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Sample records for bacterial extrapulmonary dissemination

  1. The Influence of Host and Bacterial Genotype on the Development of Disseminated Disease with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caws, Maxine; Thwaites, Guy; Dunstan, Sarah; Hawn, Thomas R.; Thi Ngoc Lan, Nguyen; Thuong, Nguyen Thuy Thuong; Stepniewska, Kasia; Huyen, Mai Nguyet Thu; Bang, Nguyen Duc; Huu Loc, Tran; Gagneux, Sebastien; van Soolingen, Dick; Kremer, Kristin; van der Sande, Marianne; Small, Peter; Thi Hoang Anh, Phan; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Thi Quy, Hoang; Thi Hong Duyen, Nguyen; Quang Tho, Dau; Hieu, Nguyen T.; Torok, Estee; Hien, Tran Tinh; Dung, Nguyen Huy; Thi Quynh Nhu, Nguyen; Duy, Phan Minh; van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; Farrar, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    The factors that govern the development of tuberculosis disease are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that some strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) are more capable of causing disseminated disease than others and may be associated with polymorphisms in host genes responsible for the innate immune response to infection. We compared the host and bacterial genotype in 187 Vietnamese adults with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and 237 Vietnamese adults with uncomplicated pulmonary tuberculosis. The host genotype of tuberculosis cases was also compared with the genotype of 392 cord blood controls from the same population. Isolates of M. tuberculosis were genotyped by large sequence polymorphisms. The hosts were defined by polymorphisms in genes encoding Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) and Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2). We found a significant protective association between the Euro-American lineage of M. tuberculosis and pulmonary rather than meningeal tuberculosis (Odds ratio (OR) for causing TBM 0.395, 95% confidence intervals (C.I.) 0.193–0.806, P = 0.009), suggesting these strains are less capable of extra-pulmonary dissemination than others in the study population. We also found that individuals with the C allele of TLR-2 T597C allele were more likely to have tuberculosis caused by the East-Asian/Beijing genotype (OR = 1.57 [95% C.I. 1.15–2.15]) than other individuals. The study provides evidence that M. tuberculosis genotype influences clinical disease phenotype and demonstrates, for the first time, a significant interaction between host and bacterial genotypes and the development of tuberculosis. PMID:18369480

  2. The influence of host and bacterial genotype on the development of disseminated disease with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

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    Maxine Caws

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The factors that govern the development of tuberculosis disease are incompletely understood. We hypothesized that some strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis are more capable of causing disseminated disease than others and may be associated with polymorphisms in host genes responsible for the innate immune response to infection. We compared the host and bacterial genotype in 187 Vietnamese adults with tuberculous meningitis (TBM and 237 Vietnamese adults with uncomplicated pulmonary tuberculosis. The host genotype of tuberculosis cases was also compared with the genotype of 392 cord blood controls from the same population. Isolates of M. tuberculosis were genotyped by large sequence polymorphisms. The hosts were defined by polymorphisms in genes encoding Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP and Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2. We found a significant protective association between the Euro-American lineage of M. tuberculosis and pulmonary rather than meningeal tuberculosis (Odds ratio (OR for causing TBM 0.395, 95% confidence intervals (C.I. 0.193-0.806, P = 0.009, suggesting these strains are less capable of extra-pulmonary dissemination than others in the study population. We also found that individuals with the C allele of TLR-2 T597C allele were more likely to have tuberculosis caused by the East-Asian/Beijing genotype (OR = 1.57 [95% C.I. 1.15-2.15] than other individuals. The study provides evidence that M. tuberculosis genotype influences clinical disease phenotype and demonstrates, for the first time, a significant interaction between host and bacterial genotypes and the development of tuberculosis.

  3. Brucella Dissociation Is Essential for Macrophage Egress and Bacterial Dissemination

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    Thomas A Ficht

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It has long been observed that smooth Brucella can dissociate into rough mutants that are cytotoxic to macrophages. However, the in vivo biological significance and/or mechanistic de-tails of Brucella dissociation and cytotoxicity remain incomplete. In the current report, a plaque assay was developed using Brucella strains exhibiting varying degrees of cytotoxicity. Infected monolayers were observed daily using phase contrast microscopy for plaque formation while Brucella uptake and replication were monitored using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA. Vis-ible plaques were detected at 4-5 days post infection (p.i. with cytotoxic Brucella 16M∆manBA at an MOI of 0.1. IFA staining demonstrated that the plaques consisted of macrophages with replicating Brucella. Visible plaques were not detected in monolayers infected with non-cytotoxic 16M∆manBA∆virB2 at an MOI of 0.1. However, IFA staining did reveal small groups of macrophages (foci with replicating Brucella in the monolayers infected with 16M∆manBA∆virB2. The size of the foci observed in macrophage monolayers infected with rough Brucella correlated directly with cytotoxicity measured in liquid culture, suggesting that cytotoxicity was essential for Brucella egress and dissemination. In monolayers infected with 16M, small and large foci were observed. Double antibody staining revealed spontaneous rough mutants within the large, but not the small foci in 16M infected monolayers. Furthermore, plaque formation was observed in the large foci derived from 16M infections. Finally, the addi-tion of gentamicin to the culture medium inhibited plaque formation, suggesting that the cell-to-cell spreading occurred only following release of the organisms from the cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Brucella induced cytotoxicity is critical for Brucella egress and dissemination.

  4. Brucella dissociation is essential for macrophage egress and bacterial dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jianwu; Kahl-McDonagh, Melissa; Ficht, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    It has long been observed that smooth Brucella can dissociate into rough mutants that are cytotoxic to macrophages. However, the in vivo biological significance and/or mechanistic details of Brucella dissociation and cytotoxicity remain incomplete. In the current report, a plaque assay was developed using Brucella strains exhibiting varying degrees of cytotoxicity. Infected monolayers were observed daily using phase contrast microscopy for plaque formation while Brucella uptake and replication were monitored using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Visible plaques were detected at 4-5 days post infection (p.i.) with cytotoxic Brucella 16MΔmanBA at an MOI of 0.1. IFA staining demonstrated that the plaques consisted of macrophages with replicating Brucella. Visible plaques were not detected in monolayers infected with non-cytotoxic 16MΔmanBAΔvirB2 at an MOI of 0.1. However, IFA staining did reveal small groups of macrophages (foci) with replicating Brucella in the monolayers infected with 16MΔmanBAΔvirB2. The size of the foci observed in macrophage monolayers infected with rough Brucella correlated directly with cytotoxicity measured in liquid culture, suggesting that cytotoxicity was essential for Brucella egress and dissemination. In monolayers infected with 16M, small and large foci were observed. Double antibody staining revealed spontaneous rough mutants within the large, but not the small foci in 16M infected monolayers. Furthermore, plaque formation was observed in the large foci derived from 16M infections. Finally, the addition of gentamicin to the culture medium inhibited plaque formation, suggesting that cell-to-cell spread occurred only following release of the organisms from the cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Brucella-induced cytotoxicity is critical for Brucella egress and dissemination.

  5. Asymptomatic cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis present exacerbated tissue pathology and bacterial dissemination.

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    Álvaro Menin

    Full Text Available Rational discovery of novel immunodiagnostic and vaccine candidate antigens to control bovine tuberculosis (bTB requires knowledge of disease immunopathogenesis. However, there remains a paucity of information on the Mycobacterium bovis-host immune interactions during the natural infection. Analysis of 247 naturally PPD+ M. bovis-infected cattle revealed that 92% (n = 228 of these animals were found to display no clinical signs, but presented severe as well as disseminated bTB-lesions at post-mortem examination. Moreover, dissemination of bTB-lesions positively correlated with both pathology severity score (Spearman r = 0.48; p<0.0001 and viable tissue bacterial loads (Spearman r = 0.58; p = 0.0001. Additionally, granuloma encapsulation negatively correlated with M. bovis growth as well as pathology severity, suggesting that encapsulation is an effective mechanism to control bacterial proliferation during natural infection. Moreover, multinucleated giant cell numbers were found to negatively correlate with bacterial counts (Spearman r = 0.25; p = 0.03 in lung granulomas. In contrast, neutrophil numbers in the granuloma were associated with increased M. bovis proliferation (Spearman r = 0.27; p = 0.021. Together, our findings suggest that encapsulation and multinucleated giant cells control M. bovis viability, whereas neutrophils may serve as a cellular biomarker of bacterial proliferation during natural infection. These data integrate host granuloma responses with mycobacterial dissemination and could provide useful immunopathological-based biomarkers of disease severity in natural infection with M. bovis, an important cattle pathogen.

  6. Clinical implications of oral candidiasis: host tissue damage and disseminated bacterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eric F; Kucharíková, Sona; Van Dijck, Patrick; Peters, Brian M; Shirtliff, Mark E; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2015-02-01

    The clinical significance of polymicrobial interactions, particularly those between commensal species with high pathogenic potential, remains largely understudied. Although the dimorphic fungal species Candida albicans and the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus are common cocolonizers of humans, they are considered leading opportunistic pathogens. Oral candidiasis specifically, characterized by hyphal invasion of oral mucosal tissue, is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV(+) and immunocompromised individuals. In this study, building on our previous findings, a mouse model was developed to investigate whether the onset of oral candidiasis predisposes the host to secondary staphylococcal infection. The findings demonstrated that in mice with oral candidiasis, subsequent exposure to S. aureus resulted in systemic bacterial infection with high morbidity and mortality. Histopathology and scanning electron microscopy of tongue tissue from moribund animals revealed massive C. albicans hyphal invasion coupled with S. aureus deep tissue infiltration. The crucial role of hyphae in the process was demonstrated using a non-hypha-producing and a noninvasive hypha-producing mutant strains of C. albicans. Further, in contrast to previous findings, S. aureus dissemination was aided but not contingent upon the presence of the Als3p hypha-specific adhesion. Importantly, impeding development of mucosal C. albicans infection by administering antifungal fluconazole therapy protected the animals from systemic bacterial disease. The combined findings from this study demonstrate that oral candidiasis may constitute a risk factor for disseminated bacterial disease warranting awareness in terms of therapeutic management of immunocompromised individuals. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. The use of combined radiation methods for decreasing the bacterial dissemination of enzyme preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlenko, I.I.; Fedotov, N.S.; Tumanyan, M.A.; Korolev, N.I.

    1984-01-01

    A study was made on possibility of using ionizing radiation in combination with alternative magnetic field (AMF) and heating for decreasing the bacterial dissemination of proteolytic enzymes. Papain, trypsin, chymotrypsin and amylorysin (the preparation possessing proteolytic and amylolytic activities) were subjected to gamma irradiation at 10-25 kGy dose range, the effect of AMF with 750 oe and heating at 50 deg during 60 min. Model tests conducted with the use of Escherichia Coli cells and Bacillus anthracoides spores showed that survival rate of bacteria irradiated in protective medium was lower in the case of combined magnetoradiation and thermoradiation effect. The use of 10 kGy dose of ionizing radiation in combination with treatment in alternative magnetic field or with heating provided the required decrease of dissemination of irradiated enzyme samples with complete conservation of proteolytic activity by them

  8. Bacterial Dissemination. Main Pathogens and Hygiene in Chicken Slaughter: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sales, Ronaldo de Oliveira; Universidade Federal do Ceará; Porto, Ernani; Universidade Luis de Queiroz - Piracicaba - SP

    2013-01-01

    In this bibliographical review, the different types of bacterial dissemination are presented, as well as the main pathogenic bacteria involved in chicken slaughter. The influence of hygiene in chicken slaughter upon storage and sale conditions on the retail market is also discussed. Nesta revisão bibliográfica são apresentados os diferentes tipos de disseminação bacteriana, como também as principais bactérias patogênicas envolvidas no abate de frangos. Discute-se ainda a influência da higi...

  9. Disseminated candidiasis secondary to fungal and bacterial peritonitis in a young dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Catherine L; Gibson, Christopher; Mitchell, Susan L; Keating, John H; Rozanski, Elizabeth A

    2009-04-01

    To describe a severe case of bacterial sepsis and disseminated candidiasis in a previously healthy dog. Fungal sepsis was identified in a 2-year-old dog following intestinal dehiscence 4 days after abdominal surgery. Septic peritonitis was identified at admission and evidence of dehiscence at the previous enterotomy site was found during an exploratory laparotomy. Both gram-positive cocci and Candida albicans were cultured from the abdominal cavity. Candida sp. was also subsequently cultured from a central venous catheter. Euthanasia was performed due to failure to respond to therapy. Fungal organisms, morphologically consistent with Candida spp., were found in the lungs and kidney on postmortem histopathologic examination indicating disseminated candidiasis. Candida peritonitis is a well-recognized entity in humans and contributes to morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Abdominal surgery, intestinal perforation, presence of central venous catheters, and administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics are all considered to be suspected risk factors. This report describes the first known case of systemic candidiasis occurring secondary to Candida peritonitis and bacterial sepsis in a critically ill dog.

  10. Extrapulmonary involvement in pediatric tuberculosis.

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    Kritsaneepaiboon, Supika; Andres, Mariaem M; Tatco, Vincent R; Lim, Cielo Consuelo Q; Concepcion, Nathan David P

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis in childhood is clinically challenging, but it is a preventable and treatable disease. Risk factors depend on age and immunity status. The most common form of pediatric tuberculosis is pulmonary disease, which comprises more than half of the cases. Other forms make up the extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves infection of the lymph nodes, central nervous system, gastrointestinal system, hepatobiliary tree, and renal and musculoskeletal systems. Knowledge of the imaging characteristics of pediatric tuberculosis provides clues to diagnosis. This article aims to review the imaging characteristics of common sites for extrapulmonary tuberculous involvement in children.

  11. Pollen as a possible pathway for the dissemination of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinide and bacterial canker of kiwifruit

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    Rodanthi TONTOU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pollen collected in a kiwifruit orchard with symptoms of bacterial canker and naturally contaminated by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa, was used to pollinate an experimental orchard, in order to confirm its role, under commercial orchard conditions, in disseminating the pathogen and, possibly, contributing to disease spread. A pollen lot, certified free from Psa, was used with the same methods as a control. Two pollination techniques were used: dusting (dry pollen and spraying (pollen suspension in water. The orchard was monitored during 2 years from experimental pollination, with regular sampling of flowers, fruits, leaves, and vines, to check for Psa as an epiphyte or endophyte, and for bacterial canker symptoms. Psa was recovered from flowers, fruitlets and leaves during the first season, mainly in plots where contaminated pollen had been sprayed in water suspension. From early August until harvesting time (mid-October, Psa detection was possible only on leaves. No symptoms developed during the first season after pollination. No endophytic Psa was detected in pruned vines in the following winter. During the second season, detection and isolation of Psa was erratic, but direct isolation was achieved from four plots. During the second season after pollination, typical leaf symptoms were observed on a few vines, and Psa was isolated and identified. Our results suggest that Psa could be disseminated via contaminated kiwifruit pollen as a pathway for spread of bacterial canker. However, further pollination experiments are needed to establish, beyond any doubt, whether contaminated pollen may contribute to possible disease outbreaks.

  12. Gallium-67 citrate scan in extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wanyu

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Whole-body gallium scan was performed to evaluate the usefulness of gallium scan for detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesions. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with extrapulmonary TB were included in this study. Four patients were found to have two lesions. Totally, 41 lesions were identified, including 19 TB arthritis, 8 spinal TB, 5 TB meningitis, 3 TB lymphadenopathy, 2 TB pericarditis, 1 TB peritonitis, 1 intestinal TB, 1 skin TB and 1 renal TB. Results: Of the 41 extrapulmonary TB lesions, gallium scan detected 32 lesions with a sensitivity of 78%. All the patients with TB meningitis showed negative gallium scan. When the five cases of TB meningitis were excluded, the detection sensitivity of gallium scan increased to 88.9% (32/36). Conclusion: Our data revealed that gallium scan is a convenient and useful method for evaluating extrapulmonary TB lesions other than TB-meningitis. We suggest that gallium scan be included in the clinical routine for patients with suspected extrapulmonary TB. (orig.) [de

  13. Local and disseminated acute phase response during bacterial respiratory infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The acute phase response is playing an important role, aiming to restore the healthy state after tissue injury, inflammation and infection. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate defense reactions remain somewhat elusive. Expression of acute phase...... locations of the infected lung (necrotic areas, areas bordering on necrotic areas, and from visually unaffected areas). Expression differences was also studied in the liver and in peripheral lymphoid tissue (tracheobronchial lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils) of infected (n=10) and non-infected (n=5) pigs using......-phase proteins was found 14-18h after experimental infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. This firmly establishes that expression of APPs is widely disseminated, involving changes in the expression of APPs at a dynamic scale comparable to the hepatic response. These results suggest that many different cell...

  14. Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Uyo, South - South, Nigeria | Abudu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tuberculosis is a disease of the poor, affecting the pulmonary and extra-pulmonary organs. Objectives: To assess the frequency and morphologic pattern of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis as well as determining the occurrence of other acid fast organisms from extra-pulmonary tissue biopsies using common ...

  15. Early systemic bacterial dissemination and a rapid innate immune response characterize genetic resistance to plague of SEG mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeure, Christian E; Blanchet, Charlène; Fitting, Catherine; Fayolle, Corinne; Khun, Huot; Szatanik, Marek; Milon, Geneviève; Panthier, Jean-Jacques; Jaubert, Jean; Montagutelli, Xavier; Huerre, Michel; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although laboratory mice are usually highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis, we recently identified a mouse strain (SEG) that exhibited an exceptional capacity to resist bubonic plague and used it to identify immune mechanisms associated with resistance. The kinetics of infection, circulating blood cells, granulopoiesis, lesions, and cellular populations in the spleen, and cytokine production in various tissues were compared in SEG and susceptible C57BL/6J mice after subcutaneous infection with the virulent Y. pestis CO92. Bacterial invasion occurred early (day 2) but was transient in SEG/Pas mice, whereas in C57BL/6J mice it was delayed but continuous until death. The bacterial load in all organs significantly correlated with the production of 5 cytokines (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), macrophage cationic peptide-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 1α, and interleukin 6) involved in monocyte and neutrophil recruitment. Indeed, higher proportions of these 2 cell types in blood and massive recruitment of F4/80(+)CD11b(-) macrophages in the spleen were observed in SEG/Pas mice at an early time point (day 2). Later times after infection (day 4) were characterized in C57BL/6J mice by destructive lesions of the spleen and impaired granulopoiesis. A fast and efficient Y. pestis dissemination in SEG mice may be critical for the triggering of an early and effective innate immune response necessary for surviving plague.

  16. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis among adults: Experience at Chris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-22

    Jan 22, 2014 ... Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) occurs in 15. - 20% of immunocompetent and 20 - 70% of HIV- infected patients with tuberculosis (TB).[1] There are few recent incidence data for EPTB. In the USA, incidence rates were 5.93/100 000 population in black males in Tennessee and 209/100 000 among ...

  17. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other...... parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we studied gene expression changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues as compared to hepatic expression changes, 14-18 h after lung...... with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14-18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase...

  18. Gallium-67 citrate scan in extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Wanyu [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Hsieh Jihfang [Chi-Mei Foundation Hospital, Tainan (Taiwan)

    1999-07-01

    Aim: Whole-body gallium scan was performed to evaluate the usefulness of gallium scan for detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesions. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with extrapulmonary TB were included in this study. Four patients were found to have two lesions. Totally, 41 lesions were identified, including 19 TB arthritis, 8 spinal TB, 5 TB meningitis, 3 TB lymphadenopathy, 2 TB pericarditis, 1 TB peritonitis, 1 intestinal TB, 1 skin TB and 1 renal TB. Results: Of the 41 extrapulmonary TB lesions, gallium scan detected 32 lesions with a sensitivity of 78%. All the patients with TB meningitis showed negative gallium scan. When the five cases of TB meningitis were excluded, the detection sensitivity of gallium scan increased to 88.9% (32/36). Conclusion: Our data revealed that gallium scan is a convenient and useful method for evaluating extrapulmonary TB lesions other than TB-meningitis. We suggest that gallium scan be included in the clinical routine for patients with suspected extrapulmonary TB. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Es wurden Ganzkoerper-Gallium-Szintigramme angefertigt, um den Nutzen der Gallium-Szintigraphie zur Erfassung von extrapulmonalen Tuberkuloseherden (TB) zu erfassen. Methoden: 37 Patienten mit extrapulmonaler TB wurden eingeschlossen. 4 Patienten hatten 2 Laesionen. Insgesamt wurden 41 Laesionen identifiziert, hierunter 19 TB-Arthritis, 8 spinale TB, 5 TB-Meningitis, 3 TB-Lymphadenopathie, 2 TB-Perikarditis, 1 TB-Peritonitis, 1 intestinale TB, 1 Haut-TB und eine Nieren-TB. Ergebnisse: Von den 41 extrapulmonalen TB-Herden erfasste die Gallium-Szintigraphie 32 Herde mit einer Sensitivitaet von 78%. Alle Patienten mit TB-Meningitis zeigten einen negativen Gallium-Scan. Wenn die 5 Faelle mit TB-Meningitis ausgeschlossen wurden, stieg die Sensitivititaet der Gallium-Szintigraphie auf 88,9% (32/36). Schlussfolgerung: Die Daten zeigen, dass die Gallium-Szintigraphie eine einfache und nuetzliche Methode zur Erfassung extrapulmonaler TB-Herde ist

  19. Prophylactic Sublingual Immunization with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Subunit Vaccine Incorporating the Natural Killer T Cell Agonist Alpha-Galactosylceramide Enhances Protective Immunity to Limit Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Bacterial Burden in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad Khan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb remains a major global concern and the available Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG vaccine is poorly efficacious in adults. Therefore, alternative vaccines and delivery strategies focusing on Mtb antigens and appropriate immune stimulating adjuvants are needed to induce protective immunity targeted to the lungs, the primary sites of infections and pathology. We present here evidence in support of mucosal vaccination by the sublingual route in mice using the subunit Mtb antigens Ag85B and ESAT-6 adjuvanted with the glycolipid alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer, a potent natural killer T (NKT cell agonist. Vaccinated animals exhibited strong antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells responses in the spleen, cervical lymph nodes and lungs. In general, inclusion of the α-GalCer adjuvant significantly enhanced these responses that persisted over 50 days. Furthermore, aerosolized Mtb infection of vaccinated mice resulted in a significant reduction of bacterial load of the lungs and spleens as compared to levels seen in naïve controls or those vaccinated with subunit proteins, adjuvant , or BCG alone. The protection induced by the Mtb antigens and-GalCer vaccine through sublingual route correlated with a TH1-type immunity mediated by antigen-specific IFN-γ and IL-2 producing T cells.

  20. Management of extrapulmonary sarcoidosis: challenges and solutions

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    Al-Kofahi K

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Khalid Al-Kofahi,1,* Peter Korsten,2,* Christian Ascoli,3 Shanti Virupannavar,4 Mehdi Mirsaeidi,5 Ian Chang,6 Naim Qaqish,7 Lesley A Saketkoo,8 Robert P Baughman,9 Nadera J Sweiss3,4 1Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA; 2Department of Nephrology and Rheumatology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany; 3Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 4Division of Rheumatology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 5Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, 6Department of Medicine, Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine, East Lansing, MI, 7Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 8New Orleans Scleroderma and Sarcoidosis Patient Care and Research Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, 9Department of Medicine, University Medical Center of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystem disease of unknown etiology characterized by noncaseating granulomas that most often involves the lungs, but frequently has extrapulmonary manifestations, which might be difficult to treat in individual patients. Objective: To review different disease manifestations, focusing on extrapulmonary organ systems, and to provide treatment options for refractory cases. Materials and methods: We performed a literature search using Medline and Google Scholar for individual or combined keywords of “sarcoidosis, extrapulmonary, treatment, kidney, neurosarcoidosis, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, transplantation, musculoskeletal, rheumatology, arthritis, and skin”. Peer-reviewed articles, including review articles, clinical trials, observational trials, and case reports that were

  1. Disseminated Aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger in Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report

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    Ulku Ergene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Many cases of pulmonary, cutaneous, cerebral, and paranasal sinus aspergillosis in immunocompetent patient were defined in literature but disseminated aspergillosis is very rare. Here we present an immunocompetent case with extrapulmonary disseminated aspergillosis due to Aspergillus niger, totally recovered after effective antifungal treatment with voriconazole.

  2. Primary lung cancer and extrapulmonary malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Hans-Stefan; Neef, Heinz; Schmidt, Peter

    2007-10-01

    The incidence of second primary malignancies seems to be increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence, treatment and outcome for patients with second primary lung cancer (SPLC). Between January 1996 and December 2005, 163 patients with SPLC, occurring after an extrapulmonary malignancy, were recruited by the Tumor Center of Halle (Saale), which represents a region of nearly 1.0 million inhabitants in Germany. The SPLCs were treated under curative aim (n=59), with palliative intend (n=76) or best supportive care (n=28). The incidence of SPLC was 1.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. The localization of the first tumor differed depending on the sex of the patients. The actuarial 5-year survival rate of all patients was 12.7% (median survival time 11.4 months). Univariate analysis revealed treatment strategy as a prognostic factor (p=0.0001). Patients with SPLC having undergone curative treatment turned out to have the best prognosis (median survival: 31.0 months). The Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated that only TNM-staging system was a multivariate and significant independent prognostic predictor for overall survival. The method of surgery, standard lung resection (e.g. lobectomy) versus limited resection had no considerable influence on overall survival (p=0.22), respectively recurrence-free survival (p=0.55). In cases of operability, standard resection must be the method of choice, because of its best survival rates. The results support the demand of an exact and short-term oncological care system to detect early stages of SPLC for patients operated upon for tumors at different sites.

  3. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis among adults: Experience at Chris ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31.0%), blood (21.8%), meninges (7.3%), and peritoneum (2.9%). Disseminated tuberculosis occurred in 25.0%. The median age was 33 years (range 18 - 87 years). Males comprised 53.2% overall, with a female majority in the peritonitis group.

  4. Unusual presentation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case study highlights an unusual manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in a person living with HIV, namely mammary TB. Clinicians practising in settings where HIV and TB are endemic need to be aware of the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of mammary TB.

  5. Extra-pulmonary manifestations of paracoccidioidomycosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Marlos Augusto Bittencourt; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Araujo Junior, Cyrillo Rodrigues de; Borba, Ana Olivia Cardoso; Veloso, Gerson Augusto; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sem Santos

    2001-01-01

    The authors present a review and iconographic study of patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis, including the main radiographic findings seen in the central nervous system, adrenal glands, osteoarticular system, lymph nodes and digestive tract. Imaging diagnostic methods have allowed a more precise approach of these patients due to their high sensitivity in detecting lesions, even in asymptomatic patients. In most cases these abnormalities are unspecific, simulating either neoplasic or chronic infectious lesions, and sometimes difficult to distinguish from tuberculosis. Although these findings are nonspecific and only the mycologic and histologic fungus demonstration can confirm the diagnosis, they may suggest a presumptive one, when these imaging findings are considered in an appropriate clinical and epidemiological setting. (author)

  6. Hospital effluents are one of several sources of metal, antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial markers disseminated in Sub-Saharan urban rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Laffite

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Data concerning the occurrence of emerging biological contaminants such as antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB in aquatic environments in Sub-Saharan African countries is limited. On the other hand, antibiotic resistance remains a worldwide problem which may pose serious potential risks to human and animal health. Consequently, there is a growing number of reports concerning the prevalence and dissemination of these contaminants into various environmental compartments. Sediments provide the opportunity to reconstruct the pollution history and evaluate impacts so this study investigates the abundance and distribution of toxic metals, FIB, and ARGs released from hospital effluent wastewaters and their presence in river sediments receiving systems. ARGs (blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and aadA, total bacterial load, and selected bacterial species FIB (E. coli, Enterococcus (ENT and Pseudomonas species (Psd were quantified by targeting species specific genes using quantitative PCR (qPCR in total DNA extracted from the sediments recovered from 4 hospital outlet pipes (HOP and their river receiving systems in the City of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The results highlight the great concentration of toxic metals in HOP, reaching the values (in mg kg-1 of 47.9 (Cr, 213.6 (Cu, 1434.4 (Zn, 2.6 (Cd, 281.5 (Pb, and 13.6 (Hg. The results also highlight the highest (P˂0.05 values of 16S rRNA, FIB, and ARGs copy numbers in all sampling sites including upstream (control site, discharge point, and downstream of receiving rivers, indicating that the hospital effluent water is not an exclusive source of the biological contaminants entering the urban rivers. Significant correlation were observed between (i all analyzed ARGs and total bacterial load (16S rRNA 0.51 to 0.72 (p<0.001, n=65; (ii ARGs (except blaTEM and FIB and Psd 0.57 < r < 0.82 (p<0.001, n=65; and (iii ARGs (except blaTEM and toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Cu

  7. GENEXPERT - IS IT AN EXPERT IN DIAGNOSIS OF EXTRAPULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Mukund Nayak

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Six countries in Asia account for 60% of the total new tuberculosis cases occurring globally with India leading the count. India accounts for approximately 25% of global incidence of tuberculosis with almost 2 deaths every 3 minutes due to tuberculosis alone. GeneXpert is a comparatively newer diagnostic test for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, which uses the PCR to test specimens and simultaneously detects resistance to rifampicin, thus allowing diagnosis of DR-TB within a couple of hours. The present study was conducted to find the sensitivity and specificity of GeneXpert in extrapulmonary samples (lymph node and pleural fluid and compare the results with those of smear and AFB culture with an aim to provide rapid diagnostic test to patients with suspected extrapulmonary tuberculosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective data analysis of reports of extrapulmonary samples (lymph node and pleural fluid of 45 patients sent for AFB smear, GeneXpert and AFB culture during routine investigations were studied. RESULTS Sensitivity of GeneXpert in lymph node samples was found to be 94.12% and specificity was 30.77% with positive predictive value of 64% and negative predictive value of 80%. The sensitivity of GeneXpert in pleural fluid samples was found to be 60% with 100% specificity. The positive predictive value was 100% and negative predictive value was 83.33%. CONCLUSION The overall sensitivity of GeneXpert was 96.67% with specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 83.33%. Thus, it is a valuable test for diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis at the earliest with an added advantage of detecting resistance for rifampicin.

  8. Disseminated sporotrichosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Romero-Feregrino, Raúl; Sánchez, Carlos Javier; Linares, Yancy; Zavala, Jorge Tay; Romero, Leticia Calderón; Romero-Feregrino, Rodrigo; Vega, José T Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is a primary cutaneous infection and it has different clinical forms: disseminated by lymphatic vessels (75%), localised cutaneous form (20%), disseminated cutaneous and extracuteus rarely. The systemic disseminated sporotrichosis is considered a severe opportunistic infection. The best diagnostic test is the culture. The authors report a case of a 36-year-old man, originally from Puebla, Mexico, with a diagnosis of disseminated sporotrichosis. Differential diagnosis with other pathologies includes leishmaniasis, chromoblastomycosis, tuberculosis verrucose and lymphangitis. The development of unusual presentations in immunocompromised patients has been reported. PMID:22700076

  9. Exercise Training Reverses Extrapulmonary Impairments in Smoke-exposed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T Scott; Aakerøy, Lars; Eisenkolb, Sophia; Kunth, Patricia; Bakkerud, Fredrik; Wohlwend, Martin; Ormbostad, Anne Marie; Fischer, Tina; Wisloff, Ulrik; Schuler, Gerhard; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Adams, Volker; Bronstad, Eivind

    2017-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. However, evidence on the extrapulmonary effects of smoke exposure that precede lung impairments remains unclear at present, as are data on nonpharmacological treatments such as exercise training. Three groups of mice, including control (n = 10), smoking (n = 10), and smoking with 6 wk of high-intensity interval treadmill running (n = 11), were exposed to 20 wk of fresh air or whole-body cigarette smoke. Exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and lung destruction (histology) were subsequently measured, whereas the heart, peripheral endothelium (aorta), and respiratory (diaphragm) and limb (extensor digitorum longus and soleus) skeletal muscles were assessed for in vivo and in vitro function, in situ mitochondrial respiration, and molecular alterations. Smoking reduced body weight by 26% (P 0.05). Smoking impaired exercise capacity by 15% while inducing right ventricular dysfunction by ~20%, endothelial dysfunction by ~20%, and diaphragm muscle weakness by ~15% (all P exercise training (P smoking mice had normal limb muscle and mitochondrial function (cardiac and skeletal muscle fibers); however, diaphragm measures of oxidative stress and protein degradation were increased by 111% and 65%, respectively (P exercise training (P smoking reduced exercise capacity concomitant with functional impairments to the heart, peripheral endothelium, and respiratory muscle that preceded the development of overt emphysema. However, high-intensity exercise training was able to reverse these smoke-induced extrapulmonary impairments.

  10. Extrapulmonary involvement in patients with sarcoidosis and comparison of routine laboratory and clinical data to pulmonary involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurkova, Monika; Kolek, Vitezslav; Tomankova, Tereza; Kriegova, Eva

    2014-12-01

    Patients with pulmonary and pulmonary plus extrapulmonary sarcoidosis differ in symptom severity and health status impairment. To date there is no information on differences in clinical and laboratory parameters between these phenotypes and limited information on extrapulmonary involvement in Czech sarcoidosis patients exists. We therefore compared clinical data (age, gender, organ involvement, lung function tests) and laboratory data (blood counts, bronchoalveolar fluid (BAL) cellular profile, serum levels of CRP, SACE, sIL-2R, neopterin) between patients with newly diagnosed pulmonary sarcoidosis (n=107) and those with pulmonary plus extrapulmonary sarcoidosis (n=54). Extrapulmonary sarcoidosis was diagnosed in 33% of patients, mostly affecting lymph nodes and skin and having hypercalciuria. There was no difference in the prevalence of extrapulmonary sarcoidosis between genders. Patients with extrapulmonary sarcoidosis were older and mostly non-smokers when compared to those with limited pulmonary form. X-ray Stage I and erythema nodosum were less frequent in extrapulmonary disease. Serum levels of CRP, SACE, sIL-2R and neopterin and BAL cellular profile did not differ between both phenotypes. We observed lower platelets, FEV1, VC, and BAL CD19+ in females with extrapulmonary involvement than in those with pulmonary disease. Affected lymph nodes, skin and hypercalciuria were the most common in sarcoidosis patients with extrapulmonary involvement. Pulmonary sarcoidosis did not differ in clinical and routine laboratory parameters from pulmonary plus extrapulmonary sarcoidosis. Observation of low platelets, VC, FEV1 and BAL CD19+ in females with extrapulmonary sarcoidosis needs further verification in larger cohort.

  11. Pulmonary sarcoidosis with and without extrapulmonary involvement: a cross-sectional and observational study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Wei; Tao, Ru-Jia; Zou, Dan-Feng; Li, Man-Hui; Xu, Xin; Cao, Wei-Jun

    2018-02-16

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterised by the formation of granulomas within various organs, mainly the lungs. Several studies from different countries have been undertaken to investigate sarcoidosis with extrapulmonary involvement except from China. The objective of this study is to investigate a comparative clinical analysis in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis with and without extrapulmonary involvement from China. Data from inpatients diagnosed with sarcoidosis at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital (Shanghai, China) between January 2009 and December 2014 were retrospectively collected and analysed. Six hundred and thirty-six patients with biopsy-proven sarcoidosis were included in the study, including 378 isolated pulmonary sarcoidosis and 258 pulmonary sarcoidosis plus extrapulmonary involvement. Two hundred and fifty-eight (40.6%) patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis had extrapulmonary involvement. Extrapulmonary localisations were detected mostly in extrathoracic lymph nodes (n=147) and skin (n=86). Statistically significant differences were demonstrated between patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis plus extrapulmonary involvement and patients with isolated pulmonary sarcoidosis for fatigue (16.6%vs8.3%, PSACE) levels (79.0±46.9 IU/L vs 69.7±38.7 IU/L, PSACE levels and more deteriorating HRCT findings, to which clinicians should pay attention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Index-TB Guidelines: Guidelines on extrapulmonary tuberculosis for India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Ryan, H.; Khaparde, Sunil; Sachdeva, K. S.; Singh, Achintya D.; Mohan, Alladi; Sarin, Rohit; Paramasivan, C N; Kumar, Prahlad; Nischal, Neeraj; Khatiwada, Saurav; Garner, Paul; Tharyan, Prathap

    2017-01-01

    Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is frequently a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is a common opportunistic infection in people living with HIV/AIDS and other immunocompromised states such as diabetes mellitus and malnutrition. There is a paucity of data from clinical trials in EPTB and most of the information regarding diagnosis and management is extrapolated from pulmonary TB. Further, there are no formal national or international guidelines on EPTB. To address these concerns, Indian EPTB guidelines were developed under the auspices of Central TB Division and Directorate of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The objective was to provide guidance on uniform, evidence-informed practices for suspecting, diagnosing and managing EPTB at all levels of healthcare delivery. The guidelines describe agreed principles relevant to 10 key areas of EPTB which are complementary to the existing country standards of TB care and technical operational guidelines for pulmonary TB. These guidelines provide recommendations on three priority areas for EPTB: (i) use of Xpert MTB/RIF in diagnosis, (ii) use of adjunct corticosteroids in treatment, and (iii) duration of treatment. The guidelines were developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria, which were evidence based, and due consideration was given to various healthcare settings across India. Further, for those forms of EPTB in which evidence regarding best practice was lacking, clinical practice points were developed by consensus on accumulated knowledge and experience of specialists who participated in the working groups. This would also reflect the needs of healthcare providers and develop a platform for future research. PMID:28862176

  13. Index-TB guidelines: Guidelines on extrapulmonary tuberculosis for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra K Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB is frequently a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. It is a common opportunistic infection in people living with HIV/AIDS and other immunocompromised states such as diabetes mellitus and malnutrition. There is a paucity of data from clinical trials in EPTB and most of the information regarding diagnosis and management is extrapolated from pulmonary TB. Further, there are no formal national or international guidelines on EPTB. To address these concerns, Indian EPTB guidelines were developed under the auspices of Central TB Division and Directorate of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. The objective was to provide guidance on uniform, evidence-informed practices for suspecting, diagnosing and managing EPTB at all levels of healthcare delivery. The guidelines describe agreed principles relevant to 10 key areas of EPTB which are complementary to the existing country standards of TB care and technical operational guidelines for pulmonary TB. These guidelines provide recommendations on three priority areas for EPTB: (i use of Xpert MTB/RIF in diagnosis, (ii use of adjunct corticosteroids in treatment, and (iii duration of treatment. The guidelines were developed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE criteria, which were evidence based, and due consideration was given to various healthcare settings across India. Further, for those forms of EPTB in which evidence regarding best practice was lacking, clinical practice points were developed by consensus on accumulated knowledge and experience of specialists who participated in the working groups. This would also reflect the needs of healthcare providers and develop a platform for future research.

  14. The Transcriptional Signature of Active Tuberculosis Reflects Symptom Status in Extra-Pulmonary and Pulmonary Tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Blankley

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is a leading cause of infectious death worldwide. Gene-expression microarray studies profiling the blood transcriptional response of tuberculosis (TB patients have been undertaken in order to better understand the host immune response as well as to identify potential biomarkers of disease. To date most of these studies have focused on pulmonary TB patients with gene-expression profiles of extra-pulmonary TB patients yet to be compared to those of patients with pulmonary TB or sarcoidosis.A novel cohort of patients with extra-pulmonary TB and sarcoidosis was recruited and the transcriptional response of these patients compared to those with pulmonary TB using a variety of transcriptomic approaches including testing a previously defined 380 gene meta-signature of active TB.The 380 meta-signature broadly differentiated active TB from healthy controls in this new dataset consisting of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. The top 15 genes from this meta-signature had a lower sensitivity for differentiating extra-pulmonary TB from healthy controls as compared to pulmonary TB. We found the blood transcriptional responses in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB to be heterogeneous and to reflect the extent of symptoms of disease.The transcriptional signature in extra-pulmonary TB demonstrated heterogeneity of gene expression reflective of symptom status, while the signature of pulmonary TB was distinct, based on a higher proportion of symptomatic individuals. These findings are of importance for the rational design and implementation of mRNA based TB diagnostics.

  15. Predictive markers of survival in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative Tanzanian patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, C.; Koelemay, M. J.; Swai, A. B.; Perenboom, R.; Mwakyusa, D. H.; Oosting, J.

    1995-01-01

    Prediction of survival in Tanzanian patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB). To evaluate the prognostic value of clinical and laboratory parameters on survival in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositive and HIV seronegative patients with extrapulmonary TB. Over an 8-month period 192

  16. Significance of various pulmonary and extrapulmonary abnormalities on HRCT of the chest in scleroderma lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Anoop Kumar; Wilcox, Pearce; O’ Brien, Julie; Ellis, Jennifer; Brown, Jacquie; Leipsic, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) are routinely investigated with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) chest for early detection and accurate characterization of complicating interstitial lung diseases. Though the primary aim of HRCT is to delineate the burden of pulmonary involvement and to characterize the nature of fibrosis to potentially help guide management, it provides an opportunity to evaluate extrapulmonary manifestations, particularly the dilated pulmonary artery, esophageal dilatation, and pericardial abnormalities which have their own clinical significance. The aim of this article is to discuss the significance of various pulmonary and extrapulmonary abnormalities that may be identified on HRCT chest of SSc patients

  17. Aging and extrapulmonary effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudorache E

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Emanuela Tudorache,1 Ariadna Petronela Fildan,2 Mirela Frandes,3 Elena Dantes,4 Doina Ecaterina Tofolean2 1Department of Pulmonology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Victor Babeş”, Timişoara, 2Faculty of Medicine, Internal Medicine Discipline, Medical Clinical Disciplines I, “Ovidius” University of Constanta, Constanţa, 3Department of Functional Sciences, “Victor Babes” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Timişoara, 4Faculty of Medicine, Pneumophtisiology Department, Medical Clinical Disciplines II, “Ovidius” University Constanta, Constanţa, Romania Introduction: People with COPD have a decline in functional status, but little is known about the rate of decline and factors that contribute. Of particular concern is the decline in cognitive and functional performance. Decrease in cognitive and functional performance will finally lead to decreased health status, sedentary life style and premature frailty. Aim: The aim of this study is to compare functional performance and cognitive status in patients with COPD of different ages and to examine the changes in extrapulmonary effects. Patients and methods: This study included 62 patients with COPD risk class D who were divided into two groups (<70 years, N=30 and >70 years, N=32. Patients first completed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, which is a 30-point test that assesses different cognitive domains, while isometric knee extension (IKE was measured using a digital handheld dynamometer, and functional exercise level was assessed using the 6-minute walking distance (6MWD test. Results: The patients’ older age (age higher than 70 years was associated with a significantly lower body mass index (BMI, 27.50 vs 24.24 kg/m2; P=0.020, higher vital capacity parameters, forced vital capacity (FVC, 2.74 vs 2.82 L; P=0.799, FVC (% (73.00 vs 66.50, P=132, forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1, 0.93 vs 1.13 L; P=0.001 and FEV1 (% (28.50 vs 30.50, P=0.605. In

  18. Should patients with extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma receive prophylactic cranial irradiation?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naidoo, Jarushka

    2013-09-01

    Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is a rare disease. Management is based on small-cell lung carcinoma. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) is not routinely administered in EPSCC. This study investigates the role of PCI in EPSCC, by analyzing the incidence, treatment, and survival of patients with brain metastases in a national cohort. Disease biology and epidemiology are also investigated.

  19. Usefulness of the mycobacterium tuberculosis direct assay in early diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB

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    Zhang Hui-Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ detection of living mycobacterium TB rRNA by the mycobacterium TB direct assay (MTD and its clinical significance in the early diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB. Eighty-six patients were recruited from the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from June to November in 2010, having been diagnosed with extrapulmonary TB, including tuberculous peritonitis (n=22, lymphatic TB (n=21, tuberculous meningitis (n=15, HIV-associated TB (n=13, nephroTB (n=9, spinal TB (n=2, cutaneous TB (n=13, parotid TB (n=1, chest wall TB (n=1, intestinal TB (n=1. One hundred and five extrapulmonary specimens, including CSF, puncture fluid, drainage, pleural fluid, urine, secretion, ascites, lymphatic tissue and marrow were collected from the patients. The samples were examined using acid-fast stain, solid culture, liquid culture and MTD in parallel. In MTD, the target segments of MTB rRNA in either cultures or clinical specimens were amplified prior to being qualitatively detected with the hybridization protection assay (HPA. The sensitivities of MTD and acid-fast staining in liquid and solid cultures were 48.6%, 41.9%, 20.0% and 14.3%, respectively. MTD sensitivity was higher than that of the others and its specificity was 100%. We concluded that MTD rRNA detection is an effective, rapid, convenient, sensitive and reliable method for the early diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB.

  20. Extrapulmonary colony formation after intravenous injection of tumour cells into heparin treated animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, B.

    1978-01-01

    Recent data on extrapulmonary colony formation after heparin administration are inconclusive. A systemic study of this topic was undertaken with 4 experimental tumour systems and 2 distinct periods of reduced clotting capacity in rats and mice. I.v. injection of various numbers of tumour cells into

  1. Long-term mortality in patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne-Sophie Halkjær; Roed, Casper; Andersen, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term mortality and causes of death in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) are poorly documented. In this study, long-term mortality and causes of death in PTB and EPTB patients were compared with the background population...

  2. Importance of polymerase chain reaction in diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, S.; Ahmed, R.; Adhami, S.U.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan ranks eighth on the list of 22 high-burden tuberculosis (TB) countries in the world according to the World Health Organisation's (WHO) Global Tuberculosis Control 2009. Including other reasons the main cause is improper and late diagnosis of the disease. PCR may play an important role to control the disease with its rapid, sensitive and specific diagnosis. But in Pakistan due to lake of knowledge about this latest technique we are not using this technique appropriately. Clinicians still trust on conventional methods of TB diagnosis, which are time consuming or insensitive. The present study was arranged to highlight the importance of PCR in TB diagnosis in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary cases and its comparison with conventional methods. Methods: Samples obtained from 290 patients of suspected TB (pulmonary or extra-pulmonary) were subjected to ZN smear examination, LJ medium culture and PCR test by amplifying 541 bp fragment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genome. The present prospective study is performed at Shalamar Hospital Lahore from November 2008 to November 2010. Results: A distinctly difference was observed in the test results done by PCR and other conventional techniques in pulmonary or extra-pulmonary tuberculosis samples (p<0.001). The sensitivity of different tests was 68.62% for PCR, 26.90% for LJ medium culture, and 14.14% for ZN smear examination (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between different tests as for as specificity was concerned. PCR test sensitivity in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary clinical samples was 78.34 and 61.76% respectively, being significantly higher (p<0.05) when compared with sensitivity of other tests. The mean detection time for M. tuberculosis was 25 days by LJ medium culture and less than 1 day by smear examination and PCR test. Conclusion: PCR test is more sensitive than ZN smear examination and LJ medium culture for the diagnosis of TB in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary clinical samples

  3. Extra-pulmonary manifestations of paracoccidioidomycosis; Manifestacoes extrapulmonares da paracoccidioidomicose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Marlos Augusto Bittencourt; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Araujo Junior, Cyrillo Rodrigues de; Borba, Ana Olivia Cardoso; Veloso, Gerson Augusto; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sem Santos [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: radiologia@brturbo.com

    2001-02-01

    The authors present a review and iconographic study of patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis, including the main radiographic findings seen in the central nervous system, adrenal glands, osteoarticular system, lymph nodes and digestive tract. Imaging diagnostic methods have allowed a more precise approach of these patients due to their high sensitivity in detecting lesions, even in asymptomatic patients. In most cases these abnormalities are unspecific, simulating either neoplasic or chronic infectious lesions, and sometimes difficult to distinguish from tuberculosis. Although these findings are nonspecific and only the mycologic and histologic fungus demonstration can confirm the diagnosis, they may suggest a presumptive one, when these imaging findings are considered in an appropriate clinical and epidemiological setting. (author)

  4. Effects of gender and age on development of concurrent extrapulmonary tuberculosis in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lu, Po-Liang; Lai, Chung-Chih; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wei-Ru; Huang, Pei-Ming; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Most cases of adult-onset tuberculosis (TB) result from reactivation of a pre-existing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Mycobacterium tuberculosis usually invades the respiratory tract and most patients develop intrapulmonary TB; however, some patients develop concurrent pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. The purpose of the present study was to identify the demographic and clinical factors associated with an increased risk of concurrent extra-pulmonary diseases in patients with pulmonary TB. We compared patients who had isolated pulmonary TB with patients who had concurrent pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB. We initially analyzed one-million randomly selected subjects from the population-based Taiwan National Health Insurance database. Based on analysis of 5414 pulmonary TB patients in this database, women were more likely than men to have concurrent extra-pulmonary TB (OR: 1.30, p = 0.013). A separate analysis of the Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital database, which relied on sputum culture-proven pulmonary TB, indicated that women were more likely than men to have concurrent extra-pulmonary TB (OR: 1.62, p = 0.039). There was no significant gender difference in extra-pulmonary TB for patients younger than 45 years in either database. However, for patients 45 years and older, women were more likely than men to have concurrent extra-pulmonary TB (insurance database: 9.0% vs. 6.8%, p = 0.016, OR: 1.36; hospital database: 27.3% vs. 16.0%, p = 0.008, OR = 1.98). Our results indicate that among patients who have pulmonary TB, older females have an increased risk for concurrent extra-pulmonary TB.

  5. Comparison of three mycobacterial DNA extraction methods from extrapulmonary samples for PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandaker Shadia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity of the molecular diagnostic tests of extrapulmonary tuberculosis largely depends upon the efficiency of DNA extraction methods. The objective of our study was to compare three methods of extracting DNA of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for testing by polymerase chain reaction. All three methods; heating, heating with sonication and addition of lysis buffer with heating and sonication were implicated on 20 extrapulmonary samples. PCR positivity was 2 (10%, 4 (20% and 7 (35% in the samples extracted by heating, heat+sonication and heat+sonication+lysis buffer method respectively. Of the extraction methods evaluated, maximum PCR positive results were achieved by combined heat, sonication and lysis buffer method which can be applied in routine clinical practice. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2012; 6(1: 9-11

  6. PATTERN OF EXTRA-PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN PATIENTS WITH HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION, AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN EASTERN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Ninan, Doye George, P Sukumaran, Gunanidhi Sahu, RN Mania, Philip Mathew

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV co infection is becoming one of the most important public health issues in India. In some developing countries, 40% of all tuberculosis cases are attributed to HIV infection and in more than 50% of cases, tuberculosis is the first manifestation of HIV infection. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was done among the in-patients of a tuberculosis ward in a tertiary care hospital in Eastern India. Fifty patients with HIV and tuberculosis infection of an extra pulmonary site, were included in the study. Results: A vast majority of the participants were young males. More than 80% were using intoxicants like alcohol or tobacco, 76% admitted exposure to commercial sex workers and 12% were intravenous drug users. Twenty five (50% of the participants had disseminated tuberculosis, that is tubercular infection of more than one anatomical site. Maximum (62% participants had tubercular infection of lymph nodes, followed by pleura, abdomen and central nervous system. Discussion and conclusions: The socio-demographic correlates of participants were similar to that seen in similar studies in other parts of the world. But in our study, tubercular lymphadenitis was the most common extra-pulmonary manifestation and proportion of disseminated tuberculosis cases was as high as 50%. Both these findings are different from studies from other parts of the world. These findings warrant a larger research study and programmatic changes to address issues of HIV/TB co infection.

  7. Effects of different tidal volumes in pulmonary and extrapulmonary lung injury with or without intraabdominal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cíntia L; Moraes, Lillian; Santos, Raquel S; Oliveira, Mariana G; Silva, Johnatas D; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Ornellas, Débora S; Morales, Marcelo M; Capelozzi, Vera L; Jamel, Nelson; Pelosi, Paolo; Rocco, Patricia R M; Garcia, Cristiane S N B

    2012-03-01

    We hypothesized that: (1) intraabdominal hypertension increases pulmonary inflammatory and fibrogenic responses in acute lung injury (ALI); (2) in the presence of intraabdominal hypertension, higher tidal volume reduces lung damage in extrapulmonary ALI, but not in pulmonary ALI. Wistar rats were randomly allocated to receive Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide intratracheally (pulmonary ALI) or intraperitoneally (extrapulmonary ALI). After 24 h, animals were randomized into subgroups without or with intraabdominal hypertension (15 mmHg) and ventilated with positive end expiratory pressure = 5 cmH(2)O and tidal volume of 6 or 10 ml/kg during 1 h. Lung and chest wall mechanics, arterial blood gases, lung and distal organ histology, and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, caspase-3 and type III procollagen (PCIII) mRNA expressions in lung tissue were analyzed. With intraabdominal hypertension, (1) chest-wall static elastance increased, and PCIII, IL-1β, IL-6, and caspase-3 expressions were more pronounced than in animals with normal intraabdominal pressure in both ALI groups; (2) in extrapulmonary ALI, higher tidal volume was associated with decreased atelectasis, and lower IL-6 and caspase-3 expressions; (3) in pulmonary ALI, higher tidal volume led to higher IL-6 expression; and (4) in pulmonary ALI, liver, kidney, and villi cell apoptosis was increased, but not affected by tidal volume. Intraabdominal hypertension increased inflammation and fibrogenesis in the lung independent of ALI etiology. In extrapulmonary ALI associated with intraabdominal hypertension, higher tidal volume improved lung morphometry with lower inflammation in lung tissue. Conversely, in pulmonary ALI associated with intraabdominal hypertension, higher tidal volume increased IL-6 expression.

  8. Interventional bronchoscopy in malignant central airway obstruction by extra-pulmonary malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Beomsu; Chang, Boksoon; Kim, Hojoong; Jeong, Byeong-Ho

    2018-03-13

    Interventional bronchoscopy is considered an effective treatment option for malignant central airway obstruction (MCAO). However, there are few reports of interventional bronchoscopy in patients with MCAOs due to extra-pulmonary malignancy. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate treatment outcomes and prognostic factors for bronchoscopic intervention in patients with MCAO due to extra-pulmonary malignancy. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive 98 patients with MCAO due to extra-pulmonary malignancy who underwent interventional bronchoscopy between 2004 and 2014 at Samsung Medical Center (Seoul, Korea). The most common primary site of malignancy was esophageal cancer (37.9%), followed by thyroid cancer (16.3%) and head & neck cancer (10.2%). Bronchoscopic interventions were usually performed using a combination of mechanical debulking (84.7%), stent insertion (70.4%), and laser cauterization (37.8%). Of 98 patients, 76 (77.6%) patients had MCAO due to progression of malignancy, and 42 (42.9%) patients had exhausted all other anti-cancer treatment at the time of bronchoscopic intervention. Technical success was achieved in 89.9% of patients, and acute complications and procedure-related deaths occurred in 20.4% and 3.1% of patients, respectively. Reduced survival was associated with MCAO due to cancer other than thyroid cancer or lymphoma, mixed lesions, and not receiving adjuvant treatment after bronchoscopic intervention. Bronchoscopic intervention could be a safe and effective procedure for MCAO due to end-stage extra-pulmonary malignancies. In addition, we identified possible prognostic factors for poor survival after intervention, which could guide clinicians select candidates that will benefit from bronchoscopic intervention.

  9. Paradoxical upgrading reaction in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis: association with vitamin D therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, D.A.; Coussens, A.K.; Irvine, S.; Ritchie, N.D.; Herbert, K.; Choo-Kang, B.; Raeside, D.; Bell, D.J.; Seaton, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    SETTING: Glasgow, Scotland, UK.\\ud \\ud BACKGROUND: Paradoxical reactions in tuberculosis (TB) are a notable example of our incomplete understanding of host-pathogen interactions during anti-tuberculosis treatment.\\ud \\ud OBJECTIVES: To determine risk factors for a TB paradoxical reaction, and specifically to assess for an independent association with vitamin D use.\\ud \\ud DESIGN: Consecutive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative adult patients treated for extra-pulmonary TB were identif...

  10. EXTRAPULMONARY SEQUESTRATION WITH PULMONARY HYPOPLASIA AND MULTICYSTIC RENAL DYSPLASIA : A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary sequestration is a rare anomaly which consists of the presence of pulmonary tissue that is not attached to the rest of the lung and does not communicate with the trachea. [1] It could be intrapulmonary or extrapulmonary. We report a case of extrapulmonary sequestration with brief review of literature. A 22 years old primigravida underwent an ultrasonography at 24 weeks of gestation which revealed a single live fetus with bilateral pleural effusion, fetal hydrops and the fetal thorax showed mediastinal shift to the right. A hyperechoic mass was present in the left thoracic cavity with a systemic blood supply to it. Termination of pregnancy was advised as the findings were incompatible with life and the fetus autopsied. Significant gross findings were a hypoplastic left lung, a grey - white spongy mass adjacent to the left lung but no t attached to it and present outside the pleural cavity which derived its blood supply via a branch from the thoracic aorta and caused a shift in the mediastinal structures to the right. Both kidneys showed multiple cystic spaces. Microscopically the mass showed multiple cystically dilated alveolar spaces and ducts lined by cuboidal to tall columnar epithelium, the left lung showed features of pulmonary hypoplasia and the microscopic findings in both the kidneys were suggestive of multicystic renal dysplasi a. Hence, it was reported as a case of left sided extrapulmonary sequestration with hypoplastic left lung and bilateral renal cystic dysplasia.

  11. Medical image of the week: disseminated coccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ynosencio T

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 67-year-old African American man with no significant past medical history presented with shortness of breath and flu-like symptoms. On exam, he was noted to be profoundly hypoxemic with imaging showing diffuse thoracic changes (Figure 1 and a diffuse papular rash (Figure 2. Initial workup included coccidioidomycosis serologies which returned positive with a titer of 1:128. While exposure to coccidioidomycosis is very common in southern Arizona, dissemination is a rare occurrence. The incidence is estimated between 0.2 and 4.7 percent. Patients at highest risk include those that are immunosuppressed or that are of African or Filipino ancestry. Common extra-pulmonary sites include skin or subcutaneous tissue, meninges of brain or spinal cord, and bones. Even rarer sites include the eyes, liver, prostate, mediastinum, and kidneys. Treatment is usually the same as with pulmonary infection which is an azole agent. However, if the patient’s symptoms are severe or if the lesions involve …

  12. Dissemination Strategy Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Kjems, Jørgen; Farinetti, Laura

    This report describes the dissemination and exploitation strategy for project Virtual Campus Hub (EU FP7 contract RI-283746). The project duration is October 2011-13 and the dissemination and exploitation plan will be revised continuously during the project’s lifecycle.......This report describes the dissemination and exploitation strategy for project Virtual Campus Hub (EU FP7 contract RI-283746). The project duration is October 2011-13 and the dissemination and exploitation plan will be revised continuously during the project’s lifecycle....

  13. Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis Presenting as Carcinomatosis Peritonei and Intestinal Coccidioidomycosis in a Patient with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Umer; Cheema, Hira; Kandikatla, Ramcharitha; Ahmed, Yasir; Chakrala, Kalyan

    2017-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis (CM) is a fungal infection endemic in southwestern regions of the United States, northwestern regions of Mexico, and some areas of Brazil and Argentina. Clinical presentation varies depending on the extent of the infection and the immune status of the host. The most common presentation ranges from flu-like symptoms to self-limiting pneumonia. Extrapulmonary presentations are uncommon and may involve the meninges, skin, and bone. Gastrointestinal and peritoneal involvement is extremely rare. Here we report a case of disseminated CM presenting as carcinomatosis peritonei as an AIDS-defining illness in a young male.

  14. Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis Presenting as Carcinomatosis Peritonei and Intestinal Coccidioidomycosis in a Patient with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Malik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Coccidioidomycosis (CM is a fungal infection endemic in southwestern regions of the United States, northwestern regions of Mexico, and some areas of Brazil and Argentina. Clinical presentation varies depending on the extent of the infection and the immune status of the host. The most common presentation ranges from flu-like symptoms to self-limiting pneumonia. Extrapulmonary presentations are uncommon and may involve the meninges, skin, and bone. Gastrointestinal and peritoneal involvement is extremely rare. Here we report a case of disseminated CM presenting as carcinomatosis peritonei as an AIDS-defining illness in a young male.

  15. Imaging findings of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wenyan; Zhao Zuqi; Zhao Dawei; Jia Cuiyu; Zhang Ruichi; Liu JinXin; Guan Wanhua; Liang Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging findings of disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: X-ray and multi-slice CT (MSCT) data from 33 AIDS patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis confirmed by clinical manifestations and laboratory tests were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thirty patients underwent initial chest radiography examination, 29 patients showed abnormal appearances, including bilateral disseminations in 21 patients and unilateral multiple disseminations in 8 patients. All patients underwent MSCT examination, 26 patients showed bilateral disseminations and 7 patients showed unilateral multiple disseminations. The abnormal pulmonary appearances included nodule (n = 25), miliary nodule (n = 22), air-space consolidation (n = 22), cavity (n = 11), fibrosis (n = 7), ground-glass opacity (n = 7), pneumatocele (n = 4), calcification (n = 2). There were 20 patients with more than 3 abnormal appearances and 13 patients with one or two abnormal appearances. The extra-pulmonary tuberculosis included pleural effusion (n = 33), lymphadenopathy (n = 30), intestinal tuberculosis (n = 3), splenic tuberculosis (n = 1) and cerebral tuberculosis (n = 1). Conclusion: Disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis should be highly suspected in AIDS patients with diffused nodules, miliary nodules, air-space consolidations or multiple cavities, accompanied with pleural effusion and lymphadenopathy. (authors)

  16. Analysis of primary intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cysts a rare clinical entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ullah, M.K.; Imran, M.; Bilal, A.; Khan, M.A.; Ali, S.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anatomic location of cysts, operative characteristics of intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cyst and to determine the outcome of aggressive surgical interventions. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Thoracic Surgery Unit Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar from 1st July 2008 to 30th June 2011. Methodology: All patients admitted to Thoracic unit from July 2008 to June 2011 with intra thoracic hydatid cysts were evaluated prospectively as to age, sex, symptoms, diagnostic procedures, anatomic location of cysts, surgical procedures, complications, and outcomes. Chest radiography, computed tomography, and thoracic and abdominal ultrasonography had been performed preoperatively in all of them. Bronchoscopy and spirometry was also performed in all patients for assessment and operability. Echocardiography had been used in 2 patients to determine the contiguity of the cyst to the pericardium. Cystectomy and wide resection were the chief operative procedures. Most of the patients were having cysts in the pulmonary parenchyma only 10 patients had intrathoracic cysts in extrapulmonary locations. This group of patients was included in the study. We excluded patients who had a parenchymal cyst that had perforated to the pleura, myocardial hydatid and patients who had experienced transdiaphragmatic transmission. Results: Total of 149 patients were operated for hydatid cystectomy, out of these 139 patients had pulmonary hydatid and 10 patients had intrathoracic extrapulmonary hydatid cysts. These 10 patients constitute our study group; out of these 7 were men and 3 women whose mean age was 39.14 ± 16.8 years (range, 16-69 years). Eight (80%) of these were symptomatic, most commonly with chest pain, two patients were asymptomatic. There were 2 (20%) mediastinal hydatid, 2 (20%) diaphragmatic, 2 (20%) pericardial, 2 (20%) oblique fissure, and 1 (10%) each in chest wall and pleural hydatid in our study. Albendazole (10 mg/kg) was

  17. Dissemination and Exploitation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Monaco, Lucio; Fransson, Torsten

    of Technology in Sweden, Politecnico di Torino in Italy, and Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands. The project is partially funded by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme (project no. RI-283746). This report describes the final dissemination and exploitation strategy...... for project Virtual Campus Hub. A preliminary dissemination and exploitation plan was setup early in the project as described in the deliverable D6.1 Dissemination strategy paper - preliminary version. The plan has been revised on a monthly basis during the project’s lifecycle in connection with the virtual...

  18. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 141. Thachil J, Toh CH. Current concepts in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromb Res . 2012;129 ...

  19. Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria among Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Cases in Tertiary Care Centers in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Maurya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reports of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM associated with extrapulmonary diseases are increasing in tertiary care hospitals. Despite a significant increase in knowledge about NTM infections, they still represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of this study is to know the prevalence of NTN among extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases in tertiary care centers in Northern India. A total of 227 culture positive isolates from 756 cases were tested for niacin production and catalase assay. BIO-LINE SD Ag MPT64 TB test and final identification and differentiation between MTBC and different species of NTM were further confirmed by GenoType Mycobacterium CM/AS assay. 71 cases (9.3% were positive for AFB by ZN staining and 227 cases (30.1% were positive for mycobacteria by culture. Niacin production and catalase activity were negative in 62/227 (27.4% strains and after using a panel of different biochemicals and final confirmation by GenoType Mycobacterium CM assay. Out of 227 cultures tested, 165 (72.6% strains were confirmed as M. tuberculosis complex, and 62 (27.4% were confirmed as NTM. The most common NTM species identified were M. fortuitum 17 (27.5% and M. intracellulare 13 (20.9%. The rapid identification of NTM species may help in targeted therapy and management of the diseases.

  20. Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration 
in the Diagnosis of Intrathoracic Metastasis from Extrapulmonary Malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayuan SUN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Endobronchial ultrasound guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA has been widely applied in diagnosing mediastinal and hilar adenopathy. This study is further to evaluate value and safety of EBUS-TBNA in diagnosing intrathoracic metastasis from extrapulmonary malignancy. Methods Prospectively analysis of 41 patients suspected intrathoracic metastasis from previous diagnosed/concurrent extrapulmonary malignancies in Shanghai Chest Hospital, with radiologic findings showing mediastinal/hilar lymph node enlargement or intrapulmonary lesion requiring EBUS-TBNA examination for pathological diagnosis. Results 41 candidate patients enrolled, and 67 mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes and 5 intrapulmonary lesions were aspirated. 14 intrathoracic metastasis, 10 primary lung cancer, 9 reactive lymphadenitis, 4 sarcoid-like reactions, and 1 tuberculosis was diagnosed by EBUS-TBNA. Sensitivity and accuracy of EBUS-TBNA in diagnosing intrathoracic metastasis was 87.50% and 95.12%, respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC was performed in 18 malignant tumors to obtain definite type or origin, twelve intrathoracic metastasis and 6 primary lung cancer were further confirmed. Conclusion EBUS-TBNA is a safe, effective method for the diagnosis of intrathoracic metastasis from extrapulmonary malignancy. IHC can provide additional evidence for distinguishing extrapulmonary malignancy from primary lung cancer.

  1. 'Remote FASH' tele-sonography - a novel tool to assist diagnosing HIV-associated extrapulmonary tuberculosis in remote areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.; Grobusch, M. P.; Heller, T.

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is complex, especially in HIV positive patients. Ultrasound can aid diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB (EPTB), but experienced sonographers are often not available in endemic settings. We describe a novel tool to aid diagnosis of EPTB using telemedicine and a previously

  2. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shurong; Hersh, Andrew M; Naughton, Greg; Mullins, Kevin; Fung, Maxwell A; Sharon, Victoria R

    2013-11-15

    The dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii commonly causes localized cutaneous disease with lymphocutaneous distribution. However, disseminated sporotrichosis occurs predominantly in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in a patient with newly diagnosed HIV with a CD4 count of 208. The patient presented with multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules as well as fever and malaise. Tissue culture and skin biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of sporotrichosis. He was started on itraconazole 200mg twice a day with rapid resolution of fever along with cessation of the development of new lesions.

  3. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome

    OpenAIRE

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar; Ellabaan, Mostafa M Hashim; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the contribution of the dominant members of the WWTP resistome to resistance in human pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of...

  4. Clinical Study of Extrapulmonary Head and Neck Tuberculosis: A Single-Institute 10-year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oishi, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Although the incidence of tuberculosis (TB in Japan has been decreasing yearly, Japan remains ranked as an intermediate-burden country for TB. Objective This study aims to investigate the current situation of head and neck extrapulmonary TB (EPTB diagnosed in our department. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 47 patients diagnosed with EPTB in the head and neck in our department between January 2005 and December 2014. The extracted data included sex and age distribution, development site, chief complaint, presence or absence of concomitant active pulmonary TB (PTB or history of TB, tuberculin skin test (TST results, interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA results, and duration from the first visit to the final diagnosis of EPTB. Results The subjects consisted of 20 men and 27 women, and age ranged from 6 to 84 years. The most common site was the cervical lymph nodes (30 patients, with the supraclavicular nodes being the most commonly affected (60%. Histopathological examination was performed on 28 patients. TST was positive in 9 out of 9 patients and the IGRA was positive in 18 out of 19 patients. We observed concomitant PTB in 15 out of the 47 patients. Mean duration from the first visit to the final diagnosis of EPTB was 56 days. Conclusion The clinical symptoms of TB, especially those in the head and neck region, are varied. Otolaryngologists should be especially aware of the extrapulmonary manifestations of TB to ensure early diagnosis and treatment from the public health viewpoint.

  5. Gossip-Based Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Roy; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Miranda, Hugo; Rodrigues, Luís

    Gossip-based networking has emerged as a viable approach to disseminate information reliably and efficiently in large-scale systems. Initially introduced for database replication [222], the applicability of the approach extends much further now. For example, it has been applied for data aggregation [415], peer sampling [416] and publish/subscribe systems [845]. Gossip-based protocols rely on a periodic peer-wise exchange of information in wired systems. By changing the way each peer is selected for the gossip communication, and which data are exchanged and processed [451], gossip systems can be used to perform different distributed tasks, such as, among others: overlay maintenance, distributed computation, and information dissemination (a collection of papers on gossip can be found in [451]). In a wired setting, the peer sampling service, allowing for a random or specific peer selection, is often provided as an independent service, able to operate independently from other gossip-based services [416].

  6. Acute disseminated cutaneous candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, P H; Chan, H L; Lee, Y S; Wong, H B

    1988-10-01

    Acute disseminated candidiasis is a serious and difficult problem often seen in immunocompromised states. Appearance of a characteristic skin eruption is helpful in the diagnostic. We report below a case report of an eight year old girl with aplastic anemia who had received multiple courses of antibiotics. A profuse monomorphic papular nodular eruption subsequently appeared on the face, palms and soles. Candida tropicalis was identified from the skin biopsy taken from one such lesion.

  7. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Shigella flexneri Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agaisse, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular pathogen Shigella flexneri is the causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans. The disease is characterized by bacterial invasion of intestinal cells, dissemination within the colonic epithelium through direct spread from cell to cell, and massive inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Here, we review the mechanisms supporting S. flexneri dissemination. The dissemination process primarily relies on actin assembly at the bacterial pole, which propels the pathogen throughout the cytosol of primary infected cells. Polar actin assembly is supported by polar expression of the bacterial autotransporter family member IcsA, which recruits the N-WASP/ARP2/3 actin assembly machinery. As motile bacteria encounter cell-cell contacts, they form plasma membrane protrusions that project into adjacent cells. In addition to the ARP2/3-dependent actin assembly machinery, protrusion formation relies on formins and myosins. The resolution of protrusions into vacuoles occurs through the collapse of the protrusion neck, leading to the formation of an intermediate membrane-bound compartment termed vacuole-like protrusions (VLPs). VLP formation requires tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide signaling in protrusions, which relies on the integrity of the bacterial type 3 secretion system (T3SS). The T3SS is also required for escaping double membrane vacuoles through the activity of the T3SS translocases IpaB and IpaC, and the effector proteins VirA and IcsB. Numerous factors supporting envelope biogenesis contribute to IcsA exposure and maintenance at the bacterial pole, including LPS synthesis, membrane proteases, and periplasmic chaperones. Although less characterized, the assembly and function of the T3SS in the context of bacterial dissemination also relies on factors supporting envelope biogenesis. Finally, the dissemination process requires the adaptation of the pathogen to various cellular compartments through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms.

  8. Molecular and Cellular mechanisms of Shigella flexneri dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herve eAgaisse

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The intracellular pathogen Shigella flexneri is the causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans. The disease is characterized by bacterial invasion of intestinal cells, dissemination within the colonic epithelium through direct spread from cell to cell, and massive inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Here, we review the mechanisms supporting S. flexneri dissemination. The dissemination process primarily relies on actin assembly at the bacterial pole, which propels the pathogen throughout the cytosol of primary infected cells. Polar actin assembly is supported by polar expression of the bacterial autotransporter family member IcsA, which recruits the N-WASP/ARP2/3 actin assembly machinery. As motile bacteria encounter cell-cell contacts, they form plasma membrane protrusions that project into adjacent cells. In addition to the ARP2/3-dependent actin assembly machinery, protrusion formation relies on formins and myosins. The resolution of protrusions into vacuoles occurs through the collapse of the protrusion neck, leading to the formation of an intermediate membrane-bound compartment termed vacuole-like protrusions (VLPs. VLP formation requires tyrosine kinase and phosphoinositide signaling in protrusions, which relies on the integrity of the bacterial type 3 secretion system (T3SS. The T3SS is also required for escaping double membrane vacuoles through the activity of the T3SS translocases IpaB and IpaC, and the effector proteins VirA and IcsB. Numerous factors supporting envelope biogenesis contribute to IcsA exposure and maintenance at the bacterial pole, including LPS synthesis, membrane proteases, and periplasmic chaperones. Although less characterized, the assembly and function of the T3SS in the context of bacterial dissemination also relies on factors supporting envelope biogenesis. Finally, the dissemination process requires the adaptation of the pathogen to various cellular compartments through transcriptional and post

  9. Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma series in a single-institution experience. With a case report of small cell carcinoma in the hypopharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monobe, Hiroko; Kagoya, Ryoji; Tojima, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    Extrapulmonary small-cell carcinoma (EPSCC) is clinically underrecognized and optimal management remains illusive. Although head and neck EPSCC tends to involve early widespread dissemination and poor prognosis, recently reported favorable outcomes have used concurrent chemoradiotherapy in limited-stage disease. We report an EPSCC case of arising in the hypopharynx successfully treated by induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiotherapy. To clarify EPSCC clinically, we retrospectively reviewed clinical courses of all EPSCC records between 1999 and 2008 in a single-institution series. The 14 subjects identified had primary sites at the gastrointestinal tract in 5, uterine cervix in 3, genitourinary system in 2 and at the gallbladder, liver, hypopharynx, and an unidentified primary lymph node in one case each. Of the 14, 2 cases had stage I, 2 cases had stage II, 4 cases had stage III, 5 cases had stage IV in tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification. Stage IV subjects usually underwent platinum-based chemotherapy, to which 25% showed partial response (PR) and 75% progressive disease (PD) with median overall survival (OS) of 114.0 days, or 16 weeks. Of stage III or lower subjects, 75% underwent surgery and 62.5% chemotherapy. OS was 1244.0 days or 3.7 years and 2-year survival rates was estimated at 87.5%. Survival duration differed significantly between those in stage III or lower and those in group IV. Age significantly affected survival time in the Cox proportional hazard regression model. Brain metastasis was uncommon in this series, despite the absence of prophylactic cranial radiation. Further studies are needed to improve and clarify the clinical EPSCC course. (author)

  10. Prevalence and species spectrum of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria isolates at a tertiary care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Umrao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective/background: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM infection associated with pulmonary and extrapulmonary disease has been increasing globally. Despite an increase in incidence rate of NTM infection, its prevalence, species diversity, and circulation pattern in India is largely unknown. This study sought to investigate the overall burden and diversity of NTM among both pulmonary and extrapulmonary clinical isolates from a Northern Indian population. Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology, from January 2013 to December 2015. A total of 4620 clinical samples were collected from patients suspected to have pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Preliminary diagnosis was performed using Ziehl–Neelsen staining followed by liquid culture in BacT/ALERT three-dimensional system. A total of 906 positive cultures obtained were differentiated as either NTM or Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex using a biochemical and MPT64 antigen test. Further identification of NTM species was confirmed with a line probe assay. Results: Out of 906 cultures isolates, 263 (29.0% were confirmed as NTM and 643 (71.0% were identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. A total of 79.4% of the NTM were recovered from pulmonary and 18.2% from extrapulmonary specimens. The diversity of NTM species was high (13 species and predominated by Mycobacterium abscessus (31.3% followed by Mycobacterium fortuitum (22%, Mycobacterium intracellulare (13.6%, Mycobacterium chelonae (9.1%, however, M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were the predominant species in both types of clinical isolates. Men (60.4% and older patients aged greater than 55 years were the predominated risk group for NTM infection. Conclusion: The high prevalence and species diversity of NTM suggests the need for immediate and accurate characterization of NTM for proper treatment and management of patients.

  11. Indonesia knowledge dissemination: a snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-03-01

    The educational progress of a country or educational institution is measured through the implementation of knowledge dissemination. Evidence of knowledge dissemination has carried out be in form of the type of published document, which is based on the databases of the index of scientific publications: Scopus. This paper expresses a simple form of knowledge dissemination based on document type. Although the growth of knowledge dissemination does not have the same pattern based on the appearance of document types, the general implementation is almost the same. However, maximum effort needs to be done by PTN-bh to support Indonesia knowledge dissemination.

  12. rpoB gene mutations among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from extrapulmonary sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Azar Dokht; Meghdadi, Hossein; Ghadiri, Ata A; Alami, Ameneh; Sina, Amir Hossein; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze mutations occurring in the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from clinical samples of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB). Seventy formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples and fresh tissue samples from confirmed EPTB cases were analyzed. Nested PCR based on the rpoB gene was performed on the extracted DNAs, combined with cloning and subsequent sequencing. Sixty-seven (95.7%) samples were positive for nester PCR. Sequence analysis of the 81 bp region of the rpoB gene demonstrated mutations in 41 (61.2%) of 67 sequenced samples. Several point mutations including deletion mutations at codons 510, 512, 513 and 515, with 45% and 51% of the mutations in codons 512 and 513 respectively were seen, along with 26% replacement mutations at codons 509, 513, 514, 518, 520, 524 and 531. The most common alteration was Gln → His, at codon 513, presented in 30 (75.6%) isolates. This study demonstrated sequence alterations in codon 513 of the 81 bp region of the rpoB gene as the most common mutation occurred in 75.6% of molecularly confirmed rifampin-resistant strains. In addition, simultaneous mutation at codons 512 and 513 was demonstrated in 34.3% of the isolates. © 2018 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis in lady reading hospital peshawar, NWFP, pakistan: survey of biopsy results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, A.U.; Kamal, A.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a disease of poor countries. In the recent years, there has been an increase in the occurrence of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) world over. As very little data is available regarding the situation of EPTB in NWFP, this study was conducted to asses its frequency in various organ systems of the body and to evaluate the role of demographic factors like sex and age in its causation. A total of 525 cases of EPTB diagnosed histopathologically in the Department of Pathology, Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar in the years 2002-2005 were included in the study. Age, sex and sites of biopsies were recorded. High female preponderance was noted with a M:F ratio of 1:2. Mean age was 35 years and 70% of the patients were in the age group 15-45 years. Lymph nodes were the most common site of EPTB, involved in 66.4% of the cases. EPTB has high rates in females in their reproductive age. Tuberculous lymphadenitis is the most common form of EPTB. High occurrence of EPTB in female population needs immediate attention of tuberculosis control programs. (author)

  14. Single vial preparation of 99mtc ciprofloxacin for the detection of extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, Vikas; Singh, B.; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, B.R.; Nidhi; Singh, A.K.; Aggarwal, A.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Aim: To ascertain the usefulness of single vial formulation of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin (Diagnobact) in detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Introductions: Tuberculosis is one of the major health concerns not only in developing countries but also in the developed nations. Imaging with radiolabelled broad-spectrum antibiotic, being more specific for infection, has the advantage over other nuclear medicine techniques. We are using Diagnobact to detect sites of infection. Methods: 12 patients (age-23 ±11 years, M:F-8:4) of tuberculosis, confirmed by culture/PCR underwent Diagnobact scan. Scanning was done at 1 hour, 4 hour and 24 hours after intravenous injection of 15 mCi of Diagnobact. Rising lesion to background ratio was taken as the criteria for labeling a Diagnobact scan to be positive.Results: Of the 12 patients, two had tibial tuberculous osteomyelitis (TBOM), two vertebral TBOM, one elbow TBOM, four hip joint TBOM, two shaft of femur TBOM and one patient had soft tissue tuberculosis of gluteal region. Diagnobact scan was positive in 10 patients while two patients with vertebral TBOM were negative. Conclusion: Diagnobact, like Infecton, is also useful for the detection of extra pulmonary tuberculosis but for vertebral TBOM. However, more patients need to be studied to reach at statistically significant conclusion. (author)

  15. Clinical and epidemiological features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a high incidence region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pérez-Guzmán

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the clinical features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EXPTB and to evaluate epidemiological data to search for potential explanations for its high frequency in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico. Materials and methods. Clinical records of all patients with tuberculosis seen in Aguascalientes in 2008 were reviewed, and official databases were analyzed. Results. EXPTB comprised 60.5% of the 86 cases evaluated, being lymph nodes the main site affected. Patients with EXPTB were younger and more obese than subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB. One third of cases in either group had diabetes, a frequency much higher than expected. Epidemiological analysis showed that PTB incidence, but not EXPTB incidence, decreases as geographical altitude increases, and had a descendent trend from 1997 to 2011. Conclusions. The lower frequency of PTB (due to its inverse relationship with altitude and its descendent trend in last years might explain the high frequency of EXPTB. Obesity appeared to protect against developing pulmonary involvement, and diabetes was more frequent than expected among PTB and EXPTB cases.

  16. Clinical and epidemiological features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a high incidence region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Guzmán, Carlos; Vargas, Mario H; Arellano-Macías, María del Rosario; Hernández-Cobos, Silvia; García-Ituarte, Aurea Zelindabeth; Serna-Vela, Francisco Javier

    2014-04-01

    To describe the clinical features of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EXPTB) and to evaluate epidemiological data to search for potential explanations for its high frequency in the state of Aguascalientes, Mexico. Clinical records of all patients with tuberculosis seen in Aguascalientes in 2008 were reviewed, and official databases were analyzed. EXPTB comprised 60.5% of the 86 cases evaluated, being lymph nodes the main site affected. Patients with EXPTB were younger and more obese than subjects with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). One third of cases in either group had diabetes, a frequency much higher than expected. Epidemiological analysis showed that PTB incidence, but not EXPTB incidence, decreases as geographical altitude increases, and had a descendent trend from 1997 to 2011. The lower frequency of PTB (due to its inverse relationship with altitude and its descendent trend in last years) might explain the high frequency of EXPTB. Obesity appeared to protect against developing pulmonary involvement, and diabetes was more frequent than expected among PTB and EXPTB cases.

  17. Cardiac tamponade as a manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in β thalassemia major patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, S.; Pramudita, A.; Lusiani

    2018-03-01

    Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency condition. Rapid diagnosis and determination of the etiology with epidemiologic consideration may lead to earlier treatment and improved survival. Occasionally, the etiology may be clearly related to a recognized underlying disease, but the possibility of unrelated etiologies should be considered. Pericarditis tuberculosis, a rare manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a non-HIV patient, has to be deliberate as one of the etiology, especially in the endemic area. Here, we report a case of 28 years old male with β thalassemia major presented with excessive exertion breathlessness progressing to orthopnea. Sign of cardiac tamponade was identified from echocardiography which showed large pericardial effusion with swinging heart and right atrial systolic collapse. Pericardiocentesis was performed immediately, drained 870 ml of hemorrhagic fluid from inserted pigtail. The patient was treated with the anti-tuberculosis regimen and oral corticosteroid after real-time polymerase chain reaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis positivity in pericardial fluid. MRI T2 confirmed no haemosiderosis in patient’s heart. After treatment, the patient responded well and showed clinical improvement.

  18. Interferon-gamma response to the treatment of active pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, L; Shi, R; Liu, X; Yuan, X; Zheng, S; Zhang, G; Wang, W; Wang, J; England, K; Via, L E; Cai, Y; Goldfeder, L C; Dodd, L E; Barry, C E; Chen, R Y

    2017-10-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs) are used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) but not to measure treatment response. To measure IFN-γ response to active anti-tuberculosis treatment. Patients from the Henan Provincial Chest Hospital, Henan, China, with TB symptoms and/or signs were enrolled into this prospective, observational cohort study and followed for 6 months of treatment, with blood and sputum samples collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 16 and 24 weeks. The QuantiFERON® TB-Gold assay was run on collected blood samples. Participants received a follow-up telephone call at 24 months to determine relapse status. Of the 152 TB patients enrolled, 135 were eligible for this analysis: 118 pulmonary (PTB) and 17 extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) patients. IFN-γ levels declined significantly over time among all patients (P = 0.002), with this decline driven by PTB patients (P = 0.001), largely during the initial 8 weeks of treatment (P = 0.019). IFN-γ levels did not change among EPTB patients over time or against baseline culture or drug resistance status. After 6 months of effective anti-tuberculosis treatment, IFN-γ levels decreased significantly in PTB patients, largely over the initial 8 weeks of treatment. IFN-γ concentrations may offer some value for monitoring anti-tuberculosis treatment response among PTB patients.

  19. Delusions of Disseminated Fungosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Gassiep

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Delusional infestation is a rare monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis according to The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013. It can be a primary disorder or associated with an underlying psychological or physical disorder. It commonly presents as delusional parasitosis, and less than 1% may be fungi related. We present this case as it is a rare presentation of a rare condition. Case Presentation. Our patient is a 60-year-old Caucasian man who presented with a 7-year history of delusional infestation manifested as a disseminated fungal infection. He had previously been reviewed by multiple physicians for the same with no systemic illness diagnosed. After multiple reviews and thorough investigation we diagnosed him with a likely delusional disorder. As is common with this patient cohort he refused psychiatric review or antipsychotic medication. Conclusion. A delusion of a disseminated fungal infestation is a rare condition. It is exceedingly difficult to treat as these patients often refuse to believe the investigation results and diagnosis. Furthermore, they either refuse or are noncompliant with treatment. Multidisciplinary outpatient evaluation may be the best way to allay patient fears and improve treatment compliance.

  20. AIDS defining disease: Disseminated cryptococcosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Anupama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated cryptococcosis is one of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining criteria and the most common cause of life threatening meningitis. Disseminated lesions in the skin manifest as papules or nodules that mimic molluscum contagiosum (MC. We report here a human immunodeficiency virus positive patient who presented with MC like lesions. Disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed by India ink preparation and histopathology. The condition of the patient improved with amphotercin B.

  1. DISSEMINATED HISTOPLASMOSIS DIAGNOSED ON BONE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-02

    Dec 2, 2009 ... Histoplasmosis, caused by two varieties of dimorphic fungi, Histoplasma ... from asymptomatic primary infection to disseminated disease in immunocompromised .... Addison's disease) tongue, gingivae, buccal mucosa,.

  2. Segmentation of Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis Infection Using Modified Automatic Seeded Region Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordin Abdul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the image segmentation process of positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT imaging, previous works used information in CT only for segmenting the image without utilizing the information that can be provided by PET. This paper proposes to utilize the hot spot values in PET to guide the segmentation in CT, in automatic image segmentation using seeded region growing (SRG technique. This automatic segmentation routine can be used as part of automatic diagnostic tools. In addition to the original initial seed selection using hot spot values in PET, this paper also introduces a new SRG growing criterion, the sliding windows. Fourteen images of patients having extrapulmonary tuberculosis have been examined using the above-mentioned method. To evaluate the performance of the modified SRG, three fidelity criteria are measured: percentage of under-segmentation area, percentage of over-segmentation area, and average time consumption. In terms of the under-segmentation percentage, SRG with average of the region growing criterion shows the least error percentage (51.85%. Meanwhile, SRG with local averaging and variance yielded the best results (2.67% for the over-segmentation percentage. In terms of the time complexity, the modified SRG with local averaging and variance growing criterion shows the best performance with 5.273 s average execution time. The results indicate that the proposed methods yield fairly good performance in terms of the over- and under-segmentation area. The results also demonstrated that the hot spot values in PET can be used to guide the automatic segmentation in CT image.

  3. Extrapulmonary features of bronchiectasis: muscle function, exercise capacity, fatigue, and health status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozalp Ozge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited number of studies investigating extrapulmonary manifestations of bronchiectasis. The purpose of this study was to compare peripheral muscle function, exercise capacity, fatigue, and health status between patients with bronchiectasis and healthy subjects in order to provide documented differences in these characteristics for individuals with and without bronchiectasis. Methods Twenty patients with bronchiectasis (43.5 ± 14.1 years and 20 healthy subjects (43.0 ± 10.9 years participated in the study. Pulmonary function, respiratory muscle strength (maximal expiratory pressure – MIP - and maximal expiratory pressure - MEP, and dyspnea perception using the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (MMRC were determined. A six-minute walk test (6MWT was performed. Quadriceps muscle, shoulder abductor, and hand grip strength (QMS, SAS, and HGS, respectively using a hand held dynamometer and peripheral muscle endurance by a squat test were measured. Fatigue perception and health status were determined using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS and the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ, respectively. Results Number of squats, 6MWT distance, and LCQ scores as well as lung function testing values and respiratory muscle strength were significantly lower and MMRC and FSS scores were significantly higher in patients with bronchiectasis than those of healthy subjects (p p p p p  Conclusions Peripheral muscle endurance, exercise capacity, fatigue and health status were adversely affected by the presence of bronchiectasis. Fatigue was associated with dyspnea and health status. Respiratory muscle strength was related to peripheral muscle strength and health status, but not to fatigue, peripheral muscle endurance or exercise capacity. These findings may provide insight for outcome measures for pulmonary rehabilitation programs for patients with bronchiectasis.

  4. Lung deposition and extrapulmonary translocation of nano-ceria after intratracheal instillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiao; Zhang Haifeng; Ma Yuhui; Bai Wei; Zhang Zhiyong; Ding Yayun; Zhao Yuliang; Chai Zhifang; Lu Kai

    2010-01-01

    The broad potential applications of manufactured nanomaterials call for urgent assessment of their environmental and biological safety. However, most of the previous work focused on the cell level performance; little was known about the consequences of nanomaterial exposure at the whole-body and organ levels. In the present paper, the radiotracer technique was employed to study the pulmonary deposition and the translocation to secondary target organs after ceria nanoparticles (nano-ceria) were intratracheally instilled into Wistar rats. It was found that 63.9 ± 8.2% of the instilled nano-ceria remained in the lung by 28 d postexposure and the elimination half-life was 103 d. At the end of the test period, only 1/8-1/3 of the daily elimination of nano-ceria from the lung was cleared via the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages (AMs) with subsequent removal towards the larynx was no longer the predominant route for the elimination of nano-ceria from the lung. The whole-body redistribution of nano-ceria demonstrated that the deposited nano-ceria could penetrate through the alveolar wall into the systemic circulation and accumulate in the extrapulmonary organs. In vitro study suggested that nano-ceria would agglomerate and form sediments in the bronchoalveolar aqueous surrounding while binding to protein would be conducive to the redispersion of nano-ceria. The decrease in the size of agglomerates might enhance the penetration of nano-ceria into the systemic circulation. Our findings suggested that the effect of nanomaterial exposure, even at low concentration, should be assessed because of the potential lung and systemic cumulative toxicity of the nanomaterials.

  5. Growth of extrapulmonary tumours after inhalation of small doses of plutonium oxide by rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolibe, D.; Masse, R.; L'Hullier, I.; Metivier, H.; Lafuma, J.

    1983-01-01

    After inhalation of plutonium oxide ( 239 PuO 2 ) involving initial lung burdens ranging from 74 to 103 Bq, male rats of the Wistar strain are kept in conditions allowing maximum survival; tumour incidences for the target organ (lung) and for the rest of the organs are calculated separately after the death of the animals. In the outbred Wistar rat the incidence of lung tumours is 18.5% for an initial lung burden of 74 Bq. The mean survival time of animals having such tumours is 973 days after inhalation. For an initial burden of 103 Bq syngenetic Wistar AG rats show a lower frequency of lung tumours (6.1%), but also a much reduced mean survival time, namely 757 days. Compared with the frequencies observed in the corresponding control groups, the frequency of non-pulmonary tumours is twice as high (12%) in consanguineous rats and six times as high (25.9%) in conventional rats. A supralinear dose-effect relationship at very low doses seems improbable in view of the dose delivered ( -3 Gy in the most exposed organs, such as the liver) and, in particular, because there is no correlation between the dose delivered to the organs and the location of the tumours. The exposed animals show, on the one hand, no specificity of organs for the surplus extrapulmonary tumours observed, and on the other, an inhibition by about 45% in the natural cytotoxic activity (natural killers) measured one year after inhalation. These observations suggest the hypothesis that an anti-tumour control mechanism is affected, perhaps as a result of the irradiation experienced during the circulation of blood cells in the lung capillaries. The failure of this system would in that case allow the expression of neoplastic characters as ageing progresses. A non-specific BCG immunotherapy does not restore this anti-tumour control system. (author)

  6. Changes of intrathoracic extrapulmonary organs after radiation therapy for lung and esophageal cancer:CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyeong Seop; Kim, Sung Jin; Park, Woo Yoon; Hun, Bae Il; Han, Gi Seok; Cha, Sang Hun; Park, Kil Sun

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the CT findings and incidence of complications occurring in intrathoracic extrapulmonary organs due to radiation therapy. Among 82 patients who underwent chest CT before and after radiation therapy, 23, in whom the procedure provided no evidence of pericardial invasion or pleural effusion before radiation therapy, nor of significant improvement in the tumor after this therapy, were evaulated. Changes in the pericardium, pleura and mediastinal fat were retrospectively assessed. In comparing the CT findings obtained before radiation therapy with those obtained afterwards, changes in the pericardium and pleura were classified as effusion where low density fluid was present and as thickening where there was no fluid. If an increased abundance of soft tissue strands was seen within mediastinal fat, changes in this fat were deemed to have occurred. Among the 23 patients evaluated, changes in the pericardium [thickening (n=3 ; 13.0%) ; effusion (n=8 ; 34.8%)] were found in 11 patients (47.8%), and changes in the pleura [thickening (n=3 ; 13.1%); effusion (n=9 ; 39.1%)] in 12 (52.2%). In no patient with pericardial or pleural effusion was thickening or contrast enhancement of the pericardium or pleura evident. In seven cases(30.4%), soft tissue strands within mediastinal fat had become more abundant. The CT findings which demonstrated complications resulting from radiation therapy were pericardial or pleural thickening or effusion and an increased abundance of soft tissue strands within mediastinal fat. In contrast to previous reports, pericardial and pleural change after radiation therapy was a common finding in our study, occurring in 69.6% of cases

  7. Dissemination of a highly virulent pathogen: tracking the early events that define infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo J Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The series of events that occurs immediately after pathogen entrance into the body is largely speculative. Key aspects of these events are pathogen dissemination and pathogen interactions with the immune response as the invader moves into deeper tissues. We sought to define major events that occur early during infection of a highly virulent pathogen. To this end, we tracked early dissemination of Yersinia pestis, a highly pathogenic bacterium that causes bubonic plague in mammals. Specifically, we addressed two fundamental questions: (1 do the bacteria encounter barriers in disseminating to draining lymph nodes (LN, and (2 what mechanism does this nonmotile bacterium use to reach the LN compartment, as the prevailing model predicts trafficking in association with host cells. Infection was followed through microscopy imaging in addition to assessing bacterial population dynamics during dissemination from the skin. We found and characterized an unexpected bottleneck that severely restricts bacterial dissemination to LNs. The bacteria that do not pass through this bottleneck are confined to the skin, where large numbers of neutrophils arrive and efficiently control bacterial proliferation. Notably, bottleneck formation is route dependent, as it is abrogated after subcutaneous inoculation. Using a combination of approaches, including microscopy imaging, we tested the prevailing model of bacterial dissemination from the skin into LNs and found no evidence of involvement of migrating phagocytes in dissemination. Thus, early stages of infection are defined by a bottleneck that restricts bacterial dissemination and by neutrophil-dependent control of bacterial proliferation in the skin. Furthermore, and as opposed to current models, our data indicate an intracellular stage is not required by Y. pestis to disseminate from the skin to draining LNs. Because our findings address events that occur during early encounters of pathogen with the immune response

  8. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar; Ellabaan, Mostafa; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Sommer, Morten O A

    2015-09-30

    Horizontal gene transfer is a major contributor to the evolution of bacterial genomes and can facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes between environmental reservoirs and potential pathogens. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are believed to play a central role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the contribution of the dominant members of the WWTP resistome to resistance in human pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of metagenomic functional selections and comprehensive metagenomic sequencing to uncover the dominant genes of the WWTP resistome. We find that this core resistome is unique to the WWTP environment, with resistome is comparable to that of the soil resistome.

  9. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Hareaki; Shiga, Yusei; Ichikawa, Nobumichi.

    1988-01-01

    A previously healthy 39-year-old woman suddenly became stuporous following a slight upper respiratory infection. She went into a coma within a few hours. On admission to our hospital, adenine arabinoside was administered upon the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis, but it had no apparent effect. The patient showed moderate leukocytosis, but no other abnormal laboratory data. Serological examinations for virus titer were all negative. A CT scan on the 9th day showed a diffuse low-density area extending into the cerebral and cerebellar white matter, but no contrast-enhancement effect or midline shift was observed. She has since remained in a coma, and repeated CT scans have revealed marked ventricular dilatation. The clinical course, laboratory data, and CT findings suggest acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, but acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis cannot exactly be ruled out. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a widespread white-matter lesion, while positron-emission CT demonstrated a dysfunction in both the white and gray matter. (author)

  10. Battlefield Awareness and Data Dissemination Intelligent Information Dissemination Server

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schlossberg, Jon

    1999-01-01

    This report describe the research performed to design and develop software tools to facilitate the dissemination of battlefield data based on the Warfighter's needs and the ever changing world environment...

  11. Polymorphisms of SP110 are associated with both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis among the Vietnamese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Gregory J; Sy, Dinh Ngoc; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Yu, Bing; Ellis, Magda K; Van Hung, Nguyen; Cuong, Nguyen Kim; Thi Lien, Luu; Marks, Guy B; Saunders, Bernadette M; Britton, Warwick J

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet the reasons why only 10% of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis go on to develop clinical disease are poorly understood. Genetically determined variation in the host immune response is one factor influencing the response to M. tuberculosis. SP110 is an interferon-responsive nuclear body protein with critical roles in cell cycling, apoptosis and immunity to infection. However association studies of the gene with clinical TB in different populations have produced conflicting results. To examine the importance of the SP110 gene in immunity to TB in the Vietnamese we conducted a case-control genetic association study of 24 SP110 variants, in 663 patients with microbiologically proven TB and 566 unaffected control subjects from three tertiary hospitals in northern Vietnam. Five SNPs within SP110 were associated with all forms of TB, including four SNPs at the C terminus (rs10208770, rs10498244, rs16826860, rs11678451) under a dominant model and one SNP under a recessive model, rs7601176. Two of these SNPs were associated with pulmonary TB (rs10208770 and rs16826860) and one with extra-pulmonary TB (rs10498244). SP110 variants were associated with increased susceptibility to both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in the Vietnamese. Genetic variants in SP110 may influence macrophage signaling responses and apoptosis during M. tuberculosis infection, however further research is required to establish the mechanism by which SP110 influences immunity to tuberculosis infection.

  12. Herpes zoster (shingles) disseminated (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  13. Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminating genetically modified (GM) maize technology to smallholder farmers in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: extension personnel's awareness of stewardship requirements and dissemination practices.

  14. Commercial serological tests for the diagnosis of active pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen R Steingart

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serological (antibody detection tests for tuberculosis (TB are widely used in developing countries. As part of a World Health Organization policy process, we performed an updated systematic review to assess the diagnostic accuracy of commercial serological tests for pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB with a focus on the relevance of these tests in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used methods recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration and GRADE approach for rating quality of evidence. In a previous review, we searched multiple databases for papers published from 1 January 1990 to 30 May 2006, and in this update, we add additional papers published from that period until 29 June 2010. We prespecified subgroups to address heterogeneity and summarized test performance using bivariate random effects meta-analysis. For pulmonary TB, we included 67 studies (48% from low- and middle-income countries with 5,147 participants. For all tests, estimates were variable for sensitivity (0% to 100% and specificity (31% to 100%. For anda-TB IgG, the only test with enough studies for meta-analysis, pooled sensitivity was 76% (95% CI 63%-87% in smear-positive (seven studies and 59% (95% CI 10%-96% in smear-negative (four studies patients; pooled specificities were 92% (95% CI 74%-98% and 91% (95% CI 79%-96%, respectively. Compared with ELISA (pooled sensitivity 60% [95% CI 6%-65%]; pooled specificity 98% [95% CI 96%-99%], immunochromatographic tests yielded lower pooled sensitivity (53%, 95% CI 42%-64% and comparable pooled specificity (98%, 95% CI 94%-99%. For extrapulmonary TB, we included 25 studies (40% from low- and middle-income countries with 1,809 participants. For all tests, estimates were variable for sensitivity (0% to 100% and specificity (59% to 100%. Overall, quality of evidence was graded very low for studies of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite expansion of the literature since 2006, commercial

  15. Commercial Serological Tests for the Diagnosis of Active Pulmonary and Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingart, Karen R.; Flores, Laura L.; Dendukuri, Nandini; Schiller, Ian; Laal, Suman; Ramsay, Andrew; Hopewell, Philip C.; Pai, Madhukar

    2011-01-01

    Background Serological (antibody detection) tests for tuberculosis (TB) are widely used in developing countries. As part of a World Health Organization policy process, we performed an updated systematic review to assess the diagnostic accuracy of commercial serological tests for pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB with a focus on the relevance of these tests in low- and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings We used methods recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration and GRADE approach for rating quality of evidence. In a previous review, we searched multiple databases for papers published from 1 January 1990 to 30 May 2006, and in this update, we add additional papers published from that period until 29 June 2010. We prespecified subgroups to address heterogeneity and summarized test performance using bivariate random effects meta-analysis. For pulmonary TB, we included 67 studies (48% from low- and middle-income countries) with 5,147 participants. For all tests, estimates were variable for sensitivity (0% to 100%) and specificity (31% to 100%). For anda-TB IgG, the only test with enough studies for meta-analysis, pooled sensitivity was 76% (95% CI 63%–87%) in smear-positive (seven studies) and 59% (95% CI 10%–96%) in smear-negative (four studies) patients; pooled specificities were 92% (95% CI 74%–98%) and 91% (95% CI 79%–96%), respectively. Compared with ELISA (pooled sensitivity 60% [95% CI 6%–65%]; pooled specificity 98% [95% CI 96%–99%]), immunochromatographic tests yielded lower pooled sensitivity (53%, 95% CI 42%–64%) and comparable pooled specificity (98%, 95% CI 94%–99%). For extrapulmonary TB, we included 25 studies (40% from low- and middle-income countries) with 1,809 participants. For all tests, estimates were variable for sensitivity (0% to 100%) and specificity (59% to 100%). Overall, quality of evidence was graded very low for studies of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB. Conclusions Despite expansion of the literature since 2006

  16. Polymorphisms of SP110 are associated with both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis among the Vietnamese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Fox

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an infectious disease that remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet the reasons why only 10% of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis go on to develop clinical disease are poorly understood. Genetically determined variation in the host immune response is one factor influencing the response to M. tuberculosis. SP110 is an interferon-responsive nuclear body protein with critical roles in cell cycling, apoptosis and immunity to infection. However association studies of the gene with clinical TB in different populations have produced conflicting results.To examine the importance of the SP110 gene in immunity to TB in the Vietnamese we conducted a case-control genetic association study of 24 SP110 variants, in 663 patients with microbiologically proven TB and 566 unaffected control subjects from three tertiary hospitals in northern Vietnam.Five SNPs within SP110 were associated with all forms of TB, including four SNPs at the C terminus (rs10208770, rs10498244, rs16826860, rs11678451 under a dominant model and one SNP under a recessive model, rs7601176. Two of these SNPs were associated with pulmonary TB (rs10208770 and rs16826860 and one with extra-pulmonary TB (rs10498244.SP110 variants were associated with increased susceptibility to both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in the Vietnamese. Genetic variants in SP110 may influence macrophage signaling responses and apoptosis during M. tuberculosis infection, however further research is required to establish the mechanism by which SP110 influences immunity to tuberculosis infection.

  17. Polymorphisms of SP110 Are Associated with both Pulmonary and Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis among the Vietnamese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Gregory J.; Sy, Dinh Ngoc; Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Yu, Bing; Ellis, Magda K.; Van Hung, Nguyen; Cuong, Nguyen Kim; Thi Lien, Luu; Marks, Guy B.; Saunders, Bernadette M.; Britton, Warwick J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet the reasons why only 10% of people infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis go on to develop clinical disease are poorly understood. Genetically determined variation in the host immune response is one factor influencing the response to M. tuberculosis. SP110 is an interferon-responsive nuclear body protein with critical roles in cell cycling, apoptosis and immunity to infection. However association studies of the gene with clinical TB in different populations have produced conflicting results. Methods To examine the importance of the SP110 gene in immunity to TB in the Vietnamese we conducted a case-control genetic association study of 24 SP110 variants, in 663 patients with microbiologically proven TB and 566 unaffected control subjects from three tertiary hospitals in northern Vietnam. Results Five SNPs within SP110 were associated with all forms of TB, including four SNPs at the C terminus (rs10208770, rs10498244, rs16826860, rs11678451) under a dominant model and one SNP under a recessive model, rs7601176. Two of these SNPs were associated with pulmonary TB (rs10208770 and rs16826860) and one with extra-pulmonary TB (rs10498244). Conclusion SP110 variants were associated with increased susceptibility to both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB in the Vietnamese. Genetic variants in SP110 may influence macrophage signaling responses and apoptosis during M. tuberculosis infection, however further research is required to establish the mechanism by which SP110 influences immunity to tuberculosis infection. PMID:25006821

  18. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  19. Active solar information dissemination activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The principal objective of the project has been the development of an information dissemination strategy for the UK active solar heating industry. The project has also aimed to prepare the industry for the implementation of such a strategy and to produce initial information materials to support the early stages of the implementation process. (author)

  20. Information Dissemination: Case Studies on Electronic Dissemination at Four Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Departments of Health and Human Services, Agriculture , and Commerce; and the Chairmen, House Committee on Government Operations and Senate and House...AVLINE Audio Visuals On-line BIOETHICSLINE Bioethics On-line Page 5 GAOIIMTEC-92-6FS Electronic Information Dissemination Contents CANCERLIT Cancer...Network TOXLINE Toxicology Information On-line TOXLIT Toxicology Literature from special sources USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture Page 6 GAOIIMTEC-92

  1. Knowledge dissemination: a core mission

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    It’s been a year since the CERN Council approved our policy on intellectual property management, so I’d like to take a look at what we’ve achieved since then. In short, a great deal. We’ve moved away from a fairly unregulated approach towards a well balanced and clearly defined system built around sound intellectual property management designed to deliver maximum dissemination and benefit for society from CERN innovation. It’s a move that I celebrate and fully support.   In 2009, CERN signed two partnership agreements to develop CERN technologies, two commercial licenses and eleven R&D licenses. Last year, the figures were six partnership agreements, five commercial licenses and twenty R&D licenses, indicating a real increase in dissemination efforts. From 2009 to 2010, however, the number of new technologies that were identified and disclosed hardly changed: nine in 2009, ten in 2010. These numbers are good, but we must improve, particu...

  2. Disseminated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in a paca (Cuniculus paca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, Susan B; Yau, Wilson; Rissi, Daniel R

    2015-03-01

    A 2-yr-old paca (Cuniculus paca) was presented for necropsy with a history of sudden death. GrosS examination revealed multifocal, transmural, well-demarcated, white, soft nodules scattered along the length of the small intestine. The liver also had similar nodules associated with the capsular and cut surface. Histologic evaluation of several organs, including the intestine, liver, lung, kidney, adrenal gland, and lymph nodes, was consistent with disseminated yersiniosis. In addition, aerobic bacterial culture of liver and lung tissue yielded heavy growth of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-negative, enteric pathogen that can cause disease in a variety of terrestrial species including humans. Although systemic infection has been observed in rodent species, to our knowledge this is the first report of disseminated Y pseudotuberculosis in a paca.

  3. Aerogenic Dissemination of Aphtae Epizooticae

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-14

    animals, birds, insects, aerial dissemination in cattle purchasing centers, transport, and contaminated products such as milk and butter. Besides the above...enormous amounts of ephtose virus into the environment, whose main source is bladder epithelium along with lympy. saliva, milk , urine, excrement, and...opinion the proliferation of the aphtosa virus takes place mainly in the mucous membranes of the uppez respiratory tract, namely in the nasal mucus

  4. MRI in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldemeyer, K.S.; Smith, R.R.; Harris, T.M.; Edwards, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of CT and MRI studies in 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) was performed. MRI was the definitive modality for the assessment of the lesions of ADEM: all patients had abnormalities consistent with the clinical diagnosis. Ten had abnormalities in the brain, three spinal cord lesions, and three showed evidence of optic neuritis. CT was normal in 6 of the 7 patients in which it was performed. (orig.)

  5. Disseminated sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Kareem; Turker, Tolga; Zangeneh, Tirdad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a relatively rare infection. Local infection usually occurs through direct inoculation of the organism through the skin; disseminated disease is rarely seen. This article describes a case of disseminated sporotrichosis in a middle-aged man without the commonly seen risk factors for dissemination.

  6. Disseminated sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Kareem; Turker, Tolga; Zangeneh, Tirdad

    2016-01-01

    Sporothrix schenckii, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, is a relatively rare infection. Local infection usually occurs through direct inoculation of the organism through the skin; disseminated disease is rarely seen. This article describes a case of disseminated sporotrichosis in a middle-aged man without the commonly seen risk factors for dissemination.

  7. Metastatic Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma to the Cerebellopontine Angle: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debebe Theodros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas (EPSCC are rare malignancies with poor patient prognoses. We present the case of a 63-year-old male who underwent surgical resection of a poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma, likely from a small intestinal primary tumor that metastasized to the cerebellopontine angle (CPA. A 63-year-old male presented with mild left facial paralysis, hearing loss, and balance instability. MRI revealed a 15 mm mass in the left CPA involving the internal auditory canal consistent with a vestibular schwannoma. Preoperative MRI eight weeks later demonstrated marked enlargement to 35 mm. The patient underwent a suboccipital craniectomy and the mass was grossly different visually and in consistency from a standard vestibular schwannoma. The final pathology revealed a poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma. Postoperative PET scan identified avid uptake in the small intestine suggestive of either a small intestinal primary tumor or additional metastatic disease. The patient underwent whole brain radiation therapy and chemotherapy and at last follow-up demonstrated improvement in his symptoms. Surgical resection and radiotherapy are potential treatment options to improve survival in patients diagnosed with NET brain metastases. We present the first documented case of skull base metastasis of a poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma involving the CPA.

  8. Early pulmonary response is critical for extra-pulmonary carbon nanoparticle mediated effects: comparison of inhalation versus intra-arterial infusion exposures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Koustav; Ettehadieh, Dariusch; Upadhyay, Swapna; Takenaka, Shinji; Adler, Thure; Karg, Erwin; Krombach, Fritz; Kreyling, Wolfgang G; Schulz, Holger; Schmid, Otmar; Stoeger, Tobias

    2017-06-20

    The death toll associated with inhaled ambient particulate matter (PM) is attributed mainly to cardio-vascular rather than pulmonary effects. However, it is unclear whether the key event for cardiovascular impairment is particle translocation from lung to circulation (direct effect) or indirect effects due to pulmonary particle-cell interactions. In this work, we addressed this issue by exposing healthy mice via inhalation and intra-arterial infusion (IAI) to carbon nanoparticles (CNP) as surrogate for soot, a major constituent of (ultrafine) urban PM. Equivalent surface area CNP doses in the blood (30mm 2 per animal) were applied by IAI or inhalation (lung-deposited dose 10,000mm 2 ; accounting for 0.3% of lung-to-blood CNP translocation). Mice were analyzed for changes in hematology and molecular markers of endothelial/epithelial dysfunction, pro-inflammatory reactions, oxidative stress, and coagulation in lungs and extra-pulmonary organs after CNP inhalation (4 h and 24 h) and CNP infusion (4 h). For methodological reasons, we used two different CNP types (spark-discharge and Printex90), with very similar physicochemical properties [≥98 and ≥95% elemental carbon; 10 and 14 nm primary particle diameter; and 800 and 300 m 2 /g specific surface area] for inhalation and IAI respectively. Mild pulmonary inflammatory responses and significant systemic effects were observed following 4 h and 24 h CNP inhalation. Increased retention of activated leukocytes, secondary thrombocytosis, and pro-inflammatory responses in secondary organs were detected following 4 h and 24 h of CNP inhalation only. Interestingly, among the investigated extra-pulmonary tissues (i.e. aorta, heart, and liver); aorta revealed as the most susceptible extra-pulmonary target following inhalation exposure. Bypassing the lungs by IAI however did not induce any extra-pulmonary effects at 4 h as compared to inhalation. Our findings indicate that extra-pulmonary effects due to CNP

  9. Imunofenotipagem e remodelamento da matriz extracelular na sarcoidose pulmonar e extrapulmonar Immunophenotyping and extracellular matrix remodeling in pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Ramos Quintino da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar o significado de marcadores de imunidade celular e de componentes elásticos/colágeno da matriz extracelular em estruturas granulomatosas em biópsias de pacientes com sarcoidose pulmonar ou extrapulmonar. MÉTODOS: Determinações qualitativas e quantitativas de células inflamatórias, de fibras de colágeno e de fibras elásticas em estruturas granulomatosas em biópsias cirúrgicas de 40 pacientes com sarcoidose pulmonar e extrapulmonar foram realizadas por histomorfometria, imuno-histoquímica, e técnicas de coloração com picrosirius e resorcina-fucsina de Weigert. RESULTADOS: A densidade de linfócitos, macrófagos e neutrófilos nas biópsias extrapulmonares foi significativamente maior do que nas biópsias pulmonares. Os granulomas pulmonares apresentaram uma quantidade significativamente maior de fibras de colágeno e menor densidade de fibras elásticas que os granulomas extrapulmonares. A quantidade de macrófagos nos granulomas pulmonares correlacionou-se com CVF (p OBJECTIVE: To investigate the significance of cellular immune markers, as well as that of collagen and elastic components of the extracellular matrix, within granulomatous structures in biopsies of patients with pulmonary or extrapulmonary sarcoidosis. METHODS: We carried out qualitative and quantitative evaluations of inflammatory cells, collagen fibers, and elastic fibers in granulomatous structures in surgical biopsies of 40 patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary sarcoidosis using histomorphometry, immunohistochemistry, picrosirius red staining, and Weigert's resorcin-fuchsin staining. RESULTS: The extrapulmonary tissue biopsies presented significantly higher densities of lymphocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils than did the lung tissue biopsies. Pulmonary granulomas showed a significantly higher number of collagen fibers and a lower density of elastic fibers than did extrapulmonary granulomas. The amount of macrophages in the lung samples

  10. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana S. Rothenburg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is a rare but emerging disease caused by dematiaceous fungi. Here we describe the case of an immunosuppressed dog with disseminated phaeohyphomycosis secondary to Bipolaris spicifera infection. Regionally extensive infiltration of the paw pads, skin, myocardium, liver, renal interstitium and diaphragm was identified on histopathology. Candida glabrata and Fusarium oxysporum were also cultured from multiple sites post-mortem. The dog was treated with fluconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine and liposomal amphotericin B, but was euthanized due to its poor prognosis after 12 days of therapy.

  11. Bacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Bradley C; Shoskes, Daniel A

    2016-02-01

    The review provides the infectious disease community with a urologic perspective on bacterial prostatitis. Specifically, the article briefly reviews the categorization of prostatitis by type and provides a distillation of new findings published on bacterial prostatitis over the past year. It also highlights key points from the established literature. Cross-sectional prostate imaging is becoming more common and may lead to more incidental diagnoses of acute bacterial prostatitis. As drug resistance remains problematic in this condition, the reemergence of older antibiotics such as fosfomycin, has proven beneficial. With regard to chronic bacterial prostatitis, no clear clinical risk factors emerged in a large epidemiological study. However, bacterial biofilm formation has been associated with more severe cases. Surgery has a limited role in bacterial prostatitis and should be reserved for draining of a prostatic abscess or the removal of infected prostatic stones. Prostatitis remains a common and bothersome clinical condition. Antibiotic therapy remains the basis of treatment for both acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Further research into improving prostatitis treatment is indicated.

  12. Evaluation of molecular detection of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and resistance to rifampicin with GeneXpert® MTB/RIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouane, C; Smaoui, S; Kammoun, S; Slim, L; Messadi-Akrout, F

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the GeneXpert® MTB/RIF test for the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The test simultaneously detects Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and resistance to rifampicin. We analyzed 153 clinical samples collected in a tertiary hospital in Sfax, Tunisia, between 2013 and 2014. We performed the GeneXpert® test, a Ziehl-Neelsen and auramine-rhodamine staining, conventional culture on MGIT 960 and LJ media, and we tested the resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs on MGIT 960 and LJ media for each sample. Diagnosis was based on clinical, radiological, microbiological, pathological, and therapeutic data. We considered that 59 patients out of 153 presented with tuberculosis. PCR was positive in 50 samples and all of these samples were susceptible to rifampicin. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the GeneXpert® test were 84.7%, 96.8%, 94.3%, and 91%, respectively, compared with diagnosis. We observed a statistically significant difference between the direct test and the GeneXpert® test, and between culture and the GeneXpert® test. No statistically significant difference was observed between pathological results and the GeneXpert® test. Sensitivity of the GeneXpert® test was 87.5% in biopsies, 80% in pus and abscesses, and 66.7% in biological fluids. All strains were susceptible to rifampicin with culture and GeneXpert® test. The GeneXpert® test helped detect a higher proportion of M. tuberculosis complex. It does not replace conventional diagnostic methods but it is a useful addition to achieve better sensitivity and obtain rapid results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of 123 bp fragment of insertion element IS6110 Mycobacterium tuberculosis for diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Maurya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB is emerging problem in developing and developed countries. The diagnosis of EPTB in its different clinical presentations remains a true challenge. IS6110-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR is used for rapid identification and positivity rate of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in clinical isolates of different sites of EPTB. The present study was carried out to study the prevalence of M. tuberculosis complex in clinical isolates of EPTB at tertiary care centres in Lucknow. Materials and Methods: Seven hundred fifty-six specimens were collected from the suspected cases of EPTB which were processed for Mycobacteria by Ziehl Neelson (ZN staining and BACTEC culture. All the specimens were also processed for IS6110-based PCR amplification with primers targeting 123 bp fragment of insertion element IS6110 of the M. tuberculosis complex. Results: Of these 756 specimens, 71(9.3% were positive for acid fast bacilli (AFB by ZN staining, 227(30.1% were positive for mycobacteria by BACTEC culture and IS6110 PCR were positive for M. tuberculosis complex in 165 (20.7% isolates. We found a significant difference in sensitivities of different tests (P<0.05. Conclusions: This study reveals the positivity of M. tuberculosis complex in clinical isolates of EPTB case in tertiary care hospitals in Northern India. 72.7% of M. tuberculosis complex was confirmed by IS6110-PCR in culture isolates from different sites of EPTB. The high prevalence of the M. tuberculosis complex was seen in lymph node aspirate and synovial fluid. However, utility of PCR may play a potentially significant role in strengthening the diagnosis of EPTB especially targeting IS6110.

  14. Tissue sensitivity of the rat upper and lower extrapulmonary airways to the inhaled electrophilic air pollutants diacetyl and acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Joseph A; Smith, Gregory J; Morris, John B

    2014-11-01

    The target site for inhaled vapor-induced injury often differs in mouth-breathing humans compared with nose-breathing rats, thus complicating the use of rat inhalation toxicity data for assessment of human risk. We sought to examine sensitivity of respiratory/transitional nasal (RTM) and tracheobronchial (TBM) mucosa to two electrophilic irritant vapors: diacetyl and acrolein. Computational fluid dynamic physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling was coupled with biomarker assessment to establish delivered dose-response relationships in RTM and TBM in male F344 rats following 6 h exposure to diacetyl or acrolein. Biomarkers included glutathione status, proinflammatory and antioxidant gene mRNA levels, and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). Modeling revealed that 0.0094-0.1653 μg acrolein/min-cm(2) and 3.9-21.6 μg diacetyl/min-cm(2) were deposited into RTM/TBM. Results indicate RTM and TBM were generally of similar sensitivity to diacetyl and acrolein. For instance, both tissues displayed induction of antioxidant and proinflammatory genes, and nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 after electrophile exposure. Hierarchical cellular response patterns were similar in RTM and TBM but differed between vapors. Specifically, diacetyl exposure induced proinflammatory and antioxidant genes concomitantly at low exposure levels, whereas acrolein induced antioxidant genes at much lower exposure levels than that required to induce proinflammatory genes. Generally, diacetyl was less potent than acrolein, as measured by maximal induction of transcripts. In conclusion, the upper and lower extrapulmonary airways are of similar sensitivity to inhaled electrophilic vapors. Dosimetrically based extrapolation of nasal responses in nose-breathing rodents may provide an approach to predict risk to the lower airways of humans during mouth-breathing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All

  15. Thymus-directed immunotoxicity of airborne dust particles from Upper Silesia (Poland) under acute extrapulmonary studies in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowska, E. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland); Krzystniak, K. [Universite du Quebec a Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Drela, N. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland)] [and others

    1996-12-27

    Industrial air pollutants from Upper Silesia, Poland, contain over 250 polycyclic and heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals, including mutagenic and carcinogenic chemicals that have been shown to from DNA adducts. Over 4 million habitants of Silesia are permanently exposed to the industrial pollution by pulmonary and dermal routes and by contaminated food and water. These chemicals, when examined separately in animals models, were proven immunotoxic. We studied the extrapulmonary immunotoxic potential of a typical mixture of Silesian filter-suspended matter from a selected area, over a specific season and time period. Early changes in the immune system were analyzed in BALB/c mice exposed ip to acute doses of 20-330 mg dust mixture/kg body weight (0.06-1.0 LD50). No major changes were noted for weight and the cellularity of spleen, liver and kidneys. However, dramatic decrease in thymus weight index and thymocyte cell count were noted as early as 24-72 h postexposure, which correlated with almost complete depletion of immature, double-positive CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} thymocytes. Changes in spleen were less profound; however, increased depletion of B cells over T cells was noted at high doses of the suspended matter. Exposure to the airborne dust also decreased cytokine production by spleen cells, such as interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}). Overall, a single exposure to Silesian dust, even at the relatively low 0.06 LD50 dose, affected lymphokine production, suppressed B-cell proliferative response, and depleted thymuses of immature, double-positive CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} cells. A chemical synergism is suspected. To our knowledge, none of the known components of Silesian suspended matter, when examined as a single chemical, was shown to exert such a profound biological effect. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  17. Effect of immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy on risk of severe bacterial infections in HIV-positive people with CD4 cell counts of more than 500 cells per μL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connor, Jemma; Vjecha, Michael J; Phillips, Andrew N

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effects of antiretroviral therapy on risk of severe bacterial infections in people with high CD4 cell counts have not been well described. In this study, we aimed to quantify the effects of immediate versus deferred ART on the risk of severe bacterial infection in people with high...... μL. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to model time to severe bacterial infection, which was defined as a composite endpoint of bacterial pneumonia (confirmed by the endpoint review committee), pulmonary or extrapulmonary tuberculosis, or any bacterial infectious disorder of grade 4...... had severe bacterial infections (immediate-initiation group n=34, deferred-initiation group n=86; median 2·8 years of follow-up). Immediate ART was associated with a reduced risk of severe bacterial infection compared with deferred ART (hazard ratio [HR] 0·39, 95% CI 0·26-0·57, p

  18. Interdependence of physical inactivity, loss of muscle mass and low dietary intake: Extrapulmonary manifestations in older chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuya; Sato, Susumu; Muro, Shigeo; Yamada, Minoru; Hasegawa, Koichi; Kiyokawa, Hirofumi; Mishima, Michiaki; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2018-01-01

    Extrapulmonary manifestations, such as reductions in skeletal muscle and physical inactivity, are important clinical features of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and might depend on the severity of COPD. As it is still unclear whether the relationship between muscle loss and physical inactivity is dominated by a disease-specific relationship or caused by patient factors, including physiological aging, we aimed to investigate the pulmonary or extrapulmonary factors associated with physical inactivity among older COPD patients. A total of 38 older male COPD patients (aged ≥65 years) were enrolled, and were evaluated cross-sectionally. Skeletal muscle mass was measured using bioelectrical impedance, and physical activity and energy intake were recorded for 2 weeks using a pedometer and diary. Daily step counts were successfully evaluated in 28 participants (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s [%predicted; %FEV 1 ]; 49.5%), and ranged widely. The mean step counts was 5166 steps/day, and found to have a significant relationship with dyspnea (r = -0.46), diffusing capacity (r = 0.47), %FEV1 (r = 0.44), skeletal muscle index (r = 0.59) and total dietary intake (r = 0.47), but not with age (P = 0.14). A stepwise multivariate analysis showed that the skeletal muscle index (β = 0.50) and total dietary intake (β = 0.35) were significant determinants of the daily step count (R 2 = 0.46, p physical activity, skeletal muscle mass and dietary intake are more closely correlated with physical activity in COPD patients. Because physical inactivity might be the strongest predictor of prognosis, the present results suggest that a comprehensive treatment strategy must be considered for older COPD patients to improve their extrapulmonary manifestations and pulmonary dysfunction. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 88-94. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. Introduction to the special section on dissemination: dissemination research and research dissemination: how can we close the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Jon; Rimer, Barbara; Emmons, Karen

    2005-09-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing health promotion and disease prevention is translating research findings into evidence-based public health and clinical practices that are actively disseminated and widely adopted. Despite the tremendous strides made in developing effective disease prevention and control programs, there has been little study of effective dissemination of evidence-based programs to and adoption by community, public health, and clinical practice settings. This special section provides a venue in which to highlight exemplary dissemination research efforts while also identifying limitations in research to date and framing important future research questions. This issue establishes a resource for investigators interested in dissemination research, with relevance to health psychology. In this sense, it can serve as a benchmark by which to examine subsequent progress. The 6 articles reflect the state of the science in dissemination research for the promotion and adoption of health behavior change interventions. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  20. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  1. Sensitive Information Gathering and Dissemination: An Assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet the freedom of expression granted to all men is not absolute. This paper on sensitive information gathering and dissemination focuses on the role of the military and that of the media in the gathering and dissemination of information often termed sensitive, contentious and inciting. It is based on past and present media ...

  2. D5.1 Dissemination Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Ryberg, Thomas; Eleftheriou, Paraskevi

    2009-01-01

    at defining the dissemination goals as well as the project’s target audience and channels through which the EATrain2 solution is going to be promoted. It also includes partners competences in the dissemination area and detailed schedule of events thematically related to the project’s scope. The deliverable...

  3. Dual Paraneoplastic Endocrine Syndromes Heralding Onset of Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report and Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill B. Feffer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveExtrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC is rare and frequent metastases at presentation can complicate efforts to identify a site of origin. In particular, SCC comprises <1% of prostate cancers and has been implicated in castration resistance.MethodsClinical, laboratory, imaging, and pathology data are presented.ResultsA 56-year-old man with locally advanced prostate adenocarcinoma on androgen deprivation therapy presented with a clogged nephrostomy tube. Laboratory results included calcium 13.8 mg/dL (8.5–10.5 mg/dL, albumin 3.6 g/dL (3.5–5 mg/dL, and potassium 2.8 mmol/L (3.5–5.2 mmol/L. Hypercalcemia investigation revealed intact PTH 19 pg/mL (16–87 pg/mL, 25-OH vitamin D 15.7 ng/mL (>30 ng/mL, and PTH-related peptide (PTHrP 63.4 pmol/L (<2.3 pmol/L. Workup for hypokalemia yielded aldosterone 5.3 ng/dL (<31 ng/dL, renin 0.6 ng/mL/h (0.5–4 ng/mL/h, and 6:00 a.m. cortisol 82 µg/dL (6.7–22.6 µg/dL with ACTH 147 pg/mL (no ref. range. High-dose Dexamethasone suppression testing suggested ACTH-dependent ectopic hypercortisolism. Contrast-enhanced CT findings included masses in the liver and right renal pelvis, a heterogeneous enlarged mass in the region of the prostate invading the bladder, bilateral adrenal thickening, and lytic lesions in the pelvis and spine. Liver biopsy identified epithelioid malignancy with Ki proliferation index 98% and immunohistochemical staining positive for synaptophysin and neuron-specific enolase, compatible with high-grade small cell carcinoma. Staining for ACTH was negative; no stain for CRH was available. Two weeks after chemotherapy, 6:00 a.m. cortisol normalized and CT scans showed universal improvement.ConclusionExtensive literature details paraneoplastic syndromes associated with SCC, but we report the first case of EPSCC diagnosed due to onset of dual paraneoplastic syndromes.

  4. Factors influencing message dissemination through social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zeyu; Yang, Huancheng; Fu, Yang; Fu, Dianzheng; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-06-01

    Online social networks strongly impact our daily lives. An internet user (a "Netizen") wants messages to be efficiently disseminated. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) dissemination model is the traditional tool for exploring the spreading mechanism of information diffusion. We here test our SIR-based dissemination model on open and real-world data collected from Twitter. We locate and identify phase transitions in the message dissemination process. We find that message content is a stronger factor than the popularity of the sender. We also find that the probability that a message will be forwarded has a threshold that affects its ability to spread, and when the probability is above the threshold the message quickly achieves mass dissemination.

  5. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    , which influence the transition from a planktonic lifestyle to a sessile lifestyle, have been studied. Protein conditioning film formation was found to influence bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation considerable, and an aqueous extract of fish muscle tissue was shown to significantly...... tract to the microbial flocs in waste water treatment facilities. Microbial biofilms may however also cause a wide range of industrial and medical problems, and have been implicated in a wide range of persistent infectious diseases, including implantassociated microbial infections. Bacterial adhesion...... is the first committing step in biofilm formation, and has therefore been intensely scrutinized. Much however, still remains elusive. Bacterial adhesion is a highly complex process, which is influenced by a variety of factors. In this thesis, a range of physico-chemical, molecular and environmental parameters...

  6. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  7. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  8. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  9. Extrapulmonary Conditions, Concomitant of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, in Babies of the First 3 Years of Life: Results of a Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Kazakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are few data on co-occurring with bronchopulmonary dysplasia diseases but there is no single point of view on their mutual effect.Objective: Our aim was to learn the structure and frequency of extrapulmonary disease, concomitant of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, in children aged up to 3 years.Methods. A retrospective analysis of histories of 93 children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia with an analysis of the consequences of perinatal pathology structure was carried out.Results. On average, each patient with bronchopulmonary dysplasia accounted for 5 comorbidities. The most common (89; 96% were perinatal lesions of the nervous system and their consequences. In children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia at the age of 3 years there was a relatively low incidence of hydrocephalus and, on the contrary, high — of infantile cerebral palsy. Violations of the organs of vision were found in 58 (62% children, malnutrition and other violations of physical development — in 58 (62% and 27 (29%, respectively, and the cardiovascular system pathology — in 59 (63%.Conclusion. The most commonly, extrapulmonary pathology, co-occuring with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, includes neurological deficit with psychomotor retardation, violations of organs of vision, pathology of the cardiovascular system, malnutrition/delay in physical development.

  10. Survival and evolution of a large multidrug resistance plasmid in new clinical bacterial hosts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Andreas; Schønning, Kristian; Munck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Large conjugative plasmids are important drivers of bacterial evolution and contribute significantly to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Although plasmid borne multidrug resistance is recognized as one of the main challenges in modern medicine, the adaptive forces shaping the evolution...

  11. [Bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Herrero, Daniel; Andreu Domingo, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginal dysbacteriosis in the women during the reproductive age. It is an entity in which many studies have focused for years and which is still open for discussion topics. This is due to the diversity of microorganisms that cause it and therefore, its difficult treatment. Bacterial vaginosis is probably the result of vaginal colonization by complex bacterial communities, many of them non-cultivable and with interdependent metabolism where anaerobic populations most likely play an important role in its pathogenesis. The main symptoms are an increase of vaginal discharge and the unpleasant smell of it. It can lead to serious consequences for women, such as an increased risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections including human immunodeficiency virus and upper genital tract and pregnancy complications. Gram stain is the gold standard for microbiological diagnosis of BV, but can also be diagnosed using the Amsel clinical criteria. It should not be considered a sexually transmitted disease but it is highly related to sex. Recurrence is the main problem of medical treatment. Apart from BV, there are other dysbacteriosis less characterized like aerobic vaginitis of which further studies are coming slowly but are achieving more attention and consensus among specialists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Documenting and disseminating agricultural indigenous knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Documenting and disseminating agricultural indigenous knowledge for sustainable food security in Uganda. ... University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal ... Moreover, small-scale farmers should be involved in agricultural extension services ...

  13. Early dissemination seeds metastasis in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hedayatollah; Obradović, Milan M.S.; Hoffmann, Martin; Harper, Kathryn; Sosa, Maria Soledad; Werner-Klein, Melanie; Nanduri, Lahiri Kanth; Werno, Christian; Ehrl, Carolin; Maneck, Matthias; Patwary, Nina; Haunschild, Gundula; Gužvić, Miodrag; Reimelt, Christian; Grauvogl, Michael; Eichner, Norbert; Weber, Florian; Hartkopf, Andreas; Taran, Florin-Andrei; Brucker, Sara Y.; Fehm, Tanja; Rack, Brigitte; Buchholz, Stefan; Spang, Rainer; Meister, Gunter; Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio A.; Klein, Christoph A.

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest that metastatic dissemination often occurs early during tumour formation but the mechanisms of early metastatic spread have not yet been addressed. Here, we studied metastasis in a HER2-driven mouse breast cancer model and found that progesterone-induced signalling triggered migration of cancer cells from early lesions shortly after HER2 activation, but promoted proliferation in advanced primary tumour cells. The switch from migration to proliferation was regulated by elevated HER2 expression and increased tumour cell density involving miRNA-mediated progesterone receptor (PGR) down-regulation and was reversible. Cells from early, low-density lesions displayed more stemness features than cells from dense, advanced tumours, migrated more and founded more metastases. Strikingly, we found that at least 80% of metastases were derived from early disseminated cancer cells (DCC). Karyotypic and phenotypic analysis of human disseminated cancer cells and primary tumours corroborated the relevance of these findings for human metastatic dissemination. PMID:27974799

  14. Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Control Research, Dissemination and Networking in Lebanon. The Tobacco ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference ... New funding opportunity for gender equality and climate change. IDRC is ...

  15. Utilization of Presentation Software for Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The abundance of information that needs to be disseminated to students about events in space exploration and the theories and technology utilized maybe overwhelming to the beginning teacher or lecturer. No matter the age of the learner, one must cons...

  16. Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Adoption of Cocoa Technologies Disseminated by Olam Organisation in ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... level, household size, no of farm family assisting on the farm, management system adopted, ...

  17. Disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mada, Pradeep; Nowack, Brad; Cady, Beth; Joel Chandranesan, Andrew Stevenson

    2017-07-18

    Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection which is commonly associated with immune-compromised state. Disseminated infection in immunocompetent individuals is extremely rare. We present a case of a 56-year-old African American patient who presented with unilateral knee pain and swelling and was subsequently diagnosed with cryptococcal bone mass with dissemination of infection. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Bacterial mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system...... act together to generate the force required for plasmid movement during segregation. ParR protein binds cooperatively to the centromeric parC DNA region, thereby forming a complex that interacts with the filament-forming actin-like ParM protein in an ATP-dependent manner, suggesting that plasmid...

  19. Disseminated Rhodococcus equi infection in a patient with Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rhodococcus (R equi is an opportunistic, uncommon human pathogen that causes mainly infection in immunocompromised hosts. The disease is usually presented as subacute pneumonia that is mostly cavitary and sometimes bacteremic. Case report. We reported the extremly rare case of a 43-year-old woman with Hodgkin's lymphoma, who developed R. equi pulmonary infection after recieving multiple courses of chemotherapy. Secondary, the patient developed bacteremia, leading to sepsis and dissemination of R. equi infection in many extrapulmonary sites. At addmission the patient was febrile, tachypnoic, tachycardic, hypotensive, with facial edema, splenomegaly, positive meningeal signs, left hemiparesis and paraparesis. Laboratory data included erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR > 140 mm/h, C-reactive protein (CRP 143.0 mg/L, red blood cells (RBC 2.14 × 1012/L, whyite blood cells (WBC 2.8 × 109/L, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH 706 U/L, serum albumin 26 g/L, sodium 127 mmol/L and potassium 2.7 mmol/L. Blood culture and culture of sputum and empyema were positive for R. equi. Imaging studies demonstrated a large right cavitary pneumonia and abscess, empyema, pericarditis, mediastinal and intra-abdominal lymphadenopathy, brain and psoas abscesses, osteomyelitis and spondylodiscitis. The patient recovered completely after a 12-month treatment with combinations of parenteral and oral antibiotics (meropenem, vancomycin, teicoplanin, ciprofloxacin, rifampicin, macrolides etc, including drainage of abscesses and empyema. Eight years after completition of the treatment the patient was without recurrence of R. equi infection and lymphoma. Conclusion. Since the eradication od R. equi is very difficult, it is very important to make the diagnosis and initiate appropriate antibiotic therapy as soon as possible.

  20. Síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo pulmonar e extrapulmonar: existem diferenças? Pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute respiratory distress syndrome: are they different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane S. N. Baez Garcia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A patogênese da síndrome do desconforto respiratório agudo (SDRA tem sido explicada pela presença de uma agressão direta (SDRA pulmonar e/ou indireta (SDRA extrapulmonar ao parênquima pulmonar. Evidências indicam que a fisiopatologia da doença pode diferir com o tipo de lesão. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar breve revisão das diferenças entre a SDRA pulmonar e a SDRA extrapulmonar e discutir as interações entre os aspectos morfofuncionais e a resposta aos diferentes tratamentos. CONTEÚDO: Esta revisão bibliográfica baseou-se em uma pesquisa sistemática de artigos experimentais e clínicos sobre SDRA incluídos nas bases de dados MedLine e SciElo nos últimos 20 anos. Muitos pesquisadores concordam, com base em estudos experimentais, que a SDRA pulmonar e a SDRA extrapulmonar não são idênticas no que diz respeito aos aspectos morfofuncionais, a resposta à pressão positiva ao final da expiração (PEEP, manobra de recrutamento alveolar, posição prona e outras terapias farmacológicas. Entretanto, os estudos clínicos têm descrito resultados contraditórios, os quais podem ser atribuídos à dificuldade de se classificar a SDRA em uma ou outra etiologia, e de se precisar o início, a fase e a gravidade da SDRA nos pacientes. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes com SDRA de etiologias distintas perduram sendo considerados como pertencendo a uma mesma síndrome e, assim, são tratados da mesma forma. Logo, é fundamental entender as diferenças fisiopatológicas entre a SDRA pulmonar e extrapulmonar para que a terapia seja mais bem direcionada.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The pathogenesis of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS has been described by the presence of direct (pulmonary and/or indirect (extrapulmonary insult to the lung parenchyma. Evidence indicates that the pathophysiology of ARDS may differ according to the type of primary insult. This article presents a brief overview of differences

  1. Smart-tag Based Data Dissemination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Beaufour, Allan; Leopold, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Monitoring wide, hostile areas requires disseminating data between fixed, disconnected clusters of sensor nodes. It is not always possible to install long-range radios in order to cover the whole area. We propose to leverage the movement of mobile individuals, equipped with smart-tags, to dissemi......-tag based data dissemination. We use simulation to study the characteristics of the model we propose. Finally, we present an implementation based on Bluetooth smart-tags.......Monitoring wide, hostile areas requires disseminating data between fixed, disconnected clusters of sensor nodes. It is not always possible to install long-range radios in order to cover the whole area. We propose to leverage the movement of mobile individuals, equipped with smart......-tags, to disseminate data across disconnected static nodes spread across a wide area. Static nodes and mobile smart-tags exchange data when they are in the vicinity of each other; smart-tags disseminate data as they move around. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for update propagation and a model for smart...

  2. Comprehensive analysis of information dissemination in disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N.; Huang, H.; Su, Boni

    2016-11-01

    China is a country that experiences a large number of disasters. The number of deaths caused by large-scale disasters and accidents in past 10 years is around 900,000. More than 92.8 percent of these deaths could be avoided if there were an effective pre-warning system deployed. Knowledge of the information dissemination characteristics of different information media taking into consideration governmental assistance (information published by a government) in disasters in urban areas, plays a critical role in increasing response time and reducing the number of deaths and economic losses. In this paper we have developed a comprehensive information dissemination model to optimize efficiency of pre-warning mechanics. This model also can be used for disseminating information for evacuees making real-time evacuation plans. We analyzed every single information dissemination models for pre-warning in disasters by considering 14 media: short message service (SMS), phone, television, radio, news portals, Wechat, microblogs, email, newspapers, loudspeaker vehicles, loudspeakers, oral communication, and passive information acquisition via visual and auditory senses. Since governmental assistance is very useful in a disaster, we calculated the sensitivity of governmental assistance ratio. The results provide useful references for information dissemination during disasters in urban areas.

  3. Agricultural information dissemination using ICTs: A review and analysis of information dissemination models in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades, China’s agriculture sector has been transformed from the traditional to modern practice through the effective deployment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs. Information processing and dissemination have played a critical role in this transformation process. Many studies in relation to agriculture information services have been conducted in China, but few of them have attempted to provide a comprehensive review and analysis of different information dissemination models and their applications. This paper aims to review and identify the ICT based information dissemination models in China and to share the knowledge and experience in applying emerging ICTs in disseminating agriculture information to farmers and farm communities to improve productivity and economic, social and environmental sustainability. The paper reviews and analyzes the development stages of China’s agricultural information dissemination systems and different mechanisms for agricultural information service development and operations. Seven ICT-based information dissemination models are identified and discussed. Success cases are presented. The findings provide a useful direction for researchers and practitioners in developing future ICT based information dissemination systems. It is hoped that this paper will also help other developing countries to learn from China’s experience and best practice in their endeavor of applying emerging ICTs in agriculture information dissemination and knowledge transfer.

  4. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    compounds these must first be undergo extracellular hydrolysis. Bacteria have a great diversity with respect to types of metabolism that far exceeds the metabolic repertoire of eukaryotic organisms. Bacteria play a fundamental role in the biosphere and certain key processes such as, for example......, the production and oxidation of methane, nitrate reduction and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen are exclusively carried out by different groups of bacteria. Some bacterial species – ‘extremophiles’ – thrive in extreme environments in which no eukaryotic organisms can survive with respect to temperature, salinity...... biogeochemical processes are carried exclusively by bacteria. * Bacteria play an important role in all types of habitats including some that cannot support eukaryotic life....

  5. Tracking Users for a Targeted Dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Bautier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How to build a dissemination and communication strategy in a world where users have easy access to a deluge of data and information from various origins and where IT tools and design standards change so quickly that users behaviour and their expectations are continuously modified? The first challenge of Eurostat is clearly to know what users want: we know our different types of users but we have to identify how they get our data, what they do with our data, how they react to our outputs and which sort of new service they would like us to propose. Translating these needs into a visual dissemination is a new challenge undertaken by Eurostat through a new portal, new mobile apps and new info graphs and basic application as well as increasing the visibility on Google. The objective of this paper is to share Eurostat's experience in identifying user Leeds and to show how concretely this information has been visually disseminated.

  6. Bacterial Actins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izoré, Thierry; van den Ent, Fusinita

    2017-01-01

    A diverse set of protein polymers, structurally related to actin filaments contributes to the organization of bacterial cells as cytomotive or cytoskeletal filaments. This chapter describes actin homologs encoded by bacterial chromosomes. MamK filaments, unique to magnetotactic bacteria, help establishing magnetic biological compasses by interacting with magnetosomes. Magnetosomes are intracellular membrane invaginations containing biomineralized crystals of iron oxide that are positioned by MamK along the long-axis of the cell. FtsA is widespread across bacteria and it is one of the earliest components of the divisome to arrive at midcell, where it anchors the cell division machinery to the membrane. FtsA binds directly to FtsZ filaments and to the membrane through its C-terminus. FtsA shows altered domain architecture when compared to the canonical actin fold. FtsA's subdomain 1C replaces subdomain 1B of other members of the actin family and is located on the opposite side of the molecule. Nevertheless, when FtsA assembles into protofilaments, the protofilament structure is preserved, as subdomain 1C replaces subdomain IB of the following subunit in a canonical actin filament. MreB has an essential role in shape-maintenance of most rod-shaped bacteria. Unusually, MreB filaments assemble from two protofilaments in a flat and antiparallel arrangement. This non-polar architecture implies that both MreB filament ends are structurally identical. MreB filaments bind directly to membranes where they interact with both cytosolic and membrane proteins, thereby forming a key component of the elongasome. MreB filaments in cells are short and dynamic, moving around the long axis of rod-shaped cells, sensing curvature of the membrane and being implicated in peptidoglycan synthesis.

  7. Dissemination and Exploitation: Project Goals beyond Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Kristin; Reitz, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Dissemination and Exploitation are essential parts of public funded projects. In Horizon 2020 a plan for the exploitation and dissemination of results (PEDR) is a requirement. The plan should contain a clear vision on the objectives of the project in relation to actions for dissemination and potential exploitation of the project results. The actions follow the basic idea to spread the knowledge and results gathered within the project and face the challenge of how to bring the results into potentially relevant policy circle and how they impact the market. The plan follows the purpose to assess the impact of the project and to address various target groups who are interested in the project results. Simply put, dissemination concentrates on the transfer of knowledge and exploitation on the commercialization of the project. Beyond the question of the measurability of project`s impact, strategies within science marketing can serve purposes beyond internal and external communication. Accordingly, project managers are facing the challenge to implement a dissemination and exploitation strategy that ideally supports the identification of all partners with the project and matches the current discourse of the project`s content within the society, politics and economy. A consolidated plan might unite all projects partners under a central idea and supports the identification with the project beyond the individual research questions. Which applications, strategies and methods can be used to bring forward a PEDR that accompanies a project successfully and allows a comprehensive assessment of the project afterwards? Which hurdles might project managers experience in the dissemination process and which tasks should be fulfilled by the project manager?

  8. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in patient with alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Benvegnú

    Full Text Available Abstract Sporotrichosis is the most prevalent subcutaneous mycosis and is characterized by a subacute or chronic development of a cutaneous or subcutaneous nodular lesion. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix spp, which may manifest in different clinical forms. The disseminated cutaneous form is uncommon and is more likely to occur in immunocompromised patients. We report a 47-year-old male patient with multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules. The patient was diagnosed with disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis based on the isolation and identification of Sporothrix spp. The patient was treated with potassium iodide, which resulted in clinical improvement of the lesions.

  9. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in patient with alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvegnú, Ana Maria; Stramari, Juliana; Dallazem, Lia Natália Diehl; Chemello, Raíssa Massaia Londero; Beber, André Avelino Costa

    2017-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is the most prevalent subcutaneous mycosis and is characterized by a subacute or chronic development of a cutaneous or subcutaneous nodular lesion. It is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix spp, which may manifest in different clinical forms. The disseminated cutaneous form is uncommon and is more likely to occur in immunocompromised patients. We report a 47-year-old male patient with multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules. The patient was diagnosed with disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis based on the isolation and identification of Sporothrix spp. The patient was treated with potassium iodide, which resulted in clinical improvement of the lesions.

  10. Constructing a model of effective information dissemination in a crisis. Information dissemination, Crisis, Crises, Tuberculosis, Dissemination of information, Meta-ethnographic analysis, Social marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Fiona Duggan; Linda Banwell

    2004-01-01

    A model of effective information dissemination in a crisis was developed from a Ph.D. study of information dissemination during a suspected TB outbreak. The research aimed to characterise and evaluate the dissemination of information to the community during the incident. A qualitative systematic review of the research literature identified twenty relevant studies. Meta-ethnographic analysis of these studies highlighted the key factors in effective dissemination. Consideration of these factors...

  11. Quinine-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, R L; Hickton, C M; Sizeland, P; Hannah, A; Bailey, R R

    Recurrent disseminated intravascular coagulation occurred in 3 women after ingestion of quinine tablets for cramp. All had circulating quinine-dependent antibodies to platelets and in 2 there was initial evidence of antibody consumption, with low titres that rose steeply over the next few days and remained high for many months.

  12. Adoption of improved agricultural technologies disseminated via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... disseminated via radio farmer programme by farmers in ... absence of such facilities as road, light and water are no hindrance to ... topography, distance, time and socio-political exigencies ... constraints to effective utilization of information aired on .... rice, maize, potatoes and cassava while only 13.3% were.

  13. Sporothrix schenckii fungemia without disseminated sporotrichosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kosinski, R M; Axelrod, P; Rex, J H; Burday, M; Sivaprasad, R; Wreiole, A

    1992-01-01

    Fungemia is a rare complication of Sporothrix schenckii infection and has always been associated with disseminated sporotrichosis. We describe an immunocompetent patient with localized lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis from whose blood the fungus was isolated. A lysis-centrifugation blood culture system may have improved our ability to detect low-level S. schenckii fungemia.

  14. Evolution of diffusion and dissemination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearing, James W

    2008-01-01

    The article provides a review and considers how the diffusion of innovations Research paradigm has changed, and offers suggestions for the further development of this theory of social change. Main emphases of diffusion Research studies are compared over time, with special attention to applications of diffusion theory-based concepts as types of dissemination science. A considerable degree of paradigmatic evolution is observed. The classical diffusion model focused on adopter innovativeness, individuals as the locus of decision, communication channels, and adoption as the primary outcome measures in post hoc observational study designs. The diffusion systems in question were centralized, with fidelity of implementation often assumed. Current dissemination Research and practice is better characterized by tests of interventions that operationalize one or more diffusion theory-based concepts and concepts from other change approaches, involve complex organizations as the units of adoption, and focus on implementation issues. Foment characterizes dissemination and implementation Research, Reflecting both its interdisciplinary Roots and the imperative of spreading evidence-based innovations as a basis for a new paradigm of translational studies of dissemination science.

  15. Knowledge Management and Global Information Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umunadi, Ejiwoke Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    The paper looked at knowledge management and global information dissemination. Knowledge is a very powerful tool for survival, growth and development. It can be seen as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience. The paper was addressed under the following sub-headings: Knowledge management knowledge…

  16. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Following Induction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Disseminated Intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) has been reported following use of Misoprostol which is an old drug with new indications in Obstetrics and. Gynecology. Its effectiveness, low cost, stability in tropical conditions and ease of administration as well as side effects like gastrointestinal effect, uterine ...

  17. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis with laryngeal involvement in a setting of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. ... Grocott-Gomori methenamine silver and Periodic acid–Schiff (PAS) stains revealed a relative paucity of intracellular, narrow-neck budding fungal organisms. Culture findings confirmed the ...

  18. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.

  19. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, J Paul

    2002-05-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.

  20. A Primer on Disseminating Applied Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Bethany A.; DiStefano, Christine; Morgan, Grant B.

    2010-01-01

    Transparency and replication are essential features of scientific inquiry, yet scientific communications of applied quantitative research are often lacking in much-needed procedural information. In an effort to promote researchers dissemination of their quantitative studies in a cohesive, detailed, and informative manner, the authors delineate…

  1. Differential diagnosis of disseminated periventricular calcifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, P.; Piepgras, U.

    1986-01-01

    Juvenile disseminated periventricular calcifications may occur in tuberous sclerosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegaly, and in tuberculous meningitis. Cysticercosis, by contrast, does not result in corresponding intracerebral foci until an older age. Differential diagnosis is no problem if clinical findings are typical (tuberous sclerosis) or if serological verification is positive. However, any unclear clinical diagnosis can often be secured by CT. (orig.) [de

  2. Data Dissemination in Mobile Phone Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Viet Duc, Duc Viet

    Deploying sensors over large areas is costly in terms of configuration, hardware, and maintenance. Using onboard sensors of today mobile phones can significantly reduce the expenses in monitoring areas and disseminating events or data. Via the available short-range Bluetooth and/or WiFi interfaces,

  3. Differential diagnosis of disseminated periventricular calcifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, P.; Piepgras, U.

    1986-08-01

    Juvenile disseminated periventricular calcifications may occur in tuberous sclerosis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegaly, and in tuberculous meningitis. Cysticercosis, by contrast, does not result in corresponding intracerebral foci until an older age. Differential diagnosis is no problem if clinical findings are typical (tuberous sclerosis) or if serological verification is positive. However, any unclear clinical diagnosis can often be secured by CT.

  4. The AFT Educational Research and Dissemination Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brochure is developed to provide information for local unions within the American Federation of Teachers (AFT) who may be interested in becoming Education Research and Dissemination (ER&D) sites. The following questions are addressed: (1) What Is ER&D? (2) What Can ER&D Accomplish? (3) What Makes ER&D Different? (4) What Do ER&D Participants…

  5. The Metalloprotease Mpl Supports Listeria monocytogenes Dissemination through Resolution of Membrane Protrusions into Vacuoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Diego E; Agaisse, Hervé

    2016-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an intracellular pathogen that disseminates within the intestinal epithelium through acquisition of actin-based motility and formation of plasma membrane protrusions that project into adjacent cells. The resolution of membrane protrusions into vacuoles from which the pathogen escapes results in bacterial spread from cell to cell. This dissemination process relies on the mlp-actA-plcB operon, which encodes ActA, a bacterial nucleation-promoting factor that mediates actin-based motility, and PlcB, a phospholipase that mediates vacuole escape. Here we investigated the role of the metalloprotease Mpl in the dissemination process. In agreement with previous findings showing that Mpl is required for PlcB activation, infection of epithelial cells with the ΔplcB or Δmpl strains resulted in the formation of small infection foci. As expected, the ΔplcB strain displayed a strong defect in vacuole escape. However, the Δmpl strain showed an unexpected defect in the resolution of protrusions into vacuoles, in addition to the expected but mild defect in vacuole escape. The Δmpl strain displayed increased levels of ActA on the bacterial surface in protrusions. We mapped an Mpl-dependent processing site in ActA between amino acid residues 207 to 238. Similar to the Δmpl strain, the ΔactA207-238 strain displayed increased levels of ActA on the bacterial surface in protrusions. Although the ΔactA207-238 strain displayed wild-type actin-based motility, it formed small infection foci and failed to resolve protrusions into vacuoles. We propose that, in addition to its role in PlcB processing and vacuole escape, the metalloprotease Mpl is required for ActA processing and protrusion resolution. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Radiological clinical correlation of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis with CD4 T lymphocyte counts in patients with V.I.H. in the San Juan de Dios Hospital during the period 2004 to the first half of 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Fallas, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The association between radiographic presentation of tuberculosis (TB), pulmonary and extrapulmonary, and the count of CD4 T lymphocytes in patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), are investigated. The order has been to achieve a diagnosis and isolation early of coinfected patients. A retrospective analysis was performed of the clinical history, chest radiograph, CD4 T lymphocyte count of 25 HIV-infected patients with documented pulmonary or extrapulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis. 18 patients diagnosed (72%) with radiologic atypical skipper, 14 of them with significant immunosuppression (TB patients with CD4 T count <200 / mm 3 ), while only 6 (24%) with radiologic typical skipper of TB was associated with negative sputum smears (p=0.06). In HIV patients with CD4 T lymphocyte counts T <200 / mm 3 , no respiratory symptoms and atypical radiographic pattern, may be suspected active TB, even with negative sputum smears. (Author) [es

  7. Dissemination of information in a networked environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, C.; Narayanan, A.

    1999-01-01

    The advent of Internet technology and its adoption by the organisations has resulted in the evolution of Intranets. Intranets ultimately use the technology to meet the information and computational needs to achieve organisational objectives and goals. Important services like E mail and Web are a handy solution to disseminate information for research and special libraries. The campus wide network and the creation of networked society are ubiquitous and an attempt has been made to extend the information service to the patrons by possible means. The role of library and information professionals in dissemination of information for the networked society is relevant and highly demanding. The right information for the right people at right time is to be achieved with available infrastructure. Few sample applications are described in this paper and the information need has to be met for the present and future networked information users. (author)

  8. Disseminated neurocysticercosis presenting as acute stress reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the most common and preventable parasitic infection of the central nervous system, but disseminated cysticercosis is said to be rare. We report a case of a 31-year-old male, who presented with anxiety manifestations temporally associated with stress related to job. After initial clinical improvement, he presented with an incapacitating headache which was diagnosed as disseminated neurocysticercosis after thorough evaluation and investigations. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with contrast showed multiple small hyperintense lesions involving bilateral, temporoparietal, occipital, gangliothalamic with ring enhancement. His cysticercosis antibody IgG serum (EIA was 2.05. The clinical management consisted of antihelminthic and antiepileptic drugs along with stress management.

  9. Dissemination of CERN Technologies Through External Entrepreneurs

    CERN Document Server

    Lande, Bjørnulf Visdal; Huuse, Henning

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on dissemination of innovations through external entrepreneurs. The innovations studied are developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and commercialized by entrepreneurs establishing spin-off companies on the outside of the Organization. The objective of this study is to provide knowledge to facilitate future external entrepreneurs to increase dissemination of CERN technologies. The research questions looks at the timeline from preparations for creating the spin-off company, until having a product for commercialization in the market. A qualitative cross case investigation was conducted to assess the experiences of four spin-off companies. A framework was created to structure the discussion by finding and categorizing impeding- and success factors seen from the entrepreneurs point of view. The findings where structured in three phases respectively, the time before starting the company, the beginning of the company and the final development before selling products. Th...

  10. Video based OER: Production, discovery, dissemination

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, Graham R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports lessons learned from a range of ESRC, HEA and Jisc funded projects. Four dimensions will be discussed, economic costs, quality, dissemination and pedagogy.\\ud \\ud Cost issues include the expense of making video, and the variety of skills and expertise required such as interviewing, scripting and editing. Quality issues are similar to those in broadcast video but not as great. However, there are specific requirements for special needs and issues around copyright and licensin...

  11. Tension Hydrothorax Related to Disseminated Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnaKate Deal, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 34-year-old woman presenting to the emergency department (ED with dyspnea, cough, and fever. She was found to have a tension hydrothorax and was treated with ultrasound-guided thoracentesis in the ED. Subsequent inpatient evaluation showed the patient had disseminated endometriosis. Tension hydrothorax has not been previously described in the literature as a complication of this disease.

  12. How Airbnb Captures and Disseminates Value

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Dolnicar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses two of the six vital business model elements, explaining the functioning of peer-to-peer accommodation networks: value capture and dissemination. The other elements are discussed in detail in Chapter 4. We focus on Airbnb because it is the international market leader. Separate business analyses are necessary for other peer-to-peer accommodation networks given that each functions in a slightly different way. In this chapter the business model value capture and value disse...

  13. Disseminated MRSA infection with purulent pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mada, Pradeep Kumar; Cady, Beth; De Silva, Anajana; Alam, Mohammad

    2017-03-30

    The risk of developing pericarditis secondary to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in the absence of preceding surgical procedure is extremely low. We present a case report of a 36-year-old woman who developed disseminated MRSA infection leading to purulent pericarditis. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Intrathecal chemotherapy for refractory disseminated medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Junichi; Nishiyama, Kenichi; Mori, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hideaki; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2008-05-01

    To analyze the effect of intrathecal (IT) chemotherapy for disseminated medulloblastoma. Twenty-one patients received IT chemotherapy using the chemotherapeutic agents of methotrexate (MTX) and nitrosoureas (ACNU, MCNU) including nine patients for residual leptomeningeal lesions after initial surgery and radiation, and 12 for a recurrence with leptomeningeal dissemination. Of these 21 patients, 12 received a lumbar and/or ventricular bolus injection of the chemotherapeutic agents, one received the ventriculolumbar perfusion of the agents, and eight received both the perfusion and bolus injection. The doses ranged from 6-7 mg/m(2) of ACNU for perfusion and 3-3.5 mg/m(2) of ACNU, MCNU, or MTX for the bolus injection, and the cycles were administered from 3 to 12 times for perfusion and from 5 to 54 times for the bolus injection. The effects of chemotherapy were assessed by both radiological and cytological examinations, and the clinical symptoms were also assessed. Radiological and/or cytological responses were observed in 10 of 21 patients (47.6%), including seven cases demonstrating a complete remission. The 5-year overall survival rate and 5-year survival rate after dissemination were 61.5 and 46.4%, respectively. Five patients who received a lumbar bolus injection of nitrosoureas experienced paraplegia and double incontinence. One patient who received a ventricular injection of nitrosoureas experienced truncal ataxia. IT chemotherapy was found to be effective in some cases with refractory disseminated medulloblastoma and it seems to be an appropriate treatment choice for leptomeningeal recurrence. However, the frequent bolus injections of nitrosoureas should be avoided to prevent the side effects.

  15. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Harnalikar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis, a systemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum var capsulatum and Histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii is endemic to many parts of the world. The clinical manifestations range from acute or chronic pulmonary infection to a progressive disseminated disease. After initial exposure to the fungus, the infection is self-limited and restricted to the lungs in 99% of healthy individuals. The remaining 1%, however, progress to either disseminated or chronic disease involving the lungs, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow or rarely, the skin and mucous membranes. Mucocutaneous histoplasmosis is frequently reported in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, but it is rare in immunocompetent hosts. A 60-year-old male presented with asymptomatic swelling of the hard palate and crusted papules and nodules over the extremities, face and trunk. Clinically, the diagnoses of cutaneous cryptococcosis versus histoplasmosis was considered in this patient. A chest X-ray revealed hilar lymphadenopathy. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV was nonreactive. Skin biopsy revealed multiple tiny intracellular round yeast forms with a halo in the mid-dermis. Culture of the skin biopsy in Sabouraud′s dextrose agar showed colonies of Histoplasma capsulatum. Despite an investigation including no evidence of underlying immunosuppression was found, he was started on IV amphotericin-B (0.5 mg/kg/day. However, the patient succumbed to his disease 2 days after presentation. We report a rare case of disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in an immunocompetent individual.

  16. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Felix Boon-Bin

    2011-10-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic fungal infection caused by the ubiquitous fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis is an uncommon entity and is usually present in the immunosuppressed. Here, a case of disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis in an immunocompetent patient is reported. This 70-year-old healthy woman presented with multiple painful ulcerated nodules on her face and upper and lower extremities of 6-month duration, associated with low-grade fever, night sweats, loss of appetite, and loss of weight. Histopathological examination of the skin biopsy revealed epidermal hyperplasia and granulomatous inflammation in the dermis, with budding yeast. Fungal culture identified S. schenckii. She had total resolution of the lesions after 2 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B and 8 months of oral itraconazole. All investigations for underlying immunosuppression and internal organ involvement were negative. This case reiterates that disseminated cutaneous sporotrichosis, although common in the immunosuppressed, can also be seen in immunocompetent patients. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Disseminated cryptococcosis in an immunocompetent patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhihal, B; Hasnaoui, A; Ghfir, I; Moustachi, A; Aoufi, S; Lyagoubi, M

    2015-09-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis is a serious opportunistic fungal infection caused by a yeast-encapsulated fungus of the genus Cryptococcus neoformans. It occurs most often in patients with a significant deficit of cellular immunity and preferentially affects the central nervous system. The skin and the lungs are the most commonly affected sites outside the neuro-subarachnoid location. We report the case of a patient apparently immunocompetent who had a disseminated cryptococcosis. The disease started with the multiple purplish skin lesions, large umbilicated on the face, groin, forearm and leg with progressively increasing volume. This symptomatology had evolved in the context of weight loss and poor general condition. The diagnosis was established by the presence of cryptococcal at the skin biopsy and cerebrospinal fluid. Research of immunosuppression common pathologies were negative. Treatment was initiated based on amphotericin B for 40 days. The patient's condition deteriorates onset of paraplegia and swallowing disorders causing death in an array of cachexia. This observation points out that disseminated cryptococcosis can occur in an immunocompetent patient. The skin lesions may be the first sign of the disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Computational scalability of large size image dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooper, Rob; Bajcsy, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the computational scalability of image pyramid building needed for dissemination of very large image data. The sources of large images include high resolution microscopes and telescopes, remote sensing and airborne imaging, and high resolution scanners. The term 'large' is understood from a user perspective which means either larger than a display size or larger than a memory/disk to hold the image data. The application drivers for our work are digitization projects such as the Lincoln Papers project (each image scan is about 100-150MB or about 5000x8000 pixels with the total number to be around 200,000) and the UIUC library scanning project for historical maps from 17th and 18th century (smaller number but larger images). The goal of our work is understand computational scalability of the web-based dissemination using image pyramids for these large image scans, as well as the preservation aspects of the data. We report our computational benchmarks for (a) building image pyramids to be disseminated using the Microsoft Seadragon library, (b) a computation execution approach using hyper-threading to generate image pyramids and to utilize the underlying hardware, and (c) an image pyramid preservation approach using various hard drive configurations of Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID) drives for input/output operations. The benchmarks are obtained with a map (334.61 MB, JPEG format, 17591x15014 pixels). The discussion combines the speed and preservation objectives.

  19. Information, Vol. 1, Number 4. Teacher Corps Dissemination Project Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenau, Fred S., Ed.

    Guidelines are provided for disseminating information on teacher corps projects. Information is given on experienced disseminators such as existing networks that are available to help in planning. Suggestions are made on targeting information and marketing. (JD)

  20. Evaluation of whole blood IFNgamma test using PPD and recombinant antigen challenge for diagnosis of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantri, Yatiraj; Hemvani, Nanda; Chitnis, D S

    2009-06-01

    Quantiferon TB gold (QFT-G) with recombinant antigen cocktail is well evaluated for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, diagnosis of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is more difficult due to limitations of conventional techniques. This study compares recombinant antigens based QFT-G and low cost PPD based interferon test for the diagnosis of PTB and EPTB. IFNgamma release, with recombinant antigens and PPD, was assayed by ELISA from 140 cases of EPTB, 100 cases of PTB along with acid fast bacillus (AFB) detection, AFB culture on LJ and MGIT BACTEC. Sensitivity and specificity for QFT-G recombinant antigens was 84.29% and 96%, while for PPD based interferon was 70% and 84% for EPTB group. The sensitivity was far superior to AFB smear and culture for both the antigens. Nine samples were identified as non-tubercular mycobacteria (NTM) in the EPTB group and all were negative for QFT-G, but six of them were positive for PPD based test. Results of the study show that QFT-G using recombinant antigen is sensitive and specific for both PTB and EPTB diagnosis. The PPD based test is economic and offers comparable performance for PTB and EPTB diagnosis and also useful for diagnosis of NTM.

  1. Xpert(®) MTB/RIF for improved case detection of extra-pulmonary TB in a tertiary care setting in urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraj, G; Kanade, S; Mehta, P

    2016-07-01

    Department of microbiology at a tertiary care hospital, Mumbai, India. To determine 1) the sensitivity and specificity of the Xpert(®) MTB/RIF assay in comparison with microscopy and culture in extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), and 2) the number of additional cases of EPTB and rifampicin (RMP) resistance detected using this assay. The study was conducted from July 2013 to April 2015. All consecutive patients with clinically suspected EPTB referred for microscopic examination to the Department of Microbiology that were sufficient in specimen volume were included in the study. Of the 728 specimens included in the study, respectively 5.5%, 23.5% and 20.9% were positive on smear, culture and Xpert. Compared to culture, Xpert had a sensitivity of 84.2% (95%CI 81.4-86.6) and specificity of 98.2% (95%CI 90-104). All specimens with high and medium load on assay were positive on culture; 28 (18.4%) specimens were RMP-resistant and 124 (81.6%) were Xpert-susceptible. No additional RMP-resistant cases were detected using Xpert as compared to phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. The ability of the Xpert assay to rapidly detect a significantly greater number of bacteriologically confirmed EPTB cases, including RMP-resistant cases, makes it an important diagnostic tool in a TB-endemic country.

  2. Importance of immunohistochemistry and application of TTF-1 and napsin A in differential diagnosis of primary pulmonary adenocarcinomas and pulmonary metastases of extrapulmonary origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulakova, A.; Hribikova, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The differential diagnosis between primary and secondary pulmonary adenocarcinomas is daily requisition for pathologist. Lungs are the most common site of metastases from various primary and primary pulmonary adenocarcinomas are one of the most common worldwide malignancies. Immunohistochemistry is useful method to determine the origin of tumor in case when histomorphology alone is insufficient in poor differentiated carcinomas. Accordingly, presence of enteric, clear cell, spindle cell and signet-ring cell features complicates determining of origin of adenocarcinomas. The most common and long-used lung specific immunohistochemical marker is TTF-1, but specificity and sensitivity is not 100%. Use of TTF-1 has pitfalls that complicate its routine use. TTF-1 alone is insufficient marker for determining of origin of adenocarcinoma in the lung. Newly used immunohistochemical marker is napsin A. According to many authors is sensitivity and specificity for napsin A higher than TTF-1. Use of TTF-1 and napsin A simultaneously increases sensitivity up to 85% for primary lung adenocarcinomas. Both immunohistochemical l markers can be expressed in various tumours of extrapulmonary origin that can metastasize to lung, thus specificity is not 100%. In cases of surgical resection of tumor wider panels of immunohistochemical antibodies are used. Small biopsies and cytological material is quantitative restricted and sometimes qualitatively deficient. It is sometimes complicated and even impossible for pathologist to determine primary origin of tumor. (author)

  3. 21 CFR 99.101 - Information that may be disseminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information that may be disseminated. 99.101 Section 99.101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Information To Be Disseminated § 99.101 Information that may be disseminated. (a) A manufacturer may...

  4. 48 CFR 3052.242-71 - Dissemination of contract information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.242-71 Dissemination of contract information. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3042.202-70, insert the following clause: Dissemination of Contract Information... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of contract...

  5. 48 CFR 2905.101 - Methods of disseminating information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... information. 2905.101 Section 2905.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION PLANNING PUBLICIZING CONTRACT ACTIONS Dissemination of Information 2905.101 Methods of disseminating... dissemination of information concerning procurement actions. The Division of Acquisition Management Services...

  6. 48 CFR 1252.242-72 - Dissemination of contract information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....242-72 Dissemination of contract information. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1242.7000(c), insert the following clause: Dissemination of Contract Information (OCT 1994) The Contractor shall not publish, permit... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of contract...

  7. 10 CFR 470.20 - Dissemination of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of information. 470.20 Section 470.20 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM § 470.20 Dissemination of information. DOE shall disseminate to the public, in an appropriate manner, information of the...

  8. 32 CFR 2400.28 - Dissemination of classified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of classified information. 2400.28... SECURITY PROGRAM Safeguarding § 2400.28 Dissemination of classified information. Heads of OSTP offices... originating official may prescribe specific restrictions on dissemination of classified information when...

  9. 45 CFR 1388.7 - Program criteria-dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) Introduction to dissemination: The UAP disseminates information and research findings, including... Affiliated Programs, and State service systems to disseminate information to target audiences. (e) The...) The UAP must be a resource for information for individuals with developmental disabilities and their...

  10. Fatal Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis and concomitant disseminated intravascular coagulation in a patient with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Min-Po

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial meningitis remains a major cause of death and long-term neurologic sequelae worldwide. We present a case of fatal Klebsiella pneumoniae meningitis and concomitant disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC in a 72-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus (DM. Both blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures grew Klebsiella pneumoniae . Due to advanced age, newly recognized DM, K. pneumoniae bacteremia, and DIC, the prognosis of our patient was poor. Eight hours after arrival to the emergency department, cardiopulmonary resuscitation was necessary in this patient, but she died despite an early diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  11. Palatal Actinomycosis and Kaposi Sarcoma in an HIV-Infected Subject with Disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuria Ablanedo-Terrazas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomyces and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare are facultative intracellular organisms, members of the bacterial order actinomycetales. Although Actinomyces can behave as copathogen when anatomic barriers are compromised, its coinfection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare has not previously been reported. We present the first reported case of palatal actinomycosis co-infection with disseminated MAC, in an HIV-infected subject with Kaposi sarcoma and diabetes. We discuss the pathogenesis of the complex condition of this subject.

  12. Bacterial toxins as pathogen weapons against phagocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana edo Vale

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial toxins are virulence factors that manipulate host cell functions and take over the control of vital processes of living organisms to favour microbial infection. Some toxins directly target innate immune cells, thereby annihilating a major branch of the host immune response. In this review we will focus on bacterial toxins that act from the extracellular milieu and hinder the function of macrophages and neutrophils. In particular, we will concentrate on toxins from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that manipulate cell signalling or induce cell death by either imposing direct damage to the host cells cytoplasmic membrane or enzymatically modifying key eukaryotic targets. Outcomes regarding pathogen dissemination, host damage and disease progression will be discussed.

  13. Disseminated toxocariasis in an immunocompetent host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Raj Aryal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Toxocara canis, or less commonly, Toxocara cati, which is one of the most common zoonotic infections worldwide. It commonly affects the pediatric and immunocompromised population; however, it has rarely been reported in the immunocompetent adults. Two of the well-recognized syndromes in children are visceral larva migrans and ocular larva migrans. Infection in adults usually ranges from asymptomatic to non-specific symptoms which makes the diagnosis challenging. A case of 36 year-old male was presented with disseminated toxocariasis with pulmonary and hepatic involvement and striking peripheral eosinophilia.

  14. Rapid weather information dissemination in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martsolf, J. D.; Heinemann, P. H.; Gerber, J. F.; Crosby, F. L.; Smith, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the Florida Agricultural Services and Technology (FAST) plan to provide ports for users to call for weather information is described. FAST is based on the Satellite Frost Forecast System, which makes a broad base of weather data available to its users. The methods used for acquisition and dissemination of data from various networks under the FAST plan are examined. The system provides color coded IR or thermal maps, precipitation maps, and textural forecast information. A diagram of the system is provided.

  15. Disseminated coccidoidomycosis in a koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Stalis, Ilse H; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2012-03-01

    A16-yr-old male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) presented for nonspecific signs of illness and weight loss. Despite 2 mo of diagnostics and supportive care, the koala's health declined and euthanasia was elected. On histopathologic examination, lesions containing fungal organisms morphologically consistent with coccidioidomycosis were found in the lung, liver, spleen, kidney, lymph node, heart, eye, and bone marrow. Although disseminated infection was present, the koala was IgM and IgG seronegative for Coccidioides spp. 1 mo prior to euthanasia.

  16. Reacción en cadena de la polimerasa: una contribución para el diagnóstico de la tuberculosis extrapulmonar y de las micobacteriosis Polymerase chain reaction (PCR: a contribution for diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and micobacteriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GLORIA PUERTO

    2007-06-01

    tuberculosas en 6 (10,3% pacientes, así: 4 (7% en esputo, 1 (1,75% en secreción de abdomen y 1 (1,75% en secreción de lesiones en piel. Un aislamiento de Mycobacterium chelonae de piel se asoció con un tratamiento previo con mesoterapia. No se encontró relación entre el estado de ¿portador de? VIH, con las patologías estudiadas. Discusión. Se presenta la PCR como una buena ayuda diagnóstica, específicamente, por la obtención de resultados en un lapso de 3 días.Introduction: The World Health Organization defines extrapulmonary tuberculosis as the disease located in any type of organ different from the lungs, and mycobacteriosis as the bacterial infection produced by environmental Mycobacteria. The diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and mycobacteriosis is achieved fundamentally by culture and later identification of bacteria by biochemical tests, as well as by sputum smear for the first case. Culture presents limitations specially related with the time of incubation that can last up to 12 weeks and with the sensitivity to the presence of the microorganism. Currently, molecular tools allow a decrease in the time of diagnosis. Among these tools, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR is a rapid test with good sensitivity and specificity for the identification of pathogenic Mycobacteria. Objective: To implement PCR as support to the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and mycobacteriosis to decrease the time in obtaining results and to contribute to the implementation of appropriate treatments for these diseases. Materials and methods: The study was carried out between June 2005 and August 2006. 57 clinical samples of 15 hospitals throughout the country were analyzed by PCR for the sequence of insertion of IS6110 and for the gene hsp65. Clinical information of the patients, age, sex, and VIH test were included. Results: Results of amplification for PCR IS6110 were positive in 6 patients suggesting extrapulmonary tuberculosis and for PCR hsp65 in an equivalent

  17. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzieff, V.; Alonso, I.; Vázquez, A.

    2004-01-01

    It is estimated that 20-25% of cases of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) relate to an underlying neoplasia primarily hematologic. It is estimated that about 5% of patients with solid tumors have CID clinic, although the incidence of subclinical alterations is much higher. The CID is not limited to the activation of the coagulation cascade, which leads to bleeding micro thrombosis and consumption of coagulation factors. Solid tumors are frequently associated adenocarcinomas producers mucin (especially gastric), usually in the context of a disseminated disease. The mucin may act as a promoter of the cascade, but probably it is a multi-event. High levels of TNF to produced by the tumor mass and chemotherapy-induced cell lysis have Also linked. Although the bleeding is usually oriented diagnosis, the most frequent cause of death is thrombosis. There are no specific tests for diagnosis. Elevated levels of D-dimer and products oriented fibrinogen degradation diagnosis. No reduction fibrinogen and almost always, one thrombocytopenia consumption. Treatment is complex and there is no consensus on many points. To recover the lost factors for consumption, it is recommended to use fresh frozen plasma and / or washed red blood cells. the heparin anticoagulation low dose is indicated since the disease causal can not be controlled quickly, but should not be initiated if there thrombocytopenia 50.000.El under profuse bleeding can require the use of tranexamic acid or EACA. Acute DIC, the case of our patient, is rare and very serious

  18. ANENT Activities for Knowledge Sharing and Dissemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Y.; Rho, S.; Chanyota, S.; Hanamitsu, K.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: This paper describes the main activities and achievement of the Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology (ANENT) related to knowledge sharing and dissemination in the Asia and Pacific region, and how it has strengthened its networks. Since the establishment of ANENT in 2004, the basic framework and infrastructure of collaboration among universities, R&D organizations, and training institutes have been established and improved. The ANENT web-portal was opened in 2004 to share, exchange, and disseminate information and experiences of interest for the educational communities in the region. A regional learning management system (LMS) was installed in the Korean server as an innovative tool for facilitating and promoting e-Learning. Using this LMS, six e-Training courses and five Train the Trainer (TTT) courses were implemented. In 2016, a newly launched four year IAEA Technical Cooperation project will facilitate ANENT activities to strengthen the nuclear knowledge management (NKM), develop the human resources and enhance young nuclear scientists’ and public understanding of nuclear science and technology. Internet technology will help implement these activities by providing effective and efficient methods and tools and use the regional scientific infrastructures such as research reactors for nuclear education and training through regional LMS. (author

  19. New trends in knowledge dissemination: TED Talks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Scotto di Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the key elements of ethos, pathos and logos linguistic strategies as some main features of TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design Talks, popularizing speeches aiming at Knowledge Dissemination. Through a comparison between the TED Talk ‘HIV - How to fight an epidemic of bad laws’, by Shereen El-Feki (2012a, and another speech held by the same author at the  2012 Symposia The Global Commission on HIV and the Law, addressed to specialists, the paper analyses TED Talks as an innovative tool of popularization, which breaches the typical triangularisation ‘scientist-mediator-audience’, bringing scientists directly into contact with their audiences. Drawing upon Aristotle’s three pillars of rhetoric, the paper analyses the strategies used to establish the ethos of the speech, by proposing a topic as morally worth of spreading; pathos, by creating a direct contact with the public; and logos, investigated through an analysis of the elements used to recontextualise scientific discourses into popularized speeches. The analysis suggests that TED Talks are a recodification, not a mere translation of texts; they are a means to disseminate knowledge reducing the asymmetry between audiences and scientists.

  20. Hydrogen Technical Analysis -- Dissemination of Information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Kervitsky, Jr.

    2006-03-20

    SENTECH is a small energy and environmental consulting firm providing technical, analytical, and communications solutions to technology management issues. The activities proposed by SENTECH focused on gathering and developing communications materials and information, and various dissemination activities to present the benefits of hydrogen energy to a broad audience while at the same time establishing permanent communications channels to enable continued two-way dialog with these audiences in future years. Effective communications and information dissemination is critical to the acceptance of new technology. Hydrogen technologies face the additional challenge of safety preconceptions formed primarily as a result of the crash of the Hindenburg. Effective communications play a key role in all aspects of human interaction, and will help to overcome the perceptual barriers, whether of safety, economics, or benefits. As originally proposed SENTECH identified three distinct information dissemination activities to address three distinct but important audiences; these formed the basis for the task structure used in phases 1 and 2. The tasks were: (1) Print information--Brochures that target the certain segment of the population and will be distributed via relevant technical conferences and traditional distribution channels. (2) Face-to-face meetings--With industries identified to have a stake in hydrogen energy. The three industry audiences are architect/engineering firms, renewable energy firms, and energy companies that have not made a commitment to hydrogen (3) Educational Forums--The final audience is students--the future engineers, technicians, and energy consumers. SENTECH will expand on its previous educational work in this area. The communications activities proposed by SENTECH and completed as a result of this cooperative agreement was designed to compliment the research and development work funded by the DOE by presenting the technical achievements and validations

  1. Pulmonary Hemorrhage Secondary to Disseminated Strongyloidiasis in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika P. Plata-Menchaca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to disseminated strongyloidiasis is an unusual, well-recognized entity in immunocompromised patients with autoimmune disease, which is associated with the hyperinfection syndrome, sepsis, and a high mortality rate. Case Presentation. We present a case of a 44-year-old Mexican woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and acute bacterial meningitis who developed pulmonary hemorrhage with acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, treated with broad spectrum systemic antibiotics and high dose methylprednisolone, who subsequently developed a characteristic purpuric skin eruption and septic shock and died two days later of refractory hypoxemia caused by massive pulmonary bleeding. The postmortem examination reports filariform larvae of S. stercolaris in lung, skin, and other organs. Conclusion. This case highlights the importance of considering disseminated strongyloidiasis in the differential diagnosis of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus, and screening for S. stercolaris infection before initiation of immunosuppressive therapy should be considered, especially in endemic areas. Disseminated strongyloidiasis has a high mortality rate, explained in part by absence of clinical suspicion.

  2. Ventricular metastasis resulting in disseminated intravascular coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Ian D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC complicates up to 7% of malignancies, the commonest solid organ association being adenocarcinoma. Transitional Cell Carcinoma (TCC has rarely been associated with DIC. Case presentation A 74-year-old woman with TCC bladder and DIC was found to have a cardiac lesion suspicious for metastatic disease. The DIC improved with infusion of plasma and administration of Vitamin K, however the cardiac lesion was deemed inoperable and chemotherapy inappropriate; given the patients functional status. We postulate that direct activation of the coagulation cascade by the intraventricular metastasis probably triggered the coagulopathy in this patient. Conclusion Cardiac metastases should be considered in cancer patients with otherwise unexplained DIC. This may influence treatment choices.

  3. Dissemination of photovoltaics in the Gambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Able-Thomas, U.; Pearsall, N.M. [University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Hill, R.; O`Keefe, P. [University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1995-11-01

    The Gambia has abundant solar energy but a significant shortfall in electrical generation and distribution capacity, along with a growing demand for electricity. This paper will outline areas in the application of photovoltaics (PV) in The Gambia which are both technically and economically viable. Photovoltaics is beginning to contribute to developmental efforts, but this contribution is rarely quantified. The paper will discuss the socio-economic benefits that The Gambia has derived from this appropriate technology. The application of PV on a scale much wider than at present will require strengthening of the infrastructure in PV systems, construction and maintenance and financing. The infrastructural needs of the country and its manufacturing capabilities will be assessed along with the organizational aspects for successful PV dissemination. (Author)

  4. Dissemination and geovisualization of territorial entities' history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Plumejeaud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an innovative solution for geovisualization of the demographic and administrative history of French municipalities, named "communes" in French. This solution allows for the open dissemination of such data. The challenge is to provide a web interface for unskilled users in order to help them understand complex information about the demographic evolution of French territories. Our approach combines interactive thematic, spatial, and temporal views. We describe our architecture, based on open-source technologies, and the organization of this imperfect geo-historical information in our spatiotemporal database. Our second contribution concerns the concept of an acquaintance graph that has been used to obtain an efficient design with good performance in our geovisualization website.

  5. Disseminated Pleural Siliconoma Mimicking Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiki; Tao, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuro; Yoshiyama, Koichi; Furukawa, Masashi; Yoshida, Kumiko; Okabe, Kazunori

    2015-12-01

    A 48-year-old woman with a 3-month history of back pain was admitted for further examination of multiple left pleural nodules. She had undergone bilateral breast augmentation with silicone implants 10 years previously. Nine years after the operation, both ruptured implants were removed, and autologous fat was injected. Computed tomography revealed multiple pleural nodules suggestive of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Thoracoscopic exploration revealed multiple pleural nodules with massive pleural adhesions. The nodules were filled with viscous liquid and were histologically determined to be siliconomas. Disseminated pleural siliconoma should be recognized as a late adverse event of silicone breast implantation. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Disseminated gonococcal infection: an unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj Lohani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gonococcus typically affects the mucosal surfaces but in rare cases can spread to bloodstream causing disseminated gonococcal infection (DGI. The usual presentation of DGI is rash, polyarthralgia, and tenosynovitis. We present the case of a 23-year-old female who presented to our hospital with pustular rash and tenosynovitis of hand and was sent home on Augmentin. Her symptoms worsened despite treatment and she presented back to the ED. On investigation, she was found to have DGI and was appropriately treated. DGI should be kept in mind in sexually active youngsters who have only one or two features of the classic triad of rash, tenosynovitis, and arthritis. Timely management and appropriate treatment of DGI is very important to avoid complications and morbidity.

  7. Climate indicators for Italy: calculation and dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiato, F.; Fioravanti, G.; Fraschetti, P.; Perconti, W.; Toreti, A.

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, meteorological data necessary and useful for climate studies are collected, processed and archived by a wide range of national and regional institutions. As a result, the density of the stations, the length and frequency of the observations, the quality control procedures and the database structure vary from one dataset to another. In order to maximize the use of those data for climate knowledge and climate change assessments, a computerized system for the collection, quality control, calculation, regular update and rapid dissemination of climate indicators was developed. The products publicly available through a dedicated web site are described, as well as an example of climate trends estimates over Italy, based on the application of statistical models on climate indicators from quality-checked and homogenised time series.

  8. Collection, verification, sharing and dissemination of data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Utzinger, Jürg; Kristensen, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    that would enable all project partners to have access through a password protected Internet-based data portal. This required anonymous agreement on several common standardised sample forms, ranging from the mundane but important issue of using the same units of measurement to more complex challenges......, for instance agreeing on the same protocols for double-treatment of praziquantel in different settings. With the experiences gained by the CONTRAST project, this paper discusses issues of data management and sharing in research projects in the light of the current donor demand, and offers advice and specific......The scientific community is charged with growing demands regarding the management of project data and outputs and the dissemination of key results to various stakeholders. We discuss experiences and lessons from CONTRAST, a multidisciplinary alliance that had been funded by the European Commission...

  9. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore, to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB)) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. 211 At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (authors)

  10. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in dengue viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Sulaiman, Wan Aliaa; Inche Mat, Liyana Najwa; Hashim, Hasnur Zaman; Hoo, Fan Kee; Ching, Siew Mooi; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohamed, Mohd Hazmi; Basri, Hamidon

    2017-09-01

    Dengue is the most common arboviral disease affecting many countries worldwide. An RNA virus from the flaviviridae family, dengue has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DEN-1-DEN-4). Neurological involvement in dengue can be classified into dengue encephalopathy immune-mediated syndromes, encephalitis, neuromuscular or dengue muscle dysfunction and neuro-ophthalmic involvement. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune mediated acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system following recent infection or vaccination. This monophasic illness is characterised by multifocal white matter involvement. Many dengue studies and case reports have linked ADEM with dengue virus infection but the association is still not clear. Therefore, this article is to review and discuss concerning ADEM in dengue as an immune-medicated neurological complication; and the management strategy required based on recent literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Optimal control of epidemic information dissemination over networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Yu; Cheng, Shin-Ming; Chen, Kwang-Cheng

    2014-12-01

    Information dissemination control is of crucial importance to facilitate reliable and efficient data delivery, especially in networks consisting of time-varying links or heterogeneous links. Since the abstraction of information dissemination much resembles the spread of epidemics, epidemic models are utilized to characterize the collective dynamics of information dissemination over networks. From a systematic point of view, we aim to explore the optimal control policy for information dissemination given that the control capability is a function of its distribution time, which is a more realistic model in many applications. The main contributions of this paper are to provide an analytically tractable model for information dissemination over networks, to solve the optimal control signal distribution time for minimizing the accumulated network cost via dynamic programming, and to establish a parametric plug-in model for information dissemination control. In particular, we evaluate its performance in mobile and generalized social networks as typical examples.

  12. Dissemination of Pathogens by Mobile Phones in a Single Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Canales, DPM, FACFAS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Superficial wound complications are among the most prevalent problems associated with any surgical procedures.  Infection rates of the primary hip and knee joint arthroplasty have been reduced with modern aseptic techniques but this rate may reach 20% in some revision procedures.  Mobile phones are frequently used in the hospital and operating room settings, regardless of their microbial load.    This study aimed to: 1 determine the level of bacterial contamination of mobile phones from resident physicians at Saint Vincent Charity Medical Center (SVCMC in Cleveland, Ohio; 2 determine the effectiveness of quaternary ammonium compound (QAC wipes; and 3 heighten awareness of potential dissemination of pathogens by mobile phones in the hospital setting. Materials & Methods: A total of fifty mobile phones were randomly sampled from podiatric surgical resident physicians and internal medicine resident physicians at SVCMC. For each mobile phone, a swab was collected from the touch screen prior to use of QAC wipes and following use of QAC wipes. Results: The results demonstrated that 82% (41/50 of mobile phone touch screens possessed polymicrobial organisms and 30% (15/50 of mobile phones possessed pathogenic organisms.  The vast majority of residents, 98% (49/50 used their phones within the hospital and 37% (18/49 used their phones inside patients’ room. Most of the residents, 86% (43/50, did not clean their phones on a daily basis and of the residents who did, a majority of them, 71% (5/7 used either dry wipes or alcohol wipes. Discussion: Sanitizing mobile phones with QAC disposable wipes was shown to be an effective infection control intervention as mobile phone touch screens showed no growth after two minutes of sanitization.  QAC could potentially decrease the transmission of microorganisms that cause diseases and reduce the risk of cross contamination infections from mobile phones.

  13. Phage inhibit pathogen dissemination by targeting bacterial migrants in a chronic infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darch, Sophie E.; Kragh, Kasper N.; Abbott, Evelyn A.

    2017-01-01

    The microbial communities inhabiting chronic infections are often composed of spatially organized micrometer-sized, highly dense aggregates. It has recently been hypothesized that aggregates are responsible for the high tolerance of chronic infections to host immune functions and antimicrobial...... production; however, seeding of new aggregates by dispersed migrants was inhibited. We propose a model in which aggregates provide a mechanism that allows P. aeruginosa to tolerate phage therapy during chronic infection without the need for genetic mutation. IMPORTANCE Bacteria in chronic infections often...... reside in communities composed of micrometer-sized, highly dense aggregates. A primary challenge for studying aggregates has been the lack of laboratory systems that promote natural aggregate formation in relevant environments. Here, we developed a growth medium that mimics chronic lung infection...

  14. Optimal channel choice for collaborative ad-hoc dissemination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Liang; Boudec, J-Y. L.; Vojnovic, M.

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative ad-hoc dissemination of information has been proposed as an efficient means to disseminate information among devices in a wireless ad-hoc network. Devices help in forwarding the information channels to the entire network, by disseminating the channels they subscribe to, plus others...... by a Metropolis-Hastings sampling algorithm. We also give a variant that accounts for battery level. This leads to a practical channel selection and re-selection algorithm that can be implemented without any central control....

  15. Dissemination strategy for Lean thinking in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannapfel, Petra; Poksinska, Bozena; Thomas, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to knowledge about dissemination strategies for Lean thinking throughout multiple healthcare organisations. The Ostergötland county council, Sweden (CCO) was chosen as a case study for an healthcare Lean-thinking dissemination strategies. Document analysis and interviews were used and results were compared with similar strategies employed by staff at the National Health Service Institute for Innovation (NHSI) and improvement in Great Britain and the Odense University Hospital in Denmark. The Lean improvement programme was introduced to tackle challenges such as an ageing society, rising care expectations and budgetary and economic constraints. It was designed as a long-term programme to create added value for patients and employee involvement. The dissemination strategy was: forming clear visions and objectives; piloting; training potential adopters; and formal dissemination. The CCO strategy was focused primarily on managers and was not meant to involve all staff until the implementation stage. Staff at the NHSI attempted to address nurses needs during dissemination, which questioned whether the CCO managers' dissemination strategy is sustainable. This paper inspires healthcare managers and decision makers who aim to disseminate Lean production in their organisations. There are many case studies describing Lean implementation in single healthcare organisations, but little is known about effective dissemination and implementation strategies in large healthcare systems. The authors, therefore, suggest activities for developing and implementing dissemination strategies in multiple healthcare organisations.

  16. Clinical characteristics associated with the intracranial dissemination of gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xu; Qin, Jun-Jie; Hao, Shu-Yu; Li, Huan; Zeng, Chun; Sun, Sheng-Jun; Yu, Lan-Bing; Gao, Zhi-Xian; Xie, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Glioma is the most common malignant tumor of the brain and the intracranial dissemination of gliomas is the late stage of the development of the tumor. However, there is little research in literature on the occurrence of intracranial dissemination of gliomas. In order to provide a reference for clinical work, we carried out this study on intracranial dissemination of glioma. A total of 629 patients with gliomas received tumor resection by the same surgeon from August 2010 to September 2015 were included in this study. The authors performed a retrospective review of the patients and the information regarding clinical features, histopathological results, molecular pathologic results and clinical outcomes was collected and analyzed. In this retrospective study, we found that the intracranial dissemination phenomenon occurred in 53 patients (8.43%). We analyzed the clinical characteristics of patients and found that the age at diagnosis (P = 0.011), WHO grade of the tumor (P dissemination. The higher grade of the tumor, the more prone to disseminate. Deletion of 1p/19q had no significant correlation with the intracranial dissemination. MMP9, Ki-67, and EGFR were highly expressed in tumor cells that caused dissemination, and the level of Ki-67 expression had significance in statistics (P 40 years), high pathological grade, invasion of the corpus callosum and high levels of Ki-67 expression were risk factors associated with the intracranial dissemination of gliomas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Mononuclear phagocytes contribute to intestinal invasion and dissemination of Yersinia enterocolitica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler-Hake, Doreen; Alamir, Hanin; Hahn, Julia; Günter, Manina; Wagner, Samuel; Schütz, Monika; Bohn, Erwin; Schenke-Layland, Katja; Pisano, Fabio; Dersch, Petra; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Autenrieth, Stella E

    2016-09-01

    Enteropathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) enters the host via contaminated food. After colonisation of the small intestine Ye invades the Peyer's patches (PPs) via M cells and disseminates to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), spleen and liver. Whether Ye uses other invasion routes and which pathogenicity factors are required remains elusive. Oral infection of lymphotoxin-β-receptor deficient mice lacking PPs and MLNs with Ye revealed similar bacterial load in the spleen 1h post infection as wild-type mice, demonstrating a PP-independent dissemination route for Ye. Immunohistological analysis of the small intestine revealed Ye in close contact with mononuclear phagocytes (MPs), specifically CX3CR1(+) monocyte-derived cells (MCs) as well as CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs). This finding was confirmed by flow cytometry and imaging flow cytometry analysis of lamina propria (LP) leukocytes showing CD103(+) DCs and MCs with intracellular Ye. Uptake of Ye by LP CD103(+) DCs and MCs was dependent on the pathogenicity factor invasin, whereas the adhesin YadA was dispensable as demonstrated by Ye deletion mutants. Furthermore, Ye were found exclusively associated with CD103(+) DCs in the MLNs from wild-type mice, but not from CCR7(-/-) mice, demonstrating a CCR7 dependent transport of Ye by CD103(+) DCs from LP to the MLNs. In contrast, dissemination of Ye to the spleen was dependent on MCs as significantly less Ye could be recovered from the spleen of CX3CR1(GFP/GFP) mice compared to wild-type mice. Altogether, MCs and CD103(+) DCs contribute to immediate invasion and dissemination of Ye. This together with data from other bacteria suggests MPs as general pathogenic entry site in the intestine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Agricultural information dissemination using ICTs: A review and analysis of information dissemination models in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Zhang; Lei Wang; Yanqing Duan

    2016-01-01

    Over the last three decades, China’s agriculture sector has been transformed from the traditional to modern practice through the effective deployment of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Information processing and dissemination have played a critical role in this transformation process. Many studies in relation to agriculture information services have been conducted in China, but few of them have attempted to provide a comprehensive review and analysis of different informatio...

  19. Epidemiology, Diagnosis and Management of Extra-Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Low-Prevalence Country: A Four Year Retrospective Study in an Australian Tertiary Infectious Diseases Unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Pollett

    Full Text Available Extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB is relatively neglected and increasing in incidence, in comparison to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in low-burden settings. It poses particular diagnostic and management challenges. We aimed to determine the characteristics of EPTB in Western Sydney, Australia, and to conduct a quality assurance investigation of adherence to guidelines among Infectious Diseases (ID practitioners managing EPTB cases.All adult EPTB cases managed by a large ID service during 01/01/2008-31/12/2011 were eligible for inclusion in the retrospective review. Data were extracted from patient medical records on demographic, diagnostic, clinical and management details, and on clinician adherence to local and international TB guidelines.129 cases managed by the ID service were identified, with files available for 117. 98 cases were managed by the Respiratory service and were excluded. 98.2%(112/114 had been born in a country other than Australia. HIV status was tested or previously known in 97 people, and positive in 4 (4%. Microbiological confirmation was obtained in 68/117 (58.1%, an additional 24 had histopathological findings considered confirmatory (92/117, 78.6%, with the remainder diagnosed on clinical and/or radiological grounds. Median time to diagnosis post-migration from a high TB-burden country was 5 years (range 0-41. 95 cases were successfully treated, 11 cases defaulted, refused therapy or transferred, 2 cases relapsed and outcomes unknown or pending in 9 cases. No deaths occurred in the sample analysed. Clinician adherence to guidelines was high, but with scope for improvement in offering testing for co-infections, performing eye checks, monitoring blood glucose in patients receiving adjunctive corticosteroids, and considering drug interactions.Despite excellent TB outcomes in this setting, the low proportion of cases with susceptibility data is worrying in this era of increasing drug resistance, and illustrates the diagnostic

  20. Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Clinical Specimens of Patients Suspected of Having Extrapulmonary Tuberculosis by Application of Nested PCR on Five Different Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Azar D; Alami, Ameneh; Meghdadi, Hossein; Hosseini, Atta A

    2017-01-01

    Definitive and rapid diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) is challenging since conventional techniques have limitations due to the paucibacillary nature of the disease. To increase the sensitivity of detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in EPTB specimens, we performed a nested PCR assay targeting several genes of MTB on EPTB specimens. A total of 100 clinical specimens from suspected cases of EPTB were processed. Standard staining for acid fast bacilli (AFB) was performed as the preliminary screening test. Extracted DNAs from specimens were subjected to Nested PCR technique for the detection of five different MTB target genes of IS6110, IS1081, hsp65kd, mbp64 , and mtp40 . On performing AFB staining, only 13% of specimens were positive, of which ascites fluid (33.3%), followed by pleural effusion (30.8%) showed the greatest AFB positivity rate. We demonstrated slight improvement in yields in lymph node which comprised the majority of specimens in this study, by employing PCR targeted to IS6110 - and hsp65-genes in comparison to AFB staining. However, the yields in ascites fluid and pleural effusion were not substantially improved by PCR, but those from bone and wound were, as in nested PCR employing either gene, the same positivity rate were obtained for ascites fluid (33.3%), while for pleural effusion specimens only IS1081 based PCR showed identical positivity rate with AFB stain (30.8%). The results for bone and wound specimens, however, demonstrated an improved yield mainly by employing IS1081 gene. Here, we report higher detection rate of EPTB in clinical specimens using five different targeted MTB genes. This nested PCR approach facilitates the comparison and the selection of the most frequently detected genes. Of course this study demonstrated the priority of IS1081 followed by mtp40 and IS6110 , among the five tested genes and indicates the effectiveness of any of the three genes in the design of an efficient nested-PCR test that

  1. Bacterial lung abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groskin, S.A.; Panicek, D.M.; Ewing, D.K.; Rivera, F.; Math, K.; Teixeira, J.; Heitzman, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    A retrospective review of patients with bacterial lung abscess was carried out. Demographic, clinical, and radiographical features of this patient group are compared with similar data from patients with empyema and/or cavitated lung carcinoma; differential diagnostic points are stressed. The entity of radiographically occult lung abscess is discussed. Complications associated with bacterial lung abscess are discussed. Current therapeutic options and treatment philosophy for patients with bacterial lung abscess are noted

  2. Connecting Network Properties of Rapidly Disseminating Epizoonotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Ariel L.; Fasina, Folorunso O.; Hoogesteyn, Almira L.; Konah, Steven N.; Febles, José L.; Perkins, Douglas J.; Hyman, James M.; Fair, Jeanne M.; Hittner, James B.; Smith, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background To effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. To test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure. Methods Using geo-temporal data collected from epizoonotics in which all hosts were susceptible (mammals infected by Foot-and-mouth disease virus, Uruguay, 2001; birds infected by Avian Influenza virus H5N1, Nigeria, 2006), two models were compared: 1) ‘connectivity’, a model that integrated bio-physical concepts (the agent’s transmission cycle, road topology) into indicators designed to measure networks (‘nodes’ or infected sites with short- and long-range links), and 2) ‘contacts’, which focused on infected individuals but did not assess connectivity. Results The connectivity model showed five network properties: 1) spatial aggregation of cases (disease clusters), 2) links among similar ‘nodes’ (assortativity), 3) simultaneous activation of similar nodes (synchronicity), 4) disease flows moving from highly to poorly connected nodes (directionality), and 5) a few nodes accounting for most cases (a “20∶80″ pattern). In both epizoonotics, 1) not all primary cases were connected but at least one primary case was connected, 2) highly connected, small areas (nodes) accounted for most cases, 3) several classes of nodes were distinguished, and 4) the contact model, which assumed all primary cases were identical, captured half the number of cases identified by the connectivity model. When assessed together, the synchronicity and directionality properties explained when and where an infectious disease spreads. Conclusions Geo-temporal constructs of Network Theory’s nodes and links were retrospectively validated in rapidly disseminating infectious diseases. They distinguished

  3. DISSEMINATING MULTICULTURALISM THROUGH THE TEACHING OF TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arido Laksono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 ABSTRACT Students are expected to change the world. Their perspectives represent the way they view the world and its phenomena. The broader knowledge they possess, the more tolerance they have in interpreting life. In the global era, students should understand the importance of having good knowledge in multiculturalism. They will involve in an inter-cultural encounter since sources of information are widely offered. The willingness to have such an open mind is required in order to develop a better place to live and work. One way to disseminate multiculturalism values is using text containing information about culture and social values. The text written in English or Bahasa Indonesia for the class designed in disseminating multiculturalism is Translation. Here, students are taught to interpret the messages conveyed and translate the information from the source language to the target language correctly. Teacher must have good and creative technique in delivering the material so that students really enjoy the class and deeply understand the topic. The teaching and learning process in Translation class, therefore, is an effective medium to achieve the expected purpose as stated above. Theory of translation will not be the one and only theory to do the translation job, but it also needs comprehensive knowledge on other social sciences. Hence, translation class will not only discuss lines of words in a paragraph, but also reciprocal discussion among the members of the class. At the end, students will have the ability to translate such information in a text correctly and to establish civic society with more open comprehension over society and its culture. Keywords: theory of translation, multiculturalism, teaching-learning process, globalization. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0

  4. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  5. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A case series and review of literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Rezai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a rare immune mediated and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that usually affects children. It is a monophasic disorder related with multifocal neurologic symptoms. In this paper, we report seven cases of Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in pediatrics in addition; a review of literatures is presented.

  6. Identifying the challenges of creating an optimal dissemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is crucial that census data is disseminated in such a way that it satisfies most user needs as far as possible, to ensure that there is optimum use of the information and that maximum value for money is provided. In the past, Statistics South Africa disseminated data at the same geographic level created for data collection.

  7. Do Haphazard Reviews Provide Sound Directions for Dissemination Efforts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrill, Eileen; Littell, Julia H.

    2010-01-01

    Comments on The dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments: A review of current efforts by Kathryn R. McHugh and David H. Barlow. The lead article in the February-March issue by McHugh and Barlow (2010) emphasized the need for "dissemination and implementation of evidence-based psychological treatments."…

  8. Study on Dissemination Patterns in Location-Aware Gossiping Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Nobuharu; Baba, Teruyuki; Yoshikawa, Takashi; Morikawa, Hiroyuki

    We study the properties of information dissemination over location-aware gossiping networks leveraging location-based real-time communication applications. Gossiping is a promising method for quickly disseminating messages in a large-scale system, but in its application to information dissemination for location-aware applications, it is important to consider the network topology and patterns of spatial dissemination over the network in order to achieve effective delivery of messages to potentially interested users. To this end, we propose a continuous-space network model extended from Kleinberg's small-world model applicable to actual location-based applications. Analytical and simulation-based study shows that the proposed network achieves high dissemination efficiency resulting from geographically neutral dissemination patterns as well as selective dissemination to proximate users. We have designed a highly scalable location management method capable of promptly updating the network topology in response to node movement and have implemented a distributed simulator to perform dynamic target pursuit experiments as one example of applications that are the most sensitive to message forwarding delay. The experimental results show that the proposed network surpasses other types of networks in pursuit efficiency and achieves the desirable dissemination patterns.

  9. 44 CFR 19.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 19.140 Dissemination of policy. (a... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of policy. 19.140 Section 19.140 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  10. Health information dissemination for breast cancer awareness, early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is to explore how information about breast cancer (BC) is disseminated to working class mothers in Lagos State. It is to investigate how information disseminated is used by the respondents to detect early this deadly disease and ascertain if they are aware of any support by organisation and the government.

  11. Host defence against disseminated and invasive candida albicans infections.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The yeast Candida albicans is the primary etiologic agent of disseminated and invasive candidiasis. The incidence of disseminated and invasive candidiasis has paralleled the use of modern medical procedures that adversely affect the immune system, and highlights the difficulty of treating

  12. An Adaptive Directed Query Dissemination Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatterjea, Supriyo; De Luigi, Simone; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Sun, M.T.

    This paper describes a directed query dissemination scheme, DirQ that routes queries to the appropriate source nodes based on both constant and dynamicvalued attributes such as sensor types and sensor values. Unlike certain other query dissemination schemes, location information is not essential for

  13. 48 CFR 1205.101 - Methods of disseminating information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of disseminating information. 1205.101 Section 1205.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... disseminating information. (b) The DOT Office of Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization (S-40), 400 7th...

  14. Fair and adaptive data dissemination for traffic information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza Schwartz, Ramon; Ohazulike, Anthony; Sommer, Christoph; Scholten, Johan; Dressler, Falko; Havinga, Paul J.M.; IEEE,

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) are expected to serve as support to the development of not only safety applications but also information-rich applications that disseminate relevant data to vehicles. Due to the continuous collection, processing, and dissemination of data, one crucial requirement

  15. Report on dissemination, monitoring and research into policy repository

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chereches, Razvan; Rus, Diana; Aro, Arja R.

    This report covers the dissemination activities of the project REPOPA months 2 to 60 (November 2011 to September 2016). This is the second major report of the dissemination work package (WP6) submitted to the European Commission (EC), which was aimed to provide the detailed results for disseminat...

  16. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; Akute disseminierte Enzephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Politi, M.; Papanagiotou, P.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Roth, C.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute widespread autoimmune demyelinating condition, which principally affects the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. It usually follows an infection or vaccination. The typical presentation is that of multifocal neurologic disturbances accompanied by change in mental status. CSF analysis reveals lymphocytic pleocytosis and elevated protein content, but may also yield normal results. MRI is regarded as the diagnostic imaging modality of choice and typically demonstrates involvement of deep cerebral hemispheric and subcortical white matter as well as lesions in the basal ganglia, gray-white junction, diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellum and spinal cord. Unlike multiple sclerosis (MS), ADEM has a monophasic course and a favorable long-term prognosis. (orig.) [German] Die akute disseminierte Enzephalomyelitis (ADEM) ist eine akut auftretende autoimmune demylinisierende Erkrankung der weissen Substanz, die hauptsaechlich Gehirn und Rueckenmark befaellt. Ueblicherweise tritt sie nach einer Infektion oder Impfung auf. Die Entwicklung einer fokalen oder multifokalen neurologischen Funktionsstoerung ist das Kennzeichen der klinischen Praesentation der ADEM. Lymphozytaere Pleozytose und Eiweisserhoehung sind typische Befunde in der Liquoruntersuchung. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) ist die Untersuchungsmethode der Wahl. Die ADEM-Laesionen sind typischerweise gross, multipel und asymmetrisch. Sie koennen in den Gross- und Kleinhirnhemisphaeren, im Hirnstamm und im Rueckenmark lokalisiert sein. Die subkortikale und die zentrale weisse Substanz sind am haeufigsten befallen. Weniger haeufig ist die graue Substanz der Thalami und der Basalganglien betroffen. Im Gegensatz zur Multiplen Sklerose (MS) ist die Prognose der ADEM im Allgemeinen guenstig. (orig.)

  17. Modeling news dissemination on nuclear issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis Junior, Jose S.B.; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Menezes, Mario O., E-mail: jsbrj@ime.usp.b, E-mail: barroso@ipen.b, E-mail: mario@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Using a modified epidemiological model, the dissemination of news by media agents after the occurrence of large scale disasters was studied. A modified compartmented model was developed in a previous paper presented at INAC 2007. There it used to study to the Chernobyl's nuclear accident (1986) and the Concorde airplane crash (2000). Now the model has been applied to a larger and more diverse group of events - nuclear, non-nuclear and naturally caused disasters. To be comprehensive, old and recent events from various regions of the world were selected. A more robust news repository was used, and improved search techniques were developed to ensure that the scripts would not count false positive news. The same model was used but with improved non-linear embedded simulation optimization algorithms to generate the parameters of interest for our model. Individual parameters and some specific combination of them allow some interesting perceptions on how the nature of the accident / disaster gives rise to different profiles of growth and decay of the news. In our studies events involving nuclear causes generate news repercussion with more explosive / robust surge profiles and longer decaying tails than those of other natures. As a consequence of these differences, public opinion and policy makers are also much more sensitive to some issues than to others. The model, through its epidemiological parameters, shows in quantitative manner how 'nervous' the media content generators are with respect to nuclear installations and how resilient this negative feelings about nuclear is. (author)

  18. MRI findings of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sei Jung; Suh, Jung Ho; Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, Tae Sub; Lee, So Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    Acute disseminate encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating disease of probable autoimmune etiology. The MR images of patients with clinically suspected ADEM were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical symptoms occurred 5 days to 1 month after viral upper respiratory infection (4) and Coxsakie viral infection (1). The symptoms had begun with fever (3), headache (3), sore throat (1), and drowsy mental state (1), which progressed with monophasic course to altered mental change (2), extremity weakness (2), seizure (1) and/or cerebellar symptom (1). MRI findings of ADEM showed patchy (4), non hemorrhagic (5), asymmetric (5) high signal intensity lesions on T2-weighted images. The number of the lesions was mostly multiple (4). The lesions mainly involved the brain stem (3) and subcortical while matter (3). Follow-up MR images of 13 days to 20 days after high dose steroid therapy showed marked improvement in two of three, which well corrected with clinical manifestations. MR finding of multiple, patchy, nonhemorrhagic and asymmetric lesions in subcortical white matter and brain stem on T2-weighted images seem to be characteristic features of ADEM, but nonspecific. Therefore, clinical correlation is required in evaluating ADEM.

  19. Vasogenic edema characterizes pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Sreedher, Gayathri; Bailey, Ariel [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Laney, Ernest John [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rush University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); La Colla, Luca [University of Parma, Department of Anesthesiology, Parma (Italy); UPMC Shadyside Hospital, Department of Emergency Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Alper, Gulay [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Neuroimmunology Clinic, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-08-15

    MR imaging criteria for diagnosing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have not been clearly established. Due to the wide spectrum of differential considerations, new imaging features allowing early and accurate diagnosis for ADEM are needed. We hypothesized that ADEM lesions would be characterized by vasogenic edema due to the potential reversibility of the disease. Sixteen patients who met the diagnostic criteria for ADEM proposed by the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG) and had complete MR imaging studies performed at our institution during the acute phase of the disease were identified retrospectively and evaluated by experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. Vasogenic edema was demonstrated on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in 12 out of 16 patients; cytotoxic edema was identified in two patients while the other two patients displayed no changes on DWI/ADC. ADC values for lesions and normal-appearing brain tissue were 1.39 ± 0.45 x 10{sup -3} and 0.81 ± 0.09 x 10{sup -3} mm/s{sup 2}, respectively (p = 0.002). When considering a cutoff of 5 days between acute and subacute disease, no difference between ADC values in acute vs. subacute phase was depicted. However, we found a significant correlation and an inverse and significant relationship between time and ADC value. We propose that vasogenic edema is a reliable diagnostic sign of acute neuroinflammation in ADEM. (orig.)

  20. Vasogenic edema characterizes pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuccoli, Giulio; Panigrahy, Ashok; Sreedher, Gayathri; Bailey, Ariel; Laney, Ernest John; La Colla, Luca; Alper, Gulay

    2014-01-01

    MR imaging criteria for diagnosing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) have not been clearly established. Due to the wide spectrum of differential considerations, new imaging features allowing early and accurate diagnosis for ADEM are needed. We hypothesized that ADEM lesions would be characterized by vasogenic edema due to the potential reversibility of the disease. Sixteen patients who met the diagnostic criteria for ADEM proposed by the International Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group (IPMSSG) and had complete MR imaging studies performed at our institution during the acute phase of the disease were identified retrospectively and evaluated by experienced pediatric neuroradiologists. Vasogenic edema was demonstrated on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and corresponding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps in 12 out of 16 patients; cytotoxic edema was identified in two patients while the other two patients displayed no changes on DWI/ADC. ADC values for lesions and normal-appearing brain tissue were 1.39 ± 0.45 x 10 -3 and 0.81 ± 0.09 x 10 -3 mm/s 2 , respectively (p = 0.002). When considering a cutoff of 5 days between acute and subacute disease, no difference between ADC values in acute vs. subacute phase was depicted. However, we found a significant correlation and an inverse and significant relationship between time and ADC value. We propose that vasogenic edema is a reliable diagnostic sign of acute neuroinflammation in ADEM. (orig.)

  1. Modeling news dissemination on nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis Junior, Jose S.B.; Barroso, Antonio C.O.; Menezes, Mario O.

    2011-01-01

    Using a modified epidemiological model, the dissemination of news by media agents after the occurrence of large scale disasters was studied. A modified compartmented model was developed in a previous paper presented at INAC 2007. There it used to study to the Chernobyl's nuclear accident (1986) and the Concorde airplane crash (2000). Now the model has been applied to a larger and more diverse group of events - nuclear, non-nuclear and naturally caused disasters. To be comprehensive, old and recent events from various regions of the world were selected. A more robust news repository was used, and improved search techniques were developed to ensure that the scripts would not count false positive news. The same model was used but with improved non-linear embedded simulation optimization algorithms to generate the parameters of interest for our model. Individual parameters and some specific combination of them allow some interesting perceptions on how the nature of the accident / disaster gives rise to different profiles of growth and decay of the news. In our studies events involving nuclear causes generate news repercussion with more explosive / robust surge profiles and longer decaying tails than those of other natures. As a consequence of these differences, public opinion and policy makers are also much more sensitive to some issues than to others. The model, through its epidemiological parameters, shows in quantitative manner how 'nervous' the media content generators are with respect to nuclear installations and how resilient this negative feelings about nuclear is. (author)

  2. Intracranial tumors with risk of dissemination in neuroaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, F.A.; Hornedo, J.; de la Torre, A.; Sachetti, A.; Arellano, A.; Aramburo, P.; Aragon, G.; Otero, J.

    1983-01-01

    The experience of the Radiotherapy Service, Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain), in the treatment of intracranial tumors with risk of neural axis dissemination is analyzed. In 15 years (1964 to 1979) 415 primary central nervous system tumors were studied and treated; 67 corresponded to tumors with risk of meningeal dissemination. Clinical dissemination in cerebrospinal fluid was proven in 14 patients. The actuarial survival of 10 years for patients with neural axis dissemination, without prophylactic treatment to the neuroaxis, is 14% with an average survival of 10.5 months. In approximately 20% of meduloblastomas, ependymal and pineal region tumors, meningeal metastases at some distance from the primary tumor can take place. Patients at risk with these types of neoplasia must be identified, ad an adequate radical therapeutic focus devised, not only for the primary tumor, but also for the risk of dissemination

  3. The importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegić, Merima; Numanović, Fatima; Delibegović, Zineta; Tihić, Nijaz; Nurkić, Mahmut; Hukić, Mirsada

    2013-03-01

    Candidiasis is defined as an infection or disease caused by a fungus of the genus Candida. Rate of disseminated candidiasis increases with the growth of the number of immunocompromised patients. In the the last few decades the incidence of disseminated candidiasis is in growth as well as the mortality rate. The aim of this survey is to show the importance of serological tests implementation in disseminated candidiasis diagnose. This is a prospective study involving 60 patients with malign diseases with and without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis and 30 healthy people who represent the control group. Apart from hemoculture, detection of circulating mannan antigen and adequate antibodies of Candida species applying comercial ELISA test was determined in each patient. This survey deals with relevant factors causing disseminated candidiasis. This survey showed that the group of patients with clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis had more patients with positive hemoculture to Candida species, then the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis. The number of patients being examined and positive to antigens and antibodies was higher (p candidiasis (7/30; 23.3%), then in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis (0/30; 0%): Average value of titra antigen was statistically higher (p candidiasis 6/30 (20%) of patients had Candida spp.positive hemocultures while in the group of patients without clinical signs of disseminated candidiasis 1/30 (3.3%) of patients had Candida spp. positive hemocultures, which was considerably higher (p candidiasis were statistically significant, while correlation of results of hemoculture and antibodies was insignificant. Because of low sensitivity of hemoculture and time needed for isolation of Candida spp., introducing serological tests in regular procedures would speed disseminated candidiasis diagnose.

  4. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    . As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  5. Converting hard copy documents for electronic dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, F.

    1994-12-31

    Since the advent of computer systems, the goal of a paperless office, and even a paperless society, has been pursued. While the normal paper flow in an organization is far from totally automated, particularly for items requiring signatures or authorizations, electronic information dissemination is becoming an almost simple task. The reasons for providing on-line documents are many and include faster and easier access for everyone, elimination of printing costs, reduction of wasted shelf and desk space, and the security of having a centrally-located, always up-to-date document. New computer software even provides the user with the ability to annotate documents and to have bookmarks so that the old scribbled-in and dog-eared manual can be replaced without loosing this `customizability`. Moreover, new hypermedia capabilities mean that documents can be read in a non-linear fashion and can include color figures and photographs, audio, and even animation sequences, capabilities which exceed those of paper. The proliferation of network-based information servers, coupled with the growth of the Internet, has enticed academic, governmental, and even commercial organizations to provide increasing numbers of documents and data bases in electronic form via the network, not just to internal staff, but to the public as well. Much of this information, which includes everything from mundane company procedures to spiffy marketing brochures, was previously published only in hard copy. Converting existing documents to electronic form and producing only electronic versions of new documents poses some interesting challenges to the maintainer or author.

  6. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna S. Nagel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C, had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  7. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

    2013-02-14

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  8. Influence of river discharge on abundance and dissemination of heterotrophic, indicator and pathogenic bacteria along the East Coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, V R; Srinivas, T N R; Sarma, V V S S

    2015-06-15

    In order to examine the influence of discharge from different rivers from peninsular India and urban sewage on intensity and dissemination of heterotrophic, indicator and pathogenic bacteria, a study was carried out during peak discharge period along coastal Bay of Bengal. The coastal Bay received freshwater inputs from the river Ganges while Godavari and Krishna contributed to the south. Contrasting difference in salinity, temperature, nutrients and organic matter was observed between north and south east coast of India. The highest heterotrophic, indicator and pathogenic bacterial abundance was observed in the central coastal Bay that received urban sewage from the major city. Intensity and dissemination of heterotrophic, indicator and pathogenic bacteria displayed linear relation with magnitude of discharge. The coliform load was observed up to 100km from the coast suggesting that marine waters were polluted during the monsoon season and its impact on the ecosystem needs further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Liver Capsular Network of Monocyte-Derived Macrophages Restricts Hepatic Dissemination of Intraperitoneal Bacteria by Neutrophil Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierro, Frederic; Evrard, Maximilien; Rizzetto, Simone; Melino, Michelle; Mitchell, Andrew J; Florido, Manuela; Beattie, Lynette; Walters, Shaun B; Tay, Szun Szun; Lu, Bo; Holz, Lauren E; Roediger, Ben; Wong, Yik Chun; Warren, Alessandra; Ritchie, William; McGuffog, Claire; Weninger, Wolfgang; Le Couteur, David G; Ginhoux, Florent; Britton, Warwick J; Heath, William R; Saunders, Bernadette M; McCaughan, Geoffrey W; Luciani, Fabio; MacDonald, Kelli P A; Ng, Lai Guan; Bowen, David G; Bertolino, Patrick

    2017-08-15

    The liver is positioned at the interface between two routes traversed by pathogens in disseminating infection. Whereas blood-borne pathogens are efficiently cleared in hepatic sinusoids by Kupffer cells (KCs), it is unknown how the liver prevents dissemination of peritoneal pathogens accessing its outer membrane. We report here that the hepatic capsule harbors a contiguous cellular network of liver-resident macrophages phenotypically distinct from KCs. These liver capsular macrophages (LCMs) were replenished in the steady state from blood monocytes, unlike KCs that are embryonically derived and self-renewing. LCM numbers increased after weaning in a microbiota-dependent process. LCMs sensed peritoneal bacteria and promoted neutrophil recruitment to the capsule, and their specific ablation resulted in decreased neutrophil recruitment and increased intrahepatic bacterial burden. Thus, the liver contains two separate and non-overlapping niches occupied by distinct resident macrophage populations mediating immunosurveillance at these two pathogen entry points to the liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cacades: A reliable dissemination protocol for data collection sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Song, W.; Huang, R.; Xu, M.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.; Pei, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast and reliable data dissemination protocol Cascades to disseminate data from the sink(base station) to all or a subset of nodes in a data collection sensor network. Cascades makes use of the parentmonitor-children analogy to ensure reliable dissemination. Each node monitors whether or not its children have received the broadcast messages through snooping children's rebroadcasts or waiting for explicit ACKs. If a node detects a gap in its message sequences, it can fetch the missing messages from its neighbours reactively. Cascades also considers many practical issues for field deployment, such as dynamic topology, link/node failure, etc.. It therefore guarantees that a disseminated message from the sink will reach all intended receivers and the dissemination is terminated in a short time period. Notice that, all existing dissemination protocols either do not guarantee reliability or do not terminate [1, 2], which does not meet the requirement of real-time command control. We conducted experiment evaluations in both TOSSIM simulator and a sensor network testbed to compare Cascades with those existing dissemination protocols in TinyOS sensor networks, which show that Cascades achieves a higher degree of reliability, lower communication cost, and less delivery delay. ??2009 IEEE.

  11. A Spread Willingness Computing-Based Information Dissemination Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhiming; Zhang, Shukui

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a kind of spread willingness computing based on information dissemination model for social network. The model takes into account the impact of node degree and dissemination mechanism, combined with the complex network theory and dynamics of infectious diseases, and further establishes the dynamical evolution equations. Equations characterize the evolutionary relationship between different types of nodes with time. The spread willingness computing contains three factors which have impact on user's spread behavior: strength of the relationship between the nodes, views identity, and frequency of contact. Simulation results show that different degrees of nodes show the same trend in the network, and even if the degree of node is very small, there is likelihood of a large area of information dissemination. The weaker the relationship between nodes, the higher probability of views selection and the higher the frequency of contact with information so that information spreads rapidly and leads to a wide range of dissemination. As the dissemination probability and immune probability change, the speed of information dissemination is also changing accordingly. The studies meet social networking features and can help to master the behavior of users and understand and analyze characteristics of information dissemination in social network. PMID:25110738

  12. A spread willingness computing-based information dissemination model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haojing; Cui, Zhiming; Zhang, Shukui

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs a kind of spread willingness computing based on information dissemination model for social network. The model takes into account the impact of node degree and dissemination mechanism, combined with the complex network theory and dynamics of infectious diseases, and further establishes the dynamical evolution equations. Equations characterize the evolutionary relationship between different types of nodes with time. The spread willingness computing contains three factors which have impact on user's spread behavior: strength of the relationship between the nodes, views identity, and frequency of contact. Simulation results show that different degrees of nodes show the same trend in the network, and even if the degree of node is very small, there is likelihood of a large area of information dissemination. The weaker the relationship between nodes, the higher probability of views selection and the higher the frequency of contact with information so that information spreads rapidly and leads to a wide range of dissemination. As the dissemination probability and immune probability change, the speed of information dissemination is also changing accordingly. The studies meet social networking features and can help to master the behavior of users and understand and analyze characteristics of information dissemination in social network.

  13. A Spread Willingness Computing-Based Information Dissemination Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haojing Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs a kind of spread willingness computing based on information dissemination model for social network. The model takes into account the impact of node degree and dissemination mechanism, combined with the complex network theory and dynamics of infectious diseases, and further establishes the dynamical evolution equations. Equations characterize the evolutionary relationship between different types of nodes with time. The spread willingness computing contains three factors which have impact on user’s spread behavior: strength of the relationship between the nodes, views identity, and frequency of contact. Simulation results show that different degrees of nodes show the same trend in the network, and even if the degree of node is very small, there is likelihood of a large area of information dissemination. The weaker the relationship between nodes, the higher probability of views selection and the higher the frequency of contact with information so that information spreads rapidly and leads to a wide range of dissemination. As the dissemination probability and immune probability change, the speed of information dissemination is also changing accordingly. The studies meet social networking features and can help to master the behavior of users and understand and analyze characteristics of information dissemination in social network.

  14. REPAiR: REsource Management in Peri-urban AReas: Going Beyond Urban Metabolism : D 8.6 Detailed Dissemination Plan and Dissemination Kit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerić, Dennis; Amenta, L.; Attademo, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The Detailed Dissemination Plan and Dissemination Kit is a strategic document for the beneficiaries helping them to establish the bases for their dissemination activities. It is a more detailed version of the Basic Dissemination Plan and Corporate Identity, deliverables of the REPAiR project D 8.3

  15. [Can acute disseminated encephalomyelitis progress in a deferred way?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gener, B; Garaizar-Axpe, C; Ruiz Espinosa, C; Prats-Viñas, J M

    To report on the heterogeneity with regard to the clinical course of the acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). A 5 year old boy suffered of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis of unknown origin. This child suffered two episodes of different neurologic symptoms separated by several weeks. Based on the clinical manifestations and typical appearance of magnetic resonance imaging findings and the absence of oligoclonal bands in CSF immunoglobulins, multiple sclerosis (MS) was ruled out. We postulate that the recurrent symptoms in our patient could be explained as a multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM). Favourable outcome after simultaneous treatment with methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin is emphasized in this report.

  16. Multi-Scale Dissemination of Time Series Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qingsong; Zhou, Yongluan; Su, Li

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of continuous dissemination of time series data, such as sensor measurements, to a large number of subscribers. These subscribers fall into multiple subscription levels, where each subscription level is specified by the bandwidth constraint of a subscriber......, which is an abstract indicator for both the physical limits and the amount of data that the subscriber would like to handle. To handle this problem, we propose a system framework for multi-scale time series data dissemination that employs a typical tree-based dissemination network and existing time...

  17. Postviral Complications: Bacterial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasso, Jason E; Deng, Jane C

    2017-03-01

    Secondary bacterial pneumonia after viral respiratory infection remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Susceptibility is mediated by a variety of viral and bacterial factors, and complex interactions with the host immune system. Prevention and treatment strategies are limited to influenza vaccination and antibiotics/antivirals respectively. Novel approaches to identifying the individuals with influenza who are at increased risk for secondary bacterial pneumonias are urgently needed. Given the threat of further pandemics and the heightened prevalence of these viruses, more research into the immunologic mechanisms of this disease is warranted with the hope of discovering new potential therapies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Chordoma with postoperative subcutaneous implantation and meningeal dissemination: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, T.; Okudera, T.; Shimosegawa, E.; Hatazawa, J.; Yoshida, Y.; Yasui, N.; Ogawa, T.

    2001-01-01

    Chordomas are histologically benign tumours which are locally invasive. We present an unusual case of recurrent chordoma with subcutaneous implantation and widespread meningeal dissemination after surgery. Contrast-enhanced MRI was useful for determining the extent of the tumour. (orig.)

  19. Page 34 Survey of Information Acquisition and Dissemination to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consisted of registered library user which was 2,284. Simple ... information acquisition and dissemination were inadequate sources of information, lack .... Open University of Nigeria Ibadan study centre among 5 schools Law, Education, Arts.

  20. Twiddlenet: Metadata Tagging and Data Dissemination in Mobile Device Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clotfelter, Christopher T; Towle, Jonathon E

    2007-01-01

    .... TwiddleNet is a distributed architecture of personal servers that harnesses the power of these mobile devices, enabling real time information dissemination and file sharing of multiple data types...

  1. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Toh, C. H.; Thachil, J.; Watson, H. G.

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) should encompass both clinical and laboratory information. The International Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) DIC scoring system provides objective measurement of DIC. Where DIC is present the scoring system correlates with

  2. Radiologic aspects of disseminated strongyloidiasis with pulmonary involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, E.G.; Ferreira, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The clinical and radiological aspects of three cases of disseminated strongyloidiasis with pulmonary involvement are presented and commented. The necessity of Keeping in mind this pathologic entity particularly in the immunossupressive conditions is emphasized. (Author) [pt

  3. Novel approaches to the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; de Jonge, E.; van der Poll, T.; ten Cate, H.

    2000-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a syndrome characterized by systemic intravascular activation of coagulation, leading to widespread deposition of fibrin in the circulation. We addressed the issue of whether there is evidence that this fibrin deposition contributes to multiple organ

  4. Bacterial vaginosis - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a type of vaginal infection. The vagina normally contains both healthy bacteria and unhealthy bacteria. BV occurs when more unhealthy bacteria grow than healthy bacteria. No one knows ...

  5. Bacterial surface adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utada, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Biofilms are structured multi-cellular communities that are fundamental to the biology and ecology of bacteria. Parasitic bacterial biofilms can cause lethal infections and biofouling, but commensal bacterial biofilms, such as those found in the gut, can break down otherwise indigestible plant polysaccharides and allow us to enjoy vegetables. The first step in biofilm formation, adaptation to life on a surface, requires a working knowledge of low Reynolds number fluid physics, and the coordination of biochemical signaling, polysaccharide production, and molecular motility motors. These crucial early stages of biofilm formation are at present poorly understood. By adapting methods from soft matter physics, we dissect bacterial social behavior at the single cell level for several prototypical bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae.

  6. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  7. Diagnosis of bacterial infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    direct or indirect evidence of a compatible bacterial pathogen. Inflammation may be .... cardinal features (fever, confusion, headache and neck stiffness). .... specificity, inappropriate indications or poor sampling technique may diminish this ...

  8. Disseminated histoplasmosis in a Danish patient with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, E; Franzmann, M; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1989-01-01

    We present the first case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an AIDS patient in Europe, a 33-year-old Danish homosexual man, and recommend a detailed travel history in HIV-positive patients presenting with fever, weight loss and organomegaly. In Scandinavia disseminated histoplasmosis is rare...... but should be kept in mind as the disease is a major opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Treatment with amphotericin B followed by fluconazole was effective....

  9. A strategic model for PV dissemination in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiranvarodom, S. [Rajamangala Inst. of Technology, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Pathumthani (Thailand); Hill, R. [University of Northumbria, Newcastle Photovoltaics Applications Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); O' Keefe, P. [University of Northumbria, Dept. of Geography and Environmental Management, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    The process of information dissemination is necessary for the successful implementation for photovoltaic (PV) programmes in developing countries, and it is essential to consider the strategies for implementation of a PV project to ensure that it will be successful. This paper proposes a strategic model for PV dissemination in Thailand and discusses the roles of key players in the implementation of the strategy and the responsibilities of these organisations. (Author)

  10. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography–Computed Tomography in Disseminated Cryptococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sarthak; Parida, Girish Kumar; Roy, Shambo Guha; Singhal, Abhinav; Mallick, Saumya Ranjan; Tripathi, Madhavi; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis without pulmonary involvement is a very rare phenomenon. Patterns of organ involvement in cryptococcosis resemble various other infective conditions as well as malignant conditions on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography–computed tomography. We present a case of a 43-year-old male patient who had disseminated cryptococcosis. The rarity of the case being noninvolvement of lungs and meninges and resembling more like lymphoma due to the diffuse involvement of the lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm. PMID:29142368

  11. Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography in Disseminated Cryptococcosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Sarthak; Parida, Girish Kumar; Roy, Shambo Guha; Singhal, Abhinav; Mallick, Saumya Ranjan; Tripathi, Madhavi; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Disseminated cryptococcosis without pulmonary involvement is a very rare phenomenon. Patterns of organ involvement in cryptococcosis resemble various other infective conditions as well as malignant conditions on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography. We present a case of a 43-year-old male patient who had disseminated cryptococcosis. The rarity of the case being noninvolvement of lungs and meninges and resembling more like lymphoma due to the diffuse involvement of the lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm.

  12. Disseminated BCG infection in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Il; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    2000-01-01

    Disseminated mycobacterial infection after bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) accination is a very rare disorder, occurring mostly in patients with immunologic eficiency. We report a case of disseminated BCG infection in a 16-month-old girl with severe combined immunodeficiency. Plain radiographs showed multiple osteolytic lesions in the femora, tibiae, humerus, and phalanges. Abdominal sonography and CT scanning revealed multiple nodules in the spleen, and portocaval lymphadenopathy

  13. Disseminated BCG infection in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Tae Il [Eulji University School of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    Disseminated mycobacterial infection after bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) accination is a very rare disorder, occurring mostly in patients with immunologic eficiency. We report a case of disseminated BCG infection in a 16-month-old girl with severe combined immunodeficiency. Plain radiographs showed multiple osteolytic lesions in the femora, tibiae, humerus, and phalanges. Abdominal sonography and CT scanning revealed multiple nodules in the spleen, and portocaval lymphadenopathy.

  14. Limited dissemination of the wastewater treatment plant core resistome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Christian; Albertsen, Mads; Telke, Amar

    2015-01-01

    in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. However, the contribution of the dominant members of the WWTP resistome to resistance in human pathogens remains poorly understood. Here we use a combination of metagenomic functional selections and comprehensive metagenomic sequencing to uncover the dominant genes...... of the WWTP resistome. We find that this core resistome is unique to the WWTP environment, with ... that the overall dissemination of the WWTP resistome is comparable to that of the soil resistome....

  15. Acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Christopher; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2007-09-01

    A juvenile cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) died with rapidly progressive pyrexia, tachypnea, abdominal effusion, and hepatomegaly. Postmortem examination revealed lesions consistent with acute disseminated infection with Toxoplasma gondii. The presence of this organism was confirmed in multiple organs by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, we propose this to be the first reported case of primary acute disseminated toxoplasmosis in a cheetah.

  16. Disseminated intravascular and intracardiac thrombosis after cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak K Tempe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive intracardiac and intravascular thrombosis is a rare complication following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. Most of the cases of the disseminated thrombosis have been reported in patients undergoing complex cardiac surgeries and those receiving antifibrinolytic agents during CPB. We report the occurrence of disseminated intravascular and intracardiac thrombosis after CPB in a patient undergoing mitral valve replacement in which no antifibrinolytic agent was used. The possible pathophysiology and management of the patient is discussed.

  17. Disseminated histoplasmosis in a Danish patient with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, E; Franzmann, M; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1989-01-01

    We present the first case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an AIDS patient in Europe, a 33-year-old Danish homosexual man, and recommend a detailed travel history in HIV-positive patients presenting with fever, weight loss and organomegaly. In Scandinavia disseminated histoplasmosis is rare but ...... but should be kept in mind as the disease is a major opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Treatment with amphotericin B followed by fluconazole was effective....

  18. Bacterial food-borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorns, C J

    2000-04-01

    In many countries of the world, bacterial food-borne zoonotic infections are the most common cause of human intestinal disease. Salmonella and Campylobacter account for over 90% of all reported cases of bacteria-related food poisoning world-wide. Poultry and poultry products have been incriminated in the majority of traceable food-borne illnesses caused by these bacteria, although all domestic livestock are reservoirs of infection. In contrast to the enzootic nature of most Salmonella and Campylobacter infections, Salmonella Enteritidis caused a pandemic in both poultry and humans during the latter half of the 20th Century. Salmonella Typhimurium and Campylobacter appear to be more ubiquitous in the environment, colonising a greater variety of hosts and environmental niches. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (VTEC O157) also emerged as a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in the 1980s and 1990s. Although infection is relatively rare in humans, clinical disease is often severe, with a significant mortality rate among the young and elderly. The epidemiology of VTEC O157 is poorly understood, although ruminants, especially cattle and sheep, appear to be the major source of infection. The dissemination of S. Enteritidis along the food chain is fairly well understood, and control programmes have been developed to target key areas of poultry meat and egg production. Recent evidence indicates that these control programmes have been associated with an overall reduction of S. Enteritidis along the food chain. Unfortunately, existing controls do not appear to reduce the levels of Campylobacter and VTEC O157 infections. Future control strategies need to consider variations in the epidemiologies of food-borne zoonotic infections, and apply a quantitative risk analysis approach to ensure that the most cost-effective programmes are developed.

  19. Further exploration of dissemination bias in qualitative research required to facilitate assessment within qualitative evidence syntheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Ingrid; Booth, Andrew; Berg, Rigmor C; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M; Noyes, Jane; Schroter, Sara; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2017-08-01

    To conceptualise and discuss dissemination bias in qualitative research. It is likely that the mechanisms leading to dissemination bias in quantitative research, including time lag, language, gray literature, and truncation bias also contribute to dissemination bias in qualitative research. These conceptual considerations have informed the development of a research agenda. Further exploration of dissemination bias in qualitative research is needed, including the extent of non-dissemination and related dissemination bias, and how to assess dissemination bias within qualitative evidence syntheses. We also need to consider the mechanisms through which dissemination bias in qualitative research could occur to explore approaches for reducing it. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis Presenting as Carcinomatosis Peritonei and Intestinal Coccidioidomycosis in a Patient with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Umer; Cheema, Hira; Kandikatla, Ramcharitha; Ahmed, Yasir; Chakrala, Kalyan

    2017-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis (CM) is a fungal infection endemic in southwestern regions of the United States, northwestern regions of Mexico, and some areas of Brazil and Argentina. Clinical presentation varies depending on the extent of the infection and the immune status of the host. The most common presentation ranges from flu-like symptoms to self-limiting pneumonia. Extrapulmonary presentations are uncommon and may involve the meninges, skin, and bone. Gastrointestinal and peritoneal involvement i...

  1. Effective Dissemination - Building an 'Evidence to Impact' Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan O'Neill

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available When a piece of ‘evidence’ is generated in the research environment and almost nobody hears about it, then can we really still call it a piece of ‘evidence’? Does evidence only become evidence once it is used; and until then, is it just a piece of insignificant information? As we inexorably travel through the EBVM era, we must increasingly prioritise effective dissemination of evidence. This paper will use the VetCompass Programme at the Royal Veterinary College as a case study to explore a strategic dissemination plan and examine routes for effective dissemination.Although EBVM traditionally assumes an audience of academics or practicing veterinarians, the authors contend that substantial welfare gains can be additionally achieved by targeting current and future pet owners, the non-owner general public, industry, welfare bodies, scientific groups, breeders and kennel clubs. Effective dissemination should be strategic and give a priori consideration to identifying target audiences, appropriate formatting of the messages and open access routes for dissemination. Scientists who generate EBVM may not always be best placed to also disseminate these messages and therefore research teams should consider widening their combined skill-base to also incorporate marketing and media savvy.The VetCompass Programme is a new and hugely exciting project that shares de-identified primary-practice clinical data for research to support effective evidence based veterinary medicine and welfare reforms. VetCompass data collection commenced in 2009 and the current 470 collaborating primary-care practices have shared data on 4 million small animals and 45 million unique episodes of care. VetCompass has 15 peer-reviewed publications to date.In order to maximise the welfare gains from an array of evidence silos generated within VetCompass, a dissemination strategy was designed based on a Systems Thinking approach. The outcomes from a range of dissemination trials

  2. Social-Driven Information Dissemination for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim MAHMOOD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As we move into the so-called Internet of Things (IoT, the boundary between sensor networks and social networks is likely to disappear. Moreover, previous works argue that mobility in sensor networks may become a consequence of human movement making the understanding of human mobility crucial to the design of sensor networks. When people carry sensors, they become able to use concepts from social networks in the design of sensor network infrastructures. However, to this date, the utilization of social networks in designing protocols for wireless sensor networks has not received much attention. In this paper, we focus on the concept of information dissemination in a framework where sensors are carried by people who, like most of us, are part of a social network. We propose two social-based forwarding approaches for what has been called Social Network of Sensors (SNoS. To this end, we exploit two important characteristics of ties in social networks, namely strong ties and weak ties. The former is used to achieve rapid dissemination to nearby sensors while the latter aims at dissemination to faraway sensors. We compared our results against two well-known approaches in the literature: Epidemic and PRoPHET protocols. We evaluate our approaches according to four criteria: information-dissemination distance, information-dissemination coverage area, the number of messages exchanged, and information delivery time. We believe this is the first work that investigates the issues of information-dissemination distance and information-dissemination coverage area using an approach inspired on social network concepts.

  3. Acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarana, M; Nucci, M

    2018-03-01

    Neutropenic patients developing acute disseminated candidiasis may present with skin lesions. To evaluate the epidemiology of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions in neutropenic patients, taking into consideration changes caused by different prophylactic strategies. A systematic review of English-language articles found via PubMed (1963-2016) was performed. We asked the following questions: (a) What Candida species are more frequently involved in this syndrome? (b) Has antifungal prophylaxis changed the species causing skin lesions? (c) What are the typical patterns of skin lesions? (d) What is the frequency of skin lesions in neutropenic patients with candidaemia or acute disseminated candidiasis? (e) Has antifungal prophylaxis decreased the incidence of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions? Among 183 studies, 33 were selected, reporting 100 cases of acute disseminated candidiasis with skin lesions in neutropenic patients. It occurred more frequently in the setting of induction therapy for de novo or relapsed acute leukaemia, and the most frequent Candida species were C. tropicalis (68%) and C. krusei (15%). Diffuse maculopapular lesions predominated in cases caused by C. tropicalis and nodular and papular lesions in cases caused by C. krusei. Prophylaxis with fluconazole was reported in six cases, C. krusei in five and C. ciferrii in one. The death rate was 45.4%. Two patterns were recognized: disseminated maculopapular lesions caused by C. tropicalis in patients not receiving fluconazole prophylaxis, occurring in 39% to 44% of neutropenic patients with acute disseminated candidiasis, and nodular lesions caused by C. krusei in patients receiving fluconazole prophylaxis, occurring less frequently. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacterial Cell Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, George K; Weibel, Douglas B

    2017-07-25

    Cellular mechanical properties play an integral role in bacterial survival and adaptation. Historically, the bacterial cell wall and, in particular, the layer of polymeric material called the peptidoglycan were the elements to which cell mechanics could be primarily attributed. Disrupting the biochemical machinery that assembles the peptidoglycan (e.g., using the β-lactam family of antibiotics) alters the structure of this material, leads to mechanical defects, and results in cell lysis. Decades after the discovery of peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes, the mechanisms that underlie their positioning and regulation are still not entirely understood. In addition, recent evidence suggests a diverse group of other biochemical elements influence bacterial cell mechanics, may be regulated by new cellular mechanisms, and may be triggered in different environmental contexts to enable cell adaptation and survival. This review summarizes the contributions that different biomolecular components of the cell wall (e.g., lipopolysaccharides, wall and lipoteichoic acids, lipid bilayers, peptidoglycan, and proteins) make to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cell mechanics. We discuss the contribution of individual proteins and macromolecular complexes in cell mechanics and the tools that make it possible to quantitatively decipher the biochemical machinery that contributes to bacterial cell mechanics. Advances in this area may provide insight into new biology and influence the development of antibacterial chemotherapies.

  5. Biodegradability of bacterial surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tânia M S; Procópio, Lorena C; Brandão, Felipe D; Carvalho, André M X; Tótola, Marcos R; Borges, Arnaldo C

    2011-06-01

    This work aimed at evaluating the biodegradability of different bacterial surfactants in liquid medium and in soil microcosms. The biodegradability of biosurfactants by pure and mixed bacterial cultures was evaluated through CO(2) evolution. Three bacterial strains, Acinetobacter baumanni LBBMA ES11, Acinetobacter haemolyticus LBBMA 53 and Pseudomonas sp. LBBMA 101B, used the biosurfactants produced by Bacillus sp. LBBMA 111A (mixed lipopeptide), Bacillus subtilis LBBMA 155 (lipopeptide), Flavobacterium sp. LBBMA 168 (mixture of flavolipids), Dietzia Maris LBBMA 191(glycolipid) and Arthrobacter oxydans LBBMA 201(lipopeptide) as carbon sources in minimal medium. The synthetic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was also mineralized by these microorganisms, but at a lower rate. CO(2) emitted by a mixed bacterial culture in soil microcosms with biosurfactants was higher than in the microcosm containing SDS. Biosurfactant mineralization in soil was confirmed by the increase in surface tension of the soil aqueous extracts after incubation with the mixed bacterial culture. It can be concluded that, in terms of biodegradability and environmental security, these compounds are more suitable for applications in remediation technologies in comparison to synthetic surfactants. However, more information is needed on structure of biosurfactants, their interaction with soil and contaminants and scale up and cost for biosurfactant production.

  6. Bacterial meningitis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marji, S.

    2007-01-01

    To demonstrate the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and bacteriological profile of bacterial meningitis in children beyond the neonatal period in our hospital. This was a retrospective descriptive study conducted at Prince Rashid Hospital in Irbid, Jordan. The medical records of 50 children with the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis during 4 years period, were reviewed. The main cause of infection was streptococcus pneumoniae, followed by Haemophilus influenza and Niesseria meningitides. Mortality was higher in infants and meningococcal infection, while complications were more encountered in cases of streptococcus pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid culture was positive in 11 cases and Latex agglutination test in 39. There is a significant reduction of the numbers of bacterial meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenza type B species. (author)

  7. Dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m after laparotomy and abdominal insufflation with different CO2 pressures on rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitombo, Marcos Bettini; Faria, Clarice Abreu dos Santos Albuquerque de; Steinbruck, Klaus; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Bernardo Filho, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To asses the dissemination of bacteria labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc) from peritoneal cavity after different surgical procedures. Methods: Bacteria of the Escherichia coli species labeled with 99mTc were used in a concentration of 108 units of colony-makers for ml (UFC/ml) and 1 ml was inoculated through intra-peritoneal via. Forty-eight rats were divided into four groups: control, laparotomy, pneumoperitoneum with 10 mmHg and pneumoperitoneum with 20 mmHg of CO2. Procedures were performed 20 min after injection of the inoculum and lasted 30 min. Animals were sacrificed after six hours (Group 1) and 24 hours (Group 2). Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected for radioactivity counting. Results: After six hours, indirect detection of the bacteria in different organs was uniform in all groups. After 24 hours, a larger detection of technetium was observed in the livers of animals of the group insufflated with 20 mmHg of CO2, when compared with those of control group (p<0.01). The other groups did not present statistically significant variations. Conclusions: The use of a higher intra-abdominal pressure was associated with a higher bacterial dissemination to the liver. The application of lower intra-abdominal pressures may be associated with a lower dissemination of the infectious status during laparoscopic approach of peritonitis status. (author)

  8. Dual disseminated infection with Nocardia farcinica and Mucor in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Clerck, Frederik; Van Ryckeghem, Florence; Depuydt, Pieter; Benoit, Dominque; Druwé, Patrick; Hugel, Arnika; Claeys, Geert; Cools, Piet; Decruyenaere, Johan

    2014-11-20

    Infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients and require early diagnosis and treatment. However, correct diagnosis and treatment are often delayed by a multitude of factors. We report what we believe to be the first case of a combined disseminated infection with Nocardia and Mucor in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. A 74-year-old Caucasian woman with systemic lupus erythematosus presented with recurrent pneumonia. Despite empirical treatment with antibiotics, her condition gradually deteriorated. Microbiological sampling by thoracoscopy revealed the presence of Nocardia. Despite the institution of therapy for disseminated nocardiosis, she died of multi-organ failure. A post-mortem investigation confirmed nocardiosis, but showed concomitant disseminated mucormycosis infection as well. Members of the bacterial genus Nocardia and the fungal genus Mucor are ubiquitous in the environment, have the ability to spread to virtually any organ, and are remarkably resistant to appropriate therapy. Both pathogens can mimic other pathologies both on clinical and radiological investigations. Invasive sampling procedures are often needed to prove their presence. Establishing a timely, correct diagnosis and a specific treatment is essential for patient survival.

  9. Adult bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M

    2004-01-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibi......Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin...

  10. Dissemination of Orientia tsutsugamushi and inflammatory responses in a murine model of scrub typhus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian A Keller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Central aspects in the pathogenesis of scrub typhus, an infection caused by Orientia (O. tsutsugamushi, have remained obscure. Its organ and cellular tropism are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinetics of bacterial dissemination and associated inflammatory responses in infected tissues in an experimental scrub typhus mouse model, following infection with the human pathogenic strain Karp. We provide a thorough analysis of O. tsutsugamushi infection in inbred Balb/c mice using footpad inoculation, which is close to the natural way of infection. By a novel, highly sensitive qPCR targeting the multi copy traD genes, we quantitatively monitored the spread of O. tsutsugamushi Karp from the skin inoculation site via the regional lymph node to the internal target organs. The highest bacterial loads were measured in the lung. Using confocal imaging, we also detected O. tsutsugamushi at the single cell level in the lung and found a predominant macrophage rather than endothelial localization. Immunohistochemical analysis of infiltrates in lung and brain revealed differently composed lesions with specific localizations: iNOS-expressing macrophages were frequent in infiltrative parenchymal noduli, but uncommon in perivascular lesions within these organs. Quantitative analysis of the macrophage response by immunohistochemistry in liver, heart, lung and brain demonstrated an early onset of macrophage activation in the liver. Serum levels of interferon (IFN-γ were increased during the acute infection, and we showed that IFN-γ contributed to iNOS-dependent bacterial growth control. Our data show that upon inoculation to the skin, O. tsutsugamushi spreads systemically to a large number of organs and gives rise to organ-specific inflammation patterns. The findings suggest an essential role for the lung in the pathogenesis of scrub typhus. The model will allow detailed studies on host-pathogen interaction and provide further

  11. 21 CFR 99.401 - Corrective actions and cessation of dissemination of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION ON UNAPPROVED/NEW USES FOR MARKETED DRUGS... cessation of dissemination of information. (a) FDA actions based on post dissemination data. If FDA receives... requirements; or (2) Order the manufacturer to cease dissemination of information and to take corrective action...

  12. Imaging spectrum in disseminated histoplasmosis: case report and brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, S.B.; Midha, N.; Gupta, M.; Sharma, U.; Talib, V.H.

    2005-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of chronic disseminated histoplasmosis are non-specific and resemble those of other chronic infections and malignancies. We report the radiographic, sonographic and contrast-enhanced CT appearances of histoplasmosis in an adult male with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, who was HIV negative and presented with weight loss and pyrexia. Imaging studies simulated tuberculosis with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, bilateral fibrotic lung lesions, hepatomegaly and bilateral hypoattenuating adrenal enlargement, without clinical or laboratory evidence of hypoadrenalism. Computed tomography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of adrenal glands revealed Histoplasma capsulatum. We report our experience to increase awareness of the imaging spectrum of disseminated histoplasmosis and its similarity to tuberculosis as, with increasing incidence of AIDS, the chances of these infections are likely to increase. Moreover, awareness of this entity is important because it is known that untreated disseminated histoplasmosis is fatal Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  13. Disseminating online tools for building capacity among community practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Christina M; Fawcett, Stephen B; Schultz, Jerry A; Jones, Jami A; Berkowitz, Bill; Wolff, Thomas J; Francisco, Vincent T; Rabinowitz, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    To prepare the workforce for building healthier communities, we need to assure capabilities of a diverse and geographically distributed community of practitioners. Although the Internet is used extensively to disseminate practice information, less is known about the relative impact of various strategies for promoting its use. This empirical case study examines implementation of dissemination strategies and their association with increased user sessions in the online Community Tool Box (CTB), a widely used resource for community building. Dissemination activities included social media efforts, eNewsletters, search engine optimization efforts, partnering with other Web sites, and implementing a global Out of the Box Prize. Results suggest that increased user sessions were associated with search optimization and "mashups" delivering CTB content through partners' Web sites. The report concludes with a discussion of challenges and opportunities in promoting widespread use of capacity-building tools among those working to improve their communities.

  14. Information dissemination model for social media with constant updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Wu, Heng; Cao, Jin; Fu, Gang; Li, Hui

    2018-07-01

    With the development of social media tools and the pervasiveness of smart terminals, social media has become a significant source of information for many individuals. However, false information can spread rapidly, which may result in negative social impacts and serious economic losses. Thus, reducing the unfavorable effects of false information has become an urgent challenge. In this paper, a new competitive model called DMCU is proposed to describe the dissemination of information with constant updates in social media. In the model, we focus on the competitive relationship between the original false information and updated information, and then propose the priority of related information. To more effectively evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed model, data sets containing actual social media activity are utilized in experiments. Simulation results demonstrate that the DMCU model can precisely describe the process of information dissemination with constant updates, and that it can be used to forecast information dissemination trends on social media.

  15. Online dissemination of news in Nicolae Titulescu University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Ciucu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional” websites are a very good method of disseminating information for students in online environment. We might thing that with this new trend, people pref er to get information on a social network website, but actually for complex information the “traditional” websites are better. Facebook social network is very used in Romania, mostly by young people. It is a common saying around here: if you do not have a Facebook account, then you do not exist. The Facebook account of the University was created in may, 2012. Since then it has been a powerful tool for disseminating information, but mostly for photos, short messages, links and videos. YouTube and Twitter are not that used by students for finding information about their University, but during one year, I’ve recorded growth in number of followers. In this paper I compare these four online methods of disseminating information for students (may 2012 - may 2013 period of time.

  16. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermelho, Marli Batista Fernandes; Correia, Ademir Silva; Michailowsky, Tania Cibele de Almeida; Suzart, Elizete Kazumi Kuniyoshi; Ibanes, Aline Santos; Almeida, Lanamar Aparecida; Khoury, Zarifa; Barba, Mario Flores, E-mail: marlivermelho@globo.com [Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas (IIER), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Objective: to evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results: abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion: computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  17. [Bacterial biofilms and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasa, I; Del Pozo, J L; Penadés, J R; Leiva, J

    2005-01-01

    In developed countries we tend to think of heart disease and the numerous forms of cancer as the main causes of mortality, but on a global scale infectious diseases come close, or may even be ahead: 14.9 million deaths in 2002 compared to cardiovascular diseases (16.9 million deaths) and cancer (7.1 million deaths) (WHO report 2004). The infectious agents responsible for human mortality have evolved as medical techniques and hygienic measures have changed. Modern-day acute infectious diseases caused by specialized bacterial pathogens such as diphtheria, tetanus, cholera, plague, which represented the main causes of death at the beginning of XX century, have been effectively controlled with antibiotics and vaccines. In their place, more than half of the infectious diseases that affect mildly immunocompromised patients involve bacterial species that are commensal with the human body; these can produce chronic infections, are resistant to antimicrobial agents and there is no effective vaccine against them. Examples of these infections are the otitis media, native valve endocarditis, chronic urinary infections, bacterial prostatitis, osteomyelitis and all the infections related to medical devices. Direct analysis of the surface of medical devices or of tissues that have been foci of chronic infections shows the presence of large numbers of bacteria surrounded by an exopolysaccharide matrix, which has been named the "biofilm". Inside the biofilm, bacteria grow protected from the action of the antibodies, phagocytic cells and antimicrobial treatments. In this article, we describe the role of bacterial biofilms in human persistent infections.

  18. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation...

  19. Bacterial fingerprints across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasner, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), impose major threats to human health worldwide. Both have a ‘Jekyll & Hyde’ character, since they can be present as human commensals, but can also become harmful invasive pathogens especially

  20. Bacterial membrane proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poetsch, Ansgar; Wolters, Dirk

    2008-10-01

    About one quarter to one third of all bacterial genes encode proteins of the inner or outer bacterial membrane. These proteins perform essential physiological functions, such as the import or export of metabolites, the homeostasis of metal ions, the extrusion of toxic substances or antibiotics, and the generation or conversion of energy. The last years have witnessed completion of a plethora of whole-genome sequences of bacteria important for biotechnology or medicine, which is the foundation for proteome and other functional genome analyses. In this review, we discuss the challenges in membrane proteome analysis, starting from sample preparation and leading to MS-data analysis and quantification. The current state of available proteomics technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages will be described with a focus on shotgun proteomics. Then, we will briefly introduce the most abundant proteins and protein families present in bacterial membranes before bacterial membrane proteomics studies of the last years will be presented. It will be shown how these works enlarged our knowledge about the physiological adaptations that take place in bacteria during fine chemical production, bioremediation, protein overexpression, and during infections. Furthermore, several examples from literature demonstrate the suitability of membrane proteomics for the identification of antigens and different pathogenic strains, as well as the elucidation of membrane protein structure and function.

  1. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkey, Bálint; Vitális, Eszter; Vitális, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III. generation cephalosporin. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis often caused by Gram-positive bacteria and multi-resistant pathogens can also be expected thus carbapenem should be the choice of the empiric treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered. Norfloxacin is used most commonly, but changes are expected due to increase in quinolone resistance. As a primary prophylaxis, a short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended after gastrointestinal bleeding for 5 days, while long-term prophylaxis is for patients with low ascites protein, and advanced disease (400 mg/day). Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for all patients recovered from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to increasing antibiotic use of antibiotics prophylaxis is debated to some degree. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 50-57.

  2. Corticosteroids for Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Muthiah; Mascarenhas, Jeena; Rajaraman, Revathi; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Lalitha, Prajna; Glidden, David V.; Ray, Kathryn J.; Hong, Kevin C.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Lee, Salena M.; Zegans, Michael E.; McLeod, Stephen D.; Lietman, Thomas M.; Acharya, Nisha R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is a benefit in clinical outcomes with the use of topical corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Methods Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, multicenter clinical trial comparing prednisolone sodium phosphate, 1.0%, to placebo as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bacterial corneal ulcers. Eligible patients had a culture-positive bacterial corneal ulcer and received topical moxifloxacin for at least 48 hours before randomization. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) at 3 months from enrollment. Secondary outcomes included infiltrate/scar size, reepithelialization, and corneal perforation. Results Between September 1, 2006, and February 22, 2010, 1769 patients were screened for the trial and 500 patients were enrolled. No significant difference was observed in the 3-month BSCVA (−0.009 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]; 95% CI, −0.085 to 0.068; P = .82), infiltrate/scar size (P = .40), time to reepithelialization (P = .44), or corneal perforation (P > .99). A significant effect of corticosteroids was observed in subgroups of baseline BSCVA (P = .03) and ulcer location (P = .04). At 3 months, patients with vision of counting fingers or worse at baseline had 0.17 logMAR better visual acuity with corticosteroids (95% CI, −0.31 to −0.02; P = .03) compared with placebo, and patients with ulcers that were completely central at baseline had 0.20 logMAR better visual acuity with corticosteroids (−0.37 to −0.04; P = .02). Conclusions We found no overall difference in 3-month BSCVA and no safety concerns with adjunctive corticosteroid therapy for bacterial corneal ulcers. Application to Clinical Practice Adjunctive topical corticosteroid use does not improve 3-month vision in patients with bacterial corneal ulcers. PMID:21987582

  3. Bacterial infec tions in travellers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    namely bacterial causes of travellers' diarrhoea and skin infections, as well as .... Vaccination: protective efficacy against typhoid may be overcome by ingesting a high bacterial load. Vaccine ..... preparation such as cream sauce. Only after ...

  4. Documentation and dissemination of agricultural Research results in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to find out the volume of documented vis a vis generated agricultural research information over a 10-year period and to identify existing avenues for disseminating generated research information to the target population. A questionnaire survey was conducted between December 1996 and February ...

  5. 10 CFR 1009.6 - Dissemination of prices and charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of prices and charges. 1009.6 Section 1009.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) GENERAL POLICY FOR PRICING AND CHARGING FOR MATERIALS... Accounting and Pricing Branch, Mail Station 4A-139, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20585. ...

  6. Consultation and Dissemination Research Strategy: 1974. Technical Report #22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Roland G.; Gallimore, Ronald

    This brief report outlines several of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) dissemination formats completed, underway, or planned. One of these, the workshop format, was tested in a training program of several days conducted at KEEP. The workshop was designed to teach teachers to use social reinforcement techniques to increase student…

  7. Lessons learned about art-based approaches for disseminating knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Anne; Makaroff, Kara L Schick; Sheilds, Laurene; Beuthin, Rosanne; Molzahn, Anita; Shermak, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    To present a case example of using an arts-based approach and the development of an art exhibit to disseminate research findings from a narrative research study. Once a study has been completed, the final step of dissemination of findings is crucial. In this paper, we explore the benefits of bringing nursing research into public spaces using an arts-based approach. Findings from a qualitative narrative study exploring experiences of living with life-threatening illnesses. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 32 participants living with cancer, chronic renal disease, or HIV/AIDS. Participants were invited to share a symbol representing their experience of living with life-threatening illness and the meaning it held for them. The exhibit conveyed experiences of how people story and re-story their lives when living with chronic kidney disease, cancer or HIV. Photographic images of symbolic representations of study participants' experiences and poetic narratives from their stories were exhibited in a public art gallery. The theoretical underpinning of arts-based approaches and the lessons learned in creating an art exhibit from research findings are explored. Creative art forms for research and disseminating knowledge offer new ways of understanding and knowing that are under-used in nursing. Arts-based approaches make visible patients' experiences that are often left unarticulated or hidden. Creative dissemination approaches such as art exhibits can promote insight and new ways of knowing that communicate nursing research to both public and professional audiences.

  8. Disseminated primary cutaneous histoplasmosis successfully treated with itraconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singhi M

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old immunocompetent lady with disseminated primary cutaneous histoplasmosis is reported. Histology showed a granulomatous skin infiltrate with numerous intracellular PAS positive rounded yeast cells within macrophages. Culture on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar yielded a typical cottony white colony characteristic of Histoplasma capsulatum. Treatment with itraconazole showed an excellent response.

  9. The Role of Communication in Dissemination of Improved ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most of the respondents do not understand the major language of instruction in Nigerian institutions due to absence of multilingualism in dissemination of techniques. Employment of more female extension agents, extension agents who can speak the farmers own language as well encouraging multilingualism will lead to ...

  10. 41 CFR 101-4.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 101-4.140... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Dissemination of policy. 101-4.140 Section 101-4.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  11. Palliative nephrectomy until targeted therapy of disseminated kidney cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Klimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the role of palliative nephrectomy in disseminated kidney cancer patients planned to undergo targeted antiangiogenic treatment.Subjects and methods. The investigation included data on 83 patients with T1-4N0 / +M1 disseminated renal cell carcinoma (RCC who had received at least 2 targeted therapy cycles in 2009 to 2011. In 48 (57.8 % patients, the treatment was preceded by palliative nephrectomy that was not carried out in 35 (42.2 %. Before starting targeted therapy, all the cases were confirmed to be diagnosed with clear cell RCC, with a sarcomatoid component being in 7 (8.4 % patients. The median follow-up of all the patients was 21 (12–36 months.Results. The unremoved affected kidney in disseminated kidney cancer patients receiving targeted antiangiogenic therapy is an independent factor for the poor prognosis of progression-free (odds ratio (OR, 2.4; 95 % confidence interval (CI, 1.2–4.7 and overall (OR, 2.8; 95 % CI, 1.3–6.3 survival. Palliative nephrectomy does not improve the prognosis in patients with a low somatic status, the N+ category, and metastases into the bones and nonregional lymph nodes.Conclusion. Palliative nephrectomy in the selected patients with disseminated kidney cancer on targeted antiangiogenic therapy increases progression-free and overall survival.

  12. Disseminated tuberculosis with rare involvements; Tuberculose floride avec localisations rares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goasdoue, P.; Dubayle, P.; Boyer, B.; Le Clainche, P.; Pharaboz, C.; Debord, T. [Hopital d`Instruction des Armees Begin, 94 - Saint-Mande (France)

    1997-09-01

    We report a case of disseminated tuberculosis involving the middle ear, the central nervous system, the spine and the lung. The tuberculous epidural abscess and otomastoiditis don`t have any specific imaging features. But their coexistence with an other tuberculous involvement might suggest their tuberculous nature. The epidural abscess may result from direct extension from otomastoiditis. (authors).

  13. Proceedings: panel on information dissemination for wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, P. [ed.

    1980-04-01

    This meeting was called as part of a multi-year planning effort. Groups involved in the production and/or dissemination of information on wind energy were invited to describe their current activities and their perceptions of the needs of the 80's in this area. Participants exchanged copies of materials they distribute regularly and discussed frequently asked questions.

  14. Disseminating Knowledge Through Publication: Magnet® Nurses Changing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graystone, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Clinical nurses and nurse leaders are inspiring and fostering amazing outcomes. In this column, the new Magnet Recognition Program® director discusses the expectation for dissemination of outcomes from Magnet®-designated organizations building on work presented at the 2017 National Magnet Conference™.

  15. Marketing: Exploring Applications for Educational Dissemination. Literature Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Linda

    This synthesis of information about marketing and information dissemination of education-related products is divided into three parts: an overview of major writings, specific marketing strategies, and resources for further study. The first part opens with a definition of marketing as it relates to education. A review of the literature provides…

  16. Assessing approaches for dissemination of research information to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Assessing approaches for dissemination of research information to farmers within their ... to soil improvement, NAADS had a wide scope that included animal husbandry. Farmers .... the Problem Solving Approach that involves defining the approach ..... Assessing the Quality of Participation in Farmers' Research Groups.

  17. The language factor in the media and information disseminating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information and knowledge that could be useful in achieving the MDGs do not reach the minority language speakers through the media and information dissemination organisations, because minority languages are excluded. Documentary analysis of language policy documents which enshrine language broadcasting and ...

  18. 31 CFR 28.140 - Dissemination of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of policy. 28.140 Section 28.140 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury NONDISCRIMINATION ON... elementary and secondary school students, employees, sources of referral of applicants for admission and...

  19. Effects of environmental information dissemination and use on food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effects of Environmental Information Dissemination and use on Food Security in Gwagwalada Area Council. The objective of the study is to determine the type of environmental information available in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT.A total number of fifty questionnaires were issued and forty five ...

  20. Deliverable 9.7 - GALA Dissemination Report 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim; Berta, Riccardo; Moreno-Ger, Pablo; Bellotti, Francesco; Nadolski, Rob; Padrón-Nápoles, Carmen; Boyle, Elizabeth; Beligan, Daniel; Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke

    2014-01-01

    We have created and executed a separate plan for the transition of GALA to the Serious Games Society for securing the conditions in the post-project phase. For assessing the effectiveness of the dissemination efforts we have devised 5 outward- looking KPIs. All KPI requirements were met. Also,

  1. Social network and innovation dissemination among farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural innovation has tremendous potentials to improve the welfare of the rural poor. Yet, many new technologies that seem profitable in demonstration plots are not widely adopted due to inadequate social groups linking the farmers to the researchers which result to non-effective information dissemination. There is no ...

  2. Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis presenting with cachexia and hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khasawneh FA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Faisal A Khasawneh,1 Subhan Ahmed,2 Ruba A Halloush31Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, TX, 2Section of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK, 3Amarillo Pathology Group, Amarillo, TX, USAAbstract: Histoplasmosis is a common endemic mycosis. The majority of infections involving this dimorphic fungus are asymptomatic. Manifestations in symptomatic patients are diverse, ranging from flu-like illness to a more serious disseminated disease. We present here a case of chronic disseminated histoplasmosis mimicking a metastatic cancer. We reviewed the literature for cases of disseminated histoplasmosis presenting with hypercalcemia, focusing particularly on clinical presentation, risk factors predisposing for fungal infection, and outcome. We report a case of a 65-year-old diabetic male who presented with unexplained weight loss and hypercalcemia. Multiple brain space-occupying lesions and bilateral adrenal enlargement were evident on imaging studies. Biopsies showed caseating granulomas with budding yeast, consistent with histoplasmosis. The patient's symptoms resolved after liposomal amphotericin B and itraconazole therapy. Granulomatous diseases, including fungal infections, should be considered alongside malignancies, in patients with similar presentation.Keywords: disseminated histoplasmosis, hypercalcemia

  3. Opportunistic Beacon Networks: Information Dissemination via Wireless Network Identifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Türkes, Okan; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents OBN, a universal opportunistic ad hoc networking model particularly intended for smart mobile devices. It enables fast and lightweight data dissemination in wireless community networks through the utilization of universally-available wireless network identifiers. As a ubiquitous

  4. Integrity and dissemination control in administrative applications through information designators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, W.G.

    When more and more information sources are being linked, it seems that it becomes ever more easy to track individuals in ways that are not deemed appropriate. However, increased linking of information does not need to imply increased dissemination of privacy-sensitive information. We present a new

  5. Evidence-based surgery: Dissemination, communication, decision aids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Surgeons are expected to make treatment decisions that are based on the best available evidence. Moreover, they are called to recognise that important decisions should also be shared with patients. While dissemination of evidence-based surgery and communication of evidence to patients have been

  6. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex in an immunocompetent host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Yabes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (DMAC has historically been described in the immunocompromised. The current epidemiologic research suggests that the incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections is increasing. We present a case of DMAC infection manifesting as hepatic granulomas in a 35-year-old immunocompetent female. This case suggests DMAC infection in a patient without traditional epidemiological risk factors.

  7. Dissemination of watershed management information through the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malchus B. Baker; Deborah J. Young

    2000-01-01

    Information and related literature on watershed management practices is sometimes not widely known nor readily accessible. New electronic technologies provide unique tools for disseminating research findings to scientists, educators, land management professionals, and the public. This paper illustrates how the usefulness and accessibility of research information from...

  8. Access to the internet for knowledge dissemination: agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to agricultural information is a prerequisite for agricultural development. However, information on how agricultural scientists make use of the Internet to access agricultural information is limited. This study therefore investigated access to the Internet for knowledge dissemination by agricultural researchers in ...

  9. Achieving Data Utility Fairness in Periodic Dissemination for VANETs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Souza Schwartz, Ramon; Ohazulike, Anthony; Scholten, Johan; IEEE,

    In addition to safety, Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs) enable the development of new information-rich applications that disseminate relevant data to vehicles. One key challenge in such networks is to use the available bandwidth efficiently when there is: (i) a short connectivity time due to the

  10. Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis with malignant change, in a male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausen, I; Jensen, O J; Andersen, E

    1990-01-01

    Disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis (DPL) is a rare disorder, characterized by the occurrence of multiple leiomyomas scattered throughout the peritoneal cavity. Until this report DPL had been observed only in women and there is only one previous case with malignant change. A case of DPL...

  11. Capacity of Community-Based Organisations to disseminate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the capacity of established community based organisations (CBOs) to disseminate information on sleeping sickness control. Design: Participatory interview process administered to randomly selected CBOs in a tsetse and trypanosomosis endemic area. Setting: Busia district, Western, Kenya. Results: ...

  12. Macrophage Function in Early Dissemination and Dormancy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Heinrich Heine University, Duesseldorf...insight into the understanding of the natural history of metastatic disease by discovering that MTMs propel early dissemination and that combined

  13. An unusual cystic appearance of disseminated low-grade gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, T.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Perilongo, G.; Kaufman, B.A.; Holden, K.R.; Carollo, C.; Kling Chong, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    We report five cases of pediatric disseminated low-grade gliomas of the brainstem or spinal cord that exhibited an unusual, cystic pattern. Leptomeningeal disease was present in three of these at diagnosis, and was detected shortly afterwards in the other two. Four patients are alive up to 5 years later, following minimal to no intervention, while one is dead. (orig.)

  14. Disseminated intravascular coagulation in meningococcal sepsis. Case 7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeerleder, S.; Zürcher Zenklusen, R.; Hack, C. E.; Wuillemin, W. A.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a man (age: 49 years), who died from severe meningococcal sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and extended skin necrosis. We discuss in detail the pathophysiology of the activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis during sepsis.

  15. Clinical usefulness of the nested polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis Utilidad clínica de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa anidada para el diagnóstico de tuberculosis extrapulmonar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe García-Elorriaga

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effectiveness of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR for diagnosis of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (ETB, as well as the impact of PCR results on clinical management. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We conducted a study of nested PCR tests in 45 patients and a review of patient hospital files, calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV. RESULTS:PCR was positive in 51% of cases; PCR sensitivity for diagnosing TB was 86%, specificity was 79%, PPV was 76%, and NPV was 88%. When solely analyzing urine samples, sensitivity and NPV increased to 100%. PCR exerted an influence on management in 27% of patients. CONCLUSIONS:PCR for rapid diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB has an adequate effect, which improves when performed on urine. The results of PCR exerted an acceptable impact on the clinical management of these patients.OBJETIVO:Evaluar la eficacia de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR anidada para el diagnóstico de tuberculosis extrapulmonar, así como el impacto de sus resultados en el manejo clínico. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó PCR anidada en 45 pacientes y se llevó a cabo la revisión de expedientes. Se calculó sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo (VPP y valor predictivo negativo (VPN. RESULTADOS:La PCR fue positiva en 51% de los casos, la sensibilidad fue de 86%, la especificidad de 79%, el VPP de 76% y el VPN de 88%. Al analizar solamente las muestras de orina, la sensibilidad y VPN se incrementaron a 100%. La PCR influyó en el manejo de 27% de los pacientes. CONCLUSIONES:La PCR para el diagnóstico rápido de TB extrapulmonar tiene una eficacia adecuada, la cual mejora cuando se realiza en orina. El resultado de la PCR tuvo un impacto aceptable en el manejo clínico de estos pacientes.

  16. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A Review of Eleven Cases in Childhood in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nikkhah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder. The pathogenesis is unclear, but it is thought to be immune-mediated. The prognosis is favorable, with most children making a full recovery. Objectives: The present report analyzed different clinical presentations, response to treatment and outcome in a series of 11 patients with ADEM who referred to our tertiary center in north of Iran from 2010 to 2014. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective simple descriptive review, eleven cases with ADEM admitted in the neurology ward from 2010 to 2014 were enrolled. The clinical findings and laboratory and imaging results of patients were reviewed. All of these cases were evaluated with neurological examination, serologic tests for bacterial meningitis and viral encephalitis (especially, herpes simplex virus and brain MRI without contrast. After discharge, patients were followed for at least six months (6 to 12 months clinically and radiologically. Results: Of 11 children, 8 were male and 3 female. Their ages ranged between 4 and 10 years. The mean interval between the preceding infection and symptoms of encephalomyelitis was nine days. The most common presenting symptoms were ataxia in 45.4%, fever and headache in 36.4% and altered consciousness in 18.2% of patients. Neurological examination revealed pyramidal motor signs such as brisk deep tendon reflexes (hyperreflexia (81.8%, cranial nerve involvement (18.2%, dysarthria (9.1% and abnormal movements (9.1%. We followed up these patients in long-term for 6 to 12 months. Only in 1 child who received IVIG, mild ataxia had reminded. Conclusions: The prognosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is favorable. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of ADEM would probably reduce morbidity.

  17. Protracted Regional Dissemination of GIM-1-Producing Serratia marcescens in Western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Andreas F; Kaase, Martin; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Peter, Silke; Oberhettinger, Philipp; Rieber, Heime; Pfeffer, Klaus; MacKenzie, Colin R; Willmann, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    The metallo-beta-lactamase GIM-1 has been found in various bacterial host species nearly exclusively in western Germany. However, not much is known about the epidemiology of GIM-1-positive Serratia marcescens Here we report on a surprisingly protracted regional dissemination. In-hospital transmission was investigated by using conventional epidemiological tools to identify spatiotemporal links. Strain typing was performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Bayesian phylogeny was used to infer the time axis of the observed occurrence. Thirteen S. marcescens strains from 10 patients from 6 different German hospitals were investigated. Suspected in-hospital transmissions were confirmed by molecular typing at a higher resolution by WGS than by PFGE. A detailed sequence analysis demonstrated the spread of one predominant strain variant but also provided evidence for transfer of the bla GIM-1 gene cassette between different strains. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed that the most recent common ancestor of the identified clonal cluster could be dated back to April 1993 (95% highest posterior density interval, January 1973 to March 2003) and that this strain might have already harbored the bla GIM-1 at that time and, therewith, years before the first detection of this resistance gene in clinical specimens. This study shows a long-standing clonal and plasmid-mediated expansion of GIM-1-producing S. marcescens that might have gone unnoticed in the absence of a standardized and effective molecular screening for carbapenemases. The systematic and early detection of resistance is thus highly advisable, especially for the prevention of potentially long-term dissemination that may progress beyond control. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Peritoneal dissemination complicating morcellation of uterine mesenchymal neoplasms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Seidman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Power morcellation has become a common technique for the minimally invasive resection of uterine leiomyomas. This technique is associated with dissemination of cellular material throughout the peritoneum. When morcellated uterine tumors are unexpectedly found to be leiomyosarcomas or tumors with atypical features (atypical leiomyoma, smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential, there may be significant clinical consequences. This study was undertaken to determine the frequency and clinical consequence of intraperitoneal dissemination of these neoplasms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 2005-2010, 1091 instances of uterine morcellation were identified at BWH. Unexpected diagnoses of leiomyoma variants or atypical and malignant smooth muscle tumors occurred in 1.2% of cases using power morcellation for uterine masses clinically presumed to be "fibroids" over this period, including one endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS, one cellular leiomyoma (CL, six atypical leiomyomas (AL, three smooth muscle tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMPs, and one leiomyosarcoma (LMS. The rate of unexpected sarcoma after the laparoscopic morcellation procedure was 0.09%, 9-fold higher than the rate currently quoted to patients during pre-procedure briefing, and this rate may increase over time as diagnostically challenging or under-sampled tumors manifest their biological potential. Furthermore, when examining follow-up laparoscopies, both from in-house and consultation cases, disseminated disease occurred in 64.3% of all tumors (zero of one ESS, one of one CL, zero of one AL, four of four STUMPs, and four of seven LMS. Only disseminated leiomyosarcoma, however, was associated with mortality. Procedures are proposed for pathologic evaluation of morcellation specimens and associated follow-up specimens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While additional study is warranted, these data suggest uterine morcellation carries a risk of disseminating

  19. Structure of bacterial lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroff, Martine; Karibian, Doris

    2003-11-14

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides are the major components of the outer surface of Gram-negative bacteria They are often of interest in medicine for their immunomodulatory properties. In small amounts they can be beneficial, but in larger amounts they may cause endotoxic shock. Although they share a common architecture, their structural details exert a strong influence on their activity. These molecules comprise: a lipid moiety, called lipid A, which is considered to be the endotoxic component, a glycosidic part consisting of a core of approximately 10 monosaccharides and, in "smooth-type" lipopolysaccharides, a third region, named O-chain, consisting of repetitive subunits of one to eight monosaccharides responsible for much of the immunospecificity of the bacterial cell.

  20. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  1. Salinity Stress Does Not Affect Root Uptake, Dissemination and Persistence of Salmonella in Sweet-basil (Ocimum basilicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Nirit; Sela Saldinger, Shlomo; Dudai, Nativ; Gorbatsevich, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Crop produce can be contaminated in the field during cultivation by bacterial human pathogens originating from contaminated soil or irrigation water. The bacterial pathogens interact with the plant, can penetrate the plant via the root system and translocate and survive in above-ground tissues. The present study is first to investigate effects of an abiotic stress, salinity, on the interaction of plants with a bacterial human pathogen. The main sources of human bacterial contamination of plants are manures and marginal irrigation waters such as treated or un-treated wastewater. These are often saline and induce morphological, chemical and physiological changes in plants that might affect the interaction between the pathogens and the plant and thereby the potential for plant contamination. This research studied effects of salinity on the internalization of the bacterial human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Newport via the root system of sweet-basil plants, dissemination of the bacteria in the plant, and kinetics of survival in planta . Irrigation with 30 mM NaCl-salinity induced typical salt-stress effects on the plant: growth was reduced, Na and Cl concentrations increased, K and Ca concentrations reduced, osmotic potential and anti-oxidative activity were increased by 30%, stomatal conductance was reduced, and concentrations of essential-oils in the plants increased by 26%. Despite these physical, chemical and morphological changes in the plants, root internalization of the bacteria and its translocation to the shoot were not affected, and neither was the die-off rate of Salmonella in planta . The results demonstrate that the salinity-induced changes in the sweet-basil plants did not affect the interaction between Salmonella and the plant and thereby the potential for crop contamination.

  2. Bacterial control of cyanobacteria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlela, Luyanda L

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available of biological control appears to be direct contact. • Ndlela, L. L. et al. (2016) ‘An overview of cyanobacterial bloom occurrences and research in Africa over the last decade’, Harmful Algae, 60 • Gumbo, J.R. et al. (2010) The Isolation and identification... of Predatory Bacteria from a Microcystis algal Bloom.. African Journal of Biotechnology, 9. *Special acknowledgement goes to the National Research foundation for funding this presentation Bacterial control of cyanobacteria Luyanda...

  3. Bacterial growth kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonkitticharoen, V.; Ehrhardt, J.C.; Kirchner, P.T.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of bacterial growth may be made using a radioassay technique. This method measures, by scintillation counting, the 14 CO 2 derived from the bacterial metabolism of a 14 C-labeled substrate. Mathematical growth models may serve as reliable tools for estimation of the generation rate constant (or slope of the growth curve) and provide a basis for evaluating assay performance. Two models, i.e., exponential and logistic, are proposed. Both models yielded an accurate fit to the data from radioactive measurement of bacterial growth. The exponential model yielded high precision values of the generation rate constant, with an average relative standard deviation of 1.2%. Under most conditions the assay demonstrated no changes in the slopes of growth curves when the number of bacteria per inoculation was changed. However, the radiometric assay by scintillation method had a growth-inhibiting effect on a few strains of bacteria. The source of this problem was thought to be hypersensitivity to trace amounts of toluene remaining on the detector

  4. Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a recently developed nature-inspired optimization algorithm, which is based on the foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. Up to now, BFO has been applied successfully to some engineering problems due to its simplicity and ease of implementation. However, BFO possesses a poor convergence behavior over complex optimization problems as compared to other nature-inspired optimization techniques. This paper first analyzes how the run-length unit parameter of BFO controls the exploration of the whole search space and the exploitation of the promising areas. Then it presents a variation on the original BFO, called the adaptive bacterial foraging optimization (ABFO, employing the adaptive foraging strategies to improve the performance of the original BFO. This improvement is achieved by enabling the bacterial foraging algorithm to adjust the run-length unit parameter dynamically during algorithm execution in order to balance the exploration/exploitation tradeoff. The experiments compare the performance of two versions of ABFO with the original BFO, the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO and a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA on four widely-used benchmark functions. The proposed ABFO shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  5. CD8+ T cells provide immune protection against murine disseminated endotheliotropic Orientia tsutsugamushi infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus, caused by a Gram-negative obligately intracellular coccobacillus, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a long neglected but important tropical disease. Orientia tsutsugamushi causes illness in one million people each year, and 1 billion people are at risk. Without appropriate diagnosis and treatment, the disease can cause severe multiorgan failure with a case fatality rate of 7-15%. The current gaps in knowledge of immunity include the unknown mechanisms of host immunity to O. tsutsugamushi. Using an intravenous (i.v. disseminated infection mouse model, we observed that more CD8+ T cells than CD4+ T cells were present in the spleen of infected mice at 12 dpi. We also determined that Treg cells and the proportion of T cells producing IL-10 were significantly increased from 6 dpi, which correlated with the onset of illness, body weight loss, and increased bacterial loads. We further studied CD8-/-, MHC I-/- and wild type control (WT C57BL/6J mice to determine the importance of CD8+ T cells and MHC I molecules. After infection with an ordinarily sub-lethal dose of O. tsutsugamushi, all CD8-/- and MHC I-/- mice were moribund between 12 and 15 dpi, whereas all WT mice survived. Bacterial loads in the lung, kidney, liver and spleen of CD8-/- and MHC I-/- mice were significantly greater than those in WT mice. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ and granzyme B mRNA levels in the liver of CD8-/- and MHC I-/- mice were significantly greater than in WT mice. In addition, more severe histopathologic lesions were observed in CD8-/- mice. Finally, adoptive transfer confirmed a major role of immune CD8+ T cells as well as a less effective contribution by immune CD8 T cell-depleted splenocytes in protection against O. tsutsugamushi infection. These studies demonstrated the critical importance of CD8+ T cells in the host immune response during O. tsutsugamushi infection.

  6. Listeria monocytogenes switches from dissemination to persistence by adopting a vacuolar lifestyle in epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis, a foodborne disease that poses serious risks to fetuses, newborns and immunocompromised adults. This intracellular bacterial pathogen proliferates in the host cytosol and exploits the host actin polymerization machinery to spread from cell-to-cell and disseminate in the host. Here, we report that during several days of infection in human hepatocytes or trophoblast cells, L. monocytogenes switches from this active motile lifestyle to a stage of persistence in vacuoles. Upon intercellular spread, bacteria gradually stopped producing the actin-nucleating protein ActA and became trapped in lysosome-like vacuoles termed Listeria-Containing Vacuoles (LisCVs). Subpopulations of bacteria resisted degradation in LisCVs and entered a slow/non-replicative state. During the subculture of host cells harboring LisCVs, bacteria showed a capacity to cycle between the vacuolar and the actin-based motility stages. When ActA was absent, such as in ΔactA mutants, vacuolar bacteria parasitized host cells in the so-called “viable but non-culturable” state (VBNC), preventing their detection by conventional colony counting methods. The exposure of infected cells to high doses of gentamicin did not trigger the formation of LisCVs, but selected for vacuolar and VBNC bacteria. Together, these results reveal the ability of L. monocytogenes to enter a persistent state in a subset of epithelial cells, which may favor the asymptomatic carriage of this pathogen, lengthen the incubation period of listeriosis, and promote bacterial survival during antibiotic therapy. PMID:29190284

  7. Topology for efficient information dissemination in ad-hoc networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, E.; Okino, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the information dissemination problem in ad-hoc wirless networks. First, we analyze the probability of successful broadcast, assuming: the nodes are uniformly distributed, the available area has a lower bould relative to the total number of nodes, and there is zero knowledge of the overall topology of the network. By showing that the probability of such events is small, we are motivated to extract good graph topologies to minimize the overall transmissions. Three algorithms are used to generate topologies of the network with guaranteed connectivity. These are the minimum radius graph, the relative neighborhood graph and the minimum spanning tree. Our simulation shows that the relative neighborhood graph has certain good graph properties, which makes it suitable for efficient information dissemination.

  8. Disseminated tuberculosis of the central nervous system responsive to rifabutin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, M; Crippa, S; Di Palma, F; Gerini, A M; Soresi, E; Scoccia, S

    1990-04-01

    Multiple cerebral tuberculomas are now very rare. We report the case of a young man with an 8-month history of headache, febricula and abscess of the left tibiotarsal joint, which was found to contain mycobacterium tuberculosis. Chest X-rays revealed miliariform dissemination to both lungs while CT and MR brain scans revealed numerous small nodules, especially in the posterior cranial fossa. Despite anti-tuberculosis therapy the patient developed a right pyramidal hemisyndrome and intracranial hypertension. The inclusion of rifabutin in the treatment schedule was followed by rapid improvement and a year later the patient was in good health and free from cerebral and pulmonary lesions. The interest of the case lies in the multiplicity of sites of the TB process in a non immunodepressed patient, the dissemination to the CNS without meningeal involvement, the resistance to standard antimycobacterials and the swift response to rifabutin.

  9. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in an immunocompetent pregnant woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Disseminated mycobacterium avium complex (MAC occurs mainly in immunocompromised hosts, which is associated with abnormal cellular immunity. Case presentation A 26-year-old pregnant woman presented with fever and general weakness. Miliary lung nodules were noted on chest X-ray. Under the impression of miliary tuberculosis, anti-tuberculosis medication was administered. However, the patient was not improved. Further work-up demonstrated MAC in the sputum and placenta. The patient was treated successfully with clarithromycin-based combination regimen. Conclusion This appears to be the first case of disseminated MAC in an otherwise healthy pregnant woman. Clinicians should be alert for the diagnosis of MAC infection in diverse clinical conditions.

  10. Overcoming Legal Limitations in Disseminating Slovene Web Corpora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Erjavec

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Web texts are becoming increasingly relevant sources of information, with web corpora useful for corpus linguistic studies and development of language technologies. Even though web texts are directly accessable, which substantially simplifies the collection procedure compilation of web corpora is still complex, time consuming and expensive. It is crucial that similar endeavours are not repeated, which is why it is necessary to make the created corpora easily and widely accessible both to researchers and a wider audience. While this is logistically and technically a straightforward procedure, legal constraints, such as copyright, privacy and terms of use severely hinder the dissemination of web corpora. This paper discusses legal conditions and actual practice in this area, gives an overview of current practices and proposes a range of mitigation measures on the example of the Janes corpus of Slovene user-generated content in order to ensure free and open dissemination of Slovene web corpora.

  11. Enforcing host cell polarity: an apicomplexan parasite strategy towards dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Martin

    2011-08-01

    The propagation of apicomplexan parasites through transmitting vectors is dependent on effective dissemination of parasites inside the mammalian host. Intracellular Toxoplasma and Theileria parasites face the challenge that their spread inside the host depends in part on the motile capacities of their host cells. In response, these parasites influence the efficiency of dissemination by altering adhesive and/or motile properties of their host cells. Theileria parasites do so by targeting signalling pathways that control host cell actin dynamics. The resulting enforced polar host cell morphology facilitates motility and invasiveness, by establishing focal adhesion and invasion structures at the leading edge of the infected cell. This parasite strategy highlights mechanisms of motility regulation that are also likely relevant for immune or cancer cell motility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: Typical Radiologic Findings: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulgarin R, Luis G; Posada A, Marcela; Sanchez M, Luisa C

    2011-01-01

    A 28-year-old female patient developed neurological symptoms after a classical episode of dengue. The physical examination reveled no fever, no neurological focalization, and an altered mental status (Glasgow 12/15). Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The patient showed clinical improvement following treatment with steroids. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is classically described as a uniphasic syndrome occurring in association with systemic viral infection (parainfectious encephalomyelitis) or immunization or vaccination (post vaccination encephalomyelitis). Pathologically, there is perivascular inflammation, edema, and demyelination within the CNS. Clinically, patients present with rapidly progressing focal or multifocal neurologic dysfunction. The treatment for ADEM is targeted at suppressing inflammation in the brain through the use of anti-inflammatory drugs such as intravenous corticosteroids.

  13. Withdrawal of immunosuppresive agents in the treatment of disseminated coccidioidomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, J E; Zoschke, D; Kisch, A L

    1980-04-01

    Disseminated coccidioidomycosis is a systemic fungal infection that causes high mortality in the renal transplatn patient. Cell-mediated immunity, which appears to be the relevant host defense mechanism, is impaired by the immunosupressive agents used to prevent allograft rejection. In the case presented, immunosuppressive therapy was stopped as an adjunct to treatment of this infection. The patient has shown evidence of improvement, and his allograft has continued to function nine months after the withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and 18 months after the diagnosis. In vitro lymphocyte function studies indicate that the impairment in cell-mediated immunity detected prior to withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy has persisted, probably accounting for allograft survival. Withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy may prolong survival in renal transplant patients with disseminated coccidioidomycosis. Additionally, depression in cell-mediated immunity associated with the fungal infection itself may be sufficient to prevent allograft rejection in these patients.

  14. Mexican journals of educational research towards mainstream dissemination of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera-Flores, Mayer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the Electronic Journal of Educational Research (REDIE on its path towards the common manner of scientific dissemination. This research presents the evolution of Mexican policy with regards to the journals, the situation of the Educational Research Mexican journals, and its profundity relating to REDIE. In its evolution, there were three moments that stood out the most: the standardization of quality criteria, the digitalization and open access of the scientific journals, those that came together with REDIE like REDALYC and LATINDEX , and the individual initiatives of those journals that motivated the development of the scientific dissemination in Mexico. The investigation concludes with the realization of the necessity of achieving agreement on the efforts of various principal actors: governmental bodies, institutions, and academic communities.

  15. Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia: Report of 27 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván D. Vélez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated leishmaniasis (DL is a poorly described disease that is frequently misdiagnosed as other clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL such as diffuse CL or post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Twenty-seven cases of DL diagnosed between 1997 and 2015 are described. A higher prevalence was observed in men (mean age 32 years. The number of lesions per patient ranged from 12 to 294, distributed mainly in the upper extremities, face and trunk. The lesions were mostly plaques or nodules. Seven patients had nasal mucous damage, 74% of the patients were of mixed race, 92% lived in northwestern Colombia, and Leishmania (Viannia panamensis was identified as the causative agent in 58% of cases. Eighteen patients recovered with pentavalent antimonial. The importance of distinguishing DL from those other clinical presentations is based on the fact that disseminated, diffuse and post-kala-azar CL are very different in etiology, clinical manifestations and response to treatment and prognosis.

  16. Multiagent Based Information Dissemination in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Manvi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs are a compelling application of ad hoc networks, because of the potential to access specific context information (e.g. traffic conditions, service updates, route planning and deliver multimedia services (Voice over IP, in-car entertainment, instant messaging, etc.. This paper proposes an agent based information dissemination model for VANETs. A two-tier agent architecture is employed comprising of the following: 1 'lightweight', network-facing, mobile agents; 2 'heavyweight', application-facing, norm-aware agents. The limitations of VANETs lead us to consider a hybrid wireless network architecture that includes Wireless LAN/Cellular and ad hoc networking for analyzing the proposed model. The proposed model provides flexibility, adaptability and maintainability for traffic information dissemination in VANETs as well as supports robust and agile network management. The proposed model has been simulated in various network scenarios to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach.

  17. Modelling information dissemination under privacy concerns in social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Huang, Cheng; Lu, Rongxing; Li, Hui

    2016-05-01

    Social media has recently become an important platform for users to share news, express views, and post messages. However, due to user privacy preservation in social media, many privacy setting tools are employed, which inevitably change the patterns and dynamics of information dissemination. In this study, a general stochastic model using dynamic evolution equations was introduced to illustrate how privacy concerns impact the process of information dissemination. Extensive simulations and analyzes involving the privacy settings of general users, privileged users, and pure observers were conducted on real-world networks, and the results demonstrated that user privacy settings affect information differently. Finally, we also studied the process of information diffusion analytically and numerically with different privacy settings using two classic networks.

  18. INTERACTIVE GLOBAL NETWORK FOR WEATHER DATA OBTAINING, EXCHANGE AND DISSEMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ю.А. Авер’янова

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  The possibility to enhance the weather information provision of relevant customers is considered. It is based on the use of the complex global system for weather information obtaining, exchange and dissemination. The structural diagram of the system is proposed. The structural diagram is completed with addition connections that allow to pay strong attention on the most dangerous meteorological phenomena at the critical moment of flight. The proposed approach gives possibility to aircraft crew to select and use specified operative information and increase the probability for proper decision taking. The aircraft are used as the dynamic elements for data obtaining and exchange in the frame of the global system for weather information obtaining, exchange and dissemination.

  19. JPEG2000 and dissemination of cultural heritage over the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politou, Eugenia A; Pavlidis, George P; Chamzas, Christodoulos

    2004-03-01

    By applying the latest technologies in image compression for managing the storage of massive image data within cultural heritage databases and by exploiting the universality of the Internet we are now able not only to effectively digitize, record and preserve, but also to promote the dissemination of cultural heritage. In this work we present an application of the latest image compression standard JPEG2000 in managing and browsing image databases, focusing on the image transmission aspect rather than database management and indexing. We combine the technologies of JPEG2000 image compression with client-server socket connections and client browser plug-in, as to provide with an all-in-one package for remote browsing of JPEG2000 compressed image databases, suitable for the effective dissemination of cultural heritage.

  20. Radiology of bacterial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilar, Jose; Domingo, Maria Luisa; Soto, Cristina; Cogollos, Jonathan

    2004-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Radiology plays a prominent role in the evaluation of pneumonia. Chest radiography is the most commonly used imaging tool in pneumonias due to its availability and excellent cost benefit ratio. CT should be used in unresolved cases or when complications of pneumonia are suspected. The main applications of radiology in pneumonia are oriented to detection, characterisation and follow-up, especially regarding complications. The classical classification of pneumonias into lobar and bronchial pneumonia has been abandoned for a more clinical classification. Thus, bacterial pneumonias are typified into three main groups: Community acquired pneumonia (CAD), Aspiration pneumonia and Nosocomial pneumonia (NP).The usual pattern of CAD is that of the previously called lobar pneumonia; an air-space consolidation limited to one lobe or segment. Nevertheless, the radiographic patterns of CAD may be variable and are often related to the causative agent. Aspiration pneumonia generally involves the lower lobes with bilateral multicentric opacities. Nosocomial Pneumonia (NP) occurs in hospitalised patients. The importance of NP is related to its high mortality and, thus, the need to obtain a prompt diagnosis. The role of imaging in NP is limited but decisive. The most valuable information is when the chest radiographs are negative and rule out pneumonia. The radiographic patterns of NP are very variable, most commonly showing diffuse multifocal involvement and pleural effusion. Imaging plays also an important role in the detection and evaluation of complications of bacterial pneumonias. In many of these cases, especially in hospitalised patients, chest CT must be obtained in order to better depict these associate findings

  1. Radiology of bacterial pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, Jose E-mail: vilar_jlu@gva.es; Domingo, Maria Luisa; Soto, Cristina; Cogollos, Jonathan

    2004-08-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Radiology plays a prominent role in the evaluation of pneumonia. Chest radiography is the most commonly used imaging tool in pneumonias due to its availability and excellent cost benefit ratio. CT should be used in unresolved cases or when complications of pneumonia are suspected. The main applications of radiology in pneumonia are oriented to detection, characterisation and follow-up, especially regarding complications. The classical classification of pneumonias into lobar and bronchial pneumonia has been abandoned for a more clinical classification. Thus, bacterial pneumonias are typified into three main groups: Community acquired pneumonia (CAD), Aspiration pneumonia and Nosocomial pneumonia (NP).The usual pattern of CAD is that of the previously called lobar pneumonia; an air-space consolidation limited to one lobe or segment. Nevertheless, the radiographic patterns of CAD may be variable and are often related to the causative agent. Aspiration pneumonia generally involves the lower lobes with bilateral multicentric opacities. Nosocomial Pneumonia (NP) occurs in hospitalised patients. The importance of NP is related to its high mortality and, thus, the need to obtain a prompt diagnosis. The role of imaging in NP is limited but decisive. The most valuable information is when the chest radiographs are negative and rule out pneumonia. The radiographic patterns of NP are very variable, most commonly showing diffuse multifocal involvement and pleural effusion. Imaging plays also an important role in the detection and evaluation of complications of bacterial pneumonias. In many of these cases, especially in hospitalised patients, chest CT must be obtained in order to better depict these associate findings.

  2. Bacteria, hypertolerant to arsenic in the rocks of an ancient gold mine, and their potential role in dissemination of arsenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, Lukasz; Styczek, Aleksandra; Majder-Lopatka, Malgorzata; Sklodowska, Aleksandra

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out if bacteria present in ancient gold mine could transform immobilized arsenic into its mobile form and increase its dissemination in the environment. Twenty-two arsenic-hypertolerant cultivable bacterial strains were isolated. No chemolithoautotrophs, which could use arsenite as an electron donor as well as arsenate as an electron acceptor, were identified. Five isolates exhibited hypertolerance to arsenic: up to 500mM of arsenate. A correlation between the presence of siderophores and high resistance to arsenic was found. The results of this study show that detoxification processes based on arsenate reductase activity might be significant in dissemination of arsenic pollution. It was concluded that the activity of the described heterotrophic bacteria contributes to the mobilization of arsenic in the more toxic As(III) form and a new mechanism of arsenic mobilization from a scorodite was proposed.

  3. Disseminated lymphoma presenting as acute thigh pain and renal failure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    A 66-year-old diabetic man presented with severe right thigh swelling and pain together with acute renal failure. At autopsy, this was found to be due to disseminated high grade B cell lymphoma invading the psoas muscle and multiple organs, including the kidneys. The unique presentation of this case emphasizes the need for increased awareness of the variety of ways in which lymphoma can manifest itself.

  4. Ultrasound, CT and MRI of ruptured and disseminated hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, W.N. von (King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Department of Radiology)

    Three cases of echinococcus granulosus with rupture of hydatid cysts and widespread abdominal, pelvic of pleural dissemination are described. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed recognition of ruptured hydatid cysts. This assisted to come to an appropriate therapy and exclusion or confirmation of hydatid cysts elsewhere in the body. Ultrasound, CT and MRI are also important for follow-up, evaluation of therapeutic response and/or early diagnosis of recurrence. (author). 22 refs.; 3 figs.

  5. Ultrasound, CT and MRI of ruptured and disseminated hydatid cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinner, W.N. von

    1990-01-01

    Three cases of echinococcus granulosus with rupture of hydatid cysts and widespread abdominal, pelvic of pleural dissemination are described. Ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allowed recognition of ruptured hydatid cysts. This assisted to come to an appropriate therapy and exclusion or confirmation of hydatid cysts elsewhere in the body. Ultrasound, CT and MRI are also important for follow-up, evaluation of therapeutic response and/or early diagnosis of recurrence. (author). 22 refs.; 3 figs

  6. Disseminated histoplasmosis simulating miliary tuberculosis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares Junior, Wilson Campos; Madureira, Marcus Magalhaes; Andrade, Diego Correa de; Guimaraes, Silvana Mangeon Meireles; Queiroz, Leonardo Campos; Avila, Renata Eliane de; Lambertucci, Jose Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a disease caused by inhalation of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. In rare cases the disease affects immunocompetent individuals. Disseminated and severe disease is seen in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of a 45 year old immunocompromised patient presenting with weight loss and abdominal pain. Chest x-ray and computerized tomography examinations showed interstitial infiltrate and diffuse micro nodules. The initial diagnosis was miliary tuberculosis. However, the definitive diagnosis of miliary histoplasmosis was made later on. (author)

  7. Dissemination of information to General Practitioners: a questionnaire survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortnum Heather

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early identification of permanent hearing impairment in children enables appropriate intervention which reduces adverse developmental outcomes. The UK Government has introduced a universal hearing screening programme for neonates. All involved health professionals, including those in Primary Care, need to be aware of the service to enable them to offer appropriate support to their patients. A programme of information dissemination within Primary Care was therefore undertaken. The aim of the current study was to determine the extent to which the information had reached General Practitioners (GPs, the GPs' preferred mode of dissemination and the sources from which GPs accessed information Methods Postal questionnaire survey of a randomised sample of 1000 GPs in the Phase I pilot sites of the Neonatal Hearing Screening Programme (NHSP. Results Responses were received from 54.2% of the sample. Just under 50% of those responding had received information, 62.2% of respondents said they would like to receive more information and the preferred methods of dissemination were the written word and web-sites to allow access when needed. Few GPs perceive themselves to have a core role in the delivery of the NHSP and thence a need for knowledge in the subject. Many are keen to delegate detail to a third party, usually the health visitor, who has traditionally had responsibility for hearing screening. Conclusions Dissemination efforts for service developments of relevance to GPs should concentrate on advertising a website address via brief but memorable posted literature and/or articles in relevant journals and magazines. The website should be GP-friendly, and have a dedicated area for GPs including information of specific relevance and downloadable information sheets.

  8. Persistent pseudobulbar affect secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhendong; Luo, Shijian; Ou, Jianying; Huang, Rihe; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a common complication of central nervous system diseases such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, and other neurological diseases, but it remains under-recognized and under-treated in the clinic. PBA caused by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has rarely been reported. Here, we report a 30-year-old Chinese woman who has experienced PBA from ADEM for 7 years. The patient’s principal manifestations were extreme emotions or tears when she saw, heard, or spoke ab...

  9. An Efficient Patch Dissemination Strategy for Mobile Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Dawei; Peng, Haipeng; Li, Lixiang; Yang, Yixian; Li, Shudong

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phones and personal digital assistants are becoming increasingly important in our daily life since they enable us to access a large variety of ubiquitous services. Mobile networks, formed by the connection of mobile devices following some relationships among mobile users, provide good platforms for mobile virus spread. Quick and efficient security patch dissemination strategy is necessary for the update of antivirus software so that it can detect mobile virus, especially the new vir...

  10. Tailored radiotherapeutic strategies for disseminated uterine cervical cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jung Ho; Yoon, Hong In; Kim, Sunghoon; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sang Wun; Yim, Ga Won; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Gwi Eon; Kim, Yong Bae

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the role of radiotherapy (RT) in and to suggest radiotherapeutic strategies for patients presenting with disseminated cervical cancer. We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients diagnosed as the disseminated cervical cancer with distant lymph nodal or visceral organ metastasis between September 1980 and August 2012. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to visceral organ metastasis: 35 patients diagnosed with distant lymph node metastasis only (group A) and 15 patients with visceral organ metastasis (group B). All patients received external beam RT to the pelvis (median dose 45 Gy) and high-dose rate intracavitary RT (median dose 30 Gy). Thirty-nine patients (78%) received chemotherapy. Median follow-up time was 74 months. The 5-year pelvic control rate (PCR) was 85.8%, and the progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 28.7%, and 36.2%, respectively. The major treatment failure was systemic progression (32 patients, 64%). The 5-year PCRs in groups A and B were 87.4% and 74.7%, respectively (p > 0.05). Meanwhile, PFS and OS rates for group A were significantly better than those for group B (35.3% vs. 13.3%, p = 0.010; and 46.3% vs. 13.3%, p = 0.009, respectively). Our data revealed considerable prognostic heterogeneity in disseminated cervical cancer. Even though a high PCR was achieved in patients treated with definitive RT, survival outcomes were dependent on progression of visceral organ metastasis. Therefore, personalized RT and chemotherapy treatment strategies according to the presence of visceral organ metastasis in disseminated cervical cancer patients may help improve clinical outcomes

  11. Financing and disseminating small energy systems in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddle, D.B.; Perlack, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The viability of small energy systems, primarily photovoltaic systems, is discussed as an alternative for rural electrification via traditional grid extension. A dissemination model that incorporates financing to allow access to a much larger population of users and technology support (e.g. training for sales and service and small business development) is described. The experience of two successful programs is presented to illustrate the keys to effective program development and implementation. (author)

  12. Disseminated tuberculous myositis in a child with acute myelogenous leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chieh; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Huang, Li-Tung; Wu, Kuan-Sheng; Hsiao, Chih-Cheng

    2009-04-01

    Tuberculous myositis is extremely rare, even in immunocompromised hosts. We present a case of disseminated tuberculous myositis in a girl with secondary acute myelogenous Leukemia following successful chemotherapy for undifferentiated sarcoma of the maxillary sinus. The diagnosis was established by direct visualization of acid-fast bacilli in the biopsied nodule and by typical pathologic findings. Three weeks after initiation of antituberculosis treatment, the patient experienced both clinical and radiologic improvement.

  13. Disseminated Tuberculous Myositis in a Child with Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chieh Chen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculous myositis is extremely rare, even in immunocompromised hosts. We present a case of disseminated tuberculous myositis in a girl with secondary acute myelogenous leukemia following successful chemotherapy for undifferentiated sarcoma of the maxillary sinus. The diagnosis was established by direct visualization of acid-fast bacilli in the biopsied nodule and by typical pathologic findings. Three weeks after initiation of antituberculosis treatment, the patient experienced both clinical and radiologic improvement.

  14. Disseminated Mycobacterium abscessus infection in a peritoneal dialysis patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent H.J.F. Mooren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A disseminated peritoneal dialysis-related Mycobacterium abscessus infection is very rare. M. abscessus belongs to the rapidly growing mycobacteria and can be misidentified as a diphtheroid bacterium, which in our case delayed diagnosis and optimal treatment. Due to intrinsic resistance to most antimicrobials, therapeutic options in M. abscessus infections are limited. Infection often leads to catheter loss. A fatal outcome, like in our case, is not exceptional.

  15. Dissemination of Technology to Evaluate Healthy Food Incentive Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Darcy A; Hunt, Alan R; Merritt, Katie; Shon, En-Jung; Pike, Stephanie N

    2017-03-01

    Federal policy supports increased implementation of monetary incentive interventions for chronic disease prevention among low-income populations. This study describes how a Prevention Research Center, working with a dissemination partner, developed and distributed technology to support nationwide implementation and evaluation of healthy food incentive programming focused on Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program recipients. FM Tracks, an iOS-based application and website, was developed to standardize evaluation methods for healthy food incentive program implementation at direct-to-consumer markets. This evaluation examined diffusion and adoption of the technology over 9 months (July 2015-March 2016). Data were analyzed in 2016. FM Tracks was disseminated to 273 markets affiliated with 37 regional networks in 18 states and Washington, DC. All markets adopted the sales transaction data collection feature, with nearly all recording at least one Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (99.3%) and healthy food incentive (97.1%) transaction. A total of 43,493 sales transactions were recorded. By the ninth month of technology dissemination, markets were entering individual sales transactions using the application (34.5%) and website (29.9%) and aggregated transactions via website (35.6%) at similar rates. Use of optional evaluation features like recording a customer ID with individual transactions increased successively with a low of 22.2% during the first month to a high of 69.2% in the ninth month. Systematic and widely used evaluation technology creates possibilities for pragmatic research embedded within ongoing, real-world implementation of food access interventions. Technology dissemination requires supportive technical assistance and continuous refinement that can be advanced through academic-practitioner partnerships. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. DAIDS: a Distributed, Agent-based Information Dissemination System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Haglich

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Distributed Agent-Based Information Dissemination System (DAIDS concept was motivated by the need to share information among the members of a military tactical team in an atmosphere of extremely limited or intermittent bandwidth. The DAIDS approach recognizes that in many cases communications limitations will preclude the complete sharing of all tactical information between the members of the tactical team. Communications may be limited by obstructions to the line of sight between platforms; electronic warfare; or environmental conditions, or just contention from other users of that bandwidth. Since it may not be possible to achieve a complete information exchange, it is important to prioritize transmissions so the most critical information from the standpoint of the recipient is disseminated first. The challenge is to be able to determine which elements of information are the most important to each teammate. The key innovation of the DAIDS concept is the use of software proxy agents to represent the information needs of the recipient of the information. The DAIDS approach uses these proxy agents to evaluate the content of a message in accordance with the context and information needs of the recipient platform (the agent's principal and prioritize the message for dissemination. In our research we implemented this approach and demonstrated that it provides nearly a reduction in transmission times for critical tactical reports by up to a factor of 30 under severe bandwidth limitations.

  17. Lenticular disseminated dermatofibrosis and osteopoikilosis (Buschke-Ollendorf-syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippelt, C.; Petzel, H.

    1982-01-01

    Presented are 4 cases showing combined occurrence of lenticular disseminated dermatofibrosis and osteopoikilosis (Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome). Histological findings of the skin show localized increases in elastic and collageneous structures. Type I of the Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome which is characterized by disseminated small pepper-corn like changes in the skin must be differentiated from type II which is named 'dermatodibrosis nodularis xanthomatoides multilokularis' with osteopoikilosis, showing larger, single or plaque like connected changes of the skin. The Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome is a congenital autosomal dominant hereditary abnormality arising from the mutual mesodermal genesis of skin and bone changes. The Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome occasionally brings about impaired growth and mental retardation as well as rheumatoid complaints. Osteopoikilosis always appears symmetrically showing different changes in the bones usually without changes in the skin; in the contrary the lenticular disseminated dermatofibrosis is always occurring combined with findings of osteopoikilosis. During the growing years we observed patients with an increase in size and density of the bone changes and also new lesions, while the skin changes remained nearly the same. (orig.)

  18. Lenticular disseminated dermatofibrosis and osteopoikilosis (Buschke-Ollendorf-syndrome)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippelt, C; Petzel, H

    1982-12-01

    Presented are 4 cases showing combined occurrence of lenticular disseminated dermatofibrosis and osteopoikilosis (Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome). Histological findings of the skin show localized increases in elastic and collageneous structures. Type I of the Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome which is characterized by disseminated small pepper-corn like changes in the skin must be differentiated from type II which is named 'dermatofibrosis nodularis xanthomatoides multilokularis' with osteopoikilosis, showing larger, single or plaque like connected changes of the skin. The Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome is a congenital autosomal dominant hereditary abnormality arising from the mutual mesodermal genesis of skin and bone changes. The Buschke-Ollendorf syndrome occasionally brings about impaired growth and mental retardation as well as rheumatoid complaints. Osteopoikilosis always appears symmetrically showing different changes in the bones usually without changes in the skin; in the contrary the lenticular disseminated dermatofibrosis is always occurring combined with findings of osteopoikilosis. During the growing years we observed patients with an increase in size and density of the bone changes and also new lesions, while the skin changes remained nearly the same.

  19. Secure Certificateless Authentication and Road Message Dissemination Protocol in VANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haowen Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crucial component of Internet-of-Thing (IoT, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have attracted increasing attentions from both academia and industry fields in recent years. With the extensive VANETs deployment in transportation systems of more and more countries, drivers’ driving experience can be drastically improved. In this case, the real-time road information needs to be disseminated to the correlated vehicles. However, due to inherent wireless communicating characteristics of VANETs, authentication and group key management strategies are indispensable for security assurance. Furthermore, effective road message dissemination mechanism is of significance. In this paper, we address the above problems by developing a certificateless authentication and road message dissemination protocol. In our design, certificateless signature and the relevant feedback mechanism are adopted for authentication and group key distribution. Subsequently, message evaluating and ranking strategy is introduced. Security analysis shows that our protocol achieves desirable security properties. Additionally, performance analysis demonstrates that the proposed protocol is efficient compared with the state of the art.

  20. Dissemination and use of a participatory ergonomics guide for workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eerd, Dwayne; King, Trevor; Keown, Kiera; Slack, Tesha; Cole, Donald C; Irvin, Emma; Amick, Benjamin C; Bigelow, Philip

    2016-06-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) result in lost-time injury claims and lost productivity worldwide, placing a substantial burden on workers and workplaces. Participatory ergonomics (PE) is a popular approach to reducing MSDs; however, there are challenges to implementing PE programmes. Using evidence to overcome challenges may be helpful but the impacts of doing so are unknown. We sought to disseminate an evidence-based PE tool and to describe its use. An easy-to-use, evidence-based PE Guide was disseminated to workplace parties, who were surveyed about using the tool. The greatest barrier to using the tool was a lack of time. Reported tool use included for training purposes, sharing and integrating the tool into existing programmes. New actions related to tool use included training, defining team responsibilities and suggesting programme implementation steps. Evidence-based tools could help ergonomists overcome some challenges involved in implementing injury reduction programmes such as PE. Practitioner Summary Practitioners experience challenges implementing programmes to reduce the burden of MSDs in workplaces. Implementing participatory interventions requires multiple workplace parties to be 'on-board'. Disseminating and using evidence-based guides may help to overcome these challenges. Using evidence-based tools may help ergonomics practitioners implement PE programmes.

  1. Education and dissemination strategies of photoactuation as a novel phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, E. M.; Wenn, D.; Ramos, I.; Esteve, J.; Mamojka, B.; Terentjev, E. M.

    2011-10-01

    In the current information age, scientists and educators are urged to disseminate scientific findings in a prompt manner for increased public acceptance, later on, in the market place. Customer acceptance of highly novel technologies is an education-driven effort that requires attention early-on during the stage of technology development. Prompt attention is particularly needed in technologies where nanoparticles are employed, such as those being developed within the Nano- Optical Mechanical Systems (NOMS) project. Another driving force to disseminate photoactuation is to generate interest and curiosity amongst the K-12 population that could eventually lead to increased enrollment of students in the physical sciences. In this paper, we present a work plan for the dissemination of photoactuation to society at large; from K-12 to the general public. The work plan will be designed in accordance with the logic model, following indications of the National Academy of Sciences, and will include a proposal for evaluating translational research following a process marker model.

  2. Dissemination research: the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, Patrick L; Moberg, D Paul; Booske, Bridget C; Ceraso, Marion; Friedsam, Donna; Kindig, David A

    2009-08-01

    Despite significant accomplishments in basic, clinical, and population health research, a wide gap persists between research discoveries (ie, what we know) and actual practice (ie, what we do). The University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute (Institute) researchers study the process and outcomes of disseminating evidence-based public health programs and policies into practice. This paper briefly describes the approach and experience of the Institute's programs in population health assessment, health policy, program evaluation, and education and training. An essential component of this dissemination research program is the active engagement of the practitioners and policymakers. Each of the Institute's programs conducts data collection, analysis, education, and dialogue with practitioners that is closely tied to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of programs and policies. Our approach involves a reciprocal exchange of knowledge with non-academic partners, such that research informs practice and practice informs research. Dissemination research serves an important role along the continuum of research and is increasingly recognized as an important way to improve population health by accelerating the translation of research into practice.

  3. Bacterial infections of pulp and periodontal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moles, Miguel Angel; González, Nabila M

    2004-01-01

    The anatomical and structural characteristics of the pulp make this structure prone to altering as a result of, for instance, periodontal conditions (proximity), iatrogenic alterations, infections and involvement of vascular and nerve structures (it is surrounded by hard tissues that prevent expansion), to name just a few. Pulpitis is a process that courses with pain of varying intensity that allows us to determine the location of the lesion in clinical terms. Its evolution varies and may even progress to pulpar necrosis that in turn, produces neuritis-like pain. Diagnosis is established by means of clinical symptomatology and supported by X-rays, palpation of tissues at painful sites, application of electrical stimuli, heat, etc. Periodontitis is a bacterial infection originating in the apex. The most important form is the so-called acute apical periodontitis that arises as a result of a prior episode of pulpitis. It is characterized by acute pain located in the tooth, accompanied by the feeling of having a long-tooth. The patient refers being unable to chew on that side; there may be painful mobility of the tooth and an outflow of pus that alleviates symptoms. X-rays do not provide a lot of information, but may attest to a widening of the apical space. This pathology may disseminate to surrounding tissues, leading to conditions of considerable severity.

  4. Information Dissemination Analysis of Different Media towards the Application for Disaster Pre-Warning

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the information dissemination mechanisms of different media and having an efficient information dissemination plan for disaster pre-warning plays a very important role in reducing losses and ensuring the safety of human beings. In this paper we established models of information dissemination for six typical information media, including short message service (SMS), microblogs, news portals, cell phones, television, and oral communication. Then, the information dissemination capability ...

  5. Risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation in patients undergoing US-guided transperineal prostatic biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, M.S.; Comparato, D.; Camici, M.; Evangelisti, L.; Gaudio, V.; De Negri, F.; Talarico, L.; Giusti, C.; Morelli, G.

    1991-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a severe life-threatening acute bleeding disorder. Traumatized tissues, tumors, necrotic tissues, or bacterial endotoxines release similar material in the blood to the tissutal factors activating the coagulation cascade. This preliminary study was aimed at verifying the risk of DIV in patients undergoing US-guided transperineal prostatic biopsy with Chiba and Tru-Cut needles. To evaluate the activation degree of coagulation factors in the circulation, the authors measured the concentrations of urinary fibrin degradation products in 10 patients undergoing US-guided transperineal prostatic biopsy, both before and after biopsy, every second hour, for 24 hours. Every tube of urine sample contained soya bean trypsin inhibitor and bovine thrombin to prevent any further fibrin degradation during incubation period for the possible presence of blood in urine samples. The results showed that 7/10 patients had marked increase in urinary fibrin degradation product levels (up to 800 XXXX%), with a 3-phase trend: early peak after 2-6 hours, middle peak after 6-14 hours, and late peak after 18-24 hours, which proved the activation of the coagulation cascade

  6. The dissemination of C10 cysteine protease genes in Bacteroides fragilis by mobile genetic elements

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Thornton, Roibeard F

    2010-04-23

    Abstract Background The C10 family of cysteine proteases includes enzymes that contribute to the virulence of bacterial pathogens, such as SpeB in Streptococcus pyogenes. The presence of homologues of cysteine protease genes in human commensal organisms has not been examined. Bacteroides fragilis is a member of the dominant Bacteroidetes phylum of the human intestinal microbiota, and is a significant opportunistic pathogen. Results Four homologues of the streptococcal virulence factor SpeB were identified in the B. fragilis genome. These four protease genes, two were directly contiguous to open reading frames predicted to encode staphostatin-like inhibitors, with which the protease genes were co-transcribed. Two of these protease genes are unique to B. fragilis 638R and are associated with two large genomic insertions. Gene annotation indicated that one of these insertions was a conjugative Tn-like element and the other was a prophage-like element, which was shown to be capable of excision. Homologues of the B. fragilis C10 protease genes were present in a panel of clinical isolates, and in DNA extracted from normal human faecal microbiota. Conclusions This study suggests a mechanism for the evolution and dissemination of an important class of protease in major members of the normal human microbiota.

  7. Conjugation Inhibitors and Their Potential Use to Prevent Dissemination of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cabezón

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance has become one of the most challenging problems in health care. Bacteria conjugation is one of the main mechanisms whereby bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. Therefore, the search for specific conjugation inhibitors (COINs is of interest in the fight against the spread of antibiotic resistances in a variety of laboratory and natural environments. Several compounds, discovered as COINs, are promising candidates in the fight against plasmid dissemination. In this review, we survey the effectiveness and toxicity of the most relevant compounds. Particular emphasis has been placed on unsaturated fatty acid derivatives, as they have been shown to be efficient in preventing plasmid invasiveness in bacterial populations. Biochemical and structural studies have provided insights concerning their potential molecular targets and inhibitory mechanisms. These findings open a new avenue in the search of new and more effective synthetic inhibitors. In this pursuit, the use of structure-based drug design methods will be of great importance for the screening of ligands and binding sites of putative targets.

  8. CD44 deficiency enhanced Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus dissemination and inflammation response in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Xiao, Pingping; Chen, Yaosheng; Wei, Zigong; Liu, Xiaohong

    2017-12-01

    Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is responsible for peritonitis, septicemia, meningitis, arthritis and several other serious diseases in various species. Recent studies have demonstrated that CD44 is implicated in the process of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. In the present study, the role of CD44 in the host response to S. zooepidemicus infection was investigated in a mouse model. Upon intraperitoneal infection with S. zooepidemicus, the expression of CD44 on the peritoneal exudate cells from wild-type (WT) mice was increased. CD44 deficiency accelerated mortality, which was accompanied by increased peritoneal bacterial growth and dissemination to distant body sites. CD44 knock-out (KO) mice showed enhanced early inflammatory cell recruitment into the peritoneal fluid on S. zooepidemicus infection. In line with this, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines in peritoneal exudate cells and peritoneal macrophages of CD44 KO mice were increased compared with those of WT mice. In addition, CD44 deficiency was associated with reduced expression of A20, a negative regulator in TLR signaling. Overall, the present study suggests that CD44 plays a protective role in antibacterial defense against S. zooepidemicus in mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The dissemination of C10 cysteine protease genes in Bacteroides fragilis by mobile genetic elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagawa Todd F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The C10 family of cysteine proteases includes enzymes that contribute to the virulence of bacterial pathogens, such as SpeB in Streptococcus pyogenes. The presence of homologues of cysteine protease genes in human commensal organisms has not been examined. Bacteroides fragilis is a member of the dominant Bacteroidetes phylum of the human intestinal microbiota, and is a significant opportunistic pathogen. Results Four homologues of the streptococcal virulence factor SpeB were identified in the B. fragilis genome. These four protease genes, two were directly contiguous to open reading frames predicted to encode staphostatin-like inhibitors, with which the protease genes were co-transcribed. Two of these protease genes are unique to B. fragilis 638R and are associated with two large genomic insertions. Gene annotation indicated that one of these insertions was a conjugative Tn-like element and the other was a prophage-like element, which was shown to be capable of excision. Homologues of the B. fragilis C10 protease genes were present in a panel of clinical isolates, and in DNA extracted from normal human faecal microbiota. Conclusions This study suggests a mechanism for the evolution and dissemination of an important class of protease in major members of the normal human microbiota.

  10. DisseminACTION: disseminating science in the information age (www.action-euproject.eu: a website for researchers and parents)

    OpenAIRE

    Matteo Mauri

    2015-01-01

    www.action-euproject.eu is a website designed at the University of Cagliari, by the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, within the project “ACTION – Aggression in Children: unravelling gene-environment interplay to inform Treatment and InterventiON strategies”, a collaborative project which includes twelve international partners, funded under the 7th Framework Programme for Research, technological Development and Demonstration.Its aim is to properly disseminate official news, events, ...

  11. Statewide Dissemination of a Rural, Non-Chain Restaurant Intervention: Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothwehr, F.; Haines, H.; Chrisman, M.; Schultz, U.

    2014-01-01

    The obesity epidemic calls for greater dissemination of nutrition-related programs, yet there remain few studies of the dissemination process. This study, guided by elements of the RE-AIM model, describes the statewide dissemination of a simple, point-of-purchase restaurant intervention. Conducted in rural counties of the Midwest, United States,…

  12. Cassandra - D7.3.4 - M24 status report dissemination results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klievink, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This deliverable is a status report on the dissemination activities and results in the CASSANDRA project. These status reports are made regularly, with two more to come. Together, these make up deliverable D7.3 – Dissemination results. In this fifth report, the results of the dissemination

  13. 75 FR 75207 - Regulation SBSR-Reporting and Dissemination of Security-Based Swap Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... Dissemination of Security-Based Swap Information; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 231... Dissemination of Security-Based Swap Information AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed... SBSR--Reporting and Dissemination of Security-Based Swap Information (``Regulation SBSR'') under the...

  14. 34 CFR 668.44 - Availability of employees for information dissemination purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of employees for information dissemination... information dissemination purposes. (a) Availability. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section... insufficient demand for information dissemination services among its enrolled or prospective students to...

  15. 22 CFR 96.91 - Dissemination of information to the public about accreditation and approval status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissemination of information to the public... ACT OF 2000 (IAA) Dissemination and Reporting of Information by Accrediting Entities § 96.91 Dissemination of information to the public about accreditation and approval status. (a) Once the Convention has...

  16. 12 CFR 4.37 - Persons and entities with access to OCC information; prohibition on dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information; prohibition on dissemination. 4.37 Section 4.37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY... § 4.37 Persons and entities with access to OCC information; prohibition on dissemination. (a) Current... agreement to abide by, the prohibition on the dissemination of non-public OCC information contained in...

  17. 48 CFR 1252.242-70 - Dissemination of information-educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Provisions and Clauses 1252.242-70 Dissemination of information—educational institutions. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1242.7000(a), insert the following clause: Dissemination of Information—Educational... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dissemination of...

  18. Disseminated Histoplasmosis in a 13-year-old girl: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Disseminated histoplasmosis is a rare fungal infection and most documented cases are in immunecompromised individuals such as those with acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome. Objective: To describe a case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an adolescent girl. Method: We report a case of disseminated ...

  19. Radioiodine therapy for combined disseminated and nodular thyroid autonomy. Results after using a correction term for the disseminated part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, H.; Dorn, R.; Otto, I.; Sciuk, J.; Wengenmair, H.; Kopp, J.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: in combined focal and disseminated thyroid autonomy a variety of concepts in the treatment with radioiodine are used. The difference lies mainly in the calculation of the autonomous volume. This retrospective study shows a new method of calculating the autonomous volume. Patients and methods: in 398 patients with combined thyroid autonomy and good correlation of scintigraphically hot nodules and lesions defined by ultrasound the volume of the nodules is ascertained from scintigraphic and ultrasound parameters and the volume of the disseminated autonomous tissue is assessed with a weighting factor (VF). This factor is the ratio of impulse density in a ROI over the disseminated volume divided by the corresponding impulse density over the nodular volume of the thyroid scintigraphy. The sum of nodular volume and weighted perinodular volume gives the total autonomous volume. A standard radioiodine test gives the maximum iodine-131-uptake and effective half-life to calculate the activity to obtain a treatment dose of 400 Gy. Results: the rate of success with and without thyrostatic medication was 97% with an 18.6% rate of hypothyroidism observed from 4 months post therapy onwards. Conclusion: the use of the weighting factor VF in the treatment of combined autonomy leads to an excellent rate of success in patients with good correlation of functional imaging and ultrasound findings. (orig.)

  20. Novel survey disseminated through Twitter supports its utility for networking, disseminating research, advocacy, clinical practice and other professional goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgmann, Hendrik; DeWitt, Sasha; Tsaur, Igor; Haferkamp, Axel; Loeb, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    Twitter use has grown exponentially within the urological community. We aimed to determine the perceptions of the impact of Twitter on users' clinical practice, research, and other professional activities. We performed an 11-item online survey of Twitter contributors during two major urological meetings: the European Association of Urology (EAU) and the American Urological Association (AUA) annual meetings. During the EAU 2014 meeting, we distributed the survey via the meeting official Twitter feed. During the AUA 2014 meeting, we applied a new method by directly sending the survey to Twitter contributors. We performed a subset analysis for assessing the perceived impact of Twitter on the clinical practice of physicians. Among 312 total respondents, the greatest perceived benefits of Twitter among users were for networking (97%) and disseminating information (96%), followed by research (75%), advocacy (74%) and career development (62%). In total, 65% of Twitter users have dealt with guidelines on online medical professionalism and 71% of physician users found that Twitter had an impact on their clinical practice, and 33% had made a clinical decision based on an online case discussion. Our results suggest that Twitter users in the urological community perceive important benefits. These benefits extend to multiple professional domains, particularly networking, disseminating information, remote conference participation, research, and advocacy. This is the first study that has been disseminated to targeted individuals from the urological community directly through tweets, providing a proof of principle for this research method.

  1. Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates: Still fabulous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Możejko-Ciesielska, Justyna; Kiewisz, Robert

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are polyesters accumulated as carbon and energy storage materials under limited growth conditions in the presence of excess carbon sources. They have been developed as biomaterials with unique properties for the past many years being considered as a potential substitute for conventional non-degradable plastics. Due to the increasing concern towards global climate change, depleting petroleum resource and problems with an utilization of a growing number of synthetic plastics, PHAs have gained much more attention from industry and research. These environmentally friendly microbial polymers have great potential in biomedical, agricultural, and industrial applications. However, their production on a large scale is still limited. This paper describes the backgrounds of PHAs and discussed the current state of knowledge on the polyhydroxyalkanoates. Ability of bacteria to convert different carbon sources to PHAs, the opportunities and challenges of their introduction to global market as valuable renewable products have been also discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Energetics of bacterial adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loosdrecht, M.C.M. van; Zehnder, A.J.B.

    1990-01-01

    For the description of bacterial adhesion phenomena two different physico-chemical approaches are available. The first one, based on a surface Gibbs energy balance, assumes intimate contact between the interacting surfaces. The second approach, based on colloid chemical theories (DLVO theory), allows for two types of adhesion: 1) secondary minimum adhesion, which is often weak and reversible, and 2) irreversible primary minimum adhesion. In the secondary minimum adhesion a thin water film remains present between the interacting surface. The merits of both approaches are discussed in this paper. In addition, the methods available to measure the physico-chemical surface characteristics of bacteria and the influence of adsorbing (in)organic compounds, extracellular polymers and cell surface appendages on adhesion are summarized. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 50 refs

  3. Biosensors of bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlage, Robert S; Tillmann, Joshua

    2017-07-01

    Biosensors are devices which utilize both an electrical component (transducer) and a biological component to study an environment. They are typically used to examine biological structures, organisms and processes. The field of biosensors has now become so large and varied that the technology can often seem impenetrable. Yet the principles which underlie the technology are uncomplicated, even if the details of the mechanisms are elusive. In this review we confine our analysis to relatively current advancements in biosensors for the detection of whole bacterial cells. This includes biosensors which rely on an added labeled component and biosensors which do not have a labeled component and instead detect the binding event or bound structure on the transducer. Methods to concentrate the bacteria prior to biosensor analysis are also described. The variety of biosensor types and their actual and potential uses are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the P......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome.......Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the Par...

  5. Exploring bacterial lignin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Margaret E; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-04-01

    Plant biomass represents a renewable carbon feedstock that could potentially be used to replace a significant level of petroleum-derived chemicals. One major challenge in its utilization is that the majority of this carbon is trapped in the recalcitrant structural polymers of the plant cell wall. Deconstruction of lignin is a key step in the processing of biomass to useful monomers but remains challenging. Microbial systems can provide molecular information on lignin depolymerization as they have evolved to break lignin down using metalloenzyme-dependent radical pathways. Both fungi and bacteria have been observed to metabolize lignin; however, their differential reactivity with this substrate indicates that they may utilize different chemical strategies for its breakdown. This review will discuss recent advances in studying bacterial lignin degradation as an approach to exploring greater diversity in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Studying bacterial multispecies biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Burmølle, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence and significance of multispecies biofilms have now been demonstrated in various bacterial habitats with medical, industrial, and ecological relevance. It is highly evident that several species of bacteria coexist and interact in biofilms, which highlights the need for evaluating...... the approaches used to study these complex communities. This review focuses on the establishment of multispecies biofilms in vitro, interspecies interactions in microhabitats, and how to select communities for evaluation. Studies have used different experimental approaches; here we evaluate the benefits...... and drawbacks of varying the degree of complexity. This review aims to facilitate multispecies biofilm research in order to expand the current limited knowledge on interspecies interactions. Recent technological advances have enabled total diversity analysis of highly complex and diverse microbial communities...

  7. Anaerobes in bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred high vaginal swabs were taken from patients attending gynaecology and obstetrics department of Govt. medical college, Amritsar. The patients were divided into four groups i.e. women in pregnancy (Group I, in labour/post partum (Group II, with abnormal vaginal discharge or bacterial vaginosis (Group III and asymptomatic women as control (Group IV. Anaerobic culture of vaginal swabs revealed that out of 400 cases, 212(53% were culture positive. Maximum isolation of anaerobes was in group III (84% followed by group II (56%, group I (36% and control group (15%. Gram positive anaerobes (69.2% out numbered gram negatives (30.8%. Among various isolates Peptostreptococcus spp. and Bacteroides spp. were predominant.

  8. Bacterial meningitis in immunocompromised patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, K.E.B.

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is an acute infection of the meninges, in The Netherlands most commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitides. Risk factors for acquiring bacterial meningitis include a decreased function of the immune system. The aim of this thesis was to study

  9. Bacteriële meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M. C.; van de Beek, D.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a severe disease which affects 35.000 Europeans each year and has a mortality rate of about 20%. During the past 25 years the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has changed significantly due to the implementation of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria

  10. Assessing citation networks for dissemination and implementation research frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Ted A; Lehmann, Todd; Tabak, Rachel G; Harris, Jenine; Lecy, Jesse; Sales, Anne E

    2017-07-28

    A recent review of frameworks used in dissemination and implementation (D&I) science described 61 judged to be related either to dissemination, implementation, or both. The current use of these frameworks and their contributions to D&I science more broadly has yet to be reviewed. For these reasons, our objective was to determine the role of these frameworks in the development of D&I science. We used the Web of Science™ Core Collection and Google Scholar™ to conduct a citation network analysis for the key frameworks described in a recent systematic review of D&I frameworks (Am J Prev Med 43(3):337-350, 2012). From January to August 2016, we collected framework data including title, reference, publication year, and citations per year and conducted descriptive and main path network analyses to identify those most important in holding the current citation network for D&I frameworks together. The source article contained 119 cited references, with 50 published articles and 11 documents identified as a primary framework reference. The average citations per year for the 61 frameworks reviewed ranged from 0.7 to 103.3 among articles published from 1985 to 2012. Citation rates from all frameworks are reported with citation network analyses for the framework review article and ten highly cited framework seed articles. The main path for the D&I framework citation network is presented. We examined citation rates and the main paths through the citation network to delineate the current landscape of D&I framework research, and opportunities for advancing framework development and use. Dissemination and implementation researchers and practitioners may consider frequency of framework citation and our network findings when planning implementation efforts to build upon this foundation and promote systematic advances in D&I science.

  11. Rare Dysuria: Prostatic Abscess due to Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Ansari Pirsaraei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of disseminated coccidioidomycosis with formation of a prostatic abscess in a 28-year-old diabetic male. Though rare, Coccidiodes prostatitis should be included in the differential for patients who have spent time in endemic areas and present with prostatitis or other genitourinary tract symptoms, especially in the setting of immunocompromise. The small number of Coccidiodes prostatitis cases described in the literature previously are reviewed, along with a wider discussion of coccidioidomycosis. Treatment modalities for this challenging fungal disease are also discussed.

  12. New software tools for evaluating and disseminating nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlands, Tracy L.M.; Miyake, Erik E.; Stone, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Three new related technologies that offer real promise for modeling, processing, and disseminating nuclear data are explored. Extensible Markup Language (XML) provides a simple method of describing nuclear data. Extensible Style Language (XSL) supports XML data searching, filtering and processing. It is shown how the technology can be used to transform an XML-formatted ENSDF file into a table of similar form to those found in the Nuclear Data Sheets. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) has been used to convert XML formatted ENSDF files into interactive level scheme

  13. Using scenarios for dissemination - Experiences from the IMS GLOBEMEN project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollus, Martin; Hartel, Ingo; Tølle, Martin

    2002-01-01

    due to the complexities of the interdisciplinary field addressed. As an instrument for communication to the non-specialist public the IMS GLOBEMEN project produces a web-based scenario as part of its dissemination activities. It is aimed at giving a practical overview of specific challenges...... in the field and contributions from the project. Based upon a generic Virtual Enterprise Reference Architecture (called VERA) the partners in the project have developed a set of protypes to be implemeted in their own business processes. The results will be illutrated in one integrated scenario....

  14. Imaging diagnosis--disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Markay L; Spaulding, Kathy A; Goodrich, Zachary J

    2015-01-01

    A 17-month-old male Labrador retriever presented for evaluation of an abdominal mass felt during abdominal palpation. Multiple variably sized cystic masses were identified on sonographic and radiographic images. Exploratory laparotomy revealed multiple peritoneal masses that exhibited atypical contractions and lacked an identifiable organ of origin. Histology and immunohistochemistry of multiple surgically excised masses was consistent with benign tumors of smooth muscle origin (leiomyomas). The presence of multiple peritoneal leiomyomas in this dog is consistent with disseminated peritoneal leiomyomatosis. Two years after diagnosis and multiple surgical interventions, continual insidious enlargement of leiomyomas was identified on ultrasound and CT. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  15. Editorial: Learning, teaching and disseminating knowledge in business process management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Moormann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Process-oriented thinking has become the major paradigm for managing companies and other organizations. The push for better processes has been even more intense due to rapidly evolving client needs, borderless global markets and innovations swiftly penetrating the market. Thus, education is decisive for successfully introducing and implementing Business Process Management (BPM initiatives. However, BPM education has been an area of challenge. This special issue aims to provide current research on various aspects of BPM education. It is an initial effort for consolidating better practices, experiences and pedagogical outcomes founded with empirical evidence to contribute towards the three pillars of education: learning, teaching, and disseminating knowledge in BPM.

  16. Mycobacterium avium complex disseminated infection in a kidney transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadlallah, J; Rammaert, B; Laurent, S; Lanternier, F; Pol, S; Franck, N; Mamzer, M F; Dupin, N; Lortholary, O

    2016-02-01

    Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) infections are well known in immunocompromised patients, notably in human immunodeficiency virus infection, but remain scarcely described in kidney transplantation. Moreover, cutaneous involvement in this infection is very unusual. We describe here a disseminated infection caused by MAC in a kidney transplant recipient revealed by cutaneous lesions. This case highlights the need for an exhaustive, iterative microbiologic workup in the context of an atypical disease presentation in a renal transplant patient, regardless of the degree of immunosuppression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Self-disseminating vaccines for emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Aisling A; Redwood, Alec J; Jarvis, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Modern human activity fueled by economic development is profoundly altering our relationship with microorganisms. This altered interaction with microbes is believed to be the major driving force behind the increased rate of emerging infectious diseases from animals. The spate of recent infectious disease outbreaks, including Ebola virus disease and Middle East respiratory syndrome, emphasize the need for development of new innovative tools to manage these emerging diseases. Disseminating vaccines are one such novel approach to potentially interrupt animal to human (zoonotic) transmission of these pathogens.

  18. [Disseminated fusariosis in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, N.E.; Ralfkiaer, E.M.; Kjeldsen, L.

    2008-01-01

    Invasive mould infections are a major cause of infectious mortality in highly immunosuppressed patients. Incidence in this high risk group is 10-20% with a death rate in excess of 50%. Most invasive moulds are Aspergillus spp. We present a case of a 74-year-old woman with acute lymphoblastic...... leukaemia who developed a rare disseminated mould infection with Fusarium solani during induction chemotherapy. We present the case story and discuss the pathogenesis, clinical characteristics and treatment of invasive fusariosis Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/8...

  19. Modeling rapidly disseminating infectious disease during mass gatherings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowell Gerardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We discuss models for rapidly disseminating infectious diseases during mass gatherings (MGs, using influenza as a case study. Recent innovations in modeling and forecasting influenza transmission dynamics at local, regional, and global scales have made influenza a particularly attractive model scenario for MG. We discuss the behavioral, medical, and population factors for modeling MG disease transmission, review existing model formulations, and highlight key data and modeling gaps related to modeling MG disease transmission. We argue that the proposed improvements will help integrate infectious-disease models in MG health contingency plans in the near future, echoing modeling efforts that have helped shape influenza pandemic preparedness plans in recent years.

  20. Disseminated Mycobacterium celatum disease with prolonged pulmonary involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsche, Cecilie Blenstrup; Svensson, Erik; Wejse, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium celatum is a rare cause of human infection, causing disseminated disease in immunosuppressed individuals. Infections localized to the lungs and the lymph nodes have also been reported in immunocompetent individuals. The existing literature on the subject is limited as are experiences...... with treatment regimens and durations. In the case presented herein, two different treatment regimens were applied to an immunocompromised HIV-negative patient with primary skin involvement and extensive pulmonary involvement due to suspected relapse on isoniazid, ethambutol, and clarithromycin treatment....... The treatment regimen was changed to azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and pyrazinamide and the treatment duration was prolonged to a total of 24 months, with good effect....

  1. Mechanisms of Pulmonary Escape and Dissemination by Cryptococcus neoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Denham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a common environmental saprophyte and human fungal pathogen that primarily causes disease in immunocompromised individuals. Similar to many environmentally acquired human fungal pathogens, C. neoformans initiates infection in the lungs. However, the main driver of mortality is invasive cryptococcosis leading to fungal meningitis. After C. neoformans gains a foothold in the lungs, a critical early step in invasion is transversal of the respiratory epithelium. In this review, we summarize current knowledge relating to pulmonary escape. We focus on fungal factors that allow C. neoformans to disseminate from the lungs via intracellular and extracellular routes.

  2. Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Lei; Kobir, Ahasanul; Jers, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    in exopolysaccharide production, virulence, DNA metabolism, stress response and other key functions of the bacterial cell. BY-kinases act through autophosphorylation (mainly in exopolysaccharide production) and phosphorylation of other proteins, which have in most cases been shown to be activated by tyrosine......Bacteria and Eukarya share essentially the same family of protein-serine/threonine kinases, also known as the Hanks-type kinases. However, when it comes to protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, bacteria seem to have gone their own way. Bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) are bacterial...... and highlighted their importance in bacterial physiology. Having no orthologues in Eukarya, BY-kinases are receiving a growing attention from the biomedical field, since they represent a particularly promising target for anti-bacterial drug design....

  3. Molecular approaches for bacterial azoreductases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montira Leelakriangsak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are the dominant types of synthetic dyes, widely used in textiles, foods, leather, printing, tattooing, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Many microorganisms are able to decolorize azo dyes, and there is increasing interest in biological waste treatment methods. Bacterial azoreductases can cleave azo linkages (-N=N- in azo dyes, forming aromatic amines. This review mainly focuses on employing molecular approaches, including gene manipulation and recombinant strains, to study bacterial azoreductases. The construction of the recombinant protein by cloning and the overexpression of azoreductase is described. The mechanisms and function of bacterial azoreductases can be studied by other molecular techniques discussed in this review, such as RT-PCR, southern blot analysis, western blot analysis, zymography, and muta-genesis in order to understand bacterial azoreductase properties, function and application. In addition, understanding the regulation of azoreductase gene expression will lead to the systematic use of gene manipulation in bacterial strains for new strategies in future waste remediation technologies.

  4. Information dissemination analysis of different media towards the application for disaster pre-warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Huang, Hong; Su, Boni; Zhao, Jinlong; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the information dissemination mechanisms of different media and having an efficient information dissemination plan for disaster pre-warning plays a very important role in reducing losses and ensuring the safety of human beings. In this paper we established models of information dissemination for six typical information media, including short message service (SMS), microblogs, news portals, cell phones, television, and oral communication. Then, the information dissemination capability of each medium concerning individuals of different ages, genders, and residential areas was simulated, and the dissemination characteristics were studied. Finally, radar graphs were used to illustrate comprehensive assessments of the six media; these graphs show directly the information dissemination characteristics of all media. The models and the results are essential for improving the efficiency of information dissemination for the purpose of disaster pre-warning and for formulating emergency plans which help to reduce the possibility of injuries, deaths and other losses in a disaster.

  5. Thyroid storm complicated by bicytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokushima, Yoshinori; Sakanishi, Yuta; Nagae, Kou; Tokushima, Midori; Tago, Masaki; Tomonaga, Motosuke; Yoshioka, Tsuneaki; Hyakutake, Masaki; Sugioka, Takashi; Yamashita, Shu-ichi

    2014-07-24

    Male, 23. Thyroid storm. Delirium • diarrhea • fever • hypertension • hyperventilation • tachycardia • weight loss. -. -. Endocrinology and Metabolic. Unusual clinical course. The clinical presentation of thyroid storm includes fever, tachycardia, hypertension, and neurological abnormalities. It is a serious condition with a high mortality rate. Furthermore, some other complications affect the clinical course of thyroid storm. Although it is reported that prognosis is poor when thyroid storm is complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome (DIC) and leukopenia, reports of such cases are rare. A 23-year-old man presented with delirium, high pyrexia, diarrhea, and weight loss of 18 kg over 2 months. According to the criteria of Burch and Wartofsky, he was diagnosed with thyroid storm on the basis of his symptom-complex and laboratory data that confirmed the presence of hyperthyroidism. Investigations also found leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation, all of which are very rare complications of thyroid storm. We successfully treated him with combined therapy including anti-thyroid medication, despite leukopenia. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential in ensuring a good outcome for patients with this rare combination of medical problems.

  6. Bioinformatics education dissemination with an evolutionary problem solving perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungck, John R; Donovan, Samuel S; Weisstein, Anton E; Khiripet, Noppadon; Everse, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Bioinformatics is central to biology education in the 21st century. With the generation of terabytes of data per day, the application of computer-based tools to stored and distributed data is fundamentally changing research and its application to problems in medicine, agriculture, conservation and forensics. In light of this 'information revolution,' undergraduate biology curricula must be redesigned to prepare the next generation of informed citizens as well as those who will pursue careers in the life sciences. The BEDROCK initiative (Bioinformatics Education Dissemination: Reaching Out, Connecting and Knitting together) has fostered an international community of bioinformatics educators. The initiative's goals are to: (i) Identify and support faculty who can take leadership roles in bioinformatics education; (ii) Highlight and distribute innovative approaches to incorporating evolutionary bioinformatics data and techniques throughout undergraduate education; (iii) Establish mechanisms for the broad dissemination of bioinformatics resource materials and teaching models; (iv) Emphasize phylogenetic thinking and problem solving; and (v) Develop and publish new software tools to help students develop and test evolutionary hypotheses. Since 2002, BEDROCK has offered more than 50 faculty workshops around the world, published many resources and supported an environment for developing and sharing bioinformatics education approaches. The BEDROCK initiative builds on the established pedagogical philosophy and academic community of the BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium to assemble the diverse intellectual and human resources required to sustain an international reform effort in undergraduate bioinformatics education.

  7. Dissemination of Knowledge about NPP Instrumentation and Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yastrebenetsky, M.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are the most variable part in the nuclear power plants (NPP) comparatively with any other NPP systems. This statement is connected with the wide use of computers, rapid changes in information technologies, with the appearance of new computer complex electronic components, e.g., field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and with appropriate point of their insertion into NPP I&C life cycle. The changes in NPP I&C systems require the dissemination of the knowledge about these systems. Lessons after Fukushima accident increase necessity of these actions. The elaboration and following dissemination of this knowledge took place in different directions: • Writing and issue of three new books about NPP I&C systems for specialists and for students which were issued in Ukrainian and USA public houses (the last book was issued in 2014); • Organization of five international scientific technical conferences, devoted to NPP I&C safety problems; • Elaboration of national (Ukrainian) standards and regulations pertaining to safety important NPP I&C systems (the last standard was issued in 2015) and participation in elaboration of international standards; • Lecturing for university students, NPP specialists and I&C designers. These actions in all directions are added to IAEA activity in the area NPP I&C systems (e.g., IAEA NP-T-3.12 “Core Knowledge on I&C systems in NPP”). (author

  8. Integrating Journalism Into Health Promotion: Creating and Disseminating Community Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louis D; Berryhill, Joseph C; Jones, Eric C

    2018-06-01

    Media coverage of mental health and other social issues often relies on episodic narratives that suggest individualistic causes and solutions, while reinforcing negative stereotypes. Community narratives can provide empowering alternatives, serving as media advocacy tools used to shape the policy debate on a social issue. This article provides health promotion researchers and practitioners with guidance on how to develop and disseminate community narratives to broaden awareness of social issues and build support for particular programs and policy solutions. To exemplify the community narrative development process and highlight important considerations, this article examines a narrative from a mental health consumer-run organization. In the narrative, people with mental health problems help one another while operating a nonprofit organization, thereby countering stigmatizing media portrayals of people with mental illness as dangerous and incompetent. The community narrative frame supports the use of consumer-run organizations, which are not well-known and receive little funding despite evidence of effectiveness. The article concludes by reviewing challenges to disseminating community narratives, such as creating a product of interest to media outlets, and potential solutions, such as engaging media representatives through community health partnerships and using social media to draw attention to the narratives.

  9. The influence of Iranian scientific journals in disseminating medical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminpour, Farzaneh

    2012-02-01

    Scientific journals are the most credible and updated information resources for valid information in the various fields of science and technology. The present study investigates the status of Iranian scientific journals in disseminating medical information to the world of science. Total 163 Iranian medical journals accredited by national medical journals commission of Iranian ministry of health and medical education were evaluated through a cross-sectional study. The results were represented in descriptive statistics in the form of table and chart. The study showed that 89.6% of Iranian medical journals were covered by regional information databases. Web of Science database indexed 22 (13.5%) Iranian journals in the field of medical science. Only six (6.7%) journals were indexed by Medline. Fifty-eight (35.6%) journals were in English, 102 (62.6%) in Persian, and three (1.8%) were bilingual which published their articles both in Persian and English languages. The highest Impact factor belonged to Iranian Journal of Allergy Asthma and Immunology. Improving scientific credibility of Iranian scholarly journals and their influence in disseminating medical information calls for a precise scientific and executive administration in publishing standards and also in the quality of content.

  10. Lupus Flare: An Uncommon Presentation of Disseminated Gonorrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uyen To

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonorrhea is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the US with 700,000 annual cases. Although most cases of gonorrhea are localized, approximately 0.5–3% become disseminated. Here we discuss a rare case of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE who developed septic shock from disseminated gonorrhea infection (DGI. Our patient is a 24-year-old woman with SLE, mixed connective tissue disease with cutaneous vasculitis, and lupus nephritis who presented with several weeks of malaise and generalized body aches associated with a diffuse rash along her fingers, palms, and trunk. Infectious workup was unrevealing with the exception of a positive gonorrhea test obtained from a cervical swab. Given her symptoms of tenosynovitis, the appearance of her skin lesions, and her positive gonorrhea test, she was diagnosed with septic shock secondary to DGI. With antibiotic treatment, the patient reported a dramatic improvement of the pain in her swollen joints and her rash receded. Patients diagnosed with SLE carry an increased risk of gonorrhea regardless of whether or not they are being treated for their SLE. Although it is well-documented that SLE is associated with severe DGI, few describe it resulting in overt septic shock.

  11. Dissemination and Implementation Research for Occupational Safety and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Alicia G; Punnett, Laura

    2017-12-01

    The translation of evidence-based health innovations into real-world practice is both incomplete and exceedingly slow. This represents a poor return on research investment dollars for the general public. U.S. funders of health sciences research (e.g., NIH, CDC, NIOSH) are increasingly calling for dissemination plans, and to a lesser extent for dissemination and implementation (D&I) research, which are studies that examine the effectiveness of D&I efforts and strategies and the predictors of D&I success. For example, rather than merely broadcasting information about a preventable hazard, D&I research in occupational safety and health (OSH) might examine how employers or practitioners are most likely to receive and act upon that information. We propose here that D&I research should be seen as a dedicated and necessary area of study within OSH, as a way to generate new knowledge that can bridge the research-to-practice gap. We present D&I concepts, frameworks, and examples that can increase the capacity of OSH professionals to conduct D&I research and accelerate the translation of research findings into meaningful everyday practice to improve worker safety and health.

  12. Hepatitis in Disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus U Göttke

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Local immunotherapy with an attenuated live strain of Mycobacterium bovis, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG, is an effective and frequently used treatment for in situ transitional cell carcinoma (TCC of the bladder. Success rates are high, and serious side effects are infrequent but can affect every organ system. A 79-year-old patient with recently diagnosed TCC who was treated with intravesical BCG for a recurrence after initial surgical treatment is reported. After unsuccessful attempts at bladder catheterization with the creation of a false passage for his third treatment, BCG was instilled via a suprapubic catheter the same day and again a week later. Two weeks after the third BCG instillation, the patient presented with profound lethargy and weakness to the point of not being able to get up out of a chair. He was febrile, anorexic, icteric and had hepatosplenomegaly. Disseminated BCG infection was suspected on the basis of history, clinical examination and a liver biopsy that showed noncaseating granulomatous hepatitis. Empirical treatment was started with antituberculous combination therapy. A short course of an oral corticosteroid was given. Clinical improvement was marked and sustained so that the patient could be discharged home for the full six-month course of his treatment. Disseminated BCG infection with granulomatous hepatitis can be severe and life-threatening in cases where a large intravascular inoculum of BCG may have been given inadvertently.

  13. Technology delivery and Dissemination Through Community-Based Organisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukachi, S.

    2002-01-01

    Utilisation of existing community groups, which already have their agenda and organisational structure, is one of the ways of ensuring sustainability of tsetse and trypanosomiasis control programs. The aim of this study was to assess and document the organisational structures and capacity of the identified groups in Busia with view to using them as entry and dispersal points for tsetse technology transfer. focus groups discussions and key informant interview were held with members of the organisations dealing in livestock/related activities to find out the historical profiles, goals and missions,compositions of the groups and their impact on the community. Qualitative approach was used in describing and discussing the data collected. Findings reveal that most organisations were formed to uplift the socio-economic status of members and as a result, engage in various activities to generate income for group. The common methods of tsetse control used by some of the groups were, bush clearing, use of impregnated nets (for the zero grazing units), use of drugs, spraying and pour-on. Groups that were internally initiated seemed to be more active and sustainable than groups that were externally initiated. On average, the groups reported that they were in position to reach between 100 and 1000 people in the community per day. Thus, these groups can be resourceful in terms of technology/information dissemination since they have a good linkage with the community. Such organisations can be used as channels to disseminate livestock research outputs to the wider community

  14. Disseminated Cryptococcosis presenting as cellulitis in a renal transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaya, Ramachandraiah; Padmanabhan, Srinivasan; Anandaswamy, Venugopal; Moin, Aumir

    2013-01-15

    Cellulitis is an unusual presentation of cryptococcal infection in renal allograft recipients. In such patients, disseminated cryptococcal infection can result in significant morbidity and mortality. Patients are often treated with antibiotics before a definitive diagnosis is made, delaying appropriate therapy. We describe the case of a 43-year-old post renal transplant recipient presenting with fever and swelling in the right thigh. On physical examination, the patient was found to have features suggestive of cellulitis with minimal slurring of speech. Material obtained from incision and drainage of the wound showed yeast cells resembling Cryptococcus spp. Blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid culture were also found to have growth of Cryptococcus neoformans. He received treatment with amphotericin B 6 mg/kg daily intravenously for two weeks, then continued with fluconazole 400 mg daily for three months. The patient showed a remarkable improvement. There was no recurrence of cryptococcosis after four months of follow-up. The diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis should be considered in differential diagnosis of cellulitis among non HIV immunocompromised hosts. A high clinical suspicion and early initiation of therapy is needed to recognize and treat patients effectively.

  15. Obiltoxaximab Prevents Disseminated Bacillus anthracis Infection and Improves Survival during Pre- and Postexposure Prophylaxis in Animal Models of Inhalational Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Brent J.; Shadiack, Annette M.; Carpenter, Sarah; Sanford, Daniel; Henning, Lisa N.; Gonzales, Nestor; O'Connor, Edward; Casey, Leslie S.

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend adjunctive antitoxins when systemic anthrax is suspected. Obiltoxaximab, a monoclonal antibody against protective antigen (PA), is approved for treatment of inhalational anthrax in combination with antibiotics and for prophylaxis when alternative therapies are not available. The impact of toxin neutralization with obiltoxaximab during pre- and postexposure prophylaxis was explored, and efficacy results that supported the prophylaxis indication are presented here. New Zealand White rabbits and cynomolgus macaques received obiltoxaximab as a single intramuscular or intravenous dose of 2 to 16 mg/kg of body weight at various times relative to Bacillus anthracis aerosol spore challenge. The primary endpoint was survival, and effect of treatment timing was explored. In rabbits, obiltoxaximab administration 9 h postchallenge singly or combined with a 5-day levofloxacin regimen protected 89% to 100% of animals compared to 33% with levofloxacin monotherapy. In cynomolgus macaques, a single intramuscular dose of 16 mg/kg obiltoxaximab led to 100% survival when given 1 to 3 days preexposure and 83% to 100% survival when given 18 to 24 h postexposure and prior to systemic bacteremia onset. Obiltoxaximab administration after bacteremia onset resulted in lower (25% to 50%) survival rates reflective of treatment setting. Prophylactic administration of obiltoxaximab before spore challenge or to spore-challenged animals before systemic bacterial dissemination is efficacious in promoting survival, ameliorating toxemia, and inhibiting bacterial spread to the periphery. PMID:27431219

  16. UPLC-MS/MS analysis of antibiotics in pharmaceutical effluent in Tunisia: ecotoxicological impact and multi-resistant bacteria dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahrani, Leyla; Mehri, Ines; Reyns, Tim; Anthonissen, Roel; Verschaeve, Luc; Khalifa, Anis Bel Haj; Loco, Joris Van; Abdenaceur, Hassen; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2018-05-01

    The UPLC MS/MS analysis showed the presence of the two antibiotics in the pharmaceutical industry discharges during 3 months; norfloxacin and spiramycin which were quantified with the mean concentrations of 226.7 and 84.2 ng mL -1 , respectively. Sixteen resistant isolates were obtained from the pharmaceutical effluent and identified by sequencing. These isolates belong to different genera, namely Citrobacter, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Delftia, Shewanella, and Rheinheimera. The antibiotic resistance phenotypes of these isolates were determined (27 tested antibiotics-discs). All the studied isolates were found resistant to amoxicillin and gentamicin, and 83.33% of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. Multiple antibiotic resistances were revealed against β-lactams, quinolones, and aminoglycosides families. Our overall results suggest that the obtained bacterial isolates may constitute potential candidates for bioremediation and can be useful for biotechnological applications. Genotoxic effects were assessed by a battery of biotests; the pharmaceutical wastewater was genotoxic according to the bacterial Vitotox test and micronuclei test. Genotoxicity was also evaluated by the comet test; the tail DNA damages reached 38 and 22% for concentrated sample (10×) and non-concentrated sample (1×), respectively. However, the histological sections of kidney and liver's mice treated by pharmaceutical effluent showed normal histology and no visible structural effects or alterations as cytolysis, edema, or ulcerative necrosis were observed. Residual antibiotics can reach water environment through wastewater and provoke dissemination of the antibiotics resistance and induce genotoxic effects.

  17. Electromagnetism of Bacterial Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiwaer, Ailiyasi

    2011-10-01

    There has been increasing concern from the public about personal health due to the significant rise in the daily use of electrical devices such as cell phones, radios, computers, GPS, video games and television. All of these devices create electromagnetic (EM) fields, which are simply magnetic and electric fields surrounding the appliances that simultaneously affect the human bio-system. Although these can affect the human system, obstacles can easily shield or weaken the electrical fields; however, magnetic fields cannot be weakened and can pass through walls, human bodies and most other objects. The present study was conducted to examine the possible effects of bacteria when exposed to magnetic fields. The results indicate that a strong causal relationship is not clear, since different magnetic fields affect the bacteria differently, with some causing an increase in bacterial cells, and others causing a decrease in the same cells. This phenomenon has yet to be explained, but the current study attempts to offer a mathematical explanation for this occurrence. The researchers added cultures to the magnetic fields to examine any effects to ion transportation. Researchers discovered ions such as potassium and sodium are affected by the magnetic field. A formula is presented in the analysis section to explain this effect.

  18. Evolution of Bacterial Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernookov, Martin; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-03-01

    While active, controlled cellular suicide (autolysis) in bacteria is commonly observed, it has been hard to argue that autolysis can be beneficial to an individual who commits it. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that bacterial autolysis is evolutionarily advantageous to an individualand would fixate in physically structured environments for stationary phase colonies. We perform spatially resolved agent-based simulations of the model, which predict that lower mixing in the environment results in fixation of a higher autolysis rate from a single mutated cell, regardless of the colony's genetic diversity. We argue that quorum sensing will fixate as well, even if initially rare, if it is coupled to controlling the autolysis rate. The model does not predict a strong additional competitive advantage for cells where autolysis is controlled by quorum sensing systems that distinguish self from nonself. These predictions are broadly supported by recent experimental results in B. subtilisand S. pneumoniae. Research partially supported by the James S McDonnell Foundation grant No. 220020321 and by HFSP grant No. RGY0084/2011.

  19. Bacterial growth on macrophyte leachate and fate of bacterial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, S.; Carlough, L.; Crocker, M.T.; Gill, H.K.; Meyer, J.L.; Smith, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The role bacteria play in transferring organic carbon to other trophic levels in aquatic ecosystems depends on the efficiency with which they convert dissolved organic [ 14 C]-labelled carbon into bacterial biomass and on the ability of consumers to graze bacteria. The authors have measured the conversion efficiency for bacteria growing on macrophyte-derived dissolved organic carbon and estimated the amount of bacterial production removed by grazing. Bacteria converted this DOC into new tissue with an efficiency of 53%, substantially higher than the apparent conversion efficiency of macrophyte-derived particulate organic carbon or other types of DOC. Two estimates of grazing indicate that the decline in bacterial numbers after the bloom was probably due to grazing by flagellates. These results show the significance of the bacterial link between DOC and other trophic levels

  20. Molecular detection of human bacterial pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Dongyou

    2011-01-01

    .... Molecular Detection of Human Bacterial Pathogens addresses this issue, with international scientists in respective bacterial pathogen research and diagnosis providing expert summaries on current...

  1. An Uncommon Cause of Stroke: Non-bacterial Thrombotic Endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Hilde; Moynihan, Barry

    2016-10-01

    Our objective is to present the case of an uncommon but probably under-recognized cause of stroke: Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE). A 59-year-old man presented to our hospital with multiple bihemispheric infarcts despite taking rivaroxaban for pulmonary emboli diagnosed 2 weeks earlier. The patient's symptoms progressed quickly and he died within a week of his initial presentation despite attempts at neuroradiologically guided clot retrieval and early recognition and treatment of disseminated intravascular coagulation. On postmortem examination it was discovered that he had an undiagnosed squamous cell adenocarcinoma of the lung and NBTE. NBTE is difficult to diagnose and difficult to treat. It is associated with a mortality rate and is often not diagnosed until autopsy. However there are case reports in the literature where NBTE has been successfully treated. Early recognition and prompt treatment of the underlying disease process is the essential first step. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation in experimental strangulated intestinal obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, Yu.M.; Popov, M.V.; Salato, O.V.; Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Grigorev, E.G.; Aparcin, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain scintigraphic images depicting translocation of 99m Tc-labelled Escherichia coli bacteria through the intestinal barrier and to quantify this process using methods of nuclear medicine. Thirty male Wistar rats (including 20 rats with modelled strangulated intestinal obstruction and 10 healthy rats) were used for bacterial scintigraphy. 99m Tc-labelled E. coli bacteria ( 99m Ts-E. coli) with an activity of 7.4-11.1 MBq were administered into a section of the small intestine. Scintigraphic visualization of bacterial translocation into organs and tissues of laboratory animals was recorded in dynamic (240 min) and static (15 min) modes. The number of labelled bacteria, which migrated through the intestinal barrier, was quantified by calculating the translocation index (TI). Control indicated no translocation of 99m Ts-E. coli administered into the intestine through the parietes of the small intestine's distal part in healthy animals. Animals with strangulated obstruction demonstrated different migration strength and routes of labelled bacteria from strangulated and superior to strangulation sections of the small intestine. 99m Ts-E. coli migrated from the strangulated loop into the peritoneal cavity later causing systemic bacteraemia through peritoneal resorption. The section of the small intestine, which was superior to the strangulation, demonstrated migration of labelled bacteria first into the portal and then into the systemic circulation. The strangulated section of the small intestine was the main source of bacteria dissemination since the number of labelled bacteria, which migrated from this section significantly, exceeded that of the area superior to the strangulation section of the small intestine (p = 0.0003). Bacterial scintigraphy demonstrated the possibility of visualizing migration routes of labelled bacteria and quantifying their translocation through the intestinal barrier. This approach to study bacterial

  3. Metagenomic analysis of bacterial community composition and antibiotic resistance genes in a wastewater treatment plant and its receiving surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Junying; Bu, Yuanqing; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Huang, Kailong; He, Xiwei; Ye, Lin; Shan, Zhengjun; Ren, Hongqiang

    2016-10-01

    The presence of pathogenic bacteria and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) may pose big risks to the rivers that receive the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this study, we investigated the changes of bacterial community and ARGs along treatment processes of one WWTP, and examined the effects of the effluent discharge on the bacterial community and ARGs in the receiving river. Pyrosequencing was applied to reveal bacterial community composition including potential bacterial pathogen, and Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used for profiling ARGs. The results showed that the WWTP had good removal efficiency on potential pathogenic bacteria (especially Arcobacter butzleri) and ARGs. Moreover, the bacterial communities of downstream and upstream of the river showed no significant difference. However, the increase in the abundance of potential pathogens and ARGs at effluent outfall was observed, indicating that WWTP effluent might contribute to the dissemination of potential pathogenic bacteria and ARGs in the receiving river. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacteria, hypertolerant to arsenic in the rocks of an ancient gold mine, and their potential role in dissemination of arsenic pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewniak, Lukasz; Styczek, Aleksandra; Majder-Lopatka, Malgorzata; Sklodowska, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out if bacteria present in ancient gold mine could transform immobilized arsenic into its mobile form and increase its dissemination in the environment. Twenty-two arsenic-hypertolerant cultivable bacterial strains were isolated. No chemolithoautotrophs, which could use arsenite as an electron donor as well as arsenate as an electron acceptor, were identified. Five isolates exhibited hypertolerance to arsenic: up to 500 mM of arsenate. A correlation between the presence of siderophores and high resistance to arsenic was found. The results of this study show that detoxification processes based on arsenate reductase activity might be significant in dissemination of arsenic pollution. It was concluded that the activity of the described heterotrophic bacteria contributes to the mobilization of arsenic in the more toxic As(III) form and a new mechanism of arsenic mobilization from a scorodite was proposed. - The activity of the described heterotrophic bacteria leads to mobilization of arsenic and in this way contributes to the dissemination of arsenic pollution

  5. Self-Adjuvanting Glycopeptide Conjugate Vaccine against Disseminated Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hong; Cartmell, Jonathan; Bailey, Justin J.; Dziadek, Sebastian; Bundle, David R.; Cutler, Jim E.

    2012-01-01

    Our research on pathogenesis of disseminated candidiasis led to the discovery that antibodies specific for Candida albicans cell surface β-1, 2–mannotriose [β-(Man)3] protect mice. A 14 mer peptide Fba, which derived from the N-terminal portion of the C. albicans cytosolic/cell surface protein fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, was used as the glycan carrier and resulted in a novel synthetic glycopeptide vaccine β-(Man)3-Fba. By a dendritic cell-based immunization approach, this conjugate induced protective antibody responses against both the glycan and peptide parts of the vaccine. In this report, we modified the β-(Man)3-Fba conjugate by coupling it to tetanus toxoid (TT) in order to improve immunogenicity and allow for use of an adjuvant suitable for human use. By new immunization procedures entirely compatible with human use, the modified β-(Man)3-Fba-TT was administered either alone or as a mixture made with alum or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvants and given to mice by a subcutaneous (s.c.) route. Mice vaccinated with or, surprisingly, without adjuvant responded well by making robust antibody responses. The immunized groups showed a high degree of protection against a lethal challenge with C. albicans as evidenced by increased survival times and reduced kidney fungal burden as compared to control groups that received only adjuvant or DPBS buffer prior to challenge. To confirm that induced antibodies were protective, sera from mice immunized against the β-(Man)3-Fba-TT conjugate transferred protection against disseminated candidiasis to naïve mice, whereas C. albicans-absorbed immune sera did not. Similar antibody responses and protection induced by the β-(Man)3-Fba-TT vaccine was observed in inbred BALB/c and outbred Swiss Webster mice. We conclude that addition of TT to the glycopeptide conjugate results in a self-adjuvanting vaccine that promotes robust antibody responses without the need for additional adjuvant, which is novel and represents a

  6. Neurological sequelae of bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucas, Marjolein J.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    We reported on occurrence and impact of neurological sequelae after bacterial meningitis. We reviewed occurrence of neurological sequelae in children and adults after pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis. Most frequently reported sequelae are focal neurological deficits, hearing loss, cognitive

  7. Bacterial tracheitis in Down's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Cant, A J; Gibson, P J; West, R J

    1987-01-01

    Four children with Down's syndrome and bacterial tracheitis are described. In three the infection was due to Haemophilus influenza. In patients with Down's syndrome presenting with stridor tracheitis should be considered and appropriate treatment started.

  8. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M. Stubbendieck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities.

  9. Bacterial flora of sturgeon fingerling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arani, A.S.; Mosahab, R.

    2008-01-01

    The study on microbial populations is a suitable tool to understand and apply control methods to improve the sanitary level of production in fish breeding and rearing centers, ensure health of sturgeon fingerlings at the time of their release into the rivers and also in the conversation and restoration of these valuable stocks in the Caspian Sea, Iran. A laboratory research based on Austin methods (Austin, B., Austin, D.A. 1993) was conducted for bacterial study on 3 sturgeon species naming A. persicus, A. stellatus and A. nudiventris during different growth stages. Bacterial flora of Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Edwardsiella, Staphylococcus, Proteus, Yersinia, Pseudomonas and Plesiomonas were determined. The factors which may induce changes in bacterial populations during different stages of fife are the followings: quality of water in rearing ponds, different conditions for growth stages, suitable time for colonization of bacterial flora in rearing pond, water temperature increase in fingerlings size and feeding condition. (author)

  10. Bacterial translocation: impact of probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppsson, Bengt; Mangell, Peter; Adawi, Diya; Molin, Göran

    2004-01-01

    There is a considerable amount of data in humans showing that patients who cannot take in nutrients enterally have more organ failure in the intensive care unit, a less favourable prognosis, and a higher frequency of septicaemia, in particular involving bacterial species from the intestinal tract. However, there is little evidence that this is connected with translocation of bacterial species in humans. Animal data more uniformly imply the existence of such a connection. The main focus of thi...

  11. Bacterial cellulose/boehmite composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvi, Denise T.B. de; Barud, Hernane S.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.; Caiut, Jose Mauricio A.

    2011-01-01

    Composites based on bacterial cellulose membranes and boehmite were obtained. SEM results indicate that the bacterial cellulose (BC) membranes are totally covered by boehmite and obtained XRD patterns suggest structural changes due to this boehmite addition. Thermal stability is accessed through TG curves and is dependent on boehmite content. Transparency is high comparing to pure BC as can be seen through UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. (author)

  12. Mass Media and Ideology Dissemination against Democracy in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songyot Buaphuean

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study on “Mass Media and Ideology Dissemination against Democracy in Thailand” is qualitative study with the method of documentary research from text books, books, newspapers and online newspapers to find the definition of democracy which was the system of forming the elected government with the principle of sovereignty, majority, equality, freedom and laws. However, some mass media had false consciousness of democracy which included: election brought bad quality politicians; recruitment of persons to form the government was better than election; promotion of superstition; one man one vote was not for Thai society; capitalism deteriorated the nation; The Armed Forces worked for the people. Another concept was the idea that believed Thai society was praising the elite groups. The ideology said the society should obey the senior citizen who had morals, and the Armed Forces forced people to obey.

  13. Disseminated pleomorphic myofibrosarcoma in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, A; Woods, L; Famini, D; Anderson, M

    2012-01-01

    The pathological and diagnostic features of a widely disseminated pleomorphic high-grade myofibroblastic sarcoma are described in a 23-year-old male brown bear (Ursus arctos horribilis). Firm, solid, white to tan neoplastic nodules, often with cavitated or soft grey-red necrotic centres, were observed throughout most internal organs, subcutaneous tissues and skeletal muscles on gross examination. Microscopically, the tumour consisted of pleomorphic spindle cells forming interlacing fascicles with a focal storiform pattern with large numbers of bizarre polygonal multinucleate cells, frequently within a collagenous stroma. Immunohistochemistry, Masson's trichrome stain and transmission electron microscopy designated the myofibroblast as the cell of origin. This is the first case of a high-grade myofibrosarcoma in a grizzly bear. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Disseminated transmissible venereal tumour associated with Leishmaniasis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevizan, J T; Carreira, J T; Souza, N C; Carvalho, I R; Gomes, P B C; Lima, V M F; Orlandi, C M B; Rozza, D B; Koivisto, M B

    2012-12-01

    This report addresses an atypical transmissible venereal tumour in an 8-year-old bitch that was pluriparous and seropositive for leishmaniasis. There were ascites and a serosanguineous discharge from the vulva, but no lesions on the external genital mucosa. An aspirate of the peritoneal fluid showed mononuclear round cells characteristic of transmissible venereal tumour (TVT). Exploratory laparotomy revealed light red, granulomatous structures in the peritoneum, omentum, spleen, liver and uterine horns. Cytological and histopathological tests confirmed the diagnosis of intra-abdominal TVT. Dissemination of the TVT to several organs inside the abdominal cavity probably resulted from immunosuppression caused by leishmaniasis, which favoured the presence and aggressiveness of TVT. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. An Educational Program of Engineering Ethics and Its Dissemination Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Ryujiro; Nagashima, Shigeo

    Education on ethics for corporate employees, especially for engineers, seems to become increasingly important for most of companies in Japan, because some affairs or scandals caused by ethical problem in many companies were likely to subject them to operational disadvantages. Even in Hitachi, Ltd., we have worked on education of engineering ethics for two years. In this paper, we describe some activities of committees on engineering ethics, an e-learning training course which is usable on our intranet e-learning system, and a short-term in-house training course operated regularly in our training institute. And we also refer to its dissemination activities to employees in each division and some subsidiaries.

  16. Status of PGAA database compilation and dissemination tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, Richard B.

    2001-01-01

    We are continuing the development of a comprehensive PGAA database at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Isotopic data from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) are being combined with elemental data measured at the Budapest Reactor to develop a comprehensive database of gamma-ray energies, cross-section yields, and k factors. The more intense Budapest gamma rays for all elements have now been assigned to their associated isotopes on the basis of comparison with ENSDF. For the elements with atomic numbers Z=1-20, the ENSDF and Budapest datasets have been combined to create adopted PGAA gamma-ray datasets. These adopted datasets are typically sufficiently complete to determine the total thermal neutron cross section from the level scheme intensity balance. Software for dissemination of the PGAA data has been developed in collaboration with visiting students from EVITech, Finland

  17. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: a case report of effective early immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritarwan, K.; Ramayani, O. R.; Eyanoer, P.

    2018-03-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a monophasic acute non-vasculitic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system characterized by diffuse neurologic signs and symptoms coupled with evidence of multifocal lesions of demyelination on neuroimaging. Despite the long-standing recognition of ADEM as a specific entity, no consensus definition of ADEM had been reached until recently. Historically, different definitions of ADEM have been in published cases of pediatric and adult patients, which varied as to whether events required (1) monofocal or multifocal clinical features, (2) a change in mental status, and (3) a documentation of previous infection or immunization. The treatment has been given to the patient such as supportive therapy and high dose corticosteroids.

  18. Reception and dissemination of American amateur telescope making in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnfelt, Johan

    2017-04-01

    This paper discusses the appropriation of the American Amateur Telescope Making (ATM) movement in Sweden in the 1940s and 1950s. A key player was the Swedish Astronomical Society, which in 1943, and inspired by the American example, launched a campaign to raise interest in ATM and disseminate the necessary knowledge amongst potential amateur astronomers. The campaign was successful and in just a few years it quadrupled the number of amateurs with access to telescopes. Swedish amateurs kept on building telescopes through the 1950s, but the activities then stalled with the introduction of cheap mass-market telescopes. The appropriation of ATM in Sweden is an important example of how technical innovations have shaped the course of amateur astronomy.

  19. Handicrafts production: documentation and audiovisual dissemination as sociocultural appreciation technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alvarenga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of scientific research, technology and innovation project in the creative economy sector, conducted from January 2014 to January 2015 that aimed to document and disclose the artisans and handicraft production of Vila de Itaúnas, ES, Brasil. The process was developed from initial conversations, followed by planning and conducting participatory workshops for documentation and audiovisual dissemination around the production of handicrafts and its relation to biodiversity and local culture. The initial objective was to promote expression and diffusion spaces of knowledge among and for the local population, also reaching a regional, state and national public. Throughout the process, it was found that the participatory workshops and the collective production of a virtual site for disclosure of practices and products contributed to the development and socio-cultural recognition of artisan and craft in the region.

  20. A British Second World War veteran with disseminated strongyloidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, G V; Beeching, N J; Khoo, S; Bailey, J W; Partridge, S; Blundell, J W; Luksza, A R

    2004-06-01

    A case is described of a 78-year-old British veteran of the Second World War (1939-45) who was stationed in Southeast Asia and who developed a recurrent pneumonia with blood eosinophilia. He was treated with steroids, and eventually died with a severe Pseudomonas pneumonia. Just prior to death, larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were identified in his sputum, and a specific serum ELISA test was later positive. At autopsy no other organs were involved, but bronchoalveolar carcinoma was found. Longstanding (57 years) chronic strongyloidiasis in a veteran who served in Southeast Asia but who was not a prisoner of war is very unusual. The pattern of dissemination was also not that of a true hyperinfection syndrome, and the case demonstrates the continued need for diagnostic vigilance amongst former soldiers who were based in the Far East.

  1. ICT plan dissemination through schools’ websites: a transverse study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Raposo-Rivas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 Galicia establishes the compulsory to develop the ICT Plan in schools. This school document presents the actions to be carried out for the introduction and integration of Information and Communication Technologies in the teaching-learning process, pointing out the use of the website as one of the indicators of these actions. In the framework of an evaluative research to know the current reality of the ICT Plan, it raises an objective aimed at verifying the diffusion that said Plan has in web pages. Through a mixed methodology, the study focuses on the information obtained with a questionnaire to 38 management teams and a web page registration form for 140 educational schools in Ourense province. The results indicate that in almost all cases the website is used, which is updated with some frequency but rarely does the objective of disseminating the ICT Plan and serve as a bridge for communication with the educational community

  2. Communications Related to Weather Information Handling and Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhas, Chris

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the tasking contained in the Statement of Work and describes the results of the project. In addition, it addresses the principles, procedures, and methods of application that would be generally applicable to using the results of the project. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is involved in the Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) Program, which has a goal of reducing the aircraft accident rate, by a factor of five within 10 years and by a factor of 10 within 20 years. GRC's effort concentrates on the communications means needed to disseminate effective weather data. GRC's focus in on developing new technologies and techniques to support the digital communication of weather information between airborne and ground-based users.

  3. Simultaneous Onset of Ulcerative Colitis and Disseminated Pyoderma Gangrenosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Neesse

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG is an immune-mediated inflammatory skin condition representing one of the most distinct extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. PG occurs independently from intestinal disease activity in about 1–2% of patients suffering from ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease and is characterized by chronic deep skin ulcers whose exact pathogenesis is still unknown. So far, patients with ulcerative colitis have only been reported to develop PG during the course of IBD but not at the initial manifestation of bowel symptoms. This is the first report demonstrating the simultaneous onset of ulcerative colitis and severe multifocal PG. In addition, we provide first evidence that infliximab may have a particularly powerful effect in early disseminated PG compared to late-onset PG, advocating an early application of this drug.

  4. Transformation of Selective Dissemination of Information: e-SDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hafizal Yusof; Ruzilah Ehsan; Habibah Adnan; Iberahim Ali

    2013-01-01

    ILMU or Integrated Library Management Utilities are first used by Malaysian Nuclear Agency's Library since 2005. The purpose of implementation of this system is to catalogue publications in the library. It uses languages of MARC 21 (Machine Readable Cataloging). One of services offered by this system are IRS Module where it used for indexing publication such as journal articles, patent, thesis, and newspaper articles. Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) was a famous services offered by libraries around the world to their user. User just updated their forms called user profile in order to apply the literature based on interested keywords or type of publications. The librarian will effort to get those publication wanted by the user. Nowadays, as technology developed, this services also transformed into the digital version. This paper work prepared to discuss e-SDI service in Malaysian Nuclear Agency's Library using ILMU system. (author)

  5. Dissemination of spatial data infrastructure in Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Yanet Velazco Florez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial Data Infrastructure deployed today, allow the dissemination of information that comes to an individual in a simple and accessible way for any organization whether it be public, private or citizens. The means by which messages arrive from one individual to another are called communication channels. Theories of diffusion of innovation can provide a very useful for the study and development of national and regional IDE framework. The diffusion model of innovation of Rogers, emphasizes the importance of interpersonal end communication and the role of social networks, through processes of disclosure to different societies, considering also that the media does not are the only channels of diffusion of innovations, most however, this communication need of leadership within the group to manage communication processes for the new product offered is recognized and accepted by the stakeholders to whom it is addressed.

  6. The Need for the Dissemination of Statistical Data and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Alexandra Frunza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an emphasis nowadays on knowledge, so the access to information has increased inrelevance in the modern economies which have developed their competitive advantage thoroughtheir dynamic response to the market changes. The effort for transparency has increasedtremendously within the last decades which have been also influenced by the weight that the digitalsupport has provided. The need for the dissemination of statistical data and information has metnew challenges in terms of aggregating the practices that both private and public organizations usein order to ensure the optimum access to the end users. The article stresses some key questions thatcan be introduced which ease the process of collection and presentation of the results subject todissemination.

  7. Residential segregation and cultural dissemination: An Axelrod-Schelling model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia-Lázaro, C.; Lafuerza, L. F.; Floría, L. M.; Moreno, Y.

    2009-10-01

    In the Axelrod’s model of cultural dissemination, we consider the mobility of cultural agents through the introduction of a density of empty sites and the possibility that agents in a dissimilar neighborhood can move to them if their mean cultural similarity with the neighborhood is below some threshold. While for low values of the density of empty sites, the mobility enhances the convergence to a global culture, for high enough values of it, the dynamics can lead to the coexistence of disconnected domains of different cultures. In this regime, the increase in initial cultural diversity paradoxically increases the convergence to a dominant culture. Further increase in diversity leads to the fragmentation of the dominant culture into domains, forever changing in shape and number, as an effect of the never ending eroding activity of cultural minorities.

  8. Case report 402: Megakaryocytic myelosis with disseminated osteolysis and osteomyelosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, A.; Rossner, A.; Grundmann, E.; Urbanitz, D.; Lingg, G.

    1986-01-01

    A case is presented of a 41-year-old man who was admitted because of anemia and a history of weakness, skeletal pain, night sweats and difficulty in sleeping. Abnormal hematological features and other laboratory studies were detailed. A skeletal surgery showed marked osteolysis affecting many long bones and the skull with evidence of intramedullary osteosclerosis. Several biopsy studies were obtained; the patient ultimately died of terminal bronchopneumonia, sepsis and uremia. A diagnosis of megakarycytic myelosis with disseminated osteolysis was made on the basis of all the features - both clinical, hematological, pathological and radiological. Biopsy studies were reported in detail as were the histological studies in the autopsy material. The various manifestations of myeloid metaplasia were considered and the different causes described. The differential diagnosis was stressed and the radiological and pathological considerations of this entity were discussed in detail with a thorough review of the literature. (orig.)

  9. Information Dissemination: Exploring the Librarian's Role in Public Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Virginia

    Historically the special librarian's role has been to store and preserve the organization's knowledge. In today's Information Age, increasing importance is placed on information dissemination. The management of electronic resources has been an important aspect of the Gemini librarian's job since the library's inception. In this paper, I discuss the methods that the Gemini Observatory is using to share its resources with a growing audience. Note: The Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil) and CONICET (Argentina).

  10. Disseminated nontuberculous infections with Mycobacterium genavense during sarcoidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dumouchel-Champagne

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a chronic disease characterised by the development and accumulation of granulomas in multiple organs. We report two observations of disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in patients with proven sarcoidosis. High fever and abdominal pain appeared at 8 and 18 months following the initiation of immunosuppressive therapy. Abdominal computed tomography scans of the patients showed diffuse mesenteric lymphadenitis and splenomegaly. The diagnosis was obtained on bone marrow specimens for both patients with numerous acid-fast bacteria at direct examination and positive specific mycobacterial identification by nucleic acid amplification test. Despite prompt antimycobacterial therapy, occurrence of complications (peritonitis post-splenectomy surgery and lung carcinoma resulted in a fatal outcome for both patients. These cases highlight that opportunistic infections like M. genavense or other nontuberculous mycobacterial infections should be considered for long-standing immunocompromised patients with sarcoidosis.

  11. Entrepreneurial Leaders and the Dissemination of Entrepreneurial Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Barreto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze whether entrepreneurs’ leadership behaviors in small and micro enterprises that provide services contribute to the dissemination of the many dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation. This is basic qualitative research of an exploratory and interpretative nature, carried out by means of interviews – with a semi-structured script – applied to five entrepreneurs who are MSE leaders. Research data was analyzed through content analysis proposed by Bardin (2008, and narratives, according to Gibbs (2009. The results reveal that entrepreneurs use the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation with varying intensity and in an informal way, because they are not familiar with the practices of these dimensions.

  12. Evaluation of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in the Craniocerebral Traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Altinel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury is one of the most important cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC. It occurs because of blood loss and hemodilution due to fluid resuscitation. The incidence of trauma associated DIC is mainly higher in the craniocerebral traumas. Even though craniocerebral trauma related DIC is well defined, the pathophysiology has been poorly characterized in the literature. Due to the fact that brain tissue is highly significant for procoagulant molecules, craniocerebral traumas are closely related to DIC. In the current study, 30 patients admitted to emergency room have been considered on the first and fifth day of admission to the hospital for the coagulation tests to evaluate DIC in both two groups. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 488-495

  13. Harnessing complexity: taking advantage of context and relationships in dissemination of school-based interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Helen; Bowes, Glenn; Drew, Sarah; Glover, Sara; Godfrey, Celia; Patton, George; Trafford, Lea; Bond, Lyndal

    2010-03-01

    Schools and school systems are increasingly asked to use evidence-based strategies to promote the health and well-being of students. The dissemination of school-based health promotion research, however, offers particular challenges to conventional approaches to dissemination. Schools and education systems are multifaceted organizations that sit within constantly shifting broader contexts. This article argues that health promotion dissemination needs to be rethought for school communities as complex systems and that this requires understanding and harnessing the dynamic ecology of the sociopolitical context. In developing this argument, the authors draw on their experience of the dissemination process of a multilevel school-based intervention in a complex educational context. Building on this experience, they argue for the need to move beyond conventional dissemination strategies to a focus on active partnerships between developers and users of school-based intervention research and offer a conceptual tool for planning dissemination.

  14. The wealth of nations and the dissemination of cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnik, Stephan; Speer, Timo; Raptis, Dimitri A; Walker, Janina H; Hasun, Matthias; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Komajda, Michel; Bax, Jeroen J; Tendera, Michal; Fox, Kim; Van de Werf, Frans; Mundow, Ciara; Lüscher, Thomas F; Ruschitzka, Frank; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Matter, Christian M

    2013-11-05

    This study aimed at understanding whether investigators from less wealthy countries were at a disadvantage in disseminating their research, after accounting for potential differences in research quality and infrastructure. In this bibliometric analysis a representative random selection of 10% (n=1002 studies) of all abstracts submitted to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) congress 2006 was followed for publication and citation from September 2006 to December 2011. The main variable of interest was the per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) of the country of the principal investigator. Using multivariable models that adjusted for socioeconomic indicators and previously identified markers of research quality, we examined the relationship between per-capita GDP and three study endpoints: Acceptance at the ESC congress, full-text publication, and number of two-year citations. Among 1002 abstracts from 63 countries, per-capita GDP was positively correlated with all three study endpoints. After adjusting for markers of research quality and infrastructure, per-capita GDP remained a strong predictor for acceptance at the ESC congress (adjusted OR for every 10,000 USD increase in per-capita GDP, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.80), full-text publication within 5years (adjusted OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.90), and high citation frequency (adjusted OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.31 to 4.04). These findings were largely consistent in a subgroup of abstracts of high-quality, prospective clinical trials. Investigators in less wealthy countries face challenges to disseminate their research, even after accounting for potential differences in the quality of their work and research infrastructure. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Outcome of Patients With Pilocytic Astrocytoma and Leptomeningeal Dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazloom, Ali; Hodges, Joseph C.; Teh, Bin S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Chintagumpala, Murali [Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Paulino, Arnold C., E-mail: apaulino@tmhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics of patients with pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD). Methods and Materials: A PubMed search of English-language studies pertaining to PA with LMD was performed using a combination of keywords that included juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma, low-grade astrocytoma, low-grade glioma, leptomeningeal dissemination, neuraxis spread, and radiotherapy. We found 26 studies with 58 patients between 1976 and 2005 that met these criteria. Results: The median survival for PA patients with LMD was 65 months. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year overall survival (OS) rate after the diagnosis of LMD was 81.1%, 75.7%, and 55.5%. The 1-, 2-, and 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate after the diagnosis of LMD was 69.3%, 66.5%, and 34.6%, respectively. Age, gender, primary site location, timing of LMD presentation (synchronous vs. metachronous), and LMD location did not significantly influence OS or PFS. No statistically significant difference was found in OS or PFS between the chemotherapy and radiotherapy groups. Likewise, no difference was found in OS or PFS according to the use of craniospinal irradiation vs. less extensive RT fields. Conclusions: Approximately one-half of PA patients were alive 5 years after the diagnosis of LMD. Both chemotherapy and radiotherapy have efficacy against LMD. Although the use of craniospinal irradiation did not have an effect on PFS, the patient numbers were small and a larger number treated with craniospinal irradiation is needed to determine its efficacy.

  16. Comparing alternative and traditional dissemination metrics in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amath, Aysah; Ambacher, Kristin; Leddy, John J; Wood, Timothy J; Ramnanan, Christopher J

    2017-09-01

    The impact of academic scholarship has traditionally been measured using citation-based metrics. However, citations may not be the only measure of impact. In recent years, other platforms (e.g. Twitter) have provided new tools for promoting scholarship to both academic and non-academic audiences. Alternative metrics (altmetrics) can capture non-traditional dissemination data such as attention generated on social media platforms. The aims of this exploratory study were to characterise the relationships among altmetrics, access counts and citations in an international and pre-eminent medical education journal, and to clarify the roles of these metrics in assessing the impact of medical education academic scholarship. A database study was performed (September 2015) for all papers published in Medical Education in 2012 (n = 236) and 2013 (n = 246). Citation, altmetric and access (HTML views and PDF downloads) data were obtained from Scopus, the Altmetric Bookmarklet tool and the journal Medical Education, respectively. Pearson coefficients (r-values) between metrics of interest were then determined. Twitter and Mendeley (an academic bibliography tool) were the only altmetric-tracked platforms frequently (> 50%) utilised in the dissemination of articles. Altmetric scores (composite measures of all online attention) were driven by Twitter mentions. For short and full-length articles in 2012 and 2013, both access counts and citation counts were most strongly correlated with one another, as well as with Mendeley downloads. By comparison, Twitter metrics and altmetric scores demonstrated weak to moderate correlations with both access and citation counts. Whereas most altmetrics showed limited correlations with readership (access counts) and impact (citations), Mendeley downloads correlated strongly with both readership and impact indices for articles published in the journal Medical Education and may therefore have potential use that is complementary to that of citations in

  17. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03 Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  18. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew G.; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Xray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  19. CD47 Promotes Protective Innate and Adaptive Immunity in a Mouse Model of Disseminated Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarathna, Dhammika H. M. L. P.; Stein, Erica V.; Lessey-Morillon, Elizabeth C.; Nayak, Debasis; Martin-Manso, Gema; Roberts, David D.

    2015-01-01

    CD47 is a widely expressed receptor that regulates immunity by engaging its counter-receptor SIRPα on phagocytes and its secreted ligand thrombospondin-1. Mice lacking CD47 can exhibit enhanced or impaired host responses to bacterial pathogens, but its role in fungal immunity has not been examined. cd47 -/- mice on a C57BL/6 background showed significantly increased morbidity and mortality following Candida albicans infection when compared with wild-type mice. Despite normal fungal colonization at earlier times, cd47 -/- mice at four days post-infection had increased colonization of brain and kidneys accompanied by stronger inflammatory reactions. Neutrophil and macrophage numbers were significantly elevated in kidneys and neutrophils in the brains of infected cd47 -/- mice. However, no defect in phagocytic activity towards C. albicans was observed in cd47 -/- bone-marrow-derived macrophages, and neutrophil and macrophage killing of C. albicans was not impaired. CD47-deficiency did not alter the early humoral immune response to C. albicans. Th1, Th2, and Th17 population of CD4+ T cells were expanded in the spleen, and gene expression profiles of spleen and kidney showed stronger pro-inflammatory signaling in infected cd47 -/- mice. The chemoattractant chemokines MIP-2α and MIP-2β were highly expressed in infected spleens of cd47 -/- mice. G-CSF, GM-CSF, and the inflammasome component NLRP3 were more highly expressed in infected cd47 -/- kidneys than in infected wild-type controls. Circulating pro- (TNF-α, IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) were significantly elevated, but IL-17 was decreased. These data indicate that CD47 plays protective roles against disseminated candidiasis and alters pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive pathways known to regulate innate and T cell immunity. PMID:26010544

  20. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in children: differential diagnosis from multiple sclerosis on the basis of clinical course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jin Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS that typically presents as a monophasic disorder associated with multifocal neurologic symptoms and encephalopathy. ADEM is considered an autoimmune disorder that is triggered by an environmental stimulus in genetically susceptible individuals. The diagnosis of ADEM is based on clinical and radiological features. Most children with ADEM initially present with fever, meningeal signs, and acute encephalopathy. The level of consciousness ranges from lethargy to frank coma. Deep and subcortical white-matter lesions and gray-matter lesions such as thalami and basal ganglia on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI are associated with ADEM. In a child who presents with signs of encephalitis, bacterial and viral meningitis or encephalitis must be ruled out. Sequential MRI is required to confirm the diagnosis of ADEM, as relapses with the appearance of new lesions on MRI may suggest either multiphasic ADEM or multiple sclerosis (MS. Pediatric MS, defined as onset of MS before the age of 16, is being increasingly recognized. MS is characterized by recurrent episodes of demyelination in the CNS separated in space and time. The McDonald criteria for diagnosis of MS include evidence from MRI and allow the clinician to make a diagnosis of clinically definite MS on the basis of the interval preceding the development of new white matter lesions, even in the absence of new clinical findings. The most important alternative diagnosis to MS is ADEM. At the initial presentation, the 2 disorders cannot be distinguished with certainty. Therefore, prolonged follow-up is needed to establish a diagnosis.

  1. Information dissemination and use: critical components in occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, P A; Okun, A; Stephenson, C M; Colligan, M; Ahlers, H; Gjessing, C; Loos, G; Niemeier, R W; Sweeney, M H

    2003-11-01

    Information dissemination is a mandated, but understudied, requirement of occupational and environmental health laws and voluntary initiatives. Research is needed on the factors that enhance and limit the development, transfer, and use of occupational safety and health information (OSH). Contemporary changes in the workforce, workplaces, and the nature of work will require new emphasis on the dissemination of information to foster prevention. Legislative and regulatory requirements and voluntary initiatives for dissemination of OSH information were identified and assessed. Literature on information dissemination was reviewed to identify important issues and useful approaches. More than 20 sections of laws and regulations were identified that mandated dissemination of occupational and environmental safety and health information. A four-stage approach for tracking dissemination and considering the flow of information was delineated. Special areas of dissemination were identified: the information needs of the changing workforce, new and young workers; small businesses; and workers with difficulty in understanding or reading English. We offer a framework for dissemination of OSH information and underscore the need to focus on the extent to which decision-makers and others receive and use such information. More solid data are also needed on current investments in disseminating, diffusing and applying OSH information and on the utility of that information. Am. J. Ind. Med. 44:515-531, 2003. Published 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Quantifying family dissemination and identifying barriers to communication of risk information in Australian BRCA families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Emma; Taylor, Natalie; Greening, Sian; Wakefield, Claire E; Warwick, Linda; Williams, Rachel; Tucker, Kathy

    2017-12-01

    PurposeRecommendations for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers to disseminate information to at-risk relatives pose significant challenges. This study aimed to quantify family dissemination, to explain the differences between fully informed families (all relatives informed verbally or in writing) and partially informed families (at least one relative uninformed), and to identify dissemination barriers.MethodsBRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers identified from four Australian hospitals (n=671) were invited to participate in the study. Distress was measured at consent using the Kessler psychological distress scale (K10). A structured telephone interview was used to assess the informed status of relatives, geographical location of relatives, and dissemination barriers. Family dissemination was quantified, and fully versus partially informed family differences were examined. Dissemination barriers were thematically coded and counted.ResultsA total of 165 families participated. Information had been disseminated to 81.1% of relatives. At least one relative had not been informed in 52.7% of families, 4.3% were first-degree relatives, 27.0% were second-degree relatives, and 62.0% were cousins. Partially informed families were significantly larger than fully informed families, had fewer relatives living in close proximity, and exhibited higher levels of distress. The most commonly recorded barrier to dissemination was loss of contact.ConclusionLarger, geographically diverse families have greater difficulty disseminating BRCA mutation risk information to all relatives. Understanding these challenges can inform future initiatives for communication, follow-up and support.

  3. Toward a Metagenomic Understanding on the Bacterial Composition and Resistome in Hong Kong Banknotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshiki, Yoshitaro; Dissanayake, Thrimendra; Zheng, Tingting; Kang, Kang; Yueqiong, Ni; Xu, Zeling; Sarkar, Chinmoy; Woo, Patrick C Y; Chow, Billy K C; Baker, David; Yan, Aixin; Webster, Christopher J; Panagiotou, Gianni; Li, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Currency is possibly one of the main media transmitting pathogens and drug resistance due to its wide circulation in daily life. In this study, we made a comprehensive characterization of the bacterial community present on banknotes collected from different geographical regions of Hong Kong (HK) by performing in vitro characterization of the bacterial presence and resistome profile, as well as metagenomic analysis including microbial diversity, the prevalence of potential pathogens, the dissemination potential of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs), among others. When comparing the bacterial community of HK banknotes with other HK environmental samples, including water and marine sediment, we revealed that HK banknotes cover nearly 50% of total genera found in all the environmental samples, implying that banknotes harbor diverse bacteria originated from a variety of environments. Furthermore, the banknotes have higher abundance of potential pathogenic species (~5 times more) and ARGs (~5 times more) with higher dissemination potential (~48 times more) compared with other environmental samples. These findings unveiled the capabilities of this common medium of exchange to accommodate various bacteria, and transmit pathogens and antibiotic resistance. Furthermore, the observed independence of microbiome profile from the city's topological indices led us to formulate a hypothesis that due to their high circulation banknotes may harbor a homogenized microbiome.

  4. Bacterial Prostatitis: Bacterial Virulence, Clinical Outcomes, and New Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, John N; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2016-02-01

    Four prostatitis syndromes are recognized clinically: acute bacterial prostatitis, chronic bacterial prostatitis, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and asymptomatic prostatitis. Because Escherichia coli represents the most common cause of bacterial prostatitis, we investigated the importance of bacterial virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance in E. coli strains causing prostatitis and the potential association of these characteristics with clinical outcomes. A structured literature review revealed that we have limited understanding of the virulence-associated characteristics of E. coli causing acute prostatitis. Therefore, we completed a comprehensive microbiological and molecular investigation of a unique strain collection isolated from healthy young men. We also considered new data from an animal model system suggesting certain E. coli might prove important in the etiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Our human data suggest that E. coli needs multiple pathogenicity-associated traits to overcome anatomic and immune responses in healthy young men without urological risk factors. The phylogenetic background and accumulation of an exceptional repertoire of extraintestinal pathogenic virulence-associated genes indicate that these E. coli strains belong to a highly virulent subset of uropathogenic variants. In contrast, antibiotic resistance confers little added advantage to E. coli strains in these healthy outpatients. Our animal model data also suggest that certain pathogenic E. coli may be important in the etiology of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome through mechanisms that are dependent on the host genetic background and the virulence of the bacterial strain.

  5. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis: Fine needle aspiration cytology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients and Methods: This is a consecutive 9-year analysis of patients with peripheral lymphadenopathy. All the patients had fine needle aspiration. Smears were made, fixed in 95% alcohol and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Zeihl Neelsen stains. Results: 48 patients, 31 males and 17 females, were analyzed.

  6. Extent, Awareness and Perception of Dissemination Bias in Qualitative Research: An Explorative Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Ingrid; Glenton, Claire; Lewin, Simon; Berg, Rigmor C; Noyes, Jane; Booth, Andrew; Marusic, Ana; Malicki, Mario; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research findings are increasingly used to inform decision-making. Research has indicated that not all quantitative research on the effects of interventions is disseminated or published. The extent to which qualitative researchers also systematically underreport or fail to publish certain types of research findings, and the impact this may have, has received little attention. A survey was delivered online to gather data regarding non-dissemination and dissemination bias in qualitative research. We invited relevant stakeholders through our professional networks, authors of qualitative research identified through a systematic literature search, and further via snowball sampling. 1032 people took part in the survey of whom 859 participants identified as researchers, 133 as editors and 682 as peer reviewers. 68.1% of the researchers said that they had conducted at least one qualitative study that they had not published in a peer-reviewed journal. The main reasons for non-dissemination were that a publication was still intended (35.7%), resource constraints (35.4%), and that the authors gave up after the paper was rejected by one or more journals (32.5%). A majority of the editors and peer reviewers "(strongly) agreed" that the main reasons for rejecting a manuscript of a qualitative study were inadequate study quality (59.5%; 68.5%) and inadequate reporting quality (59.1%; 57.5%). Of 800 respondents, 83.1% "(strongly) agreed" that non-dissemination and possible resulting dissemination bias might undermine the willingness of funders to support qualitative research. 72.6% and 71.2%, respectively, "(strongly) agreed" that non-dissemination might lead to inappropriate health policy and health care. The proportion of non-dissemination in qualitative research is substantial. Researchers, editors and peer reviewers play an important role in this. Non-dissemination and resulting dissemination bias may impact on health care research, practice and policy. More

  7. Migration to Earth Observation Satellite Product Dissemination System at JAXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Y.; Matsunaga, M.

    2017-12-01

    JAXA released "G-Portal" as a portal web site for search and deliver data of Earth observation satellites in February 2013. G-Portal handles ten satellites data; GPM, TRMM, Aqua, ADEOS-II, ALOS (search only), ALOS-2 (search only), MOS-1, MOS-1b, ERS-1 and JERS-1 and archives 5.17 million products and 14 million catalogues in total. Users can search those products/catalogues in GUI web search and catalogue interface(CSW/Opensearch). In this fiscal year, we will replace this to "Next G-Portal" and has been doing integration, test and migrations. New G-Portal will treat data of satellites planned to be launched in the future in addition to those handled by G - Portal. At system architecture perspective, G-Portal adopted "cluster system" for its redundancy, so we must replace the servers into those with higher specifications when we improve its performance ("scale up approach"). This requests a lot of cost in every improvement. To avoid this, Next G-Portal adopts "scale out" system: load balancing interfaces, distributed file system, distributed data bases. (We reported in AGU fall meeting 2015(IN23D-1748).) At customer usability perspective, G-Portal provides complicated interface: "step by step" web design, randomly generated URLs, sftp (needs anomaly tcp port). Customers complained about the interfaces and the support team had been tired from answering them. To solve this problem, Next G-Portal adopts simple interfaces: "1 page" web design, RESTful URL, and Normal FTP. (We reported in AGU fall meeting 2016(IN23B-1778).) Furthermore, Next G-Portal must merge GCOM-W data dissemination system to be terminated in the next March as well as the current G-Portal. This might arrise some difficulties, since the current G-Portal and GCOM-W data dissemination systems are quite different from Next G-Portal. The presentation reports the knowledge obtained from the process of merging those systems.

  8. The Filmoteca de Catalunya : conservation and dissemination of film culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruzzo Llaberia, Mariona

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La Filmoteca de Catalunya té com a missió principal recuperar, conservar, investigar i difondre les pel·lícules i les obres audiovisuals, així com els materials, documents, equips i qualsevol altre element que sigui d'interès per a l'estudi del cinema i l'audiovisual en general, i del cinema català en particular. En essència, conservar i difondre la cultura cinematogràfica. Es descriuen les àrees que contribueixen a aquesta fita i es reflexiona sobre la necessitat d'oferir un servei fiable i professional a la ciutadania, les institucions i les empreses amb interessos en el sector cinematogràfic.La Filmoteca de Catalunya tiene como misión principal la recuperación, conservación, investigación y difusión de las películas y las obras audiovisuales, así como los materiales, documentos, equipos y cualquier otro elemento que sea de interés para el estudio del cine y el audiovisual en general, y del cine catalán en particular. En esencia, conservación y difusión de la cultura cinematográfica. Se describen las áreas que contribuyen a esta meta y se reflexiona sobre la necesidad de ofrecer un servicio confiable y profesional a la ciudadanía, las instituciones y las empresas con intereses en el sector cinematográfico.The main mission of the Filmoteca de Catalunya is the recovery, conservation, research and dissemination of films and audiovisual works and materials, documents, equipment and any other element of interest to the study of cinema and audiovisual art in general and Catalan cinema in particular. In essence, the conservation and dissemination of film culture. A description is given of the areas that contribute to achieving this objective and a reflection on the need to offer the public, institutions and businesses with interests in the film industry a reliable professional service.

  9. National, ready-to-use climate indicators calculation and dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiato, F.; Fioravanti, G.; Fraschetti, P.; Perconti, W.; Toreti, A.

    2010-09-01

    In Italy, meteorological data necessary and useful for climate studies are collected, processed and archived by a wide range of national and regional institutions. As a result, the density of the stations, the length and frequency of the observations, the quality control procedures and the database structure vary from one dataset to the other. In order to maximize the use of those data for climate knowledge and climate change assessments, a computerized system for the collection, quality control, calculation, regular update and rapid dissemination of climate indicators (denominated SCIA) was developed. Along with the pieces of information provided by complete metadata, climate indicators consist of statistics (mean, extremes, date of occurrence, standard deviation) over ten-days, monthly and yearly time periods of meteorological variables, including temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, water balance, evapotranspitaton, degree-days, cloud cover, sea level pressure, solar radiation. In addition, normal values over thirty-year reference climatological periods and yearly anomalies are calculated and made available. All climate indicators, as well as their time series at a single location or spatial distribution at a selected time, are available through a dedicated web site (www.scia.sinanet.apat.it). In addition, secondary products like high resolution temperature maps obtained by kriging spatial interpolation, are made available. Over the last three years, about 40000 visitors accessed to the SCIA web site, with an average of 45 visitors per day. Most frequent visitors belong to categories like universities and research institutes; private companies and general public are present as well. Apart from research purposes, climate indicators disseminated through SCIA may be used in several socio-economic sectors like energy consumption, water management, agriculture, tourism and health. With regards to our activity, we base on these indicators for the estimation of

  10. The master activator of IncA/C conjugative plasmids stimulates genomic islands and multidrug resistance dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Nicolas; Matteau, Dominick; Luo, Peng; Rodrigue, Sébastien; Burrus, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes occurs mostly by conjugation, which mediates DNA transfer between cells in direct contact. Conjugative plasmids of the IncA/C incompatibility group have become a substantial threat due to their broad host-range, the extended spectrum of antimicrobial resistance they confer, their prevalence in enteric bacteria and their very efficient spread by conjugation. However, their biology remains largely unexplored. Using the IncA/C conjugative plasmid pVCR94ΔX as a prototype, we have investigated the regulatory circuitry that governs IncA/C plasmids dissemination and found that the transcriptional activator complex AcaCD is essential for the expression of plasmid transfer genes. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with exonuclease digestion (ChIP-exo) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) approaches, we have identified the sequences recognized by AcaCD and characterized the AcaCD regulon. Data mining using the DNA motif recognized by AcaCD revealed potential AcaCD-binding sites upstream of genes involved in the intracellular mobility functions (recombination directionality factor and mobilization genes) in two widespread classes of genomic islands (GIs) phylogenetically unrelated to IncA/C plasmids. The first class, SGI1, confers and propagates multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica and Proteus mirabilis, whereas MGIVmi1 in Vibrio mimicus belongs to a previously uncharacterized class of GIs. We have demonstrated that through expression of AcaCD, IncA/C plasmids specifically trigger the excision and mobilization of the GIs at high frequencies. This study provides new evidence of the considerable impact of IncA/C plasmids on bacterial genome plasticity through their own mobility and the mobilization of genomic islands.

  11. Pathogenic factors associated with development of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) in a tertiary academic hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayne, Elizabeth S; Mayne, Anthony L H; Louw, Susan J

    2018-01-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) is a thrombotic microangiopathy arising from consumption of both coagulation factors and platelets. DIC is triggered by a number of clinical conditions including severe infection, trauma and obstetric complications. Early diagnosis and treatment of the underlying condition is paramount. A high clinical index of suspicion is needed to ensure that patients at risk of developing DIC are appropriately investigated. In order to establish the clinical conditions most frequently associated with DIC, we reviewed all DIC screens received at a tertiary hospital in Johannesburg, South Africa over a 1 year period. The commonest clinical condition associated with DIC in our population was infection with 84% of patients infected with an identified pathogen. The most frequently diagnosed pathogen was HIV followed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other bacterial infections. In the majority of cases, bacteria were isolated from blood cultures. In 47 patients, HIV was the only pathogen which could be isolated. A relative risk ratio of 2.73 and an odds ratio of 29.97 was attributed to HIV for development of a DIC. A malignancy was present in 51 of the patients of which approximately 60% had co-existing infection. No cause could be attributed in 30 patients. Infection was identified in the majority of the patients diagnosed with DIC in this study. HIV showed the highest relative risk ratio of all pathogens although previous studies have not suggested that HIV was strongly associated with DIC. In almost half of the HIV infected patients, there was no other pathogen isolated despite extensive investigation. This suggests that HIV has a strong association with the development of DIC, warranting further research into the relationship between HIV and disseminated microvascular thrombosis.

  12. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa

  13. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing X. Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms.

  14. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoiby, N.; Bjarnsholt, T.; Givskov, M.

    2010-01-01

    A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectant chemicals as well as resisting phagocytosis...... and other components of the body's defence system. The persistence of, for example, staphylococcal infections related to foreign bodies is due to biofilm formation. Likewise, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients is caused by biofilm-growing mucoid strains....... Characteristically, gradients of nutrients and oxygen exist from the top to the bottom of biofilms and these gradients are associated with decreased bacterial metabolic activity and increased doubling times of the bacterial cells; it is these more or less dormant cells that are responsible for some of the tolerance...

  15. The Use of Online Strategies and Social Media for Research Dissemination in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Alongside a growing interest in knowledge mobilization (trying to increase the connection between research, policy and practice) there has been a transformation of how knowledge is produced, accessed and disseminated in light of the internet and social media strategies. Few studies have explored the use of social media for research dissemination.…

  16. D6.7 BRAIN deliverable: Final dissemination, use, and exploitation plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Molina, G.

    2012-01-01

    The dissemination and exploitation strategies of BRAIN are reportedin this document. Dissemination activities included maintaining theproject website http://www.brain-project.org/, demonstrating BRAIN’sBCI system at large events such as Hannover fair 2010 and CeBIT 2011, drawing media attention on

  17. Cassandra - D7.3.5 - M30 status : Report dissemination results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klievink, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This deliverable is a status report on the dissemination activities and results in the CASSANDRA project. These status reports are made regularly, with one more to come at the project’s finish. Together, these make up deliverable D7.3 – Dissemination results. In this report, the results of the

  18. Delay-Aware Program Codes Dissemination Scheme in Internet of Everything

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixuan Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to recent advancements in big data, connection technologies, and smart devices, our environment is transforming into an “Internet of Everything” (IoE environment. These smart devices can obtain new or special functions by reprogramming: upgrade their soft systems through receiving new version of program codes. However, bulk codes dissemination suffers from large delay, energy consumption, and number of retransmissions because of the unreliability of wireless links. In this paper, a delay-aware program dissemination (DAPD scheme is proposed to disseminate program codes with fast, reliable, and energy-efficient style. We observe that although total energy is limited in wireless sensor network, there exists residual energy in nodes deployed far from the base station. Therefore, DAPD scheme improves the performance of bulk codes dissemination through the following two aspects. (1 Due to the fact that a high transmitting power can significantly improve the quality of wireless links, transmitting power of sensors with more residual energy is enhanced to improve link quality. (2 Due to the fact that performance of correlated dissemination tends to degrade in a highly dynamic environment, link correlation is autonomously updated in DAPD during codes dissemination to maintain improvements brought by correlated dissemination. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that, compared with previous work, DAPD scheme improves the dissemination performance in terms of completion time, transmission cost, and the efficiency of energy utilization.

  19. Strategies for Effective Dissemination of the Outcomes of Teaching and Learning Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Deborah; Gannaway, Deanne; Orrell, Janice; Chalmers, Denise; Abraham, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an empirical study that addresses the question of how higher education institutions can disseminate effectively the outcomes of projects that seek to achieve large-scale change in teaching and learning. Traditionally, dissemination of innovation and good practice is strongly advocated within universities, but little…

  20. Investigating School-Wide Antecedents of Good Practice Dissemination from Individual Subject Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, Knut-Andreas; Elstad, Eyvind; Turmo, Are

    2012-01-01

    Good practice dissemination is an unsolved problem in education. This article describes how clear and "soft" leadership and perceptions of social and economic exchange operate in the bottom-up processes of school reforms and examines the relative impact of these factors on school-wide good practice dissemination and discusses how…