Sample records for bacteria elicit divergent

  1. Distinct gut-derived lactic acid bacteria elicit divergent dendritic cell-mediated NK cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Zeuthen, Louise Hjerrild; Christensen, Hanne


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are abundant in the gastrointestinal tract where they continuously regulate the immune system. NK cells are potently activated by dendritic cells (DCs) matured by inflammatory stimuli, and NK cells are present in the gut epithelium and in mesenteric lymph nodes...

  2. Chitin elicitation of natural product production in marine bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Wietz, Matthias; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    indicating that andrimid serves a function while growing on chitin-containing surfaces. In contrast, a Photobacterium halotolerans sustained production of all metabolites including the antibiotic holomycin. Furthermore, chitin stimulated the production of two potentially novel metabolites not observed...... uncharacterized chemical potential of these organisms. As part of a new project on ecology-driven drug discovery at the Technical University of Denmark, we investigate the use of chitin to elicit or alter production of antibacterial compounds in marine bacteria. Within our large collection of Gram......-negative bacteria (mainly Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio), we found that some strains were capable of producing antibacterial compounds when grown on chitin, an N-acetyl-D-glucosamine polymer found in the exoskeleton of zooplankton.2 A strain of Vibrio coralliilyticus solely produced the antibiotic andrimid,3...

  3. A bioenergetic basis for membrane divergence in archaea and bacteria. (United States)

    Sojo, Víctor; Pomiankowski, Andrew; Lane, Nick


    Membrane bioenergetics are universal, yet the phospholipid membranes of archaea and bacteria-the deepest branches in the tree of life-are fundamentally different. This deep divergence in membrane chemistry is reflected in other stark differences between the two domains, including ion pumping and DNA replication. We resolve this paradox by considering the energy requirements of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). We develop a mathematical model based on the premise that LUCA depended on natural proton gradients. Our analysis shows that such gradients can power carbon and energy metabolism, but only in leaky cells with a proton permeability equivalent to fatty acid vesicles. Membranes with lower permeability (equivalent to modern phospholipids) collapse free-energy availability, precluding exploitation of natural gradients. Pumping protons across leaky membranes offers no advantage, even when permeability is decreased 1,000-fold. We hypothesize that a sodium-proton antiporter (SPAP) provided the first step towards modern membranes. SPAP increases the free energy available from natural proton gradients by ∼60%, enabling survival in 50-fold lower gradients, thereby facilitating ecological spread and divergence. Critically, SPAP also provides a steadily amplifying advantage to proton pumping as membrane permeability falls, for the first time favoring the evolution of ion-tight phospholipid membranes. The phospholipids of archaea and bacteria incorporate different stereoisomers of glycerol phosphate. We conclude that the enzymes involved took these alternatives by chance in independent populations that had already evolved distinct ion pumps. Our model offers a quantitatively robust explanation for why membrane bioenergetics are universal, yet ion pumps and phospholipid membranes arose later and independently in separate populations. Our findings elucidate the paradox that archaea and bacteria share DNA transcription, ribosomal translation, and ATP synthase, yet

  4. Divergent chemical cues elicit seed collecting by ants in an obligate multi-species mutualism in lowland Amazonia. (United States)

    Youngsteadt, Elsa; Guerra Bustios, Patricia; Schal, Coby


    In lowland Amazonian rainforests, specific ants collect seeds of several plant species and cultivate them in arboreal carton nests, forming species-specific symbioses called ant-gardens (AGs). In this obligate mutualism, ants depend on the plants for nest stability and the plants depend on ant nests for substrate and nutrients. AG ants and plants are abundant, dominant members of lowland Amazonian ecosystems, but the cues ants use to recognize the seeds are poorly understood. To address the chemical basis of the ant-seed interaction, we surveyed seed chemistry in nine AG species and eight non-AG congeners. We detected seven phenolic and terpenoid volatiles common to seeds of all or most of the AG species, but a blend of the shared compounds was not attractive to the AG ant Camponotus femoratus. We also analyzed seeds of three AG species (Anthurium gracile, Codonanthe uleana, and Peperomia macrostachya) using behavior-guided fractionation. At least one chromatographic fraction of each seed extract elicited retrieval behavior in C. femoratus, but the active fractions of the three plant species differed in polarity and chemical composition, indicating that shared compounds alone did not explain seed-carrying behavior. We suggest that the various AG seed species must elicit seed-carrying with different chemical cues.

  5. Divergent chemical cues elicit seed collecting by ants in an obligate multi-species mutualism in lowland Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Youngsteadt

    Full Text Available In lowland Amazonian rainforests, specific ants collect seeds of several plant species and cultivate them in arboreal carton nests, forming species-specific symbioses called ant-gardens (AGs. In this obligate mutualism, ants depend on the plants for nest stability and the plants depend on ant nests for substrate and nutrients. AG ants and plants are abundant, dominant members of lowland Amazonian ecosystems, but the cues ants use to recognize the seeds are poorly understood. To address the chemical basis of the ant-seed interaction, we surveyed seed chemistry in nine AG species and eight non-AG congeners. We detected seven phenolic and terpenoid volatiles common to seeds of all or most of the AG species, but a blend of the shared compounds was not attractive to the AG ant Camponotus femoratus. We also analyzed seeds of three AG species (Anthurium gracile, Codonanthe uleana, and Peperomia macrostachya using behavior-guided fractionation. At least one chromatographic fraction of each seed extract elicited retrieval behavior in C. femoratus, but the active fractions of the three plant species differed in polarity and chemical composition, indicating that shared compounds alone did not explain seed-carrying behavior. We suggest that the various AG seed species must elicit seed-carrying with different chemical cues.

  6. Psychoactive bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) elicits rapid frequency facilitation in vagal afferents. (United States)

    Perez-Burgos, Azucena; Wang, Bingxian; Mao, Yu-Kang; Mistry, Bhavik; McVey Neufeld, Karen-Anne; Bienenstock, John; Kunze, Wolfgang


    Mounting evidence supports the influence of the gut microbiome on the local enteric nervous system and its effects on brain chemistry and relevant behavior. Vagal afferents are involved in some of these effects. We previously showed that ingestion of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) caused extensive neurochemical changes in the brain and behavior that were abrogated by prior vagotomy. Because information can be transmitted to the brain via primary afferents encoded as neuronal spike trains, our goal was to record those induced by JB-1 in vagal afferents in the mesenteric nerve bundle and thus determine the nature of the signals sent to the brain. Male Swiss Webster mice jejunal segments were cannulated ex vivo, and serosal and luminal compartments were perfused separately. Bacteria were added intraluminally. We found no evidence for translocation of labeled bacteria across the epithelium during the experiment. We recorded extracellular multi- and single-unit neuronal activity with glass suction pipettes. Within minutes of application, JB-1 increased the constitutive single- and multiunit firing rate of the mesenteric nerve bundle, but Lactobacillus salivarius (a negative control) or media alone were ineffective. JB-1 significantly augmented multiunit discharge responses to an intraluminal distension pressure of 31 hPa. Prior subdiaphragmatic vagotomy abolished all of the JB-1-evoked effects. This detailed exploration of the neuronal spike firing that encodes behavioral signaling to the brain may be useful to identify effective psychoactive bacteria and thereby offer an alternative new perspective in the field of psychiatry and comorbid conditions.

  7. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Elicits a Sugarcane Defense Response Against a Pathogenic Bacteria Xanthomonas albilineans. (United States)

    Arencibia, Ariel D; Vinagre, Fabiano; Estevez, Yandi; Bernal, Aydiloide; Perez, Juana; Cavalcanti, Janaina; Santana, Ignacio; Hemerly, Adriana S


    A new role for the plant growth-promoting nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacteria Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has been identified and characterized while it is involved in the sugarcane-Xanthomonas albilineans pathogenic interactions. Living G.diazotrophicus possess and/or produce elicitor molecules which activate the sugarcane defense response resulting in the plant resistance to X. albilineans, in this particular case controlling the pathogen transmission to emerging agamic shoots. A total of 47 differentially expressed transcript derived fragments (TDFs) were identified by cDNA-AFLP. Transcripts showed significant homologies to genes of the ethylene signaling pathway (26%), proteins regulates by auxins (9%), beta-1,3 Glucanase proteins (6%) and ubiquitin genes (4%), all major signaling mechanisms. Results point toward a form of induction of systemic resistance in sugarcane-G. diazotrophicus interactions which protect the plant against X. albilineans attack.

  8. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Elicits a Sugarcane Defense Response Against a Pathogenic Bacteria Xanthomonas albilineans (United States)

    Vinagre, Fabiano; Estevez, Yandi; Bernal, Aydiloide; Perez, Juana; Cavalcanti, Janaina; Santana, Ignacio; Hemerly, Adriana S


    A new role for the plant growth-promoting nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacteria Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has been identified and characterized while it is involved in the sugarcane-Xanthomonas albilineans pathogenic interactions. Living G.diazotrophicus possess and/or produce elicitor molecules which activate the sugarcane defense response resulting in the plant resistance to X. albilineans, in this particular case controlling the pathogen transmission to emerging agamic shoots. A total of 47 differentially expressed transcript derived fragments (TDFs) were identified by cDNA-AFLP. Transcripts showed significant homologies to genes of the ethylene signaling pathway (26%), proteins regulates by auxins (9%), β-1,3 Glucanase proteins (6%) and ubiquitin genes (4%), all major signaling mechanisms. Results point toward a form of induction of systemic resistance in sugarcane-G. diazotrophicus interactions which protect the plant against X. albilineans attack. PMID:19516988

  9. Finite Divergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Edberg; Pandya, P. K.; Chaochen, Zhou


    the framework of duration calculus. Axioms and proof rules are given. Patterns of occurrence of divergence are classified into dense divergence, accumulative divergence and discrete divergence by appropriate axioms. Induction rules are given for reasoning about discrete divergence...

  10. Similarity and divergence between the RNA polymerase alpha subunits from hyperthermophilic Thermotoga maritima and mesophilic Escherichia coli bacteria. (United States)

    Braun, Frederique; Marhuenda, Fanny B; Morin, Amelie; Guevel, Laetitia; Fleury, Fabrice; Takahashi, Masayuki; Sakanyan, Vehary


    The alpha subunit (alphaTm) of Thermotoga maritima RNA polymerase has been characterized to investigate its role in transcriptional regulation in one of the few known anaerobic hyperthermophilic bacteria. The highly thermostable alphaTm shares 54% similarity with its Escherichia coli analogue (alphaEc). The T. maritima rpoA gene coding the alpha subunit does not complement the thermosensitive rpoA112 mutation of E. coli. However, alphaTm and alphaEc show similar folding patterns as determined by circular dichroism. Purified alphaTm binds to the T. maritima PargGo promoter region (probably to a UP-element) and Arg282 appears to be crucial for DNA binding. The thermostable protein is also able to interact with transcription regulatory proteins, like ArgR from T. neapolitana or CRP from E. coli. These data indicate that the RNA polymerase alpha subunit might play a crucial role in the modulation of gene expression in hyperthermophiles.

  11. Diverging Cohesion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas


    Why do increases in globalisation in the face of European expansion lead to sharp levels of regional divergences in wealth in some countries but not in others? The central crux of this paper is that convergence/divergence trends in European states are conditioned by ‘state capacity’. State capaci...

  12. Divergent pro-inflammatory profile of human dendritic cells in response to commensal and pathogenic bacteria associated with the airway microbiota. (United States)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Steen-Jensen, Daniel Bisgaard; Laursen, Janne Marie; Søndergaard, Jonas Nørskov; Musavian, Hanieh Sadat; Butt, Tariq Mahmood; Brix, Susanne


    Recent studies using culture-independent methods have characterized the human airway microbiota and report microbial communities distinct from other body sites. Changes in these airway bacterial communities appear to be associated with inflammatory lung disease, yet the pro-inflammatory properties of individual bacterial species are unknown. In this study, we compared the immune stimulatory capacity on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) of selected airway commensal and pathogenic bacteria predominantly associated with lungs of asthma or COPD patients (pathogenic Haemophillus spp. and Moraxella spp.), healthy lungs (commensal Prevotella spp.) or both (commensal Veillonella spp. and Actinomyces spp.). All bacteria were found to induce activation of DCs as demonstrated by similar induction of CD83, CD40 and CD86 surface expression. However, asthma and COPD-associated pathogenic bacteria provoked a 3-5 fold higher production of IL-23, IL-12p70 and IL-10 cytokines compared to the commensal bacteria. Based on the differential cytokine production profiles, the studied airway bacteria could be segregated into three groups (Haemophilus spp. and Moraxella spp. vs. Prevotella spp. and Veillonella spp. vs. Actinomyces spp.) reflecting their pro-inflammatory effects on DCs. Co-culture experiments found that Prevotella spp. were able to reduce Haemophillus influenzae-induced IL-12p70 in DCs, whereas no effect was observed on IL-23 and IL-10 production. This study demonstrates intrinsic differences in DC stimulating properties of bacteria associated with the airway microbiota.

  13. Divergent pro-inflammatory profile of human dendritic cells in response to commensal and pathogenic bacteria associated with the airway microbiota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppe Madura Larsen

    Full Text Available Recent studies using culture-independent methods have characterized the human airway microbiota and report microbial communities distinct from other body sites. Changes in these airway bacterial communities appear to be associated with inflammatory lung disease, yet the pro-inflammatory properties of individual bacterial species are unknown. In this study, we compared the immune stimulatory capacity on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs of selected airway commensal and pathogenic bacteria predominantly associated with lungs of asthma or COPD patients (pathogenic Haemophillus spp. and Moraxella spp., healthy lungs (commensal Prevotella spp. or both (commensal Veillonella spp. and Actinomyces spp.. All bacteria were found to induce activation of DCs as demonstrated by similar induction of CD83, CD40 and CD86 surface expression. However, asthma and COPD-associated pathogenic bacteria provoked a 3-5 fold higher production of IL-23, IL-12p70 and IL-10 cytokines compared to the commensal bacteria. Based on the differential cytokine production profiles, the studied airway bacteria could be segregated into three groups (Haemophilus spp. and Moraxella spp. vs. Prevotella spp. and Veillonella spp. vs. Actinomyces spp. reflecting their pro-inflammatory effects on DCs. Co-culture experiments found that Prevotella spp. were able to reduce Haemophillus influenzae-induced IL-12p70 in DCs, whereas no effect was observed on IL-23 and IL-10 production. This study demonstrates intrinsic differences in DC stimulating properties of bacteria associated with the airway microbiota.

  14. Divergent pro-inflammatory profile of human dendritic cells in response to commensal and pathogenic bacteria associated with the airway microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Steen-Jensen, Daniel Bisgaard; Laursen, Janne Marie


    Recent studies using culture-independent methods have characterized the human airway microbiota and report microbial communities distinct from other body sites. Changes in these airway bacterial communities appear to be associated with inflammatory lung disease, yet the pro-inflammatory properties...... differences in DC stimulating properties of bacteria associated with the airway microbiota....... of individual bacterial species are unknown. In this study, we compared the immune stimulatory capacity on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) of selected airway commensal and pathogenic bacteria predominantly associated with lungs of asthma or COPD patients (pathogenic Haemophillus spp. and Moraxella...

  15. Belief Elicitation in Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander

    Belief elicitation in economics experiments usually relies on paying subjects according to the accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. Such incentives, however, allow risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of other decisions...... in the experiment. This raises two questions: (i) can we trust the existing belief elicitation results, (ii) can we avoid potential hedging confounds? Our results instill confidence regarding both issues. We propose an experimental design that eliminates hedging opportunities, and use this to test for the empirical...

  16. Issues in Requirements Elicitation (United States)


    systems approach: characterized by Checkland’s Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), which is discussed briefly in Appendix A.6; emphasizes the subjectivity of...methodology for requirements elicitation. A.6 Notes on SSM Both the definition of methodology and the philosophy behind soft systems methodology (SSM...1986. [Checkland 89a] Checkland, Peter. Soft Systems Methodology . Rational Analysis for a Problematic World. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 71-100

  17. Elicitation of Unstated Needs (United States)


    in these interviews. The interviews absolutely do not touch on the solution space. This is a challenging approach to interviewing customers/users...hate it when I have to constantly adjust my radio volume! I find classical music quite relaxing. 95 Requirements Elicitation (RE) Training...2014 Carnegie Mellon University Driving in Your Car Exercise Theme of communicating or listening to music in the car without distraction! 96

  18. Elicitation threshold of cobalt chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Louise A; Johansen, Jeanne D; Voelund, Aage


    BACKGROUND: Cobalt is a strong skin sensitizer (grade 5 of 5 in the guinea-pig maximization test) that is used in various industrial and consumer applications. To prevent sensitization to cobalt and elicitation of allergic cobalt dermatitis, information about the elicitation threshold level...... of cobalt is important. OBJECTIVE: To identify the dermatitis elicitation threshold levels in cobalt-allergic individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Published patch test dose-response studies were reviewed to determine the elicitation dose (ED) levels in dermatitis patients with a previous positive patch test...... reaction to cobalt. A logistic dose-response model was applied to data collected from the published literature to estimate ED values. The 95% confidence interval (CI) for the ratio of mean doses that can elicit a reaction in 10% (ED(10)) of a population was calculated with Fieller's method. RESULTS...

  19. Quantum skew divergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audenaert, Koenraad M. R., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham TW20 0EX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Ghent, S9, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)


    In this paper, we study the quantum generalisation of the skew divergence, which is a dissimilarity measure between distributions introduced by Lee in the context of natural language processing. We provide an in-depth study of the quantum skew divergence, including its relation to other state distinguishability measures. Finally, we present a number of important applications: new continuity inequalities for the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence and the Holevo information, and a new and short proof of Bravyi's Small Incremental Mixing conjecture.

  20. A common bacterial metabolite elicits prion-based bypass of glucose repression (United States)

    Garcia, David M; Dietrich, David; Clardy, Jon; Jarosz, Daniel F


    Robust preference for fermentative glucose metabolism has motivated domestication of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This program can be circumvented by a protein-based genetic element, the [GAR+] prion, permitting simultaneous metabolism of glucose and other carbon sources. Diverse bacteria can elicit yeast cells to acquire [GAR+], although the molecular details of this interaction remain unknown. Here we identify the common bacterial metabolite lactic acid as a strong [GAR+] inducer. Transient exposure to lactic acid caused yeast cells to heritably circumvent glucose repression. This trait had the defining genetic properties of [GAR+], and did not require utilization of lactic acid as a carbon source. Lactic acid also induced [GAR+]-like epigenetic states in fungi that diverged from S. cerevisiae ~200 million years ago, and in which glucose repression evolved independently. To our knowledge, this is the first study to uncover a bacterial metabolite with the capacity to potently induce a prion. DOI: PMID:27906649

  1. Elicitation of ostomy pouch preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole


    in ostomy pouch attributes. The theory, study design, elicitation procedure, and resulting preference structure of the sample is described. Methods: A discrete-choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit preferences. Respondents were asked to choose between alternatives in choice sets, in which each...... pouches when cost is included as an attribute. A total of 254 patients responded to the survey and preferences were estimated using a random parameter logit econometric specification. Results: Respondents had significantly positive WTP for all potential attribute improvements presented in the survey...

  2. Decoherence and infrared divergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Kupsch


    The dynamics of a particle which is linearly coupled to a boson field is investigated. The boson field induces superselection rules for the momentum of the particle, if the field is infrared divergent. Thereby the Hamiltonian of the total system remains bounded from below.

  3. Mechanisms of protein sequence divergence and incompatibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alon Wellner

    Full Text Available Alignments of orthologous protein sequences convey a complex picture. Some positions are utterly conserved whilst others have diverged to variable degrees. Amongst the latter, many are non-exchangeable between extant sequences. How do functionally critical and highly conserved residues diverge? Why and how did these exchanges become incompatible within contemporary sequences? Our model is phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK, where lysine 219 is an essential active-site residue completely conserved throughout Eukaryota and Bacteria, and serine is found only in archaeal PGKs. Contemporary sequences tested exhibited complete loss of function upon exchanges at 219. However, a directed evolution experiment revealed that two mutations were sufficient for human PGK to become functional with serine at position 219. These two mutations made position 219 permissive not only for serine and lysine, but also to a range of other amino acids seen in archaeal PGKs. The identified trajectories that enabled exchanges at 219 show marked sign epistasis - a relatively small loss of function with respect to one amino acid (lysine versus a large gain with another (serine, and other amino acids. Our findings support the view that, as theoretically described, the trajectories underlining the divergence of critical positions are dominated by sign epistatic interactions. Such trajectories are an outcome of rare mutational combinations. Nonetheless, as suggested by the laboratory enabled K219S exchange, given enough time and variability in selection levels, even utterly conserved and functionally essential residues may change.

  4. Estimating Divergence Times and Substitution Rates in Rhizobia. (United States)

    Chriki-Adeeb, Rim; Chriki, Ali


    Accurate estimation of divergence times of soil bacteria that form nitrogen-fixing associations with most leguminous plants is challenging because of a limited fossil record and complexities associated with molecular clocks and phylogenetic diversity of root nodule bacteria, collectively called rhizobia. To overcome the lack of fossil record in bacteria, divergence times of host legumes were used to calibrate molecular clocks and perform phylogenetic analyses in rhizobia. The 16S rRNA gene and intergenic spacer region remain among the favored molecular markers to reconstruct the timescale of rhizobia. We evaluate the performance of the random local clock model and the classical uncorrelated lognormal relaxed clock model, in combination with four tree models (coalescent constant size, birth-death, birth-death incomplete sampling, and Yule processes) on rhizobial divergence time estimates. Bayes factor tests based on the marginal likelihoods estimated from the stepping-stone sampling analyses strongly favored the random local clock model in combination with Yule process. Our results on the divergence time estimation from 16S rRNA gene and intergenic spacer region sequences are compatible with age estimates based on the conserved core genes but significantly older than those obtained from symbiotic genes, such as nodIJ genes. This difference may be due to the accelerated evolutionary rates of symbiotic genes compared to those of other genomic regions not directly implicated in nodulation processes.

  5. Infection-derived lipids elicit a novel immune deficiency circuitry in arthropods (United States)

    The insect Immune Deficiency (IMD) pathway resembles the tumor necrosis factor receptor network in mammals and senses diaminopimelic-type peptidoglycans present in Gram-negative bacteria. Whether unidentified chemical moieties elicit the IMD signaling cascade remains unknown. Here, we disclose thoug...

  6. Hyperbolic Divergence Cleaning for SPH

    CERN Document Server

    Tricco, Terrence S


    We present SPH formulations of Dedner et al's hyperbolic/parabolic divergence cleaning scheme for magnetic and velocity fields. Our implementation preserves the conservation properties of SPH which is important for stability. This is achieved by deriving an energy term for the Psi field, and imposing energy conservation on the cleaning subsystem of equations. This necessitates use of conjugate operators for divB and gradPsi in the numerical equations. For both the magnetic and velocity fields, the average divergence error in the system is reduced by an order of magnitude with our cleaning algorithm. Divergence errors in SPMHD are maintained to < 1%, even for realistic 3D applications with a corresponding gain in numerical stability. Density errors for an oscillating elliptic water drop using weakly compressible SPH are reduced by a factor of two.

  7. Systematic variations in divergence angle

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Takuya


    Practical methods for quantitative analysis of radial and angular coordinates of leafy organs of vascular plants are presented and applied to published phyllotactic patterns of various real systems from young leaves on a shoot tip to florets on a flower head. The constancy of divergence angle is borne out with accuracy of less than a degree. It is shown that apparent fluctuations in divergence angle are in large part systematic variations caused by the invalid assumption of a fixed center and/or by secondary deformations, while random fluctuations are of minor importance.

  8. Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses from copepod hosts. (United States)

    Almada, Amalia A; Tarrant, Ann M


    Copepods are abundant crustaceans that harbor diverse bacterial communities, yet the nature of their interactions with microbiota are poorly understood. Here, we report that Vibrio elicits targeted transcriptional responses in the estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis We pre-treated E. affinis with an antibiotic cocktail and exposed them to either a zooplankton specialist (Vibrio sp. F10 9ZB36) or a free-living species (Vibrio ordalii 12B09) for 24 h. We then identified via RNA-Seq a total of 78 genes that were differentially expressed following Vibrio exposure, including homologs of C-type lectins, chitin-binding proteins and saposins. The response differed between the two Vibrio treatments, with the greatest changes elicited upon inoculation with V. sp. F10 We suggest that these differentially regulated genes play important roles in cuticle integrity, the innate immune response, and general stress response, and that their expression may enable E. affinis to recognize and regulate symbiotic vibrios. We further report that V. sp. F10 culturability is specifically altered upon colonization of E. affinis These findings suggest that rather than acting as passive environmental vectors, copepods discriminately interact with vibrios, which may ultimately impact the abundance and activity of copepod-associated bacteria.

  9. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB


    A small number of prokaryotic species have a unique physiology or ecology related to their development of unusually large size. The biomass of bacteria varies over more than 10 orders of magnitude, from the 0.2 mum wide nanobacteria to the largest cells of the colorless sulfur bacteria......, Thiomargarita namibiensis, with a diameter of 750 mum. All bacteria, including those that swim around in the environment, obtain their food molecules by molecular diffusion. Only the fastest and largest swimmers known, Thiovulum majus, are able to significantly increase their food supply by motility...... and by actively creating an advective flow through the entire population. Diffusion limitation generally restricts the maximal size of prokaryotic cells and provides a selective advantage for mum-sized cells at the normally low substrate concentrations in the environment. The largest heterotrophic bacteria...

  10. Anaerobic bacteria (United States)

    Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...

  11. "Divergent" Ramanujan-type supercongruences

    CERN Document Server

    Guillera, Jesús


    "Divergent" Ramanujan-type series for $1/\\pi$ and $1/\\pi^2$ provide us with new nice examples of supercongruences of the same kind as those related to the convergent cases. In this paper we manage to prove three of the supercongruences by means of the Wilf--Zeilberger algorithmic technique.

  12. Cortical activation elicited by unrecognized stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badgaiyan Rajendra D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether a stimulus that cannot be recognized consciously, could elicit a well-processed cognitive response. Methods We used functional imaging to examine the pattern of cortical activation elicited by unrecognized stimuli during memory processing. Subjects were given a recognition task using recognizable and non-recognizable subliminal stimuli. Results Unrecognized stimuli activated the cortical areas that are associated with retrieval attempt (left prefrontal, and novelty detection (left hippocampus. This indicates that the stimuli that were not consciously recognized, activated neural network associated with aspects of explicit memory processing. Conclusion Results suggest that conscious recognition of stimuli is not necessary for activation of cognitive processing.

  13. Eliciting User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry (United States)

    Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki


    Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements elicitation process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…

  14. Acting green elicits a literal warm glow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda


    Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money(1,2). We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) elicit

  15. Methods of Eliciting Information from Experts (United States)


    Itzhak Perlman) or a concertmeister in an orchestra, or simply one of its violinists . Differences in amount of expertise may supply different...would lead to becoming a world class violinist . Underlying Assumptions In attempting to elicit information from experts, one makes a number of

  16. Affective multimodal mirror: sensing and eliciting laughter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melder, W.A.; Truong, K.P.; Uyl, M. den; Leeuwen, D.A. van; Neerincx, M.A.; Loos, L.R.; Stock Plum, B.


    In this paper, we present a multimodal affective mirror that senses and elicits laughter. Currently, the mirror contains a vocal and a facial affect-sensing module, a component that fuses the output of these two modules to achieve a user-state assessment, a user state transition model, and a compone

  17. The Divergence of Neandertal and Modern Human Y Chromosomes (United States)

    Mendez, Fernando L.; Poznik, G. David; Castellano, Sergi; Bustamante, Carlos D.


    Sequencing the genomes of extinct hominids has reshaped our understanding of modern human origins. Here, we analyze ∼120 kb of exome-captured Y-chromosome DNA from a Neandertal individual from El Sidrón, Spain. We investigate its divergence from orthologous chimpanzee and modern human sequences and find strong support for a model that places the Neandertal lineage as an outgroup to modern human Y chromosomes—including A00, the highly divergent basal haplogroup. We estimate that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes is ∼588 thousand years ago (kya) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 447–806 kya). This is ∼2.1 (95% CI: 1.7–2.9) times longer than the TMRCA of A00 and other extant modern human Y-chromosome lineages. This estimate suggests that the Y-chromosome divergence mirrors the population divergence of Neandertals and modern human ancestors, and it refutes alternative scenarios of a relatively recent or super-archaic origin of Neandertal Y chromosomes. The fact that the Neandertal Y we describe has never been observed in modern humans suggests that the lineage is most likely extinct. We identify protein-coding differences between Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes, including potentially damaging changes to PCDH11Y, TMSB4Y, USP9Y, and KDM5D. Three of these changes are missense mutations in genes that produce male-specific minor histocompatibility (H-Y) antigens. Antigens derived from KDM5D, for example, are thought to elicit a maternal immune response during gestation. It is possible that incompatibilities at one or more of these genes played a role in the reproductive isolation of the two groups. PMID:27058445

  18. The Divergence of Neandertal and Modern Human Y Chromosomes. (United States)

    Mendez, Fernando L; Poznik, G David; Castellano, Sergi; Bustamante, Carlos D


    Sequencing the genomes of extinct hominids has reshaped our understanding of modern human origins. Here, we analyze ∼120 kb of exome-captured Y-chromosome DNA from a Neandertal individual from El Sidrón, Spain. We investigate its divergence from orthologous chimpanzee and modern human sequences and find strong support for a model that places the Neandertal lineage as an outgroup to modern human Y chromosomes-including A00, the highly divergent basal haplogroup. We estimate that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes is ∼588 thousand years ago (kya) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 447-806 kya). This is ∼2.1 (95% CI: 1.7-2.9) times longer than the TMRCA of A00 and other extant modern human Y-chromosome lineages. This estimate suggests that the Y-chromosome divergence mirrors the population divergence of Neandertals and modern human ancestors, and it refutes alternative scenarios of a relatively recent or super-archaic origin of Neandertal Y chromosomes. The fact that the Neandertal Y we describe has never been observed in modern humans suggests that the lineage is most likely extinct. We identify protein-coding differences between Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes, including potentially damaging changes to PCDH11Y, TMSB4Y, USP9Y, and KDM5D. Three of these changes are missense mutations in genes that produce male-specific minor histocompatibility (H-Y) antigens. Antigens derived from KDM5D, for example, are thought to elicit a maternal immune response during gestation. It is possible that incompatibilities at one or more of these genes played a role in the reproductive isolation of the two groups.

  19. Divergences in spinfoam quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Smerlak, Matteo


    In this thesis we study the flat model, the main buidling block for the spinfoam approach to quantum gravity, with an emphasis on its divergences. Besides a personal introduction to the problem of quantum gravity, the manuscript consists in two part. In the first one, we establish an exact powercounting formula for the bubble divergences of the flat model, using tools from discrete gauge theory and twisted cohomology. In the second one, we address the issue of spinfoam continuum limit, both from the lattice field theory and the group field theory perspectives. In particular, we put forward a new proof of the Borel summability of the Boulatov-Freidel-Louapre model, with an improved control over the large-spin scaling behaviour. We conclude with an outlook of the renormalization program in spinfoam quantum gravity.

  20. Boiling flow through diverging microchannel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Duryodhan; S G Singh; Amit Agrawal


    An experimental study of flow boiling through diverging microchannel has been carried out in this work, with the aim of understanding boiling in nonuniform cross-section microchannel. Diverging microchannel of 4° of divergence angle and 146 m hydraulic diameter (calculated at mid-length) has been employed for the present study with deionised water as working fluid. Effect of mass flux (118–1182 kg/m2-s) and heat flux (1.6–19.2 W/cm2) on single and two-phase pressure drop and average heat transfer coefficient has been studied. Concurrently, flow visualization is carried out to document the various flow regimes and to correlate the pressure drop and average heat transfer coefficient to the underlying flow regime. Four flow regimes have been identified from the measurements: bubbly, slug, slug–annular and periodic dry-out/rewetting. Variation of pressure drop with heat flux shows one maxima which corresponds to transition from bubbly to slug flow. It is shown that significantly large heat transfer coefficient (up to 107 kW/m2-K) can be attained for such systems, for small pressure drop penalty and with good flow stability.

  1. Genetic divergence of tomato subsamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pugnal Mattedi


    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic variability of a species is crucial for the progress of a genetic breeding program and requires characterization and evaluation of germplasm. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate 101 tomato subsamples of the Salad group (fresh market and two commercial controls, one of the Salad group (cv. Fanny and another of the Santa Cruz group (cv. Santa Clara. Four experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and five plants per plot. The joint analysis of variance was performed and characteristics with significant complex interaction between control and experiment were excluded. Subsequently, the multicollinearity diagnostic test was carried out and characteristics that contributed to severe multicollinearity were excluded. The relative importance of each characteristics for genetic divergence was calculated by the Singh's method (Singh, 1981, and the less important ones were excluded according to Garcia (1998. Results showed large genetic divergence among the subsamples for morphological, agronomic and organoleptic characteristics, indicating potential for genetic improvement. The characteristics total soluble solids, mean number of good fruits per plant, endocarp thickness, mean mass of marketable fruit per plant, total acidity, mean number of unmarketable fruit per plant, internode diameter, internode length, main stem thickness and leaf width contributed little to the genetic divergence between the subsamples and may be excluded in future studies.

  2. Unphysical divergences in response theory (United States)

    Parker, Shane M.; Roy, Saswata; Furche, Filipp


    Transition densities between excited states are key for nonlinear theoretical spectroscopy and multi-state non-adiabatic molecular dynamics (NAMD) simulations. In the framework of response theory, these transition densities are accessible from poles of the quadratic response function. It was shown recently that the thus obtained transition densities within time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) and adiabatic time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) exhibit unphysical divergences when the difference in excitation energy of the two states of interest matches another excitation energy. This unphysical behavior is a consequence of spurious poles in the quadratic response function. We show that the incorrect pole structure of the quadratic response is not limited to TDHF and adiabatic TDDFT, but is also present in many other approximate many-electron response functions, including those from coupled cluster and multiconfigurational self-consistent field response theory. The divergences appear in regions of the potential energy surface where the ground state is perfectly well behaved, and they are frequently encountered in NAMD simulations of photochemical reactions. The origin of the divergences is traced to an incorrect instantaneous time-dependence of the effective Hamiltonian. The implications for computations of frequency-dependent response properties are considerable and call into question the validity of conventional approximate many-electron response theories beyond linear response.

  3. Ultraviolet and Infrared Divergences in Superstring Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Ashoke


    Superstring theory is known to be free from ultraviolet divergences but suffers from the usual infrared divergences that occur in quantum field theories. After briefly reviewing the origin of ultraviolet finiteness of superstring theory we describe recent progress towards the understanding of infrared divergences in superstring theory.

  4. A comparison of five elicitation techniques for elicitation of attributes of low involvement products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Nielsen, Niels Asger


    The critical first step for most instruments used in analysing consumer choice and motivation is the identification of product attributes which are important to the consumer and for which there are differences among the available product alternatives. A number of techniques, ranging from...... the complex elicitation of idiosyncratic attributes or simpler picking procedures, has been developed to elicitate such attributes. The purpose of the study presented here is to com-pare attributes of a low involvement product, viz. vegetable oil, elicited by five different techniques on a number...... of dimensions directed from theories of consumer buying behaviour. Although a number of differences between the techniques are identified in the study, the main findings are that the robustness of the different techniques for attribute elicitation is considerable Udgivelsesdato: JUN...

  5. Can packaging elements elicit consumers’ emotional responses?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Lewis; Corsi, Armando; Lockshin, Larry;

    Emotion has been an important concept in many areas of consumer research such as judgment, decision-making and advertising. Little research has been done on emotion in packaging adopting the physiological measures used in other areas. This paper draws on past studies in advertising that measure....... The results show that packaging can elicit an emotional response via different elements. The paper also raises concerns about the accuracy of using selfreport measures of emotional responses to packaging research....

  6. Elicitation of secondary metabolism in actinomycetes. (United States)

    Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Grkovic, Tanja; Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Quinn, Ronald J; Hentschel, Ute


    Genomic sequence data have revealed the presence of a large fraction of putatively silent biosynthetic gene clusters in the genomes of actinomycetes that encode for secondary metabolites, which are not detected under standard fermentation conditions. This review focuses on the effects of biological (co-cultivation), chemical, as well as molecular elicitation on secondary metabolism in actinomycetes. Our review covers the literature until June 2014 and exemplifies the diversity of natural products that have been recovered by such approaches from the phylum Actinobacteria.

  7. Statistical inference based on divergence measures

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Leandro


    The idea of using functionals of Information Theory, such as entropies or divergences, in statistical inference is not new. However, in spite of the fact that divergence statistics have become a very good alternative to the classical likelihood ratio test and the Pearson-type statistic in discrete models, many statisticians remain unaware of this powerful approach.Statistical Inference Based on Divergence Measures explores classical problems of statistical inference, such as estimation and hypothesis testing, on the basis of measures of entropy and divergence. The first two chapters form an overview, from a statistical perspective, of the most important measures of entropy and divergence and study their properties. The author then examines the statistical analysis of discrete multivariate data with emphasis is on problems in contingency tables and loglinear models using phi-divergence test statistics as well as minimum phi-divergence estimators. The final chapter looks at testing in general populations, prese...

  8. Essays on probability elicitation scoring rules (United States)

    Firmino, Paulo Renato A.; dos Santos Neto, Ademir B.


    In probability elicitation exercises it has been usual to considerer scoring rules (SRs) to measure the performance of experts when inferring about a given unknown, Θ, for which the true value, θ*, is (or will shortly be) known to the experimenter. Mathematically, SRs quantify the discrepancy between f(θ) (the distribution reflecting the expert's uncertainty about Θ) and d(θ), a zero-one indicator function of the observation θ*. Thus, a remarkable characteristic of SRs is to contrast expert's beliefs with the observation θ*. The present work aims at extending SRs concepts and formulas for the cases where Θ is aleatory, highlighting advantages of goodness-of-fit and entropy-like measures. Conceptually, it is argued that besides of evaluating the personal performance of the expert, SRs may also play a role when comparing the elicitation processes adopted to obtain f(θ). Mathematically, it is proposed to replace d(θ) by g(θ), the distribution that model the randomness of Θ, and do also considerer goodness-of-fit and entropylike metrics, leading to SRs that measure the adherence of f(θ) to g(θ). The implications of this alternative perspective are discussed and illustrated by means of case studies based on the simulation of controlled experiments. The usefulness of the proposed approach for evaluating the performance of experts and elicitation processes is investigated.

  9. Elicitation of broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies in animals with previous influenza exposure. (United States)

    Wei, Chih-Jen; Yassine, Hadi M; McTamney, Patrick M; Gall, Jason G D; Whittle, James R R; Boyington, Jeffrey C; Nabel, Gary J


    The immune system responds to influenza infection by producing neutralizing antibodies to the viral surface protein, hemagglutinin (HA), which regularly changes its antigenic structure. Antibodies that target the highly conserved stem region of HA neutralize diverse influenza viruses and can be elicited through vaccination in animals and humans. Efforts to develop universal influenza vaccines have focused on strategies to elicit such antibodies; however, the concern has been raised that previous influenza immunity may abrogate the induction of such broadly protective antibodies. We show here that prime-boost immunization can induce broadly neutralizing antibody responses in influenza-immune mice and ferrets that were previously infected or vaccinated. HA stem-directed antibodies were elicited in mice primed with a DNA vaccine and boosted with inactivated vaccine from H1N1 A/New Caledonia/20/1999 (1999 NC) HA regardless of preexposure. Similarly, gene-based vaccination with replication-defective adenovirus 28 (rAd28) and 5 (rAd5) vectors encoding 1999 NC HA elicited stem-directed neutralizing antibodies and conferred protection against unmatched 1934 and 2007 H1N1 virus challenge in influenza-immune ferrets. Indeed, previous exposure to certain strains could enhance immunogenicity: The strongest HA stem-directed immune response was observed in ferrets previously infected with a divergent 1934 H1N1 virus. These findings suggest that broadly neutralizing antibodies against the conserved stem region of HA can be elicited through vaccination despite previous influenza exposure, which supports the feasibility of developing stem-directed universal influenza vaccines for humans.

  10. Log-Determinant Divergences Revisited: Alpha-Beta and Gamma Log-Det Divergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Cichocki


    Full Text Available This work reviews and extends a family of log-determinant (log-det divergences for symmetric positive definite (SPD matrices and discusses their fundamental properties. We show how to use parameterized Alpha-Beta (AB and Gamma log-det divergences to generate many well-known divergences; in particular, we consider the Stein’s loss, the S-divergence, also called Jensen-Bregman LogDet (JBLD divergence, Logdet Zero (Bhattacharyya divergence, Affine Invariant Riemannian Metric (AIRM, and other divergences. Moreover, we establish links and correspondences between log-det divergences and visualise them on an alpha-beta plane for various sets of parameters. We use this unifying framework to interpret and extend existing similarity measures for semidefinite covariance matrices in finite-dimensional Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces (RKHS. This paper also shows how the Alpha-Beta family of log-det divergences relates to the divergences of multivariate and multilinear normal distributions. Closed form formulas are derived for Gamma divergences of two multivariate Gaussian densities; the special cases of the Kullback-Leibler, Bhattacharyya, Rényi, and Cauchy-Schwartz divergences are discussed. Symmetrized versions of log-det divergences are also considered and briefly reviewed. Finally, a class of divergences is extended to multiway divergences for separable covariance (or precision matrices.

  11. Divergent models of diabetes among American Indian elders. (United States)

    Henderson, Linda Carson


    The purpose of this study was to examine belief systems about diabetes in American Indian elders, and the effects of culture on care-seeking, adherence, and diabetes self-care. Health belief theory predicts that care-seeking and medical adherence are a function of culturally mediated beliefs that result in behaviors that effect health status. In order to elicit cultural meanings of diabetes, in-depth interviews were conducted with an intensity sample of 30 American Indian diabetic elders (55+). Two models of diabetes were identified, divergent in terms of 1) health behaviors, and 2) cultural identification. One model was characterized by delayed care-seeking, and a non-valuing of adherence to diabetes self-care. Non-adherence to medical recommendations was perceived as being socially desirable, because adherence placed the elder outside their peer group. The second model was characterized by early care-seeking and improved adherence to diabetes self-care. These divergent models of diabetes, in which care-seeking, diabetes self-care, and adherence vary as a function of cultural immersion, has implications for health education and disease management and may contribute substantially to health disparities.

  12. Elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 – the germline/maturation hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabakaran ePonraj


    Full Text Available We have previously observed that all known broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs against HIV-1 are highly divergent from their putative germline predecessors in contrast to bnAbs against henipaviruses and SARS coronavirus, which are much less divergent from their germline counterparts. We have hypothesized that because the germline antibodies are so different compared to the highly somatically mutated HIV-1 bnAbs they may not bind to the Env. This led us to the hypothesis that the immunogenicity of the highly conserved epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Envs is reduced or eliminated by their very weak or absent interactions with germline antibodies. Thus immune responses leading to elicitation of bnAbs may not be initiated and/or sustained; even if they are, the maturation pathways are so complex that prolonged periods of time may be required for elicitation of such bnAbs. In support of the hypothesis, our initial experiments showed that germline-like precursors of several bnAbs do not bind to their epitopes. Recently, a number of research groups working in the HIV vaccine field have obtained data supporting and further expanding the germline/maturation hypothesis. Vaccine immunogens that could bind putative germline antibody predecessors of known bnAbs were successfully generated. However, guiding the immune system through the exceptionally complex antibody maturation pathways in order to elicit those bnAbs remains a major challenge. Here, we summarize developments in the HIV-1 vaccine field based on the germline/maturation hypothesis including our recent data demonstrating germline-like VRC01 antibodies in a human cord blood IgM library.

  13. T cell polarizing properties of probiotic bacteria. (United States)

    Barberi, Chiara; Campana, Stefania; De Pasquale, Claudia; Rabbani Khorasgani, Mohammad; Ferlazzo, Guido; Bonaccorsi, Irene


    Different commensal bacteria employed as probiotics have been shown to be endowed with immunomodulatory properties and to actively interact with antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages. In particular, different strains of probiotic bacteria may induce the secretion of a discrete cytokine profile able to induce divergent T cell polarization. Here, we briefly review current knowledge regarding the effects of different species and strains of probiotic bacteria on T cell polarization. Given that the loss of intestinal homeostasis is frequently associated with an aberrant T cell polarization profile, a comprehensive knowledge of the immunomodulatory potential of these bacteria is crucial for their employment in the management of human immune-mediated pathologies, such as allergies or inflammatory bowel diseases.

  14. Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppersmith, K. J.


    This report presents results of the Unsaturated Zone Flow Model Expert Elicitation (UZFMEE) project at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The objective of this project was to identify and assess the uncertainties associated with certain key components of the unsaturated zone flow system at Yucca Mountain. This assessment reviewed the data inputs, modeling approaches, and results of the unsaturated zone flow model (termed the ''UZ site-scale model'') being developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the US Geological Survey (USGS). In addition to data input and modeling issues, the assessment focused on percolation flux (volumetric flow rate per unit cross-sectional area) at the potential repository horizon. An understanding of unsaturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the unsaturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent physical controls on unsaturated zone flow and the parameter values used in the models. To ensure that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and uncertainties about key issues regarding the unsaturated zone at the Yucca


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batygin, Konstantin [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Morbidelli, Alessandro, E-mail: [Departement Cassiopee, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, F-06304 Nice (France)


    A considerable fraction of multi-planet systems discovered by the observational surveys of extrasolar planets reside in mild proximity to first-order mean-motion resonances. However, the relative remoteness of such systems from nominal resonant period ratios (e.g., 2:1, 3:2, and 4:3) has been interpreted as evidence for lack of resonant interactions. Here, we show that a slow divergence away from exact commensurability is a natural outcome of dissipative evolution and demonstrate that libration of critical angles can be maintained tens of percent away from nominal resonance. We construct an analytical theory for the long-term dynamical evolution of dissipated resonant planetary pairs and confirm our calculations numerically. Collectively, our results suggest that a significant fraction of the near-commensurate extrasolar planets are in fact resonant and have undergone significant dissipative evolution.

  16. Dissipative Divergence of Resonant Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Batygin, Konstantin


    A considerable fraction of multi-planet systems discovered by the observational surveys of extrasolar planets reside in mild proximity to first-order mean motion resonances. However, the relative remoteness of such systems from nominal resonant period ratios (e.g. 2:1, 3:2, 4:3) has been interpreted as evidence for lack of resonant interactions. Here we show that a slow divergence away from exact commensurability is a natural outcome of dissipative evolution and demonstrate that libration of critical angles can be maintained tens of percent away from nominal resonance. We construct an analytical theory for the long-term dynamical evolution of dissipated resonant planetary pairs and confirm our calculations numerically. Collectively, our results suggest that a significant fraction of the near-commensurate extrasolar planets are in fact resonant and have undergone significant dissipative evolution.

  17. Divergence operator and related inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Gabriel


    This Brief is mainly devoted to two classical and related results: the existence of a right inverse of the divergence operator and the so-called Korn Inequalities. It is well known that both results are fundamental tools in the analysis of some classic differential equations, particularly in those arising in fluid dynamics and elasticity. Several connections between these two topics and improved Poincaré inequalities are extensively treated. From simple key ideas the book is growing smoothly in complexity. Beginning with the study of these problems on star-shaped domains the arguments are extended first to John domains and then to Hölder α domains where the need of weighted spaces arises naturally. In this fashion, the authors succeed in presenting in an unified and concise way several classic and recent developments in the field. These features certainly makes this Brief useful for students, post-graduate students, and researchers as well.

  18. Divergence of optical vortex beams

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Salla Gangi; Prabhakar, Shashi; Anwar, Ali; Banerji, J; Singh, R P


    We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that the propagation of optical vortices in free space can be analysed by using the width ($w(z)$) of the host Gaussian beam and the inner and outer radii of the vortex beam at the source plane ($z=0$) as defined in \\textit{Optics Letters \\textbf{39,} 4364-4367 (2014)}. We also studied the divergence of vortex beams, considered as the rate of change of inner or outer radius with the propagation distance, and found that it varies with the order in the same way as that of the inner and outer radii at zero propagation distance. These results may be useful in designing optical fibers for orbital angular momentum modes that play a crucial role in quantum communication.

  19. Guises and disguises of quadratic divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchiglia, A.L., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Vieira, A.R., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hiller, Brigitte, E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Baêta Scarpelli, A.P., E-mail: [Setor Técnico-Científico, Departamento de Polícia Federal, Rua Hugo D’Antola, 95 - Lapa, São Paulo (Brazil); Sampaio, Marcos, E-mail: [Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O. BOX 702, 30.161-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centre for Particle Theory, Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)


    In this contribution, we present a new perspective on the control of quadratic divergences in quantum field theory, in general, and in the Higgs naturalness problem, in particular. Our discussion is essentially based on an approach where UV divergences are parameterized, after being reduced to basic divergent integrals (BDI) in one internal momentum, as functions of a cutoff and a renormalization group scale λ. We illustrate our proposal with well-known examples, such as the gluon vacuum self energy of QCD and the Higgs decay in two photons within this approach. We also discuss frameworks in effective low-energy QCD models, where quadratic divergences are indeed fundamental.

  20. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption. (United States)

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K


    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy.

  1. Rhizosphere Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Feoktistova


    Full Text Available The review deals with the analysis of modern literature data on rhizosphere bacteria and their role in plant life. The structure of rhizosphere has been characterized. The role of plants as the centers of formation of microbial communities has been shown. Data on the main groups of microorganisms inhabiting the rhizosphere have been provided. The associative relationship between rhizobacteria and partner plants has been investigated. The modern concept of holobiont defined as the whole host plant organism and microorganisms associated with it has been reviewed. The role of rhizobacteria in the processes of nitrogen fixation has been discussed in detail. The mechanisms of direct stimulation of plant growth by biosynthesis of phytohormones, improvement of phosphorus and nitrogen nutrition, increase in resistance to stress, and stimulation mediated by antagonism against pathogenic microorganisms have been analyzed. The criteria for selection of rhizobacteria for practical purposes have been discussed.

  2. Inequalities among New Non-Symmetric Divergence and Chi-Square Divergence Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Naresh Saraswat


    Full Text Available Information divergence measures and their bounds are well known in the literature of Information Theory. In this research paper, we shall consider a new non-symmetric information divergence measure. Upper and lower bounds of new non-symmetric divergence measure are also considered.

  3. Inequalities among New Non-Symmetric Divergence and Chi-Square Divergence Measure


    Ram Naresh Saraswat


    Information divergence measures and their bounds are well known in the literature of Information Theory. In this research paper, we shall consider a new non-symmetric information divergence measure. Upper and lower bounds of new non-symmetric divergence measure are also considered.

  4. Needs Elicitation for Novel Pervasive Healthcare Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Forchhammer, B. H.; Maier, Anja


    It is widely accepted that engaging with end-users to elicit their needs is beneficial when designing a new artefact. This can be particularly challenging, however, when end-users are limited in their ability to provide input. When there is broad variation in users' needs, a further challenge...... is to include the large number of users required to represent the entire population. Failure to do so may lead to a solution that is over specialised to fit the needs of only a small subset of users. Both challenges are common in healthcare applications in which the end-user is also care recipient (or patient......). What if instead of trying to engage vastly many users in design activities, we could hear the voice of the patient by tapping into existing channels within the health care service system? Many interactions between healthcare providers and patients involve knowledge transfer. Observing these could...

  5. Needs Elicitation for Novel Pervasive Healthcare Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorpe, Julia Rosemary; Forchhammer, B. H.; Maier, Anja


    It is widely accepted that engaging with end-users to elicit their needs is beneficial when designing a new artefact. This can be particularly challenging, however, when end-users are limited in their ability to provide input. When there is broad variation in users' needs, a further challenge...... is to include the large number of users required to represent the entire population. Failure to do so may lead to a solution that is over specialised to fit the needs of only a small subset of users. Both challenges are common in healthcare applications in which the end-user is also care recipient (or patient...... inform designers about patients’ support needs and healthcare providers’ information needs.H ealthcare professionals offer a wealth of knowledge based on a clinical understanding of the condition as well as experience listening to patients' problems. Especially where patients are in denial about...

  6. Preference elicitation and inverse reinforcement learning

    CERN Document Server

    Rothkopf, Constantin


    We state the problem of inverse reinforcement learning in terms of preference elicitation, resulting in a principled (Bayesian) statistical formulation. This generalises previous work on Bayesian inverse reinforcement learning and allows us to obtain a posterior distribution on the agent's preferences, policy and optionally, the obtained reward sequence, from observations. We examine the relation of the resulting approach to other statistical methods for inverse reinforcement learning via analysis and experimental results. We show that preferences can be determined accurately, even if the observed agent's policy is sub-optimal with respect to its own preferences. In that case, significantly improved policies with respect to the agent's preferences are obtained, compared to both other methods and to the performance of the demonstrated policy.

  7. Diverging expectations in buyer-seller relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Christensen, Poul Rind; Damgaard, Torben


    performance. We explore the proposed impact of diverging relationship norms on relationship expectations using data from an ongoing field study of Danish buyers and Chinese suppliers. We link these diverging expectations to the business practices of Danish buyers and Chinese and their institutional contexts...... performance. An important reason for this is the diverging beliefs and expectations held by both parties in the buyer-seller dyad. The purpose of this contribution is to develop a framework for understanding the divergences in expectations and relationship norms in cross-cultural business relationships among...... SMEs. We discuss four relational expectations derived from the B2B literature on relational norms for addressing these divergences: Quality, frequency and scope of communication, role specifications and coordination of work nature of planning horizons, and trustworthiness and link these to relationship...

  8. Duality of Maximum Entropy and Minimum Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinto Eguchi


    Full Text Available We discuss a special class of generalized divergence measures by the use of generator functions. Any divergence measure in the class is separated into the difference between cross and diagonal entropy. The diagonal entropy measure in the class associates with a model of maximum entropy distributions; the divergence measure leads to statistical estimation via minimization, for arbitrarily giving a statistical model. The dualistic relationship between the maximum entropy model and the minimum divergence estimation is explored in the framework of information geometry. The model of maximum entropy distributions is characterized to be totally geodesic with respect to the linear connection associated with the divergence. A natural extension for the classical theory for the maximum likelihood method under the maximum entropy model in terms of the Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy is given. We discuss the duality in detail for Tsallis entropy as a typical example.

  9. Collinearity, convergence and cancelling infrared divergences

    CERN Document Server

    Lavelle, M; Lavelle, Martin; Mullan, David Mc


    The Lee-Nauenberg theorem is a fundamental quantum mechanical result which provides the standard theoretical response to the problem of collinear and infrared divergences. Its argument, that the divergences due to massless charged particles can be removed by summing over degenerate states, has been successfully applied to systems with final state degeneracies such as LEP processes. If there are massless particles in both the initial and final states, as will be the case at the LHC, the theorem requires the incorporation of disconnected diagrams which produce connected interference effects at the level of the cross-section. However, this aspect of the theory has never been fully tested in the calculation of a cross-section. We show through explicit examples that in such cases the theorem introduces a divergent series of diagrams and hence fails to cancel the infrared divergences. It is also demonstrated that the widespread practice of treating soft infrared divergences by the Bloch-Nordsieck method and handlin...

  10. Divergent thermopower without a quantum phase transition. (United States)

    Limtragool, Kridsanaphong; Phillips, Philip W


    A general principle of modern statistical physics is that divergences of either thermodynamic or transport properties are only possible if the correlation length diverges. We show by explicit calculation that the thermopower in the quantum XY model d = 1 + 1 and the Kitaev model in d = 2 + 1 can (i) diverge even when the correlation length is finite and (ii) remain finite even when the correlation length diverges, thereby providing a counterexample to the standard paradigm. Two conditions are necessary: (i) the sign of the charge carriers and that of the group velocity must be uncorrelated and (ii) the current operator defined formally as the derivative of the Hamiltonian with respect to the gauge field does not describe a set of excitations that have a particle interpretation, as in strongly correlated electron matter. Recent experimental and theoretical findings on the divergent thermopower of a 2D electron gas are discussed in this context.

  11. Mucosal Vaccination and Therapy with Genetically Modified Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, J.


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have proved to be effective mucosal delivery vehicles that overcome the problem of delivering functional proteins to the mucosal tissues. By the intranasal route, both live and killed LAB vaccine strains have been shown to elicit mucosal and systemic immune responses that

  12. Convergences and divergences in mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Abdel Omran's 1971 theory of "Epidemiologic Transition" was the first attempt to account for the extraordinary advances in health care made in industrialized countries since the 18th century. In the framework of the Demographic Transition, it implied a general convergence of life expectancies toward a limit imposed by the new epidemiological features of modern societies. However, important failures, occurred in the past decades (mainly the health crisis in Eastern Europe and AIDS in Africa, seem to have stopped that process of convergence. In fact such failures do not really contradict the theory. The latter is much more ruined by the unexpected dramatic improvement in the field of cardiovascular disease experienced since the seventies, which results in a new step of a more general process. On the basis of the broader concept of "Health Transition" initiated by Julio Frenk et al., the present paper tries to rethink the full process in term of divergence/convergence sequences inferred by successive major changes in health technologies and strategies.

  13. Applying Subject Matter Expertise (SME) Elicitation Techniques to TRAC Studies (United States)


    experts for elicitation Jenkinson.48 They are: • Tangible evidence of expertise . • Reputation. • Availability and willingness to participate...Corps facilities”, op. cit. 94Brenda M. Wenzel and Kathy L. Nau, Code of Best Practices for Survey Efforts, op. cit. C-21 expertise , be specifically...formal procedure for elicitation. But SHELF is more than this. Good elicitation generally requires a facilitator who has expertise in the process

  14. Expert elicitation of population-level effects of disturbance (United States)

    Fleishman, Erica; Burgman, Mark; Runge, Michael C.; Schick, Robert S; Krauss, Scott; Popper, Arthur N.; Hawkins, Anthony


    Expert elicitation is a rigorous method for synthesizing expert knowledge to inform decision making and is reliable and practical when field data are limited. We evaluated the feasibility of applying expert elicitation to estimate population-level effects of disturbance on marine mammals. Diverse experts estimated parameters related to mortality and sublethal injury of North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). We are now eliciting expert knowledge on the movement of right whales among geographic regions to parameterize a spatial model of health. Expert elicitation complements methods such as simulation models or extrapolations from other species, sometimes with greater accuracy and less uncertainty.

  15. Enhancing Divergent Search through Extinction Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto


    A challenge in evolutionary computation is to create representations as evolvable as those in natural evolution. This paper hypothesizes that extinction events, i.e. mass extinctions, can significantly increase evolvability, but only when combined with a divergent search algorithm, i.e. a search...... for the capacity to evolve. This hypothesis is tested through experiments in two evolutionary robotics domains. The results show that combining extinction events with divergent search increases evolvability, while combining them with convergent search offers no similar benefit. The conclusion is that extinction...... events may provide a simple and effective mechanism to enhance performance of divergent search algorithms....

  16. A Redox 2-Cys Mechanism Regulates the Catalytic Activity of Divergent Cyclophilins1[W (United States)

    Campos, Bruna Medéia; Sforça, Mauricio Luis; Ambrosio, Andre Luis Berteli; Domingues, Mariane Noronha; Brasil de Souza, Tatiana de Arruda Campos; Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalvez; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Perez, Carlos Alberto; Whittaker, Sara Britt-Marie; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Zeri, Ana Carolina de Matos; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo


    The citrus (Citrus sinensis) cyclophilin CsCyp is a target of the Xanthomonas citri transcription activator-like effector PthA, required to elicit cankers on citrus. CsCyp binds the citrus thioredoxin CsTdx and the carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and is a divergent cyclophilin that carries the additional loop KSGKPLH, invariable cysteine (Cys) residues Cys-40 and Cys-168, and the conserved glutamate (Glu) Glu-83. Despite the suggested roles in ATP and metal binding, the functions of these unique structural elements remain unknown. Here, we show that the conserved Cys residues form a disulfide bond that inactivates the enzyme, whereas Glu-83, which belongs to the catalytic loop and is also critical for enzyme activity, is anchored to the divergent loop to maintain the active site open. In addition, we demonstrate that Cys-40 and Cys-168 are required for the interaction with CsTdx and that CsCyp binds the citrus carboxyl-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II YSPSAP repeat. Our data support a model where formation of the Cys-40-Cys-168 disulfide bond induces a conformational change that disrupts the interaction of the divergent and catalytic loops, via Glu-83, causing the active site to close. This suggests a new type of allosteric regulation in divergent cyclophilins, involving disulfide bond formation and a loop-displacement mechanism. PMID:23709667

  17. Acting green elicits a literal warm glow (United States)

    Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda


    Environmental policies are often based on the assumption that people only act environmentally friendly if some extrinsic reward is implicated, usually money. We argue that people might also be motivated by intrinsic rewards: doing the right thing (such as acting environmentally friendly) elicits psychological rewards in the form of positive feelings, a phenomenon known as warm glow. Given the fact that people's psychological state may affect their thermal state, we expected that this warm glow could express itself quite literally: people who act environmentally friendly may perceive the temperature to be higher. In two studies, we found that people who learned they acted environmentally friendly perceived a higher temperature than people who learned they acted environmentally unfriendly. The underlying psychological mechanism pertains to the self-concept: learning you acted environmentally friendly signals to yourself that you are a good person. Together, our studies show that acting environmentally friendly can be psychologically rewarding, suggesting that appealing to intrinsic rewards can be an alternative way to encourage pro-environmental actions.

  18. Structures of pyruvate kinases display evolutionarily divergent allosteric strategies. (United States)

    Morgan, Hugh P; Zhong, Wenhe; McNae, Iain W; Michels, Paul A M; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D


    The transition between the inactive T-state (apoenzyme) and active R-state (effector bound enzyme) of Trypanosoma cruzi pyruvate kinase (PYK) is accompanied by a symmetrical 8° rigid body rocking motion of the A- and C-domain cores in each of the four subunits, coupled with the formation of additional salt bridges across two of the four subunit interfaces. These salt bridges provide increased tetramer stability correlated with an enhanced specificity constant (k cat/S 0.5). A detailed kinetic and structural comparison between the potential drug target PYKs from the pathogenic protists T. cruzi, T. brucei and Leishmania mexicana shows that their allosteric mechanism is conserved. By contrast, a structural comparison of trypanosomatid PYKs with the evolutionarily divergent PYKs of humans and of bacteria shows that they have adopted different allosteric strategies. The underlying principle in each case is to maximize (k cat/S 0.5) by stabilizing and rigidifying the tetramer in an active R-state conformation. However, bacterial and mammalian PYKs have evolved alternative ways of locking the tetramers together. In contrast to the divergent allosteric mechanisms, the PYK active sites are highly conserved across species. Selective disruption of the varied allosteric mechanisms may therefore provide a useful approach for the design of species-specific inhibitors.

  19. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Várilly, Joseph C


    Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  20. Zero modes and divergence of entanglement entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Mallayya, Krishnanand; Shankaranarayanan, S; Padmanabhan, T


    We investigate the cause of the divergence of the entanglement entropy for the free scalar fields in $(1+1)$ and $(D + 1)$ dimensional space-times. In a canonically equivalent set of variables, we show explicitly that the divergence in the entanglement entropy in $(1 + 1)-$ dimensions is due to the accumulation of large number of near-zero frequency modes as opposed to the commonly held view of divergence having UV origin. The feature revealing the divergence in zero modes is related to the observation that the entropy is invariant under a hidden scaling transformation even when the Hamiltonian is not. We discuss the role of dispersion relations and the dimensionality of the space-time on the behavior of entanglement entropy.

  1. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children (United States)

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.


    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and…

  2. Vibhakti Divergence between Sanskrit and Hindi (United States)

    Shukla, Preeti; Shukl, Devanand; Kulkarni, Amba

    Translation divergence at various levels between languages arises due to the different conventions followed by different languages for coding the information of grammatical relations. Though Sanskrit and Hindi belong to the same Indo-Aryan family and structurally as well as lexically Hindi inherits a lot from Sanskrit, yet divergences are observed at the level of function words such as vibhaktis. Pāṇini in his Aṣṭādhyāyī has assigned a default vibhakti to kārakas alongwith many scopes for exceptions. He handles these exceptions either by imposing a new kāraka role or by assigning a special vibhakti. However, these methods are not acceptable in Hindi in toto. Based on the nature of deviation, we propose seven cases of divergences in this paper.

  3. Temporary divergence paralysis in viral meningitis. (United States)

    Bakker, Stef L M; Gan, Ivan M


    A 43-year-old woman who reported diplopia and headache was found to have comitant esotropia at distance fixation and normal alignment at reading distance (divergence paralysis). Eye movement, including abduction, was normal as was the rest of the neurologic examination. Brain MRI was normal. Lumbar puncture showed an elevated opening pressure and a cerebrospinal fluid formula consistent with viral meningitis. The patient was treated with intravenous fluids and analgesics and with a temporary prism to alleviate diplopia. Within 3 weeks, she had fully recovered. This is the first report of divergence palsy in viral meningitis.

  4. Diverging Fluctuations of the Lyapunov Exponents. (United States)

    Pazó, Diego; López, Juan M; Politi, Antonio


    We show that in generic one-dimensional Hamiltonian lattices the diffusion coefficient of the maximum Lyapunov exponent diverges in the thermodynamic limit. We trace this back to the long-range correlations associated with the evolution of the hydrodynamic modes. In the case of normal heat transport, the divergence is even stronger, leading to the breakdown of the usual single-function Family-Vicsek scaling ansatz. A similar scenario is expected to arise in the evolution of rough interfaces in the presence of suitably correlated background noise.

  5. Spoonerisms as Sequencer Conflicts: Evidence from Artifically Elicited Errors (United States)

    Baars, Bernard J.; Motley, Michael T.


    Presents evidence that spoonerisms result from a conflict in word sequencing that carries through to phoneme sequencing, and in the process illustrates the use of some techniques for the experimental elicitation of spoonerisms. (Author/RK)

  6. CCSI Risk Estimation: An Application of Expert Elicitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, David W.; Dalton, Angela C.


    The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI) is a multi-laboratory simulation-driven effort to develop carbon capture technologies with the goal of accelerating commercialization and adoption in the near future. One of the key CCSI technical challenges is representing and quantifying the inherent uncertainty and risks associated with developing, testing, and deploying the technology in simulated and real operational settings. To address this challenge, the CCSI Element 7 team developed a holistic risk analysis and decision-making framework. The purpose of this report is to document the CCSI Element 7 structured systematic expert elicitation to identify additional risk factors. We review the significance of and established approaches to expert elicitation, describe the CCSI risk elicitation plan and implementation strategies, and conclude by discussing the next steps and highlighting the contribution of risk elicitation toward the achievement of the overarching CCSI objectives.

  7. PABRE-Proj: applying patterns in requirements elicitation



    Software requirement patterns have been proposed as a type of artifact for fostering requirements reuse. In this paper, we present PABRE-Proj, a tool aimed at supporting requirements elicitation and specification. Peer Reviewed

  8. Bleach vs. Bacteria (United States)

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...

  9. Elicitation of structure-specific antibodies by epitope scaffolds



    Elicitation of antibodies against targets that are immunorecessive, cryptic, or transient in their native context has been a challenge for vaccine design. Here we demonstrate the elicitation of structure-specific antibodies against the HIV-1 gp41 epitope of the broadly neutralizing antibody 2F5. This conformationally flexible region of gp41 assumes mostly helical conformations but adopts a kinked, extended structure when bound by antibody 2F5. Computational techniques were employed to transpl...

  10. Subjective Probability Distribution Elicitation in Cost Risk Analysis: A Review (United States)


    where reasonable, to counteract known biases in elicitation). 1 For the triangle distribution, the probability is set to zero outside the endpoints...probability is set to zero outside the endpoints, while between the endpoints the density rises linearly from the lower value to the most-likely values...Wheeler, T. A., S. C. Hora , W. R. Cramond, and S. D. Unwin, Analysis of Core Damage Frequency from Internal Events: Expert Judgment Elicitation

  11. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG


    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  12. NVC Based Model for Selecting Effective Requirement Elicitation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rizwan Beg


    Full Text Available Requirement Engineering process starts from gathering of requirements i.e.; requirements elicitation. Requirementselicitation (RE is the base building block for a software project and has very high impact onsubsequent design and builds phases as well. Accurately capturing system requirements is the major factorin the failure of most of software projects. Due to the criticality and impact of this phase, it is very importantto perform the requirements elicitation in no less than a perfect manner. One of the most difficult jobsfor elicitor is to select appropriate technique for eliciting the requirement. Interviewing and Interactingstakeholder during Elicitation process is a communication intensive activity involves Verbal and Nonverbalcommunication (NVC. Elicitor should give emphasis to Non-verbal communication along with verbalcommunication so that requirements recorded more efficiently and effectively. In this paper we proposea model in which stakeholders are classified by observing non-verbal communication and use it as a basefor elicitation technique selection. We also propose an efficient plan for requirements elicitation which intendsto overcome on the constraints, faced by elicitor.

  13. Taming Infrared Divergences in the Effective Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Elias-Miro, J; Konstandin, T


    The Higgs effective potential in the Standard Model (SM), calculated perturbatively, generically suffers from infrared (IR) divergences when the (field-dependent) tree-level mass of the Goldstone bosons goes to zero. Such divergences can affect both the potential and its first derivative and become worse with increasing loop order. In this paper we show that these IR divergences are spurious, we perform a simple resummation of all IR-problematic terms known (up to three loops) and explain how to extend the resummation to cure all such divergences to any order. The method is of general applicability and would work in scenarios other than the SM. Our discussion has some bearing on a scenario recently proposed as a mechanism for gauge mediation of scale breaking in the ultraviolet, in which it is claimed that the low-energy Higgs potential is non-standard. We argue that all non-decoupling effects from the heavy sector can be absorbed in the renormalization of low-energy parameters leading to a SM-like effective ...

  14. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Várilly


    Full Text Available Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  15. Interactions between the microbiota and pathogenic bacteria in the gut. (United States)

    Bäumler, Andreas J; Sperandio, Vanessa


    The microbiome has an important role in human health. Changes in the microbiota can confer resistance to or promote infection by pathogenic bacteria. Antibiotics have a profound impact on the microbiota that alters the nutritional landscape of the gut and can lead to the expansion of pathogenic populations. Pathogenic bacteria exploit microbiota-derived sources of carbon and nitrogen as nutrients and regulatory signals to promote their own growth and virulence. By eliciting inflammation, these bacteria alter the intestinal environment and use unique systems for respiration and metal acquisition to drive their expansion. Unravelling the interactions between the microbiota, the host and pathogenic bacteria will produce strategies for manipulating the microbiota against infectious diseases.

  16. Intracellular Bacteria in Protozoa (United States)

    Görtz, Hans-Dieter; Brigge, Theo

    Intracellular bacteria in humans are typically detrimental, and such infections are regarded by the patients as accidental and abnormal. In protozoa it seems obvious that many bacteria have coevolved with their hosts and are well adapted to the intracellular way of life. Manifold interactions between hosts and intracellular bacteria are found, and examples of antibacterial resistance of unknown mechanisms are observed. The wide diversity of intracellular bacteria in protozoa has become particularly obvious since they have begun to be classified by molecular techniques. Some of the bacteria are closely related to pathogens; others are responsible for the production of toxins.

  17. T cells and intestinal commensal bacteria--ignorance, rejection, and acceptance. (United States)

    Chai, Jiani N; Zhou, You W; Hsieh, Chyi-Song


    Trillions of commensal bacteria cohabit our bodies to mutual benefit. In the past several years, it has become clear that the adaptive immune system is not ignorant of intestinal commensal bacteria, but is constantly interacting with them. For T cells, the response to commensal bacteria does not appear uniform, as certain commensal bacterial species appear to trigger effector T cells to reject and control them, whereas other species elicit Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells to accept and be tolerant of them. Here, we review our current knowledge of T cell differentiation in response to commensal bacteria, and how this process leads to immune homeostasis in the intestine.

  18. Differences in TCDD-elicited gene expression profiles in human HepG2, mouse Hepa1c1c7 and rat H4IIE hepatoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgoon Lyle D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD is an environmental contaminant that elicits a broad spectrum of toxic effects in a species-specific manner. Current risk assessment practices routinely extrapolate results from in vivo and in vitro rodent models to assess human risk. In order to further investigate the species-specific responses elicited by TCDD, temporal gene expression responses in human HepG2, mouse Hepa1c1c7 and rat H4IIE cells were compared. Results Microarray analysis identified a core set of conserved gene expression responses across species consistent with the role of AhR in mediating adaptive metabolic responses. However, significant species-specific as well as species-divergent responses were identified. Computational analysis of the regulatory regions of species-specific and -divergent responses suggests that dioxin response elements (DREs are involved. These results are consistent with in vivo rat vs. mouse species-specific differential gene expression, and more comprehensive comparative DRE searches. Conclusions Comparative analysis of human HepG2, mouse Hepa1c1c7 and rat H4IIE TCDD-elicited gene expression responses is consistent with in vivo rat-mouse comparative gene expression studies, and more comprehensive comparative DRE searches, suggesting that AhR-mediated gene expression is species-specific.

  19. Influence of natural substrates and co-occurring marine bacteria on the production of secondary metabolites by Photobacterium halotolerans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Maria; Giobergia, Sonia; Møller, Kirsten A.

    Genome sequences reveal that our current standard laboratory conditions only support a fraction of the potential secondary metabolism in bacteria. Thus, we must rethink cultivation, detection, and isolation strategies for bacterial secondary metabolites in order to explore the huge, so far unchar...... uncharacterized chemical potential of these organisms. We are currently investigating the use of natural substrates and co-cultures with commensal bacteria to elicit or alter production of antibacterial compounds in marine bacteria....

  20. Coxiella burnetii and Leishmania mexicana residing within similar parasitophorous vacuoles elicit disparate host responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jess A Millar


    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is a bacterium that thrives in an acidic parasitophorous vacuole (PV derived from lysosomes. Leishmania mexicana, a eukaryote, has also independently evolved to live in a morphologically similar PV. As Coxiella and Leishmania are highly divergent organisms that cause different diseases, we reasoned that their respective infections would likely elicit distinct host responses despite producing phenotypically similar parasite-containing vacuoles. The objective of this study was to investigate, at the molecular level, the macrophage response to each pathogen. Infection of THP-1 (human monocyte/macrophage cells with Coxiella and Leishmania elicited disparate host responses. At 5 days post-infection, when compared to uninfected cells, 1057 genes were differentially expressed (746 genes up- and 311 genes down-regulated in C. burnetii infected cells, whereas 698 genes (534 genes up- and 164 genes down-regulated were differentially expressed in L. mexicana infected cells. Interestingly, of the 1755 differentially expressed genes identified in this study, only 126 genes (~7% are common to both infections. We also discovered that 1090 genes produced mRNA isoforms at significantly different levels under the two infection conditions, suggesting that alternate proteins encoded by the same gene might have important roles in host response to each infection. Additionally, we detected 257 micro RNAs (miRNAs that were expressed in THP-1 cells and identified miRNAs that were specifically expressed during Coxiella or Leishmania infections. Collectively, this study identified host mRNAs and miRNAs that were influenced by Coxiella and/or Leishmania infections. Intriguingly, our data indicate that although their PVs are morphologically similar, Coxiella and Leishmania have evolved different strategies that perturb distinct host processes to create and thrive within their respective intracellular niches.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona‐Roxana ULMAN


    Full Text Available Public Integrity is one of the public sector’s essential objectives to attain. In contradiction, as a divergence from it, corruption is one of the persistent problems of the societies over years and it affects the credibility of public institutions and its ambassadors in front of the citizens and of the other related countries. All nations complain of corruption and, as it is observed in the Corruption Perception Index 2012, no country has a maximum score which shows that a country is totally clean. In this context, the study of the most important elements of the public integrity concept, the identification of what causes the divergence from it and the solutions detection become a relevant option for economic literature. In this context, the main objective of this paper is to emphasize the public integrity concept and its main aspects and to make a comparison between countries to achieve a large perspective of the world’s public integrity juncture.

  2. Rousseau and Marx: Convergence or divergence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lošonc Alpar


    Full Text Available Rousseau and Marx represent two paradigmatic variants of a radical opposition to the world. Without a doubt, there are significant moments of convergence between these thinkers, for instance in terms of division of labour, or in respect to the self-commandment. However, it is our contention that despite certain currents in literature, the tendencies of divergence are stronger than convergence, therefore, we argue that these thinkers signify two different variants of radical thought. We base these differences in a reading of Rousseau that focuses on collective authenticity, justice, self-presentation of people and protest against envy. Marx cannot be read from the perspective of the intensified crisis of non-authenticity, in fact, his critique of political economy generates a reflexive field (overcoming of the wage labour, etc., which is deeply divergent compared to Rousseau.

  3. Higgsed Stueckelberg vector and Higgs quadratic divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durmuş Ali Demir


    Full Text Available Here we show that, a hidden vector field whose gauge invariance is ensured by a Stueckelberg scalar and whose mass is spontaneously generated by the Standard Model Higgs field contributes to quadratic divergences in the Higgs boson mass squared, and even leads to its cancellation at one-loop when Higgs coupling to gauge field is fine-tuned. In contrast to mechanisms based on hidden scalars where a complete cancellation cannot be achieved, stabilization here is complete in that the hidden vector and the accompanying Stueckelberg scalar are both free from quadratic divergences at one-loop. This stability, deriving from hidden exact gauge invariance, can have important implications for modeling dark phenomena like dark matter, dark energy, dark photon and neutrino masses. The hidden fields can be produced at the LHC.

  4. Multiple Source Adaptation and the Renyi Divergence

    CERN Document Server

    Mansour, Yishay; Rostamizadeh, Afshin


    This paper presents a novel theoretical study of the general problem of multiple source adaptation using the notion of Renyi divergence. Our results build on our previous work [12], but significantly broaden the scope of that work in several directions. We extend previous multiple source loss guarantees based on distribution weighted combinations to arbitrary target distributions P, not necessarily mixtures of the source distributions, analyze both known and unknown target distribution cases, and prove a lower bound. We further extend our bounds to deal with the case where the learner receives an approximate distribution for each source instead of the exact one, and show that similar loss guarantees can be achieved depending on the divergence between the approximate and true distributions. We also analyze the case where the labeling functions of the source domains are somewhat different. Finally, we report the results of experiments with both an artificial data set and a sentiment analysis task, showing the p...

  5. Adaptive Mixture Methods Based on Bregman Divergences

    CERN Document Server

    Donmez, Mehmet A; Kozat, Suleyman S


    We investigate adaptive mixture methods that linearly combine outputs of $m$ constituent filters running in parallel to model a desired signal. We use "Bregman divergences" and obtain certain multiplicative updates to train the linear combination weights under an affine constraint or without any constraints. We use unnormalized relative entropy and relative entropy to define two different Bregman divergences that produce an unnormalized exponentiated gradient update and a normalized exponentiated gradient update on the mixture weights, respectively. We then carry out the mean and the mean-square transient analysis of these adaptive algorithms when they are used to combine outputs of $m$ constituent filters. We illustrate the accuracy of our results and demonstrate the effectiveness of these updates for sparse mixture systems.

  6. The Validity of Divergent Grounded Theory Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nils Amsteus PhD


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to assess whether divergence of grounded theory method may be considered valid. A review of literature provides a basis for understanding and evaluating grounded theory. The principles and nature of grounded theory are synthesized along with theoretical and practical implications. It is deduced that for a theory to be truly grounded in empirical data, the method resulting in the theory should be the equivalent of pure induction. Therefore, detailed, specified, stepwise a priori procedures may be seen as unbidden or arbitrary. It is concluded that divergent grounded theory can be considered valid. The author argues that securing methodological transparency through the description of the actual principles and procedures employed, as well as tailoring them to the particular circumstances, is more important than adhering to predetermined stepwise procedures. A theoretical foundation is provided from which diverse theoretical developments and methodological procedures may be developed, judged, and refined based on their own merits.

  7. Flow over convergent and divergent wall riblets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeltzsch, K.; Dinkelacker, A.; Grundmann, R. [Institut fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 36460 Merkers (Germany)


    Fast swimming sharks have small riblets on their skin, which are assumed to improve the swimming performance of the fish. Fluid dynamic experiments in water as well as in air confirm this assumption. With riblet surfaces as compared to smooth surfaces, drag reductions up to about 10% were measured. The overall riblet pattern on sharks shows parallel riblets directed from head to tail, but besides this overall pattern fast swimming sharks have also small areas with converging riblets and others with diverging riblets. In the present study the velocity field over convergent and divergent riblet patterns is investigated by hot-wire measurements in turbulent pipe flow. Significant changes in the near wall velocity field were found. (orig.)

  8. Black hole entropy divergence and the uncertainty principle

    CERN Document Server

    Brustein, Ram


    Black hole entropy has been shown by 't Hooft to diverge at the horizon. The region near the horizon is in a thermal state, so entropy is linear to energy which consequently also diverges. We find a similar divergence for the energy of the reduced density matrix of relativistic and non-relativistic field theories, extending previous results in quantum mechanics. This divergence is due to an infinitely sharp boundary, and it stems from the position/momentum uncertainty relation in the same way that the momentum fluctuations of a precisely localized quantum particle diverge. We show that when the boundary is smoothed the divergence is tamed. We argue that the divergence of black hole entropy can also be interpreted as a consequence of position/momentum uncertainty, and that 't Hooft's brick wall tames the divergence in the same way, by smoothing the boundary.

  9. 14 CFR 29.629 - Flutter and divergence. (United States)


    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.629 Flutter and divergence. Each aerodynamic surface of the rotorcraft must be free from flutter and divergence under...

  10. Automated leukocyte recognition using fuzzy divergence. (United States)

    Ghosh, Madhumala; Das, Devkumar; Chakraborty, Chandan; Ray, Ajoy K


    This paper aims at introducing an automated approach to leukocyte recognition using fuzzy divergence and modified thresholding techniques. The recognition is done through the segmentation of nuclei where Gamma, Gaussian and Cauchy type of fuzzy membership functions are studied for the image pixels. It is in fact found that Cauchy leads better segmentation as compared to others. In addition, image thresholding is modified for better recognition. Results are studied and discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae ECOBICI


    Full Text Available In this paper I compared the Romanian financial statements with the US GAAP financial statements in terms of two criteria: first the reference period and secondly the shape, structure and content of financial statements. Nowadays the two accounting systems, the French and Anglo-Saxon, tend to harmonize. I will present the convergences and the divergences between the financial statements of Romania, subject to OMFP 3055/2009, in parallel with the Anglo-Saxon accounting system.

  12. Phenotypic plasticity and divergence in gene expression. (United States)

    Healy, Timothy M; Schulte, Patricia M


    The extent to which phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce different phenotypes in different environments, impedes or promotes genetic divergence has been a matter of debate within evolutionary biology for many decades (see, for example, Ghalambor et al. ; Pfennig et al. ). Similarly, the role of evolution in shaping phenotypic plasticity remains poorly understood (Pigliucci ). In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Dayan et al. () provide empirical data relevant to these questions by assessing the extent of plasticity and divergence in the expression levels of 2272 genes in muscle tissue from killifish (genus Fundulus) exposed to different temperatures. F. heteroclitus (Fig. A) and F. grandis are minnows that inhabit estuarine marshes (Fig. B) along the coasts of the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico in North America. These habitats undergo large variations in temperature both daily and seasonally, and these fish are known to demonstrate substantial phenotypic plasticity in response to temperature change (e.g. Fangue et al. ). Furthermore, the range of F. heteroclitus spans a large latitudinal gradient of temperatures, such that northern populations experience temperatures that are on average ~10°C colder than do southern populations (Schulte ). By comparing gene expression patterns between populations of these fish from different thermal habitats held in the laboratory at three different temperatures, Dayan et al. () address two important questions regarding the interacting effects of plasticity and evolution: (i) How does phenotypic plasticity affect adaptive divergence? and (ii) How does adaptive divergence affect plasticity?

  13. The Evolution of Insertion Sequences within Enteric Bacteria


    Lawrence, J G; Ochman, H.; Hartl, D. L.


    To identify mechanisms that influence the evolution of bacterial transposons, DNA sequence variation was evaluated among homologs of insertion sequences IS1, IS3 and IS30 from natural strains of Escherichia coli and related enteric bacteria. The nucleotide sequences within each class of IS were highly conserved among E. coli strains, over 99.7% similar to a consensus sequence. When compared to the range of nucleotide divergence among chromosomal genes, these data indicate high turnover and ra...

  14. Expert elicitation on the uncertainties associated with chronic wasting disease. (United States)

    Tyshenko, Michael G; Oraby, Tamer; Darshan, Shalu; Westphal, Margit; Croteau, Maxine C; Aspinall, Willy; Elsaadany, Susie; Krewski, Daniel; Cashman, Neil


    A high degree of uncertainty exists for chronic wasting disease (CWD) transmission factors in farmed and wild cervids. Evaluating the factors is important as it helps to inform future risk management strategies. Expert opinion is often used to assist decision making in a number of health, science, and technology domains where data may be sparse or missing. Using the "Classical Model" of elicitation, a group of experts was asked to estimate the most likely values for several risk factors affecting CWD transmission. The formalized expert elicitation helped structure the issues and hence provide a rational basis for estimating some transmission risk factors for which evidence is lacking. Considered judgments regarding environmental transmission, latency of CWD transmission, management, and species barrier were provided by the experts. Uncertainties for many items were determined to be large, highlighting areas requiring more research. The elicited values may be used as surrogate values until research evidence becomes available.

  15. Regret-based Reward Elicitation for Markov Decision Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Regan, Kevin


    The specification of aMarkov decision process (MDP) can be difficult. Reward function specification is especially problematic; in practice, it is often cognitively complex and time-consuming for users to precisely specify rewards. This work casts the problem of specifying rewards as one of preference elicitation and aims to minimize the degree of precision with which a reward function must be specified while still allowing optimal or near-optimal policies to be produced. We first discuss how robust policies can be computed for MDPs given only partial reward information using the minimax regret criterion. We then demonstrate how regret can be reduced by efficiently eliciting reward information using bound queries, using regret-reduction as a means for choosing suitable queries. Empirical results demonstrate that regret-based reward elicitation offers an effective way to produce near-optimal policies without resorting to the precise specification of the entire reward function.

  16. Elicitability of muscle cramps in different leg and foot muscles. (United States)

    Minetto, Marco Alessandro; Botter, Alberto


    To explore the efficacy of muscle motor point stimulation in eliciting muscle cramps, 11 subjects underwent eight sessions of electrical stimulation of the following muscles bilaterally: abductor hallucis flexor hallucis brevis, and both heads of the gastrocnemius muscles. Bursts of 150 square wave stimuli (duration: 152 micros; current intensity: 30% supramaximal) were applied. The stimulation frequency was increased from 4 pulses per second (pps) at increments of 2 pps until a cramp was induced. The number of cramps that could be elicited was smaller in flexor hallucis brevis than in abductor hallucis (16 vs. 22 out of 22 trials each; P muscles have different cramp susceptibility, and the intermuscle variability in the elicitability profile for electrically induced cramps supports the use of the proposed method for cramp research.

  17. An Exponential Regulator for Rapidity Divergences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ye [Fermilab; Neill, Duff [MIT, Cambridge, CTP; Zhu, Hua Xing [MIT, Cambridge, CTP


    Finding an efficient and compelling regularization of soft and collinear degrees of freedom at the same invariant mass scale, but separated in rapidity is a persistent problem in high-energy factorization. In the course of a calculation, one encounters divergences unregulated by dimensional regularization, often called rapidity divergences. Once regulated, a general framework exists for their renormalization, the rapidity renormalization group (RRG), leading to fully resummed calculations of transverse momentum (to the jet axis) sensitive quantities. We examine how this regularization can be implemented via a multi-differential factorization of the soft-collinear phase-space, leading to an (in principle) alternative non-perturbative regularization of rapidity divergences. As an example, we examine the fully-differential factorization of a color singlet's momentum spectrum in a hadron-hadron collision at threshold. We show how this factorization acts as a mother theory to both traditional threshold and transverse momentum resummation, recovering the classical results for both resummations. Examining the refactorization of the transverse momentum beam functions in the threshold region, we show that one can directly calculate the rapidity renormalized function, while shedding light on the structure of joint resummation. Finally, we show how using modern bootstrap techniques, the transverse momentum spectrum is determined by an expansion about the threshold factorization, leading to a viable higher loop scheme for calculating the relevant anomalous dimensions for the transverse momentum spectrum.

  18. Genetic divergence predicts reproductive isolation in damselflies. (United States)

    Sánchez-Guillén, R A; Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Cordero-Rivera, A; Wellenreuther, M


    Reproductive isolation is the defining characteristic of a biological species, and a common, but often untested prediction is a positive correlation between reproductive isolation and genetic divergence. Here, we test for this correlation in odonates, an order characterized by strong sexual selection. First, we measure reproductive isolation and genetic divergence in eight damselfly genera (30 species pairs) and test for a positive correlation. Second, we estimate the genetic threshold preventing hybrid formation and empirically test this threshold using wild populations of species within the Ischnura genus. Our results indicate a positive and strong correlation between reproductive isolation and genetic distance using both mitochondrial and nuclear genes cytochrome oxidase II (COII: r = 0.781 and 18S-28S: r = 0.658). Hybridization thresholds range from -0.43 to 1.78% for COII and -0.052-0.71% for 18S-28S, and both F1 -hybrids and backcrosses were detected in wild populations of two pairs of Ischnura species with overlapping thresholds. Our study suggests that threshold values are suitable to identify species prone to hybridization and that positive isolation-divergence relationships are taxonomically widespread.

  19. Stimulation of lateral hypothalamic kainate receptors selectively elicits feeding behavior. (United States)

    Hettes, Stacey R; Heyming, Theodore W; Stanley, B Glenn


    Glutamate and its receptor agonists, NMDA, AMPA, and KA, elicit feeding when microinjected into the lateral hypothalamus (LH) of satiated rats. However, determining the relative contributions of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) and KA receptors (KARs) to LH feeding mechanisms has been difficult due to a lack of receptor selective agonists and antagonists. Furthermore, LH injection of KA produces behavioral hyperactivity, questioning a role for KARs in feeding selective stimulation. In the present study, we used the KAR agonist, (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-tert-butylisoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (ATPA), which selectively binds the GluR5 subunit of KARs, to stimulate feeding, presumably via KAR activation. Using ATPA, we tested whether: (1) LH injection of ATPA elicits feeding, (2) prior treatment with the non-selective AMPA/KAR antagonist, CNQX, suppresses ATPA-elicited feeding, and (3) LH injection of ATPA elicits behavioral patterns specific for feeding. We found that injection of ATPA (0.1 and 1 nmol) elicited an intense feeding response (e.g., 4.8+/-1.6 g) that was blocked by LH pretreatment with CNQX, but was unaffected by pretreatment with the AMPAR selective antagonist, GYKI 52466. Furthermore, minute-by-minute behavioral analysis revealed that LH injection of ATPA increased time spent feeding to 55% of the initial test period with little or no effects on other behaviors at any time. In contrast, LH injection of KA similarly increased feeding but also produced intense locomotor activity. These data suggest that selective activation of LH KARs containing GluR5 subunit(s) is sufficient to elicit feeding.

  20. The direct Flow parametric Proof of Gauss' Divergence Theorem revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    The standard proof of the divergence theorem in undergraduate calculus courses covers the theorem for static domains between two graph surfaces. We show that within first year undergraduate curriculum, the flow proof of the dynamic version of the divergence theorem - which is usually considered o...... we apply the key instrumental concepts and verify the various steps towards this alternative proof of the divergence theorem....

  1. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  2. Belief elicitation in experiments: Is there a hedging problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Mariana; Engelmann, Dirk; Koch, Alexander


    Belief-elicitation experiments usually reward accuracy of stated beliefs in addition to payments for other decisions. But this allows risk-averse subjects to hedge with their stated beliefs against adverse outcomes of the other decisions. So can we trust the existing belief-elicitation results...... opportunities are very prominent. If hedging opportunities are transparent, and incentives to hedge are strong, many subjects do spot hedging opportunities and respond to them. The bias can go beyond players actually hedging themselves, because some expect others to hedge and best respond to this....

  3. Eliciting Design Patterns for E-Learning Systems (United States)

    Retalis, Symeon; Georgiakakis, Petros; Dimitriadis, Yannis


    Design pattern creation, especially in the e-learning domain, is a highly complex process that has not been sufficiently studied and formalized. In this paper, we propose a systematic pattern development cycle, whose most important aspects focus on reverse engineering of existing systems in order to elicit features that are cross-validated through…

  4. Multisensory integration affects ERP components elicited by exogenous cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santangelo, Valerio; Lubbe, van der Rob H.J.; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Postma, Albert


    revious studies have shown that the amplitude of event related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by a combined audiovisual stimulus is larger than the sum of a single auditory and visual stimulus. This enlargement is thought to reflect multisensory integration. Based on these data, it may be hypothes

  5. Creating a Framework: Art Therapy Elicits the Narrative (United States)

    Harber, Karen


    A case study illustrates how art therapy was used to elicit the narrative of an adolescent male student in transition from incarceration to a transfer school setting. Childhood trauma was addressed in individual sessions and within a literacy group co-led by a reading specialist. The art therapist responded to the client's needs by broadening the…

  6. A Task that Elicits Reasoning: A Dual Analysis (United States)

    Yankelewitz, Dina; Mueller, Mary; Maher, Carolyn A.


    This paper reports on the forms of reasoning elicited as fourth grade students in a suburban district and sixth grade students in an urban district worked on similar tasks involving reasoning with the use of Cuisenaire rods. Analysis of the two data sets shows similarities in the reasoning used by both groups of students on specific tasks, and the…

  7. Structured Language Requirement Elicitation Using Case Base Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marryam Murtaza


    Full Text Available Requirement elicitation is very difficult process in highly challenging and business based software as well as in real time software. Common problems associated with these types of software are rapidly changing the requirements and understanding the language of the layman person. In this study, a framework for requirement elicitation by using knowledge based system is proposed, which is very helpful for knowledge documentation, intelligent decision support, self-learning and more specifically it is very helpful for case based reasoning and explanation. Basically in this method requirements are gathered from Artificial Intelligence (AI expert system from various sources e.g., via interviews, scenarios or use cases. Then, these are converted into structured natural language using ontology and this new problem/case is put forward to Case Based Reasoning (CBR. CBR based on its previous information having similar requirements combines with new case and suggests a proposed solution. Based on this solution a prototype is developed and delivered to customer. The use of case-based reasoning in requirements elicitation process has greatly reduced the burden and saved time of requirement analyst and results in an effective solution for handling complex or vague requirements during the elicitation process.

  8. Visual emotional context modulates brain potentials elicited by unattended tones. (United States)

    Sugimoto, Sayaka; Nittono, Hiroshi; Hori, Tadao


    To examine whether brain electrical responses to environmental stimuli were influenced by emotional contexts, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by nonstartle probe tones were recorded from 13 student volunteers while they were viewing emotionally positive, neutral, and negative slides of the International Affective Picture System. The auditory stimuli consisted of high-deviant (2000 Hz, p=.08), low-deviant (1050 Hz, p=.08), and standard (1000 Hz, p=.84) tones with a mean onset-to-onset interval of 600 ms. Participants were told to ignore the tones. High-deviant tones elicited a larger N1 (peaking around 100 ms) when participants were viewing negative slides than when viewing positive slides. The amplitude of the P2 elicited by standard tones (peaking around 170 ms) was smaller when participants were viewing positive slides than when viewing negative and neutral slides. The amplitude of the mismatch negativity (150-200 ms) tended to reduce during positive slide presentation, but this difference appeared to be due to reduction of the P2 elicited by standard tones. These findings suggest that visually induced emotional states have a sequential effect on auditory information processing, in that the influence of negative emotion appears at an earlier stage than that of positive emotion.

  9. Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Gucht; D. Vansteenwegen; O. Van den Bergh; T. Beckers


    In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task. Th

  10. Pattern Visual Evoked Potentials Elicited by Organic Electroluminescence Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Soiti Matsumoto


    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine whether organic electroluminescence (OLED screens can be used as visual stimulators to elicit pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (p-VEPs. Method. Checkerboard patterns were generated on a conventional cathode-ray tube (S710, Compaq Computer Co., USA screen and on an OLED (17 inches, 320 × 230 mm, PVM-1741, Sony, Tokyo, Japan screen. The time course of the luminance changes of each monitor was measured with a photodiode. The p-VEPs elicited by these two screens were recorded from 15 eyes of 9 healthy volunteers (22.0 ± 0.8 years. Results. The OLED screen had a constant time delay from the onset of the trigger signal to the start of the luminescence change. The delay during the reversal phase from black to white for the pattern was 1.0 msec on the cathode-ray tube (CRT screen and 0.5 msec on the OLED screen. No significant differences in the amplitudes of P100 and the implicit times of N75 and P100 were observed in the p-VEPs elicited by the CRT and the OLED screens. Conclusion. The OLED screen can be used as a visual stimulator to elicit p-VEPs; however the time delay and the specific properties in the luminance change must be taken into account.

  11. Computational Support for Early Elicitation and Classification of Tone (United States)

    Bird, Steven; Lee, Haejoong


    Investigating a tone language involves careful transcription of tone on words and phrases. This is challenging when the phonological categories--the tones or melodies--have not been identified. Effects such as coarticulation, sandhi, and phrase-level prosody appear as obstacles to early elicitation and classification of tone. This article presents…

  12. Eliciting Production of L2 Target Structures through Priming Activities (United States)

    McDonough, Kim; Trofimovich, Pavel; Neumann, Heike


    This study focuses on the pedagogical applications of structural priming research in an English for academic purposes (EAP) context, investigating whether priming activities are an effective tool for eliciting production of target grammatical structures. University students across four EAP classes carried out a total of 6 information-exchange…

  13. How honey kills bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.S. Kwakman; A.A. te Velde; L. de Boer; D. Speijer; C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; S.A.J. Zaat


    With the rise in prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity. To characterize all bactericidal factors in a medical-grade honey, we used a novel approach of successive neutralization of individual honey bactericidal factors. All bacteria t

  14. Metallization of bacteria cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎向锋; 李雅芹; 蔡军; 张德远


    Bacteria cells with different standard shapes are well suited for use as templates for the fabrication of magnetic and electrically conductive microstructures. In this paper, metallization of bacteria cells is demonstrated by an electroless deposition technique of nickel-phosphorus initiated by colloid palladium-tin catalyst on the surfaces of Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus. The activated and metallized bacteria cells have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Results showed that both Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus had no deformation in shape after metallization; the metallized films deposited on the surfaces of bacteria cells are homogeneous in thickness and noncrystalline in phase structure. The kinetics of colloid palladium-tin solution and electroless plating on bacteria cells is discussed.

  15. Bounding the bias of contrastive divergence learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Anja; Igel, Christian


    Optimization based on k-step contrastive divergence (CD) has become a common way to train restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs). The k-step CD is a biased estimator of the log-likelihood gradient relying on Gibbs sampling. We derive a new upper bound for this bias. Its magnitude depends on k......, the number of variables in the RBM, and the maximum change in energy that can be produced by changing a single variable. The last reflects the dependence on the absolute values of the RBM parameters. The magnitude of the bias is also affected by the distance in variation between the modeled distribution...

  16. Convergent and Divergent Adaptations of Subterranean Rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Xiaodong

    ) have evolved convergent and divergent traits in many of their morphological, physiological, and/or behavioral characteristics, which facilitate their adaptions to a similar underground burrowing life style. For example, all these three rodents show degenerate visual acuity and advanced sensory systems...... in the dark; they display remarkable tolerance to a living environment with an excess of carbon dioxide and ammonia, but lack of oxygen; they exhibit extraordinarily long lives, and keep a fantastic resistance to cancer and other aging-associated diseases. In this study, we reported the genomic...

  17. Projection Pursuit Through ϕ-Divergence Minimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Touboul


    Full Text Available In his 1985 article (“Projection pursuit”, Huber demonstrates the interest of his method to estimate a density from a data set in a simple given case. He considers the factorization of density through a Gaussian component and some residual density. Huber’s work is based on maximizing Kullback–Leibler divergence. Our proposal leads to a new algorithm. Furthermore, we will also consider the case when the density to be factorized is estimated from an i.i.d. sample. We will then propose a test for the factorization of the estimated density. Applications include a new test of fit pertaining to the elliptical copulas.

  18. The Eurozone Dynamic Cohesion: Convergence or Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonin Rusek


    Full Text Available The long term economic dynamics of the Eurozone’s original 12 countries (Greece, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, Austria, Finland, France is analyzed and compared. It is today increasingly recognized that the diverging competitiveness between the Eurozone members is at the root of the current crisis. But the competitiveness dynamics and its impact on the crucial fiscal and financial variables during the common currency existence is seldom analyzed and compared, especially as far as the different groups of countries (and/or different areas within the Eurozone are concerned.

  19. Lindstedt series, ultraviolet divergences and Moser's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Bonetto, F; Gentile, G; Mastropietro, V


    Moser's invariant tori for a class of nonanalytic quasi integrable even hamiltonian systems are shown to be analytic in the perturbation parameter. We do so by exhibiting a summation rule for the divergent series (``Lindstedt series") that formally define them. We find additional cancellations taking place in the formal series, besides the ones already known and necessary in the analytic case (\\ie to prove convergence of Lindtsedt algorithm for Kolmogorov's invariant tori). The method is interpreted in terms of a non renormalizable quantum field theory, considerably more singular than the one we pointed out in the analytic case.

  20. More on divergences in brane world models

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyakov, Mikhail N


    In this note a model in a space-time with compact extra dimension, describing five-dimensional fermion fields interacting with electromagnetic field localized on a brane, is presented. This model can be considered as a toy model for examining possible consequences of localization of gauge fields on a brane. It is shown that in the limit of infinite extra dimension the lowest order amplitudes of some processes in the resulting four-dimensional effective theory are divergent. Such a "localization catastrophe" can be inherent to more realistic bane world models with infinite extra dimension.

  1. Comparative genomics of Thermus thermophilus and Deinococcus radiodurans: divergent routes of adaptation to thermophily and radiation resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly Michael J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermus thermophilus and Deinococcus radiodurans belong to a distinct bacterial clade but have remarkably different phenotypes. T. thermophilus is a thermophile, which is relatively sensitive to ionizing radiation and desiccation, whereas D. radiodurans is a mesophile, which is highly radiation- and desiccation-resistant. Here we present an in-depth comparison of the genomes of these two related but differently adapted bacteria. Results By reconstructing the evolution of Thermus and Deinococcus after the divergence from their common ancestor, we demonstrate a high level of post-divergence gene flux in both lineages. Various aspects of the adaptation to high temperature in Thermus can be attributed to horizontal gene transfer from archaea and thermophilic bacteria; many of the horizontally transferred genes are located on the single megaplasmid of Thermus. In addition, the Thermus lineage has lost a set of genes that are still present in Deinococcus and many other mesophilic bacteria but are not common among thermophiles. By contrast, Deinococcus seems to have acquired numerous genes related to stress response systems from various bacteria. A comparison of the distribution of orthologous genes among the four partitions of the Deinococcus genome and the two partitions of the Thermus genome reveals homology between the Thermus megaplasmid (pTT27 and Deinococcus megaplasmid (DR177. Conclusion After the radiation from their common ancestor, the Thermus and Deinococcus lineages have taken divergent paths toward their distinct lifestyles. In addition to extensive gene loss, Thermus seems to have acquired numerous genes from thermophiles, which likely was the decisive contribution to its thermophilic adaptation. By contrast, Deinococcus lost few genes but seems to have acquired many bacterial genes that apparently enhanced its ability to survive different kinds of environmental stresses. Notwithstanding the accumulation of

  2. Manipulation and stretching of bacteria and liposomes by Microfluidics (United States)

    Zussman, Eyal; Salalha, Wael


    Microfluidic technology can be useful in lab-on-a-chip applications of biological assays, environmental monitoring, detection of toxic materials, as well as for assembly of nano- and micro-scale objects into more complex systems. In this work we focused on the orientation of rod-shaped bacteria (Bacillus) by employing shear flow and a high rate elongation flow, and stretching of giant liposomes with diameter size of tens of microns, which can be used as a simplified model for cell behavior. This was achieved by flows of dilute rod-like bacteria and liposome suspensions within a micro-channel by means of a capillary-driven motion. Fluidic alignment situations were tested, firstly by Venturi-like flow which produces a sufficiently converging and diverging flow, and secondly by sink-like flow in a converging microchannel. In the first method we found that the converging part of the flow aligns rod-like bacteria, whereas the diverging part disaligns them, while in the second method the rod-like bacteria can perfectly align along the streamlines. In addition we used the same technology to test liposome deformation while they are flowing through a Venturi-like microchannel. The microfluidics devices were fabricated from poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) by soft lithographic techniques.

  3. World health inequality: convergence, divergence, and development. (United States)

    Clark, Rob


    Recent studies characterize the last half of the twentieth century as an era of cross-national health convergence, with some attributing welfare gains in the developing world to economic growth. In this study, I examine the extent to which welfare outcomes have actually converged and the extent to which economic development is responsible for the observed trends. Drawing from estimates covering 195 nations during the 1955-2005 period, I find that life expectancy averages converged during this time, but that infant mortality rates continuously diverged. I develop a narrative that implicates economic development in these contrasting trends, suggesting that health outcomes follow a "welfare Kuznets curve." Among poor countries, economic development improves life expectancy more than it reduces infant mortality, whereas the situation is reversed among wealthier nations. In this way, development has contributed to both convergence in life expectancy and divergence in infant mortality. Drawing from 674 observations across 163 countries during the 1980-2005 period, I find that the positive effect of GDP PC on life expectancy attenuates at higher levels of development, while the negative effect of GDP PC on infant mortality grows stronger.

  4. History repeats itself: genomic divergence in copepods. (United States)

    Renaut, Sébastien; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie


    Press stop, erase everything from now till some arbitrary time in the past and start recording life as it evolves once again. Would you see the same tape of life playing itself over and over, or would a different story unfold every time? The late Steven Jay Gould called this experiment replaying the tape of life and argued that any replay of the tape would lead evolution down a pathway radically different from the road actually taken (Gould 1989). This thought experiment has puzzled evolutionary biologists for a long time: how repeatable are evolutionary events? And if history does indeed repeat itself, what are the factors that may help us predict the path taken? A powerful means to address these questions at a small evolutionary scale is to study closely related populations that have evolved independently, under similar environmental conditions. This is precisely what Pereira et al. (2016) set out to do using marine copepods Tigriopus californicus, and present their results in this issue of Molecular Ecology. They show that evolution can be repeatable and even partly predictable, at least at the molecular level. As expected from theory, patterns of divergence were shaped by natural selection. At the same time, strong genetic drift due to small population sizes also constrained evolution down a similar evolutionary road, and probably contributed to repeatable patterns of genomic divergence.

  5. Antibiotics from predatory bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Korp


    Full Text Available Bacteria, which prey on other microorganisms, are commonly found in the environment. While some of these organisms act as solitary hunters, others band together in large consortia before they attack their prey. Anecdotal reports suggest that bacteria practicing such a wolfpack strategy utilize antibiotics as predatory weapons. Consistent with this hypothesis, genome sequencing revealed that these micropredators possess impressive capacities for natural product biosynthesis. Here, we will present the results from recent chemical investigations of this bacterial group, compare the biosynthetic potential with that of non-predatory bacteria and discuss the link between predation and secondary metabolism.

  6. Fluorescent protein vectors for promoter analysis in lactic acid bacteria and Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García-Cayuela, T.; Cadiñanos, de L.P.; Mohedano, M.L.; Palencia, de P.F.; Boden, D.; Wells, J.; Peláez, C.; López, P.; Requena, T.


    Fluorescent reporter genes are valuable tools for real-time monitoring of gene expression in living cells. In this study we describe the construction of novel promoter-probe vectors containing a synthetic mCherry fluorescent protein gene, codon-optimized for lactic acid bacteria, divergently linked,

  7. A divergent Cardinium found in daddy long-legs (Arachnida: Opiliones). (United States)

    Chang, Jin; Masters, Amber; Avery, Amanda; Werren, John H


    Recent studies indicate that a newly described bacterial endosymbiont, Cardinium, is widespread in arthropods and induces different reproductive manipulations in hosts. In this study, we used a portion of the 16S rRNA gene of the Cardinium to screen 16 Opilionid species from the suborder Palptores. We found the incidence of Cardinium in these Opiliones was significantly higher than in other pooled arthropods (31.2% versus 7.2%, P=0.007). Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian analysis revealed two distinct clades in Opiliones. One is a divergent monophyletic clade with strong support that has so far not been found in other arthropods, and a second one contains Cardinium both from Opiliones and other arthropods. There is not complete concordance of the Cardinium strains with host phylogeny, suggesting some horizontal movement of the bacteria among Opiliones. Although the divergence in the sequenced 16S rRNA region between the Cardinium infecting Opiliones and Cardinium from other arthropods is greater than among Cardinium found in other arthropods, all are monophyletic with respect to the outgroup bacteria (endosymbionts of Acanthamoeba). Based on high pairwise genetic distances, deep branch, and a distinct phylogenetic grouping, we conclude that some Opiliones harbor a newly discovered Cardinium clade.

  8. An alternative approach for eliciting willingness-to-pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Damschroder


    Full Text Available Open-ended methods that elicit willingness-to-pay (WTP in terms of absolute dollars often result in high rates of questionable and highly skewed responses, insensitivity to changes in health state, and raise an ethical issue related to its association with personal income. We conducted a 2x2 randomized trial over the Internet to test 4 WTP formats: 1 WTP in dollars; 2 WTP as a percentage of financial resources; 3 WTP in terms of monthly payments; and 4 WTP as a single lump-sum amount. WTP as a percentage of financial resources generated fewer questionable values, had better distribution properties, greater sensitivity to severity of health states, and was not associated with income. WTP elicited on a monthly basis also showed promise.

  9. Elicitation of preferences for improvements in ostomy pouches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole

    This paper attempts to examine and measure ostomates’ preferences for improvements in ostomy pouches. Described are the study design, elicitation procedure and resulting preference structure of the Swedish ostomate sample. The method used to elicit the preferences is a Discrete Choice Experiment...... the attributes and allows for the estimation of individuals’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) for the attributes of ostomy pouches when cost is included as an attribute. The data consists of 254 ostomates responding to the survey. The respondents have positive WTP for all improvement attributes presented to them...... in the survey, with strongest preferences for reducing the number of leakages. The DCE utilised in the survey performs well in terms of reliability and validity of the obtained results. The results suggest that since reducing leakages is the most important attribute for the respondents when making their choices...

  10. Expert elicitation for a national-level volcano hazard model (United States)

    Bebbington, Mark; Stirling, Mark; Cronin, Shane; Wang, Ting; Jolly, Gill


    The quantification of volcanic hazard at national level is a vital pre-requisite to placing volcanic risk on a platform that permits meaningful comparison with other hazards such as earthquakes. New Zealand has up to a dozen dangerous volcanoes, with the usual mixed degrees of knowledge concerning their temporal and spatial eruptive history. Information on the 'size' of the eruptions, be it in terms of VEI, volume or duration, is sketchy at best. These limitations and the need for a uniform approach lend themselves to a subjective hazard analysis via expert elicitation. Approximately 20 New Zealand volcanologists provided estimates for the size of the next eruption from each volcano and, conditional on this, its location, timing and duration. Opinions were likewise elicited from a control group of statisticians, seismologists and (geo)chemists, all of whom had at least heard the term 'volcano'. The opinions were combined via the Cooke classical method. We will report on the preliminary results from the exercise.

  11. Voltage transients elicited by sudden step-up of auxin (United States)

    Pickard, B. G.


    It is hypothesized (i) that the molecular mechanism for the reception of friction and flexure and the mechanism by which auxin enhances ethylene production have in common a release of free calcium into the cytosol, (ii) that elevated cytosolic calcium initiates vesicle exocytosis, and (iii) that the vesicles release a factor or set of factors which depolarizes the plasmalemma and promotes ethylene synthesis. One consequence of such exocytosis should be small, extracellularly observable voltage transients. Transients, ranging in size up to 600 microvolts and possessing risetimes (10-90%) of approximately 200 ms, are known to be elicited in etiolated stems of Pisum sativum L. by friction and are here shown to be elicited by sudden increase of auxin concentration and also by a Ca2+ ionophore.

  12. [Darwin and bacteria]. (United States)

    Ledermann D, Walter


    As in 2009 the scientific world celebrates two hundreds years from the birthday of Charles Darwin and one hundred and fifty from the publication of The Origin of Species, an analysis of his complete work is performed, looking for any mention of bacteria. But it seems that the great naturahst never took knowledge about its existence, something rather improbable in a time when the discovery of bacteria shook the medical world, or he deliberately ignored them, not finding a place for such microscopic beings into his theory of evolution. But the bacteria badly affected his familiar life, killing scarlet fever one of his children and worsening to death the evolution of tuberculosis of his favourite Annie. Darwin himself could suffer the sickness of Chagas, whose etiological agent has a similar level to bacteria in the scale of evolution.

  13. Neutrosophic Logic for Mental Model Elicitation and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Pérez-Teruel


    Full Text Available Mental models are personal, internal representations of external reality that people use to interact with the world around them. They are useful in multiple situations such as muticriteria decision making, knowledge management, complex system learning and analysis. In this paper a framework for mental models elicitation and analysis based on neutrosophic Logic is presented. An illustrative example is provided to show the applicability of the proposal. The paper ends with conclusion future research directions.

  14. Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Perman, Roseanne C.


    This report presents results of the Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Expert Elicitation (SZEE) project for Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. (Geomatrix), for TRW Environmental Safety Systems, Inc. The DOE's Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (referred to as the YMP) is intended to evaluate the suitability of the site for construction of a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. The SZEE project is one of several that involve the elicitation of experts to characterize the knowledge and uncertainties regarding key inputs to the Yucca Mountain Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The objective of the current project was to characterize the uncertainties associated with certain key issues related to the saturated zone system in the Yucca Mountain area and downgradient region. An understanding of saturated zone processes is critical to evaluating the performance of the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. A major goal of the project was to capture the uncertainties involved in assessing the saturated flow processes, including uncertainty in both the models used to represent the physical processes controlling saturated zone flow and transport, and the parameter values used in the models. So that the analysis included a wide range of perspectives, multiple individual judgments were elicited from members of an expert panel. The panel members, who were experts from within and outside the Yucca Mountain project, represented a range of experience and expertise. A deliberate process was followed in facilitating interactions among the experts, in training them to express their uncertainties, and in eliciting their interpretations. The resulting assessments and probability distributions, therefore, provide a reasonable aggregate representation of the knowledge and

  15. Visual emotional context modulates brain potentials elicited by unattended tones


    Sugimoto, Sayaka; Nittono, Hiroshi; Hori, Tadao


    To examine whether brain electrical responses to environmental stimuli were influenced by emotional contexts, event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by nonstartle probe tones were recorded from 13 student volunteers while they were viewing emotionally positive, neutral, and negative slides of the International Affective Picture System. The auditory stimuli consisted of high-deviant (2000 Hz, p=.08), low-deviant (1050 Hz, p=.08), and standard (1000 Hz, p=.84) tones with a mean onset-to-onset...

  16. Interviewing strategically to elicit admissions from guilty suspects


    Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria


    In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects’ perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects’ counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects’ perception by confronting them with statement-evidence incons...

  17. A Step-Wise Approach to Elicit Triangular Distributions (United States)

    Greenberg, Marc W.


    Adapt/combine known methods to demonstrate an expert judgment elicitation process that: 1.Models expert's inputs as a triangular distribution, 2.Incorporates techniques to account for expert bias and 3.Is structured in a way to help justify expert's inputs. This paper will show one way of "extracting" expert opinion for estimating purposes. Nevertheless, as with most subjective methods, there are many ways to do this.

  18. Elicitation of Unstated Needs - Training Session 02 (KJ Interviewing) (United States)


    analysis to determine must-be’s vs. satisfiers vs. delighters Step 8: Use AHP weighting and QFD matrix to determine quality and performance...Elicitation (RE) Training © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Overview of SEI Approach Step 1: Evaluate existing knowledge of stated needs and...requirements Step 2: Design the open-ended, probing questions to be used in KJ interviews Step 3: Conduct KJ interviews collecting all possible

  19. Seven Means, Generalized Triangular Discrimination, and Generating Divergence Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inder Jeet Taneja


    Full Text Available Jensen-Shannon, J-divergence and Arithmetic-Geometric mean divergences are three classical divergence measures known in the information theory and statistics literature. These three divergence measures bear interesting inequality among the three non-logarithmic measures known as triangular discrimination, Hellingar’s divergence and symmetric chi-square divergence. However, in 2003, Eve studied seven means from a geometrical point of view, which are Harmonic, Geometric, Arithmetic, Heronian, Contra-harmonic, Root-mean square and Centroidal. In this paper, we have obtained new inequalities among non-negative differences arising from these seven means. Correlations with generalized triangular discrimination and some new generating measures with their exponential representations are also presented.

  20. Nicotine Elicits Convulsive Seizures by Activating Amygdalar Neurons (United States)

    Iha, Higor A.; Kunisawa, Naofumi; Shimizu, Saki; Tokudome, Kentaro; Mukai, Takahiro; Kinboshi, Masato; Ikeda, Akio; Ito, Hidefumi; Serikawa, Tadao; Ohno, Yukihiro


    Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of epileptic disorders; however, the mechanisms of nACh receptors in seizure generation remain unknown. Here, we performed behavioral and immunohistochemical studies in mice and rats to clarify the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced seizures. Treatment of animals with nicotine (1–4 mg/kg, i.p.) produced motor excitement in a dose-dependent manner and elicited convulsive seizures at 3 and 4 mg/kg. The nicotine-induced seizures were abolished by a subtype non-selective nACh antagonist, mecamylamine (MEC). An α7 nACh antagonist, methyllycaconitine, also significantly inhibited nicotine-induced seizures whereas an α4β2 nACh antagonist, dihydro-β-erythroidine, affected only weakly. Topographical analysis of Fos protein expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that a convulsive dose (4 mg/kg) of nicotine region-specifically activated neurons in the piriform cortex, amygdala, medial habenula, paratenial thalamus, anterior hypothalamus and solitary nucleus among 48 brain regions examined, and this was also suppressed by MEC. In addition, electric lesioning of the amygdala, but not the piriform cortex, medial habenula and thalamus, specifically inhibited nicotine-induced seizures. Furthermore, microinjection of nicotine (100 and 300 μg/side) into the amygdala elicited convulsive seizures in a dose-related manner. The present results suggest that nicotine elicits convulsive seizures by activating amygdalar neurons mainly via α7 nACh receptors.

  1. Lipopolysaccharides in diazotrophic bacteria. (United States)

    Serrato, Rodrigo V


    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a process in which the atmospheric nitrogen (N2) is transformed into ammonia (NH3) by a select group of nitrogen-fixing organisms, or diazotrophic bacteria. In order to furnish the biologically useful nitrogen to plants, these bacteria must be in constant molecular communication with their host plants. Some of these molecular plant-microbe interactions are very specific, resulting in a symbiotic relationship between the diazotroph and the host. Others are found between associative diazotrophs and plants, resulting in plant infection and colonization of internal tissues. Independent of the type of ecological interaction, glycans, and glycoconjugates produced by these bacteria play an important role in the molecular communication prior and during colonization. Even though exopolysaccharides (EPS) and lipochitooligosaccharides (LCO) produced by diazotrophic bacteria and released onto the environment have their importance in the microbe-plant interaction, it is the lipopolysaccharides (LPS), anchored on the external membrane of these bacteria, that mediates the direct contact of the diazotroph with the host cells. These molecules are extremely variable among the several species of nitrogen fixing-bacteria, and there are evidences of the mechanisms of infection being closely related to their structure.

  2. Lipopolysaccharides in diazotrophic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vassoler Serrato


    Full Text Available Biological nitrogen fixation is a process in which the atmospheric nitrogen (N2 is transformed into ammonia (NH3 by a select group of nitrogen-fixing organisms, or diazotrophic bacteria. In order to furnish the biologically useful nitrogen to plants, these bacteria must be in constant molecular communication with their host plants. Some of these molecular plant-microbe interactions are very specific, resulting in a symbiotic relationship between the diazotroph and the host. Others are found between associative diazotrophs and plants, resulting in plant infection and colonization of internal tissues. Independent of the type of ecological interaction, glycans and glycoconjugates produced by these bacteria play an important role in the molecular communication prior and during colonization. Even though exopolysaccharides (EPS and lipochitooligosaccharides (LCO produced by diazotrophic bacteria and released onto the environment have their importance in the microbe-plant interaction, it is the lipopolysaccharides (LPS, anchored on the external membrane of these bacteria, that mediates the direct contact of the diazotroph with the host cells. These molecules are extremely variable among the several species of nitrogen fixing-bacteria, and there are evidences of the mechanisms of infection being closely related to their structure.

  3. Carrier relaxation time divergence in single and double layer cuprates (United States)

    Schneider, M. L.; Rast, S.; Onellion, M.; Demsar, J.; Taylor, A. J.; Glinka, Y.; Tolk, N. H.; Ren, Y. H.; Lüpke, G.; Klimov, A.; Xu, Y.; Sobolewski, R.; Si, W.; Zeng, X. H.; Soukiassian, A.; Xi, X. X.; Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, D.; Pavuna, D.; Krapf, A.; Manzke, R.; Printz, J. O.; Williamsen, M. S.; Downum, K. E.; Guptasarma, P.; Bozovic, I.


    We report the transient optical pump-probe reflectivity measurements on single and double layer cuprate single crystals and thin films of ten different stoichiometries. We find that with sufficiently low fluence the relaxation time (tauR) of all samples exhibits a power law divergence with temperature (T): tauR ∝ T^{-3 ± 0.5}. Further, the divergence has an onset temperature above the superconducting transition temperature for all superconducting samples. Possible causes of this divergence are discussed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingchun Jiang


    In this paper, we use divergence-free wavelets to give an adaptive solution to the velocity field of the Stokes problem. We first use divergence-free wavelets to discretize the divergence-free weak formulation of the Stokes problem and obtain a discrete positive definite linear system of equations whose coefficient matrix is quasi-sparse; Secondly, an adaptive scheme is used to solve the discrete linear system of equations and the error estimation and complexity analysis are given.

  5. Some Divergence Properties of Asset Price Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Stummer


    Full Text Available Abstract: We consider asset price processes Xt which are weak solutions of one-dimensional stochastic differential equations of the form (equation (2 Such price models can be interpreted as non-lognormally-distributed generalizations of the geometric Brownian motion. We study properties of the Iα-divergence between the law of the solution Xt and the corresponding drift-less measure (the special case α=1 is the relative entropy. This will be applied to some context in statistical information theory as well as to arbitrage theory and contingent claim valuation. For instance, the seminal option pricing theorems of Black-Scholes and Merton appear as a special case.

  6. Reliability and Security - Convergence or Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Reliability, as every technical field, must adapt to the new demands imposed by reality. Started initially as a field designed to control and ensure the smooth functionality of an element or technical system, reliability has reached the stage where the discussion is about the reliability management, similar to the other top-level fields. Security has its own contribution to the reliability of a system; a reliable system is a system with reliable security. In order for a system to be reliable, that means clear and safe, all its components must be reliable. In the following pages we will talk about the two main facts - reliability and security - to determine both the convergence and the divergence points.

  7. Suppression effects of Weibel instability for fast electron divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakagami H.


    Full Text Available Quasi-static magnetic fields, which are induced by the Weibel instability and grow to more than hundred Megagauss, lead to large divergence angle of fast electrons, hence lower energy coupling. To suppress the divergence, two different structures, namely density trough and punched out holes, are introduced to targets. In the density trough target, the Weibel instability is enhanced and the divergence is getting worse. On the other hand, the divergence angle is improved but the number of electrons is degraded for fast electrons (<3 MeV in the punched out target.

  8. The fecal bacteria (United States)

    Sadowsky, Michael J.; Whitman, Richard L.


    The Fecal Bacteria offers a balanced, integrated discussion of fecal bacteria and their presence and ecology in the intestinal tract of mammals, in the environment, and in the food supply. This volume covers their use in examining and assessing water quality in order to offer protection from illnesses related to swimming in or ingesting contaminated water, in addition to discussing their use in engineering considerations of water quality, modeling, monitoring, and regulations. Fecal bacteria are additionally used as indicators of contamination of ready-to-eat foods and fresh produce. The intestinal environment, the microbial community structure of the gut microbiota, and the physiology and genomics of this broad group of microorganisms are explored in the book. With contributions from an internationally recognized group of experts, the book integrates medicine, public health, environmental, and microbiological topics in order to provide a unique, holistic understanding of fecal bacteria. Moreover, it shows how the latest basic science and applied research findings are helping to solve problems and develop effective management strategies. For example, readers will discover how the latest tools and molecular approaches have led to our current understanding of fecal bacteria and enabled us to improve human health and water quality. The Fecal Bacteria is recommended for microbiologists, clinicians, animal scientists, engineers, environmental scientists, food safety experts, water quality managers, and students. It will help them better understand fecal bacteria and use their knowledge to protect human and environmental health. They can also apply many of the techniques and molecular tools discussed in this book to the study of a broad range of microorganisms in a variety of habitats.

  9. Convergence Insufficiency/Divergence Insufficiency Convergence Excess/Divergence Excess: Some Facts and Fictions. (United States)

    Khawam, Edward; Abiad, Bachir; Boughannam, Alaa; Saade, Joanna; Alameddine, Ramzi


    Great discrepancies are often encountered between the distance fixation and the near-fixation esodeviations and exodeviations. They are all attributed to either anomalies of the AC/A ratio or anomalies of the fusional convergence or divergence amplitudes. We report a case with pseudoconvergence insufficiency and another one with pseudoaccommodative convergence excess. In both cases, conv./div. excess and insufficiency were erroneously attributed to anomalies of the AC/A ratio or to anomalies of the fusional amplitudes. Our purpose is to show that numerous factors, other than anomalies in the AC/A ratio or anomalies in the fusional conv. or divergence amplitudes, can contaminate either the distance or the near deviations. This results in significant discrepancies between the distance and the near deviations despite a normal AC/A ratio and normal fusional amplitudes, leading to erroneous diagnoses and inappropriate treatment models.

  10. Convergence Insufficiency/Divergence Insufficiency Convergence Excess/Divergence Excess: Some Facts and Fictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Khawam


    Full Text Available Great discrepancies are often encountered between the distance fixation and the near-fixation esodeviations and exodeviations. They are all attributed to either anomalies of the AC/A ratio or anomalies of the fusional convergence or divergence amplitudes. We report a case with pseudoconvergence insufficiency and another one with pseudoaccommodative convergence excess. In both cases, conv./div. excess and insufficiency were erroneously attributed to anomalies of the AC/A ratio or to anomalies of the fusional amplitudes. Our purpose is to show that numerous factors, other than anomalies in the AC/A ratio or anomalies in the fusional conv. or divergence amplitudes, can contaminate either the distance or the near deviations. This results in significant discrepancies between the distance and the near deviations despite a normal AC/A ratio and normal fusional amplitudes, leading to erroneous diagnoses and inappropriate treatment models.

  11. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus;


    elicitation reaction than patch testing with the allergen (hydroxycitronellal) alone, in patients previously patch tested positive to hydroxycitronellal. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction was defined as at least 1 day of patch test reading showing more positive patch tests...

  12. Convergence Insufficiency/Divergence Insufficiency Convergence Excess/Divergence Excess: Some Facts and Fictions


    Edward Khawam; Bachir Abiad; Alaa Boughannam; Joanna Saade; Ramzi Alameddine


    Great discrepancies are often encountered between the distance fixation and the near-fixation esodeviations and exodeviations. They are all attributed to either anomalies of the AC/A ratio or anomalies of the fusional convergence or divergence amplitudes. We report a case with pseudoconvergence insufficiency and another one with pseudoaccommodative convergence excess. In both cases, conv./div. excess and insufficiency were erroneously attributed to anomalies of the AC/A ratio or to anomalies ...

  13. Research Dilemmas Associated with Photo Elicitation in Comparative Early Childhood Education Research (United States)

    Birkeland, Asta


    Photo elicitation has become an important method to produce data in qualitative research. There is quite an extensive literature indicating the benefits of photo elicitation in order to facilitate collaboration in meaning making between researcher and the interviewee. This article addresses dilemmas associated with using photo elicitation in a…

  14. Anaerobic bacteria in otitis media. (United States)

    Fulghum, R S; Daniel, H J; Yarborough, J G


    Anaerobic bacteria, Peptostrepotococcus intermedius and Propionibacterium acnes, were found in mixed culture specimens from four to ten tested cases of chronic secretory otitis media. These anaerobic bacteria were in a mixed infection flora with aerobic bacteria most often Staphylococcus epidermidis and Cornybacterium sp. which do not fit any established species. The findings of anaerobic bacteria in otitis media is consistent with the sporadic report of the involvement of anaerobic bacteria in otitis media in the literature since 1898.

  15. The Relationship Between Lateral Dominance and Divergent Cognitive Thought. (United States)

    Williams, Barbara B.

    This study was designed to explore the relationship of lateral dominance to divergent cognitive thought. According to the screening results of the Harris Tests of Lateral Dominance, 36 subjects ranging from 9-12 years were divided equally into three groups of left, right, and mixed lateral dominance. In order to measure divergent cognitive…

  16. Transcriptome-wide patterns of divergence during allopatric evolution. (United States)

    Pereira, Ricardo J; Barreto, Felipe S; Pierce, N Tessa; Carneiro, Miguel; Burton, Ronald S


    Recent studies have revealed repeated patterns of genomic divergence associated with species formation. Such patterns suggest that natural selection tends to target a set of available genes, but is also indicative that closely related taxa share evolutionary constraints that limit genetic variability. Studying patterns of genomic divergence among populations within the same species may shed light on the underlying evolutionary processes. Here, we examine transcriptome-wide divergence and polymorphism in the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus, a species where allopatric evolution has led to replicate sets of populations with varying degrees of divergence and hybrid incompatibility. Our analyses suggest that relatively small effective population sizes have resulted in an exponential decline of shared polymorphisms during population divergence and also facilitated the fixation of slightly deleterious mutations within allopatric populations. Five interpopulation comparisons at three different stages of divergence show that nonsynonymous mutations tend to accumulate in a specific set of proteins. These include proteins with central roles in cellular metabolism, such as those encoded in mtDNA, but also include an additional set of proteins that repeatedly show signatures of positive selection during allopatric divergence. Although our results are consistent with a contribution of nonadaptive processes, such as genetic drift and gene expression levels, generating repeatable patterns of genomic divergence in closely related taxa, they also indicate that adaptive evolution targeting a specific set of genes contributes to this pattern. Our results yield insights into the predictability of evolution at the gene level.

  17. Some Effects of Testing Procedure on Divergent Thinking (United States)

    Nicholls, John G.


    Game-like and test-like methods of divergent thinking assessment were compared with 10-year olds. Effects of method on score correlates were sufficient to allow the possibility that method may be implicated in outcomes of many studies of divergent thinking. (Author)

  18. The Mathematics of Divergence Based Online Learning in Vector Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villmann, Thomas; Haase, Sven; Schleif, Frank-Michael; Hammer, Barbara; Biehl, Michael


    We propose the utilization of divergences in gradient descent learning of supervised and unsupervised vector quantization as an alternative for the squared Euclidean distance. The approach is based on the determination of the Fréchet-derivatives for the divergences, wich can be immediately plugged i

  19. Parametric R-norm directed-divergence convex function (United States)

    Garg, Dhanesh; Kumar, Satish


    In this paper, we define parametric R-norm directed-divergence convex function and discuss their special cases and prove some properties similar to Kullback-Leibler information measure. From R-norm divergence measure new information measures have also been derived and their relations with different measures of entropy have been obtained and give its application in industrial engineering.

  20. On bounds of some dynamic information divergence measures


    S. M. Sunoj; Linu, M.N.


    In this paper, we obtain certain bounds for some dynamic information divergences measures viz. Renyi’s divergence of order α and Kerridge’s inaccuracy, using likelihood ratio ordering. The results are also extended to weighted models and theoretical examples are given to supplement the results.

  1. On bounds of some dynamic information divergence measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sunoj


    Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain certain bounds for some dynamic information divergences measures viz. Renyi’s divergence of order α and Kerridge’s inaccuracy, using likelihood ratio ordering. The results are also extended to weighted models and theoretical examples are given to supplement the results.

  2. Mass divergence power counting for QCD in the Feynman gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucci, R.


    We present a mass divergence power counting technique for QCD in the Feyman gauge. For the process ..gamma..sup(*)->qanti q, we find the leading regions of integration and show that single diagrams are at worst logarithmically divergent. Using the Weyl representation facilitates the ..gamma.. matrix manipulations necessary for power counting and adds much physical insight. (orig.).

  3. The development of mathematical creativity through model-eliciting activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Wessels


    Full Text Available The ability to think creatively and solve problems is regarded as crucial for economic and personal success. The traditional approach in classrooms is not conducive to mathematical creativity, and prospective teachers should be exposed to alternative problem solving activities through which mathematical knowledge, competencies and creativity can be developed. Research studies have pointed out the possibilities and successes of a modelling approach in which complex, open problems or model-eliciting problems are used to develop meaningful mathematical knowledge and prepare learners for everyday life, as well as for tertiary studies and their occupations. Model-eliciting activities (MEAs do not only develop mathematical knowledge, but also creativity. Five hundred and one preservice Foundation Phase teachers completed different model-eliciting activities (MEAs in a longitudinal project over a period of two years. The purpose was to develop and consolidate their own mathematical knowledge, and at the same time develop creativity and modelling competencies. The ultimate purpose of the project is to prepare preservice teachers to use mathematical modelling to develop creativity in young children aged six to nine. Through solving MEAs learners also build and consolidate their mathematical knowledge and improve their own problem-solving abilities. A framework with four criteria for the identification of creativity was successfully used to evaluate levels of creativity in the solutions offered to the MEAs. Preservice teachers’ final models displayed reasonably consistent levels of creativity regarding the four criteria. Their willingness to solve MEAs and create multiple, original and useful – therefore creative – solutions also increased over the period of their exposure to modelling tasks.

  4. Nicotine elicits prolonged calcium signaling along ventral hippocampal axons. (United States)

    Zhong, Chongbo; Talmage, David A; Role, Lorna W


    Presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have long been implicated in the modulation of CNS circuits. We previously reported that brief exposure to low concentrations of nicotine induced sustained potentiation of glutamatergic transmission at ventral hippocampal (vHipp)-striatal synapses. Here, we exploited nAChR subtype-selective antagonists and agonists and α7*nAChR knockout mutant mice (α7-/-) to elucidate the signaling mechanisms underlying nAChR-mediated modulation of synaptic transmission. Using a combination of micro-slices culture from WT and α7-/-mice, calcium imaging, and immuno-histochemical techniques, we found that nicotine elicits localized and oscillatory increases in intracellular Ca(2+) along vHipp axons that persists for up to 30 minutes. The sustained phase of the nicotine-induced Ca(2+) response was blocked by α-BgTx but not by DHβE and was mimicked by α7*nAChR agonists but not by non-α7*nAChR agonists. In vHipp slices from α7-/- mice, nicotine elicited only transient increases of axonal Ca(2+) signals and did not activate CaMKII. The sustained phase of the nicotine-induced Ca(2+) response required localized activation of CaMKII, phospholipase C, and IP3 receptor mediated Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). In conclusion, activation of presynaptic nAChRs by nicotine elicits Ca(2+) influx into the presynaptic axons, the sustained phase of the nicotine-induced Ca(2+) response requires that axonal α7*nAChR activate a downstream signaling network in the vHipp axons.

  5. Integrating Effectiveness, Transparency and Fairness into a Value Elicitation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortier, Michael; Sheng, Grant [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Studies; Collins, Alison [York Centre for Applied Sustainability, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    As part of the evaluation of Canada's proposed nuclear fuel waste disposal concept, the Federal Environmental Assessment and Review Panel (FEARP) undertook an extensive, nation-wide public hearing process. The hearing process itself was contentious and has been criticized on numerous grounds. It is our contention that the fundamental weakness of the FEARP process was that it was designed as an information-based forum, as opposed to a value-based forum.' Our observations and analyses of these hearings indicate that the FEARP envisioned a different purpose and a different outcome of this process than the public in general. As a result, public acceptability for the Concept or even the assessment process itself was not garnered due to a failure in the process to identify, address and incorporate values. To address this, we proposed a seven-step value elicitation process specifically designed to assess public acceptability of the disposal concept. An unfortunate consequence of the flawed public consultation process employed by the FEARP is that it is unclear exactly what it is the public finds unacceptable. Both from discussions and observations, it is difficult to ascertain whether the unacceptability lies with the Concept itself and/or the process by which the Concept was to be assessed. As a result, there is uncertainty as to what questions should be asked and how should the 'unacceptability' be addressed. In other words, does Canada need a new concept? Does Canada need to develop a mechanism for assessing the public acceptability of the Concept? Or both? The inability of the current process to answer such fundamental questions demonstrates the importance of developing an effective public acceptability and consultation process. We submit that, to create an acceptable Public Participation mechanism, it is necessary to found the construction of such a mechanism on the principles of effectiveness, transparency and fairness. Moreover, we believe that

  6. Eliciting Audience's Experience to Improve Interactive Art Installation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baharin, Hanif; Morrison, Ann


    Designing with the users in mind is one of the widely accepted design practices in the Interaction Design field. On the other hand, it can be said that audience's experience is the heart of an interactive art. Since Interaction Design has shown that user's involvement in the design process can...... be beneficial, it is speculated that involving the audiences in the creative process of developing an interactive art piece can make the artist improve the art in general and the audience's experience in particular. In this paper, the experience of eliciting the experience of the audiences of an interactive art...

  7. Exploring the Roles in a Photo Elicitation Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Benedicte Frederikke Rex; Pedersen, Camilla


    This paper begins to delineate the different roles in a participatory research setting with a focus of using photography as a medium for an elicitation dialogue. We investigate how others have used photography and we include our own experiences of using photography explaining how it established...... a communication bridge between participants and researchers. Based upon a concluded case, we illustrate how the photographs encourage and contribute to a lively dialogue among the participants. Furthermore, we describe our reflections and considerations of the roles of the photos, the participants...

  8. Eliciting Informative Feedback: The Peer-Prediction Method (United States)

    Miller, Nolan; Resnick, Paul; Zeckhauser, Richard

    Many recommendation and decision processes depend on eliciting evaluations of opportunities, products, and vendors. A scoring system is devised that induces honest reporting of feedback. Each rater merely reports a signal, and the system applies proper scoring rules to the implied posterior beliefs about another rater's report. Honest reporting proves to be a Nash Equilibrium. The scoring schemes can be scaled to induce appropriate effort by raters and can be extended to handle sequential interaction and continuous signals. We also address a number of practical implementation issues that arise in settings such as academic reviewing and on-line recommender and reputation systems.

  9. Expert Panel Elicitation of Seismicity Following Glaciation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hora, Stephen; Jensen, Mikael (eds.)


    The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company have jointly carried out a project on expert panel elicitation on the issue of glacial induced Swedish earthquakes. Following a broad nomination procedure, 5 experts were chosen by a selection committee of 4 professors within Earth sciences disciplines. The 5 experts presented judgments about the frequency of earthquakes greater the magnitude 6 within 10 km for two Swedish sites, Oskarshamn and Forsmark, in connection with a glaciation cycle. The experts' median value vas 0,1 earthquakes for one glaciation cycle.

  10. Understanding, eliciting and negotiating clients' multicultural health beliefs. (United States)

    Jackson, L E


    People of many cultures explain and treat illness in ways that are different from and that may conflict with the biomedical beliefs and practices on which the American health care system is based. Eliciting clients' health beliefs and negotiating treatment plans with them can help avoid problems caused by discrepancies in belief systems. This article presents three major categories of belief systems commonly found in the United States as well as other countries. Questions designed to discover clients' health beliefs are included, along with guidelines for arriving at plans of care that accommodate those beliefs. Case studies are provided that illustrate this process of negotiation.

  11. Novel molecular pathways elicited by mutant FGFR2 may account for brain abnormalities in Apert syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Yeh

    Full Text Available Apert syndrome (AS, the most severe form craniosynostosis, is characterized by premature fusion of coronal sutures. Approximately 70% of AS patients carry S252W gain-of-function mutation in FGFR2. Besides the cranial phenotype, brain dysmorphologies are present and are not seen in other FGFR2-asociated craniosynostosis, such as Crouzon syndrome (CS. Here, we hypothesized that S252W mutation leads not only to overstimulation of FGFR2 downstream pathway, but likewise induces novel pathological signaling. First, we profiled global gene expression of wild-type and S252W periosteal fibroblasts stimulated with FGF2 to activate FGFR2. The great majority (92% of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs were divergent between each group of cell populations and they were regulated by different transcription factors. We than compared gene expression profiles between AS and CS cell populations and did not observe correlations. Therefore, we show for the first time that S252W mutation in FGFR2 causes a unique cell response to FGF2 stimulation. Since our gene expression results suggested that novel signaling elicited by mutant FGFR2 might be associated with central nervous system (CNS development and maintenance, we next investigated if DEGs found in AS cells were also altered in the CNS of an AS mouse model. Strikingly, we validated Strc (stereocilin in newborn Fgfr2(S252W/+ mouse brain. Moreover, immunostaining experiments suggest a role for endothelial cells and cerebral vasculature in the establishment of characteristic CNS dysmorphologies in AS that has not been proposed by previous literature. Our approach thus led to the identification of new target genes directly or indirectly associated with FGFR2 which are contributing to the pathophysiology of AS.

  12. Protective immunity to H7N9 influenza viruses elicited by synthetic DNA vaccine. (United States)

    Yan, Jian; Villarreal, Daniel O; Racine, Trina; Chu, Jaemi S; Walters, Jewell N; Morrow, Matthew P; Khan, Amir S; Sardesai, Niranjan Y; Kim, J Joseph; Kobinger, Gary P; Weiner, David B


    Despite an intensive vaccine program influenza infections remain a major health problem, due to the viruses' ability to change its envelope glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA), through shift and drift, permitting influenza to escape protection induced by current vaccines or natural immunity. Recently a new variant, H7N9, has emerged in China causing global concern. First, there have been more than 130 laboratory-confirmed human infections resulting in an alarmingly high death rate (32.3%). Second, genetic changes found in H7N9 appear to be associated with enabling avian influenza viruses to spread more effectively in mammals, thus transmitting infections on a larger scale. Currently, no vaccines or drugs are effectively able to target H7N9. Here, we report the rapid development of a synthetic consensus DNA vaccine (pH7HA) to elicit potent protective immunity against the H7N9 viruses. We show that pH7HA induces broad antibody responses that bind to divergent HAs from multiple new members of the H7N9 family. These antibody responses result in high-titer HAI against H7N9. Simultaneously, this vaccine induces potent polyfunctional effector CD4 and CD8T cell memory responses. Animals vaccinated with pH7HA are completely protected from H7N9 virus infection and any morbidity associated with lethal challenge. This study establishes that this synthetic consensus DNA vaccine represents a new tool for targeting emerging infection, and more importantly, its design, testing and development into seed stock for vaccine production in a few days in the pandemic setting has significant implications for the rapid deployment of vaccines protecting against emerging infectious diseases.

  13. Exceptional giftedness in early adolescence and intrafamilial divergent thinking. (United States)

    Runco, M A; Albert, R S


    Two groups of boys and their parents (N=54) were given five divergent thinking tests as one part of a longitudinal investigation on exceptional giftedness in early adolescence. One groups of adolescents was selected because their IQs were above 150, and the other group, was selected because of their outstanding math-science abilities. Canonical and bivariate analyses indicated that there was a strong correlation between the adolescents' divergent thinking test scores and their parents' divergent thinking test scores (Rc=.55). Additionally, there was some indication that these correlations differed in the two exceptionally gifted groups, with the high-IQ group having divergent thinking test scores related to those of both parents, and the math-science group having divergent thinking test scores related only to those of their mothers. These findings are very consistent with earlier investigations on exceptionally gifted adolescents.

  14. Analysis of kinematic waves arising in diverging traffic flow models

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Wen-Long


    Diverging junctions are important network bottlenecks, and a better understanding of diverging traffic dynamics has both theoretical and practical implications. In this paper, we first introduce a continuous multi-commodity kinematic wave model of diverging traffic and then present a new framework for constructing kinematic wave solutions to its Riemann problem with jump initial conditions. In supply-demand space, the solutions on a link consist of an interior state and a stationary state, subject to admissible conditions such that there are no positive and negative kinematic waves on the upstream and downstream links respectively. In addition, the solutions have to satisfy entropy conditions consistent with various discrete diverge models. In the proposed analytical framework, kinematic waves on each link can be uniquely determined by the stationary and initial conditions, and we prove that the stationary states and boundary fluxes exist and are unique for the Riemann problem of diverge models when all or pa...

  15. Divergence-free Hardy space on

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU; Zengjian


    [1]Gilbert, J. E., Hogan, J. A., Lakey, J. D., Atomic decomposition of divergence-free Hardy spaces, Mathematica Moraviza, 1997, Special Volume, Proc. IWAA: 33-52.[2]Chang, D. C., Krantz, S. G., Stein, E. M., HP theory on a smooth domain in RN and elliptic boundary value problems, J. Funct. Anal., 1993, 114: 286-347.[3]Schwarz, G., Hodge Decomposition-A method for solving boundary value problems, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Vol. 1607, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1995.[4]Girault, V., Raviart, P. A., Finite Element Methods for Navier-Stokes Equations, Theory and Algorithms, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1986.[5]Stein, E. M., Singular Integrals and Differentiability Properties of Functions, Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press,1970.[6]Davies, B., Heat Kernels and Spectral Theory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.[7]Geymonat, G., Miller, S., Triantafylidis, N., Homogenization of nonlinear elastic materials, microscopic bifurcation and microscopic loss of rank-one convexity, Arch. Rational Mech. Anal., 1993, 122: 231-290.[8]Ball, J., Convexity conditions and existence theorems in nonlinear elasticity, Arch. Rational Mech. Anal., 1977,63: 337-403.[9]Zhang, K., On the coercivity of elliptic systems in two dimensional spaces, Bull. Austral. Math. Soc., 1996, 54:423-430.

  16. Divergent clonal selection dominates medulloblastoma at recurrence (United States)

    Morrissy, A. Sorana; Garzia, Livia; Shih, David J. H.; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Huang, Xi; Skowron, Patryk; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence M. G.; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jelveh, Salomeh; Donovan, Laura K.; Wang, Xin; Luu, Betty; Zayne, Kory; Li, Yisu; Mayoh, Chelsea; Thiessen, Nina; Mercier, Eloi; Mungall, Karen L.; Ma, Yusanne; Tse, Kane; Zeng, Thomas; Shumansky, Karey; Roth, Andrew J. L.; Shah, Sohrab; Farooq, Hamza; Kijima, Noriyuki; Holgado, Borja L.; Lee, John J. Y.; Matan-Lithwick, Stuart; Liu, Jessica; Mack, Stephen C.; Manno, Alex; Michealraj, K. A.; Nor, Carolina; Peacock, John; Qin, Lei; Reimand, Juri; Rolider, Adi; Thompson, Yuan Y.; Wu, Xiaochong; Pugh, Trevor; Ally, Adrian; Bilenky, Mikhail; Butterfield, Yaron S. N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Cheng, Young; Chuah, Eric; Corbett, Richard D.; Dhalla, Noreen; He, An; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I.; Long, William; Mayo, Michael; Plettner, Patrick; Qian, Jenny Q.; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Tam, Angela; Wong, Tina; Birol, Inanc; Zhao, Yongjun; Faria, Claudia C.; Pimentel, José; Nunes, Sofia; Shalaby, Tarek; Grotzer, Michael; Pollack, Ian F.; Hamilton, Ronald L.; Li, Xiao-Nan; Bendel, Anne E.; Fults, Daniel W.; Walter, Andrew W.; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Collins, V. Peter; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Hoffman, Caitlin; Lyden, David; Wisoff, Jeffrey H.; Garvin, James H.; Stearns, Duncan S.; Massimi, Luca; Schüller, Ulrich; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Puget, Stephanie; Ayrault, Olivier; Dunn, Sandra E.; Tirapelli, Daniela P. C.; Carlotti, Carlos G.; Wheeler, Helen; Hallahan, Andrew R.; Ingram, Wendy; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Kim, Seung-Ki; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Pietsch, Torsten; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Tippelt, Stephan; Ra, Young Shin; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C.; Clifford, Steven C.; Eberhart, Charles G.; Cooper, Michael K.; Packer, Roger J.; Massimino, Maura; Garre, Maria Luisa; Bartels, Ute; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia E.; Dirks, Peter; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T.; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Weiss, William A.; Collier, Lara S.; Dupuy, Adam J.; Korshunov, Andrey; Jones, David T. W.; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Largaespada, David A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Moore, Richard A.; Jabado, Nada; Bader, Gary D.; Jones, Steven J. M.; Malkin, David; Marra, Marco A.; Taylor, Michael D.


    The development of targeted anti-cancer therapies through the study of cancer genomes is intended to increase survival rates and decrease treatment-related toxicity. We treated a transposon–driven, functional genomic mouse model of medulloblastoma with ‘humanized’ in vivo therapy (microneurosurgical tumour resection followed by multi-fractionated, image-guided radiotherapy). Genetic events in recurrent murine medulloblastoma exhibit a very poor overlap with those in matched murine diagnostic samples (<5%). Whole-genome sequencing of 33 pairs of human diagnostic and post-therapy medulloblastomas demonstrated substantial genetic divergence of the dominant clone after therapy (<12% diagnostic events were retained at recurrence). In both mice and humans, the dominant clone at recurrence arose through clonal selection of a pre-existing minor clone present at diagnosis. Targeted therapy is unlikely to be effective in the absence of the target, therefore our results offer a simple, proximal, and remediable explanation for the failure of prior clinical trials of targeted therapy. PMID:26760213

  17. Diversity and Divergence of Dinoflagellate Histone Proteins. (United States)

    Marinov, Georgi K; Lynch, Michael


    Histone proteins and the nucleosomal organization of chromatin are near-universal eukaroytic features, with the exception of dinoflagellates. Previous studies have suggested that histones do not play a major role in the packaging of dinoflagellate genomes, although several genomic and transcriptomic surveys have detected a full set of core histone genes. Here, transcriptomic and genomic sequence data from multiple dinoflagellate lineages are analyzed, and the diversity of histone proteins and their variants characterized, with particular focus on their potential post-translational modifications and the conservation of the histone code. In addition, the set of putative epigenetic mark readers and writers, chromatin remodelers and histone chaperones are examined. Dinoflagellates clearly express the most derived set of histones among all autonomous eukaryote nuclei, consistent with a combination of relaxation of sequence constraints imposed by the histone code and the presence of numerous specialized histone variants. The histone code itself appears to have diverged significantly in some of its components, yet others are conserved, implying conservation of the associated biochemical processes. Specifically, and with major implications for the function of histones in dinoflagellates, the results presented here strongly suggest that transcription through nucleosomal arrays happens in dinoflagellates. Finally, the plausible roles of histones in dinoflagellate nuclei are discussed.

  18. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs (United States)

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron


    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends—in part—on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world’s foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  19. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron


    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends -- in part -- on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world's foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  20. Dopaminergic stimulation of subthalamic nucleus elicits oral dyskinesia in rats. (United States)

    Parry, T J; Eberle-Wang, K; Lucki, I; Chesselet, M F


    The effects of dopaminergic stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STh) on motor behavior were examined in conscious rats. Unilateral infusion of apomorphine (0.1 to 3.2 micrograms) into the STh induced a dose-dependent increase in abnormal, nondirected orofacial movements without altering turning, sniffing, grooming, or rearing behaviors. Orofacial movements elicited by local infusion of apomorphine (1.0 microgram) into the STh were blocked by peripheral administration of the D1 antagonist, SCH 23390 (0.1 mg/kg, sc), but not by the D2 antagonists haloperidol (1.0 mg/kg, sc) or sulpiride (50 mg/kg, sc). Furthermore, coinfusion of SCH 23390 (1.0 microgram), but not sulpiride (5.0 micrograms), with apomorphine (1.0 microgram) into the STh blocked oral dyskinesia. Oral movements could not be reelicited by an infusion of apomorphine into the STh after a kainic acid lesion of the STh. In addition, infusion of apomorphine (1.0 microgram) into sites proximal to but deliberately outside of the STh failed to elicit nondirected oral movements above baseline levels. The results indicate that stimulation of D1 dopaminergic receptors within the STh induces abnormal orofacial movements. This highlights the importance of the dopaminergic input to the STh in the regulation of motor function and suggests that D1 receptor antagonists could prove useful in the treatment of orofacial dyskinesia in humans.

  1. Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises. (United States)

    Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce


    The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility.

  2. Interviewing strategically to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. (United States)

    Tekin, Serra; Granhag, Pär Anders; Strömwall, Leif; Giolla, Erik Mac; Vrij, Aldert; Hartwig, Maria


    In this article we introduce a novel interviewing tactic to elicit admissions from guilty suspects. By influencing the suspects' perception of the amount of evidence the interviewer holds against them, we aimed to shift the suspects' counterinterrogation strategies from less to more forthcoming. The proposed tactic (SUE-Confrontation) is a development of the Strategic Use of Evidence (SUE) framework and aims to affect the suspects' perception by confronting them with statement-evidence inconsistencies. Participants (N = 90) were asked to perform several mock criminal tasks before being interviewed using 1 of 3 interview techniques: (a) SUE-Confrontation, (b) Early Disclosure of Evidence, or (c) No Disclosure of Evidence. As predicted, the SUE-Confrontation interview generated more statement-evidence inconsistencies from suspects than the Early Disclosure interview. Importantly, suspects in the SUE-Confrontation condition (vs. Early and No disclosure conditions) admitted more self-incriminating information and also perceived the interviewer to have had more information about the critical phase of the crime (the phase where the interviewer lacked evidence). The findings show the adaptability of the SUE-technique and how it may be used as a tool for eliciting admissions.

  3. Bee threat elicits alarm call in African elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy E King

    Full Text Available Unlike the smaller and more vulnerable mammals, African elephants have relatively few predators that threaten their survival. The sound of disturbed African honeybees Apis meliffera scutellata causes African elephants Loxodonta africana to retreat and produce warning vocalizations that lead other elephants to join the flight. In our first experiment, audio playbacks of bee sounds induced elephants to retreat and elicited more head-shaking and dusting, reactive behaviors that may prevent bee stings, compared to white noise control playbacks. Most importantly, elephants produced distinctive "rumble" vocalizations in response to bee sounds. These rumbles exhibited an upward shift in the second formant location, which implies active vocal tract modulation, compared to rumbles made in response to white noise playbacks. In a second experiment, audio playbacks of these rumbles produced in response to bees elicited increased headshaking, and further and faster retreat behavior in other elephants, compared to control rumble playbacks with lower second formant frequencies. These responses to the bee rumble stimuli occurred in the absence of any bees or bee sounds. This suggests that these elephant rumbles may function as referential signals, in which a formant frequency shift alerts nearby elephants about an external threat, in this case, the threat of bees.

  4. Hypoglycemic activity of withanolides and elicitated Withania somnifera. (United States)

    Gorelick, Jonathan; Rosenberg, Rivka; Smotrich, Avinoam; Hanuš, Lumír; Bernstein, Nirit


    Withania somnifera, known in India as Asghawhanda, is used traditionally to treat many medical problems including diabetes and has demonstrated therapeutic activity in various animal models as well as in diabetic patients. While much of W. somnifera's therapeutic activity is attributed to withanolides, their role in the anti-diabetic activity of W. somnifera has not been adequately studied. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-diabetic activity of W. somnifera extract and purified withanolides, as well as the effect of various elicitors on this activity. W. somnifera leaf and root extracts increased glucose uptake in myotubes and adipocytes in a dose dependent manner, with the leaf extract more active than the root extract. Leaf but not root extract increased insulin secretion in basal pancreatic beta cells but not in stimulated cells. Six withanolides isolated from W. somnifera were tested for anti-diabetic activity based on glucose uptake in skeletal myotubes. Withaferin A was found to increase glucose uptake, with 10μM producing a 54% increase compared with control, suggesting that withaferin A is at least partially responsible for W. somnifera's anti-diabetic activity. Elicitors applied to the root growing solutions affected the physiological state of the plants, altering membrane leakage or osmotic potential. Methyl salicylate and chitosan increased withaferin A content by 75% and 69% respectively, and extracts from elicited plants increased glucose uptake to a higher extent than non-elicited plants, demonstrating a correlation between increased content of withaferin A and anti-diabetic activity.

  5. Mycophagous soil bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudnick, M.B.



    Soil microorganisms evolved several strategies to compete for limited nutrients in soil. Bacteria of the genus Collimonas developed a way to exploit fungi as a source of organic nutrients. This strategy has been termed “mycophagy&r

  6. Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. (United States)

    Longenecker, Nevin E.; Oppenheimer, Dan


    A study conducted by high school advanced bacteriology students appears to confirm the hypothesis that the incremental administration of antibiotics on several species of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus sublitus, Bacillus megaterium) will allow for the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. (PEB)

  7. Bacteria-surface interactions. (United States)

    Tuson, Hannah H; Weibel, Douglas B


    The interaction of bacteria with surfaces has important implications in a range of areas, including bioenergy, biofouling, biofilm formation, and the infection of plants and animals. Many of the interactions of bacteria with surfaces produce changes in the expression of genes that influence cell morphology and behavior, including genes essential for motility and surface attachment. Despite the attention that these phenotypes have garnered, the bacterial systems used for sensing and responding to surfaces are still not well understood. An understanding of these mechanisms will guide the development of new classes of materials that inhibit and promote cell growth, and complement studies of the physiology of bacteria in contact with surfaces. Recent studies from a range of fields in science and engineering are poised to guide future investigations in this area. This review summarizes recent studies on bacteria-surface interactions, discusses mechanisms of surface sensing and consequences of cell attachment, provides an overview of surfaces that have been used in bacterial studies, and highlights unanswered questions in this field.

  8. “Infectious Supercarelessness” in Discussing Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (United States)

    Greenspan, Neil S.


    Many bacterial pathogens are exhibiting resistance to increasing numbers of antibiotics making it much more challenging to treat the infections caused by these microbes. In many reports in the media and perhaps even in discussions among physicians and biomedical scientists, these bacteria are frequently referred to as “bugs” with the prefix “super” appended. This terminology has a high potential to elicit unjustified inferences and fails to highlight the broader evolutionary context. Understanding the full range of biological and evolutionary factors that influence the spread and outcomes of infections is critical to formulating effective individual therapies and public health interventions. Therefore, more accurate terminology should be used to refer these multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:28174759

  9. Metric Divergence Measures and Information Value in Credit Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Zeng


    Full Text Available Recently, a series of divergence measures have emerged from information theory and statistics and numerous inequalities have been established among them. However, none of them are a metric in topology. In this paper, we propose a class of metric divergence measures, namely, , and study their mathematical properties. We then study an important divergence measure widely used in credit scoring, called information value. In particular, we explore the mathematical reasoning of weight of evidence and suggest a better alternative to weight of evidence. Finally, we propose using as alternatives to information value to overcome its disadvantages.

  10. Carrier Rexlaxation Time Divergence in Single and Double Layer Cuprates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Rast, S.; Onellion, M.; Demsar, J.; Taylor, A. J.; Glinka, Y.; Tolk, N. H.; Ren, Y. H.; Lupke, G.; Klimov, A.; Sobolewski, R.; Xu, Y.; Si, Weidong; Zeng, X. H.; Soukiassian, A.; Xi, X. X.; Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, D.; Pavuna, D.; Drapf, A.; Manzke, R.; Printz, J. O.; Williamsen, M. S.; Downum, K. E.; Guptasarma, P.


    We report the transient optical pump-probe reflectivity measurements on single and double layer cuprate single crystals and thin films of ten different stoichiometries. We find that with sufficiently low fluence the relaxation time (tau [sub R] of all samples exhibits a power law divergence with temperature (T): tau [sub R] [proportional to] T[sup -3 [plus or minus] 0.5]. Further, the divergence has an onset temperature above the superconducting transition temperature for all superconducting samples. Possible causes of this divergence are discussed.

  11. Divergent electrocardiographic responses to whole and particle-free diesel exhaust inhalation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (United States)

    Lamb, Christina M; Hazari, Mehdi S; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Carll, Alex P; Krantz, Q Todd; King, Charly; Winsett, Darrell W; Cascio, Wayne E; Costa, Daniel L; Farraj, Aimen K


    Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major contributor to traffic-related fine particulate matter (PM)(2.5). Although inroads have been made in understanding the mechanisms of PM-related health effects, DE's complex mixture of PM, gases, and volatile organics makes it difficult to determine how the constituents contribute to DE's effects. We hypothesized that exposure to particle-filtered DE (fDE; gases alone) will elicit less cardiac effects than whole DE (wDE; particles plus gases). In addition, we hypothesized that spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats will be more sensitive to the electrocardiographic effects of DE exposure than Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY; background strain with normal blood pressure). SH and WKY rats, implanted with telemeters to monitor electrocardiogram and heart rate (HR), were exposed once for 4 h to 150 μg/m(3) or 500 μg/m(3) of wDE (gases plus PM) or fDE (gases alone) DE, or filtered air. Exposure to fDE, but not wDE, caused immediate electrocardiographic alterations in cardiac repolarization (ST depression) and atrioventricular conduction block (PR prolongation) as well as bradycardia in SH rats. Exposure to wDE, but not fDE, caused postexposure ST depression and increased sensitivity to the pulmonary C fiber agonist capsaicin in SH rats. The only notable effect of DE exposure in WKY rats was a decrease in HR. Taken together, hypertension may predispose to the potential cardiac effects of DE and components of DE may have divergent effects with some eliciting immediate irritant effects (e.g., gases), whereas others (e.g., PM) trigger delayed effects potentially via separate mechanisms.

  12. Muscles innervated by a single motor neuron exhibit divergent synaptic properties on multiple time scales. (United States)

    Blitz, Dawn M; Pritchard, Amy E; Latimer, John K; Wakefield, Andrew T


    Adaptive changes in the output of neural circuits underlying rhythmic behaviors are relayed to muscles via motor neuron activity. Pre- and postsynaptic properties of neuromuscular junctions can impact the transformation from motor neuron activity to muscle response. Further, synaptic plasticity occurring on the time scale of inter-spike intervals can differ between multiple muscles innervated by the same motor neuron. In rhythmic behaviors, motor neuron bursts can elicit additional synaptic plasticity. However, it is unknown if plasticity regulated by the longer time scale of inter-burst intervals also differs between synapses from the same neuron, and whether any such distinctions occur across a physiological activity range. To address these issues, we measured electrical responses in muscles innervated by a chewing circuit neuron, the lateral gastric (LG) motor neuron, in a well-characterized small motor system, the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of the Jonah crab, Cancer borealis In vitro and in vivo, sensory, hormonal and modulatory inputs elicit LG bursting consisting of inter-spike intervals of 50-250 ms and inter-burst intervals of 2-24 s. Muscles expressed similar facilitation measured with paired stimuli except at the shortest inter-spike interval. However distinct decay time constants resulted in differences in temporal summation. In response to bursting activity, augmentation occurred to different extents and saturated at different inter-burst intervals in the three muscles. Further, augmentation interacted with facilitation, resulting in distinct intra-burst facilitation between muscles. Thus, responses of multiple target muscles diverge across a physiological activity range due to distinct synaptic properties sensitive to multiple time scales.

  13. Is Your ATM Dispensing Bacteria? (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_162067.html Is Your ATM Dispensing Bacteria? Study in New York City found most of ... keypads in New York City were covered in bacteria, researchers reported, with most of the microbes coming ...

  14. Molecular mimicry and horror autotoxicus: do chlamydial infections elicit autoimmunity? (United States)

    Swanborg, Robert H; Boros, Dov L; Whittum-Hudson, Judith A; Hudson, Alan P


    All species of the order Chlamydiales are obligate intracellular eubacterial pathogens of their various hosts. Two chlamydial species, Chlamydia trachomatis and Chlamydia pneumoniae, are primarily human pathogens, and each is known to cause important diseases. Some strains of C. trachomatis are sexually transmitted and frequently cause severe reproductive problems, primarily in women. Other strains of the organism serve as the aetiological agents for blinding trachoma, still the leading cause of preventable blindness in underdeveloped nations. C. pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen known to cause community-acquired pneumonia. Importantly, both organisms engender an immunopathogenic response in the human host, and both have been associated with widely diverse, relatively common and currently idiopathic chronic diseases, most of which include an important autoimmune component. In this article, we explore the available experimental data regarding the possible elicitation of autoimmunity in various contexts by chlamydial infection, and we suggest several avenues for research to explore this potentially important issue further.

  15. Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: an elicited production study. (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M; Brandt, Temre H; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa


    Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy.

  16. Illusory visual motion stimulus elicits postural sway in migraine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu eImaizumi


    Full Text Available Although the perception of visual motion modulates postural control, it is unknown whether illusory visual motion elicits postural sway. The present study examined the effect of illusory motion on postural sway in patients with migraine, who tend to be sensitive to it. We measured postural sway for both migraine patients and controls while they viewed static visual stimuli with and without illusory motion. The participants’ postural sway was measured when they closed their eyes either immediately after (Experiment 1, or 30 seconds after (Experiment 2, viewing the stimuli. The patients swayed more than the controls when they closed their eyes immediately after viewing the illusory motion (Experiment 1, and they swayed less than the controls when they closed their eyes 30 seconds after viewing it (Experiment 2. These results suggest that static visual stimuli with illusory motion can induce postural sway that may last for at least 30 seconds in patients with migraine.

  17. Genomics of oral bacteria. (United States)

    Duncan, Margaret J


    Advances in bacterial genetics came with the discovery of the genetic code, followed by the development of recombinant DNA technologies. Now the field is undergoing a new revolution because of investigators' ability to sequence and assemble complete bacterial genomes. Over 200 genome projects have been completed or are in progress, and the oral microbiology research community has benefited through projects for oral bacteria and their non-oral-pathogen relatives. This review describes features of several oral bacterial genomes, and emphasizes the themes of species relationships, comparative genomics, and lateral gene transfer. Genomics is having a broad impact on basic research in microbial pathogenesis, and will lead to new approaches in clinical research and therapeutics. The oral microbiota is a unique community especially suited for new challenges to sequence the metagenomes of microbial consortia, and the genomes of uncultivable bacteria.

  18. Manufacture of Probiotic Bacteria (United States)

    Muller, J. A.; Ross, R. P.; Fitzgerald, G. F.; Stanton, C.

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been used for many years as natural biopreservatives in fermented foods. A small group of LAB are also believed to have beneficial health effects on the host, so called probiotic bacteria. Probiotics have emerged from the niche industry from Asia into European and American markets. Functional foods are one of the fastest growing markets today, with estimated growth to 20 billion dollars worldwide by 2010 (GIA, 2008). The increasing demand for probiotics and the new food markets where probiotics are introduced, challenges the industry to produce high quantities of probiotic cultures in a viable and stable form. Dried concentrated probiotic cultures are the most convenient form for incorporation into functional foods, given the ease of storage, handling and transport, especially for shelf-stable functional products. This chapter will discuss various aspects of the challenges associated with the manufacturing of probiotic cultures.

  19. Exopolysaccharides from Marine Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHI Zhenming; FANG Yan


    Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives,textiles, pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria,including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

  20. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments


    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B.; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter


    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the fre...

  1. Knowledge elicitation techniques and application to nuclear plant maintenance (United States)

    Doyle, E. Kevin

    The new millennium has brought with it the opportunity of global trade which in turn requires the utmost in efficiency from each individual industry. This includes the nuclear power industry, a point which was emphasized when the electrical generation industry began to be de regulated across North America the late 1990s and re-emphasized when the northeast power grid of North America collapsed in the summer of 2003. This dissertation deals with reducing the cost of the maintenance function of Candu nuclear power plants and initiating a strong link between universities and the Canadian nuclear industry. Various forms of RCM (reliability-centred maintenance) have been the tools of choice in industry for improving the maintenance function during the last 20 years. In this project, pilot studies, conducted at Bruce Power between 1999 and 2005, and reported on in this dissertation, lay out a path to implement statistical improvements as the next step after RCM in reducing the cost of the maintenance. Elicitation protocols, designed for the age group being elicited, address the much-documented issue of a lack of data. Clear, graphical, inferential statistical interfaces are accentuated and developed to aid in building the teams required to implement the various methodologies and to help in achieving funding targets. Graphical analysis and Crow/AMSAA (army materials systems analysis activity) plots are developed and demonstrated from the point of view of justifying the expenditures of cost reduction efforts. This dissertation ultimately speaks to the great opportunity being presented by this approach at this time: of capturing the baby-boom generation's huge pool of knowledge before those people retire. It is expected that the protocols and procedures referenced here will have applicability across the many disciplines where collecting expert information from a similar age group is required.

  2. Nest sanitation elicits egg discrimination in cuckoo hosts. (United States)

    Yang, Canchao; Chen, Min; Wang, Longwu; Liang, Wei; Møller, Anders Pape


    Nest sanitation is a nearly universal behavior in birds, while egg discrimination is a more specific adaptation that has evolved to counter brood parasitism. These two behaviors are closely related with nest sanitation being the ancestral behavior, and it has been hypothesized to constitute a preadaptation for egg discrimination. However, previous studies found little evidence to support this hypothesis. Here, we conducted an empirical test of the association between nest sanitation and egg discrimination in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) by inserting a single non-mimetic model egg or a non-mimetic model egg plus half a peanut shell into host nests. Compared to the rejection rate of single model eggs, barn swallows significantly increased egg rejection frequency if a half peanut shell was simultaneously introduced. Our result for the first time shows the impact of nest sanitation on egg discrimination and demonstrates that nest sanitation can elicit egg discrimination in hosts of brood parasites. This study provided evidence for nest sanitation being a preadaptation to egg discrimination by facilitating egg rejection, thereby significantly advancing our understanding of avian cognition of foreign objects. Furthermore, we suggest that egg discrimination behavior in many accepters and intermediate rejecters may be lost or diluted. Such egg discrimination can be elicited and restored after nest sanitation, implying a sensitive and rapid phenotypic response to increased risk of parasitism. Our study offers a novel perspective for investigating the role of so-called intermediate rejecter individuals or species in the long-term coevolutionary cycle between brood parasites and their hosts.

  3. Norovirus P particle efficiently elicits innate, humoral and cellular immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Fang

    Full Text Available Norovirus (NoV P domain complexes, the 24 mer P particles and the P dimers, induced effective humoral immunity, but their role in the cellular immune responses remained unclear. We reported here a study on cellular immune responses of the two P domain complexes in comparison with the virus-like particle (VLP of a GII.4 NoV (VA387 in mice. The P domain complexes induced significant central memory CD4(+ T cell phenotypes (CD4(+ CD44(+ CD62L(+ CCR7(+ and activated polyclonal CD4(+ T cells as shown by production of Interleukin (IL-2, Interferon (IFN-γ, and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF-α. Most importantly, VA387-specific CD4(+ T cell epitope induced a production of IFN-γ, indicating an antigen-specific CD4(+ T cell response in P domain complex-immunized mice. Furthermore, P domain complexes efficiently induced bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (BMDC maturation, evidenced by up-regulation of co-stimulatory and MHC class II molecules, as well as production of IL-12 and IL-1β. Finally, P domain complex-induced mature dendritic cells (DCs elicited proliferation of specific CD4(+ T cells targeting VA387 P domain. Overall, we conclude that the NoV P domain complexes are efficiently presented by DCs to elicit not only humoral but also cellular immune responses against NoVs. Since the P particle is highly effective for both humoral and cellular immune responses and easily produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli, it is a good choice of vaccine against NoVs and a vaccine platform against other diseases.

  4. Comparative analysis of wolbachia genomes reveals streamlining and divergence of minimalist two-component systems. (United States)

    Christensen, Steen; Serbus, Laura Renee


    Two-component regulatory systems are commonly used by bacteria to coordinate intracellular responses with environmental cues. These systems are composed of functional protein pairs consisting of a sensor histidine kinase and cognate response regulator. In contrast to the well-studied Caulobacter crescentus system, which carries dozens of these pairs, the streamlined bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis encodes only two pairs: CckA/CtrA and PleC/PleD. Here, we used bioinformatic tools to compare characterized two-component system relays from C. crescentus, the related Anaplasmataceae species Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and 12 sequenced Wolbachia strains. We found the core protein pairs and a subset of interacting partners to be highly conserved within Wolbachia and these other Anaplasmataceae. Genes involved in two-component signaling were positioned differently within the various Wolbachia genomes, whereas the local context of each gene was conserved. Unlike Anaplasma and Ehrlichia, Wolbachia two-component genes were more consistently found clustered with metabolic genes. The domain architecture and key functional residues standard for two-component system proteins were well-conserved in Wolbachia, although residues that specify cognate pairing diverged substantially from other Anaplasmataceae. These findings indicate that Wolbachia two-component signaling pairs share considerable functional overlap with other α-proteobacterial systems, whereas their divergence suggests the potential for regulatory differences and cross-talk.

  5. Attack Vulnerability of Network with Duplication-Divergence Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We study the attack vulnerability of network with duplication-divergence mechanism. Numerical results have shown that the duplication-divergence network with larger retention probability a is more robust against target attack relatively. Furthermore, duplication-divergence network is broken down more quickly than its counterpart BA network under target attack. Such result is consistent with the fact of WWW and Internet networks under target attack. So duplication-divergence model is a more realistic one for us to investigate the characteristics of the world wide web in future. We also observe that the exponent 7 of degree distribution and average degree are important parameters of networks, reflecting the performance of networks under target attack. Our results are helpful to the research on the security of network.

  6. Multiple solutions for possibly degenerate equations in divergence form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pinamonti


    Full Text Available Via variational methods, we establish the existence of at least two distinct weak solutions for the Dirichlet problem associated to a possibly degenerate equation in divergence form.

  7. Role of mantle flow in Nubia-Somalia plate divergence (United States)

    Stamps, D. S.; Iaffaldano, G.; Calais, E.


    Present-day continental extension along the East African Rift System (EARS) has often been attributed to diverging sublithospheric mantle flow associated with the African Superplume. This implies a degree of viscous coupling between mantle and lithosphere that remains poorly constrained. Recent advances in estimating present-day opening rates along the EARS from geodesy offer an opportunity to address this issue with geodynamic modeling of the mantle-lithosphere system. Here we use numerical models of the global mantle-plates coupled system to test the role of present-day mantle flow in Nubia-Somalia plate divergence across the EARS. The scenario yielding the best fit to geodetic observations is one where torques associated with gradients of gravitational potential energy stored in the African highlands are resisted by weak continental faults and mantle basal drag. These results suggest that shear tractions from diverging mantle flow play a minor role in present-day Nubia-Somalia divergence.

  8. Scalar Field Quantization Without Divergences In All Spacetime Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Klauder, John R


    Covariant, self-interacting scalar quantum field theories admit solutions for low enough spacetime dimensions, but when additional divergences appear in higher dimensions, the traditional approach leads to results, such as triviality, that are less than satisfactory. Guided by idealized but soluble nonrenormalizable models, a nontraditional proposal for the quantization of covariant scalar field theories is advanced, which achieves a term-by-term, divergence-free, perturbation analysis of interacting models expanded about a suitable pseudofree theory, which differs from a free theory by an O(\\hbar^2) counterterm. These positive features are secured within a functional integral formulation by a local, nonclassical, counterterm that effectively transforms parameter changes in the action from generating mutually singular measures, which are the basis for divergences, to equivalent measures, thereby removing all divergences. The use of an alternative model about which to perturb is already supported by properties...

  9. Acoustic propagation in partially choked converging-diverging ducts (United States)

    Kelly, J. J.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Watson, L. T.


    A computer model based on the wave-envelope technique is used to study acoustic propagation in converging-diverging hard walled and lined circular ducts carrying near sonic mean flows. The influences of the liner admittance, boundary layer thickness, spinning mode number, and mean Mach number are considered. The numerical results indicate that the diverging portion of the duct can have a strong reflective effect for partially choked flows.

  10. Numerical Optimization of converging diverging miniature cavitating nozzles (United States)

    Chavan, Kanchan; Bhingole, B.; Raut, J.; Pandit, A. B.


    The work focuses on the numerical optimization of converging diverging cavitating nozzles through nozzle dimensions and wall shape. The objective is to develop design rules for the geometry of cavitating nozzles for desired end-use. Two main aspects of nozzle design which affects the cavitation have been studied i.e. end dimensions of the geometry (i.e. angle and/or curvature of the inlet, outlet and the throat and the lengths of the converging and diverging sections) and wall curvatures(concave or convex). Angle of convergence at the inlet was found to control the cavity growth whereas angle of divergence of the exit controls the collapse of cavity. CFD simulations were carried out for the straight line converging and diverging sections by varying converging and diverging angles to study its effect on the collapse pressure generated by the cavity. Optimized geometry configurations were obtained on the basis of maximum Cavitational Efficacy Ratio (CER)i.e. cavity collapse pressure generated for a given permanent pressure drop across the system. With increasing capabilities in machining and fabrication, it is possible to exploit the effect of wall curvature to create nozzles with further increase in the CER. Effect of wall curvature has been studied for the straight, concave and convex shapes. Curvature has been varied and effect of concave and convex wall curvatures vis-à-vis straight walls studied for fixed converging and diverging angles.It is concluded that concave converging-diverging nozzles with converging angle of 20° and diverging angle of 5° with the radius of curvature 0.03 m and 0.1530 m respectively gives maximum CER. Preliminary experiments using optimized geometry are indicating similar trends and are currently being carried out. Refinements of the CFD technique using two phase flow simulations are planned.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Zhikang; Xia Mao


    It is a classical result of Bernstein that the sequence of Lagrange interpolation polynomials to | x | at equally spaced nodes in [- 1,1] diverges everywhere, except at zero and the end-points. In this paper we show that the sequence of Lagrange interpolation polynomials corresponding to the functions which possess better smoothness on equidistant nodes in [-1,1] still diverges every where in the interval except at zero and the end-points.

  12. Multimodal registration of remotely sensed images based on Jeffrey's divergence (United States)

    Xu, Xiaocong; Li, Xia; Liu, Xiaoping; Shen, Huanfeng; Shi, Qian


    Entropy-based measures (e.g., mutual information, also known as Kullback-Leiber divergence), which quantify the similarity between two signals, are widely used as similarity measures for image registration. Although they are proven superior to many classical statistical measures, entropy-based measures, such as mutual information, may fail to yield the optimum registration if the multimodal image pair has insufficient scene overlap region. To overcome this challenge, we proposed using the symmetric form of Kullback-Leiber divergence, namely Jeffrey's divergence, as the similarity measure in practical multimodal image registration tasks. Mathematical analysis was performed to investigate the causes accounting for the limitation of mutual information when dealing with insufficient scene overlap image pairs. Experimental registrations of SPOT image, Landsat TM image, ALOS PalSAR image, and DEM data were carried out to compare the performance of Jeffrey's divergence and mutual information. Results indicate that Jeffrey's divergence is capable of providing larger feasible search space, which is favorable for exploring optimum transformation parameters in a larger range. This superiority of Jeffrey's divergence was further confirmed by a series of paradigms. Thus, the proposed model is more applicable for registering image pairs that are greatly misaligned or have an insufficient scene overlap region.

  13. Eliminating the "divergence problem" at Alaska's northern treeline (United States)

    Wilmking, M.; Singh, J.


    Recently, an increasing off-set between tree-ring based temperature reconstructions and measured temperatures at high latitudes has been reported, the so called "divergence problem" (here "divergence effect"). This "divergence effect" seriously questions the validity of tree-ring based climate reconstructions, since it seems to violate the assumption of a stable response of trees to changing climate over time. In this study we eliminated the "divergence effect" in northern Alaska by careful selection of individual trees with consistently significant positive relationships with climate (17% of sample) and successfully attempted a divergence-free climate reconstruction using this sub-set. However, the majority of trees (83%) did not adhere to the uniformitarian principle as usually applied in dendroclimatology. Our results thus support the notion, that factors acting on an individual tree basis are the primary causes for the "divergence effect" (at least in northern Alaska). Neither different detrending methods nor factors acting on larger scales such as global dimming or an increase in UV-B radiation could explain our results. Our results also highlight the necessity to adapt the methods of paleoreconstruction using tree rings to account for non-stable climate growth relationships as these are found in the vast majority of sampled trees and seem to be the norm rather than the exception.

  14. MHC adaptive divergence between closely related and sympatric African cichlids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Blais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The haplochromine cichlid species assemblages of Lake Malawi and Victoria represent some of the most important study systems in evolutionary biology. Identifying adaptive divergence between closely-related species can provide important insights into the processes that may have contributed to these spectacular radiations. Here, we studied a pair of sympatric Lake Malawi species, Pseudotropheus fainzilberi and P. emmiltos, whose reproductive isolation depends on olfactory communication. We tested the hypothesis that these species have undergone divergent selection at MHC class II genes, which are known to contribute to olfactory-based mate choice in other taxa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Divergent selection on functional alleles was inferred from the higher genetic divergence at putative antigen binding sites (ABS amino acid sequences than at putatively neutrally evolving sites at intron 1, exon 2 synonymous sequences and exon 2 amino acid residues outside the putative ABS. In addition, sympatric populations of these fish species differed significantly in communities of eukaryotic parasites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that local host-parasite coevolutionary dynamics may have driven adaptive divergence in MHC alleles, influencing odor-mediated mate choice and leading to reproductive isolation. These results provide the first evidence for a novel mechanism of adaptive speciation and the first evidence of adaptive divergence at the MHC in closely related African cichlid fishes.

  15. Epigenetic divergence as a potential first step in darter speciation. (United States)

    Smith, Tracy A; Martin, Michael D; Nguyen, Michael; Mendelson, Tamra C


    Recent studies show that epigenetic variation in the form of DNA methylation may serve as a substrate for selection. Theory suggests that heritable epigenetic marks that increase fitness should increase in frequency in a population, and these changes may result in novel morphology, behaviour, or physiology, and ultimately reproductive isolation. Therefore, epigenetic variation might provide the first substrate for selection during the course of evolutionary divergence. This hypothesis predicts that populations in the earliest stages of divergence will differentiate in their methylome prior to any genetic differentiation. While several studies have investigated natural epigenetic variation, empirical studies that test predictions about its role in speciation are surprisingly scarce. Here, we investigate DNA methylation variation using an isoschizomeric digest method, Methyl-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism, across multiple stages of evolutionary divergence in natural populations of North American stream fishes. We show that epigenetic differentiation between methylomes is greater than genetic divergence among closely related populations across two river drainages. Additionally, we demonstrate that epigenetic divergence is a stronger predictor of the strength of behavioural reproductive isolation and suggest that changes in the methylome could influence the evolution of reproductive isolation between species. Our findings suggest a role for epigenetics not only in the initiation of divergence, but also in the maintenance of species boundaries over greater evolutionary timescales.

  16. Inference by Minimizing Size, Divergence, or their Sum

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, Sebastian; McCallum, Andrew


    We speed up marginal inference by ignoring factors that do not significantly contribute to overall accuracy. In order to pick a suitable subset of factors to ignore, we propose three schemes: minimizing the number of model factors under a bound on the KL divergence between pruned and full models; minimizing the KL divergence under a bound on factor count; and minimizing the weighted sum of KL divergence and factor count. All three problems are solved using an approximation of the KL divergence than can be calculated in terms of marginals computed on a simple seed graph. Applied to synthetic image denoising and to three different types of NLP parsing models, this technique performs marginal inference up to 11 times faster than loopy BP, with graph sizes reduced up to 98%-at comparable error in marginals and parsing accuracy. We also show that minimizing the weighted sum of divergence and size is substantially faster than minimizing either of the other objectives based on the approximation to divergence present...

  17. Global association between thermophilicity and vancomycin susceptibility in bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chayan eRoy


    Full Text Available Exploration of the aquatic microbiota of several circum-neutral (6.0-8.5 pH mid-temperature (55-85 OC springs revealed rich diversities of phylogenetic relatives of mesophilic bacteria, which surpassed the diversity of the truly-thermophilic taxa. To gain insight into the potentially-thermophilic adaptations of the phylogenetic relatives of Gram-negative mesophilic bacteria detected in culture-independent investigations we attempted pure-culture isolation by supplementing the enrichment media with 50 µg ml-1 vancomycin. Surprisingly, this Gram-positive-specific antibiotic eliminated the entire culturable-diversity of chemoorganotrophic and sulfur-chemolithotrophic bacteria present in the tested hot water inocula. Moreover, it also killed all the Gram-negative hot-spring isolates that were obtained in vancomycin-free media. Concurrent literature search for the description of Gram-negative thermophilic bacteria revealed that at least 16 of them were reportedly vancomycin-susceptible. While these data suggested that vancomycin-susceptibility could be a global trait of thermophilic bacteria (irrespective of their taxonomy, biogeography and Gram-character, MALDI Mass Spectroscopy of the peptidoglycans of a few Gram-negative thermophilic bacteria revealed that tandem alanines were present in the fourth and fifth positions of their muropeptide precursors (MPPs. Subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed a close affinity between the D-alanine-D-alanine ligases (Ddl of taxonomically-diverse Gram-negative thermophiles and the thermostable Ddl protein of Thermotoga maritima, which is well-known for its high specificity for alanine over other amino acids. The Ddl tree further illustrated a divergence between the homologs of Gram-negative thermophiles and mesophiles, which broadly coincided with vancomycin-susceptibility and vancomycin-resistance respectively. It was thus hypothesized that thermophilic Ddls have been evolutionarily selected to favor a D

  18. Application and Evaluation of an Expert Judgment Elicitation Procedure for Correlations (United States)

    Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, Mariëlle; van de Schoot-Hubeek, Wenneke; Lek, Kimberley; Hoijtink, Herbert; van de Schoot, Rens


    The purpose of the current study was to apply and evaluate a procedure to elicit expert judgments about correlations, and to update this information with empirical data. The result is a face-to-face group elicitation procedure with as its central element a trial roulette question that elicits experts' judgments expressed as distributions. During the elicitation procedure, a concordance probability question was used to provide feedback to the experts on their judgments. We evaluated the elicitation procedure in terms of validity and reliability by means of an application with a small sample of experts. Validity means that the elicited distributions accurately represent the experts' judgments. Reliability concerns the consistency of the elicited judgments over time. Four behavioral scientists provided their judgments with respect to the correlation between cognitive potential and academic performance for two separate populations enrolled at a specific school in the Netherlands that provides special education to youth with severe behavioral problems: youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and youth with diagnoses other than ASD. Measures of face-validity, feasibility, convergent validity, coherence, and intra-rater reliability showed promising results. Furthermore, the current study illustrates the use of the elicitation procedure and elicited distributions in a social science application. The elicited distributions were used as a prior for the correlation, and updated with data for both populations collected at the school of interest. The current study shows that the newly developed elicitation procedure combining the trial roulette method with the elicitation of correlations is a promising tool, and that the results of the procedure are useful as prior information in a Bayesian analysis. PMID:28197115

  19. A Penny for Your Thoughts: A Survey of Methods for Eliciting Beliefs


    K. Schlag; Tremewan, J.; van der Weele, J.


    Incentivized methods for eliciting subjective probabilities in economic experiments present the subject with risky choices or bets that encourage truthful reporting. We discuss the most prominent elicitation methods and their underlying assumptions, provide theoretical comparisons, and propose some extensions to the standard framework. In addition, we survey the empirical literature on the performance of these elicitation methods in actual experiments, considering also practical issues of imp...

  20. Biogeography of thermophilic phototrophic bacteria belonging to Roseiflexus genus. (United States)

    Gaisin, Vasil A; Grouzdev, Denis S; Namsaraev, Zorigto B; Sukhacheva, Marina V; Gorlenko, Vladimir M; Kuznetsov, Boris B


    Isolated environments such as hot springs are particularly interesting for studying the microbial biogeography. These environments create an 'island effect' leading to genetic divergence. We studied the phylogeographic pattern of thermophilic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, belonging to the Roseiflexus genus. The main characteristic of the observed pattern was geographic and geochronologic fidelity to the hot springs within Circum-Pacific and Alpine-Himalayan-Indonesian orogenic belts. Mantel test revealed a correlation between genetic divergence and geographic distance among the phylotypes. Cluster analysis revealed a regional differentiation of the global phylogenetic pattern. The phylogeographic pattern is in correlation with geochronologic events during the break up of Pangaea that led to the modern configuration of continents. To our knowledge this is the first geochronological scenario of intercontinental prokaryotic taxon divergence. The existence of the modern phylogeographic pattern contradicts with the existence of the ancient evolutionary history of the Roseiflexus group proposed on the basis of its deep-branching phylogenetic position. These facts indicate that evolutionary rates in Roseiflexus varied over a wide range.

  1. Explaining choice option attractiveness by beliefs elicited by the laddering method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino


    option. The laddering method is used to elicit beliefs of all three types for a choice between conventional and organic pork. As a benchmark, beliefs were also elicited in the traditional way advocated by Ajzen and Fishbein. Using both sets of beliefs in a subsequent survey, it was shown that the beliefs...... elicited by the laddering method increase explanatory power with regard to choice option attractiveness beyond the beliefs elicited by the Ajzen and Fishbein method, and that this additional explanatory power was due to those beliefs which relate the choice option to concepts with a higher level...

  2. Brotes germinados y bacterias


    García Olmedo, Francisco


    Ante la confusión y el revuelo asociados al último incidente causado por una cepa de la bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) en Alemania, tal vez no esté de más esta carta para recordar y actualizar escritos míos anteriores aparecidos en Revista de Libros sobre los riesgos alimentarios en general y sobre los peligros de dicho microorganismo en particular. 1 . Aunque es cierto que la proporción de cepas peligrosas de E. coli es quizás inferior a la de delincuentes entre los humanos, exi...

  3. Potentially bioaccessible phenolics, antioxidant activity and nutritional quality of young buckwheat sprouts affected by elicitation and elicitation supported by phenylpropanoid pathway precursor feeding. (United States)

    Świeca, Michał


    This paper presents the study on impact of elicitation and the phenylpropanoid pathway feeding on the nutritional quality, the potentially bioaccessible phenolics and the antioxidant capacity of young buckwheat sprouts. Phenolics content was increased by elicitation and feeding with tyrosine and shikimic acid--an elevation of 30% and 17%, respectively. Antioxidant capacity was improved by feeding with tyrosine--an increase of 16.7% and 17.1% in both untreated and treated sprouts, respectively. The highest protein digestibility was determined for the control sprouts and those obtained after tyrosine feeding. The lowest starch digestibility was found for elicited sprouts obtained from seeds fed with tyrosine (a decrease by 52%). An increase of expected glycemic index by 38% was determined for elicited sprouts obtained after phenylalanine feeding. Starch and protein digestibility were negatively correlated with total phenolics (r = -0.55 and -0.58, respectively), however starch digestibility was also affected by resistant starch content.

  4. Host plant peptides elicit a transcriptional response to control the Sinorhizobium meliloti cell cycle during symbiosis. (United States)

    Penterman, Jon; Abo, Ryan P; De Nisco, Nicole J; Arnold, Markus F F; Longhi, Renato; Zanda, Matteo; Walker, Graham C


    The α-proteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti establishes a chronic intracellular infection during the symbiosis with its legume hosts. Within specialized host cells, S. meliloti differentiates into highly polyploid, enlarged nitrogen-fixing bacteroids. This differentiation is driven by host cells through the production of defensin-like peptides called "nodule-specific cysteine-rich" (NCR) peptides. Recent research has shown that synthesized NCR peptides exhibit antimicrobial activity at high concentrations but cause bacterial endoreduplication at sublethal concentrations. We leveraged synchronized S. meliloti populations to determine how treatment with a sublethal NCR peptide affects the cell cycle and physiology of bacteria at the molecular level. We found that at sublethal levels a representative NCR peptide specifically blocks cell division and antagonizes Z-ring function. Gene-expression profiling revealed that the cell division block was produced, in part, through the substantial transcriptional response elicited by sublethal NCR treatment that affected ∼15% of the genome. Expression of critical cell-cycle regulators, including ctrA, and cell division genes, including genes required for Z-ring function, were greatly attenuated in NCR-treated cells. In addition, our experiments identified important symbiosis functions and stress responses that are induced by sublethal levels of NCR peptides and other antimicrobial peptides. Several of these stress-response pathways also are found in related α-proteobacterial pathogens and might be used by S. meliloti to sense host cues during infection. Our data suggest a model in which, in addition to provoking stress responses, NCR peptides target intracellular regulatory pathways to drive S. meliloti endoreduplication and differentiation during symbiosis.

  5. The Divergent Effects of Fear and Disgust on Inhibitory Control: An ERP Study (United States)

    Xu, Mengsi; Li, Zhiai; Ding, Cody; Zhang, Junhua; Fan, Lingxia; Diao, Liuting; Yang, Dong


    Negative emotional stimuli have been shown to attract attention and impair executive control. However, two different types of unpleasant stimuli, fearful and disgusting, are often inappropriately treated as a single category in the literature on inhibitory control. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the divergent effects of fearful and disgusting distracters on inhibitory control (both conscious and unconscious inhibition). Specifically, participants were engaged in a masked Go/No-Go task superimposed on fearful, disgusting, or neutral emotional contexts, while event-related potentials were measured concurrently. The results showed that for both conscious and unconscious conditions, disgusting stimuli elicited a larger P2 than fearful ones, and the difference waves of P3 amplitude under disgusting contexts were smaller than that under fearful contexts. These results suggest that disgusting distracters consume more attentional resources and therefore impair subsequent inhibitory control to a greater extent. This study is the first to provide electrophysiological evidence that fear and disgust differently affect inhibitory control. These results expand our understanding of the relationship between emotions and inhibitory control. PMID:26030871

  6. Beneficial bacteria inhibit cachexia. (United States)

    Varian, Bernard J; Goureshetti, Sravya; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Lakritz, Jessica R; Levkovich, Tatiana; Kwok, Caitlin; Teliousis, Konstantinos; Ibrahim, Yassin M; Mirabal, Sheyla; Erdman, Susan E


    Muscle wasting, known as cachexia, is a debilitating condition associated with chronic inflammation such as during cancer. Beneficial microbes have been shown to optimize systemic inflammatory tone during good health; however, interactions between microbes and host immunity in the context of cachexia are incompletely understood. Here we use mouse models to test roles for bacteria in muscle wasting syndromes. We find that feeding of a human commensal microbe, Lactobacillus reuteri, to mice is sufficient to lower systemic indices of inflammation and inhibit cachexia. Further, the microbial muscle-building phenomenon extends to normal aging as wild type animals exhibited increased growth hormone levels and up-regulation of transcription factor Forkhead Box N1 [FoxN1] associated with thymus gland retention and longevity. Interestingly, mice with a defective FoxN1 gene (athymic nude) fail to inhibit sarcopenia after L. reuteri therapy, indicating a FoxN1-mediated mechanism. In conclusion, symbiotic bacteria may serve to stimulate FoxN1 and thymic functions that regulate inflammation, offering possible alternatives for cachexia prevention and novel insights into roles for microbiota in mammalian ontogeny and phylogeny.

  7. Chemical communication in bacteria (United States)

    Suravajhala, Srinivasa Sandeep; Saini, Deepak; Nott, Prabhu

    Luminescence in Vibrio fischeri is a model for quorum-sensing-gene-regulation in bacteria. We study luminescence response of V. fischeri to both internal and external cues at the single cell and population level. Experiments with ES114, a wild-type strain, and ainS mutant show that luminescence induction in cultures is not always proportional to cell-density and there is always a basal level of luminescence. At any given concentration of the exogenously added signals, C6-HSL and C8-HSL, luminescence per cell reaches a maximum during the exponential phase and decreases thereafter. We hypothesize that (1) C6-HSL production and LuxR activity are not proportional to cell-density, and (2) there is a shift in equilibrium from C6-HSL to C8-HSL during the later stages of growth of the culture. RT-PCR analysis of luxI and luxR shows that the expression of these genes is maximum corresponding to the highest level of luminescence. The shift in equilibrium is shown by studying competitive binding of C6-HSL and C8-HSL to LuxR. We argue that luminescence is a unicellular behaviour, and an intensive property like per cell luminescence is more important than gross luminescence of the population in understanding response of bacteria to chemical signalling. Funding from the Department of Science and Technology, India is acknowledged.

  8. Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lea Haarup; Bryant, Donald A.; Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik


    Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) constitute a closely related group of photoautotrophic and thiotrophic bacteria with limited phenotypic variation. They typically oxidize sulfide and thiosulfate to sulfate with sulfur globules as an intermediate. Based on genome sequence information from 15 strains......, the distribution and phylogeny of enzymes involved in their oxidative sulfur metabolism was investigated. At least one homolog of sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) is present in all strains. In all sulfur-oxidizing GSB strains except the earliest diverging Chloroherpeton thalassium, the sulfide oxidation...... and SOX systems. Finally, based upon structural, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses, a uniform nomenclature is suggested for sqr genes in prokaryotes....

  9. Immunological responses elicited by different infection regimes with Strongyloides ratti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Paterson

    Full Text Available Nematode infections are a ubiquitous feature of vertebrate life. In nature, such nematode infections are acquired by continued exposure to infective stages over a prolonged period of time. By contrast, experimental laboratory infections are typically induced by the administration of a single (and often large dose of infective stages. Previous work has shown that the size of an infection dose can have significant effects on anti-nematode immune responses. Here we investigated the effect of different infection regimes of Strongyloides ratti, comparing single and repeated dose infections, on the host immune response that was elicited. We considered and compared infections of the same size, but administered in different ways. We considered infection size in two ways: the maximum dose of worms administered and the cumulative worm exposure time. We found that both infection regimes resulted in Th2-type immune response, characterised by IL4 and IL13 produced by S. ratti stimulated mesenteric lymph node cells, anti-S. ratti IgG(1 and intestinal rat mast cell protease II (RMCPII production. We observed some small quantitative immunological differences between different infection regimes, in which the concentration of IL4, IL13, anti-S. ratti IgG(1 and IgG(2a and RMCPII were affected. However, these differences were quantitatively relatively modest compared with the temporal dynamics of the anti-S. ratti immune response as a whole.

  10. Point of view filming and the elicitation interview. (United States)

    Skinner, Jonathan; Gormley, Gerard J


    Face-to-face interviews are a fundamental research tool in qualitative research. Whilst this form of data collection can provide many valuable insights, it can often fall short of providing a complete picture of a research subject's experiences. Point of view (PoV) interviewing is an elicitation technique used in the social sciences as a means of enriching data obtained from research interviews. Recording research subjects' first person perspectives, for example by wearing digital video glasses, can afford deeper insights into their experiences. PoV interviewing can promote making visible the unverbalizable and does not rely as much on memory as the traditional interview. The use of such relatively inexpensive technology is gaining interest in health profession educational research and pedagogy, such as dynamic simulation-based learning and research activities. In this interview, Dr Gerry Gormley (a medical education researcher) talks to Dr Jonathan Skinner (an anthropologist with an interest in PoV interviewing), exploring some of the many crossover implications with PoV interviewing for medical education research and practice.

  11. PEGylated graphene oxide elicits strong immunological responses despite surface passivation (United States)

    Luo, Nana; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Wang, Shuang; Luan, Binquan; Yue, Hua; Xi, Xiaobo; Du, Jing; Yang, Zaixing; Wei, Wei; Zhou, Ruhong; Ma, Guanghui


    Engineered nanomaterials promise to transform medicine at the bio–nano interface. However, it is important to elucidate how synthetic nanomaterials interact with critical biological systems before such products can be safely utilized in humans. Past evidence suggests that polyethylene glycol-functionalized (PEGylated) nanomaterials are largely biocompatible and elicit less dramatic immune responses than their pristine counterparts. We here report results that contradict these findings. We find that PEGylated graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO-PEGs) stimulate potent cytokine responses in peritoneal macrophages, despite not being internalized. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations support a mechanism by which nGO-PEGs preferentially adsorb onto and/or partially insert into cell membranes, thereby amplifying interactions with stimulatory surface receptors. Further experiments demonstrate that nGO-PEG indeed provokes cytokine secretion by enhancing integrin β8-related signalling pathways. The present results inform that surface passivation does not always prevent immunological reactions to 2D nanomaterials but also suggest applications for PEGylated nanomaterials wherein immune stimulation is desired. PMID:28233871

  12. Naturalistic Enactment to Elicit and Recognize Caregiver State Anxiety. (United States)

    Miranda, Darien; Favela, Jesus; Ibarra, Catalina; Cruz, Netzahualcoyotl


    Caring for people with dementia imposes significant stress on family members and caregivers. Often, these informal caregivers have no coping strategy to deal with these behaviors. Anxiety and stress episodes are often triggered by problematic behaviors exhibited by the person who suffers from dementia. Detecting these behaviors could help them in dealing with them and reduce caregiver burden. However, work on anxiety detection using physiological signals has mostly been done under controlled conditions. In this paper we describe an experiment aimed at inducing anxiety among caregivers of people with dementia under naturalistic conditions. We report an experiment, using the naturalistic enactment technique, in which 10 subjects were asked to care for an older adult who acts as if she experiences dementia. We record physiological signals from the participants (GSR, HR, EEG) during the sessions that lasted for approximately 30 min. We explain how we obtained ground truth from self-report and observation data. We conducted two different tests using the Support Vector Machine technique. We obtained an average precision of 77.8 % and 38.1 % recall when classifying two different possible states: "Anxious" and "Not anxious". Analysis of the data provides evidence that the experiment elicits state anxiety and that it can be detected using wearable sensors. Furthermore, if episodes of problematic behaviors can also be detected, the recognition of anxiety in the caregiver can be improved, leading to the enactment of appropriate interventions to help caregivers cope with anxiety episodes.

  13. Dreamed movement elicits activation in the sensorimotor cortex. (United States)

    Dresler, Martin; Koch, Stefan P; Wehrle, Renate; Spoormaker, Victor I; Holsboer, Florian; Steiger, Axel; Sämann, Philipp G; Obrig, Hellmuth; Czisch, Michael


    Since the discovery of the close association between rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and dreaming, much effort has been devoted to link physiological signatures of REM sleep to the contents of associated dreams [1-4]. Due to the impossibility of experimentally controlling spontaneous dream activity, however, a direct demonstration of dream contents by neuroimaging methods is lacking. By combining brain imaging with polysomnography and exploiting the state of "lucid dreaming," we show here that a predefined motor task performed during dreaming elicits neuronal activation in the sensorimotor cortex. In lucid dreams, the subject is aware of the dreaming state and capable of performing predefined actions while all standard polysomnographic criteria of REM sleep are fulfilled [5, 6]. Using eye signals as temporal markers, neural activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was related to dreamed hand movements during lucid REM sleep. Though preliminary, we provide first evidence that specific contents of REM-associated dreaming can be visualized by neuroimaging.

  14. Affective monitoring: A generic mechanism for affect elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans ePhaf


    Full Text Available In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavour to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.

  15. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music. (United States)

    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H


    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both.

  16. Functional tradeoffs underpin salinity-driven divergence in microbial community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L Dupont

    Full Text Available Bacterial community composition and functional potential change subtly across gradients in the surface ocean. In contrast, while there are significant phylogenetic divergences between communities from freshwater and marine habitats, the underlying mechanisms to this phylogenetic structuring yet remain unknown. We hypothesized that the functional potential of natural bacterial communities is linked to this striking divide between microbiomes. To test this hypothesis, metagenomic sequencing of microbial communities along a 1,800 km transect in the Baltic Sea area, encompassing a continuous natural salinity gradient from limnic to fully marine conditions, was explored. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that salinity is the main determinant of dramatic changes in microbial community composition, but also of large scale changes in core metabolic functions of bacteria. Strikingly, genetically and metabolically different pathways for key metabolic processes, such as respiration, biosynthesis of quinones and isoprenoids, glycolysis and osmolyte transport, were differentially abundant at high and low salinities. These shifts in functional capacities were observed at multiple taxonomic levels and within dominant bacterial phyla, while bacteria, such as SAR11, were able to adapt to the entire salinity gradient. We propose that the large differences in central metabolism required at high and low salinities dictate the striking divide between freshwater and marine microbiomes, and that the ability to inhabit different salinity regimes evolved early during bacterial phylogenetic differentiation. These findings significantly advance our understanding of microbial distributions and stress the need to incorporate salinity in future climate change models that predict increased levels of precipitation and a reduction in salinity.

  17. Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence. (United States)

    Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J; Tong, Xin T


    The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature.

  18. Expression Divergence of Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Human and Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valia Shoja


    Full Text Available Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs account for about one third of the duplicated genes in eukaryotic genomes, yet there has not been any systematic study of their gene expression patterns. Taking advantage of recently published large-scale microarray data sets, we studied the expression divergence of 361 two-member TAGs in human and 212 two-member TAGs in mouse and examined the effect of sequence divergence, gene orientation, and chromosomal proximity on the divergence of TAG expression patterns. Our results show that there is a weak negative correlation between sequence divergence of TAG members and their expression similarity. There is also a weak negative correlation between chromosomal proximity of TAG members and their expression similarity. We did not detect any significant relationship between gene orientation and expression similarity. We also found that downstream TAG members do not show significantly narrower expression breadth than upstream members, contrary to what we predict based on TAG expression divergence hypothesis that we propose. Finally, we show that both chromosomal proximity and expression correlation in TAGs do not differ significantly from their neighboring non-TAG gene pairs, suggesting that tandem duplication is unlikely to be the cause for the higher-than-random expression association between neighboring genes on a chromosome in human and mouse.

  19. Sandwiched Rényi divergence satisfies data processing inequality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beigi, Salman [School of Mathematics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5746, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Sandwiched (quantum) α-Rényi divergence has been recently defined in the independent works of Wilde et al. [“Strong converse for the classical capacity of entanglement-breaking channels,” preprint (2013)] and Müller-Lennert et al. [“On quantum Rényi entropies: a new definition, some properties and several conjectures,” preprint (2013)]. This new quantum divergence has already found applications in quantum information theory. Here we further investigate properties of this new quantum divergence. In particular, we show that sandwiched α-Rényi divergence satisfies the data processing inequality for all values of α > 1. Moreover we prove that α-Holevo information, a variant of Holevo information defined in terms of sandwiched α-Rényi divergence, is super-additive. Our results are based on Hölder's inequality, the Riesz-Thorin theorem and ideas from the theory of complex interpolation. We also employ Sion's minimax theorem.

  20. Scalar field quantization without divergences in all spacetime dimensions (United States)

    Klauder, John R.


    Covariant, self-interacting scalar quantum field theories admit solutions for low enough spacetime dimensions, but when additional divergences appear in higher dimensions, the traditional approach leads to results, such as triviality, that are less than satisfactory. Guided by idealized but soluble nonrenormalizable models, a nontraditional proposal for the quantization of covariant scalar field theories is advanced, which achieves a term-by-term, divergence-free, perturbation analysis of interacting models expanded about a suitable pseudofree theory, which differs from a free theory by an O(planck2) counterterm. These positive features are realized within a functional integral formulation by a local, nonclassical, counterterm that effectively transforms parameter changes in the action from generating mutually singular measures, which are the basis for divergences, to equivalent measures, thereby removing all divergences. The use of an alternative model about which to perturb is already supported by properties of the classical theory and is allowed by the inherent ambiguity in the quantization process itself. This procedure not only provides acceptable solutions for models for which no acceptable, faithful solution currently exists, e.g. phiv4n, for spacetime dimensions n >= 4, but offers a new, divergence-free solution for less-singular models as well, e.g. phiv4n, for n = 2, 3. Our analysis implies similar properties for multicomponent scalar models, such as those associated with the Higgs model.

  1. Rotational and divergent kinetic energy in the mesoscale model ALADIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Blažica


    Full Text Available Kinetic energy spectra from the mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP model ALADIN with horizontal resolution 4.4 km are split into divergent and rotational components which are then compared at horizontal scales below 300 km and various vertical levels. It is shown that about 50% of kinetic energy in the free troposphere in ALADIN is divergent energy. The percentage increases towards 70% near the surface and in the upper troposphere towards 100 hPa. The maximal percentage of divergent energy is found at stratospheric levels around 100 hPa and at scales below 100 km which are not represented by the global models. At all levels, the divergent energy spectra are characterised by shallower slopes than the rotational energy spectra, and the difference increases as horizontal scales become larger. A very similar vertical distribution of divergent energy is obtained by using the standard ALADIN approach for the computation of spectra based on the extension zone and by applying detrending approach commonly used in mesoscale NWP community.

  2. Concrete ensemble Kalman filters with rigorous catastrophic filter divergence (United States)

    Kelly, David; Majda, Andrew J.; Tong, Xin T.


    The ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble square root filters are data assimilation methods used to combine high-dimensional, nonlinear dynamical models with observed data. Ensemble methods are indispensable tools in science and engineering and have enjoyed great success in geophysical sciences, because they allow for computationally cheap low-ensemble-state approximation for extremely high-dimensional turbulent forecast models. From a theoretical perspective, the dynamical properties of these methods are poorly understood. One of the central mysteries is the numerical phenomenon known as catastrophic filter divergence, whereby ensemble-state estimates explode to machine infinity, despite the true state remaining in a bounded region. In this article we provide a breakthrough insight into the phenomenon, by introducing a simple and natural forecast model that transparently exhibits catastrophic filter divergence under all ensemble methods and a large set of initializations. For this model, catastrophic filter divergence is not an artifact of numerical instability, but rather a true dynamical property of the filter. The divergence is not only validated numerically but also proven rigorously. The model cleanly illustrates mechanisms that give rise to catastrophic divergence and confirms intuitive accounts of the phenomena given in past literature. PMID:26261335

  3. A New Measure of Fuzzy Directed Divergence and Its Application in Image Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K Bhatia


    Full Text Available An approach to develop new measures of fuzzy directed divergence is proposed here. A new measure of fuzzy directed divergence is proposed, and some mathematical properties of this measure are proved. The application of fuzzy directed divergence in image segmentation is explained. The proposed technique minimizes the fuzzy divergence or the separation between the actual and ideal thresholded image.

  4. Individual Differences and Age-Related Changes in Divergent Thinking in Toddlers and Preschoolers (United States)

    Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone; Hoicka, Elena


    Divergent thinking shows the ability to search for new ideas, which is an important factor contributing to innovation and problem solving. Current divergent thinking tests allow researchers to study children's divergent thinking from the age of 3 years on. This article presents the first measure of divergent thinking that can be used with children…

  5. Functional divergence among silkworm antimicrobial peptide paralogs by the activities of recombinant proteins and the induced expression profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanying Yang

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides are small-molecule proteins that are usually encoded by multiple-gene families. They play crucial roles in the innate immune response, but reports on the functional divergence of antimicrobial peptide gene families are rare. In this study, 14 paralogs of antimicrobial peptides belonging to cecropin, moricin and gloverin families were recombinantly expressed in pET expression systems. By antimicrobial activity tests, peptides representing paralogs in the same family of cecropin and moricin families, displayed remarkable differences against 10 tested bacteria. The evolutionary rates were relatively fast in the two families, which presented obvious functional divergence among paralogs of each family. Four peptides of gloverin family had similar antimicrobial spectrum and activity against tested bacteria. The gloverin family showed similar antimicrobial function and slow evolutionary rates. By induced transcriptional activity, genes encoding active antimicrobial peptides were upregulated at obviously different levels when silkworm pupae were infected by three types of microbes. Association analysis of antimicrobial activities and induced transcriptional activities indicated that the antimicrobial activities might be positively correlated with induced transcriptional activities in the cecropin and moricin families. These results suggest that representative BmcecB6, BmcecD and Bmmor as the major effector genes have broad antimicrobial spectrum, strong antimicrobial activity and high microbe-induced expression among each family and maybe play crucial roles in eliminating microbial infection.

  6. Immunomodulatory properties of probiotic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen


    Certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are part of the commensal intestinal flora and considered beneficial for health, as they compete with pathogens for adhesion sites in the intestine and ferment otherwise indigestible compounds. Another important property of these so-called probiotic bacteria...... with bacteria, and the cytokine pattern induced by specific bacteria resembled the pattern induced in MoDC, except for TNF-alpha and IL-6, which were induced in response to different bacteria in blood DC/monocytes and monocyte-derived DC. Autologous NK cells produced IFN-gamma when cultured with blood DC......, monocytes and monocyte-derived DC and IL-12-inducing bacteria, whereas only DC induced IFN-gamma production in allogeneic T cells. In vitro-generated DC is a commonly used model of tissue DC, but they differ in certain aspects from intestinal DC, which are in direct contact with the intestinal microbiota...

  7. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus


    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable...... bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures...... marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary...

  8. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview (United States)

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen


    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  9. Identifying and Responding to Personal Stressors: Utilizing Photo Elicitation in Health Education Courses (United States)

    Hunter, Theresa


    The "Photo Elicitation Project" teaching idea applies the techniques of photo elicitation to stress prevention and management. This activity is designed to help students identify their personal stressors and to determine which stress prevention strategies are most useful for them. Objectives: students will be able to (a) identify current…

  10. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus


    of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case...

  11. Photo-Elicitation and Visual Semiotics: A Unique Methodology for Studying Inclusion for Children with Disabilities (United States)

    Stockall, Nancy


    The methodology in this paper discusses the use of photographs as an elicitation strategy that can reveal the thinking processes of participants in a qualitatively rich manner. Photo-elicitation techniques combined with a Piercian semiotic perspective offer a unique method for creating a frame of action for later participant analysis. Illustrative…

  12. Designedly Incomplete Utterances: A Pedagogical Practice for Eliciting Knowledge Displays in Error Correction Sequences. (United States)

    Koshik, Irene


    Uses a conversation analytic framework to analyze a practice used by teachers in 1-0-1, second language writing conferences when eliciting self-correction of students' written language errors. This type of turn used to elicit a knowledge display from the student is labeled designedly incomplete utterance (DIU). Teachers use DIUs made up of…

  13. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation (United States)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun


    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  14. Bacteria, phages and septicemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Gaidelyte

    Full Text Available The use of phages is an attractive option to battle antibiotic resistant bacteria in certain bacterial infections, but the role of phage ecology in bacterial infections is obscure. Here we surveyed the phage ecology in septicemia, the most severe type of bacterial infection. We observed that the majority of the bacterial isolates from septicemia patients spontaneously secreted phages active against other isolates of the same bacterial strain, but not to the strain causing the disease. Such phages were also detected in the initial blood cultures, indicating that phages are circulating in the blood at the onset of sepsis. The fact that most of the septicemic bacterial isolates carry functional prophages suggests an active role of phages in bacterial infections. Apparently, prophages present in sepsis-causing bacterial clones play a role in clonal selection during bacterial invasion.

  15. Bacteriophages of methanotrophic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyutikow, F.M. (All-Union Research Inst. for Genetics and Selection of Industrial Microorganisms, Moscow, USSR); Bespalova, I.A.; Rebentish, B.A.; Aleksandrushkina, N.N.; Krivisky, A.S.


    Bacteriophages of methanotrophic bacteria have been found in 16 out of 88 studied samples (underground waters, pond water, soil, gas and oil installation waters, fermentor cultural fluids, bacterial paste, and rumen of cattle) taken in different geographic zones of the Soviet Union. Altogether, 23 phage strains were isolated. By fine structure, the phages were divided into two types (with very short or long noncontractile tails); by host range and serological properties, they fell into three types. All phages had guanine- and cytosine-rich double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid consisting of common nitrogen bases. By all of the above-mentioned properties, all phages within each of the groups were completely identical to one another, but differed from phages of other groups.

  16. Genome-wide functional divergence after the symbiosis of proteobacteria with insects unraveled through a novel computational approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Toft


    Full Text Available Symbiosis has been among the most important evolutionary steps to generate biological complexity. The establishment of symbiosis required an intimate metabolic link between biological systems with different complexity levels. The strict endo-cellular symbiotic bacteria of insects are beautiful examples of the metabolic coupling between organisms belonging to different kingdoms, a eukaryote and a prokaryote. The host (eukaryote provides the endosymbiont (prokaryote with a stable cellular environment while the endosymbiont supplements the host's diet with essential metabolites. For such communication to take place, endosymbionts' genomes have suffered dramatic modifications and reconfigurations of proteins' functions. Two of the main modifications, loss of genes redundant for endosymbiotic bacteria or the host and bacterial genome streamlining, have been extensively studied. However, no studies have accounted for possible functional shifts in the endosymbiotic proteomes. Here, we develop a simple method to screen genomes for evidence of functional divergence between two species clusters, and we apply it to identify functional shifts in the endosymbiotic proteomes. Despite the strong effects of genetic drift in the endosymbiotic systems, we unexpectedly identified genes to be under stronger selective constraints in endosymbionts of aphids and ants than in their free-living bacterial relatives. These genes are directly involved in supplementing the host's diet with essential metabolites. A test of functional divergence supports a strong relationship between the endosymbiosis and the functional shifts of proteins involved in the metabolic communication with the insect host. The correlation between functional divergence in the endosymbiotic bacterium and the ecological requirements of the host uncovers their intimate biochemical and metabolic communication and provides insights on the role of symbiosis in generating species diversity.

  17. A genomic island linked to ecotype divergence in Atlantic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Hemmer; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Therkildsen, Nina O.;


    gene flow and large effective population sizes, properties which theoretically could restrict divergence in local genomic regions. We identify a genomic region of strong population differentiation, extending over approximately 20 cM, between pairs of migratory and stationary ecotypes examined at two......The genomic architecture underlying ecological divergence and ecological speciation with gene flow is still largely unknown for most organisms. One central question is whether divergence is genome‐wide or localized in ‘genomic mosaics’ during early stages when gene flow is still pronounced....... Empirical work has so far been limited, and the relative impacts of gene flow and natural selection on genomic patterns have not been fully explored. Here, we use ecotypes of Atlantic cod to investigate genomic patterns of diversity and population differentiation in a natural system characterized by high...

  18. Android Malware Detection Using Kullback-Leibler Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa N. COOPER


    Full Text Available Many recent reports suggest that mareware applications cause high billing to victims by sending and receiving hidden SMS messages. Given that, there is a need to develop necessary technique to identify malicious SMS operations as well as differentiate between good and bad SMS operations within applications.In this paper, we apply Kullback-Leibler Divergence (KLD as a distance metric to identify the difference between good and bad SMS operations. We develop a set of elements that represent sending or receiving of SMS messages, both legitimately and maliciously. Then, we compare the divergence of the trained set of elements. Our evaluation shows that the divergence between good and bad applications remains significantly high, whereas between two applications performing the same SMS operations remain low. We evaluate the proposed KLD-based concept for identifying a set of malware applications. The initial results show that our approach can identify all known malware and has less false positive warning.

  19. To be liked versus respected: Divergent goals in interracial interactions. (United States)

    Bergsieker, Hilary B; Shelton, J Nicole; Richeson, Jennifer A


    Pervasive representations of Blacks and Latinos as unintelligent and of Whites as racist may give rise to divergent impression management goals in interracial interactions. We present studies showing that in interracial interactions racial minorities seek to be respected and seen as competent more than Whites do, whereas Whites seek to be liked and seen as moral more than racial minorities do. These divergent impression management goals are reflected in Whites' and racial minorities' self-report responses (Studies 1a, 1b, 2, and 4) and behaviors (Studies 3a and 3b). Divergent goals are observed in pre-existing relationships (Study 2), as well as in live interactions (Studies 3a, 3b, and 4), and are associated with higher levels of negative other-directed affect (Study 4). Implications of these goals for interracial communication and misunderstandings are discussed.

  20. Ice flux divergence anomalies on 79north Glacier, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seroussi, H.; Morlighem, M.; Rignot, E.;


    The ice flux divergence of a glacier is an important quantity to examine because it determines the rate of temporal change of its thickness. Here, we combine high-resolution ice surface velocity observations of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden (79north) Glacier, a major outlet glacier in north Greenland......, with a dense grid of ice thickness data collected with an airborne radar sounder in 1998, to examine its ice flux divergence. We detect large variations, up to 100 m/yr, in flux divergence on grounded ice that are incompatible with what we know of the glacier surface mass balance, basal mass balance...... onto a regular grid using a scheme (here block kriging) that does not conserve mass or ice flux. This problem is not unique to 79north Glacier but is common to all conventional ice thickness surveys of glaciers and ice sheets; and fundamentally limits the application of ice thickness grids to high...

  1. Noise Characteristics of Overexpanded Jets from Convergent-Divergent Nozzles (United States)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.


    A broadband noise component occurring in the overexpanded flow regime with convergent-divergent nozzles is identified. Relative to a convergent nozzle, at same pressure ratios, this excess noise can lead to a large increase in the overall sound pressure levels. Several features distinguish it from the more familiar broadband shock associated noise. Unlike the latter, it is observed even at shallow polar locations and there is no noticeable shift of the spectral content in frequency with observation angle. The amplitudes are found to be more pronounced with nozzles having larger half-angle of the divergent section. The noise apparently occurs when a shock resides within the divergent section of the nozzle and results from random unsteady motion of the shock.

  2. Summation of Divergent Power Series by Means of Factorial Series

    CERN Document Server

    Weniger, Ernst Joachim


    Factorial series played a major role in Stirling's classic book "Methodus Differentialis" (1730), but now only a few specialists still use them. This article wants to show that this neglect is unjustified, and that factorial series are useful numerical tools for the summation of divergent (inverse) power series. This is documented by summing the divergent asymptotic expansion for the exponential integral $E_{1} (z)$ and the factorially divergent Rayleigh-Schr\\"{o}dinger perturbation expansion for the quartic anharmonic oscillator. Stirling numbers play a key role since they occur as coefficients in expansions of an inverse power in terms of inverse Pochhammer symbols and vice versa. It is shown that the relationships involving Stirling numbers are special cases of more general orthogonal and triangular transformations.

  3. Impact of discussion on preferences elicited in a group setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milne Ruairidh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completeness of preferences is assumed as one of the axioms of expected utility theory but has been subject to little empirical study. Methods Fifteen non-health professionals was recruited and familiarised with the standard gamble technique. The group then met five times over six months and preferences were elicited independently on 41 scenarios. After individual valuation, the group discussed the scenarios, following which preferences could be changed. Changes made were described and summary measures (mean and median before and after discussion compared using paired t test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out to explore attitudes to discussing preferences. These were transcribed, read by two investigators and emergent themes described. Results Sixteen changes (3.6% were made to preferences by seven (47% of the fifteen members. The difference between individual preference values before and after discussion ranged from -0.025 to 0.45. The average effect on the group mean was 0.0053. No differences before and after discussion were statistically significant. The group valued discussion highly and suggested it brought four main benefits: reassurance; improved procedural performance; increased group cohesion; satisfying curiosity. Conclusion The hypothesis that preferences are incomplete cannot be rejected for a proportion of respondents. However, brief discussion did not result in substantial number of changes to preferences and these did not have significant impact on summary values for the group, suggesting that incompleteness, if present, may not have an important effect on cost-utility analyses.

  4. Role of phosphodiesterase-4 on ethanol elicited locomotion and narcosis. (United States)

    Baliño, Pablo; Ledesma, Juan Carlos; Aragon, Carlos M G


    The cAMP signaling pathway has emerged as an important modulator of the pharmacological effects of ethanol. In this respect, the cAMP-dependent protein kinase has been shown to play an important role in the modulation of several ethanol-induced behavioral actions. Cellular levels of cAMP are maintained by the activity of adenylyl cyclases and phosphodiesterases. In the present work we have focused on ascertaining the role of PDE4 in mediating the neurobehavioral effects of ethanol. For this purpose, we have used the selective PDE4 inhibitor Ro 20-1724. This compound has been proven to enhance cellular cAMP response by PDE4 blockade and can be administered systemically. Swiss mice were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with Ro 20-1724 (0-5 mg/kg; i.p.) at different time intervals before ethanol (0-4 g/kg; i.p.) administration. Immediately after the ethanol injection, locomotor activity, loss of righting reflex, PKA footprint and enzymatic activity were assessed. Pretreatment with Ro 20-1724 increased ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation in a dose-dependent manner. Doses that increased locomotor stimulation did not modify basal locomotion or the suppression of motor activity produced by high doses of this alcohol. Ro 20-1724 did not alter the locomotor activation produced by amphetamine or cocaine. The time of loss of righting reflex evoked by ethanol was increased after pretreatment with Ro 20-1724. This effect was selective for the narcotic effects of ethanol since Ro 20-1724 did not affect pentobarbital-induced narcotic effects. Moreover, Ro 20-1724 administration increased the PKA footprint and enzymatic activity response elicited by ethanol. These data provide further evidence of the key role of the cAMP signaling pathway in the central effects of ethanol.

  5. Functional changes in the snail statocyst system elicited by microgravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel M Balaban

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mollusk statocyst is a mechanosensing organ detecting the animal's orientation with respect to gravity. This system has clear similarities to its vertebrate counterparts: a weight-lending mass, an epithelial layer containing small supporting cells and the large sensory hair cells, and an output eliciting compensatory body reflexes to perturbations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In terrestrial gastropod snail we studied the impact of 16- (Foton M-2 and 12-day (Foton M-3 exposure to microgravity in unmanned orbital missions on: (i the whole animal behavior (Helix lucorum L., (ii the statoreceptor responses to tilt in an isolated neural preparation (Helix lucorum L., and (iii the differential expression of the Helix pedal peptide (HPep and the tetrapeptide FMRFamide genes in neural structures (Helix aspersa L.. Experiments were performed 13-42 hours after return to Earth. Latency of body re-orientation to sudden 90° head-down pitch was significantly reduced in postflight snails indicating an enhanced negative gravitaxis response. Statoreceptor responses to tilt in postflight snails were independent of motion direction, in contrast to a directional preference observed in control animals. Positive relation between tilt velocity and firing rate was observed in both control and postflight snails, but the response magnitude was significantly larger in postflight snails indicating an enhanced sensitivity to acceleration. A significant increase in mRNA expression of the gene encoding HPep, a peptide linked to ciliary beating, in statoreceptors was observed in postflight snails; no differential expression of the gene encoding FMRFamide, a possible neurotransmission modulator, was observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Upregulation of statocyst function in snails following microgravity exposure parallels that observed in vertebrates suggesting fundamental principles underlie gravi-sensing and the organism's ability to adapt to gravity

  6. Metaphors of Distress: Photo-Elicitation Enhances a Discourse Analysis of Parents' Accounts. (United States)

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Vandermause, Roxanne


    In research on sensitive topics, photo-elicitation can be a profound aid to data collection and interpretation processes. Photo-elicitation methods were used in this manner in a discourse analysis of parents' distress at least 6 months after preterm birth. After an initial interview, participants were asked to take digital photographs representing their distress and to return for a second interview to discuss the photographs. The elicited photo representations supported participants' engagement with their current or past distress and generated new meanings from the reappraisal of old photographs. Photo-elicitation demonstrated the embodiment of parents' distress in the child and the placement of distress in specific locations. Photographs of documents showed the power of the written word in generating and maintaining distress. Participants used existing photographs from their child's photo history to generate rich metaphors for their distress as parents. These findings have implications for enhancing interpretive health research by incorporating photo-elicitation methods.

  7. Evolution of Weighted Networks by Duplication-Divergence Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-Guo; YAN Jia-Ren; LIU Zi-Ran; WANG Li


    @@ The duplication and divergence process is ubiquitous in nature and man-made networks. Motivated by the duplication-divergence mechanism which depicts the growth of protein networks, we propose a weighted network model in which topological evolution is coupled with weight dynamics. Large scale numerical results indicate that our model can naturally generate networks with power-law-like distributions of degree, strength and weight.The degree-strength correlation is illustrated as well. These properties are in agreement well with empirical data observed in real-world systems. Furthermore, by altering the retention probability σ, weighted, structured exponential networks are realized.

  8. Interaction of oral bacteria with gingival epithelial cell multilayers. (United States)

    Dickinson, B C; Moffatt, C E; Hagerty, D; Whitmore, S E; Brown, T A; Graves, D T; Lamont, R J


    Primary gingival epithelial cells were cultured in multilayers as a model for the study of interactions with oral bacteria associated with health and periodontal disease. Multilayers maintained at an air-liquid interface in low-calcium medium displayed differentiation and cytokeratin properties characteristic of junctional epithelium. Multilayers were infected with fluorescently labeled Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum or Streptococcus gordonii, and bacterial association was determined by confocal microscopy and quantitative image analysis. Porphyromonas gingivalis invaded intracellularly and spread from cell to cell; A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum remained extracellular and showed intercellular movement through the multilayer; whereas S. gordonii remained extracellular and predominantly associated with the superficial cell layer. None of the bacterial species disrupted barrier function as measured by transepithelial electrical resistance. P. gingivalis did not elicit secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. However, A. actinomycetemcomitans and S. gordonii induced interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6 and IL-8 secretion; and F. nucleatum stimulated production of IL-1β and TNF-α. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, F. nucleatum and S. gordonii, but not P. gingivalis, increased levels of apoptosis after 24 h infection. The results indicate that the organisms with pathogenic potential were able to traverse the epithelium, whereas the commensal bacteria did not. In addition, distinct host responses characterized the interaction between the junctional epithelium and oral bacteria.

  9. Patho-epigenetics of Infectious Diseases Caused by Intracellular Bacteria. (United States)

    Niller, Hans Helmut; Minarovits, Janos


    In multicellular eukaryotes including plants, animals and humans, epigenetic reprogramming may play a role in the pathogenesis of a wide variety of diseases. Recent studies revealed that in addition to viruses, pathogenic bacteria are also capable to dysregulate the epigenetic machinery of their target cells. In this chapter we focus on epigenetic alterations induced by bacteria infecting humans. Most of them are obligate or facultative intracellular bacteria that produce either bacterial toxins and surface proteins targeting the host cell membrane, or synthesise effector proteins entering the host cell nucleus. These bacterial products typically elicit histone modifications, i.e. alter the "histone code". Bacterial pathogens are capable to induce alterations of host cell DNA methylation patterns, too. Such changes in the host cell epigenotype and gene expression pattern may hinder the antibacterial immune response and create favourable conditions for bacterial colonization, growth, or spread. Epigenetic dysregulation mediated by bacterial products may also facilitate the production of inflammatory cytokines and other inflammatory mediators affecting the epigenotype of their target cells. Such indirect epigenetic changes as well as direct interference with the epigenetic machinery of the host cells may contribute to the initiation and progression of malignant tumors associated with distinct bacterial infections.

  10. Ecophysiology of the anammox bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartal, Mustafa Boran


    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria oxidize ammonium to dinitrogen gas with nitrite as the electron acceptor. These bacteria are the key players in the global nitrogen cycle, responsible for the most of nitrogen production in natural ecosystems. The anammox process is also a cost-effecti

  11. Swimming bacteria in liquid crystal (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Zhou, Shuang; Aranson, Igor; Lavrentovich, Oleg


    Dynamics of swimming bacteria can be very complex due to the interaction between the bacteria and the fluid, especially when the suspending fluid is non-Newtonian. Placement of swimming bacteria in lyotropic liquid crystal produces a new class of active materials by combining features of two seemingly incompatible constituents: self-propelled live bacteria and ordered liquid crystals. Here we present fundamentally new phenomena caused by the coupling between direction of bacterial swimming, bacteria-triggered flows and director orientations. Locomotion of bacteria may locally reduce the degree of order in liquid crystal or even trigger nematic-isotropic phase transition. Microscopic flows generated by bacterial flagella disturb director orientation. Emerged birefringence patterns allow direct optical observation and quantitative characterization of flagella dynamics. At high concentration of bacteria we observed the emergence of self-organized periodic texture caused by bacteria swimming. Our work sheds new light on self-organization in hybrid bio-mechanical systems and can lead to valuable biomedical applications. Was supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, under the Contract No. DE AC02-06CH11357.

  12. Motility of electric cable bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner


    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces...... with a highly variable speed of 0.50.3 ms1 (meanstandard deviation) and time between reversals of 155108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed helical rotation of the filaments. Cable bacteria responded to chemical gradients in their environment, and around the oxic......-anoxic interface, they curled and piled up, with straight parts connecting back to the source of sulfide. Thus, it appears that motility serves the cable bacteria in establishing and keeping optimal connections between their distant electron donor and acceptors in a dynamic sediment environment....

  13. Parallel and Divergent Interpreting in an Elementary School Classroom (United States)

    Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Dimling, Lisa M.; Lawson, Heather R.; Golos, Debbie B.


    The study examined the extent to which a highly qualified interpreter remained parallel with or diverged from the original classroom discourse in her interpreting for a 3rd-grade deaf student in science, social studies, and resource room. The interpreter's signed and verbalized expressions were compared to the class participants' expressions for…

  14. Three dimensional simulations of viscous folding in diverging microchannels (United States)

    Xu, Bingrui; Chergui, Jalel; Shin, Seungwon; Juric, Damir


    Three dimensional simulations on the viscous folding in diverging microchannels reported by Cubaud and Mason are performed using the parallel code BLUE for multi-phase flows. The more viscous liquid L1 is injected into the channel from the center inlet, and the less viscous liquid L2 from two side inlets. Liquid L1 takes the form of a thin filament due to hydrodynamic focusing in the long channel that leads to the diverging region. The thread then becomes unstable to a folding instability, due to the longitudinal compressive stress applied to it by the diverging flow of liquid L2. We performed a parameter study in which the flow rate ratio, the viscosity ratio, the Reynolds number, and the shape of the channel were varied relative to a reference model. In our simulations, the cross section of the thread produced by focusing is elliptical rather than circular. The initial folding axis can be either parallel or perpendicular to the narrow dimension of the chamber. In the former case, the folding slowly transforms via twisting to perpendicular folding, or it may remain parallel. The direction of folding onset is determined by the velocity profile and the elliptical shape of the thread cross section in the channel that feeds the diverging part of the cell.

  15. Determining divergence times with a protein clock: update and reevaluation (United States)

    Feng, D. F.; Cho, G.; Doolittle, R. F.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)


    A recent study of the divergence times of the major groups of organisms as gauged by amino acid sequence comparison has been expanded and the data have been reanalyzed with a distance measure that corrects for both constraints on amino acid interchange and variation in substitution rate at different sites. Beyond that, the availability of complete genome sequences for several eubacteria and an archaebacterium has had a great impact on the interpretation of certain aspects of the data. Thus, the majority of the archaebacterial sequences are not consistent with currently accepted views of the Tree of Life which cluster the archaebacteria with eukaryotes. Instead, they are either outliers or mixed in with eubacterial orthologs. The simplest resolution of the problem is to postulate that many of these sequences were carried into eukaryotes by early eubacterial endosymbionts about 2 billion years ago, only very shortly after or even coincident with the divergence of eukaryotes and archaebacteria. The strong resemblances of these same enzymes among the major eubacterial groups suggest that the cyanobacteria and Gram-positive and Gram-negative eubacteria also diverged at about this same time, whereas the much greater differences between archaebacterial and eubacterial sequences indicate these two groups may have diverged between 3 and 4 billion years ago.

  16. Divergent paralogues of ribosomal DNA in eucalypts (Myrtaceae). (United States)

    Bayly, Michael J; Ladiges, Pauline Y


    The presence of divergent paralogues of nuclear ribosomal DNA, from the 18S-5.8S-26S cistron, is reported in members of Eucalyptus subg. Eucalyptus. These paralogues, which include non-functional pseudogenes, probably diverged prior to the differentiation of species groups in subg. Eucalyptus. When compared with presumably functional sequences, the pseudogenes show greater sequence variation between species, particularly in the 5.8S gene. They are also characterised by reduced GC content, associated with a reduced number of CpG and CpNpG methylation sites, and an increase in the inferred number of methylation-induced substitutions. Some pseudogenes also lack motifs that are usually conserved in plants, both in ITS1 and the 5.8S gene. Two main lineages of pseudogenes are identified, one isolated from a group of western Australian species, one from a group of eastern Australian species. It is not clear whether these two lineages of pseudogenes are orthologous, or represent independent divergences from functional sequence types. The presence of divergent rDNA paralogues highlights the need for caution when interpreting eucalypt phylogenies based on ITS sequences.

  17. Convergent and Divergent Validity of the Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (United States)

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Fishman, Callen


    This study assessed the convergent and divergent validity of the Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA; LeBuffe, Shapiro, & Naglieri, 2008). A total of 227 (n = 94 teachers, n = 133 parents) raters completed the DESSA, in addition to the Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scales-2 (BERS-2; Epstein, 2004) and/or the Behavior Assessment…

  18. Mass generation and the problem of seagull divergences

    CERN Document Server

    Figueiredo, C T


    The gluon mass generation is a purely non-perturbative effect, and the natural framework to study it in the continuum are the Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDEs) of the theory. At the level of the SDEs the generation of such a mass is associated with the existence of infrared finite solutions for the gluon propagator. From the theoretical point of view, the dynamical gluon mass generation has been traditionally plagued with seagull divergences. In this work, we will review how such divergences can be eliminated completely by virtue of a characteristic identity, valid in dimensional regularization. As a pedagogical example, we will first discuss in the context of scalar QED how it is possible to eliminate all seagull divergences, by triggering the aforementioned special identity, which enforces the masslessness of the photon. Then, we will discuss what happens in QCD and present an Ansatz for the three gluon vertex, which completely eliminates all seagull divergences and at same time allows for the possibility of...

  19. Navier–Stokes flow in converging–diverging distensible tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Sochi


    Full Text Available We use a method based on the lubrication approximation in conjunction with a residual-based mass-continuity iterative solution scheme to compute the flow rate and pressure field in distensible converging–diverging tubes for Navier–Stokes fluids. We employ an analytical formula derived from a one-dimensional version of the Navier–Stokes equations to describe the underlying flow model that provides the residual function. This formula correlates the flow rate to the boundary pressures in straight cylindrical elastic tubes with constant-radius. We validate our findings by the convergence toward a final solution with fine discretization as well as by comparison to the Poiseuille-type flow in its convergence toward analytic solutions found earlier in rigid converging–diverging tubes. We also tested the method on limiting special cases of cylindrical elastic tubes with constant-radius where the numerical solutions converged to the expected analytical solutions. The distensible model has also been endorsed by its convergence toward the rigid Poiseuille-type model with increasing the tube wall stiffness. Lubrication-based one-dimensional finite element method was also used for verification. In this investigation five converging–diverging geometries are used for demonstration, validation and as prototypes for modeling converging–diverging geometries in general.

  20. Ground state energies from converging and diverging power series expansions (United States)

    Lisowski, C.; Norris, S.; Pelphrey, R.; Stefanovich, E.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.


    It is often assumed that bound states of quantum mechanical systems are intrinsically non-perturbative in nature and therefore any power series expansion methods should be inapplicable to predict the energies for attractive potentials. However, if the spatial domain of the Schrödinger Hamiltonian for attractive one-dimensional potentials is confined to a finite length L, the usual Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory can converge rapidly and is perfectly accurate in the weak-binding region where the ground state's spatial extension is comparable to L. Once the binding strength is so strong that the ground state's extension is less than L, the power expansion becomes divergent, consistent with the expectation that bound states are non-perturbative. However, we propose a new truncated Borel-like summation technique that can recover the bound state energy from the diverging sum. We also show that perturbation theory becomes divergent in the vicinity of an avoided-level crossing. Here the same numerical summation technique can be applied to reproduce the energies from the diverging perturbative sums.

  1. Diverging trends in female old-age mortality: A reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Staetsky


    Full Text Available Over the second half of the 20th century a number of divergences and convergences of mortality schedules were observed across the world. Some of these developments remain incompletely understood. In recent overviews of old-age female mortality Mesle and Vallin (2006, Population and Development Review and Rau, Soroko, Jasilionis, and Vaupel (2008, Population and Development Review describe two contrasting patterns of mortality change between the mid-1980s and the end of the 20th century: a pattern of a large decrease in mortality exhibited by France and Japan and a pattern of a smaller decrease, stability or a certain increase in mortality shown by Denmark, the United States and the Netherlands. No satisfactory explanation of this phenomenon has been proposed so far. This paper shows that the divergence is, to a very significant extent, due to the differential impact of smoking related mortality on female populations of France and Japan versus Denmark, the United States and the Netherlands. The end to the diverging trends is demonstrated. Other lifestyle factors potentially implicated in the divergence are also discussed.

  2. Bubble divergences and gauge symmetries in spin foams

    CERN Document Server

    Bonzom, Valentin


    Spin foams are candidate state-sum models for transition amplitudes in quantum gravity. An active research subject is to identify the possible divergences of spin foam models, or alternatively to show that models are finite. We will discuss in detail the (non--occurrence of) divergences in the Barrett-Crane model, formulated as an integral of delta function weights only. We will furthermore present a simple method to estimate the divergence degree of the so-called bubbles for general spin foam models. Divergences in spin foams are expected to be related to the existence of gauge symmetries (diffeomorphisms). Thus we have to conclude that such gauge symmetries are not (fully) present in the model we consider. But we will identify a class of gauge symmetries which occur at special solutions of the equations imposed by the delta function weights. This situation is surprisingly similar to the case of broken diffeomorphism symmetries in discrete gravity, which are present around flat solutions. We introduce a meth...

  3. Constrained Transport vs. Divergence Cleanser Options in Astrophysical MHD Simulations (United States)

    Lindner, Christopher C.; Fragile, P.


    In previous work, we presented results from global numerical simulations of the evolution of black hole accretion disks using the Cosmos++ GRMHD code. In those simulations we solved the magnetic induction equation using an advection-split form, which is known not to satisfy the divergence-free constraint. To minimize the build-up of divergence error, we used a hyperbolic cleanser function that simultaneously damped the error and propagated it off the grid. We have since found that this method produces qualitatively and quantitatively different behavior in high magnetic field regions than results published by other research groups, particularly in the evacuated funnels of black-hole accretion disks where Poynting-flux jets are reported to form. The main difference between our earlier work and that of our competitors is their use of constrained-transport schemes to preserve a divergence-free magnetic field. Therefore, to study these differences directly, we have implemented a constrained transport scheme into Cosmos++. Because Cosmos++ uses a zone-centered, finite-volume method, we can not use the traditional staggered-mesh constrained transport scheme of Evans & Hawley. Instead we must implement a more general scheme; we chose the Flux-CT scheme as described by Toth. Here we present comparisons of results using the divergence-cleanser and constrained transport options in Cosmos++.

  4. Divergent RNA transcription: a role in promoter unwinding? (United States)

    Naughton, Catherine; Corless, Samuel; Gilbert, Nick


    New approaches using biotinylated-psoralen as a probe for investigating DNA structure have revealed new insights into the relationship between DNA supercoiling, transcription and chromatin compaction. We explore a hypothesis that divergent RNA transcription generates negative supercoiling at promoters facilitating initiation complex formation and subsequent promoter clearance.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhikang Lu; Xifang Ge


    This paper shows that the sequence of Lagrange interpolation polynomials corresponding to the function f(x) = |x|α(1 <α< 2) on [-1, 1] can diverge everywhere in the interval except at zero and the end-points.

  6. Micropolar Fluids Using B-spline Divergence Conforming Spaces

    KAUST Repository

    Sarmiento, Adel


    We discretized the two-dimensional linear momentum, microrotation, energy and mass conservation equations from micropolar fluids theory, with the finite element method, creating divergence conforming spaces based on B-spline basis functions to obtain pointwise divergence free solutions [8]. Weak boundary conditions were imposed using Nitsche\\'s method for tangential conditions, while normal conditions were imposed strongly. Once the exact mass conservation was provided by the divergence free formulation, we focused on evaluating the differences between micropolar fluids and conventional fluids, to show the advantages of using the micropolar fluid model to capture the features of complex fluids. A square and an arc heat driven cavities were solved as test cases. A variation of the parameters of the model, along with the variation of Rayleigh number were performed for a better understanding of the system. The divergence free formulation was used to guarantee an accurate solution of the flow. This formulation was implemented using the framework PetIGA as a basis, using its parallel stuctures to achieve high scalability. The results of the square heat driven cavity test case are in good agreement with those reported earlier.

  7. Gauge-Invariance and Infrared Divergences in the Luminosity Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Biern, Sang Gyu


    Measurements of the luminosity distance have played a key role in discovering the late-time cosmic accel- eration. However, when accounting for inhomogeneities in the Universe, its interpretation has been plagued with infrared divergences in its theoretical predictions, which are in some cases used to explain the cosmic ac- celeration without dark energy. The divergences in most calculations are artificially removed by imposing an infrared cut-off scale. For the first time, we show that a gauge-invariant calculation of the luminosity distance is devoid of such divergences and consistent with the equivalence principle, eliminating the need to impose a cut-off scale. We present proper numerical calculations of the luminosity distance using the gauge-invariant expression and demonstrate that the numerical results with an ad hoc cut-off scale in previous calculations have negligible systematic errors as long as the cut-off scale is larger than the horizon scale. We discuss the origin of infrared divergences and t...

  8. Play and Divergent Problem Solving: Evidence Supporting a Reciprocal Relationship. (United States)

    Wyver, Shirley R.; Spence, Susan H.


    Three studies examined the relationship between specific forms of preschoolers' social and pretend play and divergent/convergent problem solving. Naturalistic and experimental designs were used to provide clearer account of relationship and to challenge assumption of single direction of influence. Results support complex reciprocal causality model…

  9. Video elicitation interviews: a qualitative research method for investigating physician-patient interactions. (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G; Fetters, Michael D


    We describe the concept and method of video elicitation interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video elicitation interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an elicitation tool. Video elicitation is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants' associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from elicitation interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific events or moments during interactions. Video elicitation interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video elicitation interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care.

  10. Deep mtDNA divergences indicate cryptic species in a fig-pollinating wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Joanne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Figs and fig-pollinating wasps are obligate mutualists that have coevolved for ca 90 million years. They have radiated together, but do not show strict cospeciation. In particular, it is now clear that many fig species host two wasp species, so there is more wasp speciation than fig speciation. However, little is known about how fig wasps speciate. Results We studied variation in 71 fig-pollinating wasps from across the large geographic range of Ficus rubiginosa in Australia. All wasps sampled belong to one morphological species (Pleistodontes imperialis, but we found four deep mtDNA clades that differed from each other by 9–17% nucleotides. As these genetic distances exceed those normally found within species and overlap those (10–26% found between morphologically distinct Pleistodontes species, they strongly suggest cryptic fig wasp species. mtDNA clade diversity declines from all four present in Northern Queensland to just one in Sydney, near the southern range limit. However, at most sites multiple clades coexist and can be found in the same tree or even the same fig fruit and there is no evidence for parallel sub-division of the host fig species. Both mtDNA data and sequences from two nuclear genes support the monophyly of the "P. imperialis complex" relative to other Pleistodontes species, suggesting that fig wasp divergence has occurred without any host plant shift. Wasps in clade 3 were infected by a single strain (W1 of Wolbachia bacteria, while those in other clades carried a double infection (W2+W3 of two other strains. Conclusion Our study indicates that cryptic fig-pollinating wasp species have developed on a single host plant species, without the involvement of host plant shifts, or parallel host plant divergence. Despite extensive evidence for coevolution between figs and fig wasps, wasp speciation may not always be linked strongly with fig speciation.

  11. A strategy for eliciting antibodies against cryptic, conserved, conformationally dependent epitopes of HIV envelope glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna C Kelker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Novel strategies are needed for the elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies to the HIV envelope glycoprotein, gp120. Experimental evidence suggests that combinations of antibodies that are broadly neutralizing in vitro may protect against challenge with HIV in nonhuman primates, and a small number of these antibodies have been selected by repertoire sampling of B cells and by the fractionation of antiserum from some patients with prolonged disease. Yet no additional strategies for identifying conserved epitopes, eliciting antibodies to these epitopes, and determining whether these epitopes are accessible to antibodies have been successful to date. The defining of additional conserved, accessible epitopes against which one can elicit antibodies will increase the probability that some may be the targets of broadly neutralizing antibodies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We postulate that additional cryptic epitopes of gp120 are present, against which neutralizing antibodies might be elicited even though these antibodies are not elicited by gp120, and that many of these epitopes may be accessible to antibodies should they be formed. We demonstrate a strategy for eliciting antibodies in mice against selected cryptic, conformationally dependent conserved epitopes of gp120 by immunizing with multiple identical copies of covalently linked peptides (MCPs. This has been achieved with MCPs representing 3 different domains of gp120. We show that some cryptic epitopes on gp120 are accessible to the elicited antibodies, and some epitopes in the CD4 binding region are not accessible. The antibodies bind to gp120 with relatively high affinity, and bind to oligomeric gp120 on the surface of infected cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Immunization with MCPs comprised of selected peptides of HIV gp120 is able to elicit antibodies against conserved, conformationally dependent epitopes of gp120 that are not immunogenic when presented as gp120. Some

  12. Mitochondrial divergence between slow- and fast-aging garter snakes. (United States)

    Schwartz, Tonia S; Arendsee, Zebulun W; Bronikowski, Anne M


    Mitochondrial function has long been hypothesized to be intimately involved in aging processes--either directly through declining efficiency of mitochondrial respiration and ATP production with advancing age, or indirectly, e.g., through increased mitochondrial production of damaging free radicals with age. Yet we lack a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of mitochondrial genotypes and phenotypes across diverse animal models, particularly in species that have extremely labile physiology. Here, we measure mitochondrial genome-types and transcription in ecotypes of garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans) that are adapted to disparate habitats and have diverged in aging rates and lifespans despite residing in close proximity. Using two RNA-seq datasets, we (1) reconstruct the garter snake mitochondrial genome sequence and bioinformatically identify regulatory elements, (2) test for divergence of mitochondrial gene expression between the ecotypes and in response to heat stress, and (3) test for sequence divergence in mitochondrial protein-coding regions in these slow-aging (SA) and fast-aging (FA) naturally occurring ecotypes. At the nucleotide sequence level, we confirmed two (duplicated) mitochondrial control regions one of which contains a glucocorticoid response element (GRE). Gene expression of protein-coding genes was higher in FA snakes relative to SA snakes for most genes, but was neither affected by heat stress nor an interaction between heat stress and ecotype. SA and FA ecotypes had unique mitochondrial haplotypes with amino acid substitutions in both CYTB and ND5. The CYTB amino acid change (Isoleucine → Threonine) was highly segregated between ecotypes. This divergence of mitochondrial haplotypes between SA and FA snakes contrasts with nuclear gene-flow estimates, but correlates with previously reported divergence in mitochondrial function (mitochondrial oxygen consumption, ATP production, and reactive oxygen species consequences).

  13. Motility of Electric Cable Bacteria


    Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Holm, Simon Agner; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter


    Cable bacteria are filamentous bacteria that electrically couple sulfide oxidation and oxygen reduction at centimeter distances, and observations in sediment environments have suggested that they are motile. By time-lapse microscopy, we found that cable bacteria used gliding motility on surfaces with a highly variable speed of 0.5 ± 0.3 μm s−1 (mean ± standard deviation) and time between reversals of 155 ± 108 s. They frequently moved forward in loops, and formation of twisted loops revealed ...

  14. Sampling bacteria with a laser (United States)

    Schwarzwälder, Kordula; Rutschmann, Peter


    Water quality is a topic of high interest and it's getting more and more important due to climate change and the implementation of European Water Framework Directive (WFD). One point of interest here is the inflow of bacteria into a river caused by combined sewer overflows which lead untreated wastewater including bacteria directly into a river. These bacteria remain in the river for a certain time, they settle down and can be remobilised again. In our study we want to investigate these processes of sedimentation and resuspension and use the results for the development of a software module coupled with the software Flow3D. Thereby we should be able to simulate and therefore predict the water quality influenced by combined sewer overflows. Hence we need to get information about the bacteria transport and fate. We need to know about the size of the bacteria or of the bacteria clumps and the size of the particles the bacteria are attached to. The agglomerates lead to different characteristics and velocities of settlement. The timespan during this bacteria can be detected in the bulk phase depends on many factors like the intensity of UV light, turbidity of the water, the temperature of the water, if there are grazers and a lot more. The size, density and composition of the agglomerates is just a part of all these influencing factors, but it is extremely difficult to differ between the other effects if we have no information about the simple sedimentation in default of these basic information. However we have a big problem getting the data. The chaining between bacteria or bacteria and particles is not too strong, so filtering the water to get a sieving curve may destroy these connections. We did some experiments similar to PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements and evaluated the pictures with a macro written for the software ImageJ. Doing so we were able to get the concentration of bacteria in the water and collect information about the size of the bacteria. We

  15. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN


    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Mega

  16. Divergência genética em linhagens de melancia Genetic divergence in watermelon lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de França Souza


    Full Text Available A divergência genética entre 31 genótipos de melancia foi avaliada por meio da análise de variáveis canônicas e de técnicas de agrupamento (Tocher e método hierárquico de Ward baseadas na distância generalizada de Mahalanobis (D²ii'. Trinta linhagens, obtidas a partir de acessos coletados no Nordeste brasileiro e a cultivar 'Crimson Sweet' foram avaliadas quanto ao número de dias para o aparecimento da primeira flor masculina e da primeira flor feminina (NDM e NDF; número do nó da primeira flor masculina e da primeira flor feminina (NGM e NGF; número de frutos por planta (NFP; comprimento de rama principal (CRP; peso médio de fruto (PMF; teor de sólidos solúveis (TSS; diâmetro transversal e longitudinal do fruto (DTF e DLF e espessura média de casca (EMC. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento de blocos ao acaso com três repetições, compostas por parcelas de sete plantas. As características que mais contribuíram para a divergência entre as linhagens foram número de frutos por planta, diâmetro longitudinal, teor de sólidos solúveis e peso médio de fruto. Foram formados três grupos por meio do método de otimização de Tocher, três por meio do método hierárquico de Ward e quatro grupos pela dispersão gráfica baseada nas duas primeiras variáveis canônicas. Neste caso, o grupo I compôs-se de sete linhagens de Pernambuco e uma da Bahia; o grupo II reuniu todas as 21 linhagens do Maranhão; os grupos III e IV foram compostos pela linhagem 97-0247.008 (Pernambuco e pela cultivar Crimson Sweet, respectivamente. As linhagens 87-019.021 e 87-019.022 foram as mais semelhantes, enquanto a linhagem 87-019.023 e 'Crimson Sweet' apresentaram maior dissimilaridade pela distância generalizada Mahalanobis (D²ii'. Os cruzamentos mais promissores serão aqueles realizados entre Crimson Sweet e as linhagens do grupo II. Cruzamentos entre Crimson Sweet e as linhagens do grupo I serão interessantes para a obtenção de

  17. Importance of the host specificity in the selection of probiotic bacteria. (United States)

    Dogi, Cecilia A; Perdigón, Gabriela


    The gastrointestinal tract is a complex and dynamic ecosystem. Commensal microorganisms (C), which proliferate in the intestine from birth, are crucial for gut homeostasis while non commensal (NC) microorganisms are transient and enter the organism from the environment and foods. We studied comparatively the influence of oral administration of C and NC Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacilus acidophilus on the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) of conventional mice. To determine the importance of the selection of probiotic host-specificity bacteria with immunomodulating capacity, we examined the interaction with the gut by transmission electron microscopy and FITC-labelled bacteria. We compared the immunomodulation capacities of C and NC strains by studying the number of IgA secreting cells and cytokine profile. No differences were found in the number of IgA+ cells; however, the pattern of cytokine response to C and NC bacteria was different. With regard to proinflammatory cytokine (IFNgamma and TNFalpha), we found that TNFalpha was mainly produced by NC bacteria, while C bacteria were able to elicit mainly IFNgamma. The regulatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-4) were induced with different patterns for both C and NC strains. No differences in the pathway of internalization to the gut between C and NC were found. In summary, we determined that C and NC bacteria interact with the intestine in the same way; both C and NC bacteria were able to reinforce the surveillance of the gut mucosal immune system. The cytokine profile showed that C bacteria would be involved in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis rather than in the immune activation as the NC bacteria.

  18. Effects of Partially N-acetylated Chitosans to Elicit Resistance Reaction on Brassica napus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-kun; TANG Zhang-lin; CHEN Li; GUO Yi-hong; CHEN Yun-ping; LI Jia-na


    The effects to elicit resistance reaction on oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv Xinongchangjiao )by four partially N-acetylated chitosan 7B, 8B, 9B and 10B (Degree of acetylation (D. A. ) is 30%, 20%,10%, 0%, respectively) and Glycol chitosan (GC, D.A. is 0%) were investigated and compared. Results showed that chitosan were similar to salicylic acid (SA), and could induce resistance reaction, but the reaction was influenced by the degree of acetylation of chitosan. Fully deacetylated chitosans, 10B and GC, elicited chitinase activity, but partially acetylated chitosan, 7B, 8B and 9B, inhibited chitinase activity. Phenyalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was also elicited. Elicitor activity increased with on increasing degree of acetylation, 7B induced highest PAL activity among all chitosans. All chitosans induced peroxidase (POD) in a similar level.After elicited by glycol chitosan, like SA treatment, the seedlings increased disease resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum significantly.

  19. Auditory evoked fields elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal changes in human cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidehiko eOkamoto


    Full Text Available Natural sounds contain complex spectral components, which are temporally modulated as time-varying signals. Recent studies have suggested that the auditory system encodes spectral and temporal sound information differently. However, it remains unresolved how the human brain processes sounds containing both spectral and temporal changes. In the present study, we investigated human auditory evoked responses elicited by spectral, temporal, and spectral-temporal sound changes by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG. The auditory evoked responses elicited by the spectral-temporal change were very similar to those elicited by the spectral change, but those elicited by the temporal change were delayed by 30 – 50 ms and differed from the others in morphology. The results suggest that human brain responses corresponding to spectral sound changes precede those corresponding to temporal sound changes, even when the spectral and temporal changes occur simultaneously.

  20. Conditioning stimulation techniques for enhancement of transcranially elicited evoked motor responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Journee, H. -L.; Polak, H. E.; De Kleuver, M.


    Introduction. - In spite of the use of multipulse, transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) is still insufficient in a subgroup of patients to elicit motor-evoked potentials during intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM). Classic facilitation methods used in awake patients are precluded

  1. Variation in accumulation of isoflavonoids in Phaseoleae seedlings elicited by Rhizopus. (United States)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Andini, Silvia; Bettonvil, Monique; Severing, Edouard; Vincken, Jean-Paul


    Seeds from seven species of tribe Phaseoleae, i.e. Phaseolus, Vigna, Lablab and Psophocarpus, were investigated for inducibility of isoflavonoids by germination with or without subsequent elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae. Germination alone poorly induced isoflavonoid production (in the range of 0.2-0.7 mg representative compound equivalents (RCE)/g DW), whereas application of Rhizopus onto the seedlings increased the isoflavonoid content considerably (in the range of 0.5-3.3 mg RCE/g DW). The inducibility of different isoflavonoid subclasses in seedlings with Rhizopus varied per species. Isoflavones and isoflavanones were mainly found in elicited seedlings of Phaseolus, Vigna and Lablab, whereas pterocarpans were mainly observed in those of Psophocarpus. Despite their phylogenetic relatedness, the seeds of various species within Phaseoleae appeared to respond differently towards elicitation by Rhizopus during germination. The kind of molecules induced followed the phylogenetic relationship of the various species, but their amounts induced during germination, alone or combined with elicitation, did not.

  2. Modulation of Quorum Sensing in Acylhomoserine Lactone-Producing or -Degrading Tobacco Plants Leads to Alteration of Induced Systemic Resistance Elicited by the Rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens 90-166

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong-Min Ryu


    Full Text Available Numerous root-associated bacteria (rhizobacteria are known to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR in plants. Bacterial cell-density-dependent quorum sensing (QS is thought to be important for ISR. Here, we investigated the role of QS in the ISR elicited by the rhizobacterium, Serratia marcescens strain 90–166, in tobacco. Since S. marcescens 90–166 produces at least three QS signals, QS-mediated ISR in strain 90–166 has been difficult to understand. Therefore, we investigated the ISR capacity of two transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum plants that contained either bacterial acylhomoserine lactone-producing (AHL or -degrading (AiiA genes in conjunction with S. marcescens 90–166 to induce resistance against bacterial and viral pathogens. Root application of S. marcescens 90–166 increased ISR to the bacterial pathogens, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, in AHL plants and decreased ISR in AiiA plants. In contrast, ISR to Cucumber mosaic virus was reduced in AHL plants treated with S. marcescens 90–166 but enhanced in AiiA plants. Taken together, these data indicate that QS-dependent ISR is elicited by S. marcescens 90–166 in a pathogen-dependent manner. This study provides insight into QS-dependent ISR in tobacco elicited by S. marcescens 90–166.

  3. Modulation of Quorum Sensing in Acylhomoserine Lactone-Producing or -Degrading Tobacco Plants Leads to Alteration of Induced Systemic Resistance Elicited by the Rhizobacterium Serratia marcescens 90-166. (United States)

    Ryu, Choong-Min; Choi, Hye Kyung; Lee, Chi-Ho; Murphy, John F; Lee, Jung-Kee; Kloepper, Joseph W


    Numerous root-associated bacteria (rhizobacteria) are known to elicit induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants. Bacterial cell-density-dependent quorum sensing (QS) is thought to be important for ISR. Here, we investigated the role of QS in the ISR elicited by the rhizobacterium, Serratia marcescens strain 90-166, in tobacco. Since S. marcescens 90-166 produces at least three QS signals, QS-mediated ISR in strain 90-166 has been difficult to understand. Therefore, we investigated the ISR capacity of two transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants that contained either bacterial acylhomoserine lactone-producing (AHL) or -degrading (AiiA) genes in conjunction with S. marcescens 90-166 to induce resistance against bacterial and viral pathogens. Root application of S. marcescens 90-166 increased ISR to the bacterial pathogens, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, in AHL plants and decreased ISR in AiiA plants. In contrast, ISR to Cucumber mosaic virus was reduced in AHL plants treated with S. marcescens 90-166 but enhanced in AiiA plants. Taken together, these data indicate that QS-dependent ISR is elicited by S. marcescens 90-166 in a pathogen-dependent manner. This study provides insight into QS-dependent ISR in tobacco elicited by S. marcescens 90-166.

  4. Differential Innate Immune Stimulation Elicited by Adenovirus and Poxvirus Vaccine Vectors


    Teigler, Jeffrey Edward


    Vaccines are one of the most effective advances in medical science and continue to be developed for applications against infectious diseases, cancers, and autoimmunity. A common strategy for vaccine construction is the use of viral vectors derived from various virus families, with Adenoviruses (Ad) and Poxviruses (Pox) being extensively used. Studies utilizing viral vectors have shown a broad variety of vaccine-elicited immune response phenotypes. However, innate immune stimulation elicited b...

  5. Reduction of fear arousal in young adults with speech anxiety through elicitation of positive emotions


    Hannesdottir, Dagmar Kristin


    A research study was conducted to examine Fredricksonâ s Broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions in a speech anxious sample of undergraduate students. Experimental elicitation of positive emotions has previously been shown to speed cardiovascular recovery, increase attention, and broaden thought-action repertoires compared to elicitation of negative or neutral emotions (Fredrickson et al., 2000). 88 undergraduate students were selected from a screening process based on their reported s...

  6. Quality Requirements Elicitation based on Inquiry of Quality-Impact Relationships


    Fotrousi, Farnaz; Fricker, Samuel (Ed.); Fiedler, Markus


    Quality requirements, an important class of non functional requirements, are inherently difficult to elicit. Particularly challenging is the definition of good-enough quality. The problem cannot be avoided though, because hitting the right quality level is critical. Too little quality leads to churn for the software product. Excessive quality generates unnecessary cost and drains the resources of the operating platform. To address this problem, we propose to elicit the specific relationships ...

  7. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potentials of Nigella sativa L. Suspension Cultures under Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hera Chaudhry


    Full Text Available Nigella sativa L. (family Ranunculaceae is an annual herb of immense medicinal properties because of its major active components (i.e., thymoquinone (TQ, thymohydroquinone (THQ, and thymol (THY. Plant tissue culture techniques like elicitation, Agrobacterium mediated transformation, hairy root culture, and so on, are applied for substantial metabolite production. This study enumerates the antibacterial and antioxidant potentials of N. sativa epicotyl suspension cultures under biotic and abiotic elicitation along with concentration optimization of the elicitors for enhanced TQ and THY production. Cultures under different concentrations of pectin and manganese chloride (MnCl2 elicitation (i.e., 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, and 15 mg/L showed that the control, MnCl2 10 mg/L, and pectin 15 mg/L suspension extracts greatly inhibited the growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus (MIC against E. coli, i.e., 2.35±0.8, 2.4±0.2, and 2.46±0.5, resp.. Elicitation decreased SOD enzyme activity whereas CAT enzyme activity increased remarkably under MnCl2 elicitation. MnCl2 10 mg/L and pectin 15 mg/L elicitation enhanced the DPPH radical inhibition ability, but ferric scavenging activity was comparable to the control. TQ and THY were quantified by LC-MS/MS in the cultures with high bioactive properties revealing maximum content under MnCl2 10 mg/L elicitation. Therefore, MnCl2 elicitation can be undertaken on large scale for sustainable metabolite production.

  8. Muscular reflexes elicited by electrical stimulation of the anterior cruciate ligament in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhre-Poulsen, P; Krogsgaard, M R


    , a muscular contraction of the semitendinosus muscle could be elicited with stimulus trains consisting of at least two stimuli. The latency was 95 +/- 35 ms. Stimulation during isometric contraction of either extensor or flexor muscles elicited a short, complete inhibition of the muscle activity...... in the contracting muscles. The latency of the inhibitory responses was 65 +/- 20 ms in the semitendinosus muscle and 70 +/- 15 ms in the rectus femoris muscle....

  9. Divergent effects of amygdala glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors in the regulation of visceral and somatic pain. (United States)

    Myers, Brent; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley


    Elevated amygdala activity and increased responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis have been observed in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Recently, we demonstrated that corticosterone (Cort) placed on the amygdala induced anxiety-like behavior coupled with decreased thresholds for visceral and somatic pain in rats. Moreover, these studies suggested that the effects of Cort were dependent on both the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR); however, the specific contributions of these receptors to the interaction between corticosteroids and the amygdala are still unclear. In the present study, we sought to define the distinct roles of amygdaloid GR and MR in anxiety-like behavior, visceral sensitivity, and somatic sensitivity through selective pharmacological activation. Male Fischer 344 rats received bilateral implants on the dorsal margin of the central amygdala containing the GR agonist dexamethasone (Dex), the MR agonist aldosterone (Aldo), or cholesterol as a control. Our results showed that GR or MR activation significantly reduced open arm exploration on the elevated plus maze, a measure of anxiety-like behavior. Aldo increased the number of abdominal muscle contractions in response to all levels of colorectal distension (CRD). In contrast, Dex only increased visceral sensitivity at noxious levels of CRD. Furthermore, GR but not MR activation reduced somatic pain thresholds measured by the mechanical force required to elicit hindlimb withdrawal. In summary, GR and MR mediated-mechanisms induce anxiety and visceral hypersensitivity, whereas somatic sensitivity involves only GR, suggesting that corticosteroids may enhance visceral and somatic sensation via divergent processes originating in the amygdala and involving specific steroid receptor mechanisms.

  10. An oral recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mutant elicits systemic antigen-specific CD8+ T cell cytokine responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin'ombe Nyasha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The induction of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell cytokine responses against an attenuated, oral recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP model antigen was investigated. A GFP expression plasmid was constructed in which the gfp gene was fused in-frame with the 5' domain of the Escherichia coli β-galactosidase α-gene fragment with expression under the lac promoter. Groups of mice were orally immunized three times with the bacteria and systemic CD8+ T cell cytokine responses were evaluated. Results High level of the GFP model antigen was expressed by the recombinant Salmonella vaccine vector. Systemic GFP-specific CD8+ T cell cytokine (IFN-γ and IL-4 immune responses were detected after mice were orally vaccinated with the bacteria. It was shown that 226 net IFN-γ and 132 net IL-4 GFP-specific SFUs/10e6 splenocytes were formed in an ELISPOT assay. The level of IFN-γ produced by GFP peptide-stimulated cells was 65.2-fold above background (p Conclusion These results suggested that a high expressing recombinant Salmonella vaccine given orally to mice would elicit antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses in the spleen. Salmonella bacteria may, therefore, be used as potential mucosal vaccine vectors.





    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LA...

  12. Thymidine kinase diversity in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrini, Michael; Clausen, A.R.; Munch-Petersen, B.


    Thymidine kinases (TKs) appear to be almost ubiquitous and are found in nearly all prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and several viruses. They are the key enzymes in thymidine salvage and activation of several anti-cancer and antiviral drugs. We show that bacterial TKs can be subdivided into 2 groups. The....... The TKs from Gram-positive bacteria are more closely related to the eukaryotic TK1 enzymes than are TKs from Gram-negative bacteria....

  13. A comparative effect of 3 disinfectants on heterotrophic bacteria, iron bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The disinfection effect of chlorine dioxide, chlorine and their mixture on heterotrophic bacteria, iron bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria in circulating cooling water was studied. The results of the test indicated that high purity chlorine dioxide was the most effective biocide in the 3 disinfectants, and with a dosage of 0.5mg/L, chlorine dioxide could obtain perfect effect. High purity chloride dioxide could have the excellent effect with the pH value of 6 to 10, and could keep it within 72 h. Chlorine and their mixture couldn't reach the effect of chlorine dioxide.

  14. Impaired cardiovascular function caused by different stressors elicits a common pathological and transcriptional response in zebrafish embryos. (United States)

    Chen, Jing


    Zebrafish embryos have been widely used to study the genes and processes needed for normal vertebrate heart development. We recently observed that exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetra-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or retinoic acid (RA) produces very similar signs of heart failure in developing zebrafish via divergent molecular pathways. The fact that diverse stressors and mutations cause severe pericardial edema and circulatory collapse in developing zebrafish has been largely unexplored. We hypothesized that unrelated chemicals can trigger a common pathological response leading to the same end-stage heart failure. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of TCDD, RA, carbaryl, valproic acid, and morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) knockdown of TBX5 on the developing heart in zebrafish embryos. These model stressors have all been previously reported to affect zebrafish heart development, and elicited very similar signs of embryonic heart failure. Microarray analysis showed that one cluster of 92 transcripts affected by these different treatments was significantly downregulated by all treatments. This gene cluster is composed of transcripts required for chromosome assembly, DNA replication, and cell cycle progression. We refer to this cluster as the cell cycle gene cluster (CCGC). Immunohistochemistry revealed that downregulation of the CCGC precedes a halt in cardiomyocyte proliferation in the hearts of zebrafish exposed to any of the treatments. Previous work has shown that the initial response to TCDD is a decrease in cardiac output. Since this precedes the signs of edema, heart failure, and fall in CCGC expression, we postulated that any factor that decreases cardiac output will produce the same syndrome of heart failure responses. To test this, we used MO knockdown of cardiac troponin T2 (TNNT2) to specifically block contractility. The TNNT2-MO produced exactly the same signs of cardiotoxicity as the other treatments, including downregulation of the signature CCGC

  15. Filtrating forms of soil bacteria (United States)

    Van'kova, A. A.; Ivanov, P. I.; Emtsev, V. T.


    Filtrating (ultramicroscopic) forms (FF) of bacteria were studied in a soddy-podzolic soil and the root zone of alfalfa plants as part of populations of the most widespread physiological groups of soil bacteria. FF were obtained by filtering soil solutions through membrane filters with a pore diameter of 0.22 μm. It was established that the greater part of the bacteria in the soil and in the root zone of the plants has an ultramicroscopic size: the average diameter of the cells is 0.3 μm, and their length is 0.6 μm, which is significantly less than the cell size of banal bacteria. The number of FF varies within a wide range depending on the physicochemical conditions of the habitat. The FF number's dynamics in the soil is of a seasonal nature; i.e., the number of bacteria found increases in the summer and fall and decreases in the winter-spring period. In the rhizosphere of the alfalfa, over the vegetation period, the number of FF and their fraction in the total mass of the bacteria increase. A reverse tendency is observed in the rhizoplane. The morphological particularities (identified by an electron microscopy) and the nature of the FF indicate their physiological activity.

  16. Bioreporter bacteria for landmine detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlage, R.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Youngblood, T. [Frisby Technologies, Aiken, SC (United States); Lamothe, D. [American Technologies, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States). Ordnance/Explosives Environmental Services Div.


    Landmines (and other UXO) gradually leak explosive chemicals into the soil at significant concentrations. Bacteria, which have adapted to scavenge low concentrations of nutrients, can detect these explosive chemicals. Uptake of these chemicals results in the triggering of specific bacterial genes. The authors have created genetically recombinant bioreporter bacteria that detect small concentrations of energetic chemicals. These bacteria are genetically engineered to produce a bioluminescent signal when they contact specific explosives. A gene for a brightly fluorescent compound can be substituted for increased sensitivity. By finding the fluorescent bacteria, you find the landmine. Detection might be accomplished using stand-off illumination of the minefield and GPS technology, which would result in greatly reduced risk to the deminers. Bioreporter technology has been proven at the laboratory scale, and will be tested under field conditions in the near future. They have created a bacterial strain that detects sub-micromolar concentrations of o- and p-nitrotoluene. Related bacterial strains were produced using standard laboratory protocols, and bioreporters of dinitrotoluene and trinitrotoluene were produced, screening for activity with the explosive compounds. Response time is dependent on the growth rate of the bacteria. Although frill signal production may require several hours, the bacteria can be applied over vast areas and scanned quickly, producing an equivalent detection speed that is very fast. This technology may be applicable to other needs, such as locating buried explosives at military and ordnance/explosive manufacturing facilities.

  17. Cable Bacteria in Freshwater Sediments. (United States)

    Risgaard-Petersen, Nils; Kristiansen, Michael; Frederiksen, Rasmus B; Dittmer, Anders Lindequist; Bjerg, Jesper Tataru; Trojan, Daniela; Schreiber, Lars; Damgaard, Lars Riis; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars Peter


    In marine sediments cathodic oxygen reduction at the sediment surface can be coupled to anodic sulfide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers through electrical currents mediated by filamentous, multicellular bacteria of the Desulfobulbaceae family, the so-called cable bacteria. Until now, cable bacteria have only been reported from marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that cable bacteria also occur in freshwater sediments. In a first step, homogenized sediment collected from the freshwater stream Giber Å, Denmark, was incubated in the laboratory. After 2 weeks, pH signatures and electric fields indicated electron transfer between vertically separated anodic and cathodic half-reactions. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed the presence of Desulfobulbaceae filaments. In addition, in situ measurements of oxygen, pH, and electric potential distributions in the waterlogged banks of Giber Å demonstrated the presence of distant electric redox coupling in naturally occurring freshwater sediment. At the same site, filamentous Desulfobulbaceae with cable bacterium morphology were found to be present. Their 16S rRNA gene sequence placed them as a distinct sister group to the known marine cable bacteria, with the genus Desulfobulbus as the closest cultured lineage. The results of the present study indicate that electric currents mediated by cable bacteria could be important for the biogeochemistry in many more environments than anticipated thus far and suggest a common evolutionary origin of the cable phenotype within Desulfobulbaceae with subsequent diversification into a freshwater and a marine lineage.

  18. On the Benefits of Divergent Search for Evolved Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Risi, Sebastian; Stanley, Kenneth O


    eventually converge to a point in the search space that locally maximizes the fitness function. The problem is that individuals that maximize fitness do not need good representations because a representation’s future potential is not reflected by its current fitness. In contrast, search methods without...... novelty search, which explicitly rewards novelty, i.e. behaviors that diverge from previously encountered behaviors. In many experiments, novelty search demonstrates significant representational advantages over traditional fitness-based search, such as evolving more compact solutions, uncovering more...... evolvable representations, and more fully exploiting representational features. The conclusion is that divergent evolutionary algorithms like novelty search may exert selection pressure towards higher quality representations than traditional convergent approaches to search....

  19. Divergent series, summability and resurgence II simple and multiple summability

    CERN Document Server

    Loday-Richaud, Michèle


    Addressing the question how to “sum” a power series in one variable when it diverges, that is, how to attach to it analytic functions, the volume gives answers by presenting and comparing the various theories of k-summability and multisummability. These theories apply in particular to all solutions of ordinary differential equations. The volume includes applications, examples and revisits, from a cohomological point of view, the group of tangent-to-identity germs of diffeomorphisms of C studied in volume 1. With a view to applying the theories to solutions of differential equations, a detailed survey of linear ordinary differential equations is provided which includes Gevrey asymptotic expansions, Newton polygons, index theorems and Sibuya’s proof of the meromorphic classification theorem that characterizes the Stokes phenomenon for linear differential equations. This volume is the second of a series of three entitled Divergent Series, Summability and Resurgence. It is aimed at graduate students and res...

  20. Divergence-free MHD Simulations with the HERACLES Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vides J.


    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD equations have played a significant role in plasma research over the years. The need of obtaining physical and stable solutions to these equations has led to the development of several schemes, all requiring to satisfy and preserve the divergence constraint of the magnetic field numerically. In this paper, we aim to show the importance of maintaining this constraint numerically. We investigate in particular the hyperbolic divergence cleaning technique applied to the ideal MHD equations on a collocated grid and compare it to the constrained transport technique that uses a staggered grid to maintain the property. The methods are implemented in the software HERACLES and several numerical tests are presented, where the robustness and accuracy of the different schemes can be directly compared.

  1. Compound liquid crystal microlens array with convergent and divergent functions. (United States)

    Kang, Shengwu; Zhang, Xinyu


    Based on the common liquid crystal microlens, a new compound structure for a liquid crystal (LC) microlens array is proposed. The structure consists of two sub LC microlens arrays with properties of light divergence and convergence. The structure has two LC layers: one to form the positive sub lens, one for the negative. The patterned electrode and plane electrode are used in both sub microlens arrays. When two sub microlens arrays are electrically controlled separately, they can diverge or converge the incident light, respectively. As two sub microlens arrays are both applied on the voltage, the focal length of the compound LC microlens becomes larger than that of the LC microlens with a single LC layer. Another feature of a compound LC microlens array is that it can make the target contour become visible under intense light. The mechanisms are described in detail, and the experimental data are given.

  2. Perturbation Theory in Supersymmetric QED: Infrared Divergences and Gauge Invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Dine, Michael; Haber, Howard E; Haskins, Laurel Stephenson


    We study some aspects of perturbation theory in $N=1$ supersymmetric abelian gauge theories with massive charged matter. In general gauges, infrared (IR) divergences and nonlocal behavior arise in 1PI diagrams, associated with a $1/k^4$ term in the propagator for the vector superfield. We examine this structure in supersymmetric QED. The IR divergences are gauge-dependent and must cancel in physical quantities like the electron pole mass. We demonstrate that cancellation takes place in a nontrivial way, amounting to a reorganization of the perturbative series from powers of $e^2$ to powers of $e$. We also show how these complications are avoided in cases where a Wilsonian effective action can be defined.

  3. A divergence-cleaning scheme for cosmological SPMHD simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Stasyszyn, F A; Beck, A M


    In magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), the magnetic field is evolved by the induction equation and coupled to the gas dynamics by the Lorentz force. We perform numerical smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (Spmhd) simulations and study the influence of a numerical magnetic divergence. For instabilities arising from divergence B related errors, we find the hyperbolic/parabolic cleaning scheme suggested by Dedner et al. 2002 to give good results and prevent numerical artifacts from growing. Additionally, we demonstrate that certain current Spmhd implementations of magnetic field regularizations give rise to unphysical instabilities in long-time simulations. We also find this effect when employing Euler potentials (divergenceless by definition), which are not able to follow the winding-up process of magnetic field lines properly. Furthermore, we present cosmological simulations of galaxy cluster formation at extremely high resolution including the evolution of magnetic fields. We show synthetic Faraday rotation maps ...

  4. Climate change promotes hybridisation between deeply divergent species (United States)

    Chiocchio, Andrea; Zampiglia, Mauro; Nascetti, Giuseppe


    Rare hybridisations between deeply divergent animal species have been reported for decades in a wide range of taxa, but have often remained unexplained, mainly considered chance events and reported as anecdotal. Here, we combine field observations with long-term data concerning natural hybridisations, climate, land-use, and field-validated species distribution models for two deeply divergent and naturally sympatric toad species in Europe (Bufo bufo and Bufotes viridis species groups). We show that climate warming and seasonal extreme temperatures are conspiring to set the scene for these maladaptive hybridisations, by differentially affecting life-history traits of both species. Our results identify and provide evidence of an ultimate cause for such events, and reveal that the potential influence of climate change on interspecific hybridisations goes far beyond closely related species. Furthermore, climate projections suggest that the chances for these events will steadily increase in the near future. PMID:28348926

  5. Kullback-Leibler Divergence Approach to Partitioned Update Kalman Filter


    Raitoharju, Matti; García-Fernández, Ángel F.; Piché, Robert


    Kalman filtering is a widely used framework for Bayesian estimation. The partitioned update Kalman filter applies a Kalman filter update in parts so that the most linear parts of measurements are applied first. In this paper, we generalize partitioned update Kalman filter, which requires the use oft the second order extended Kalman filter, so that it can be used with any Kalman filter extension. To do so, we use a Kullback-Leibler divergence approach to measure the nonlinearity of the measure...

  6. Instability of diverging and converging flows in an annulus

    CERN Document Server

    Ilin, Konstantin


    The stability of two-dimensional diverging and converging flows in an annulus between two permeable cylinders is examined. The basic flow is irrotational and has both the radial and azimuthal components. It is shown that for a wide range of the parameters of the problem, the basic flow is unstable to small two-dimensional perturbations. The instability is inviscid and oscillatory and persists if the viscosity of the fluid is taken into consideration.

  7. Infrared Divergences from Soft and Collinear Gauge Bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Jameson, Paul


    I review the Lee-Nauenberg thereom and discuss its inclusion of photons which are disconnected at the level of the S-matrix but connected at the level of the cross-section when there are initial and final state charged particles. I then expose a new set of soft collinear divergences in massless gauge theories which are omitted in the standard Lee-Nauenberg approach. It seems that highly questionable assumptions are needed to obtain finite cross-sections.

  8. Critical Initiation Conditions for Gaseous Diverging Spherical Detonations


    Desbordes, D.


    The diverging spherical detonation wave in gaseous explosives is obtained either with a point source of explosion of energy E or through the transmission of a plane detonation from a cylindrical tube of diameter d into a large volume. The mechanism of detonation initiation in both cases is based on the shock to detonation transition. The experimental critical conditions lead to an initiation criterion for detonation resulting from the competition between the expansion behind the leading shock...

  9. [Phylogeny and divergence time estimation of Schizothoracinae fishes in Xinjiang]. (United States)

    Ayelhan, Haysa; Guo, Yan; Meng, Wei; Yang, Tianyan; Ma, Yanwu


    Based on combined data of mitochondrial COI, ND4 and 16S RNA genes, molecular phylogeny of 4 genera, 10 species or subspecies of Schizothoracinae fishes distributed in Xinjiang were analyzed. The molecular clock was calibrated by divergence time of Cyprininae and geological segregation event between the upper Yellow River and Qinghai Lake. Divergence time of Schizothoracinae fishes was calculated, and its relationship with the major geological events and the climate changes in surrounding areas of Tarim Basin was discussed. The results showed that genus Aspiorhynchus did not form an independent clade, but clustered with Schizothorax biddulphi and S. irregularis. Kimura 2-parameter model was used to calculate the genetic distance of COI gene, the genetic distance between genus Aspiorhynchus and Schizothorax did not reach genus level, and Aspiorhynchus laticeps might be a specialized species of genus Schizothorax. Cluster analysis showed a different result with morphological classification method, and it did not support the subgenus division of Schizothorax fishes. Divergence of two groups of primitive Schizothoracinae (8.18Ma) and divergence of Gymnodiptychus dybowskii and Diptychus maculates (7.67Ma) occurred in late Miocene, which might be related with the separation of Kunlun Mountain and north Tianshan Mountain River system that was caused by the uplift of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Tianshan Mountain, and the aridification of Tarim Basin. The terrain of Tarim Basin that was affected by Quaternary Himalayan movement was high in west but low in east, as a result, Lop Nor became the center of surrounding mountain rivers in Tarim Basin, which shaped the distribution pattern of genus Schizothorax.

  10. On the Divergent American Reactions to Terrorism and Climate Change


    Sunstein, Cass R.


    Two of the most important sources of catastrophic risk are terrorism and climate change. The United States has responded aggressively to the risk of terrorism while doing very little about the risk of climate change. For the United States alone, the cost of the Iraq war is now in excess of the anticipated cost of the Kyoto Protocol. The divergence presents a puzzle; it also raises more general questions about both risk perception and the public demand for legislation. The best explanation for...

  11. Divergence Measures Tool:An Introduction with Brief Tutorial (United States)


    on tutorial are provided in this report. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Divergence measures, natural language processing, text corpus, text domain, text genre detecting differences across a wide range of Arabic-language text files (they varied by genre , domain, spelling variation, size, etc.), our...screenshots are cropped down to that portion of screen layout most relevant to the accompanying description . Cropped screenshots in figures in sections

  12. Bregman divergence as general framework to estimate unnormalized statistical models

    CERN Document Server

    Gutmann, Michael


    We show that the Bregman divergence provides a rich framework to estimate unnormalized statistical models for continuous or discrete random variables, that is, models which do not integrate or sum to one, respectively. We prove that recent estimation methods such as noise-contrastive estimation, ratio matching, and score matching belong to the proposed framework, and explain their interconnection based on supervised learning. Further, we discuss the role of boosting in unsupervised learning.

  13. Isolation and Identification of Concrete Environment Bacteria (United States)

    Irwan, J. M.; Anneza, L. H.; Othman, N.; Husnul, T.; Alshalif, A. F.


    This paper presents the isolation and molecular method for bacteria identification through PCR and DNA sequencing. Identification of the bacteria species is required in order to fully utilize the bacterium capability for precipitation of calcium carbonate in concrete. This process is to enable the addition of suitable catalyst according to the bacterium enzymatic pathway that is known through the bacteria species used. The objective of this study is to isolate, enriched and identify the bacteria species. The bacteria in this study was isolated from fresh urine and acid mine drainage water, Kota Tinggi, Johor. Enrichment of the isolated bacteria was conducted to ensure the bacteria survivability in concrete. The identification of bacteria species was done through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and rRDNA sequencing. The isolation and enrichment of the bacteria was done successfully. Whereas, the results for bacteria identification showed that the isolated bacteria strains are Bacillus sp and Enterococus faecalis.

  14. Beam divergence changing mechanism for short-range inter-unmanned aerial vehicle optical communications. (United States)

    Heng, Kiang Huat; Zhong, Wen-De; Cheng, Tee Hiang; Liu, Ning; He, Yingjie


    The problems associated with using a single fixed beam divergence for short-range inter-unmanned aerial vehicle free-space optical communications are discussed. To overcome the problems, a beam divergence changing mechanism is proposed. Four different methods are then proposed to implement the beam divergence changing mechanism. The performance of these methods is evaluated in terms of transmission distance under adverse weather conditions. The results show that the performance is greatly improved when the beam divergence changing mechanism is used.

  15. Bayesian-Pearson Divergence Estimator Based on Grouped Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BaoxueZhang; QingxunMeng


    A new method along with Bayesian approach for estimating the parameter in the distribution function F(x; θ) by using grouped data is developed in this paper. The support of F(x;θ) is divided into disjointed intervals as -∞ = x0 < x1 <… < xk-1 divergence D(p; q) is introduced to scale the distance between the probabilities pj(θ),j = 1,..., k and the samples from the posterior distribution (Dirichlet distribution) of the probabilities. Then by minimizing the Pearson divergence D(p;q), the ‘posterior' samples of the parameter θ can be obtained, through which statistical inference including Bayesian-Pearson Divergence Estimator of the parameter can be processed. Simulations and a numerical example emt:loying this method are presented.

  16. Three dimensional simulations of viscous folding in diverging microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Bingrui; Shin, Seungwon; Juric, Damir


    Three dimensional simulations on the viscous folding in diverging microchannels reported by Cubaud and Mason are performed using the parallel code BLUE for multi-phase flows. The more viscous liquid L_1 is injected into the channel from the center inlet, and the less viscous liquid L_2 from two side inlets. Liquid L_1 takes the form of a thin filament due to hydrodynamic focusing in the long channel that leads to the diverging region. The thread then becomes unstable to a folding instability, due to the longitudinal compressive stress applied to it by the diverging flow of liquid L_2. Given the long computation time, we were limited to a parameter study comprising five simulations in which the flow rate ratio, the viscosity ratio, the Reynolds number, and the shape of the channel were varied relative to a reference model. In our simulations, the cross section of the thread produced by focusing is elliptical rather than circular. The initial folding axis can be either parallel or perpendicular to the narrow di...

  17. Automatic leukocyte nucleus segmentation by intuitionistic fuzzy divergence based thresholding. (United States)

    Jati, Arindam; Singh, Garima; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Ghosh, Madhumala; Konar, Amit; Chakraborty, Chandan; Nagar, Atulya K


    The paper proposes a robust approach to automatic segmentation of leukocyte's nucleus from microscopic blood smear images under normal as well as noisy environment by employing a new exponential intuitionistic fuzzy divergence based thresholding technique. The algorithm minimizes the divergence between the actual image and the ideally thresholded image to search for the final threshold. A new divergence formula based on exponential intuitionistic fuzzy entropy has been proposed. Further, to increase its noise handling capacity, a neighborhood-based membership function for the image pixels has been designed. The proposed scheme has been applied on 110 normal and 54 leukemia (chronic myelogenous leukemia) affected blood samples. The nucleus segmentation results have been validated by three expert hematologists. The algorithm achieves an average segmentation accuracy of 98.52% in noise-free environment. It beats the competitor algorithms in terms of several other metrics. The proposed scheme with neighborhood based membership function outperforms the competitor algorithms in terms of segmentation accuracy under noisy environment. It achieves 93.90% and 94.93% accuracies for Speckle and Gaussian noises, respectively. The average area under the ROC curves comes out to be 0.9514 in noisy conditions, which proves the robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  18. A vadose zone water fluxmeter with divergence control (United States)

    Gee, G. W.; Ward, A. L.; Caldwell, T. G.; Ritter, J. C.


    Unsaturated water flux densities are needed to quantify water and contaminant transfer within the vadose zone. However, water flux densities are seldom measured directly and often are predicted with uncertainties of an order or magnitude or more. A water fluxmeter was designed, constructed, and tested to directly measure drainage fluxes in field soils. The fluxmeter was designed to minimize divergence. It concentrates flow into a narrow sensing region filled with a fiberglass wick. The wick applies suction, proportional to its length, and passively drains the meter. The meter can be installed in an augured borehole at almost any depth below the root zone. Water flux through the meter is measured with a self-calibrating tipping bucket, with a sensitivity of ~4 mL tip-1. For our meter this is equivalent to detection limit of ~0.1 mm. Passive-wick devices previously have not properly corrected for flow divergence. Laboratory measurements supported predictions of a two-dimensional (2-D) numerical model, which showed that control of the collector height H and knowledge of soil hydraulic properties are required for improving divergence control, particularly at fluxes below 1000 mm yr-1. The water fluxmeter is simple in concept, is inexpensive, and has the capability of providing continuous and reliable monitoring of unsaturated water fluxes ranging from less than 1 mm yr-1 to more than 1000 mm yr-1.

  19. Adaptation to divergent larval diets in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata. (United States)

    Leftwich, Philip T; Nash, William J; Friend, Lucy A; Chapman, Tracey


    Variation in diet can influence the timing of major life-history events and can drive population diversification and ultimately speciation. Proximate responses of life histories to diet have been well studied. However, there are scant experimental data on how organisms adapt to divergent diets over the longer term. We focused on this omission by testing the responses of a global pest, the Mediterranean fruitfly, to divergent selection on larval diets of different nutritional profiles. Tests conducted before and after 30 generations of nutritional selection revealed a complex interplay between the effects of novel larval dietary conditions on both plastic and evolved responses. There were proximate-only responses to the larval diet in adult male courtship and the frequency of copulation. Males on higher calorie larval diets consistently engaged in more bouts of energetic courtship. In contrast, following selection, larval development time, and egg to adult survival showed evidence of evolved divergence between diet regimes. Adult body size showed evidence for adaptation, with flies being significantly heavier when reared on their "own" diet. The results show the multifaceted responses of individuals to dietary selection and are important in understanding the extreme generalism exhibited by the medfly.

  20. Peaches tree genetic divergence for brown rot reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Wagner Júnior


    Full Text Available It was evaluated the genetic divergence in peach genotypes for brown rot reaction. It was evaluated 26 and 29 peach genotypes in the 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 production cycle, respectively. The experiment was carried out at the Laboratório de Fitossanidade, da UTFPR - Campus Dois Vizinhos. The experimental design was entirely randomized, considering each peach genotype a treatment, and it was use three replication of nine fruits. The treatment control use three replication of three peach. The fruit epidermis were inoculated individually with 0.15 mL of M. fructicola conidial suspension (1.0 x 10(5 spores mL-1. In the control treatment was sprayed with 0.15 mL of distilled water. The fruits were examined 72 and 120 hours after inoculation, and the incidence and severity disease were evaluated. These results allowed realized study for genetic divergence, used as dissimilarity measure the Generalized Mahalanobis distance. Cluster analysis using Tocher´s optimization method and distances in the plan were applied. There was smallest genetic divergence among peach trees evaluated for brown rot, what can difficult to obtain resistance in the genotypes.

  1. Dynamics of detonations with a constant mean flow divergence

    CERN Document Server

    Borzou, Bijan


    The present work addresses the question of whether mean field macroscopic models are suitable to describe the dynamics of real cellular detonations. This question is posed in the framework of detonations with stream-tube area divergence that is kept constant, as to generate attenuated detonations in quasi-steady state. An exponential horn geometry is used, in order to keep the source term due to geometrical divergence constant in the governing equations of mean flow, and hence permit to establish steady travelling waves with constant losses. The experiments were conducted in two mixtures 2C$_2$H$_2$+5O$_2$+21Ar, characterized by a relatively weak instability, and C$_3$H$_8$+5O$_2$, characterized by a much more unstable cellular structure. The experiments demonstrated that such quasi-steady state detonations can be realized. The experiments permitted a unique detonation speed - divergence scaling laws to be developed. Quantitative comparisons were made with steady wave predictions based on the underlying chemi...

  2. Torsional stiffness degradation and aerostatic divergence of suspension bridge decks (United States)

    Zhang, Z. T.; Ge, Y. J.; Yang, Y. X.


    The mechanism of aerostatic torsional divergence (ATD) of long-span suspension bridges is investigated. A theoretical analysis on the basis of a generalized model is presented, showing that the vertical motion of a bridge deck is crucial to the torsional stiffness of the whole suspended system, and that the vertical motion of either cable with a magnitude beyond a certain threshold could result in a sudden degradation of the torsional stiffness of the system. This vertical motion-induced degradation of stiffness is recognized as the main reason for the ATD. Long-span suspension bridges are susceptible to such a type of divergence, especially when they are immersed in turbulent wind fields. The divergences that occur in turbulent wind fields differ significantly from those in smooth wind fields, and the difference is well explained by the generalized model that the loosening of any one cable could result in the vanishing of the part of stiffness provided by the whole cable system. The mechanism revealed in this paper leads to a definition of the critical wind speed of the ATD in a turbulent flow; that is, the one resulting in a vertical motion so large as to loosen either cable to a stressless state. Numerical results from the nonlinear finite-element (FE) analysis of the Xihoumen suspension bridge, in conjunction with observations from wind tunnel tests on an aero-elastic full bridge model, are in support of the viewpoint presented in this study.

  3. One-Loop Divergences in 6D Conformal Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Yi


    Using Exact Renormalization Group Equation approach and background field method, we investigate the one-loop problem in a six-dimensional conformal gravity theory whose Lagrangian takes the same form as holographic Weyl anomaly of multiple coincident M5-branes. We choose the backgrounds to be the symmetric Einstein spaces including S6, CP3, S2 \\times S4, S2 \\times CP2, S3 \\times S3 and S2 \\times S2 \\times S2. Evaluating the functional sums gives power-law and logarithmic divergences. We extract from the specific values of logarithmic divergence on above backgrounds, the coefficient in front of Euler density and two linear equations constraining the coefficients in front of three type-B conformal invariants. As a test of the effectiveness of Exact Renormalization Group Equation approach to quantum conformal gravity, we reexaminethe one-loop problem in four-dimensional conformal gravity and confirm the logarithmic divergence derived from generalized Schwinger-DeWitt method.

  4. Beam divergence effects on high power optical parametric oscillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hui-Qing; Geng Ai-Cong; Bo Yong; Wu Ling-An; Cui Da-Fu; Xu Zu-Yan


    The beam divergence effects of the input pump laser on a high power nanosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) have been numerically simulated. The OPO conversion efficiency is affected due to the angular deviation of real laser beams from ideal phase matching conditions. Our theoretical model is based on the decomposition of the Gaussian beam and assumes each component has a single deviation angle and thus a Particular wave vector mismatch. We take into account the variable intensity profile in the spatial and temporal domains of the Gaussian beam, the pump depletion effects for large-signal processes as well as the oscillatory effects of the three waves. Two nonlinear crystals β-BaB2O4 (BBO) and LiB3O5 (LBO) have been investigated in detail. The results indicate that the degree of beam divergence strongly influences the maximum pump intensity, optimum crystal length and OPO conversion efficiency.The impact of beam divergence is much more severe in the case of critical phase-matching for BBO than in the case of non-critical phase-matching for LBO. The results provide a way to choose the optimum parameters for a high power ns OPO such as the nonlinear material, the crystal length and the pump intensity, etc. Good agreement is obtained with our experimental results.

  5. The impact of physical exercise on convergent and divergent thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza S Colzato


    Full Text Available Anecdotal literature suggests that creative people sometimes use bodily movement to help overcome mental blocks and lack of inspiration. Several studies have shown that physical exercise may sometimes enhance creative thinking, but the evidence is still inconclusive. In this study we investigated whether creativity in convergent- and divergent-thinking tasks is affected by acute moderate and intense physical exercise in athletes (n=48 and non-athletes (n=48. Exercise interfered with divergent thinking in both groups. The impact on convergent thinking, the task that presumably required more cognitive control, depended on the training level: while in non-athletes performance was significantly impaired by exercise, athletes showed a benefit that approached significance. The findings suggest that acute exercise may affect both, divergent and convergent thinking. In particular, it seems to affect control-hungry tasks through exercise-induced ego-depletion, which however is less pronounced in individuals with higher levels of physical fitness, presumably because of the automatization of movement control, fitness-related neuroenergetic benefits, or both.

  6. Hemispheric Connectivity and the Visual-Spatial Divergent-Thinking Component of Creativity (United States)

    Moore, Dana W.; Bhadelia, Rafeeque A.; Billings, Rebecca L.; Fulwiler, Carl; Heilman, Kenneth M.; Rood, Kenneth M. J.; Gansler, David A.


    Background/hypothesis: Divergent thinking is an important measurable component of creativity. This study tested the postulate that divergent thinking depends on large distributed inter- and intra-hemispheric networks. Although preliminary evidence supports increased brain connectivity during divergent thinking, the neural correlates of this…

  7. The effects of medieval dams on genetic divergence and demographic history in brown trout populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Limborg, Morten; Ferchaud, A.-L.;


    genetically differentiated from anadromous trout for thousands of years, or have diverged recently due to the establishment of dams. Results: Divergence time estimates were based on 1) Approximate Bayesian Computation and 2) a coalescent-based isolation-with-gene-flow model. Both methods suggested divergence...

  8. Divergent mucosal and systemic responses in children in response to acute otitis media. (United States)

    Verhoeven, D; Pichichero, M E


    Acute otitis media (AOM), induced by respiratory bacteria, is a significant cause of children seeking medical attention worldwide. Some children are highly prone to AOMs, suffering three to four recurrent infections per year (prone). We previously determined that this population of children could have diminished anti-bacterial immune responses in peripheral blood that could fail to limit bacterial colonization in the nasopharynx (NP). Here, we examined local NP and middle ear (ME) responses and compared them to peripheral blood to examine whether the mucosa responses were similar to the peripheral blood responses. Moreover, we examined differences in effector cytokine responses between these two populations in the NP, ME and blood compartments at the onset of an AOM caused by either Streptococcus pneumoniae or non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. We found that plasma effector cytokines patterned antigen-recall responses of CD4 T cells, with lower responses detected in prone children. ME cytokine levels did not mirror blood, but were more similar to the NP. Interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17 in the NP were similar in prone and non-prone children, while IL-2 production was higher in prone children. The immune responses diverged in the mucosal and blood compartments at the onset of a bacterial ME infection, thus highlighting differences between local and systemic immune responses that could co-ordinate anti-bacterial immune responses in young children.

  9. Niche Divergence versus Neutral Processes: Combined Environmental and Genetic Analyses Identify Contrasting Patterns of Differentiation in Recently Diverged Pine Species


    Alejandra Moreno-Letelier; Alejandra Ortíz-Medrano; Daniel Piñero


    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Solving relationships of recently diverged taxa, poses a challenge due to shared polymorphism and weak reproductive barriers. Multiple lines of evidence are needed to identify independently evolving lineages. This is especially true of long-lived species with large effective population sizes, and slow rates of lineage sorting. North American pines are an interesting group to test this multiple approach. Our aim is to combine cytoplasmic genetic markers with environmental ...

  10. Divergência genética em genótipos de girassol Genetic divergence in sunflower genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Perito Amorim


    Full Text Available Uma investigação sobre a diversidade genética entre 15 genótipos de girassol, por meio de 12 características agronômicas, foi implementada no Instituto Agronômico, Campinas, Brasil. Análises de variância univariada e multivariada revelaram diferenças entre os genótipos. A distância generalizada de Mahalanobis indicou um alto grau de divergência genética. Os genótipos foram agrupados em três grupos. As características início do florescimento, 50% do florescimento, número de folhas e altura da inserção do capítulo contribuíram com grande parte da divergência genética observada. Por meio desses resultados, é possível identificar materiais divergentes e com características agronômicas complementares para o desenvolvimento de novos cultivares superiores.An investigation about the genetical diversity among fifteen sunflower genotypes using twelve agronomical characteristics was implanted at the Agronomic Institute, Campinas Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance revealed the presence of differences among the genotypes. The generalized distance of Mahalanobis indicated the presence of genetic diversity. The genotypes were grouped into tree clusters. Among the investigated characteristics, the beginning of flowering, 50% flowering, leaf number and head height of chapter insertion exhibited high contribution towards genetic divergence. Through these studies it is possible to identify divergent material with further agronomical features for the development of new superior sunflower cultivars.

  11. Niche divergence versus neutral processes: combined environmental and genetic analyses identify contrasting patterns of differentiation in recently diverged pine species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Moreno-Letelier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Solving relationships of recently diverged taxa, poses a challenge due to shared polymorphism and weak reproductive barriers. Multiple lines of evidence are needed to identify independently evolving lineages. This is especially true of long-lived species with large effective population sizes, and slow rates of lineage sorting. North American pines are an interesting group to test this multiple approach. Our aim is to combine cytoplasmic genetic markers with environmental information to clarify species boundaries and relationships of the species complex of Pinus flexilis, Pinus ayacahuite, and Pinus strobiformis. METHODS: Mitochondrial and chloroplast sequences were combined with previously obtained microsatellite data and contrasted with environmental information to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the species complex. Ecological niche models were compared to test if ecological divergence is significant among species. KEY RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Separately, both genetic and ecological evidence support a clear differentiation of all three species but with different topology, but also reveal an ancestral contact zone between P. strobiformis and P. ayacahuite. The marked ecological differentiation of P. flexilis suggests that ecological speciation has occurred in this lineage, but this is not reflected in neutral markers. The inclusion of environmental traits in phylogenetic reconstruction improved the resolution of internal branches. We suggest that combining environmental and genetic information would be useful for species delimitation and phylogenetic studies in other recently diverged species complexes.

  12. [Genetic resources of nodule bacteria]. (United States)

    Rumiantseva, M L


    Nodule bacteria (rhizobia) form highly specific symbiosis with leguminous plants. The efficiency of accumulation of biological nitrogen depends on molecular-genetic interaction between the host plant and rhizobia. Genetic characteristics of microsymbiotic strains are crucial in developing highly productive and stress-resistant symbiotic pairs: rhizobium strain-host plant cultivar (species). The present review considers the issue of studying genetic resources of nodule bacteria to identify genes and their blocks, responsible for the ability of rhizobia to form highly effective symbiosis in various agroecological conditions. The main approaches to investigation of intraspecific and interspecific genetic and genomic diversity of nodule bacteria are considered, from MLEE analysis to the recent methods of genomic DNA analysis using biochips. The data are presented showing that gene centers of host plants are centers of genetic diversification of nodule bacteria, because the intraspecific polymorphism of genetic markers of the core and the accessory rhizobial genomes is extremely high in them. Genotypic features of trapped and nodule subpopulations of alfalfa nodule bacteria are discussed. A survey of literature showed that the genomes of natural strains in alfalfa gene centers exhibit significant differences in genes involved in control of metabolism, replication, recombination, and the formation of defense response (hsd genes). Natural populations of rhizobia are regarded as a huge gene pool serving as a source of evolutionary innovations.

  13. Sequence of inequalities among fuzzy mean difference divergence measures and their applications. (United States)

    Tomar, Vijay Prakash; Ohlan, Anshu


    This paper presents a sequence of fuzzy mean difference divergence measures. The validity of these fuzzy mean difference divergence measures is proved axiomatically. In addition, it introduces a sequence of inequalities among some of these fuzzy mean difference divergence measures. The applications of proposed fuzzy mean difference divergence measures in the context of pattern recognition have been presented using a numerical example. It is shown that the proposed fuzzy mean difference divergence measures are well suited to use with linguistic variables. Finally, on establishing inequalities, we find that our proposed measures are computationally much more efficient.

  14. Test technology on divergence angle of laser range finder based on CCD imaging fusion (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-bing; Chen, Zhen-xing; Lv, Yao


    Laser range finder has been equipped with all kinds of weapons, such as tank, ship, plane and so on, is important component of fire control system. Divergence angle is important performance and incarnation of horizontal resolving power for laser range finder, is necessary appraised test item in appraisal test. In this paper, based on high accuracy test on divergence angle of laser range finder, divergence angle test system is designed based on CCD imaging, divergence angle of laser range finder is acquired through fusion technology for different attenuation imaging, problem that CCD characteristic influences divergence angle test is solved.

  15. Immunization with Brucella VirB proteins reduces organ colonization in mice through a Th1-type immune response and elicits a similar immune response in dogs. (United States)

    Pollak, Cora N; Wanke, María Magdalena; Estein, Silvia M; Delpino, M Victoria; Monachesi, Norma E; Comercio, Elida A; Fossati, Carlos A; Baldi, Pablo C


    VirB proteins from Brucella spp. constitute the type IV secretion system, a key virulence factor mediating the intracellular survival of these bacteria. Here, we assessed whether a Th1-type immune response against VirB proteins may protect mice from Brucella infection and whether this response can be induced in the dog, a natural host for Brucella. Splenocytes from mice immunized with VirB7 or VirB9 responded to their respective antigens with significant and specific production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), whereas interleukin-4 (IL-4) was not detected. Thirty days after an intraperitoneal challenge with live Brucella abortus, the spleen load of bacteria was almost 1 log lower in mice immunized with VirB proteins than in unvaccinated animals. As colonization reduction seemed to correlate with a Th1-type immune response against VirB proteins, we decided to assess whether such a response could be elicited in the dog. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dogs immunized with VirB proteins (three subcutaneous doses in QuilA adjuvant) produced significantly higher levels of IFN-γ than cells from control animals upon in vitro stimulation with VirB proteins. A skin test to assess specific delayed-type hypersensitivity was positive in 4 out of 5 dogs immunized with either VirB7 or VirB9. As both proteins are predicted to locate in the outer membrane of Brucella organisms, the ability of anti-VirB antibodies to mediate complement-dependent bacteriolysis of B. canis was assessed in vitro. Sera from dogs immunized with either VirB7 or VirB9, but not from those receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), produced significant bacteriolysis. These results suggest that VirB-specific responses that reduce organ colonization by Brucella in mice can be also elicited in dogs.

  16. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst (United States)

    Noohi, Fatemeh; Kinnaird, Catherine; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael


    The aim of the current study was to characterize the brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit saccular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) (Colebatch & Halmagyi 1992; Colebatch et al. 1994). Some researchers have reported that airconducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects (Curthoys et al. 2009, Wackym et al., 2012). However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying the vestibular disorders related to otolith deficits. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, pre and post central gyri, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation (Bottini et al., 1994; Dieterich et al., 2003; Emri et al., 2003; Schlindwein et al., 2008; Janzen et al., 2008). Here we hypothesized that the skull tap elicits the similar pattern of cortical activity as the auditory tone burst. Subjects put on a set of MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in supine position, with eyes closed. All subjects received both forms of the stimulation, however, the order of stimulation with auditory tone burst and air-conducted skull tap was counterbalanced across subjects. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular cortex, resulting in vestibular response (Halmagyi et al., 1995). Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, J.


    Full Text Available The bacteria are prokaryote organisms with a high capacity to colonize many types of habits. This research was developed with the object to identify extremophiles bacteria presents in latex paint. The bacteria were cultivated in culture mediums TSA, Blood Agar, Mc Conkey and finally the biochemical proof API-NF® for bacteria's isolation and identification, respectively. Characterization showed bacterial profile of Pasteurella sp. Hypothesis that could be found extremophiles bacteria in latex paint were demonstrated.

  18. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture. (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby


    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices.

  19. Chitin Degradation In Marine Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Sara; Machado, Henrique; Gram, Lone


    Introduction: Chitin is the most abundant polymer in the marine environment and the second most abundant in nature. Chitin does not accumulate on the ocean floor, because of microbial breakdown. Chitin degrading bacteria could have potential in the utilization of chitin as a renewable carbon...... and nitrogen source in the fermentation industry.Methods: Here, whole genome sequenced marine bacteria were screened for chitin degradation using phenotypic and in silico analyses.Results: The in silico analyses revealed the presence of three to nine chitinases in each strain, however the number of chitinases...... chitin regulatory system.Conclusions: This study has provided insight into the ecology of chitin degradation in marine bacteria. It also served as a basis for choosing a more efficient chitin degrading production strain e.g. for the use of chitin waste for large-scale fermentations....

  20. Divergência genética em feijão-caupi Genetic divergence among cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rodrigues Passos


    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar a divergência genética entre genótipos de feijão-caupi, visando à seleção dos mais divergentes e de maior potencial produtivo para indicar como genitores em cruzamentos genéticos para futura recomendação de cultivares aos agricultores do Recôncavo Baiano. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na Escola de Agronomia da Universidade Federal da Bahia, Cruz das Almas (BA, utilizando-se 22 genótipos do tipo prostrado e 20 do tipo semi-ereto, dispostos em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Foram analisados os caracteres altura da planta, comprimento de vagem, massa de vagens, massa de grãos por vagem, número de grãos por vagem, massa de cem grãos, índice de grãos, produtividade de vagem e de grãos. A divergência genética foi obtida através da distância generalizada de Mahalanobis. Novas combinações gênicas promissoras podem surgir nos cruzamentos entre os genótipos TE97-309G-1, TE97-367G-3, TE97-367G-11 e TE97-430G-12 do tipo prostrado e TE97-321G-4 e TE97-404-1E-1 do tipo semi-ereto. A seleção dos genótipos TE93-244-23F-1, TE97-299G-10 e BR 17-Gurguéia tipo prostrado e os genótipos TE97-321G-4, TE97-406-2E, TE96-282-22G e EV x 91-2E-1 tipo semi-ereto demonstram superioridade para a produtividade de grãos. Os caracteres comprimento de vagem, massa de grãos por vagem e produtividade de vagens são os que mais contribuem para a divergência genética.This work aimed to evaluate the genetic divergence among cowpea genotypes, for selection of most divergent genotypes and of highest yield potential as parents in crossings as well as for future recommendation of cultivars in the reconcave region in Bahia, Brazil. The experiment was carried out Agronomy School of Universidade Federal da Bahia, Cruz das Almas, State of Bahia, using twenty two erect cowpea and twenty semi-erect cowpea genotypes, in a randomized design, with four replications. The following characters

  1. The capsaicin cough reflex in eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume. (United States)

    Elberling, Jesper; Dirksen, Asger; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Mosbech, Holger


    Respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume are common in the population but have unclear pathophysiology. Increased capsaicin cough responsiveness has been associated with the symptoms, but it is unknown whether the site of the symptoms in the airways influences this association. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the site of airway symptoms elicited by perfume and cough responsiveness to bronchial challenge with capsaicin. 21 eczema patients with respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were compared with 21 healthy volunteers in a sex- and age-matched case control study. The participants completed a symptom questionnaire and underwent a bronchial challenge with capsaicin. Lower, but not upper, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume were associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. Having severe symptoms to perfume (n=11) did not relate to the site of the symptoms in the airways and was not associated with increased capsaicin cough responsiveness. In conclusion, respiratory symptoms elicited by perfume may reflect local hyperreactivity related to defensive reflexes in the airways, and measurements of the capsaicin cough reflex are relevant when patients with lower respiratory symptoms related to environmental perfume exposures are investigated.

  2. Does alexithymia explain variation in cue-elicited craving reported by methamphetamine-dependent individuals? (United States)

    Saladin, Michael E; Santa Ana, Elizabeth J; LaRowe, Steven D; Simpson, Annie N; Tolliver, Bryan K; Price, Kimber L; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T


    Drug craving is an important motivational phenomenon among addicted individuals, and successful management of craving is essential to both the initiation and maintenance of abstinence. Although craving in response to drug cues is common in drug-dependent individuals, it is not universal. At the present time, it is not known why approximately 20-30% of all addicted persons fail to report appreciable craving in laboratory-based cue reactivity studies. This study examined the possibility that alexithymia, a personality attribute characterized by a difficulty identifying and describing emotions, may contribute to the impoverished cue-elicited craving experienced by some addicts. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that alexithymia, as measured by the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS), would be inversely related to the magnitude of cue-elicited craving obtained in a cue reactivity protocol. Forty methamphetamine-dependent individuals completed the TAS and provided craving ratings for methamphetamine after presentation of methamphetamine-associated cues. Thirteen participants (32%) reported no methamphetamine cue-elicited craving. Contrary to expectation, TAS factor 1 (a measure of difficulty identifying feelings) scores were positively associated with cue-elicited craving. Thus, the results suggest that increasing difficulty-identifying feelings may be associated with higher cue-elicited craving. Clinical implications for this finding are discussed.

  3. Individual differences and age-related changes in divergent thinking in toddlers and preschoolers. (United States)

    Bijvoet-van den Berg, Simone; Hoicka, Elena


    Divergent thinking shows the ability to search for new ideas, which is an important factor contributing to innovation and problem solving. Current divergent thinking tests allow researchers to study children's divergent thinking from the age of 3 years on. This article presents the first measure of divergent thinking that can be used with children as young as 2 years. The Unusual Box test is a nonverbal and nonimitative test in which children play individually with a novel toy and novel objects. Divergent thinking is scored as the number of different actions performed. Study 1 shows that the Unusual Box test is a valid measure of divergent thinking as it correlates with standard measures of divergent thinking in 3- and 4-year-olds. Study 2 indicates that the test can be used with 2-year-olds, as it shows high test-retest reliability, demonstrating that 2-year-olds can think divergently. Across both studies, individual differences and age-related changes were found, indicating that some children are better at divergent thinking than others and that children's divergent thinking increases with age. This test will allow researchers to gain insight into the early emergence of divergent thinking.

  4. An Intercomparison Between Divergence-Cleaning and Staggered Mesh Formulations for Numerical Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Balsara, D; Balsara, Dinshaw; Kim, Jongsoo


    In recent years, several different strategies have emerged for evolving the magnetic field in numerical MHD. Some of these methods can be classified as divergence-cleaning schemes, where one evolves the magnetic field components just like any other variable in a higher order Godunov scheme. The fact that the magnetic field is divergence-free is imposed post-facto via a divergence-cleaning step. Other schemes for evolving the magnetic field rely on a staggered mesh formulation which is inherently divergence-free. The claim has been made that the two approaches are equivalent. In this paper we cross-compare three divergence-cleaning schemes based on scalar and vector divergence-cleaning and a popular divergence-free scheme. All schemes are applied to the same stringent test problem. Several deficiencies in all the divergence-cleaning schemes become clearly apparent with the scalar divergence-cleaning schemes performing worse than the vector divergence-cleaning scheme. The vector divergence-cleaning scheme also ...

  5. Comparison of TCDD-elicited genome-wide hepatic gene expression in Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6 mice. (United States)

    Nault, Rance; Kim, Suntae; Zacharewski, Timothy R


    Although the structure and function of the AhR are conserved, emerging evidence suggests that downstream effects are species-specific. In this study, rat hepatic gene expression data from the DrugMatrix database (National Toxicology Program) were compared to mouse hepatic whole-genome gene expression data following treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). For the DrugMatrix study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged daily with 20μg/kg TCDD for 1, 3 and 5days, while female C57BL/6 ovariectomized mice were examined 1, 3 and 7days after a single oral gavage of 30μg/kg TCDD. A total of 649 rat and 1386 mouse genes (|fold change|≥1.5, P1(t)≥0.99) were differentially expressed following treatment. HomoloGene identified 11,708 orthologs represented across the rat Affymetrix 230 2.0 GeneChip (12,310 total orthologs), and the mouse 4×44K v.1 Agilent oligonucleotide array (17,578 total orthologs). Comparative analysis found 563 and 922 orthologs differentially expressed in response to TCDD in the rat and mouse, respectively, with 70 responses associated with immune function and lipid metabolism in common to both. Moreover, QRTPCR analysis of Ceacam1, showed divergent expression (induced in rat; repressed in mouse) functionally consistent with TCDD-elicited hepatic steatosis in the mouse but not the rat. Functional analysis identified orthologs involved in nucleotide binding and acetyltransferase activity in rat, while mouse-specific responses were associated with steroid, phospholipid, fatty acid, and carbohydrate metabolism. These results provide further evidence that TCDD elicits species-specific regulation of distinct gene networks, and outlines considerations for future comparisons of publicly available microarray datasets.

  6. Adaptation, Bacteria and Maxwell's Demons (United States)

    Galajda, Peter; Keymer, Juan E.; Austin, Robert H.


    We propose a method to study the adaptation of bacterial populations with an asymmetric wall of Maxwell Demon openings. A Maxwell Demon opening is a funnel which is easier to enter than to leave. The interaction of swimming cells with such a Maxwell Demon Wall results in a population density separation, in apparent (but not real) violation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, as we will show. Bacteria can be exposed to spatial challenges in order to move to e. g. higher food levels. The question we address in these experiments is: do the bacteria adapt and overcome the Maxwell Demon Wall?

  7. Chloroplast genome evolution in early diverged leptosporangiate ferns. (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung Tae; Chung, Myong Gi; Kim, Ki-Joong


    In this study, the chloroplast (cp) genome sequences from three early diverged leptosporangiate ferns were completed and analyzed in order to understand the evolution of the genome of the fern lineages. The complete cp genome sequence of Osmunda cinnamomea (Osmundales) was 142,812 base pairs (bp). The cp genome structure was similar to that of eusporangiate ferns. The gene/intron losses that frequently occurred in the cp genome of leptosporangiate ferns were not found in the cp genome of O. cinnamomea. In addition, putative RNA editing sites in the cp genome were rare in O. cinnamomea, even though the sites were frequently predicted to be present in leptosporangiate ferns. The complete cp genome sequence of Diplopterygium glaucum (Gleicheniales) was 151,007 bp and has a 9.7 kb inversion between the trnL-CAA and trnVGCA genes when compared to O. cinnamomea. Several repeated sequences were detected around the inversion break points. The complete cp genome sequence of Lygodium japonicum (Schizaeales) was 157,142 bp and a deletion of the rpoC1 intron was detected. This intron loss was shared by all of the studied species of the genus Lygodium. The GC contents and the effective numbers of codons (ENCs) in ferns varied significantly when compared to seed plants. The ENC values of the early diverged leptosporangiate ferns showed intermediate levels between eusporangiate and core leptosporangiate ferns. However, our phylogenetic tree based on all of the cp gene sequences clearly indicated that the cp genome similarity between O. cinnamomea (Osmundales) and eusporangiate ferns are symplesiomorphies, rather than synapomorphies. Therefore, our data is in agreement with the view that Osmundales is a distinct early diverged lineage in the leptosporangiate ferns.

  8. Rethinking conformity and imitation: divergence, convergence, and social understanding. (United States)

    Hodges, Bert H


    Social and developmental psychologists have stressed the pervasiveness and strength of humans' tendencies to conform and to imitate, and social anthropologists have argued that these tendencies are crucial to the formation of cultures. Research from four domains is reviewed and elaborated to show that divergence is also pervasive and potent, and it is interwoven with convergence in a complex set of dynamics that is often unnoticed or minimized. First, classic research in social conformity is reinterpreted in terms of truth, trust, and social solidarity, revealing that dissent is its most salient feature. Second, recent studies of children's use of testimony to guide action reveal a surprisingly sophisticated balance of trust and prudence, and a concern for truth and charity. Third, new experiments indicate that people diverge from others even under conditions where conformity seems assured. Fourth, current studies of imitation provide strong evidence that children are both selective and faithful in who, what, and why they follow others. All of the evidence reviewed points toward children and adults as being engaged, embodied partners with others, motivated to learn and understand the world, others, and themselves in ways that go beyond goals and rules, prediction and control. Even young children act as if they are in a dialogical relationship with others and the world, rather than acting as if they are solo explorers or blind followers. Overall, the evidence supports the hypothesis that social understanding cannot be reduced to convergence or divergence, but includes ongoing activities that seek greater comprehensiveness and complexity in the ability to act and interact effectively, appropriately, and with integrity.

  9. Evolution of cichlid vision via trans-regulatory divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Quin Kelly E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic evolution may occur through mutations that affect either the structure or expression of protein-coding genes. Although the evolution of color vision has historically been attributed to structural mutations within the opsin genes, recent research has shown that opsin regulatory mutations can also tune photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision. Visual sensitivity in African cichlid fishes varies as a result of the differential expression of seven opsin genes. We crossed cichlid species that express different opsin gene sets and scanned their genome for expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL responsible for these differences. Our results shed light on the role that different structural, cis-, and trans-regulatory mutations play in the evolution of color vision. Results We identified 11 eQTL that contribute to the divergent expression of five opsin genes. On three linkage groups, several eQTL formed regulatory “hotspots” associated with the expression of multiple opsins. Importantly, however, the majority of the eQTL we identified (8/11 or 73% occur on linkage groups located trans to the opsin genes, suggesting that cichlid color vision has evolved primarily via trans-regulatory divergence. By modeling the impact of just two of these trans-regulatory eQTL, we show that opsin regulatory mutations can alter cichlid photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision at least as much as opsin structural mutations can. Conclusions Combined with previous work, we demonstrate that the evolution of cichlid color vision results from the interplay of structural, cis-, and especially trans-regulatory loci. Although there are numerous examples of structural and cis-regulatory mutations that contribute to phenotypic evolution, our results suggest that trans-regulatory mutations could contribute to phenotypic divergence more commonly than previously expected, especially in systems like color vision, where compensatory changes in the

  10. Velocity condensation for magnetotactic bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Rupprecht, Jean-Francois; Bocquet, Lydéric


    Magnetotactic swimmers tend to align along magnetic field lines against stochastic reorientations. We show that the swimming strategy, e.g. active Brownian motion versus run-and-tumble dynamics, strongly affects the orientation statistics. The latter can exhibit a velocity condensation whereby the alignment probability density diverges. As a consequence, we find that the swimming strategy affects the nature of the phase transition to collective motion, indicating that L\\'evy run-and-tumble walks can outperform active Brownian processes as strategies to trigger collective behavior.

  11. One-loop divergences in massive gravity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Buchbinder, Ioseph L; Shapiro, Ilya L


    The one-loop divergences are calculated for the recently proposed ghost-free version of massive gravity, where the action depends on both metric and external tensor field f. The non-polynomial structure of the massive term is reduced to a more standard form by means of auxiliary tensor field, which is settled on-shell after quantum calculations are performed. As one should expect, the counterterms do not reproduce the form of the classical action. Moreover, the result has the form of the power series in f.

  12. One-loop divergences in massive gravity theory (United States)

    Buchbinder, I. L.; Pereira, D. D.; Shapiro, I. L.


    The one-loop divergences are calculated for the recently proposed ghost-free massive gravity model, where the action depends on both metric and external tensor field f. The non-polynomial structure of the massive term is reduced to a more standard form by means of auxiliary tensor field, which is settled on-shell after quantum calculations are performed. As one should expect, the counter-terms do not reproduce the form of the classical action. Moreover, the result has the form of the power series in f.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A theoretical study for the two-dimensional boundary layer flow through a divergent channel of a visco-elastic electrically conducting fluid in presence of transverse magnetic field has been considered. Similarity solutions are obtained by considering a special form of magnetic field. The analytical expressions for velocity and skin friction at the wall have been obtained and numerically worked out for different values of the flow parametersinvolved in the solution. The velocity and the skin friction coefficient have been presented graphically to observe the visco-elastic effects for various values of the flow parameters across the boundary layer.

  14. Logarithmic divergent thermal conductivity in two-dimensional nonlinear lattices. (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Hu, Bambi; Li, Baowen


    Heat conduction in three two-dimensional (2D) momentum-conserving nonlinear lattices are numerically calculated via both nonequilibrium heat-bath and equilibrium Green-Kubo algorithms. It is expected by mainstream theories that heat conduction in such 2D lattices is divergent and the thermal conductivity κ increases with lattice length N logarithmically. Our simulations for the purely quartic lattice firmly confirm it. However, very robust finite-size effects are observed in the calculations for the other two lattices, which well explain some existing studies and imply the extreme difficulties in observing their true asymptotic behaviors with affordable computation resources.

  15. Porous waveguide facilitated low divergence quantum cascade laser*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Wen; Lu Quanyong; Liu Wannfeng; Zhang Jinchuan; Wang Lijun; Liu Junqi; Li Lu; Liu Fengqi; Wang Zhanguo


    A quantum cscade laser with a porous waveguide structure emitting at 4.5 μm is reported. A branchlike porous structure filled with metal material was fabricated on both sides of the laser ridge by an electrochemical etching process. In contrast to the common ridge waveguide laser, devices with a porous structure give rather better beam quality. Utilizing this porous structure as a high-order mode absorber, the device exhibited fundamental transverse mode emission with a nearly diffraction limited far-field beam divergence angle of 4.9°.

  16. Landau-Squire jet in a radially diverging electrical current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyarevich, V.V.; Shilova, E.I.


    An examination is made of a precise solution to the classical Landau-Squire problem in a radially diverging electrical current. The formulated problem was shown to be described by two parameters one of which characterizes the electromagnetic effect, and the other - the hydrodynamic impulse. Determinations were made of the regions of permissible parameter values at which the solution remains limited. Flow pictures are presented in relation to the input ratio of electromagnetic forces and the hydrodynamic impulse. 10 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  17. 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production in elicited hairy roots culture of Eurycoma longifolia (United States)

    Abdullah, Nazirah; Ismail, Ismanizan; Hassan, Nor Hasnida; Basherudin, Norlia


    Eurycoma longifolia (Tongkat Ali) is a highly sought after medicinal plant in Malaysia. Propagation of E. longifolia through tissue culture has been reported in order to cater the industry demands for planting and raw materials as well as for conservation purposes. E. longifolia hairy roots culture has been developed using Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of Tongkat Ali phytochemicals. Effects of three elicitors; methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, and yeast extract at different concentrations were evaluated on the production of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one in E. longifolia hairy roots. The cultures were elicited at early exponential growth phase, followed by extraction of 9-methoxycanthin-6-one using methanol and HPLC analysis. Elicitation with methyl jasmonate at all concentrations increased 9-methoxycanthin-6-one up to 1-3 fold and treatment with (0.1 mM) was most efficient in enhancing 9-methoxycanthin-6-one production up to 3.902 mg/g dry weight after 7 days (168 hours) elicitation.

  18. Chloroatranol, an extremely potent allergen hidden in perfumes: a dose-response elicitation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Svedman, Cecilia;


    Oak moss absolute is a long-known, popular natural extract widely used in perfumes. It is reported as the cause of allergic reactions in a significant number of those with perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute has been the target of recent research to identify its allergenic components. Recently......, chloroatranol, a hitherto unknown fragrance allergen, was identified in oak moss absolute. The objective was to assess the clinical importance of chloroatranol as a fragrance allergen by characterizing its elicitation profile. 13 patients previously showing a positive patch test to oak moss absolute....... The dose eliciting a reaction in 50% of the test subjects at patch testing was 0.2 p.p.m. In conclusion, the hidden exposure to a potent allergen widely used in perfumes has caused a highly sensitized cohort of individuals. Judged from the elicitation profile, chloroatranol is the most potent allergen...

  19. "I Don't Know What's Right Anymore": Engaging Distressed Interviewees Using Graphic-Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Kuehne


    Full Text Available Graphic-elicitation appears to be a research method that potentially has much to offer, particularly so when working with distressed and disaffected groups. It can be especially suited to presenting contentious ideas with unwelcome implications to sceptical interviewees, in this case irrigation farmers who were questioning aspects of climate change. Five images were introduced in the course of conducting in-depth personal interviews. The interviews were recorded and analysed for recurrent themes related to the images. The graphic-elicitation method allowed some participants to preserve or build their sense of optimism by viewing the graphic-elicitation images in particular ways—they saw in them what they wanted to see. Encouraged by the images some attempted to transfer their felt responsibility toward climate change responses to the government and upstream irrigators by blaming them for their low water availability. URN:

  20. Deodorant bacteria; Des bacteries desodorisantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanlo, J.L. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 30 - Ales (France)


    Purifying bacteria: if this concept is not new, its application to gases cleansing has only been developed recently. This method allows to eliminate the volatile organic compounds and the gaseous effluents odors which come from industrial sites. Three bioreactors types exist at the present time. Their principles are explained. (O.M.) 6 refs.

  1. Functional genomics of intracellular bacteria. (United States)

    de Barsy, Marie; Greub, Gilbert


    During the genomic era, a large amount of whole-genome sequences accumulated, which identified many hypothetical proteins of unknown function. Rapidly, functional genomics, which is the research domain that assign a function to a given gene product, has thus been developed. Functional genomics of intracellular pathogenic bacteria exhibit specific peculiarities due to the fastidious growth of most of these intracellular micro-organisms, due to the close interaction with the host cell, due to the risk of contamination of experiments with host cell proteins and, for some strict intracellular bacteria such as Chlamydia, due to the absence of simple genetic system to manipulate the bacterial genome. To identify virulence factors of intracellular pathogenic bacteria, functional genomics often rely on bioinformatic analyses compared with model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. The use of heterologous expression is another common approach. Given the intracellular lifestyle and the many effectors that are used by the intracellular bacteria to corrupt host cell functions, functional genomics is also often targeting the identification of new effectors such as those of the T4SS of Brucella and Legionella.

  2. Hydrocarbon degradation by antarctic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanagh, J.A.E.; Nichols, P.D.; McMeekin, T.A.; Franzmann, P.D. [Univ. of Tasmania (Australia)] [and others


    Bacterial cultures obtained from sediment samples collected during a trial oil spill experiment conducted at Airport beach, Eastern Antarctica were selectively enriched for n-alkane-degrading and phenanthrenedegrading bacteria. Samples were collected from a control site and sites treated with different hydrocarbon mixtures - Special Antarctic blend (SAB), BP-Visco and orange roughy oils. One set of replicate sites was also treated with water from Organic Lake which had previously been shown to contain hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. No viable bacteria were obtained from samples collected from sites treated with orange roughy oil. Extensive degradation of n-alkanes by enrichment cultures obtained from sites treated with SAB and BP-Visco occurred at both 25{degrees}C and 10{degrees}C. Extensive degradation of phenanthrene also occurred in enrichment cultures from these sites grown at 25{degrees}C. Concurrent increases of polar lipid in these cultures were also observed. The presence of 1,4-naphthaquinone and 1-naphthol during the growth of the cultures on phenanthrene is unusual and warrants further investigation of the mechanism of phenanthrene-degradation by these Antarctic bacteria.

  3. Synthetic Biology in Streptomyces Bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Marnix H.; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko


    Actinomycete bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are major producers of bioactive compounds for the biotechnology industry. They are the source of most clinically used antibiotics, as well as of several widely used drugs against common diseases, including cancer . Genome sequencing has revealed that


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medema, Marnix H.; Breitling, Rainer; Takano, Eriko; Voigt, C


    Actinomycete bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are major producers of bioactive compounds for the biotechnology industry. They are the source of most clinically used antibiotics, as well as of several widely used drugs against common diseases, including cancer. Genome sequencing has revealed that t

  5. Manipulating Genetic Material in Bacteria (United States)


    Lisa Crawford, a graduate research assistant from the University of Toledo, works with Laurel Karr of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the molecular biology laboratory. They are donducting genetic manipulation of bacteria and yeast for the production of large amount of desired protein. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  6. Programmed survival of soil bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Bogø; Molin, Søren; Sternberg, Claus

    Biological containment systems have been developed for Pseudomonas putida and related soil bacteria. The systems are based on combinations of lethal genes and regulated gene expression. Two types of killing function have been employed: 1) A membrane protein interfering with the membrane potential...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volpi, Marta


    solely based on endospores of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which presumably constitute only a small fraction of the total thermophilic endospore community reaching cold environments. My PhD project developed an experimental framework for using thermophilic fermentative endospores (TFEs) to trace...

  8. Engineering robust lactic acid bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bron, P.A.; Bokhorst-van de Veen, van H.; Wels, M.; Kleerebezem, M.


    For centuries, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been industrially exploited as starter cultures in the fermentation of foods and feeds for their spoilage-preventing and flavor-enhancing characteristics. More recently, the health-promoting effects of LAB on the consumer have been widely acknowledged,

  9. The interplay of elicitation and evaluation of trait-expressive behavior: Evidence in assessment center exercises. (United States)

    Lievens, Filip; Schollaert, Eveline; Keen, Gert


    In assessment centers (ACs), research on eliciting candidate behavior and evaluating candidate behavior have largely followed independent paths. This study integrates trait activation and trait rating models to posit hypotheses about the effects of behavior elicitation via situational cues on key assessor observation and rating variables. To test the hypotheses, a series of experimental and field studies are conducted. Only when trait-expressive behavior activation and evaluation models work in conjunction, increases in observability are coupled with increases in the interrater reliability, convergent validity, discriminant validity, and accuracy of AC ratings. Implications of these findings for AC theory and practice are formulated.

  10. Expert Elicitation Methods in Quantifying the Consequences of Acoustic Disturbance from Offshore Renewable Energy Developments. (United States)

    Donovan, Carl; Harwood, John; King, Stephanie; Booth, Cormac; Caneco, Bruno; Walker, Cameron


    There are many developments for offshore renewable energy around the United Kingdom whose installation typically produces large amounts of far-reaching noise, potentially disturbing many marine mammals. The potential to affect the favorable conservation status of many species means extensive environmental impact assessment requirements for the licensing of such installation activities. Quantification of such complex risk problems is difficult and much of the key information is not readily available. Expert elicitation methods can be employed in such pressing cases. We describe the methodology used in an expert elicitation study conducted in the United Kingdom for combining expert opinions based on statistical distributions and copula-like methods.

  11. Gene expression time course in the human skin during elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene; Skov, Lone; Menné, Torkil


    Genes involved in the inflammatory response resulting in allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) are only partly known. In this study, we introduce the use of high-density oligonucleotide arrays for gene expression profiling in human skin during the elicitation of ACD. Skin biopsies from normal...... and nickel-exposed skin were obtained from seven nickel-allergic patients and five nonallergic controls at four different time points during elicitation of eczema. Each gene expression profile was analyzed by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays. Cluster analysis of 74 genes found...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo de Carvalho Bezerra


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Contributions from the sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the linear programming model for the elicitation of experts' beliefs are presented. The process allows for the calibration of the family of probability distributions obtained in the elicitation process. An experiment to obtain the probability distribution of a future event (Brazil vs. Spain soccer game in the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup final game was conducted. The proposed sensitivity analysis step may help to reduce the vagueness of the information given by the expert.

  13. The capsaicin cough reflex in patients with symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, H.; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Mosbech, H.;


    Patients with multiple chemical sensitivity and eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals have enhanced cough reflex to capsaicin when applying the tidal breathing method. The aims of the present study were to test whether the capsaicin induced cough reflex was enhanced......'s criteria for multiple chemical sensitivity and 15 eczema patients with airway symptoms elicited by odorous chemicals were compared with 29 age-matched, healthy controls. We measured C5--the capsaicin concentration causing five coughs or more--using the single breath inhalation test. No difference was found...

  14. Fuzzy species among recombinogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Christophe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is a matter of ongoing debate whether a universal species concept is possible for bacteria. Indeed, it is not clear whether closely related isolates of bacteria typically form discrete genotypic clusters that can be assigned as species. The most challenging test of whether species can be clearly delineated is provided by analysis of large populations of closely-related, highly recombinogenic, bacteria that colonise the same body site. We have used concatenated sequences of seven house-keeping loci from 770 strains of 11 named Neisseria species, and phylogenetic trees, to investigate whether genotypic clusters can be resolved among these recombinogenic bacteria and, if so, the extent to which they correspond to named species. Results Alleles at individual loci were widely distributed among the named species but this distorting effect of recombination was largely buffered by using concatenated sequences, which resolved clusters corresponding to the three species most numerous in the sample, N. meningitidis, N. lactamica and N. gonorrhoeae. A few isolates arose from the branch that separated N. meningitidis from N. lactamica leading us to describe these species as 'fuzzy'. Conclusion A multilocus approach using large samples of closely related isolates delineates species even in the highly recombinogenic human Neisseria where individual loci are inadequate for the task. This approach should be applied by taxonomists to large samples of other groups of closely-related bacteria, and especially to those where species delineation has historically been difficult, to determine whether genotypic clusters can be delineated, and to guide the definition of species.

  15. Marker-aided genetic divergence analysis in Brassica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. Arunachalam; Shefali Verma; V. Sujata; K. V. Prabhu


    Genetic divergence was evaluated in 31 breeding lines from four Brassica species using Mahalanobis’ $D^{2}$. A new method of grouping using $D^{2}$ values was used to group the 31 lines, based on diagnostic morphological traits (called morphoqts). Isozyme variation of the individual enzymes esterase and glutamate oxaloacetate was quantified by five parameters (called isoqts) developed earlier. Grouping by the same method was also done based on the isoqts, and the grouping by isozymes was compared with that by morphoqts. Overall, there was an agreement of 73% suggesting that isoqts can be used in the choice of parents and also first stage selection of segregants in the laboratory. It was suggested that such an exercise would help to take care of season-bound and field-related problems of breeding. The new isozyme QTs, within lane variance of relative mobility and relative absorption, accounted for about 50% of the total divergence. The utility of the new method and isoqts in cost-effective breeding were highlighted.

  16. Transcriptional divergence and conservation of human and mouse erythropoiesis. (United States)

    Pishesha, Novalia; Thiru, Prathapan; Shi, Jiahai; Eng, Jennifer C; Sankaran, Vijay G; Lodish, Harvey F


    Mouse models have been used extensively for decades and have been instrumental in improving our understanding of mammalian erythropoiesis. Nonetheless, there are several examples of variation between human and mouse erythropoiesis. We performed a comparative global gene expression study using data from morphologically identical stage-matched sorted populations of human and mouse erythroid precursors from early to late erythroblasts. Induction and repression of major transcriptional regulators of erythropoiesis, as well as major erythroid-important proteins, are largely conserved between the species. In contrast, at a global level we identified a significant extent of divergence between the species, both at comparable stages and in the transitions between stages, especially for the 500 most highly expressed genes during development. This suggests that the response of multiple developmentally regulated genes to key erythroid transcriptional regulators represents an important modification that has occurred in the course of erythroid evolution. In developing a systematic framework to understand and study conservation and divergence between human and mouse erythropoiesis, we show how mouse models can fail to mimic specific human diseases and provide predictions for translating findings from mouse models to potential therapies for human disease.

  17. WORMHOLE: Novel Least Diverged Ortholog Prediction through Machine Learning. (United States)

    Sutphin, George L; Mahoney, J Matthew; Sheppard, Keith; Walton, David O; Korstanje, Ron


    The rapid advancement of technology in genomics and targeted genetic manipulation has made comparative biology an increasingly prominent strategy to model human disease processes. Predicting orthology relationships between species is a vital component of comparative biology. Dozens of strategies for predicting orthologs have been developed using combinations of gene and protein sequence, phylogenetic history, and functional interaction with progressively increasing accuracy. A relatively new class of orthology prediction strategies combines aspects of multiple methods into meta-tools, resulting in improved prediction performance. Here we present WORMHOLE, a novel ortholog prediction meta-tool that applies machine learning to integrate 17 distinct ortholog prediction algorithms to identify novel least diverged orthologs (LDOs) between 6 eukaryotic species-humans, mice, zebrafish, fruit flies, nematodes, and budding yeast. Machine learning allows WORMHOLE to intelligently incorporate predictions from a wide-spectrum of strategies in order to form aggregate predictions of LDOs with high confidence. In this study we demonstrate the performance of WORMHOLE across each combination of query and target species. We show that WORMHOLE is particularly adept at improving LDO prediction performance between distantly related species, expanding the pool of LDOs while maintaining low evolutionary distance and a high level of functional relatedness between genes in LDO pairs. We present extensive validation, including cross-validated prediction of PANTHER LDOs and evaluation of evolutionary divergence and functional similarity, and discuss future applications of machine learning in ortholog prediction. A WORMHOLE web tool has been developed and is available at

  18. Phycobilisomes linker family in cyanobacterial genomes: divergence and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Guan, Song Qin, Fangqing Zhao, Xiaowen Zhang, Xuexi Tang


    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are the oldest life form making important contributions to global CO2 fixation on the Earth. Phycobilisomes (PBSs are the major light harvesting systems of most cyanobacteria species. Recent availability of the whole genome database of cyanobacteria provides us a global and further view on the complex structural PBSs. A PBSs linker family is crucial in structure and function of major light-harvesting PBSs complexes. Linker polypeptides are considered to have the same ancestor with other phycobiliproteins (PBPs, and might have been diverged and evolved under particularly selective forces together. In this paper, a total of 192 putative linkers including 167 putative PBSs-associated linker genes and 25 Ferredoxin-NADP oxidoreductase (FNR genes were detected through whole genome analysis of all 25 cyanobacterial genomes (20 finished and 5 in draft state. We compared the PBSs linker family of cyanobacteria in terms of gene structure, chromosome location, conservation domain, and polymorphic variants, and discussed the features and functions of the PBSs linker family. Most of PBSs-associated linkers in PBSs linker family are assembled into gene clusters with PBPs. A phylogenetic analysis based on protein data demonstrates a possibility of six classes of the linker family in cyanobacteria. Emergence, divergence, and disappearance of PBSs linkers among cyanobacterial species were due to speciation, gene duplication, gene transfer, or gene loss, and acclimation to various environmental selective pressures especially light.

  19. Spontaneous divergent elbow dislocation after Sauve-Kapandji procedure. (United States)

    Moritomo, Hisao; Izawa, Kazutaka; Murase, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Hideo; Goto, Akira; Masatomi, Takashi


    This is a report on an unusual complication of the Sauve-Kapandji procedure in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Two women with rheumatoid arthritis who previously had an ipsilateral Sauve-Kapandji procedure experienced spontaneous transverse divergent elbow dislocations without evident trauma. Their radiographs showed medial dislocation of the proximal ulna, which was separated from the radial head. The radial head and distal end of the ulnar shaft showed remarkable instability by a pronation and supination motion without the radial and ulnar shafts being separated from each other. Stress radiographic examination showed significant loosening of all ligaments except the medial collateral ligament around the elbow and did not show disruption of the interosseous membrane. A unique chronic twist radioulnar dissociation which consists of gross instability of the radial head and the distal ulna without disruption of the interosseous membrane was considered to cause instability of the humeroulnar joint, which results in medial dislocation of the proximal ulna. This report suggests that there is a direct cause and effect relationship between the residual distal ulnar instability and the development of transverse divergent dislocation of the elbow in patients with rheumatoid arthritis after the Sauve-Kapandji procedure.

  20. A highly divergent Puumala virus lineage in southern Poland. (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Ulrike M; Drewes, Stephan; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Sadowska, Edyta T; Mikowska, Magdalena; Heckel, Gerald; Koteja, Paweł; Ulrich, Rainer G


    Puumala virus (PUUV) represents one of the most important hantaviruses in Central Europe. Phylogenetic analyses of PUUV strains indicate a strong genetic structuring of this hantavirus. Recently, PUUV sequences were identified in the natural reservoir, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), collected in the northern part of Poland. The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of PUUV in bank voles from southern Poland. A total of 72 bank voles were trapped in 2009 at six sites in this part of Poland. RT-PCR and IgG-ELISA analyses detected three PUUV positive voles at one trapping site. The PUUV-infected animals were identified by cytochrome b gene analysis to belong to the Carpathian and Eastern evolutionary lineages of bank vole. The novel PUUV S, M and L segment nucleotide sequences showed the closest similarity to sequences of the Russian PUUV lineage from Latvia, but were highly divergent to those previously found in northern Poland, Slovakia and Austria. In conclusion, the detection of a highly divergent PUUV lineage in southern Poland indicates the necessity of further bank vole monitoring in this region allowing rational public health measures to prevent human infections.

  1. Genetic diversity, recombination, and divergence in animal associated Penicillium dipodomyis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Henk

    Full Text Available Penicillium dipodomyis is thought to be an exclusively asexual fungus associated with Kangaroo Rats, Dipodomys species, and is unique among Penicillium species in growing at 37°C but producing no known toxins. Lack of recombination within P. dipodomyis would result in limited adaptive flexibility but possibly enhance local adaptation and host selection via maintenance of favourable genotypes. Here, analysis of DNA sequence data from five protein-coding genes shows that recombination occurs within P. dipodomyis on a small spatial scale. Furthermore, detection of mating-type alleles supports outcrossing and a sexual cycle in P. dipodomyis. P. dipodomyis was a weaker competitor in in vitro assays with other Penicillium species found in association with Kanagaroo rats. Bayesian species level analysis suggests that the P. dipodomyis lineage diverged from closely related species also found in cheek pouches of Kangaroo Rats and their stored seeds about 11 million years ago, a similar divergence time as Dipodomys from its sister rodent taxa.

  2. Rapid divergence of two classes of Haemophilus ducreyi. (United States)

    Ricotta, Emily E; Wang, Nan; Cutler, Robin; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Humphreys, Tricia L


    Haemophilus ducreyi, the etiologic agent of chancroid, expresses variants of several key virulence factors. While previous reports suggested that H. ducreyi strains formed two clonal populations, the differences between, and diversity within, these populations were unclear. To assess their variability, we examined sequence diversity at 11 H. ducreyi loci, including virulence and housekeeping genes, augmenting published data sets with PCR-amplified genes to acquire data for at least 10 strains at each locus. While sequences from all 11 loci place strains into two distinct groups, there was very little variation within each group. The difference between alleles of the two groups was variable and large at 3 loci encoding surface-exposed proteins (0.4 < K(S) < 1.3, where K(S) is divergence at synonymous sites) but consistently small at genes encoding cytoplasmic or periplasmic proteins (K(S) < 0.09). The data suggest that the two classes have recently diverged, that recombination has introduced variant alleles into at least 3 distinct loci, and that these alleles have been confined to one of the two classes. In addition, recombination is evident among alleles within, but not between, classes. Rather than clones of the same species, these properties indicate that the two classes may form distinct species.

  3. Gene duplication and divergence affecting drug content in Cannabis sativa. (United States)

    Weiblen, George D; Wenger, Jonathan P; Craft, Kathleen J; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Mehmedic, Zlatko; Treiber, Erin L; Marks, M David


    Cannabis sativa is an economically important source of durable fibers, nutritious seeds, and psychoactive drugs but few economic plants are so poorly understood genetically. Marijuana and hemp were crossed to evaluate competing models of cannabinoid inheritance and to explain the predominance of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) in marijuana compared with cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in hemp. Individuals in the resulting F2 population were assessed for differential expression of cannabinoid synthase genes and were used in linkage mapping. Genetic markers associated with divergent cannabinoid phenotypes were identified. Although phenotypic segregation and a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for the THCA/CBDA ratio were consistent with a simple model of codominant alleles at a single locus, the diversity of THCA and CBDA synthase sequences observed in the mapping population, the position of enzyme coding loci on the map, and patterns of expression suggest multiple linked loci. Phylogenetic analysis further suggests a history of duplication and divergence affecting drug content. Marijuana is distinguished from hemp by a nonfunctional CBDA synthase that appears to have been positively selected to enhance psychoactivity. An unlinked QTL for cannabinoid quantity may also have played a role in the recent escalation of drug potency.

  4. Spontaneous eye blinks during creative task correlate with divergent processing. (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Tominaga, Atsuko; Kajimura, Shogo; Nomura, Michio


    Creativity consists of divergent and convergent thinking, with both related to individual eye blinks at rest. To assess underlying mechanisms between eye blinks and traditional creativity tasks, we investigated the relationship between creativity performance and eye blinks at rest and during tasks. Participants performed an alternative uses and remote association task while eye blinks were recorded. Results showed that the relationship between eye blinks at rest and creativity performance was compatible with those of previous research. Interestingly, we found that the generation of ideas increased as a function of eye blink number during the alternative uses task. On the other hand, during the remote association task, accuracy was independent of eye blink number during the task, but response time increased with it. Moreover, eye blink changes in participants who responded quickly during the remote association task were different depending on their resting state eye blinks; that is, participants with many eye blinks during rest showed little increasing eye blinks and achieved solutions quickly. Positive correlations between eye blinks during creative tasks and yielding ideas on the alternative uses task and response time on the remote association task suggest that eye blinks during creativity tasks relate to divergent thinking processes such as conceptual reorganization.

  5. Effect of fringe divergence in fluid acceleration measurement using LDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Se Jong; Sung, Hyung Jin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Nobach, Holger; Tropea, Cam [Technische Universitat Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)


    The laser Doppler technique is well-established as a velocity measurement technique of high precision for flow velocity. Recently, the laser Doppler technique has also been used to measure acceleration of fluid particles. Acceleration is interesting from a fluid mechanics point of view, since the Navier Stokes equations, specifically the left-hand-side, are formulated in terms of fluid acceleration. Further, there are several avenues to estimating the dissipation rate using the acceleration. However such measurements place additional demands on the design of the optical system; in particular fringe non-uniformity must be held below about 0.0001 to avoid systematic errors. Relations expressing fringe divergence as a function of the optical parameters of the system have been given in the literature; however, direct use of these formulae to minimize fringe divergence lead either to very large measurement volumes or to extremely high intersection angles. This dilemma can be resolved by using an off-axis receiving arrangement, in which the measurement volume is truncated by a pinhole in front of the detection plane. In the present study an optical design study is performed for optimizing laser Doppler systems for fluid acceleration measurements. This is followed by laboratory validation using a round free jet and a stagnation flow, two flows in which either fluid acceleration has been previously measured or in which the acceleration is known analytically. A 90 degree off-axis receiving angle is used with a pinhole or a slit.

  6. Molecular evolution and sequence divergence of plant chalcone synthase and chalcone synthase-Like genes. (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhao, Wenwen; Wang, Zhicui; Zhu, Jingying; Liu, Qisong


    Plant chalcone synthase (CHS) and CHS-Like (CHSL) proteins are polyketide synthases. In this study, we evaluated the molecular evolution of this gene family using representative types of CHSL genes, including stilbene synthase (STS), 2-pyrone synthase (2-PS), bibenzyl synthase (BBS), acridone synthase (ACS), biphenyl synthase (BIS), benzalacetone synthase, coumaroyl triacetic acid synthase (CTAS), and benzophenone synthase (BPS), along with their CHS homologs from the same species of both angiosperms and gymnosperms. A cDNA-based phylogeny indicated that CHSLs had diverse evolutionary patterns. STS, ACS, and 2-PS clustered with CHSs from the same species (late diverged pattern), while CTAS, BBS, BPS, and BIS were distant from their CHS homologs (early diverged pattern). The amino-acid phylogeny suggested that CHS and CHSL proteins formed clades according to enzyme function. The CHSs and CHSLs from Polygonaceae and Arachis had unique evolutionary histories. Synonymous mutation rates were lower in late diverged CHSLs than in early diverged ones, indicating that gene duplications occurred more recently in late diverged CHSLs than in early diverged ones. Relative rate tests proved that late diverged CHSLs had unequal rates to CHSs from the same species when using fatty acid synthase, which evolved from the common ancestor with the CHS superfamily, as the outgroup, while the early diverged lineages had equal rates. This indicated that late diverged CHSLs experienced more frequent mutation than early diverged CHSLs after gene duplication, allowing obtaining new functions in relatively short period of time.

  7. Genome divergence during evolutionary diversification as revealed in replicate lake-stream stickleback population pairs. (United States)

    Roesti, Marius; Hendry, Andrew P; Salzburger, Walter; Berner, Daniel


    Evolutionary diversification is often initiated by adaptive divergence between populations occupying ecologically distinct environments while still exchanging genes. The genetic foundations of this divergence process are largely unknown and are here explored through genome scans in multiple independent lake-stream population pairs of threespine stickleback. We find that across the pairs, overall genomic divergence is associated with the magnitude of divergence in phenotypes known to be under divergent selection. Along this same axis of increasing diversification, genomic divergence becomes increasingly biased towards the centre of chromosomes as opposed to the peripheries. We explain this pattern by within-chromosome variation in the physical extent of hitchhiking, as recombination is greatly reduced in chromosome centres. Correcting for this effect suggests that a great number of genes distributed widely across the genome are involved in the divergence into lake vs. stream habitats. Analyzing additional allopatric population pairs, however, reveals that strong divergence in some genomic regions has been driven by selection unrelated to lake-stream ecology. Our study highlights a major contribution of large-scale variation in recombination rate to generating heterogeneous genomic divergence and indicates that elucidating the genetic basis of adaptive divergence might be more challenging than currently recognized.

  8. Erythrophore cell response to food-associated pathogenic bacteria: implications for detection. (United States)

    Hutchison, Janine R; Dukovcic, Stephanie R; Dierksen, Karen P; Carlyle, Calvin A; Caldwell, Bruce A; Trempy, Janine E


    Cell-based biosensors have been proposed for use as function-based detectors of toxic agents. We report the use of Betta splendens chromatophore cells, specifically erythrophore cells, for detection of food-associated pathogenic bacteria. Evaluation of erythrophore cell response, using Bacillus spp., has revealed that this response can distinguish pathogenic Bacillus cereus from a non-pathogenic B. cereus ΔplcR deletion mutant and a non-pathogenic Bacillus subtilis. Erythrophore cells were exposed to Salmonella enteritidis, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum. Each bacterial pathogen elicited a response from erythrophore cells that was distinguished from the corresponding bacterial growth medium, and this observed response was unique for each bacterial pathogen. These findings suggest that erythrophore cell response has potential for use as a biosensor in the detection and toxicity assessment for food-associated pathogenic bacteria.

  9. Erythrophore cell response to food‐associated pathogenic bacteria: implications for detection (United States)

    Hutchison, Janine R.; Dukovcic, Stephanie R.; Dierksen, Karen P.; Carlyle, Calvin A.; Caldwell, Bruce A.; Trempy, Janine E.


    Summary Cell‐based biosensors have been proposed for use as function‐based detectors of toxic agents. We report the use of Betta splendens chromatophore cells, specifically erythrophore cells, for detection of food‐associated pathogenic bacteria. Evaluation of erythrophore cell response, using Bacillus spp., has revealed that this response can distinguish pathogenic Bacillus cereus from a non‐pathogenic B. cereus ΔplcR deletion mutant and a non‐pathogenic Bacillus subtilis. Erythrophore cells were exposed to Salmonella enteritidis, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum. Each bacterial pathogen elicited a response from erythrophore cells that was distinguished from the corresponding bacterial growth medium, and this observed response was unique for each bacterial pathogen. These findings suggest that erythrophore cell response has potential for use as a biosensor in the detection and toxicity assessment for food‐associated pathogenic bacteria. PMID:21261862

  10. Motivating and achievement-eliciting pop-ups in online environments: A user experience perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bittner, Jenny V.; Zondervan, Robin


    The aim of the present research was to develop pop-up windows that motivate users and evoke a positive user experience. Several variants of achievement eliciting pop-ups were designed and tested on a real business-website. A pre-test examined the effectiveness of 24 combinations of pictures and word

  11. Use of expert judgment elicitation to estimate seismic vulnerability of selected building types (United States)

    Jaiswal, K.S.; Aspinall, W.; Perkins, D.; Wald, D.; Porter, K.A.


    Pooling engineering input on earthquake building vulnerability through an expert judgment elicitation process requires careful deliberation. This article provides an overview of expert judgment procedures including the Delphi approach and the Cooke performance-based method to estimate the seismic vulnerability of a building category.

  12. "Dare I Ask?": Eliciting Prior Knowledge and Its Implications for Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Dávila, Liv Thorstensson


    This article examines high school teachers' engagement of newcomer English learner students' prior knowledge. Three central research questions guided this study: 1) To what extent do teachers function as mediators of their students' prior knowledge? 2) What goes into teachers' thinking about how and when to elicit prior knowledge? and 3) How do…

  13. Comparing Elicited Imitation and Word Monitoring as Measures of Implicit Knowledge (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuichi; DeKeyser, Robert


    The present study challenges the validity of elicited imitation (EI) as a measure for implicit knowledge, investigating to what extent online error detection and subsequent sentence repetition draw on implicit knowledge. To assess online detection during listening, a word monitoring component was built into an EI task. Advanced-level Japanese L2…

  14. Comparison of elicitation potential of chloroatranol and atranol--2 allergens in oak moss absolute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne D; Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena


    sensitization to chloroatranol and oak moss absolute were tested simultaneously to a serial dilution of chloroatranol and atranol in ethanol, in equimolar concentrations (0.0034-1072 microM). Dose-response curves were estimated and analysed by logistic regression. The estimated difference in elicitation potency...

  15. Feedback on Feedback: Eliciting Learners' Responses to Written Feedback through Student-Generated Screencasts (United States)

    Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha


    Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…

  16. Differential Neural Activity during Search of Specific and General Autobiographical Memories Elicited by Musical Cues (United States)

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.


    Previous neuroimaging studies that have examined autobiographical memory specificity have utilized retrieval cues associated with prior searches of the event, potentially changing the retrieval processes being investigated. In the current study, musical cues were used to naturally elicit memories from multiple levels of specificity (i.e., lifetime…

  17. Children with Autism Respond Differently to Spontaneous, Elicited and Deferred Imitation (United States)

    Heimann, M.; Nordqvist, E.; Strid, K.; Connant Almrot, J.; Tjus, T.


    Background: Imitation, a key vehicle for both cognitive and social development, is often regarded as more difficult for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than for children with Down syndrome (DS) or typically developing (TD) children. The current study investigates similarities and differences in observed elicited, spontaneous and…

  18. Emotion-Eliciting Qualities of Television Campaign Advertising as a Predictor of Voting Behavior. (United States)

    Masterson, John T.; Biggers, Thompson


    Relates political candidates' television advertising to voters' emotional reactions and voting behavior. Suggests that television campaign advertising elicits emotion along three continua: pleasure-displeasure, arousal-nonarousal, and dominance-submissiveness. Suggests that emotional response to such advertising is systematically related to voting…

  19. Effect of schedule of reinforcement on cue-elicited reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. (United States)

    Acosta, Jazmin I; Thiel, Kenneth J; Sanabria, Federico; Browning, Jenny R; Neisewander, Janet L


    Cocaine-associated cues can elicit incentive motivational effects that drive cocaine-seeking behavior and contribute to relapse. The extinction/reinstatement model is commonly used to measure these effects in animals. This study examined the influence of training and testing schedules of reinforcement on cue-elicited reinstatement. Lever presses during training resulted in cues and cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/IV) on either continuous or partial reinforcement schedules [fixed ratio (FR) 1 or 11, variable ratio (VR) 5 or 11]. Animals then underwent extinction training, followed by a test for cue-elicited reinstatement of extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior by response-contingent cue presentations on either a continuous (FR 1) or a partial reinforcement schedule (FR 11). Partial reinforcement during training resulted in higher response rates during cue-elicited reinstatement relative to continuous reinforcement. In contrast, delivery of cues on a continuous reinforcement schedule during testing yielded higher response rates relative to delivery on a partial reinforcement schedule. Finally, the shift from a partial to a continuous reinforcement schedule across training and testing phases did not alter response rates. These findings provide important information for choosing parameters for reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior that would allow the most sensitive method to detect changes in response rate after an experimental manipulation.

  20. Assessing Measurement Invariance for Spanish Sentence Repetition and Morphology Elicitation Tasks (United States)

    Kapantzoglou, Maria; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Gray, Shelley; Restrepo, M. Adelaida


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate evidence supporting the construct validity of two grammatical tasks (sentence repetition, morphology elicitation) included in the Spanish Screener for Language Impairment in Children (Restrepo, Gorin, & Gray, 2013). We evaluated if the tasks measured the targeted grammatical skills in the same…

  1. Eliciting Children's Recall of Events: How Do Computers Compare with Humans? (United States)

    Powell, Martine B.; Wilson, J. Clare; Thomson, Donald M.


    Describes a study that investigated the usefulness of an interactive computer program in eliciting children's reports about an event. Compared results of interviews by computer with interviews with humans with children aged five through eight that showed little benefit in computers over face-to-face interviews. (Author/LRW)

  2. Feedback on Feedback: Eliciting Learners' Responses to Written Feedback through Student-Generated Screencasts (United States)

    Fernández-Toro, María; Furnborough, Concha


    Despite the potential benefits of assignment feedback, learners often fail to use it effectively. This study examines the ways in which adult distance learners engage with written feedback on one of their assignments. Participants were 10 undergraduates studying Spanish at the Open University, UK. Their responses to feedback were elicited by means…

  3. Biochemical Changes in β-Cryptogein-Elicited Tobacco: A possible Basis of Acquired Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edreva A


    Full Text Available β-Cryptogein, a proteinaceous elicitor from the phytopathogenic fungus Phytophthoracryptogea, is known to induce leaf necrosis in tobacco and non-specific resistance (expressed in the perinecrotic leaf area against a wide range of tobacco pathogens. To reveal mechanisms underlying the acquired resistance, biochemical changes in leaves of β-cryptogein-elicited tobacco were followed three, five and ten days after elicitation. The activities of peroxidase, β-1,3-glucanase and β-glucosidase, as well as the patterns of acidic pathogenesis-related (PR-proteins were determined. The protected part (perinecrotic area and the non-protected part (distant extra-perinecrotic area of leaves of β-cryptogein-stem treated tobacco (cv. Xanthin.c. were analyzed. Leaves of water-stem treated tobacco served as controls. It was shown that in the protected leaf part β-cryptogein caused significant metabolic shifts early after elicitation, persisting during the whole period studied. An important increase of peroxidase and β-1,3-glucanase activity was recorded. PR-protein components appeared that were absent in the controls. There were negligible changes in β-glucosidase activity. In the non-protected leaf part late and non-significant changes occurred. Taking into account the antimicrobial, regulatory and structure-modifying properties of the biochemical components studied, it may be admitted that β-cryptogein elicited the development of a hostile environment, i.e. a potential for plant resistance against subsequent pathogen invasion.

  4. Improving the Communication Skills of IS Developers during Requirements Elicitation Using Experiential Learning (United States)

    Qurban, Mustafa H.; Austria, Richmond D.


    The improvement of communication skills among Information Systems (IS) developers can be considered as a strategy to mitigate the risk of project failure during IS design. This paper addresses issues on various communication barriers normally encountered during its requirements elicitation (RE) stage. This study aims to adopt experiential learning…

  5. Elicitation and Reformulation and Their Relationship with Learner Repair in Dyadic Interaction (United States)

    Nassaji, Hossein


    This research investigates the usefulness of two major types of interactional feedback (elicitation and reformulation) in dyadic interaction. The focus is on the different ways in which each feedback type is provided and their relationship with learner repair. The participants were 42 adult intermediate English as a second language learners and…

  6. Fotohistorias : Participatory photography as a methodology to elicit the life experiences of migrants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yefimova, Katya; Neils, Moriah; Newell, Bryce; Gomez, Ricardo


    We present the results of a participatory photography approach to eliciting the life experiences and worldviews of undocumented Hispanic migrants at the U.S.-Mexico border. While offering a space for reflection, Fotohistorias explores how undocumented migrants at the U.S.-Mexico border express their

  7. Collage Life Story Elicitation Technique: A Representational Technique for Scaffolding Autobiographical Memories (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Gertina J.


    A basic premise in narrative therapy and inquiry is that life story telling is a mechanism by which experiences are rendered meaningful within some form of structure. However, narrative inquiry has to take cognisance of difficulties ensuing from discursive practices for different populations when eliciting their life stories. In this article I…

  8. Sequential Immunization Elicits Broadly Neutralizing Anti-HIV-1 Antibodies in Ig Knockin Mice. (United States)

    Escolano, Amelia; Steichen, Jon M; Dosenovic, Pia; Kulp, Daniel W; Golijanin, Jovana; Sok, Devin; Freund, Natalia T; Gitlin, Alexander D; Oliveira, Thiago; Araki, Tatsuya; Lowe, Sarina; Chen, Spencer T; Heinemann, Jennifer; Yao, Kai-Hui; Georgeson, Erik; Saye-Francisco, Karen L; Gazumyan, Anna; Adachi, Yumiko; Kubitz, Michael; Burton, Dennis R; Schief, William R; Nussenzweig, Michel C


    A vaccine that elicits broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) against HIV-1 is likely to be protective, but this has not been achieved. To explore immunization regimens that might elicit bNAbs, we produced and immunized mice expressing the predicted germline PGT121, a bNAb specific for the V3-loop and surrounding glycans on the HIV-1 spike. Priming with an epitope-modified immunogen designed to activate germline antibody-expressing B cells, followed by ELISA-guided boosting with a sequence of directional immunogens, native-like trimers with decreasing epitope modification, elicited heterologous tier-2-neutralizing responses. In contrast, repeated immunization with the priming immunogen did not. Antibody cloning confirmed elicitation of high levels of somatic mutation and tier-2-neutralizing antibodies resembling the authentic human bNAb. Our data establish that sequential immunization with specifically designed immunogens can induce high levels of somatic mutation and shepherd antibody maturation to produce bNAbs from their inferred germline precursors.

  9. Immune response elicited by the oral administration of an intermediate strain of IBDV in chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Carballeda


    Full Text Available The immune response elicited by the oral inoculation of an intermediate strain of infectious bursal disease virus was studied in chickens. A strong over expression of IL-6, IL-8, IFNα and IFNγ was observed in bursa at 3 days post inoculation together with an increase in splenic NO2 release. An influx of T-lymphocytes was also detected.

  10. 76 FR 72372 - Request for Comments on Eliciting More Complete Patent Assignment Information (United States)


    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Part 3 Request for Comments on Eliciting More Complete Patent Assignment Information AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is...

  11. Effects of Elicitation Task Variables on Speech Production by Children with Cochlear Implants (United States)

    McCleary, Elizabeth A.; Ide-Helvie, Dana L.; Lotto, Andrew J.; Carney, Arlene Earley; Higgins, Maureen B.


    Given the interest in comparing speech production development in children with normal hearing and hearing impairment, it is important to evaluate how variables within speech elicitation tasks can differentially affect the acoustics of speech production for these groups. In a first experiment, children (6-14 years old) with cochlear implants…

  12. Variation in accumulation of isoflavonoids in Phaseoleae seedlings elicited by Rhizopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Andini, Silvia; Bettonvil, Monique; Severing, Eduard; Vincken, Jean Paul


    Seeds from seven species of tribe Phaseoleae, i.e. Phaseolus, Vigna, Lablab and Psophocarpus, were investigated for inducibility of isoflavonoids by germination with or without subsequent elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae. Germination alone poorly induced isoflavonoid production (in the range of 0

  13. Electrically Elicited Visual Evoked Potentials in Argus II Retinal Implant Wearers



    We characterized electrically elicited visual evoked potentials (eVEPs) in Argus II retinal implant wearers. eVEPs were correlated significantly with stimulus level and subjective percept. We conclude that eVEPs may become an important tool for intraoperative monitoring and rehabilitation purposes.

  14. Using a knowledge elicitation method to specify the business model of a human factors organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Ven, J. van de; Hoffman, R.R.; Moon, B.M.


    Concept Mapping was used to structure knowledge elicitation interviews with a group of human factors specialists whose goal was to describe the business model of their Department. This novel use of cognitive task analysis to describe the business model of a human factors organization resulted in a n

  15. Identification and Characterization of Ixodes scapularis Antigens That Elicit Tick Immunity Using Yeast Surface Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. Schuijt; S. Narasimhan; S. Daffre; K. Deponte; J.W.R. Hovius; C. van 't Veer; T. van der Poll; K. Bakhtiari; J.C.M. Meijers; E.T. Boder; A.P. van Dam; E. Fikrig


    Repeated exposure of rabbits and other animals to ticks results in acquired resistance or immunity to subsequent tick bites and is partially elicited by antibodies directed against tick antigens. In this study we demonstrate the utility of a yeast surface display approach to identify tick salivary a

  16. Eliciting and Developing Teachers' Conceptions of Random Processes in a Probability and Statistics Course (United States)

    Smith, Toni M.; Hjalmarson, Margret A.


    The purpose of this study is to examine prospective mathematics specialists' engagement in an instructional sequence designed to elicit and develop their understandings of random processes. The study was conducted with two different sections of a probability and statistics course for K-8 teachers. Thirty-two teachers participated. Video analyses…

  17. Dominant Lyapunov exponent and approximate entropy in heart rate variability during emotional visual elicitation. (United States)

    Valenza, Gaetano; Allegrini, Paolo; Lanatà, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale


    In this work we characterized the non-linear complexity of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) in short time series. The complexity of HRV signal was evaluated during emotional visual elicitation by using Dominant Lyapunov Exponents (DLEs) and Approximate Entropy (ApEn). We adopted a simplified model of emotion derived from the Circumplex Model of Affects (CMAs), in which emotional mechanisms are conceptualized in two dimensions by the terms of valence and arousal. Following CMA model, a set of standardized visual stimuli in terms of arousal and valence gathered from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) was administered to a group of 35 healthy volunteers. Experimental session consisted of eight sessions alternating neutral images with high arousal content images. Several works can be found in the literature showing a chaotic dynamics of HRV during rest or relax conditions. The outcomes of this work showed a clear switching mechanism between regular and chaotic dynamics when switching from neutral to arousal elicitation. Accordingly, the mean ApEn decreased with statistical significance during arousal elicitation and the DLE became negative. Results showed a clear distinction between the neutral and the arousal elicitation and could be profitably exploited to improve the accuracy of emotion recognition systems based on HRV time series analysis.

  18. Deriving Childhood Temperament Measures from Emotion-Eliciting Behavioral Episodes: Scale Construction and Initial Validation (United States)

    Gagne, Jeffrey R.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Aksan, Nazan; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill


    The authors describe the development and initial validation of a home-based version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery (Lab-TAB), which was designed to assess childhood temperament with a comprehensive series of emotion-eliciting behavioral episodes. This article provides researchers with general guidelines for assessing specific…

  19. Divergência genética entre cultivares de caupi Genetic divergence among cultivars of cowpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José de Oliveira


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a divergência genética de cultivares de caupi, agrupadas por análise multivariada visando à seleção de parentais superiores. Foram utilizadas 16 cultivares de caupi [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] do banco de germoplasma do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Ceará. As observações fenotípicas foram realizadas num ensaio com delineamento experimental em blocos completos casualizados, com seis blocos e 16 tratamentos, incluindo três testemunhas, com parcela experimental de 24 m² e área útil de 16 m², sendo quatro fileiras de plantas, com espaços de 1,0 x 0,5 m, contendo duas plantas por cova. Para mensurar os caracteres fenotípicos, cinco plantas competitivas, localizadas nas duas fileiras centrais da parcela, foram tomadas ao acaso. Os cruzamentos entre os grupos I [TVx-337-3F e Vita-4 (TVu 1977-OD] e II (Bengala e V-4 Alagoas podem resultar em produção de novas combinações gênicas, por serem divergentes e reunirem maior número de caracteres agronomicamente desejáveis. Os caracteres que mais contribuem para divergência genética são o comprimento da vagem (36,80% e o peso de 100 sementes (19,21%.This work aimed to determine the genetic divergence among cowpea cultivars [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.] when grouped in a multivariate analysis concerning to select superior parents. So 16 cowpea cultivars were used from the germplasm bank of the Centro de Ciências Agrárias of the Universidade Federal do Ceará, in Brazil. The data were accomplished in complete randomized blocks, with six blocks, 16 treatments and three cultivar checks. The total area of experimental plots was 24 m² and the net area was 16 m², displayed in four rows, plants were spaced about 1.0 x 0.5 m with two plants in each plot. The phenotypic data were estimated from five competitive plants as casual samples on two central rows of each replicate. Breeding among the groups I [TVx-337-3F and

  20. Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria (United States)

    ... 160769.html Smokeless Tobacco May Contain Potentially Harmful Bacteria Infections, diarrhea and vomiting are possible consequences, FDA ... products can harbor several species of potentially harmful bacteria, researchers warn. Two types in particular -- Bacillus licheniformis ...

  1. Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria (United States)

    ... fullstory_162249.html Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria Study of Washington farm workers finds alterations persist ... News) -- Pesticide exposure may change the makeup of bacteria in the mouths of farm workers, a new ...

  2. Certain Bacteria May Affect Preterm Birth Risk (United States)

    ... Certain Bacteria May Affect Preterm Birth Risk Bad 'bugs' tied ... Feb. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Certain types of bacteria in a pregnant woman's cervix and vagina can ...

  3. A methodology for eliciting, representing, and analysing stakeholder knowledge for decision making on complex socio-ecological systems: from cognitive maps to agent-based models. (United States)

    Elsawah, Sondoss; Guillaume, Joseph H A; Filatova, Tatiana; Rook, Josefine; Jakeman, Anthony J


    This paper aims to contribute to developing better ways for incorporating essential human elements in decision making processes for modelling of complex socio-ecological systems. It presents a step-wise methodology for integrating perceptions of stakeholders (qualitative) into formal simulation models (quantitative) with the ultimate goal of improving understanding and communication about decision making in complex socio-ecological systems. The methodology integrates cognitive mapping and agent based modelling. It cascades through a sequence of qualitative/soft and numerical methods comprising: (1) Interviews to elicit mental models; (2) Cognitive maps to represent and analyse individual and group mental models; (3) Time-sequence diagrams to chronologically structure the decision making process; (4) All-encompassing conceptual model of decision making, and (5) computational (in this case agent-based) Model. We apply the proposed methodology (labelled ICTAM) in a case study of viticulture irrigation in South Australia. Finally, we use strengths-weakness-opportunities-threats (SWOT) analysis to reflect on the methodology. Results show that the methodology leverages the use of cognitive mapping to capture the richness of decision making and mental models, and provides a combination of divergent and convergent analysis methods leading to the construction of an Agent Based Model.

  4. DNA prime and virus-like particle boost from a single H5N1 strain elicits broadly neutralizing antibody responses against head region of H5 hemagglutinin. (United States)

    Wang, Guiqin; Zhou, Fan; Buchy, Philippe; Zuo, Teng; Hu, Hongxing; Liu, Jingjing; Song, Yufeng; Ding, Heng; Tsai, Cheguo; Chen, Ze; Zhang, Linqi; Deubel, Vincent; Zhou, Paul


    Since 1996, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has presented a persistent threat to public health. Its high degree of genetic diversity also poses enormous challenges in developing effective vaccines. To search for vaccine regimens that could elicit broadly neutralizing antibody responses against diverse HPAI H5N1 strains, in the present study we tested H5 hemagglutinin (HA) from an A/Thailand/1(KAN)-1/2004 strain in a heterologous prime-boost vaccination. We demonstrated that priming mice with DNA and boosting with virus-like particle induced antibody responses that cross-neutralize all reported clades and subclades of HPAI H5N1 viruses and protect mice from high lethal dose HPAI H5N1 challenge in both active and passive immunizations. Unexpectedly, cross-divergent H5 neutralizing antibodies are directed to the HA head and block both attachment and postattachment of virus entry. Thus, we conclude that as a promising pan-H5 vaccine candidate this prime-boost regimen could be further developed in ferrets and in humans.

  5. Unusually divergent 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases from Ruta graveolens L. (United States)

    Endler, Alexander; Martens, Stefan; Wellmann, Frank; Matern, Ulrich


    Most angiosperms encode a small family of 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases (4CLs) activating hydroxycinnamic acids for lignin and flavonoid pathways. The common rue, Ruta graveolens L., additionally produces coumarins by cyclization of the 4-coumaroyl moiety, possibly involving the CoA-ester, as well as acridone and furoquinoline alkaloids relying on (N-methyl)anthraniloyl-CoA as the starter substrate for polyketide synthase condensation. The accumulation of alkaloids and coumarins, but not flavonoids, was enhanced in Ruta graveolens suspension cultures upon the addition of fungal elicitor. Total RNA of elicitor-treated Ruta cells was used as template for RT-PCR amplification with degenerate oligonucleotide primers inferred from conserved motifs in AMP-binding proteins, and two full-size cDNAs were generated through RACE and identified as 4-coumarate:CoA-ligases, Rg4CL1 and Rg4CL2, by functional expression in yeast cells. The recombinant enzymes differed considerably in their preferential affinities to cinnamate (Rg4CL1) or ferulate (RgCL2) besides 4-coumarate, but did not activate hydroxybenzoic or (N-methyl)anthranilic acid. Most notably, the Rg4CL1 polypeptide included an N-terminal extension suggesting a chloroplast transit peptide. The genes were cloned and revealed four exons, separated by 1056, 94 and 54 bp introns for RgCL1, while Rg4CL2 was composed of five exons interupted by four introns from 113 to 350 bp, and the divergent heritage of these genes was substantiated by phylogenetic analysis. Both genes were expressed in shoot, leaf and flower tissues of adult Ruta plants with preference in shoot and flower, whereas negligible expression occurred in the root. However, Rg4CL1 was expressed much stronger in the flower, while Rg4CL2 was expressed mostly in the shoot. Furthermore, considerable transient induction of only Rg4CL1 was observed upon elicitation of Ruta cells, which seems to support a role of Rg4CL1 in coumarin biosynthesis.

  6. Genomic islands of divergence are not affected by geography of speciation in sunflowers. (United States)

    Renaut, S; Grassa, C J; Yeaman, S; Moyers, B T; Lai, Z; Kane, N C; Bowers, J E; Burke, J M; Rieseberg, L H


    Genomic studies of speciation often report the presence of highly differentiated genomic regions interspersed within a milieu of weakly diverged loci. The formation of these speciation islands is generally attributed to reduced inter-population gene flow near loci under divergent selection, but few studies have critically evaluated this hypothesis. Here, we report on transcriptome scans among four recently diverged pairs of sunflower (Helianthus) species that vary in the geographical context of speciation. We find that genetic divergence is lower in sympatric and parapatric comparisons, consistent with a role for gene flow in eroding neutral differences. However, genomic islands of divergence are numerous and small in all comparisons, and contrary to expectations, island number and size are not significantly affected by levels of interspecific gene flow. Rather, island formation is strongly associated with reduced recombination rates. Overall, our results indicate that the functional architecture of genomes plays a larger role in shaping genomic divergence than does the geography of speciation.

  7. Understanding creative cultural divergence: a Bakhtinian reflection from a culture-crossing scholar (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling


    I respond to Baron and Chen's article on creative cultural divergence, which they describe as the novel pedagogy of diverging from culturally generated educational expectations. Their article provides an analysis on how an experienced Taiwanese teacher drew on different forms of creative cultural divergence to facilitate students' critical thinking and science inquiry. To better understand the phenomenon of creative cultural divergence, I draw on Bakhtin's concepts of outsideness, novelization, and internally persuasive discourse to analyze how these divergences are produced. These concepts not only help us to understand the phenomenon of creative cultural divergence, they also help me to reflect on my own culture-crossing experience. The implications of these concepts for culture and education are further discussed.

  8. Island biology and morphological divergence of the Skyros wall lizard Podarcis gaigeae: a combined role for local selection and genetic drift on color morph frequency divergence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runemark Anna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of spatial variation in discrete phenotypic traits can be used to draw inferences about the adaptive significance of traits and evolutionary processes, especially when compared to patterns of neutral genetic variation. Population divergence in adaptive traits such as color morphs can be influenced by both local ecology and stochastic factors such as genetic drift or founder events. Here, we use quantitative color measurements of males and females of Skyros wall lizard, Podarcis gaigeae, to demonstrate that this species is polymorphic with respect to throat color, and the morphs form discrete phenotypic clusters with limited overlap between categories. We use divergence in throat color morph frequencies and compare that to neutral genetic variation to infer the evolutionary processes acting on islet- and mainland populations. Results Geographically close islet- and mainland populations of the Skyros wall lizard exhibit strong divergence in throat color morph frequencies. Population variation in throat color morph frequencies between islets was higher than that between mainland populations, and the effective population sizes on the islets were small (Ne:s ST for throat color morph frequencies fell within the neutral FST-distribution estimated from microsatellite markers, and genetic drift could thus not be rejected as an explanation for the pattern. Moreover, for both comparisons among mainland-mainland population pairs and between mainland-islet population pairs, morph frequency divergence was significantly correlated with neutral divergence, further pointing to some role for genetic drift in divergence also at the phenotypic level of throat color morphs. Conclusions Genetic drift could not be rejected as an explanation for the pattern of population divergence in morph frequencies. In spite of an expected stabilising selection, throat color frequencies diverged in the islet populations. These results suggest that

  9. Genetics of Lactic Acid Bacteria (United States)

    Zagorec, Monique; Anba-Mondoloni, Jamila; Coq, Anne-Marie Crutz-Le; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    Many meat (or fish) products, obtained by the fermentation of meat originating from various animals by the flora that naturally contaminates it, are part of the human diet since millenaries. Historically, the use of bacteria as starters for the fermentation of meat, to produce dry sausages, was thus performed empirically through the endogenous micro-biota, then, by a volunteer addition of starters, often performed by back-slopping, without knowing precisely the microbial species involved. It is only since about 50 years that well defined bacterial cultures have been used as starters for the fermentation of dry sausages. Nowadays, the indigenous micro-biota of fermented meat products is well identified, and the literature is rich of reports on the identification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present in many traditional fermented products from various geographical origin, obtained without the addition of commercial starters (See Talon, Leroy, & Lebert, 2007, and references therein).


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB is a heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteria which under goes lactic acid fermentations and leads to production of lactic acid as an end product. LAB includes Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus and Streptococcus which are grouped together in the family lactobacillaceae. LAB shows numerous antimicrobial activities due to production of antibacterial and antifungal compounds such as organic acids, bacteriocins, diacetyl, hydrogen peroxide and reutrin. LAB are used as starter culture, consortium members and bioprotective agents in food industry that improve food quality, safety and shelf life. A variety of probiotic LAB species are available including Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. lactis, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. reuteri, L. fermentum, Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, B. bifidum, B. esselnsis, B. lactis, B. infantis that are currently recommended for development of functional food products with health-promoting capacities.

  11. Dissipative Shocks behind Bacteria Gliding

    CERN Document Server

    Virga, Epifanio G


    Gliding is a means of locomotion on rigid substrates utilized by a number of bacteria includingmyxobacteria and cyanobacteria. One of the hypotheses advanced to explain this motility mechanism hinges on the role played by the slime filaments continuously extruded from gliding bacteria. This paper solves in full a non-linear mechanical theory that treats as dissipative shocks both the point where the extruded slime filament comes in contact with the substrate, called the filament's foot, and the pore on the bacterium outer surface from where the filament is ejected. We prove that kinematic compatibility for shock propagation requires that the bacterium uniform gliding velocity (relative to the substrate) and the slime ejecting velocity (relative to the bacterium) must be equal, a coincidence that seems to have already been observed.

  12. Aggregation Patterns in Stressed Bacteria

    CERN Document Server

    Tsimring, L S; Aranson, I S; Ben-Jacob, E; Cohen, I; Shochet, O; Tsimring, Lev; Levine, Herbert; Aranson, Igor; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Cohen, Inon; Shochet, Ofer


    We study the formation of spot patterns seen in a variety of bacterial species when the bacteria are subjected to oxidative stress due to hazardous byproducts of respiration. Our approach consists of coupling the cell density field to a chemoattractant concentration as well as to nutrient and waste fields. The latter serves as a triggering field for emission of chemoattractant. Important elements in the proposed model include the propagation of a front of motile bacteria radially outward form an initial site, a Turing instability of the uniformly dense state and a reduction of motility for cells sufficiently far behind the front. The wide variety of patterns seen in the experiments is explained as being due the variation of the details of the initiation of the chemoattractant emission as well as the transition to a non-motile phase.

  13. MERS-CoV at the Animal-Human interface: inputs on exposure pathways from an Expert-Opinion elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Funk


    Full Text Available Nearly four years after the first report of the emergence of Middle-East respiratory syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV and nearly 1800 human cases later, the ecology of MERS-CoV, its epidemiology, and risk factors of MERS-CoV transmission between camels are poorly understood. Knowledge about the pathways and mechanisms of transmission from animals to humans is limited; as of yet, transmission risks have not been quantified. Moreover the divergent sanitary situations and exposures to animals among populations in the Arabian Peninsula, where human primary cases appear to dominate, vs. other regions in the Middle East and Africa, with no reported human clinical cases and where the virus has been detected only in dromedaries, represents huge scientific and health challenges. Here, we have used expert opinion elicitation in order to obtain ideas on relative importance of MERS-CoV risk factors and estimates of transmission risks from various types of contact between humans and dromedaries. Fourteen (14 experts with diverse and extensive experience in MERS-CoV relevant fields were enrolled and completed an online questionnaire that examined pathways based on several scenarios e.g. camels-camels, camels-human, bats/other species to camels/humans and the role of diverse biological substances (milk, urine etc. and potential fomites.Experts believed that dromedary camels play the largest role in MERS-CoV infection of other dromedaries; however, they also indicated a significant influence of the season (i.e. calving or weaning periods on transmission risk. All experts thought that MERS-CoV infected dromedaries and asymptomatic humans play the most important role in infection of humans, with bats and other species presenting a possible, but yet undefined, risk. Direct and indirect contact of humans with dromedary camels were identified as the most risky types of contact, when compared to consumption of various camel products, with estimated 'most

  14. The dynamics of apoplast phenolics in tobacco leaves following inoculation with bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Con Jacyn Baker


    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that the accumulation of apoplastic phenolics is stimulated in planta in response to bacterial inoculation. Past studies have shown that levels of extracellular phenolics are elicited in plant cell suspensions in response to bacteria, and that tomato plants infected with viroids showed changes in apoplastic phenolics. The method described here monitored changes in apoplastic phenolics in tobacco leaves following bacterial inoculation of the same tissue. Inoculation with a saprophyte, Pseudomonas fluorescens, which does not cause visible symptoms or physical damage, was used to elicit phenolics and examine the effects of variable parameters on phenolic composition. Location of the inoculation on the leaf, position or developmental age of the leaf on the plant, and inoculum concentration were standardized for further experiments. The patterns of phenolic change in the apoplast were compared for tobacco inoculated with P. syringae pathovars, pv. syringae, which causes a resistant HR reaction within 15 h, and pv. tabaci, which causes a susceptible reaction with delayed visible symptoms. Both pathogens elicited lower increased levels of acetosyringone compared to the saprophyte, P. fluorescens but had greatly increased levels of the chlorogenic acid derivatives. The latter metabolites appear to have come from the intracellular stores, which could

  15. Re-engineering bacteria for ethanol production (United States)

    Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W; Zhou, Shengde; Shanmugam, Keelnatham; Ingram, Lonnie O


    The invention provides recombinant bacteria, which comprise a full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes. Expression of the full complement of heterologous ethanol production genes causes the recombinant bacteria to produce ethanol as the primary fermentation product when grown in mineral salts medium, without the addition of complex nutrients. Methods for producing the recombinant bacteria and methods for producing ethanol using the recombinant bacteria are also disclosed.

  16. Compartmentalization of bacteria in microcapsules. (United States)

    van Wijk, Judith; Heunis, Tiaan; Harmzen, Elrika; Dicks, Leon M T; Meuldijk, Jan; Klumperman, Bert


    Lactobacillus plantarum strain 423 was encapsulated in hollow poly(organosiloxane) microcapsules by templating water-in-oil Pickering emulsion droplets via the interfacial reaction of alkylchlorosilanes. The bacteria were suspended in growth medium or buffer to protect the cells against pH changes during the interfacial reactions with alkylchlorosilanes. The results of this work open up novel avenues for the encapsulation of microbial cells.

  17. Severity of dependence modulates smokers' neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving elicited by tobacco advertisement. (United States)

    Vollstädt-Klein, Sabine; Kobiella, Andrea; Bühler, Mira; Graf, Caroline; Fehr, Christoph; Mann, Karl; Smolka, Michael N


    Smoking-related cues elicit craving and mesocorticolimbic brain activation in smokers. Severity of nicotine dependence seems to moderate cue reactivity, but the direction and mechanisms of its influence remains unclear. Although tobacco control policies demand a ban on tobacco advertising, cue reactivity studies in smokers so far have not employed tobacco advertisement as experimental stimuli. We investigated whether tobacco advertisement elicits cue reactivity at a behavioral (subjective craving) and a neural level (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 22 smokers and 21 never-smokers. Moreover, we studied the influence of severity of dependence on cue reactivity. In smokers, tobacco advertisement elicited substantially more craving than control advertisement whereas never-smokers reported no cue induced craving. Surprisingly, neuronal cue reactivity did not differ between smokers and never-smokers. Moderately dependent smokers' craving increased over the course of the experiment, whereas highly dependent smokers' craving was unaffected. Moderately dependent smokers' brain activity elicited by tobacco advertisement was higher in the amygdala, hippocampus, putamen and thalamus compared with highly dependent smokers. Furthermore, limbic brain activation predicted picture recognition rates after the scanning session, even in never-smokers. Our findings show that tobacco advertisement elicits cigarette craving and neuronal cue reactivity primarily in moderately dependent smokers, indicating that they might be particularly responsive towards external smoking-related cues. On the other hand, neuronal cue reactivity and cigarette craving in highly dependent smokers is more likely triggered by internal cues such as withdrawal symptoms. Tobacco advertisement seems to likewise appeal to smokers and non-smokers, clarifying the potential danger especially for young non-smokers.

  18. Safety Risk Knowledge Elicitation in Support of Aeronautical R and D Portfolio Management: A Case Study (United States)

    Shih, Ann T.; Ancel, Ersin; Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Luxhoj, James T.


    Aviation is a problem domain characterized by a high level of system complexity and uncertainty. Safety risk analysis in such a domain is especially challenging given the multitude of operations and diverse stakeholders. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) projects that by 2025 air traffic will increase by more than 50 percent with 1.1 billion passengers a year and more than 85,000 flights every 24 hours contributing to further delays and congestion in the sky (Circelli, 2011). This increased system complexity necessitates the application of structured safety risk analysis methods to understand and eliminate where possible, reduce, and/or mitigate risk factors. The use of expert judgments for probabilistic safety analysis in such a complex domain is necessary especially when evaluating the projected impact of future technologies, capabilities, and procedures for which current operational data may be scarce. Management of an R&D product portfolio in such a dynamic domain needs a systematic process to elicit these expert judgments, process modeling results, perform sensitivity analyses, and efficiently communicate the modeling results to decision makers. In this paper a case study focusing on the application of an R&D portfolio of aeronautical products intended to mitigate aircraft Loss of Control (LOC) accidents is presented. In particular, the knowledge elicitation process with three subject matter experts who contributed to the safety risk model is emphasized. The application and refinement of a verbal-numerical scale for conditional probability elicitation in a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) is discussed. The preliminary findings from this initial step of a three-part elicitation are important to project management practitioners as they illustrate the vital contribution of systematic knowledge elicitation in complex domains.

  19. Streamlining and core genome conservation among highly divergent members of the SAR11 clade. (United States)

    Grote, Jana; Thrash, J Cameron; Huggett, Megan J; Landry, Zachary C; Carini, Paul; Giovannoni, Stephen J; Rappé, Michael S


    SAR11 is an ancient and diverse clade of heterotrophic bacteria that are abundant throughout the world's oceans, where they play a major role in the ocean carbon cycle. Correlations between the phylogenetic branching order and spatiotemporal patterns in cell distributions from planktonic ocean environments indicate that SAR11 has evolved into perhaps a dozen or more specialized ecotypes that span evolutionary distances equivalent to a bacterial order. We isolated and sequenced genomes from diverse SAR11 cultures that represent three major lineages and encompass the full breadth of the clade. The new data expand observations about genome evolution and gene content that previously had been restricted to the SAR11 Ia subclade, providing a much broader perspective on the clade's origins, evolution, and ecology. We found small genomes throughout the clade and a very high proportion of core genome genes (48 to 56%), indicating that small genome size is probably an ancestral characteristic. In their level of core genome conservation, the members of SAR11 are outliers, the most conserved free-living bacteria known. Shared features of the clade include low GC content, high gene synteny, a large hypervariable region bounded by rRNA genes, and low numbers of paralogs. Variation among the genomes included genes for phosphorus metabolism, glycolysis, and C1 metabolism, suggesting that adaptive specialization in nutrient resource utilization is important to niche partitioning and ecotype divergence within the clade. These data provide support for the conclusion that streamlining selection for efficient cell replication in the planktonic habitat has occurred throughout the evolution and diversification of this clade. IMPORTANCE The SAR11 clade is the most abundant group of marine microorganisms worldwide, making them key players in the global carbon cycle. Growing knowledge about their biochemistry and metabolism is leading to a more mechanistic understanding of organic carbon

  20. Divergence of gene body DNA methylation and evolution of plant duplicate genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available It has been shown that gene body DNA methylation is associated with gene expression. However, whether and how deviation of gene body DNA methylation between duplicate genes can influence their divergence remains largely unexplored. Here, we aim to elucidate the potential role of gene body DNA methylation in the fate of duplicate genes. We identified paralogous gene pairs from Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa ssp. japonica genomes and reprocessed their single-base resolution methylome data. We show that methylation in paralogous genes nonlinearly correlates with several gene properties including exon number/gene length, expression level and mutation rate. Further, we demonstrated that divergence of methylation level and pattern in paralogs indeed positively correlate with their sequence and expression divergences. This result held even after controlling for other confounding factors known to influence the divergence of paralogs. We observed that methylation level divergence might be more relevant to the expression divergence of paralogs than methylation pattern divergence. Finally, we explored the mechanisms that might give rise to the divergence of gene body methylation in paralogs. We found that exonic methylation divergence more closely correlates with expression divergence than intronic methylation divergence. We show that genomic environments (e.g., flanked by transposable elements and repetitive sequences of paralogs generated by various duplication mechanisms are associated with the methylation divergence of paralogs. Overall, our results suggest that the changes in gene body DNA methylation could provide another avenue for duplicate genes to develop differential expression patterns and undergo different evolutionary fates in plant genomes.

  1. Systematization of basic divergent integrals in perturbation theory and renormalization group functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, L.C.T. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Physics Department, ICEx, PO Box 702, 30.161-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail:; Fargnoli, H.G. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Physics Department, ICEx, PO Box 702, 30.161-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail:; Baeta Scarpelli, A.P. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica, MG, Avenida Amazonas, 7675, 30510-000 Nova Gameleira, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail:; Sampaio, Marcos [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Physics Department, ICEx, PO Box 702, 30.161-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail:; Nemes, M.C. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Physics Department, ICEx, PO Box 702, 30.161-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail:


    We show that to n loop order the divergent content of a Feynman amplitude is spanned by a set of basic (logarithmically divergent) integrals I{sub log}{sup (i)}({lambda}{sup 2}), i=1,2,...,n, {lambda} being the renormalization group scale, which need not be evaluated. Only the coefficients of the basic divergent integrals are show to determine renormalization group functions. Relations between these coefficients of different loop orders are derived.

  2. Characterization of Mediterranean Magnetotactic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Magnetotactic bacteria are a diverse group of motile prokaryotes that are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and cosmopolitan in distribution. In this study, we collected magnetotactic bacteria from the Mediterranean Sea. A remarkable diversity of morphotypes was observed, including muiticellular types that seemed to differ from those previously found in North and South America. Another interesting organism was one with magnetosomes arranged in a six-stranded bundle which occupied one third of the cell width. The magnetosome bundle was evident even under optic microscopy. These cells were connected together and swam as a linear entire unit. Magnetosomes did not always align up to form a straight linear chain. A chain composed of rectangle magnetosomes bent at a position with an oval crystal. High resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis of the crystal at the pivotal position suggested uncompleted formation of the crystal. This is the first report of Mediterranean magnetotactic bacteria, which should be useful for studies of biogeochemical cycling and geohistory of the Mediterranean Sea.

  3. A Divergence Statistics Extension to VTK for Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pebay, Philippe Pierre [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bennett, Janine Camille [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report follows the series of previous documents ([PT08, BPRT09b, PT09, BPT09, PT10, PB13], where we presented the parallel descriptive, correlative, multi-correlative, principal component analysis, contingency, k -means, order and auto-correlative statistics engines which we developed within the Visualization Tool Kit ( VTK ) as a scalable, parallel and versatile statistics package. We now report on a new engine which we developed for the calculation of divergence statistics, a concept which we hereafter explain and whose main goal is to quantify the discrepancy, in a stasticial manner akin to measuring a distance, between an observed empirical distribution and a theoretical, "ideal" one. The ease of use of the new diverence statistics engine is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets. Although this new engine does not yet have a parallel implementation, it has already been applied to HPC performance analysis, of which we provide an example.

  4. Microfluidic converging/diverging channels optimised for homogeneous extensional deformation (United States)

    Zografos, K.; Oliveira, M. S. N.


    In this work, we optimise microfluidic converging/diverging geometries in order to produce constant strain-rates along the centreline of the flow, for performing studies under homogeneous extension. The design is examined for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flows where the effects of aspect ratio and dimensionless contraction length are investigated. Initially, pressure driven flows of Newtonian fluids under creeping flow conditions are considered, which is a reasonable approximation in microfluidics, and the limits of the applicability of the design in terms of Reynolds numbers are investigated. The optimised geometry is then used for studying the flow of viscoelastic fluids and the practical limitations in terms of Weissenberg number are reported. Furthermore, the optimisation strategy is also applied for electro-osmotic driven flows, where the development of a plug-like velocity profile allows for a wider region of homogeneous extensional deformation in the flow field. PMID:27478523

  5. Convergent and divergent mechanisms of sugar recognition across kingdoms. (United States)

    Taylor, Maureen E; Drickamer, Kurt


    Protein modules that bind specific oligosaccharides are found across all kingdoms of life from single-celled organisms to man. Different, overlapping and evolving designations for sugar-binding domains in proteins can sometimes obscure common features that often reflect convergent solutions to the problem of distinguishing sugars with closely similar structures and binding them with sufficient affinity to achieve biologically meaningful results. Structural and functional analysis has revealed striking parallels between protein domains with widely different structures and evolutionary histories that employ common solutions to the sugar recognition problem. Recent studies also demonstrate that domains descended from common ancestors through divergent evolution appear more widely across the kingdoms of life than had previously been recognized.

  6. Summation of divergent series: Order-dependent mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Zinn-Justin, Jean


    Summation methods play a very important role in quantum field theory because all perturbation series are divergent and the expansion parameter is not always small. A number of methods have been tried in this context, most notably Pade approximants, Borel--Pade summation, Borel transformation with mapping, which we briefly describe and one on which we concentrate here, Order-Dependent Mapping (ODM). We recall the basis of the method, for a class of series we give intuitive arguments to explain its convergence and illustrate its properties by several simple examples. Since the method was proposed, some rigorous convergence proofs were given. The method has also found a number of applications and we shall list a few.

  7. Measuring grade inflation and grade divergence accounting for student quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Matos-Díaz


    Full Text Available This study uses a rich longitudinal data-set of 13,202 full-time students belonging to 11 cohorts over 22 consecutive semesters (Fall 1995 to Spring 2006 to model the determinants of the grade inflation rates prevailing at the University of Puerto Rico at Bayamón. The following new interesting findings are reported: (1 Estimated rates vary significantly among and within the academic programs, implying grade divergence, depending on the time reference used: cohort time dummies or semesters since admission to the institution. (2 The rates are significantly related to the proportions of female students, students who switch from their original academic programs, and students from private schools. (3 Results suggest that, under determinate circumstances, average- and low-quality students consider higher grades as normal goods; conversely, high-quality students consider higher grades as inferior goods.

  8. Performance evaluation of advanced industrial SPECT system with diverging collimator. (United States)

    Park, Jang Guen; Jung, Sung-Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Moon, Jinho; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chan Hyeong


    An advanced industrial SPECT system with 12-fold-array diverging collimator was developed for flow visualization in industrial reactors and was discussed in the previous study. The present paper describes performance evaluation of the SPECT system under both static- and dynamic- flow conditions. Under static conditions, the movement of radiotracer inside the test reactor was compared with that of color tracer (blue ink) captured with a high-speed camera. The comparison of the reconstructed images obtained with the radiotracer and the SPECT system showed fairly good agreement with video-frames of the color tracer obtained with the camera. Based on the results of the performance evaluation, it is concluded that the SPECT system is suitable for investigation and visualization of flows in industrial flow reactors.

  9. Kullback-Leibler divergence and the Pareto-Exponential approximation. (United States)

    Weinberg, G V


    Recent radar research interests in the Pareto distribution as a model for X-band maritime surveillance radar clutter returns have resulted in analysis of the asymptotic behaviour of this clutter model. In particular, it is of interest to understand when the Pareto distribution is well approximated by an Exponential distribution. The justification for this is that under the latter clutter model assumption, simpler radar detection schemes can be applied. An information theory approach is introduced to investigate the Pareto-Exponential approximation. By analysing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the two distributions it is possible to not only assess when the approximation is valid, but to determine, for a given Pareto model, the optimal Exponential approximation.

  10. Domestication and Divergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Beer Yeasts. (United States)

    Gallone, Brigida; Steensels, Jan; Prahl, Troels; Soriaga, Leah; Saels, Veerle; Herrera-Malaver, Beatriz; Merlevede, Adriaan; Roncoroni, Miguel; Voordeckers, Karin; Miraglia, Loren; Teiling, Clotilde; Steffy, Brian; Taylor, Maryann; Schwartz, Ariel; Richardson, Toby; White, Christopher; Baele, Guy; Maere, Steven; Verstrepen, Kevin J


    Whereas domestication of livestock, pets, and crops is well documented, it is still unclear to what extent microbes associated with the production of food have also undergone human selection and where the plethora of industrial strains originates from. Here, we present the genomes and phenomes of 157 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. Our analyses reveal that today's industrial yeasts can be divided into five sublineages that are genetically and phenotypically separated from wild strains and originate from only a few ancestors through complex patterns of domestication and local divergence. Large-scale phenotyping and genome analysis further show strong industry-specific selection for stress tolerance, sugar utilization, and flavor production, while the sexual cycle and other phenotypes related to survival in nature show decay, particularly in beer yeasts. Together, these results shed light on the origins, evolutionary history, and phenotypic diversity of industrial yeasts and provide a resource for further selection of superior strains. PAPERCLIP.

  11. Entangled inequalities, divergent struggles: migration and the Argentine textile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Caggiano


    Full Text Available Despite the economic recovery that followed the 2001-2002 crisis in Argentina, sectors that rely on a significant migrant worker presence, such as textiles, have maintained and consolidated previously-existing forms of exploitation and discrimination. In this context, trade unions and other civil society actors are fighting against the inequalities that affect Bolivian migrant workers in the textile industry in Buenos Aires and La Plata. This article seeks to understand some of the limitations of that struggle. Such limitations relate to the difficulty of acting on entangled inequalities, and respond to the seemingly irreconcilable forms of association in terms of class, nationality or ethnicity of these organisations, which generate divergent characterisations of the inequalities and of the actors involved.

  12. Research Performance Progress Report: Diverging Supernova Explosion Experiments on NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plewa, Tomasz [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)


    The aim of this project was to design a series of blast-wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The experiments of this kind are relevant to mixing in core-collapse supernovae (ccSNe) and have the potential to address previously unanswered questions in high-energy density physics (HEDP) and astrophysics. The unmatched laser power of the NIF laser offers a unique chance to observe and study “new physics” like the mass extensions observed in HEDP RT experiments performed on the Omega laser [1], which might be linked to self-generated magnetic fields [2] and so far could not be reproduced by numerical simulations. Moreover, NIF is currently the only facility that offers the possibility to execute a diverging RT experiment, which would allow to observe processes such as inter-shell penetration via turbulent mixing and shock-proximity effects (distortion of the shock by RT spikes).

  13. Dynamical renormalization group resummation of finite temperature infrared divergences

    CERN Document Server

    Boyanovsky, D; Holman, R; Simionato, M


    We introduce the method of dynamical renormalization group to study relaxation and damping out of equilibrium directly in real time and applied it to the study of infrared divergences in scalar QED. This method allows a consistent resummation of infrared effects associated with the exchange of quasistatic transverse photons and leads to anomalous logarithmic relaxation of the form $e^{-\\alpha T t \\ln[t/t_0]}$ which prevents a quasiparticle interpretation of charged collective excitations at finite temperature. The hard thermal loop resummation program is incorporated consistently into the dynamical renormalization group yielding a picture of relaxation and damping phenomena in a plasma in real time that trascends the conceptual limitations of the quasiparticle picture and other type of resummation schemes. We derive a simple criterion for establishing the validity of the quasiparticle picture to lowest order.

  14. A Divergence Statistics Extension to VTK for Performance Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pebay, Philippe Pierre; Bennett, Janine Camille


    This report follows the series of previous documents ([PT08, BPRT09b, PT09, BPT09, PT10, PB13], where we presented the parallel descriptive, correlative, multi-correlative, principal component analysis, contingency, k -means, order and auto-correlative statistics engines which we developed within the Visualization Tool Kit ( VTK ) as a scalable, parallel and versatile statistics package. We now report on a new engine which we developed for the calculation of divergence statistics, a concept which we hereafter explain and whose main goal is to quantify the discrepancy, in a stasticial manner akin to measuring a distance, between an observed empirical distribution and a theoretical, "ideal" one. The ease of use of the new diverence statistics engine is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets. Although this new engine does not yet have a parallel implementation, it has already been applied to HPC performance analysis, of which we provide an example.

  15. Global divergence of the human follicle mite Demodex folliculorum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palopoli, Michael F.; Fergus, Daniel J.; Minot, Samuel


    Microscopic mites of the genus Demodex live within the hair follicles of mammals and are ubiquitous symbionts of humans, but little molecular work has been done to understand their genetic diversity or transmission. Here we sampled mite DNA from 70 human hosts of diverse geographic ancestries...... American ancestry. To a great extent, the ancestral geography of hosts predicted the lineages of mites found on them; 27% of the total molecular variance segregated according to the regional ancestries of hosts. We found that D. folliculorum populations are stable on an individual over the course of years......, indicating that transmission requires close contact. Dating analyses indicated that D. folliculorum origins may predate modern humans. Overall, D. folliculorum evolution reflects ancient human population divergences, is consistent with an out-of-Africa dispersal hypothesis, and presents an excellent model...

  16. Optimism in Reinforcement Learning Based on Kullback-Leibler Divergence

    CERN Document Server

    Filippi, Sarah; Garivier, Aurélien


    We consider model-based reinforcement learning in finite Markov Decision Processes (MDPs), focussing on so-called optimistic strategies. Optimism is usually implemented by carrying out extended value iterations, under a constraint of consistency with the estimated model transition probabilities. In this paper, we strongly argue in favor of using the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence for this purpose. By study- ing the linear maximization problem under KL constraints, we provide an efficient algorithm for solving KL-optimistic extended value iteration. When implemented within the structure of UCRL2, the near-optimal method introduced by [Auer et al, 2008], this algorithm also achieves bounded regrets in the undiscounted case. We however provide some geometric arguments as well as a concrete illustration on a simulated example to explain the observed improved practical behavior, particularly when the MDP has reduced connectivity. To analyze this new algorithm, termed KL-UCRL, we also rely on recent deviation bou...

  17. Agreements and Divergences in German Idealism: Regarding the Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Ochoa


    Full Text Available The history of German Idealism is marked by points of agreement and divergence among those who attempted to complete a task that might have remained unfinished in terms of its first formulations and that would lead to the definitive constitution of philosophy. In this sense, the correspondence among Kant, Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel makes it possible to unravel, to some extent, the non-explicitassumptions underlying the systems of these thinkers, since it reveals the questions,objectives, initial formulations, discussions, and differences that would later acquire a systematic structure. This article attempts to show how despite the intention of these philosophers to remain faithful to an original impulse, that allegedfidelity was based on essential misunderstandings.

  18. Divergent series, summability and resurgence I monodromy and resurgence

    CERN Document Server

    Mitschi, Claude


    Providing an elementary introduction to analytic continuation and monodromy, the first part of this volume applies these notions to the local and global study of complex linear differential equations, their formal solutions at singular points, their monodromy and their differential Galois groups. The Riemann-Hilbert problem is discussed from Bolibrukh’s point of view. The second part expounds 1-summability and Ecalle’s theory of resurgence under fairly general conditions. It contains numerous examples and presents an analysis of the singularities in the Borel plane via “alien calculus”, which provides a full description of the Stokes phenomenon for linear or non-linear differential or difference equations. The first of a series of three, entitled Divergent Series, Summability and Resurgence, this volume is aimed at graduate students, mathematicians and theoretical physicists interested in geometric, algebraic or local analytic properties of dynamical systems. It includes useful exercises with solution...

  19. Independence divergence-generated binary trees of amino acids. (United States)

    Tusnády, G E; Tusnády, G; Simon, I


    The discovery of the relationship between amino acids is important in terms of the replacement ability, as used in protein engineering homology studies, and gaining a better understanding of the roles which various properties of the residues play in the creation of a unique, stable, 3-D protein structure. Amino acid sequences of proteins edited by evolution are anything but random. The measure of nonrandomness, i.e. the level of editing, can be characterized by an independence divergence value. This parameter is used to generate binary tree relationships between amino acids. The relationships of residues presented in this paper are based on protein building features and not on the physico-chemical characteristics of amino acids. This approach is not biased by the tautology present in all sequence similarity-based relationship studies. The roles which various physico-chemical characteristics play in the determination of the relationships between amino acids are also discussed.

  20. Divergence model for measurement of Goos-Hanchen shift (United States)

    Gray, Jeffrey Frank

    In this effort a new measurement technique for the lateral Goos-Hanchen shift is developed, analyzed, and demonstrated. The new technique uses classical image formation methods fused with modern detection and analysis methods to achieve higher levels of sensitivity than obtained with prior practice. Central to the effort is a new mathematical model of the dispersion seen at a step shadow when the Goos-Hanchen effect occurs near critical angle for total internal reflection. Image processing techniques are applied to measure the intensity distribution transfer function of a new divergence model of the Goos-Hanchen phenomena providing verification of the model. This effort includes mathematical modeling techniques, analytical derivations of governing equations, numerical verification of models and sensitivities, optical design of apparatus, image processing. Keywords--Goos-Hanchen, total internal reflection, evanescent waves, image processing, Canny filters, sub-pixel, Superresolution.