Inhalation Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production but Does Not Affect Acute Airways Neutrophilia1

    OpenAIRE

    Kasahara, David Itiro; Poynter, Matthew E.; Othman, Ziryan; Hemenway, David; van der Vliet, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Acrolein is a reactive unsaturated aldehyde that is produced during endogenous oxidative processes and is a major bioactive component of environmental pollutants such as cigarette smoke. Because in vitro studies demonstrate that acrolein can inhibit neutrophil apoptosis, we evaluated the effects of in vivo acrolein exposure on acute lung inflammation induced by LPS. Male C57BL/6J mice received 300 μg/kg intratracheal LPS and were exposed to acrolein (5 parts per million, 6 h/day), either befo...

  9. Looped limulus anti-lipopolysaccharide derived peptide CLP-19 induces endotoxin tolerance involved inhibition of NF-κB activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya; Li, Di; Tian, Zhiqiang; Lv, Jun; Sun, Fengjun; Wang, Qian; Liu, Yao; Xia, Peiyuan

    2016-11-18

    Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is a complex protective mechanism against endotoxin shock. The looped CLP-19 peptide derived from Limulus anti-LPS peptide induced the ET phenomenon but the molecular mechanism has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we confirmed that CLP-19 attenuated upon LPS stimulated pro-inflammatory factor secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 but increased anti-inflammatory factor production of IL-10 in dose- and time-dependent manners. CLP-19 also inhibited subsequent LPS stimulated expression of TLR4 on the cell membrane. Moreover, the CLP-19 inhibited degradation of the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκBα and IκBβ) and reduced LPS induced NF-κB activity, but not of effects on expression of MyD88 and TRAF-6. Finally CLP-19 significantly increased survival of lethal LPS shock mouse models with significantly less pathological injury to lung. These findings collectively suggest that CLP-19 induces ET phenomenon involved inhibition of NF-κB activation. In conclusion, this study has revealed a novel function of CLP-19 that appears to represent a potential therapeutic agent for clinical treatment of septic shock. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon monoxide alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced oxidative stress injury through suppressing the expression of Fis1 in NR8383 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jia [Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300100 (China); Yu, Jian-bo, E-mail: yujianbo11@126.com [Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300100 (China); Liu, Wei; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yuan; Gong, Li-rong; Dong, Shu-an [Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300100 (China); Liu, Da-quan [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Acute Abdominal Diseases of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tianjin 300100 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is one of the most devastating complications of sepsis lacking of effective therapy. Mitochondrial dynamics undergoing continuous fusion and fission play a crucial role in mitochondrial structure and function. Fis1, as a small protein located on the outer membrane of mitochondria, has been thought to be an important protein mediated mitochondrial fission. During ARDS, alveolar macrophages suffer from increased oxidative stress and apoptosis, and also accompanied by disrupted mitochondrial dynamics. In addition, as one of the products of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase, carbon monoxide (CO) possesses powerful protective properties in vivo or in vitro models, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptosis function. However, there is little evidence that CO alleviates oxidative stress damage through altering mitochondrial fission in alveolar macrophages. In the present study, our results showed that CO increased cell vitality, improved mitochondrial SOD activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibited cell apoptosis in NR8383 exposed to LPS. Meanwhile, CO decreased the expression of Fis1, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and sustained elongation of mitochondria in LPS-incubated NR8383. Overall, our study underscored a critical role of CO in suppressing the expression of Fis1 and alleviating LPS- induced oxidative stress damage in alveolar macrophages. - Highlights: • LPS exposure triggered cell injury in NR8383. • CO alleviated LPS-induced oxidative stress damage in alveolar macrophages. • CO inhibited Fis1 levels and improved mitochondrial function in LPS-induced NR8383.

  11. Demodex-associated bacterial proteins induce neutrophil activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Background: Patients with rosacea demonstrate a higher density of Demodex mites in their skin than controls. A bacterium isolated from a Demodex mite from a patient with papulopustular rosacea (PPR) was previously shown to provoke an immune response in patients with PPR or ocular rosacea thus suggesting a possible role for bacterial proteins in the etiology of this condition. Objectives: To examine the response of neutrophils to proteins derived from a bacterium isolated from a Demodex mite. Methods: Bacterial cells were lysed and proteins were partially purified by AKTA-FPLC. Isolated neutrophils were exposed to bacterial proteins and monitored for alterations in migration, degranulation and cytokine production. Results: Neutrophils exposed to proteins from Bacillus cells demonstrated increased levels of migration and elevated release of MMP-9, an enzyme known to degrade collagen and cathelicidin, an antimicrobial peptide. In addition neutrophils exposed to the bacterial proteins demonstrated elevated rates of Il-8 and TNF-alpha production. Conclusions: Proteins produced by a bacterium isolated from a Demodex mite have the ability to increase the migration, degranulation and cytokine production abilities of neutrophils. These results suggest that bacteria may play a role in the inflammatory erythema associated with rosacea.

  12. Independent behavior of bacterial laccases to inducers and metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laccase, a blue copper oxidase, is an enzyme that is involved in the oxidation of aromatic compounds which prove otherwise difficult to degrade in the environment. The substrates of laccase are xenobiotics and synthetic dyes. The isolation of bacterial strains was investigated for laccase production and its activity.

  13. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Fusion Protein-Induced Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Signaling Is Inhibited by the TLR4 Antagonists Rhodobacter sphaeroides Lipopolysaccharide and Eritoran (E5564) and Requires Direct Interaction with MD-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallabhandi, Prasad; Phillips, Rachel L.; Boukhvalova, Marina S.; Pletneva, Lioubov M.; Shirey, Kari Ann; Gioannini, Theresa L.; Weiss, Jerrold P.; Chow, Jesse C.; Hawkins, Lynn D.; Vogel, Stefanie N.; Blanco, Jorge C. G.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a signaling receptor for structurally diverse microbe-associated molecular patterns, is activated by the RSV fusion (F) protein and by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a CD14-dependent manner. TLR4 signaling by LPS also requires the presence of an additional protein, MD-2. Thus, it is possible that F protein-mediated TLR4 activation relies on MD-2 as well, although this hypothesis has not been formally tested. LPS-free RSV F protein was found to activate NF-κB in HEK293T transfectants that express wild-type (WT) TLR4 and CD14, but only when MD-2 was coexpressed. These findings were confirmed by measuring F-protein-induced interleukin 1β (IL-1β) mRNA in WT versus MD-2−/− macrophages, where MD-2−/− macrophages failed to show IL-1β expression upon F-protein treatment, in contrast to the WT. Both Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS and synthetic E5564 (eritoran), LPS antagonists that inhibit TLR4 signaling by binding a hydrophobic pocket in MD-2, significantly reduced RSV F-protein-mediated TLR4 activity in HEK293T-TLR4–CD14–MD-2 transfectants in a dose-dependent manner, while TLR4-independent NF-κB activation by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was unaffected. In vitro coimmunoprecipitation studies confirmed a physical interaction between native RSV F protein and MD-2. Further, we demonstrated that the N-terminal domain of the F1 segment of RSV F protein interacts with MD-2. These data provide new insights into the importance of MD-2 in RSV F-protein-mediated TLR4 activation. Thus, targeting the interaction between MD-2 and RSV F protein may potentially lead to novel therapeutic approaches to help control RSV-induced inflammation and pathology. PMID:22872782

  14. Bacterial Flora Changes in Conjunctiva of Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Type I Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Fei, Yuda; Qin, Yali; Luo, Dan; Yang, Shufei; Kou, Xinyun; Zi, Yingxin; Deng, Tingting; Jin, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota of both humans and animals plays an important role in their health and the development of disease. Therefore, the bacterial flora of the conjunctiva may also be associated with some diseases. However, there are no reports on the alteration of bacterial flora in conjunctiva of diabetic rats in the literature. Therefore, we investigated the changes in bacterial flora in bulbar conjunctiva of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type I diabetes. A high dose of STZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected into Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce type I diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The diabetic rats were raised in the animal laboratory and at 8 months post-injection of STZ swab samples were taken from the bulbar conjunctiva for cultivation of aerobic bacteria. The bacterial isolates were identified by Gram staining and biochemical features. The identified bacteria from both diabetic and healthy rats were then compared. The diabetic and healthy rats had different bacterial flora present in their bulbar conjunctiva. In total, 10 and 8 bacterial species were found in the STZ and control groups, respectively, with only three species (Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus gallinarum and Escherichia coli) shared between the two groups. Gram-positive bacteria were common in both groups and the most abundant was Enterococcus faecium. However, after the development of T1DM, the bacterial flora in the rat bulbar conjunctiva changed considerably, with a reduced complexity evident. STZ-induced diabetes caused alterations of bacterial flora in the bulbar conjunctiva in rats, with some bacterial species disappearing and others emerging. Our results indicate that the conjunctival bacterial flora in diabetic humans should be surveyed for potential diagnostic markers or countermeasures to prevent eye infections in T1DM patients.

  15. Lipopolysaccharide-induced M2 to M1 macrophage transformation for IL-12p70 production is blocked by Candida albicans mediated up-regulation of EBI3 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-Feng Zheng

    Full Text Available Macrophages are heterogeneous cell populations that are present in all tissues. Macrophages can be divided into classically activated inflammatory macrophages (M1 and alternatively activated anti-inflammatory macrophages (M2. It has been generally accepted that M1 macrophages are polarised in an inflammatory environment to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, whilst M2 macrophages are involved in anti-inflammation and aid tissue repair in wound healing. Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS is a potent factor in infection, which induces M1 macrophages resulting in higher levels of iNOS, TNFα and IL-12p70 which dictate inflammatory T cell responses. M2 macrophages can be transformed into M1 macrophages following LPS stimulation to promote inflammation. Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microorganism, which has been suggested to induce immune tolerance; however, the mechanism of C. albicans-induced immune tolerance has not been investigated in detail. IL-35 is a recently identified anti-inflammatory cytokine which is a heterodimeric protein consisting of the Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 3 (EBI3 and IL-12p35. IL-35 shares the protein subunit p35, with IL-12p70. IL-12p70 is the most potent cytokine to induce Th1 responses during inflammation. In this study, we demonstrate that heat-killed C. albicans (HKC strongly suppressed LPS-induced IL-12p70 production in M2 macrophages. Candida albicans induced a high level of EBI3 expression in M2 macrophages, which served as a mechanism for IL-12p70 suppression by competitive binding of the common protein subunit (p35 of IL-35 and IL-12p70. To demonstrate that EBI3 expression had the ability to block IL-12p70 production intracellularly, a Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cell line with biscistronic expression of IL-12p40 and p35 was constructed, followed by ectopic over-expression of EBI3. The over-expression of EBI3 in the IL-12p70 producing cell line effectively suppressed IL-12p70 production. IL

  16. Inhibition of Phosphodiesterase 4 by FCPR03 Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Depressive-Like Behaviors in Mice: Involvement of p38 and JNK Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory responses induced by peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS triggers depressive-like behavioral syndrome in rodents. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4 produces a robust anti-inflammatory effect in inflammatory cells. Unfortunately, archetypal PDE4 inhibitors cause intolerable gastrointestinal side-effects, such as vomiting and nausea. N-isopropyl-3-(cyclopropylmethoxy-4-difluoromethoxy benzamide (FCPR03 is a novel, selective PDE4 inhibitor with little, or no, emetic potency. Our previous studies show that FCPR03 is effective in attenuating neuroinflammation in mice treated with LPS. However, whether FCPR03 could exert antidepressant-like effect induced by LPS is largely unknown. In the present study, mice injected intraperitoneally (i.p. with LPS was established as an in vivo animal model of depression. The antidepressant-like activities of FCPR03 were evaluated using a tail suspension test, forced swimming test, and sucrose preference test. We demonstrated that administration of FCPR03 (1 mg/kg produced antidepressant-like effects in mice challenged by LPS, as evidenced by decreases in the duration of immobility in the forced swim and tail suspension tests, while no significant changes in locomotor activity were observed. FCPR03 also increased sucrose preference in mice treated with LPS. In addition, treatment with FCPR03 abolished the downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor induced by LPS and decreased the level of corticosterone in plasma. Meanwhile, periphery immune challenge by LPS induced enhanced phosphorylation of p38-mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK in both the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in mice. Interestingly, treatment with FCPR03 significantly blocked the role of LPS and reduced the levels of phosphorylated p38 and JNK. Collectively, these results indicate that FCPR03 shows antidepressant-like effects in mice challenged by LPS, and the p38/JNK

  17. A role for the endocannabinoid system in premature luteal regression and progesterone withdrawal in lipopolysaccharide-induced early pregnancy loss model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schander, Julieta Aylen; Correa, Fernando; Bariani, María Victoria; Blanco, Julieta; Cymeryng, Cora; Jensen, Federico; Wolfson, Manuel Luis; Franchi, Ana María

    2016-11-01

    What is the role of the endocannabinoid system (eCS) in the alterations of the endocrine system in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced miscarriage? In 7-days pregnant wild type, but not cannabinoid receptor type 1 knockout (CB1-KO) mice, LPS increased COX-2 expression and prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ) production in the uterus leading to lower expression of prolactin receptor in the ovary and a marked regression of corpora lutea (CL), suggesting that the eCS mediates the deleterious effects of LPS on reproductive events. Appropriate systemic progesterone levels are critical for a successful pregnancy outcome. Precocious loss of luteal progesterone (P4) secretion leads to miscarriage in rodents. We have previously shown that LPS administration to pregnant mice induces embryonic resorption accompanied by a dramatic decrease in systemic progesterone levels in a murine model of inflammatory miscarriage, with the eCS mediating these LPS-induced deleterious effects. CD1 wild-type (WT) and CB1-KO mice were randomly allocated to Vehicle (saline; i.p.) or LPS (0.5 μg/g body weight; i.p.) treated groups: (WT-Vehicle; WT-LPS; CB1-KO-Vehicle and CB1-KO-LPS). A single injection was given on day 7 of pregnancy and tissues (blood, ovary, uterus) were collected 6, 12, 24 and 48 h later. P4 and PGF2α plasma levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (Western blot) content in uterus was assayed. COX-2 and prolactin receptor (PrlR) mRNA levels in the ovary were assayed by RT-PCR. Tissue morphology of the CL was assessed by haematoxylin-eosin staining. Treatment of 7-day pregnant WT mice with LPS induced a P4 withdrawal (p endocannabinoid system in the physiopathology of reproduction as well as the role of this endogenous system as a mediator of LPS deleterious effects on reproductive tissues. None. Dr Ana María Franchi was funded by Agencia Nacional para la Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (PICT 2010/0813 and

  18. Antibacterial compounds of Canadian honeys target bacterial cell wall inducing phenotype changes, growth inhibition and cell lysis that resemble action of β-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudzynski, Katrina; Sjaarda, Calvin

    2014-01-01

    Honeys show a desirable broad spectrum activity against Gram-positive and negative bacteria making antibacterial activity an intrinsic property of honey and a desirable source for new drug development. The cellular targets and underlying mechanism of action of honey antibacterial compounds remain largely unknown. To facilitate the target discovery, we employed a method of phenotypic profiling by directly comparing morphological changes in Escherichia coli induced by honeys to that of ampicillin, the cell wall-active β-lactam of known mechanism of action. Firstly, we demonstrated the purity of tested honeys from potential β-lactam contaminations using quantitative LC-ESI-MS. Exposure of log-phase E. coli to honey or ampicillin resulted in time- and concentration-dependent changes in bacterial cell shape with the appearance of filamentous phenotypes at sub-inhibitory concentrations and spheroplasts at the MBC. Cell wall destruction by both agents, clearly visible on microscopic micrographs, was accompanied by increased permeability of the lipopolysaccharide outer membrane as indicated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). More than 90% E. coli exposed to honey or ampicillin became permeable to propidium iodide. Consistently with the FACS results, both honey-treated and ampicillin-treated E. coli cells released lipopolysaccharide endotoxins at comparable levels, which were significantly higher than controls (ptransformed with the ampicillin-resistance gene (β-lactamase) remained sensitive to honey, displayed the same level of cytotoxicity, cell shape changes and endotoxin release as ampicillin-sensitive cells. As expected, β-lactamase protected the host cell from antibacterial action of ampicillin. Thus, both honey and ampicillin induced similar structural changes to the cell wall and LPS and that this ability underlies antibacterial activities of both agents. Since the cell wall is critical for cell growth and survival, honey active compounds would be

  19. High-fat diet induces periodontitis in mice through lipopolysaccharides (LPS receptor signaling: protective action of estrogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Blasco-Baque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A fat-enriched diet favors the development of gram negative bacteria in the intestine which is linked to the occurrence of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Interestingly, some pathogenic gram negative bacteria are commonly associated with the development of periodontitis which, like T2D, is characterized by a chronic low-grade inflammation. Moreover, estrogens have been shown to regulate glucose homeostasis via an LPS receptor dependent immune-modulation. In this study, we evaluated whether diet-induced metabolic disease would favor the development of periodontitis in mice. In addition, the regulatory role of estrogens in this process was assessed. METHODS: Four-week-old C57BL6/J WT and CD14 (part of the TLR-4 machinery for LPS-recognition knock-out female mice were ovariectomised and subcutaneously implanted with pellets releasing either placebo or 17β-estradiol (E2. Mice were then fed with either a normal chow or a high-fat diet for four weeks. The development of diabetes was monitored by an intraperitoneal glucose-tolerance test and plasma insulin concentration while periodontitis was assessed by identification of pathogens, quantification of periodontal soft tissue inflammation and alveolar bone loss. RESULTS: The fat-enriched diet increased the prevalence of periodontal pathogenic microbiota like Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia, gingival inflammation and alveolar bone loss. E2 treatment prevented this effect and CD14 knock-out mice resisted high-fat diet-induced periodontal defects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data show that mice fed with a diabetogenic diet developed defects and microflora of tooth supporting-tissues typically associated with periodontitis. Moreover, our results suggest a causal link between the activation of the LPS pathway on innate immunity by periodontal microbiota and HFD-induced periodontitis, a pathophysiological mechanism that could be targeted by estrogens.

  20. Wnt1 Participates in Inflammation Induced by Lipopolysaccharide Through Upregulating Scavenger Receptor A and NF-kB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenting; Sun, Zewei; Wang, Shuai; Li, Zhenwei; Zheng, Liangrong

    2015-08-01

    The study investigated the role of wnt1 in the inflammatory response initiated by lipolysaccharide (LPS), and analyzed the association between wnt1, NF-KB, and inflammatory factors. THP-1 cells were activated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and treated with LPS to induce inflammation. THP-1 cells were transfected with wnt1siRNA and overexpression plasmid to explore the relationship among wnt1, SRA, and NF-KB. Inhibitor of β-catenin and siRNA of FZD1were used to investigate the signaling events involved in SRA activation induced by wnt1. Levels of NF-kB protein and inflammatory cytokines were assessed followingwnt1 siRNA and LPS treatment. PMA activation and LPS treatment of THP-1 cells increased wnt1 protein levels. Wnt1 promoted SRA expression through activation of canonical wnt pathway. Wnt1 increased NF-kB protein levels and enhanced the secretion of IL-6, TNF-α, and iNOS through binding to SRA. These findings suggest that wnt1 increased SRA and NF-kB protein levels and participated in the inflammatory response.

  1. The novel role of platelet-activating factor in protecting mice against lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxic shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Jeong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Platelet-activating factor (PAF has been long believed to be associated with many pathophysiological processes during septic shock. Here we present novel activities for PAF in protecting mice against LPS-mediated endotoxic shock. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vivo PAF treatment immediately after LPS challenge markedly improved the survival rate against mortality from endotoxic shock. Administration of PAF prominently attenuated LPS-induced organ injury, including profound hypotension, excessive polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration, and severe multiple organ failure. In addition, PAF treatment protects against LPS-induced lymphocytes apoptosis. These protective effects of PAF was correlated with significantly decreases in the production of the inflammatory mediators such as TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-12, and IFN-gamma, while increasing production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results suggest that PAF may protect mice against endotoxic shock via a complex mechanism involving modulation of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators.

  2. Polymeric proanthocyanidins from Sicilian pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) nut extract inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, C; Allegra, M; Angileri, F; Pintaudi, A M; Livrea, M A; Tesoriere, L

    2012-04-01

    Positive effects of pistachio nut consumption on plasma inflammatory biomarkers have been described; however, little is known about molecular events associated with these effects. We studied the anti-inflammatory activity of a hydrophilic extract from Sicilian Pistacia L. (HPE) in a macrophage model and investigated bioactive components relevant to the observed effects. HPE oligomer/polymer proanthocyanidin fractions were isolated by adsorbance chromatography, and components quantified as anthocyanidins after acidic hydrolysis. Isoflavones were measured by gradient elution HPLC analysis. RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were pre-incubated with either HPE (1- to 20-mg fresh nut equivalents) or its isolated components for 1 h, then washed before stimulating with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 h. Cell viability and parameters associated with Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were assayed according to established methods including ELISA, Western blot, or cytofluorimetric analysis. HPE suppressed nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production and inducible NO-synthase levels dose dependently, whereas inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release and decreased cyclo-oxygenase-2 content, the lower the HPE amount the higher the effect. Cytotoxic effects were not observed. HPE also caused a dose-dependent decrease in intracellular reactive oxygen species and interfered with the NF-κB activation. Polymeric proanthocyanidins, but not isoflavones, at a concentration comparable with their content in HPE, inhibited NO, PGE2, and TNF-α formation, as well as activation of IκB-α. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins showed only minor effects. Our results provide molecular evidence of anti-inflammatory activity of pistachio nut and indicate polymeric proanthocyanidins as the bioactive components. The mechanism may involve the redox-sensitive transcription factor NF-κB. Potential effects associated with pistachio nut consumption are discussed in terms of the

  3. Proteomic analysis of the effects of aged garlic extract and its FruArg component on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory response in microglial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    Full Text Available Aged garlic extract (AGE is widely used as a dietary supplement, and is claimed to promote human health through anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory activities with hypolipidemic, antiplatelet and neuroprotective effects. Prior studies of AGE have mainly focused on its organosulfur compounds, with little attention paid to its carbohydrate derivatives, such as N-α-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl-L-arginine (FruArg. The goal of this study is to investigate actions of AGE and FruArg on antioxidative and neuroinflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated murine BV-2 microglial cells using a proteomic approach. Our data show that both AGE and FruArg can significantly inhibit LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in BV-2 cells. Quantitative proteomic analysis by combining two dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE with mass spectrometry revealed that expressions of 26 proteins were significantly altered upon LPS exposure, while levels of 20 and 21 proteins exhibited significant changes in response to AGE and FruArg treatments, respectively, in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Notably, approximate 78% of the proteins responding to AGE and FruArg treatments are in common, suggesting that FruArg is a major active component of AGE. MULTICOM-PDCN and Ingenuity Pathway Analyses indicate that the proteins differentially affected by treatment with AGE and FruArg are involved in inflammatory responses and the Nrf2-mediated oxidative stress response. Collectively, these results suggest that AGE and FruArg attenuate neuroinflammatory responses and promote resilience in LPS-activated BV-2 cells by suppressing NO production and by regulating expression of multiple protein targets associated with oxidative stress.

  4. Dexmedetomidine alleviates pulmonary edema by upregulating AQP1 and AQP5 expression in rats with acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan-xu; Dai, Zhong-liang; Zhang, Xue-ping; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Qiang; Gao, Li-kun

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to elucidate the mechanisms by which dexmedetomidine alleviates pulmonary edema in rats with acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal saline control (NS) group, receiving intravenous 0.9% normal saline (5 mL/kg); LPS group, receiving intravenous LPS (10 mg/kg); small-dose dexmedetomidine (S) group, treated with a small dose of dexmedetomidine (0.5 μg · kg(-1) · h(-1)); medium-dose dexmedetomidine (M) group, treated with a medium dose of dexmedetomidine (2.5 μg · kg(-1) · h(-1)); high-dose dexmedetomidine (H) group, treated with a high dose of dexmedetomidine (5 μg · kg(-1) · h(-1)). The rats were sacrificed 6 h after intravenous injection of LPS or NS, and the lungs were removed for evaluating histological characteristics and determining the lung wet/dry weight ratio (W/D). The levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the lung tissues were assessed by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mRNA and protein expression levels of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and aquaporin-5 (AQP5) were detected by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. The lung tissues from the LPS groups were significantly damaged, which were less pronounced in the H group but not in the small-dose dexmedetomidine group or medium-dose dexmedetomidine group. The W/D and the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β in the pulmonary tissues were increased in the LPS group as compared with those in NS group, which were reduced in the H group but not in S group or M group (Ppulmonary edema by increasing the expression of AQP-1 and AQP-5.

  5. Geniposide plays an anti-inflammatory role via regulating TLR4 and downstream signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojing; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Tiancheng; Jiang, Haichao; Zhang, Zecai; Fu, Yunhe; Yang, Zhengtao; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2014-10-01

    Geniposide is a medicine isolated from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, which is a traditional Chinese herb that is widely used in Asia for the treatment of inflammation, brain diseases, and hepatic disorders. Mastitis is a highly prevalent and important infectious disease. In this study, we used a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse mastitis model and LPS-stimulated primary mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs) to explore the anti-inflammatory effect and the mechanism of action of geniposide. Using intraductal injection of LPS as a mouse model of mastitis, we found that geniposide significantly reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and downregulated the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). To further investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism, we used LPS-stimulated mMECs as an in vitro mastitis model. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that geniposide inhibited the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis demonstrated that geniposide could suppress the phosphorylation of inhibitory kappa B (IκBα), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Geniposide also inhibited the expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the LPS-stimulated mMECs. In conclusion, geniposide exerted its anti-inflammatory effect by regulating TLR4 expression, which affected the downstream NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Thus, geniposide may be a potential drug for mastitis therapy.

  6. Andrographolide Restores Steroid Sensitivity To Block Lipopolysaccharide/IFN-γ-Induced IL-27 and Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wupeng; Tan, W S Daniel; Wong, W S Fred

    2016-06-01

    LPS and IFN-γ alone or in combination have been implicated in the development of steroid resistance. Combined LPS/IFN-γ strongly upregulates IL-27 production, which has been linked to steroid-resistant airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Andrographolide, a bioactive molecule isolated from the plant Andrographis paniculata, has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. The present study investigated whether andrographolide could restore steroid sensitivity to block LPS/IFN-γ-induced IL-27 production and AHR via its antioxidative property. The mouse macrophage cell line Raw 264.7, mouse primary lung monocytes/macrophages, and BALB/c mice were treated with LPS/IFN-γ, in the presence and absence of dexamethasone and/or andrographolide. Levels of IL-27 in vitro and in vivo were examined and mouse AHR was assessed. Dexamethasone alone failed to inhibit LPS/IFN-γ-induced IL-27 production and AHR in mice. Andrographolide significantly restored the suppressive effect of dexamethasone on LPS/IFN-γ-induced IL-27 mRNA and protein levels in the macrophage cell line and primary lung monocytes/macrophages, mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissues, and AHR in mice. LPS/IFN-γ markedly reduced the nuclear level of histone deacetylase (HDAC)2, an essential epigenetic enzyme that mediates steroid anti-inflammatory action. LPS/IFN-γ also decreased total HDAC activity but increased the total histone acetyltransferase/HDAC activity ratio in mouse lungs. Andrographolide significantly restored nuclear HDAC2 protein levels and total HDAC activity, and it diminished the total histone acetyltransferase/HDAC activity ratio in mouse lungs exposed to LPS/IFN-γ, possibly via suppression of PI3K/Akt/HDAC2 phosphorylation, and upregulation of the antioxidant transcription factor NF erythroid-2-related factor 2 level and DNA binding activity. Our data suggest that andrographolide may have therapeutic value in resensitizing steroid action in respiratory disorders

  7. Influenza virus induces bacterial and nonbacterial otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kirsty R; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A; Thornton, Ruth; Pedersen, John; Strugnell, Richard A; Wise, Andrew K; Reading, Patrick C; Wijburg, Odilia L

    2011-12-15

    Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common childhood diseases. OM can arise when a viral infection enables bacteria to disseminate from the nasopharynx to the middle ear. Here, we provide the first infant murine model for disease. Mice coinfected with Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza virus had high bacterial load in the middle ear, middle ear inflammation, and hearing loss. In contrast, mice colonized with S. pneumoniae alone had significantly less bacteria in the ear, minimal hearing loss, and no inflammation. Of interest, infection with influenza virus alone also caused some middle ear inflammation and hearing loss. Overall, this study provides a clinically relevant and easily accessible animal model to study the pathogenesis and prevention of OM. Moreover, we provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that influenza virus alone causes middle ear inflammation in infant mice. This inflammation may then play an important role in the development of bacterial OM.

  8. Osteopontin binding to lipopolysaccharide lowers tumor necrosis factor-α and prevents early alcohol-induced liver injury in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ge, Xiadong; Leung, Tung-Ming; Arriazu, Elena

    2014-01-01

    , tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) production, and liver injury. Since OPN is protective for the intestinal mucosa, we postulated that enhancing OPN expression in the liver and consequently in the blood and/or in the gut could protect from early alcohol-induced liver injury. Wild-type (WT), OPN knockout...... score, and the number of macrophages and TNFα+ cells. To establish if OPN could limit LPS availability and its noxious effects in the liver, binding studies were performed. OPN showed binding affinity for LPS which prevented macrophage activation, reactive oxygen, and nitrogen species generation...... by decreased liver-to-body weight ratio, hepatic triglycerides, the steatosis score, oil red-O staining, and lipid peroxidation. There was also less inflammation and liver injury as demonstrated by lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration, LPS levels, the inflammation...

  9. Dynamic expression of leukocyte innate immune genes in whole blood from horses with lipopolysaccharide-induced acute systemic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anne Mette L.; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In horses, insights into the innate immune processes in acute systemic inflammation are limited even though these processes may be highly important for future diagnostic and therapeutic advances in high-mortality disease conditions as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS...... expressions in blood leukocytes during equine acute LPS-induced systemic inflammation thoroughly characterized a highly regulated and dynamic innate immune response. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of equine systemic inflammation.......) and sepsis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression of 31 selected blood leukocyte immune genes in an equine model of acute systemic inflammation to identify significantly regulated genes and to describe their expression dynamics during a 24-h experimental period. Systemic...

  10. Alpha-mangostin attenuates brain inflammation induced by peripheral lipopolysaccharide administration in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava Catorce, Miryam; Acero, Gonzalo; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Fragoso, Gladis; Govezensky, Tzipe; Gevorkian, Goar

    2016-08-15

    Neuroinflammation is an important feature in the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. Molecules with anti-inflammatory properties have been evaluated in animal models of neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration as an adjuvant therapeutic strategy. In the present study we have demonstrated that alpha-mangostin (α-MG), a natural xanthone purified from mangosteen pericarp, reduced brain levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) in an animal model of peripheral LPS-induced neuroinflammation. We think that evaluation of α-MG as an adjuvant treatment in preclinical models of AD, PD, multiple sclerosis and other diseases with known shared pathology merits further consideration.

  11. Protective effect of porphyran isolated from discolored nori (Porphyra yezoensis) on lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxin shock in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Cho, Kichul; Isaka, Shogo; Ueno, Mikinori; Jin, Jun-O; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2016-12-01

    Porphyran, a sulfated polysaccharide, isolated from discolored nori (Porphyra yezoensis) (dc-porphyran) and one fraction (F1) purified from dc-porphyran by DEAE-chromatography showed the protective effects on LPS-induced endotoxin shock in mice. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment with dc-porphyran or F1 (100mg/kg) 60min prior to i.p. injection of LPS (30mg/kg) completely protected mice from LPS lethality. At 10mg/kg concentration, F1 demonstrated more protection than dc-porphyran. Intravenous (i.v.) challenge of LPS, even at 20mg/kg, was more lethal than i.p. administration; i.v. injection of F1 (100mg/kg) with LPS significantly improved the survival rate. However, i.v. dc-porphyran (100mg/kg) produced an even lower survival rate than that of LPS alone. We examined pro-inflammatory mediators such as NO and TNF-α in serum. F1 significantly reduced the levels of these markers. Additionally, F1 significantly decreased the malondialdehyde level in the liver, a marker of oxidative stress, while dc-porphyran had almost no effect. Furthermore, F1 significantly decreased the production of TNF-α and NO in peritoneal exudate cells harvested from LPS-challenged mice, while dc-porphyran treatment showed a lesser decrease. Our results suggest that porphyran isolated from discolored nori, especially F1, is capable of suppressing LPS-induced endotoxin shock in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Demodex-associated bacterial proteins induce neutrophil activation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, N.; Bergin, D.; Reeves, E.P.; McElvaney, N.G.; Kavanagh, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Patients with rosacea demonstrate a higher density of Demodex mites in their skin than do controls. A bacterium isolated from a Demodex mite from a patient with papulopustular rosacea (PPR) was previously shown to provoke an immune response in patients with PPR or ocular rosacea, thus suggesting a possible role for bacterial proteins in the aetiology of this condition. Objectives To examine the response of neutrophils to proteins derived from a bacterium isolated...

  13. Attenuation of prostaglandin E2 elimination across the mouse blood-brain barrier in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and additive inhibitory effect of cefmetazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanuma Shin-ichi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS induces inflammation and increases cerebral prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 concentration. PGE2 is eliminated from brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB in mice, and this process is inhibited by intracerebral or intravenous pre-administration of anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics such as cefmetazole and cefazolin that inhibit multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (Mrp4/Abcc4-mediated PGE2 transport. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of LPS-induced inflammation on PGE2 elimination from brain, and whether antibiotics further inhibit PGE2 elimination in LPS-treated mice. Methods [3H]PGE2 elimination across the BBB of intraperitoneally LPS-treated mice was assessed by the brain efflux index (BEI method. Transporter protein amounts in brain capillaries were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results The apparent elimination rate of [3H]PGE2 from brain was lower by 87%, in LPS-treated mice compared with saline-treated mice. The Mrp4 protein amount was unchanged in brain capillaries of LPS-treated mice compared with saline-treated mice, while the protein amounts of organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3/Slc22a8 and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4/Slco1a4 were decreased by 26% and 39%, respectively. Either intracerebral or intravenous pre-administration of cefmetazole further inhibited PGE2 elimination in LPS-treated mice. However, intracerebral or intravenous pre-administration of cefazolin had little effect on PGE2 elimination in LPS-treated mice, or in LPS-untreated mice given Oat3 and Oatp1a4 inhibitors. These results indicate that peripheral administration of cefmetazole inhibits PGE2 elimination across the BBB in LPS-treated mice. Conclusion PGE2 elimination across the BBB is attenuated in an LPS-induced mouse model of inflammation. Peripheral administration of cefmetazole further inhibits PGE2 elimination in LPS

  14. Apoptosis, Toll-like, RIG-I-like and NOD-like Receptors Are Pathways Jointly Induced by Diverse Respiratory Bacterial and Viral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isidoro; Oliveros, Juan C.; Cuesta, Isabel; de la Barrera, Jorge; Ausina, Vicente; Casals, Cristina; de Lorenzo, Alba; García, Ernesto; García-Fojeda, Belén; Garmendia, Junkal; González-Nicolau, Mar; Lacoma, Alicia; Menéndez, Margarita; Moranta, David; Nieto, Amelia; Ortín, Juan; Pérez-González, Alicia; Prat, Cristina; Ramos-Sevillano, Elisa; Regueiro, Verónica; Rodriguez-Frandsen, Ariel; Solís, Dolores; Yuste, José; Bengoechea, José A.; Melero, José A.

    2017-01-01

    Lower respiratory tract infections are among the top five leading causes of human death. Fighting these infections is therefore a world health priority. Searching for induced alterations in host gene expression shared by several relevant respiratory pathogens represents an alternative to identify new targets for wide-range host-oriented therapeutics. With this aim, alveolar macrophages were independently infected with three unrelated bacterial (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus) and two dissimilar viral (respiratory syncytial virus and influenza A virus) respiratory pathogens, all of them highly relevant for human health. Cells were also activated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a prototypical pathogen-associated molecular pattern. Patterns of differentially expressed cellular genes shared by the indicated pathogens were searched by microarray analysis. Most of the commonly up-regulated host genes were related to the innate immune response and/or apoptosis, with Toll-like, RIG-I-like and NOD-like receptors among the top 10 signaling pathways with over-expressed genes. These results identify new potential broad-spectrum targets to fight the important human infections caused by the bacteria and viruses studied here. PMID:28298903

  15. 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose PET informs neutrophil accumulation and activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rosana S; Bozza, Fernando A; Hanrahan, Christopher J; Wang, Li-Ming; Wu, Qi; Hoffman, John M; Zimmerman, Guy A; Morton, Kathryn A

    2017-05-01

    Molecular imaging of the earliest events related to the development of acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) could facilitate therapeutic development and patient management. We previously reported that 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET identifies ALI/ARDS prior to radiographic abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to establish the time courses of 18 F-FDG uptake, edema and neutrophil recruitment in an endotoxin-induced acute lung injury model and to examine molecular events required for 14 C-2DG uptake in activated neutrophils. Lung uptake of 18 F-FDG was measured by PET in control male Sprague Dawley rats and at 2, 6 and 24h following the intraperitoneal injection of 10mg/kg LPS. Lung edema (attenuation) was measured by microCT. Neutrophil influx into the lungs was measured by myeloperoxidase assay. Control and activated human donor neutrophils were compared for uptake of 14 C-2DG, transcription and content of hexokinase and GLUT isoforms and for hexokinase (HK) activity. Significant uptake of 18 F-FDG occurred by 2h following LPS, and progressively increased to 24h. Lung uptake of 18 F-FDG preceded increased CT attenuation (lung edema). Myeloperoxidase activity in the lungs, supporting neutrophil influx, paralleled 18 F-FDG uptake. Activation of isolated human neutrophils resulted in increased uptake of 14 C-2DG, expression of GLUT 3 and GLUT 4 and expression and increased HK1 activity. Systemic endotoxin-induced ALI results in very early and progressive uptake of 18 F-FDG, parallels neutrophil accumulation and occurs earlier than lung injury edema. Activated neutrophils show increased uptake of 14 C-2DG, expression of specific GLUT3, GLUT4 and HK1 protein and HK activity. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PATIENT CARE: 18 F-FDG pulmonary uptake is an early biomarker of neutrophil recruitment in ALI and is associated with specific molecular events that mediate 14 C-2DG uptake in activated neutrophils. 18 F

  16. Dual RNA sequencing reveals the expression of unique transcriptomic signatures in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 microglial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Das

    Full Text Available Microglial cells become rapidly activated through interactions with pathogens, and the persistent activation of these cells is associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies have investigated the transcriptomic signatures in microglia or macrophages using microarray technologies. However, this method has numerous restrictions, such as spatial biases, uneven probe properties, low sensitivity, and dependency on the probes spotted. To overcome this limitation and identify novel transcribed genes in response to LPS, we used RNA Sequencing (RNA-Seq to determine the novel transcriptomic signatures in BV-2 microglial cells. Sequencing assessment and quality evaluation showed that approximately 263 and 319 genes (≥ 1.5 log2-fold, such as cytokines and chemokines, were strongly induced after 2 and 4 h, respectively, and the induction of several genes with unknown immunological functions was also observed. Importantly, we observed that previously unidentified transcription factors (TFs (irf1, irf7, and irf9, histone demethylases (kdm4a and DNA methyltransferases (dnmt3l were significantly and selectively expressed in BV-2 microglial cells. The gene expression levels, transcription start sites (TSS, isoforms, and differential promoter usage revealed a complex pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation upon infection with LPS. In addition, gene ontology, molecular networks and pathway analyses identified the top significantly regulated functional classification, canonical pathways and network functions at each activation status. Moreover, we further analyzed differentially expressed genes to identify transcription factor (TF motifs (-950 to +50 bp of the 5' upstream promoters and epigenetic mechanisms. Furthermore, we confirmed that the expressions of key inflammatory genes as well as pro-inflammatory mediators in the supernatants were significantly induced in LPS treated primary microglial cells. This

  17. Mechanisms of ion-bombardment-induced DNA transfer into bacterial E. coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.D.; Sangwijit, K.; Prakrajang, K.; Phanchaisri, B.; Thongkumkoon, P.; Thopan, P.; Singkarat, S.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ion bombardment could induce DNA transfer into E. coli cells. • The DNA transfer induction depended on ion energy and fluence. • The mechanism was associated with the bacterial cell envelope structure. • A mechanism phase diagram was proposed to summarize the mechanism. - Abstract: As a useful ion beam biotechnology, ion-bombardment-induced DNA transfer into bacterial Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells has been successfully operated using argon ions. In the process ion bombardment of the bacterial cells modifies the cell envelope materials to favor the exogenous DNA molecules to pass through the envelope to enter the cell. The occurrence of the DNA transfer induction was found ion energy and fluence dependent in a complex manner. At ion energy of a few keV and a few tens of keV to moderate fluences the DNA transfer could be induced by ion bombardment of the bacterial cells, while at the same ion energy but to high fluences DNA transfer could not be induced. On the other hand, when the ion energy was medium, about 10–20 keV, the DNA transfer could not be induced by ion bombardment of the cells. The complexity of the experimental results indicated a complex mechanism which should be related to the complex structure of the bacterial E. coli cell envelope. A phase diagram was proposed to interpret different mechanisms involved as functions of the ion energy and fluence

  18. Critical role of MKP-1 in lipopolysaccharide-induced osteoclast formation through CXCL1 and CXCL2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Michael S; Herbert, Bethany A; Basilakos, Dimitrios S; Browne, Courtney; Yu, Hong; Kirkwood, Keith L

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclast (OC) progenitors (OCP) have been defined in the bone marrow (BM) as CD3(-)CD45R(B220)(-)GR1(-)CD11b(lo/)(-)CD115(+) (dOCP) and more recently in the peripheral blood (PB) as Lym(-)Ly6G(-)CD11b(+)Ly6C(+). These progenitors respond to stimuli, including LPS from periopathogenic Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, activating MAPK signaling, resulting in cytokine/chemokine-mediated osteoclastogenesis. Intracellular negative signaling pathways, including MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1, gene Dusp1) deactivate MAPK pathways (p-p38 and p-JNK) and reduce inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. To delineate the role of MKP-1 in chemokine-mediated OC formation using defined OC progenitor populations. Given its role in innate immune inflammatory signaling, we hypothesize that MKP-1 regulates LPS-induced OC formation from BM OCP through deregulated chemokines. BM and PB from WT and Dusp1(-/-) female mice (8-12weeks) was obtained and sorted into defined progenitor populations. BM sorted dOCP were primed with MCSF and RANKL (48h), blocked with vehicle or chemokine blocking antibodies and stimulated with LPS (48-96h). TRAP assay and OC activity were measured for OC formation and activity following treatments. NanoString Array and qPCR were utilized for gene expression analysis. Dusp1(-/-) dOCPs formed more and larger osteoclasts from CD11b(hi) and dOCP compared to matched WT (Pvalidation of target genes revealed that Dusp1 deficient CD11b(+) populations display 1.5-3.5-fold greater expression of CXCL1 and 2-3-fold greater expression of CXCL2 compared to WT in CD11b(hi) and dOCP (Pperiodontal disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Artemisia fragrans Willd: Essential Oil on Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Expression and Nitric Oxide Production in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Murine Macrophage Cell Line.