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Sample records for bacteria anaerobic

  1. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...

  2. Anaerobic bacteria in otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulghum, R S; Daniel, H J; Yarborough, J G

    1977-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria, Peptostrepotococcus intermedius and Propionibacterium acnes, were found in mixed culture specimens from four to ten tested cases of chronic secretory otitis media. These anaerobic bacteria were in a mixed infection flora with aerobic bacteria most often Staphylococcus epidermidis and Cornybacterium sp. which do not fit any established species. The findings of anaerobic bacteria in otitis media is consistent with the sporadic report of the involvement of anaerobic bacteria in otitis media in the literature since 1898.

  3. Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular genetic studies on obligate anaerobic bacteria have lagged behind similar studies in aerobes. However, the current interest in biotechnology, the involvement of anaerobes in disease and the emergence of antibioticresistant strains have focused attention on the genetics of anaerobes. This article reviews molecular genetic studies in Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and methanogens. Certain genetic systems in some anaerobes differ from those in aerobes and illustrate the genetic diversity among bacteria

  4. Comparative activity of ciprofloxacin against anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Sutter, V L; Kwok, Y Y; Bulkacz, J

    1985-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin was assessed against 362 strains of anaerobic bacteria and compared with that of cefoxitin, clindamycin, metronidazole, and mezlocillin. Only 31% of the strains tested were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The other agents were active against most of the strains tested.

  5. Metabolic interactions between methanogenic consortia and anaerobic respiring bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stams, A.J.; Oude Elferink, S.J.; Westermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Most types of anaerobic respiration are able to outcompete methanogenic consortia for common substrates if the respective electron acceptors are present in sufficient amounts. Furthermore, several products or intermediate compounds formed by anaerobic respiring bacteria are toxic to methanogenic...

  6. Antimicrobial resistance and susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Audrey N

    2014-09-01

    Infections due to anaerobic bacteria can be severe and life-threatening. Susceptibility testing of anaerobes is not frequently performed in laboratories, but such testing is important to direct appropriate therapy. Anaerobic resistance is increasing globally, and resistance trends vary by geographic region. An overview of a variety of susceptibility testing methods for anaerobes is provided, and the advantages and disadvantages of each method are reviewed. Specific clinical situations warranting anaerobic susceptibility testing are discussed.

  7. [Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, José E; García-Sánchez, Enrique; García-García, María Inmaculada

    2014-02-01

    The anaerobic bacteria resistance to antibiotics is increasing, and even has appeared against the most active of those, like metronidazol and carbapenems. This fact forces to make and periodical sensibility tests -at least in the most aggressive and virulent species, in cases that they are isolated from life locations and in the absence of therapeutic response- to check the local sensibility and to establish suitable empiric therapies, all based on multicentric studies carried out in order to this or well to check the activity of new antibiotics. For the laboratory routine, the easiest sensibility method is the E-test/MIC evaluator. Another alternative is microdilution, that's only normalized for Bacteroides. There are preliminary facts that allow the use of disc diffusion method in some species of Bacteroides and Clostridium. For the temporal and multicentric studies, the procedure is dilution in agar plate, the reference method.

  8. Methane and hydrogen production by human intestinal anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, L F; Holbrook, W P; Eastwood, M A

    1982-06-01

    The gas above liquid cultures of a variety of human intestinal anaerobic bacteria was sampled and analysed by headspace gas chromatography. Hydrogen production was greatest with strains of the genus Clostridium, intermediate with anaerobic cocci and least with Bacteroides sp. Very few strains produced methane although small amounts were detected with one strain of B. thetaiotaomicron, C. perfringens and C. histolyticum. There may be a relationship between these anaerobic bacteria and several gastrointestinal disorders in which there is a build up of hydrogen or methane in the intestines.

  9. Biochemistry and physiology of anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-18

    We welcome you to The Power of Anaerobes. This conference serves two purposes. One is to celebrate the life of Harry D. Peck, Jr.,who was born May 18, 1927 and would have celebrated his 73rd birthday at this conference. He died November 20, 1998. The second is to gather investigators to exchange views within the realm of anaerobic microbiology, an area in which tremendous progress has been seen during recent years. It is sufficient to mention discoveries of a new form of life (the archaea), hyper or extreme thermophiles, thermophilic alkaliphiles and anaerobic fungi. With these discoveries has come a new realization about physiological and metabolic properties of microorganisms, and this in turn has demonstrated their importance for the development, maintenance and sustenance of life on Earth.

  10. Sulfate-reducing bacteria in anaerobic bioreactors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Elferink, S.J.W.H.

    1998-01-01

    The treatment of industrial wastewaters containing high amounts of easily degradable organic compounds in anaerobic bioreactors is a well-established process. Similarly, wastewaters which in addition to organic compounds also contain sulfate can be treated in this way. For a long time, the occurrenc

  11. Pectinase Activity of Anaerobic and Facultatively Anaerobic Bacteria Associated with Soft Rot of Yam (Diascorea rotundata)

    OpenAIRE

    Obi, Samuel K. C.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria associated with soft rot of yam (Diascorea rotundata) were isolated by the looping-out method and found to consist of Clostridium (three isolates), Corynebacterium (three isolates), Vibrio (one isolate), and Bacillus lentus (one isolate). Enzyme assay for hydrolase, lyase, and pectinesterase activities by the cup-plate method showed that except for Vibrio sp., B. lentus, and two isolates of Corynebacterium no pectinase activity could be detected ...

  12. Anaerobic degradation of benzoate by sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, S.P.; Adorno, M.A.T.; Moraes, E.M.; Varesche, M.B.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Biological Processes Laboratory

    2004-07-01

    Anaerobic processes are an efficient way to degrade aromatic compounds in industrial wastewater, such as phenol, cresol and benzoate. This study characterized the bacteria that degrades benzoate, an anaerobic degradation intermediate of several complex aromatic compounds. In particular, the study assessed the capacity to use benzoate with sulfate reducing bacteria in mesophilic conditions. Biofilm from polyurethane foam matrices of a fixed bed reactor was used as the cellular inoculum to treat industrial wastewater containing organic peroxide. Dilution techniques were used to purify the material and obtain cultures of cocci. The benzoate consumption capacity in sulfidogenic conditions was observed when the purified inoculum was applied to batch reactors with different benzoate/sulfate relations. Results indicate that purification was positive to bacteria that can degrade aromatic compounds. Desulfococcus multivorans bacteria was identified following the physiologic and kinetic experiments. The 0.6 benzoate/sulfate relation was considered ideal for complete consumption of carbon and total use of sulfur. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Cultivation of anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria from spacecraft-associated clean rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglmeier, Michaela; Wirth, Reinhard; Kminek, Gerhard; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2009-06-01

    In the course of this biodiversity study, the cultivable microbial community of European spacecraft-associated clean rooms and the Herschel Space Observatory located therein were analyzed during routine assembly operations. Here, we focused on microorganisms capable of growing without oxygen. Anaerobes play a significant role in planetary protection considerations since extraterrestrial environments like Mars probably do not provide enough oxygen for fully aerobic microbial growth. A broad assortment of anaerobic media was used in our cultivation strategies, which focused on microorganisms with special metabolic skills. The majority of the isolated strains grew on anaerobic, complex, nutrient-rich media. Autotrophic microorganisms or microbes capable of fixing nitrogen were also cultivated. A broad range of facultatively anaerobic bacteria was detected during this study and also, for the first time, some strictly anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium and Propionibacterium) were isolated from spacecraft-associated clean rooms. The multiassay cultivation approach was the basis for the detection of several bacteria that had not been cultivated from these special environments before and also led to the discovery of two novel microbial species of Pseudomonas and Paenibacillus.

  14. A simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Tage; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of a strict anaerobic atmosphere is essential for the culture of strict anaerobic bacteria. We describe a simple and sensitive quality control method of the anaerobic atmosphere, based on the measurement of the zone diameter around a 5-μg metronidazole disk when testing an...

  15. Cellulose fermentation by nitrogen-fixing anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canale-Parola, E.

    1992-12-13

    In anaerobic natural environments cellulose is degraded to methane, carbon dioxide and other products by the combined activities of many diverse microorganisms. We are simulating processes occurring in natural environments by constructing biologically-defined, stable, heterogeneous bacterial communities (consortia) that we use as in vitro systems for quantitative studies of cellulose degradation under conditions of combined nitrogen deprivation. These studies include the investigation of (i) metabolic interactions among members of cellulose-degrading microbial populations, and (ii) processes that regulate the activity or biosynthesis of cellulolytic enzymes. In addition, we are studying the sensory mechanisms that, in natural environments, may enable motile cellulolytic bacteria to migrate toward cellulose. This part of our work includes biochemical characterization of the cellobiose chemoreceptor of cellulolytic bacteria. Finally, an important aspect of our research is the investigation of the mechanisms by which multienzyme complexes of anaerobic bacteria catalyze the depolymerization of crystalline cellulose and of other plant cell wall polysacchaddes. The research will provide fundamental information on the physiology and ecology of cellulose-fermenting, N{sub 2}-fixing bacteria, and on the intricate processes involved in C and N cycling in anaerobic environments. Furthermore, the information will be valuable for the development of practical applications, such as the conversion of plant biomass (e.g., agricultural, forestry and municipal wastes) to automotive fuels such as ethanol.

  16. [Anaerobic bacteria 150 years after their discovery by Pasteur].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, José Elías; García-Sánchez, Enrique; Martín-Del-Rey, Ángel; García-Merino, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    In 2011 we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the discovery of anaerobic bacteria by Louis Pasteur. The interest of the biomedical community on such bacteria is still maintained, and is particularly focused on Clostridium difficile. In the past few years important advances in taxonomy have been made due to the genetic, technological and computing developments. Thus, a significant number of new species related to human infections have been characterised, and some already known have been reclassified. At pathogenic level some specimens of anaerobic microflora, that had not been isolated from human infections, have been now isolated in some clinical conditions. There was emergence (or re-emergence) of some species and clinical conditions. Certain anaerobic bacteria have been associated with established infectious syndromes. The virulence of certain strains has increased, and some hypotheses on their participation in certain diseases have been given. In terms of diagnosis, the routine use of MALDI-TOF has led to a shortening of time and a cost reduction in the identification, with an improvement directly related to the improvement of data bases. The application of real-time PCR has been another major progress, and the sequencing of 16srRNA gene and others is currently a reality for several laboratories. Anaerobes have increased their resistance to antimicrobial agents, and the emergence of resistance to carbapenems and metronidazole, and multi-resistance is a current reality. In this situation, linezolid could be an effective alternative for Bacteroides. Fidaxomicin is the only anti-anaerobic agent introduced in the recent years, specifically for the diarrhoea caused by C.difficile. Moreover, some mathematical models have also been proposed in relation with this species.

  17. [Distribution and removal of anaerobic antibiotic resistant bacteria during mesophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Wang, Yuan-Yue; Wei Yuan, Song

    2014-10-01

    Sewage sludge is one of the major sources that releasing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) into the environment since it contains large amount of ARB, but there is little information about the fate of the anaerobic ARB in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Therefore, the distribution, removal and seasonal changes of tetracycline and β-lactam antibiotics resistant bacteria in the mesophilic egg-shaped digesters of a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated for one year in this study. Results showed that there were higher amounts of ARB and higher resistance rate of β-lactam antibiotics than that of tetracycline antibiotics in the sewage sludge. All ARB could be significantly reduced during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process by 1.48-1.64 log unit (P < 0.05). Notably, the ampicillin and cephalothin resistance rates were significantly increased after anaerobic digestion by 12.0% and 14.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). The distribution of ARB in the sewage sludge had seasonal change characteristics. Except for chlorotetracycline resistant bacteria, there were more ARB in the sewage sludge in cold season than in warm season (P < 0.05). PMID:25693388

  18. Enrichment culture of marine anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Yong-jie

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria in the marine environment using sediment samples obtained from the East China Sea and discusses the nitrogen removal efficiency of marine anammox bioreactor. Enrichment of anammox bacteria with simultaneous removal of nitrite and ammonium ions was observed in the Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor under a total nitrogen loading rate of 0.37kg-N m-3day-1. In this study, The nitrogen removal efficiency was up to 80% and the molar-reaction ratio of ammonium, nitrite and nitrate was 1.0:1.22:0.22 which was a little different from a previously reported ratio of 1.0:1.32:0.26 in a freshwater system.

  19. Anaerobic bacteria colonizing the lower airways in lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Malm

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobes comprise most of the endogenous oropharyngeal microflora, and can cause infections of airways in lung cancer patients who are at high risk for respiratory tract infections. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and species diversity of anaerobes in specimens from the lower airways of lung cancer patients. Sensitivity of the isolates to conventional antimicrobial agents used in anaerobe therapy was assessed. Respiratory secretions obtained by bronchoscopy from 30 lung cancer patients were cultured onto Wilkins- -Chalgren agar in anaerobic conditions at 37°C for 72–96 hours. The isolates were identified using microtest Api 20A. The minimal inhibitory concentrations for penicillin G, amoxicillin/clavulanate, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefoxitin, imipenem, clindamycin, and metronidazole were determined by E-test. A total of 47 isolates of anaerobic bacteria were detected in 22 (73.3% specimens. More than one species of anaerobe was found in 16 (53.3% samples. The most frequently isolated were Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp., followed by Eubacterium lentum, Veillonella parvula, Prevotella spp., Bacteroides spp., Lactobacillus jensenii. Among antibiotics used in the study amoxicillin/clavulanate and imipenem were the most active in vitro (0% and 2% resistant strains, respectively. The highest resistance rate was found for penicillin G and metronidazole (36% and 38% resistant strains, respectively. The results obtained confirm the need to conduct analyses of anaerobic microflora colonizing the lower respiratory tract in patients with lung cancer to monitor potential etiologic factors of airways infections, as well as to propose efficient, empirical therapy. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 263–266

  20. Aerobic and Anaerobic Starvation Metabolism in Methanotrophic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Roslev, P.; King, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    The capacity for anaerobic metabolism of endogenous and selected exogenous substrates in carbon- and energy-starved methanotrophic bacteria was examined. The methanotrophic isolate strain WP 12 survived extended starvation under anoxic conditions while metabolizing 10-fold less endogenous substrate than did parallel cultures starved under oxic conditions. During aerobic starvation, the cell biomass decreased by 25% and protein and lipids were the preferred endogenous substrates. Aerobic prote...

  1. Xylitol Production From D-Xylose by Facultative Anaerobic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Rangaswamy, Sendil

    2003-01-01

    Seventeen species of facultative anaerobic bacteria belonging to three genera (Serratia, Cellulomonas, and Corynebacterium) were screened for the production of xylitol; a sugar alcohol used as a sweetener in the pharmaceutical and food industries. A chromogenic assay of both solid and liquid cultures showed that 10 of the 17 species screened could grow on D-xylose and produce detectable quantities of xylitol during 24-96 h of fermentation. The ten bacterial species were studied for the effe...

  2. Oxidation and methylation of dissolved elemental mercury by anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Haiyan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Lin, Hui [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zheng, Wang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tomanicek, Stephen J [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johs, Alexander [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feng, Xinbin [Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing (China); Elias, Dwayne A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liang, Liyuan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gu, Baohua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-08-04

    Methylmercury is a neurotoxin that poses significant health risks to humans. Some anaerobic sulphate- and iron-reducing bacteria can methylate oxidized forms of mercury, generating methylmercury1-4. One strain of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132) can also methylate elemental mercury5. The prevalence of this trait among different bacterial strains and species remains unclear, however. Here, we compare the ability of two strains of the sulphate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio and one strain of the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in a series of laboratory incubations. Experiments were carried out under dark, anaerobic conditions, in the presence of environmentally-relevant concentrations of elemental mercury. We report differences in the ability of these organisms to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. In line with recent findings5, we show that Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 can both oxidise and methylate elemental mercury. However, the rate of methylation of elemental mercury is only about one third the rate of methylation of oxidized mercury. We also show that Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 can oxidise, but not methylate, elemental mercury. Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA is able to oxidise and methylate elemental mercury in the presence of cysteine. We suggest that the activity of methylating and non-methylating bacteria may together enhance the formation of methylmercury in anaerobic environments.

  3. Technique for preparation of anaerobic microbes: Rodshaped cellulolytic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlius Thalib

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of anaerobic-rod cellulolytic bacteria with coating technique has been conducted. Steps of the processes involved were cultivation, coating, evaporation, and drying. Coating agent used was Gum Arabic, and drying techniquesconducted were freeze drying and sun drying. pH of culture media was firstly optimized to obtain the maximal population ofbacteria. Both coated and uncoated preparates were subjected to drying. Morphological and Gram type identifications showed that uncoated preparate dried with freeze drying is not contaminated (ie. all bacteria are rod shape with Gram-negative type while the one dried with sun drying is not morphologically pure (ie. containing of both rod and coccus shapes with Gram negative and positive. The coated preparates dried by both freeze and sun drying, were not contaminated (ie. all are rods with Gram-negative. The coating and drying processes decreased viability of preparates significantly. However, the decreasing of viability of coated preparate are lower than uncoated preparate (ie. 89 vs. 97%. Total count of bacteria in sun-drying coated preparate are higher (P<0.05 than the uncoated preparate (ie. 3.38 x 1010 vs. 1.97 x 1010 colony/g DM. Activity of sun-drying coated preparate to digest elephant grass and rice straw was higher (P<0.01 than the sun-drying uncoated preparate with the in vitro DMD values were 42.7 vs. 35.5% for elephant grass substrate and 29.3 vs. 24.6% for rice straw substrate. Therefore, it is concluded that coating technique has a positive effects on the preparation of rumen bacteria.

  4. Anaerobic degradation of benzene by marine sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musat, Florin; Wilkes, Heinz; Musat, Niculina; Kuypers, Marcel; Widdel, Friedrich

    2010-05-01

    Benzene, the archetypal aromatic hydrocarbon is a common constituent of crude oil and oil-refined products. As such, it can enter the biosphere through natural oil seeps or as a consequence of exploitation of fossil fuel reservoirs. Benzene is chemically very stable, due to the stabilizing aromatic electron system and to the lack of functional groups. Although the anaerobic degradation of benzene has been reported under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic conditions, the microorganisms involved and the initial biochemical steps of degradation remain insufficiently understood. Using marine sediment from a Mediterranean lagoon a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with benzene as the sole organic substrate was obtained. Application of 16S rRNA gene-based methods showed that the enrichment was dominated (more than 85% of total cells) by a distinct phylotype affiliated with a clade of Deltaproteobacteria that include degraders of other aromatic hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene. Using benzoate as a soluble substrate in agar dilution series, several pure cultures closely related to Desulfotignum spp. and Desulfosarcina spp. were isolated. None of these strains was able to utilize benzene as a substrate and hybridizations with specific oligonucleotide probes showed that they accounted for as much as 6% of the total cells. Incubations with 13C-labeled benzene followed by Halogen in situ Hybridization - Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (HISH-SIMS) analysis showed that cells of the dominant phylotype were highly enriched in 13C, while the accompanying bacteria had little or no 13C incorporation. These results demonstrate that the dominant phylotype was indeed the apparent benzene degrader. Dense-cell suspensions of the enrichment culture did not show metabolic activity toward added phenol or toluene, suggesting that benzene degradation did not proceed through anaerobic hydroxylation or methylation. Instead, benzoate was identified in

  5. Exploring the ecophysiology of anaerobic communities of methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, P.H.A.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) is a widespread occurring process in anoxic marine sediments. The process is performed by ANaerobic MEthane oxidizing archaea (ANME) and associated sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The ANME presumably oxidize methane through reve

  6. Regularities of polymer substances transformation into methane by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    V. І. Karpenko; L. S. Yastremska; І. G. Burun; Y. V. Lembey; O. S. Tatarchenko

    2006-01-01

    The paper shows the regularities of polymer substances transformation into methane by extracted thermophilic anaerobic bacteria. The sequence of substrate use by the methane generating bacteria corresponds to the energy efficiency of the methane genesis reactions as in the first place hydrogen is used and then acetate is. Combined cultivation of extracted different anaerobic cultures gives the opportunity to increase ethanol and hydrogen yield as well as the effectiveness of methane formation.

  7. Nitrogen removal by autotrophic ammonium oxidizing bacteria enrichment under anaerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsak (Lek Noophan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Sludge from an anoxic tank at the centralized wastewater treatment plant, Nong Khaem, Bangkok, Thailand, was inoculatedin an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR. The optimal compositions and operating conditions of the stock of autotrophic ammonium oxidizing bacteria medium were determined. The process of oxidizing ammonium with bacteria under anaerobic conditions is often referred to as the Anammox process (NO2- to N2 gas, using NH4+ as the electron donor and NO2- as the electron acceptor. The startup period for the anammox culture took more than three months. With ammoniumand nitrite concentration ratios of 1:1.38 and 1:1.6, the nitrogen conversion rate zero order. Fluorescent in situ hybridization(FISH was used to identify specific autotrophic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas spp., Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans, and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis. Results from this work demonstrated a shift in the species of ammonium oxidizing bacteria from Nitrosomonas spp. to Candidati Brocadia anammoxidans and Kuenenia stuttgartiensis, with increased ammonium concentrations from 3 mM to 15 mM. Under NH4+:NO2- ratios of 1:1.38 and 1:1.6 the ammoniumoxidizing bacteria were able to remove both ammonium and nitrite simultaneously. The specific nitrogen removal rate of theanammox bacteria (Candidati Brocadia anammoxidans and Kuenenia stuttgartiensis was significantly higher than that of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosomonas spp.. Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (Candidati Brocadia anammoxidans and Kuenenia stuttgartiensis are strict anaerobes.

  8. Methanogenic and Other Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria in Desert Soil and Other Oxic Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, V; Conrad, R.

    1995-01-01

    Strictly anaerobic bacteria such as methanogenic, sulfate-reducing, and homoacetogenic bacteria could be enriched from all five oxic soils tested. The number of cells was lower than that in typical anoxic habitats. Spores did not always dominate the population of sulfate-reducing bacteria. In all soils, the methanogenic population displayed a long lag phase after anoxic conditions were imposed before methane production began.

  9. Enrichment of anaerobic syngas converting bacteria from bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alves, J.I.; Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Alves, M.M.; Sousa, D.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic microbial communities were enriched with a synthetic syngas mixture (composed of CO, H2 and CO2 ) or with CO alone. Cultures T-Syn and T-CO were incubated and successively transferred with syngas (16 transfers) or CO (9 transfers), respectively, with increasing CO parti

  10. Prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing anaerobic bacteria in chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirtilaxmi Kenchappa Benachinmardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the rampant use of antibiotics bacteria are acquiring resistance to penicillin group of drugs, which results in prescription failure in clinical practice. Beta-lactamase producing organisms are not only more virulent they also cause surrounding bacteria to become resistant. Hence, this study was undertaken to know the prevalence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producing anaerobic bacteria in chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted for a period of 1 year from January to December 2010 at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Clinical samples were collected from the sub gingival pockets from cases of chronic periodontitis and transported to the laboratory in fluid thioglycollate medium. Gram′s staining was performed and anaerobic culture put up. All the anaerobic bacteria isolated were tested for beta-lactamase production by Nitrocefin disc method. Results: A total of 60 samples yielded 121 isolates, out of which 26% were ESBL producers. Bacteroides fragilis was the most common organism followed by Fusobacterium species. Conclusion: ESBL producing anaerobic bacteria exits in chronic periodontitis cases and the present study identified 26% of the isolates to be ESBL producers. Antibiotic resistance testing is essential before starting the therapy and in emergency cases drugs should be chosen to cover ESBL producers.

  11. Degradation of BTEX by anaerobic bacteria: physiology and application

    OpenAIRE

    Weelink, S.A.B.; Eekert, van, M.H.A.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (so-called BTEX) is often observed. The cleanup of these toxic compounds has gained much attention in the last decades. In situ bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated soils and groundwater by naturally occurring microorganisms or microorganisms that are introduced is possible. Anaerobic bioremediation is an attractive technology as these compounds are often present in the a...

  12. Mastoiditis and Gradenigo’s Syndrome with anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Chris

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gradenigo’s syndrome is a rare disease, which is characterized by the triad of the following conditions: suppurative otitis media, pain in the distribution of the first and the second division of trigeminal nerve, and abducens nerve palsy. The full triad may often not be present, but can develop if the condition is not treated correctly. Case presentation We report a case of a 3-year-old girl, who presented with fever and left-sided acute otitis media. She developed acute mastoiditis, which was initially treated by intravenous antibiotics, ventilation tube insertion and cortical mastoidectomy. After 6 days the clinical picture was complicated by development of left-sided abducens palsy. MRI-scanning showed osteomyelitis within the petro-mastoid complex, and a hyper intense signal of the adjacent meninges. Microbiological investigations showed Staphylococcus aureus and Fusobacterium necrophorum. She was treated successfully with intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with anaerobic coverage. After 8 weeks of follow-up there was no sign of recurrent infection or abducens palsy. Conclusion Gradenigo’s syndrome is a rare, but life-threatening complication to middle ear infection. It is most commonly caused by aerobic microorganisms, but anaerobic microorganisms may also be found why anaerobic coverage should be considered when determining the antibiotic treatment.

  13. Anaerobic carboxydotrophic bacteria in geothermal springs identified using stable isotope probing

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    Allyson Lee Brady

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a potential energy and carbon source for thermophilic bacteria in geothermal environments. Geothermal sites ranging in temperature from 45–65°C were investigated for the presence and activity of anaerobic CO-oxidizing bacteria. Anaerobic CO oxidation potentials were measured at up to 48.9 µmoles CO day-1 g (wet weight-1 within 5 selected sites. Active anaerobic carboxydotrophic bacteria were identified using 13CO DNA stable isotope probing (SIP combined with pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes amplified from labeled DNA. Bacterial communities identified in heavy DNA fractions were predominated by Firmicutes, which comprised up to 95% of all sequences in 13CO incubations. The predominant bacteria that assimilated 13C derived from CO were closely related (>98% to genera of known carboxydotrophs including Thermincola, Desulfotomaculum, Thermolithobacter and Carboxydocella, although a few species with lower similarity to known bacteria were also found that may represent previously unconfirmed CO-oxidizers. While the distribution was variable, many of the same OTUs were identified across sample sites from different temperature regimes. These results show that bacteria capable of using CO as a carbon source are common in geothermal springs, and that thermophilic carboxydotrophs are probably already quite well known from cultivation studies.

  14. Isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from suspected enterotoxaemia cases in lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Mechael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety cases of clinically diagnosed enterotoxemia infection in lambs at AL-Hamdaniya region where studied for isolation of aerobic and anaerobic bacterial causes, faecal samples were collected from all suspected cases during January- June 2008, the results show that 41.6% of the isolates were Cl. perfringens as pure single isolates, while mixed infection of Cl. perfringens with each of Enterococci and staphylococcus in percentage of 26.04%, 20.83% respectively, also mixed infection of Cl. septicum with each of Staphylococcus and E.coli were isolated at the percentage of 5.2%, 6.25% respectively. Highest bacterial isolation was from the faecal samples collected during April. McIntosh jar method show isolation of pure culture of anaerobic bacteria (Cl. perfringens, while Candle jar method show detection of 56 isolates in mixed cultures of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

  15. Prevalence of Anaerobic and Aerobic Bacteria in Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nili

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To determine prospectively the prevalence of anaerobic and aerobic infection in early onset (during 72 hours of age neonatal sepsis, in Tehran Vali-e-Asr Hospital."nMethods: Among all the live birth, neonates suspecting of having septicemia were investigated for isolation of micro­organisms. Culture bottle containing enriched tryptic soy broth was used for standard blood culture system to detect aerobes and an ANAEROBIC/F bottle was inoculated using BACTEC 9120 continuous monitoring blood culture system to deter­mine the growth of anaerobic bacteria. Among 1724 live births, 402 consecutive neonates suspecting of having septicemia were investigated for isolation of micro organism."nResults: A total of 27 episodes of early onset neonatal sepsis occurred with an incidence of 15.66 (11.6 aerobe + 4.0 anaer­obe per 1000 live births. Aerobic bacteria were the major etiological agents, accounting for 20 cases. 7 (26% cases had posi­tive blood cultures with anaerobic bacteria. Propionibacterium and Peptostreptococccus (amongst anaerobic and coagu­lase-negative staphylococci and staphylococcus aureus (amongst aerobic were the most commonly isolated organisms. Compari­son of clinical findings and demographic characteristics between aerobic and anaerobic infection did not have a signifi­cant statistical difference."nConclusion: Our impression is that while anaerobic bacteremia in the newborn infants can occasionally cause severe morbid­ity and mortality, majority of cases experience a self limited illness with transient bacteremia.

  16. Immobilization of anaerobic bacteria on rubberized-coir for psychrophilic digestion of night soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaked, Ram Kumar; Ramana, Karna Venkat; Tomar, Arvind; Waghmare, Chandrakant; Kamboj, Dev Vrat; Singh, Lokendra

    2005-08-01

    Low-ambient temperatures, biodigesters due to low-growth rate of the constituent bacterial consortium. Immobilization of anaerobic bacteria has been attempted in the biodigester operating at 10 degrees C. Various matrices were screened and evaluated for the immobilization of bacteria in digesters. Anaerobic digestion of night soil was carried out with hydraulic retention time in the range of 9-18 days. Among the tested matrices, rubberized-coir was found to be the most useful at 10 degrees C with optimum hydraulic retention time of 15 days. Optimum amount of coir was found as 25 g/L of the working volume of biodigesters. Immobilization of bacteria on the coir was observed by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent microscopy. The study indicates that rubberized-coir can be utilized to increase biodegradation of night soil at higher organic loading. Another advantage of using this matrix is that it is renewable and easily available in comparison to other synthetic polymeric matrices.

  17. Evaluation of Port-A-Cul transport system for protection of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, E; Thompson, F S; Armfield, A Y; Dowell, V R; Reinhardt, D J

    1978-07-01

    The protection of anaerobes in Port-A-Cul (PAC) transport system (Bioquest, Div. of Becton, Dickinson &Co., Cockeysville, Md.) tubes and vials was studied. Ten species of obligately anaerobic bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens were used to prepare simulated swab and fluid specimens in high and low concentrations. Samples in PAC tubes and vials were held for 2, 24, and 48 h at ambient temperature and in a refrigerator. In addition, samples of the simulated specimens were exposed to controlled anaerobic and aerobic conditions in vented tubes and vials, with and without PAC medium, at ambient and refrigerator temperatures. Viable bacterial colony counts from specimens in PAC tubes and vials used as recommended by the manufacturer were consistently greater than those from specimens exposed to the different controlled conditions. The protection in PAC was about equal for specimens with either high or low concentrations of bacteria. Protection of the anaerobes in PAC was more obvious with swab than with fluid specimens. Quantitative recovery of anaerobes from refrigerated PAC samples, with few exceptions, was comparable to that from PAC samples held at ambient temperature. PMID:353071

  18. Binary Interactions of Antagonistic Bacteria with Candida albicans Under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benadé, Eliska; Stone, Wendy; Mouton, Marnel; Postma, Ferdinand; Wilsenach, Jac; Botha, Alfred

    2016-04-01

    We used both aerobic and anaerobic liquid co-cultures, prepared with Luria Bertani broth, to study the effect of bacteria on the survival of Candida albicans in the external environment, away from an animal host. The bacteria were represented by Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium, Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Kluyvera ascorbata and Serratia marcescens. Under aerobic conditions, the yeast's growth was inhibited in the presence of bacterial growth; however, under anaerobic conditions, yeast and bacterial growth in co-cultures was similar to that observed for pure cultures. Subsequent assays revealed that the majority of bacterial strains aerobically produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes capable of yeast cell wall hydrolysis, including chitinases and mannan-degrading enzymes. In contrast, except for the A. hydrophila strain, these enzymes were not detected in anaerobic bacterial cultures, nor was the antimicrobial compound prodigiosin found in anaerobic cultures of S. marcescens. When we suspended C. albicans cells in crude extracellular enzyme preparations from K. pneumoniae and S. marcescens, we detected no negative effect on yeast viability. However, we found that these preparations enhance the toxicity of prodigiosin towards the yeast, especially in combination with mannan-degrading enzymes. Analyses of the chitin and mannan content of yeast cell walls revealed that less chitin was produced under anaerobic than aerobic conditions; however, the levels of mannan, known for its low permeability, remained the same. The latter phenomenon, as well as reduced production of the bacterial enzymes and prodigiosin, may contribute to anaerobic growth and survival of C. albicans in the presence of bacteria. PMID:26566932

  19. Bacteremia due to anaerobic bacteria: epidemiology in a northern Bari Hospital, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonietta Distasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Anaerobic bacteria are part of the commensal bacterial flora of skin and mucosae. Iatrogenic and pathological conditions altering this commensal relationship cause life-threatening diseases. Materials and Methods. We analysed the blood cultures sent to the microbiology of our hospital between 2008 and the first quarter of 2013 to measure the frequency of bacteraemia caused by anaerobia. We examined 3138 vials of blood cultures for anaerobia, inoculated following in-house standard procedures. The colonies grown in absence of air were subjected to biochemical analysis. The MICs of metronidazole for 23 of the 26 organisms was tested. Results. Twelve bacteria of the Bacteroides genus were identified, 9 Propionibacterium acnes, 1 Peptosctreptococcus micros, 1 Lactobacillus acidophilus, 1 Clostridium perfringens, 1 Prevotella oralis, 1 Eubacterium lentum. Conclusions. The analysis of the results suggests that the incidence of cultures positive to anaerobia was constant across the years. We note that advanced age, altered mucocutaneous tropism, alterations to the oral and intestinal bacterial flora intensify the risk of anaerobial pathogenicity. The analysis of the metronidazole-determined MIC suggests that the intestinal anaerobic flora responds well to therapy and prophylaxis with Metronidazole, while the anaerobic bacteria residing on skin and other mucosae are resistant. It is however hard to determine the clinical impact of anaerobic bacteremiae and their effect on the outcome of the patient, due to the scarcity of available clinical data.

  20. Biogas production from brewery spent grain enhanced by bioaugmentation with hydrolytic anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čater, Maša; Fanedl, Lijana; Malovrh, Špela; Logar, Romana Marinšek

    2015-06-01

    Lignocellulosic substrates are widely available but not easily applied in biogas production due to their poor anaerobic degradation. The effect of bioaugmentation by anaerobic hydrolytic bacteria on biogas production was determined by the biochemical methane potential assay. Microbial biomass from full scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating brewery wastewater was a source of active microorganisms and brewery spent grain a model lignocellulosic substrate. Ruminococcus flavefaciens 007C, Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans Mz5(T), Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 and Clostridium cellulovorans as pure and mixed cultures were used to enhance the lignocellulose degradation and elevate the biogas production. P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) was the most successful in elevating methane production (+17.8%), followed by the coculture of P. xylanivorans Mz5(T) and F. succinogenes S85 (+6.9%) and the coculture of C. cellulovorans and F. succinogenes S85 (+4.9%). Changes in microbial community structure were detected by fingerprinting techniques.

  1. Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox) Bacteria and Associated Activity in Fixed-Film Biofilters of a Marine Recirculating Aquaculture System†

    OpenAIRE

    Tal, Yossi; Joy E M Watts; Schreier, Harold J.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aquaculture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and universal GC-clamped primers. Separation of amplified PCR product...

  2. 34S/32S fractionation in sulfur cycles catalyzed by anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, B.; Gest, H.; Hayes, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    Stable isotopic distributions in the sulfur cycle were studied with pure and mixed cultures of the anaerobic bacteria, Chlorobium vibrioforme and Desulfovibrio vulgaris. D. vulgaris and C. vibrioforme can catalyze three reactions constituting a complete anaerobic sulfur cycle: reduction of sulfate to sulfide (D. vulgaris), oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur (C. vibrioforme), and oxidation of sulfur to sulfate (C. vibrioforme). In all experiments, the first and last reactions favored concentration of the light 32S isotope in products (isotopic fractionation factor epsilon = -7.2 and -1.7%, respectively), whereas oxidation of sulfide favored concentration of the heavy 34S isotope in products (epsilon = +1.7%). Experimental results and model calculations suggest that elemental sulfur enriched in 34S versus sulfide may be a biogeochemical marker for the presence of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria in modern and ancient environments.

  3. Clinically significant anaerobic bacteria isolated from patients in a South African academic hospital: antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, S; Perovic, O; Richards, G A; Duse, A G

    2011-09-27

    BACKGROUND. Increasing resistance to some antimicrobial agents among anaerobic bacteria has made susceptibility patterns less predictable. METHOD. This was a prospective study of the susceptibility data of anaerobic organisms isolated from clinical specimens from patients with suspected anaerobic infections from June 2005 until February 2007. Specimens were submitted to the microbiology laboratory at Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, where microscopy, culture and susceptibility testing were performed the using E test® strip minimum inhibitory concentration method. Results were interpreted with reference to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines for amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin, metronidazole, penicillin, ertapenem, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol and piperacillin-tazobactam. RESULTS. One hundred and eighty anaerobic isolates were submitted from 165 patients. The most active antimicrobial agents were chloramphenicol (100% susceptible), ertapenem (97.2%), piperacillin-tazobactam (99.4%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (96.7%). Less active were metronidazole (89.4%), cefoxitin (85%), clindamycin (81.7%), ceftriaxone (68.3%) and penicillin (33.3%). CONCLUSION. Susceptibility testing should be performed periodically to identify emerging trends in resistance and to modify empirical treatment of anaerobic infections.

  4. Extracellular enzyme activity in anaerobic bacterial cultures: evidence of pullulanase activity among mesophilic marine bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    C. Arnosti; Repeta, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    The extracellular enzymatic activity of a mixed culture of anaerobic marine bacteria enriched on pullulan [alpha(1,6)-linked maltotriose units] was directly assessed with a combination of gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Hydrolysis products of pullulan were separated by GPC into three fractions with molecular weights of > or = 10,000, approximately 5,000, and < or = 1,200. NMR spectra of these fractions demonstrated that pullulan was rapid...

  5. A modified bioautographic method for antibacterial component screening against anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Judit K; Horváth, Györgyi; Kerényi, Monika; Kocsis, Béla; Emődy, Levente; Schneider, György

    2016-04-01

    Direct bioautography is a useful method to identify antimicrobial compounds with potential therapeutic importance. Because of technical limitations till now, it has been applied only for aerobic bacteria. In this work we present the modification of the original method by which antimicrobial screening of bacteria requiring modified atmosphere became feasible by direct bioautography. Here we demonstrate its applicability by testing three anaerobic Clostridium perfringens and three microaerophilic Campylobacter jejuni strains against two essential oils, clove and thyme. Antimicrobial component profiles of clove and thyme essential oils against these two medically important pathogenic bacteria were compared and significant differences were revealed in their inhibition capacities. Linalool, a component of thyme essential oil exerted a more expressed antibacterial activity against C. perfringens than against C. jejuni. Our results demonstrate that direct bioautography is not only suitable for testing aerobic bacteria, but by applying the presently described modified version it can also contribute to the quest to find novel antimicrobial agents against multidrug resistant anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria. PMID:26853123

  6. [Utility of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of anaerobic bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, Mariela S; Romano, Vanesa; Nievas, Jimena; Smayevsky, Jorgelina

    2014-01-01

    The analysis by MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-assited laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) has become a reference method for the identification of microorganisms in Clinical Microbiology. However, data on some groups of microorganisms are still controversial. The aim of this study is to determine the utility of MALDI-TOF MS for the identification of clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria. One-hundred and six anaerobic bacteria isolates were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and by conventional biochemical tests. In those cases where identification by conventional methodology was not applicable or in the face of discordance between sequencing methodologies, 16 S rRNA gene sequence analysis was performed. The conventional method and MALDI-TOF MS agreed at genus and species level by 95.3 %. Concordance in gram-negative bacilli was 91.4% and 100% among gram-positive bacilli; there was also concordance both in the 8 isolates studied in gram-positive cocci and in the single gram-negative cocci included. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that MALDI-TOF MS offers the possibility of adequate identification of anaerobic bacteria.

  7. Effect of radiation dose on the recovery of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brook, I.; Walker, R.I.; MacVittie, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in the blood, spleen, and liver was investigated in mice that were exposed to 7, 8, 9, or 10 Gy /sup 60/Co radiation. Microorganisms were detected more often in animals exposed to higher doses of radiation. The number of mice that were culture positive and the number of isolates in one site increased with increasing dose. Bacteria were recovered in mice killed at various times after radiation, in 3 of 100 mice exposed to 7 Gy, in 13 of 100 irradiated with 8 Gy, in 23 of 90 exposed to 9 Gy, and in 34 of 87 irradiated with 10 Gy. The predominant organisms recovered were Escherichia coli, anerobic Gram-positive cocci, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacteroides spp. Escherichia coli and anaerobes were more often isolated in animals exposed to 10 Gy, while S. aureus was more often recovered in those irradiated with 9 Gy. These data demonstrate a relationship between the dose of radiation and the rate of infection due to entire aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Reprints.

  8. Enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria for application after direct low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, Christel, E-mail: christel.kampman@wur.nl [Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Hendrickx, Tim L.G. [Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands); Luesken, Francisca A.; Alen, Theo A. van; Op den Camp, Huub J.M.; Jetten, Mike S.M. [Department of Microbiology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Zeeman, Grietje; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Temmink, Hardy [Sub-department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new concept for low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment is proposed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this concept, denitrification and methane oxidation are performed by Methylomirabilis oxyfera. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The bacteria were enriched from fresh water sediment using sequencing fed-batch reactors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The volumetric consumption rate has to be increased by an order of magnitude for practical application. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Further research should focus on systems with improved biomass retention. - Abstract: Despite many advantages of anaerobic sewage treatment over conventional activated sludge treatment, it has not yet been applied in temperate zones. This is especially because effluent from low-temperature anaerobic treatment contains nitrogen and dissolved methane. The presence of nitrogen and methane offers the opportunity to develop a reactor in which methane is used as electron donor for denitrification. Such a reactor could be used in a new concept for low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment, consisting of a UASB-digester system, a reactor for denitrification coupled to anaerobic methane oxidation, and a nitritation reactor. In the present study denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria similar to 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' were enriched. Maximum volumetric nitrite consumption rates were 33.5 mg NO{sub 2}{sup -}-N/L d (using synthetic medium) and 37.8 mg NO{sub 2}{sup -}-N/L d (using medium containing effluent from a sewage treatment plant), which are similar to the maximum rate reported so far. Though the goal was to increase the rates, in both reactors, after reaching these maximum rates, volumetric nitrite consumption rates decreased in time. Results indicate biomass washout may have significantly decelerated enrichment. Therefore, to obtain higher volumetric consumption rates, further research should focus on systems with complete biomass

  9. Enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria for application after direct low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A new concept for low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment is proposed. ► In this concept, denitrification and methane oxidation are performed by Methylomirabilis oxyfera. ► The bacteria were enriched from fresh water sediment using sequencing fed-batch reactors. ► The volumetric consumption rate has to be increased by an order of magnitude for practical application. ► Further research should focus on systems with improved biomass retention. - Abstract: Despite many advantages of anaerobic sewage treatment over conventional activated sludge treatment, it has not yet been applied in temperate zones. This is especially because effluent from low-temperature anaerobic treatment contains nitrogen and dissolved methane. The presence of nitrogen and methane offers the opportunity to develop a reactor in which methane is used as electron donor for denitrification. Such a reactor could be used in a new concept for low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment, consisting of a UASB-digester system, a reactor for denitrification coupled to anaerobic methane oxidation, and a nitritation reactor. In the present study denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria similar to ‘Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera’ were enriched. Maximum volumetric nitrite consumption rates were 33.5 mg NO2−-N/L d (using synthetic medium) and 37.8 mg NO2−-N/L d (using medium containing effluent from a sewage treatment plant), which are similar to the maximum rate reported so far. Though the goal was to increase the rates, in both reactors, after reaching these maximum rates, volumetric nitrite consumption rates decreased in time. Results indicate biomass washout may have significantly decelerated enrichment. Therefore, to obtain higher volumetric consumption rates, further research should focus on systems with complete biomass retention.

  10. Differential Susceptibility of Bacteria to Mouse Paneth Cell a-Defensins under Anaerobic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R. Mastroianni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small intestinal Paneth cells secrete a-defensin peptides, termed cryptdins (Crps in mice, into the intestinal lumen, where they confer immunity to oral infections and define the composition of the ileal microbiota. In these studies, facultative bacteria maintained under aerobic or anaerobic conditions displayed differential sensitivities to mouse a-defensins under in vitro assay conditions. Regardless of oxygenation, Crps 2 and 3 had robust and similar bactericidal activities against S. typhimurium and S. flexneri, but Crp4 activity against S. flexneri was attenuated in the absence of oxygen. Anaerobic bacteria varied in their susceptibility to Crps 2-4, with Crp4 showing less activity than Crps 2 and 3 against Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacteroides fragilis in anaerobic assays, but Fusobacterium necrophorum was killed only by Crp4 and not by Crps 2 and 3. The influence of anaerobiosis in modulating Crp bactericidal activities in vitro suggests that a-defensin effects on the enteric microbiota may be subject to regulation by local oxygen tension.

  11. Significance of anaerobes and oral bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Yamasaki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular biological modalities with better detection rates have been applied to identify the bacteria causing infectious diseases. Approximately 10-48% of bacterial pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia are not identified using conventional cultivation methods. This study evaluated the bacteriological causes of community-acquired pneumonia using a cultivation-independent clone library analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of bronchoalveolar lavage specimens, and compared the results with those of conventional cultivation methods. METHODS: Patients with community-acquired pneumonia were enrolled based on their clinical and radiological findings. Bronchoalveolar lavage specimens were collected from pulmonary pathological lesions using bronchoscopy and evaluated by both a culture-independent molecular method and conventional cultivation methods. For the culture-independent molecular method, approximately 600 base pairs of 16S ribosomal RNA genes were amplified using polymerase chain reaction with universal primers, followed by the construction of clone libraries. The nucleotide sequences of 96 clones randomly chosen for each specimen were determined, and bacterial homology was searched. Conventional cultivation methods, including anaerobic cultures, were also performed using the same specimens. RESULTS: In addition to known common pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia [Streptococcus pneumoniae (18.8%, Haemophilus influenzae (18.8%, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (17.2%], molecular analysis of specimens from 64 patients with community-acquired pneumonia showed relatively higher rates of anaerobes (15.6% and oral bacteria (15.6% than previous reports. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that anaerobes and oral bacteria are more frequently detected in patients with community-acquired pneumonia than previously believed. It is possible that these bacteria may play more important roles in community-acquired pneumonia.

  12. A rapid method for the detection of tryptophanase in anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M R; Qadri, S M; Flournoy, D J

    1981-01-01

    A total of 633 anaerobic bacteria were examined for tryptophanase production using a rapid method which distinguishes within 5 to 180 minutes between anaerobes that contain tryptophanase and those that do not. Of the 196 tryptophanase-positive isolates tested, 99% showed tryptophanase activity within 2 hours as compared with 94.4% in 24 hours by a conventional method. A total of 299 tryptophanase-negative organisms were tested. Ninety three percent of these remained negative after 24 hours as compared with 95.3% when tested within a 24-h conventional method. Additional information was obtained on the sensitivity of this test and the time-dependent production of indole by tryptophanase.

  13. Adaptation of Bacteria of Anaerobic Digestion to Higher Salinity for the Application to Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudyk, Svetlana Nikolayevna; Ivanova, Yanina; Spirov, Pavel;

    For this study, bacteria of anaerobic digestion from Ribe Biogas plant, Denmark, were chosen. The volume of the produced gas from the bacteria was measured in a water displacement setup every day. After the gas production ceased in the second day, the maximum produced gas was measured at 70 and 90...

  14. The influence of incubation time, sample preparation and exposure to oxygen on the quality of the MALDI-TOF MS spectrum of anaerobic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; Elgersma, P. E.; Friedrich, A. W.; Nagy, E.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), bacteria can be identified quickly and reliably. This accounts especially for anaerobic bacteria. Because growth rate and oxygen sensitivity differ among anaerobic bacteria, we aimed to study the influe

  15. Colonizing the embryonic zebrafish gut with anaerobic bacteria derived from the human gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Michael C; Goodyear, Mara; Daigneault, Michelle; Allen-Vercoe, Emma; Van Raay, Terence J

    2013-06-01

    The zebrafish has become increasingly popular for microbiological research. It has been used as an infection model for a variety of pathogens, and is also emerging as a tool for studying interactions between a host and its resident microbial communities. The mouse microbiota has been transplanted into the zebrafish gut, but to our knowledge, there has been no attempt to introduce a bacterial community derived from the human gut. We explored two methods for colonizing the developing gut of 5-day-old germ-free zebrafish larvae with a defined anaerobic microbial community derived from a single human fecal sample. Both environmental exposure (static immersion) and direct microinjection into the gut resulted in the establishment of two species-Lactobacillus paracasei and Eubacterium limosum-from a community of 30 strains consisting of 22 anaerobic species. Of particular interest is E. limosum, which, as a strict anaerobe, represents a group of bacteria which until now have not been shown to colonize the developing zebrafish gut. Our success here indicates that further investigation of zebrafish as a tool for studying human gut microbial communities is warranted.

  16. Degradation of phenolic contaminants in ground water by anaerobic bacteria: St. Louis Park, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, G.G.; Goerlitz, D.F.; Godsy, E.M.; Hult, M.F.

    1982-01-01

    Coal-tar derivatives from a coal-tar distillation and wood-treating plant that operated from 1918 to 1972 at St. Louis Park, Minnesota contaminated the near-surface ground water. Solutions of phenolic compounds and a water-immiscible mixture of polynuclear aromatic compounds accumulated in wetlands near the plant site and entered the aquifer. The concentration of phenolic compounds in the aqueous phase under the wetlands is about 30 mg/1 but decreases to less than 0.2 mg/1 at a distance of 430 m immediately downgradient from the source. Concentrations of naphthalene (the predominant polynuclear compound in the ground water) and sodium (selected as a conservative tracer) range from about 20 mg/1 and 430 mg/1 in the aqueous phase at the source to about 2 mg/1 and 120 mg/1 at 430 m downgradient, respectively. Phenolic compounds and naphthalene are disappearing faster than expected if only dilution were occurring. Sorption of phenolic compounds on aquifer sediments is negligible but naphthalene is slightly sorbed. Anaerobic biodegradation of phenolic compounds is primarily responsible for the observed attenuation. Methane was found only in water samples from the contaminated zone (2-20 mg/1). Methane-producing bacteria were found only in water from the contaminated zone. Methane was produced in laboratory cultures of contaminated water inoculated with bacteria from the contaminated zone. Evidence for anaerobic biodegradation of naphthalene under either field or laboratory conditions was not obtained.

  17. Cultivation of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria: impact of reactor configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baolan; He, Zhanfei; Geng, Sha; Cai, Chen; Lou, Liping; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Xinhua

    2014-09-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is mediated by bacteria that anaerobically oxidize methane coupled with nitrite reduction and is a potential bioprocess for wastewater treatment. In this work, the effect of reactor configuration on n-damo bacterial cultivation was investigated. A magnetically stirred gas lift reactor (MSGLR), a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), and a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were selected to cultivate the bacteria. Microbial community was monitored by using quantitative PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, pmoA gene sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The effects of substrate inhibition, methane mass transfer, and biomass washout in the three reactors were focused on. The results indicated that the MSGLR had the best performance among the three reactor systems, with the highest total and specific n-damo activities. Its maximum volumetric nitrogen removal rate was up to 76.9 mg N L(-1) day(-1), which was higher than previously reported values (5.1-37.8 mg N L(-1) d(-1)).

  18. Ultraviolet irradiation of bacteria under anaerobic conditions: implications for Prephanerozoic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of the rise of atmospheric oxygen and subsequent time of development of an ultraviolet light screening ozone layer has far reaching consequences in interpreting Prephanerozoic (4.5 to 0.6 billion years ago) evolution and ecology. A special anaerobic glove box was constructed to study the relative sensitivities of different groups of bacteria to uv light under varying conditions. Although there is no concensus concerning the oxygen concentration in the early atmosphere, total anoxic conditions were assumed in these studies. The flux of the uv radiation at 253.7 nm within the chamber is slightly higher than calculated from estimates of the present solar luminosity constant at this wavelength. Strict anaerobes, possibly direct decendants from early reducing conditions on Earth (e.g. Clostridium), facultative anaerobes (e.g. Escherichia, Enterobacter), and aerobes (e.g. Pseudomonas) were irradiated and examined for survival as a function of uv dosage. In these studies, photoreactivation, the amelioration of uv damage by visible light, was demonstrated for the first time to exist in an obligate anaerobe. The number of cells in unprotected cultures, exposed to 20 minutes of uv radiation is generally reduced by 99.9%. However, several mechanisms of protection were found: (1) photoreactivation, (2) absorption of uv by nitrates in aqueous irradiation media, (3) intertwiningof growing filaments into cohesive structures called mats, e.g. the matting habit, (4) dark enzymatic repair of photodamage; and (5) inherent radiation resistance. These experimental results coupled with a literature review of uv effects strongly suggests that the Berkner-Marshall hypothesis is no longer tenable

  19. Phenols in anaerobic digestion processes and inhibition of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on the presence of phenols in digestate from seven Swedish large-scale anaerobic digestion processes and their impact on the activity of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) in soil. In addition, the importance of feedstock composition and phenol degradation capacity for the occurrence of phenols in the digestate was investigated in the same processes. The results revealed that the content of phenols in the digestate was related to the inhibition of the activity of AOB in soil (EC5 = 26 μg phenols g-1 d.w. soil). In addition, five pure phenols (phenol, o-, p-, m-cresol and 4-ethylphenol) inhibited the AOB to a similar extent (EC5 = 43-110 μg g-1 d.w. soil). The phenol content in the digestate was mainly dependent on the composition of the feedstock, but also to some extent by the degradation capacity in the anaerobic digestion process. Swine manure in the feedstock resulted in digestate containing higher amounts of phenols than digestate from reactors with less or no swine manure in the feedstock. The degradation capacity of phenol and p-cresol was studied in diluted small-scale batch cultures and revealed that anaerobic digestion at mesophilic temperatures generally exhibited a higher degradation capacity compared to digestion at thermophilic temperature. Although phenol, p-cresol and 4-ethylphenol were quickly degraded in soil, the phenols added with the digestate constitute an environmental risk according to the guideline values for contaminated soils set by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. In conclusion, the management of anaerobic digestion processes is of decisive importance for the production of digestate with low amounts of phenols, and thereby little risks for negative effects of the phenols on the soil ecosystem

  20. One carbon metabolism in anaerobic bacteria: Regulation of carbon and electron flow during organic acid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeikus, J.G.; Jain, M.

    1993-12-31

    The project deals with understanding the fundamental biochemical mechanisms that physiologically control and regulate carbon and electron flow in anaerobic chemosynthetic bacteria that couple metabolism of single carbon compounds and hydrogen to the production of organic acids (formic, acetic, butyric, and succinic) or methane. The authors compare the regulation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen metabolism by fermentation, enzyme, and electron carrier analysis using Butyribacterium methylotrophicum, Anaeroblospirillum succiniciproducens, Methanosarcina barkeri, and a newly isolated tri-culture composed of a syntrophic butyrate degrader strain IB, Methanosarcina mazei and Methanobacterium formicicum as model systems. To understand the regulation of hydrogen metabolism during butyrate production or acetate degradation, hydrogenase activity in B. methylotrophicum or M. barkeri is measured in relation to growth substrate and pH; hydrogenase is purified and characterized to investigate number of hydrogenases; their localization and functions; and, their sequences are determined. To understand the mechanism for catabolic CO{sub 2} fixation to succinate the PEP carboxykinase enzyme and gene of A. succiniciproducens are purified and characterized. Genetically engineered strains of Escherichia coli containing the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxykinase gene are examined for their ability to produce succinate in high yield. To understand the mechanism of fatty acid degradation by syntrophic acetogens during mixed culture methanogenesis formate and hydrogen production are characterized by radio tracer studies. It is intended that these studies provide strategies to improve anaerobic fermentations used for the production of organic acids or methane and, new basic understanding on catabolic CO{sub 2} fixation mechanisms and on the function of hydrogenase in anaerobic bacteria.

  1. Conversion of hemicelluloses and D-xylose into ethanol by the use of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Ethanol is a CO{sub 2} neutral liquid fuel that can substitute the use of fossil fuels in the transportation sector, thereby reducing the CO{sub 2} emission to the atmosphere. CO{sub 2} emission is suspected to contribute significantly to the so-called greenhouse effect, the global heating. Substrates for production of ethanol must be cheap and plentiful. This can be met by the use of lignocellulosic biomass such as willow, wheat straw, hardwood and softwood. However, the complexity of these polymeric substrates and the presence of several types of carbohydrates (glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, arabinose) require additional treatment to release the useful carbohydrates and ferment the major carbohydrates fractions. The costs related to the ethanol-production must be kept at a minimum to be price competitive compared to gasoline. Therefore all of the carbohydrates present in lignocellulose need to be converted into ethanol. Glucose can be fermented to ethanol by yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which, however, is unable to ferment the other major carbohydrate fraction, D-xylose. Thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producing bacteria can be used for fermentation of the hemicelluloses fraction of lignocellulosic biomass. However, physiological studies of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria have shown that the ethanol yield decreases at increasing substrate concentration. The biochemical limitations causing this phenomenon are not known in detail. Physiological and biochemical studies of a newly characterized thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producing bacterium, Thermoanaerobacter mathranii, was performed. This study included extraction of intracellular metabolites and enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis. These studies revealed several bottlenecks in the D-xylose metabolism. This knowledge makes way for physiological and genetic engineering of this strain to improve the ethanol yield and productivity at high concentration of D-xylose. (au)

  2. Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane Coupled to Nitrite Reduction by Halophilic Marine NC10 Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhanfei; Geng, Sha; Cai, Chaoyang; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Yan; Pan, Yawei; Lou, Liping; Zheng, Ping; Xu, Xinhua; Hu, Baolan

    2015-08-15

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to nitrite reduction is a novel AOM process that is mediated by denitrifying methanotrophs. To date, enrichments of these denitrifying methanotrophs have been confined to freshwater systems; however, the recent findings of 16S rRNA and pmoA gene sequences in marine sediments suggest a possible occurrence of AOM coupled to nitrite reduction in marine systems. In this research, a marine denitrifying methanotrophic culture was obtained after 20 months of enrichment. Activity testing and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis were then conducted and showed that the methane oxidation activity and the number of NC10 bacteria increased correlatively during the enrichment period. 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that only bacteria in group A of the NC10 phylum were enriched and responsible for the resulting methane oxidation activity, although a diverse community of NC10 bacteria was harbored in the inoculum. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that NC10 bacteria were dominant in the enrichment culture after 20 months. The effect of salinity on the marine denitrifying methanotrophic culture was investigated, and the apparent optimal salinity was 20.5‰, which suggested that halophilic bacterial AOM coupled to nitrite reduction was obtained. Moreover, the apparent substrate affinity coefficients of the halophilic denitrifying methanotrophs were determined to be 9.8 ± 2.2 μM for methane and 8.7 ± 1.5 μM for nitrite. PMID:26048927

  3. Anaerobic bacteria grow within Candida albicans biofilms and induce biofilm formation in suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Emily P; Cowley, Elise S; Nobile, Clarissa J; Hartooni, Nairi; Newman, Dianne K; Johnson, Alexander D

    2014-10-20

    The human microbiome contains diverse microorganisms, which share and compete for the same environmental niches. A major microbial growth form in the human body is the biofilm state, where tightly packed bacterial, archaeal, and fungal cells must cooperate and/or compete for resources in order to survive. We examined mixed biofilms composed of the major fungal species of the gut microbiome, Candida albicans, and each of five prevalent bacterial gastrointestinal inhabitants: Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis. We observed that biofilms formed by C. albicans provide a hypoxic microenvironment that supports the growth of two anaerobic bacteria, even when cultured in ambient oxic conditions that are normally toxic to the bacteria. We also found that coculture with bacteria in biofilms induces massive gene expression changes in C. albicans, including upregulation of WOR1, which encodes a transcription regulator that controls a phenotypic switch in C. albicans, from the "white" cell type to the "opaque" cell type. Finally, we observed that in suspension cultures, C. perfringens induces aggregation of C. albicans into "mini-biofilms," which allow C. perfringens cells to survive in a normally toxic environment. This work indicates that bacteria and C. albicans interactions modulate the local chemistry of their environment in multiple ways to create niches favorable to their growth and survival.

  4. Plutonium Oxidation State Distribution under Aerobic and Anaerobic Subsurface Conditions for Metal-Reducing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D. T.; Swanson, J.; Khaing, H.; Deo, R.; Rittmann, B.

    2009-12-01

    The fate and potential mobility of plutonium in the subsurface is receiving increased attention as the DOE looks to cleanup the many legacy nuclear waste sites and associated subsurface contamination. Plutonium is the near-surface contaminant of concern at several DOE sites and continues to be the contaminant of concern for the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. The mobility of plutonium is highly dependent on its redox distribution at its contamination source and along its potential migration pathways. This redox distribution is often controlled, especially in the near-surface where organic/inorganic contaminants often coexist, by the direct and indirect effects of microbial activity. The redox distribution of plutonium in the presence of facultative metal reducing bacteria (specifically Shewanella and Geobacter species) was established in a concurrent experimental and modeling study under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Pu(VI), although relatively soluble under oxidizing conditions at near-neutral pH, does not persist under a wide range of the oxic and anoxic conditions investigated in microbiologically active systems. Pu(V) complexes, which exhibit high chemical toxicity towards microorganisms, are relatively stable under oxic conditions but are reduced by metal reducing bacteria under anaerobic conditions. These facultative metal-reducing bacteria led to the rapid reduction of higher valent plutonium to form Pu(III/IV) species depending on nature of the starting plutonium species and chelating agents present in solution. Redox cycling of these lower oxidation states is likely a critical step in the formation of pseudo colloids that may lead to long-range subsurface transport. The CCBATCH biogeochemical model is used to explain the redox mechanisms and final speciation of the plutonium oxidation state distributions observed. These results for microbiologically active systems are interpreted in the context of their importance in defining the overall migration

  5. Growth of silicone-immobilized bacteria on polycarbonate membrane filters, a technique to study microcolony formation under anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Binnerup, S. J.; Sørensen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    A technique was developed to study microcolony formation by silicone- immobilized bacteria on polycarbonate membrane filters under anaerobic conditions. A sudden shift to anaerobiosis was obtained by submerging the filters in medium which was depleted for oxygen by a pure culture of bacteria....... The technique was used to demonstrate that preinduction of nitrate reductase under low-oxygen conditions was necessary for nonfermenting, nitrate-respiring bacteria, e.g., Pseudomonas spp., to cope with a sudden lack of oxygen. In contrast, nitrate-respiring, fermenting bacteria, e.g., Bacillus and Escherichia...

  6. A single-cell view on the ecophysiology of anaerobic phototrophic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musat, Niculina; Halm, Hannah; Winterholler, Bärbel;

    2008-01-01

    -SIMS), and show that it allows simultaneous phylogenetic identification and quantitation of metabolic activities of single microbial cells in the environment. Using HISH-SIMS, individual cells of the anaerobic, phototropic bacteria Chromatium okenii, Lamprocystis purpurea, and Chlorobium clathratiforme inhabiting......Quantitative information on the ecophysiology of individual microorganisms is generally limited because it is difficult to assign specific metabolic activities to identified single cells. Here, we develop and apply a method, Halogen In Situ Hybridization-Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (HISH...... the oligotrophic, meromictic Lake Cadagno were analyzed with respect to H13CO3- and 15NH4+ assimilation. Metabolic rates were found to vary greatly between individual cells of the same species, showing that microbial populations in the environment are heterogeneous, being comprised of physiologically distinct...

  7. 16S rRNA gene sequencing in routine identification of anaerobic bacteria isolated from blood cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Skov, Marianne Nielsine; Knudsen, Elisa;

    2010-01-01

    A comparison between conventional identification and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of anaerobic bacteria isolated from blood cultures in a routine setting was performed (n = 127). With sequencing, 89% were identified to the species level, versus 52% with conventional identification. The times...

  8. The contribution of fermentative bacteria and methanogenic archaea to azo dye reduction by a thermophilic anaerobic consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos, dos A.B.; Cervantes, F.J.; Madrid, de M.P.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The contribution of fermentative bacteria and methanogenic archaea to azo dye reduction by a thermophilic anaerobic consortium was studied. Additionally, the effects of different electron-donating substrates and the redox mediator riboflavin on dye reduction were assessed by using either a methanoge

  9. Candidatus "Scalindua brodaea", spec. nov., Candidatus "Scalindua wagneri", spec. nov., two new species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schmid, M.; Walsh, K.; Webb, R.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Pas-Schoonen, K. van de; Verbruggen, M.J.; Hill, T.; Moffett, B.; Fuerst, J.; Schouten, S.; Harris, James; Shaw, P.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Strous, M.

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is both a promising process in wastewater treatment and a long overlooked microbial physiology that can contribute significantly to biological nitrogen cycling in the world's oceans. Anammox is mediated by a monophyletic group of bacteria that branches deeply i

  10. Growth of anaerobic methane oxidizing archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria in a high pressure membrane-capsule bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, P.H.A.; Gieteling, J.; Widjaja-Greefkes, H.C.A.; Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Meulepas, R.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidizing communities of archaea (ANME) and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) grow slowly, which limits physiological studies. High methane partial pressure was previously successfully applied to stimulate growth, but it is not clear how different ANME subtypes and associated sulfate

  11. Evaluating primers for profiling anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria within freshwater environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puntipar Sonthiphand

    Full Text Available Anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (anammox bacteria play an important role in transforming ammonium to nitrogen gas and contribute to fixed nitrogen losses in freshwater environments. Understanding the diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria requires reliable molecular tools, and these are not yet well established for these important Planctomycetes. To help validate PCR primers for the detection of anammox bacteria within freshwater ecosystems, we analyzed representative positive controls and selected samples from Grand River and groundwater sites, both from Ontario, Canada. The objectives of this study were to identify a suitable anammox denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE fingerprint method by using GC-clamp modifications to existing primers, and to verify the specificity of anammox-specific primers used for DGGE, cloning and qPCR methods. Six primer combinations were tested from four published primer sets (i.e. A438f/A684r, Amx368f/Amx820r, An7f/An1388r, and Pla46/1392r for both direct and nested PCR amplifications. All PCR products were run subsequently on DGGE gels to compare the resulting patterns. Two anammox-specific primer combinations were also used to generate clone libraries and quantify anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes with qPCR. The primer set A438f/A684r was highly specific to anammox bacteria, provided reliable DGGE fingerprints and generated a high proportion of anammox-related clones. A second primer set (Amx368f/Amx820r was anammox specific, based on clone library analysis, but PCR products from different candidate species of anammox bacteria resolved poorly using DGGE analysis. Both DGGE and cloning results revealed that Ca. Brocadia and an uncharacterized anammox bacterial cluster represented the majority of anammox bacteria found in Grand River sediment and groundwater samples, respectively. Together, our results demonstrate that although Amx368f/Amx820r was useful for anammox-specific qPCR and clone library

  12. Evaluating primers for profiling anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria within freshwater environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonthiphand, Puntipar; Neufeld, Josh D

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (anammox) bacteria play an important role in transforming ammonium to nitrogen gas and contribute to fixed nitrogen losses in freshwater environments. Understanding the diversity and abundance of anammox bacteria requires reliable molecular tools, and these are not yet well established for these important Planctomycetes. To help validate PCR primers for the detection of anammox bacteria within freshwater ecosystems, we analyzed representative positive controls and selected samples from Grand River and groundwater sites, both from Ontario, Canada. The objectives of this study were to identify a suitable anammox denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint method by using GC-clamp modifications to existing primers, and to verify the specificity of anammox-specific primers used for DGGE, cloning and qPCR methods. Six primer combinations were tested from four published primer sets (i.e. A438f/A684r, Amx368f/Amx820r, An7f/An1388r, and Pla46/1392r) for both direct and nested PCR amplifications. All PCR products were run subsequently on DGGE gels to compare the resulting patterns. Two anammox-specific primer combinations were also used to generate clone libraries and quantify anammox bacterial 16S rRNA genes with qPCR. The primer set A438f/A684r was highly specific to anammox bacteria, provided reliable DGGE fingerprints and generated a high proportion of anammox-related clones. A second primer set (Amx368f/Amx820r) was anammox specific, based on clone library analysis, but PCR products from different candidate species of anammox bacteria resolved poorly using DGGE analysis. Both DGGE and cloning results revealed that Ca. Brocadia and an uncharacterized anammox bacterial cluster represented the majority of anammox bacteria found in Grand River sediment and groundwater samples, respectively. Together, our results demonstrate that although Amx368f/Amx820r was useful for anammox-specific qPCR and clone library analysis, A438f/A684r

  13. Distribution and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidising bacteria in natural freshwater wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li-dong; Wu, Hong-sheng; Gao, Zhi-qiu; Cheng, Hai-xiang; Li, Ji; Liu, Xu; Ren, Qian-qi

    2016-04-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process plays a significant role in the marine nitrogen cycle. However, the quantitative importance of this process in nitrogen removal in wetland systems, particularly in natural freshwater wetlands, is still not determined. In the present study, we provided the evidence of the distribution and activity of anammox bacteria in a natural freshwater wetland, located in southeastern China, by using (15)N stable isotope measurements, quantitative PCR assays and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. The potential anammox rates measured in this wetland system ranged between 2.5 and 25.5 nmol N2 g(-1) soil day(-1), and up to 20% soil dinitrogen gas production could be attributed to the anammox process. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that anammox bacteria related to Candidatus Brocadia, Candidatus Kuenenia, Candidatus Anammoxoglobus and two novel anammox clusters coexisted in the collected soil cores, with Candidatus Brocadia and Candidatus Kuenenia being the dominant anammox genera. Quantitative PCR of hydrazine synthase genes showed that the abundance of anammox bacteria varied from 2.3 × 10(5) to 2.2 × 10(6) copies g(-1) soil in the examined soil cores. Correlation analyses suggested that the soil ammonium concentration had significant influence on the activity of anammox bacteria. On the basis of (15)N tracing technology, it is estimated that a total loss of 31.1 g N m(-2) per year could be linked the anammox process in the examined wetland. PMID:26621804

  14. Conversion of hemicellulose and D-xylose into ethanol by the use of thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommer, Peter

    1998-02-01

    Ethanol is a CO{sub 2} neutral liquid fuel that can substitute the use of fossil fuels in the transportation sector, thereby reducing the CO{sub 2} emission to the atmoshpere. CO{sub 2} emission is suspected to contribute significantly to the so-called greenhouse effect, the global heating. Substrates for production of ethanol must be cheap and plentiful. This can be met by the use of lignocellulosic biomass such as willow, wheat straw, hardwood and softwood. However, the complexity of these polymeric substrates and the presence of several types of carbohydrates (glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose, arabinose) require additional treatment to release the useful carbohydrates and ferment the major carbohydrates fractions. The costs related to the ethanol-production must be kept at a minimum to be price competitive compared to gasoline. Therefore all of the carbohydrates present in lignocellulose need to be converted into ethanol. Glucose can be fermented to ethanol by yeast strains such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which, however, is unable to ferment the other major carbohydrate fraction, D-xylose. The need for a microorganism able to ferment D-xylose is therefore apparent. Thermophilic anaerobic ethanol producing bacteria can therefore be considered for fermentation of D-xylose. Screening of 130 thermophilic anaerobic bacterial strains, from hot-springs, mesophilic and thermophilic biogas plants, paper pulp industries and brewery waste, were examined for production of ethanol from D-xylose and wet-oxidized hemicellulose hydrolysate. Several strains were isolated and one particular strain was selected for best performance during the screening test. This strain was characterized as a new species, Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. However, the ethanol yield on wet-oxidized hemicellulose hydrolysate was not satisfactory. The bacterium was adapted by isolation of mutant strains, now resistant to the inhibitory compounds present in the hydrolysate. Growth and ethanol yield

  15. Electricity generation by anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from hypersaline soda lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from soda lakes produced electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). No electricity was generated in the absence of bacterial metabolism. Arsenate respiring bacteria isolated from moderately hypersaline Mono Lake (Bacillus selenitireducens), and salt-saturated Searles Lake, CA (strain SLAS-1) oxidized lactate using arsenate as the electron acceptor. However, these cultures grew equally well without added arsenate using the MFC anode as their electron acceptor, and in the process oxidized lactate more efficiently. The decrease in electricity generation by consumption of added alternative electron acceptors (i.e. arsenate) which competed with the anode for available electrons proved to be a useful indicator of microbial activity and hence life in the fuel cells. Shaken sediment slurries from these two lakes also generated electricity, with or without added lactate. Hydrogen added to sediment slurries was consumed but did not stimulate electricity production. Finally, electricity was generated in statically incubated "intact" sediment cores from these lakes. More power was produced in sediment from Mono Lake than from Searles Lake, however microbial fuel cells could detect low levels of metabolism operating under moderate and extreme conditions of salt stress. ?? 2008 US Government.

  16. Environmental evaluation of coexistence of denitrifying anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in a paddy field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jing; Fu, Liang; Ding, Zhao-Wei; Lu, Yong-Ze; Cheng, Shuk H; Zeng, Raymond J

    2016-01-01

    The nitrate-dependent denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) process, which is metabolized together by anaerobic methanotrophic archaea and NC10 phylum bacteria, is expected to be important for the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. However, there are little studies about the existence of this process and the functional microbes in environments. Therefore, the coexistence of DAMO archaea and bacteria in a paddy field was evaluated in this study. Next-generation sequencing showed that the two orders, Methanosarcinales and Nitrospirales, to which DAMO archaea and DAMO bacteria belong, were detected in the four soil samples. Then the in vitro experiments demonstrated both of nitrite- and nitrate-dependent DAMO activities, which confirmed the coexistence of DAMO archaea and DAMO bacteria. It was the first report about the coexistence of DAMO archaea and bacteria in a paddy field. Furthermore, anammox bacteria were detected in two of the four samples. The in vitro experiments did not show anammox activity in the initial period but showed low anammox activity after 20 days' enrichment. These results implicated that anammox bacteria may coexist with DAMO microorganisms in this field, but at a very low percentage. PMID:26394860

  17. Experimental modelling of Calcium carbonate precipitation in the presence of phototrophic anaerobic bacteria Rhodovulum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundeleva, Irina; Shirokova, Liudmila; Benezeth, Pascale; Pokrovsky, Oleg; Kompantseva, Elena

    2010-05-01

    -potential of the cells. To characterise the link between the rate of bacterial growth (biomass production) and the rate of CaCO3 precipitation, batch kinetic experiments were performed. These experiments were carried out in closed (anaerobic) bottles with initial concentration of calcium from 1 to 20 mM and from 5 to 20 mM bicarbonate. The biomass of cells, pH, [Ca2+] and [Alk] were measured as a function of time. Blank experiments (without cell or autoclaved cells) were always carried out. We found that the optimal conditions for both CaCO3 precipitation and biomass increase for the culture Rhodovulum sp. A-20s, is calcium concentration of 3 mM, whatever the concentration of bicarbonate (5, 10, 15 mM). Note also that for calcium concentration higher than 3 mM, the biomass production decreases. In the case of strictly anaerobic Rhodovulum sp. S-1765 bacteria, the optimal conditions for calcium carbonate precipitation is observed for the bicarbonate concentration of 10 mM, whatever the calcium concentration (3, 5, 10 mM). Overall, the present study allows quantitative modeling of bacterially-induced CaCO3 precipitation. It helps to distinguish between the effect of cell surface functional groups, surface electrical charge, soluble organic matter and metabolic change of solution pH on the rate and nature of precipitating calcium carbonate solid phase.

  18. Acid resistance of methanogenic bacteria in a two-stage anaerobic process treating high concentration methanol Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xuefei; REN Nanqi

    2007-01-01

    In this study,the two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket(UASB)system and batch experiments were employed to evaluate the performance of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of high concentration methanol wastewater.The acid resistance of granular sludge and methanogenic bacteria and their metabolizing activity were investigated.The results show that the pH of the first UASB changed from 4.9 to 5.8 and 5.5 to 6.2 for the second reactor.Apparently,these were not the advisable pH levels that common metha nogenic bacteria could accept.The methanogenic bacteria of the system,viz.Methanosarcina barkeri,had some acid resistance and could still degrade methanol at pH 5.0.If the methanogenic bacteria were trained further,their acid resistance would be improved somewhat.Granular sludge of the system could protect the methanogenic bacteria within its body against the impact of the acidic environment and make them degrade methanol at pH 4.5.The performance of granular sludge was attributed to its structure,bacteria species,and the distribution of bacterium inside the granule.

  19. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria and associated activity in fixed-film biofilters of a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yossi; Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J

    2006-04-01

    Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aquaculture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and universal GC-clamped primers. Separation of amplified PCR products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the different phylotypes revealed a diverse biofilter microbial community. While Planctomycetales were found in all three communities, the anaerobic denitrifying biofilters contained one clone that exhibited high levels of sequence similarity to known anammox bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies using an anammox-specific probe confirmed the presence of anammox Planctomycetales in the microbial biofilm from the denitrifying biofilters, and anammox activity was observed in these biofilters, as detected by the ability to simultaneously consume ammonia and nitrite. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of anammox-related sequences in a marine recirculating aquaculture filtration system, and our findings provide a foundation for incorporating this important pathway for complete nitrogen removal in such systems.

  20. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria and associated activity in fixed-film biofilters of a marine recirculating aquaculture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Yossi; Watts, Joy E M; Schreier, Harold J

    2006-04-01

    Microbial communities in the biological filter and waste sludge compartments of a marine recirculating aquaculture system were examined to determine the presence and activity of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria. Community DNA was extracted from aerobic and anaerobic fixed-film biofilters and the anaerobic sludge waste collection tank and was analyzed by amplifying 16S rRNA genes by PCR using anammox-selective and universal GC-clamped primers. Separation of amplified PCR products by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of the different phylotypes revealed a diverse biofilter microbial community. While Planctomycetales were found in all three communities, the anaerobic denitrifying biofilters contained one clone that exhibited high levels of sequence similarity to known anammox bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies using an anammox-specific probe confirmed the presence of anammox Planctomycetales in the microbial biofilm from the denitrifying biofilters, and anammox activity was observed in these biofilters, as detected by the ability to simultaneously consume ammonia and nitrite. To our knowledge, this is the first identification of anammox-related sequences in a marine recirculating aquaculture filtration system, and our findings provide a foundation for incorporating this important pathway for complete nitrogen removal in such systems. PMID:16597996

  1. Domestic wastewater treatment with purple phototrophic bacteria using a novel continuous photo anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsen, Tim; Barry, Edward M; Lu, Yang; Puyol, Daniel; Keller, Jürg; Batstone, Damien J

    2016-09-01

    A key future challenge of domestic wastewater treatment is nutrient recovery while still achieving acceptable discharge limits. Nutrient partitioning using purple phototrophic bacteria (PPB) has the potential to biologically concentrate nutrients through growth. This study evaluates the use of PPB in a continuous photo-anaerobic membrane bioreactor (PAnMBR) for simultaneous organics and nutrient removal from domestic wastewater. This process could continuously treat domestic wastewater to discharge limits (60% of PPB, though the PPB community was highly variable. The outcomes from the current work demonstrate the potential of PPB for continuous domestic (and possibly industrial) wastewater treatment and nutrient recovery. Technical challenges include the in situ COD supply in a continuous reactor system, as well as efficient light delivery. Addition of external (agricultural or fossil) derived organics is not financially nor environmentally justified, and carbon needs to be sourced internally from the biomass itself to enable this technology. Reduced energy consumption for lighting is technically feasible, and needs to be addressed as a key objective in scaleup. PMID:27232993

  2. Antimicrobial activity of some Pacific Northwest woods against anaerobic bacteria and yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, W H; Karchesy, J J; Constantine, G H; Craig, A M

    2001-11-01

    Extracts of woods commonly used for animal bedding were tested for antimicrobial activity. Essential oils from Alaska cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) and old growth Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) as well as methanol extracts of wood from these trees plus western red cedar (Thuja plicata) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) were tested for antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria and yeast. The test microbes included Fusobacterium necrophorum, Clostridium perfringens, Actinomyces bovis and Candida albicans which are common to foot diseases and other infections in animals. The essential oils and methanol extracts were tested using a standardized broth assay. Only extracts of Alaska cedar and western juniper showed significant antimicrobial activity against each of the microbes tested. The essential oil of Douglas fir did show antimicrobial activity against A. bovis at the concentrations tested. The methanol extracts of the heartwood of Douglas fir and the sapwood of ponderosa pine showed no antimicrobial activity. The major chemical components of western juniper (cedrol and alpha- and beta-cedrene) and Alaska cedar (nootkatin) were also tested. In western juniper, alpha- and beta-cedrene were found to be active components. Nootkatin showed activity only against C. albicans. The inhibitory activity in Alaska cedar oil was high enough to justify further efforts to define the other chemical components responsible for the antimicrobial activity. PMID:11746838

  3. Sodium ion pumps and hydrogen production in glutamate fermenting anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiangiu, Clara D; Jayamani, Elamparithi; Brügel, Daniela; Herrmann, Gloria; Kim, Jihoe; Forzi, Lucia; Hedderich, Reiner; Vgenopoulou, Irini; Pierik, Antonio J; Steuber, Julia; Buckel, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria ferment glutamate via two different pathways to ammonia, carbon dioxide, acetate, butyrate and molecular hydrogen. The coenzyme B12-dependent pathway in Clostridium tetanomorphum via 3-methylaspartate involves pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and a novel enzyme, a membrane-bound NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductase. The flavin- and iron-sulfur-containing enzyme probably uses the energy difference between reduced ferredoxin and NADH to generate an electrochemical Na+ gradient, which drives transport processes. The other pathway via 2-hydroxyglutarate in Acidaminococcus fermentans and Fusobacterium nucleatum involves glutaconyl-CoA decarboxylase, which uses the free energy of decarboxylation to generate also an electrochemical Na+ gradient. In the latter two organisms, similar membrane-bound NADH:ferredoxin oxidoreductases have been characterized. We propose that in the hydroxyglutarate pathway these oxidoreductases work in the reverse direction, whereby the reduction of ferredoxin by NADH is driven by the Na+ gradient. The reduced ferredoxin is required for hydrogen production and the activation of radical enzymes. Further examples show that reduced ferredoxin is an agent, whose reducing energy is about 1 ATP 'richer' than that of NADH.

  4. Optimization of biohydrogen production from beer lees using anaerobic mixed bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Maojin; Yuan, Zhuliang; Zhi, Xiaohua; Shen, Jianquan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Laboratory of New Materials, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun North First Street 2, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Beer lees are the main by-product of the brewing industry. Biohydrogen production from beer lees using anaerobic mixed bacteria was investigated in this study, and the effects of acidic pretreatment, initial pH value and ferrous iron concentration on hydrogen production were studied at 35 C in batch experiments. The hydrogen yield was significantly enhanced by optimizing environmental factors such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) pretreatment of substrate, initial pH value and ferrous iron concentration. The optimal environmental factors of substrate pretreated with 2% HCl, pH = 7.0 and 113.67 mg/l Fe{sup 2+} were observed. A maximum cumulative hydrogen yield of 53.03 ml/g-dry beer lees was achieved, which was approximately 17-fold greater than that in raw beer lees. In addition, the degradation efficiency of the total reducing sugar, and the contents of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin and metabolites are presented, which showed a strong dependence on the environmental factors. (author)

  5. Distribution of secretory inhibitor of platelet microbiddal protein among anaerobic bacteria isolated from stool of children with diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iuri B Ivanov; Viktor A Gritsenko

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study the secretory inhibitor of platelet microbicidal protein (SIPHP) phenotypes of faecal anaerobic isolates from patients with diarrhea.METHODS: Faecal isolates of anaerobic bacteria(B.fragiliS,n=42; B.longum,n=70;A.israelii,n=21;E.lentum,n=12) from children with diarrhea were tested.SlPHP production was tested by inhibition of platelet microbicidal protein (PHP) bioactivity against B.subtilis and was expressed as percentage of inhibition of PMP bactericidal activity.RESULTS: Among anaerobic isolates 80% of B.Iongum strains,85.7% of A.israelii strains,50%of E.lentum strains and 92.86% of B.fragilis strains were SIPMP-positive.The isolated anaerobic organisms demonstrated SIPHP production at a mean level of 13.8%±0.7%,14.7%±1.8%,3.9%±0.9% (P<0.05) and 26.8%±7.5% (P<0.05) for bifidobacteria,A.israelii,E.lentum and B.fragilis,respectively.CONCLUSION: Data from the present study may have significant implications in understanding the pathogenesis of microecological disorders in the intestine,as well as for future improvement in the prevention and therapy of anaerobe-associated infections.

  6. Stoke's and anti-Stoke's characteristics of anaerobic and aerobic bacterias at excitation of fluorescence by low-intensity red light: I. Research of anaerobic bacterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masychev, Victor I.; Alexandrov, Michail T.

    2000-04-01

    Biopsy or photo dynamic therapy of tumors are usually investigated by fluorescent diagnostics methods. Information on modified method of fluorescence diagnostics of inflammatory diseases is represented in this research. Anaerobic micro organisms are often the cause of these pathological processes. These micro organisms also accompany disbiotic processes in intestines.

  7. Growth and Population Dynamics of Anaerobic Methane-Oxidizing Archaea and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in a Continuous-Flow Bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Peter R. Girguis; Cozen, Aaron E.; DeLong, Edward F

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of methane in anoxic marine sediments is a biogeochemical phenomenon mediated by two archaeal groups (ANME-1 and ANME-2) that exist syntrophically with sulfate-reducing bacteria. These anaerobic methanotrophs have yet to be recovered in pure culture, and key aspects of their ecology and physiology remain poorly understood. To characterize the growth and physiology of these anaerobic methanotrophs and the syntrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria, we incubated marine sediments using...

  8. Detection of periodontopathogenic bacteria in pregnant women by traditional anaerobic culture method and by a commercial molecular genetic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbán, Edit; Terhes, Gabriella; Radnai, Márta; Gorzó, István; Nagy, Elisabeth

    2010-06-01

    To culture facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria is a well-established method for analyzing subgingival plaque samples. Micro-IDent and micro-IDent Plus (HAIN Lifescience GmbH, Nehren, Germany) tests are two commercially available rapid PCR-based methods for the identification and quantification of putative periodontopathogen bacteria. In this study, we compared these commercial PCR-based hybridization methods with conventional anaerobic culture technique. A total of 36 subgingival plaque samples were collected from periodontal pockets of pregnant women with chronic localized periodontitis. Aliquots of these samples were evaluated with species-specific probes provided by micro-IDent and micro-IDent Plus tests simultaneously, and from the same samples anaerobic and capnophylic bacteria were cultured on selective media. The overall agreement between both methods was excellent for Eubacterium nodatum, Tannerella forsythia and Porphyromonas gingivalis (97-92%), fair for Capnocytophaga sp, Eikenella corrodens, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Prevotella intermedia (91-89%) and poor for Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra (Micromonas micros), and Campylobacter rectus (86-78%). Discrepancies in the results may be explained by inability of culture method to distinguish between closely related taxa (e.i P. intermedia/Prevotella. nigrescens), and problems of keeping periodontopathogen bacteria viable, which is required for successful detection by standard culture method. Nucleic acid-based methods may replace cultivation method as frequently used methods in microbiological diagnosis of progressive periodontitis, thus micro-IDent and micro-IDent Plus tests can be recommended where culture of periodontopathogenic bacteria is not performed in routine microbiology laboratories to analyze subgingival plaque samples.

  9. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of aerobic Gram-positive cocci and anaerobic bacteria in 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yoshida, Isamu; Itoh, Yoshihisa; Tachibana, Mineji; Takahashi, Choichiro; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kanemitsu, Keiji; Okada, Masahiko; Horikawa, Yoshinori; Shiotani, Joji; Kino, Hiroyoshi; Ono, Yuka; Baba, Hisashi; Matsuo, Shuji; Asari, Seishi; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Matsuoka, Kimiko; Kusano, Nobuchika; Nose, Motoko; Murase, Mitsuharu; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Kohno, Shigeru; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Nakasone, Isamu; Maki, Hideki; Yamano, Yoshinori

    2010-12-01

    The activity of antibacterial agents against aerobic Gram-positive cocci (26 species, 1022 strains) and anaerobic bacteria (23 species, 184 strains) isolated from clinical specimens in 2006 at 16 clinical facilities in Japan were studied using either broth microdilution or agar dilution method. The ratio of methicillin-resistant strains among Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was 53.0% and 65.8%, suggesting that resistant strains were isolated at high frequency. Vancomycin (VCM) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (QPR/DPR) had good antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, with MIC90s of < or = 2 micrcog/mL. The ratio of penicillin (PC) intermediate and resistant strains classified by mutations of PC-binding proteins among Streptococcus pneumoniae was 87.6%. Ceftriaxone, cefpirome, cefepime, carbapenem antibiotics, VCM, teicoplanin, linezolid(LZD) and QPR/DPR had MIC90s of < or = 1 microg/mL against PC-intermediate and resistant S. pneumoniae strains. Against all strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, the MICs of VCM and TEIC were under 2 microg/mL, and no resistant strain was detected, suggesting that these agents had excellent activities against these species. 10.9% of E. faecalis strains or 3.5% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate or resistant to LZD. 24.4% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate or resistant to QPR/DPR. Against all strains of Clostridium difficile, the MIC of VCM were under 1 microg/mL, suggesting that VCM had excellent activity against C. difficile. Carbapenems showed good activity against Peptococcaceae, Bacteroides spp., and Prevotella spp. However since several strains of Bacteroides fragilis showed resistant to carbapenems and the susceptibility of this species should be well-focused in the future. PMID:21425596

  10. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of aerobic gram-positive cocci and anaerobic bacteria in 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Isamu; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kudo, Reiko; Fuji, Rieko; Takahashi, Choichiro; Oota, Reiko; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kunishima, Hiroyuki; Okada, Masahiko; Horikawa, Yoshinori; Shiotani, Joji; Kino, Hiroyoshi; Ono, Yuka; Fujita, Shinichi; Matsuo, Shuji; Kono, Hisashi; Asari, Seishi; Toyokawa, Masahiro; Kusano, Nobuchika; Nose, Motoko; Horii, Toshinobu; Tanimoto, Ayako; Miyamoto, Hitoshi; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Kohno, Shigeru; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yamane, Nobuhisa; Nakasone, Isamu; Maki, Hideki; Yamano, Yoshinori

    2012-02-01

    The activity of antibacterial agents against aerobic Gram-positive cocci (25 genus or species, 1029 strains) and anaerobic bacteria (21 genus or species, 187 strains) isolated from clinical specimens in 2008 at 16 clinical facilities in Japan were studied using either broth microdilution or agar dilution method. The ratio of methicillin-resistant strains among Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was 59.6% and 81.2%, suggesting that resistant strains were isolated at high frequency. Vancomycin (VCM), linezolid (LZD) and quinupristin/dalfopristin (QPR/DPR) had good antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, with MIC90s of < or = 2 microg/mL. The ratio of penicillin (PC) intermediate and resistant strains classified by mutations of PC-binding proteins among Streptococcus pneumoniae was 92.0% that was highest among our previous reports. Cefpirome, carbapenems, VCM, teicoplanin (TEIC), LZD and QPR/DPR had MIC90s of < or = 1 microg/mL against PC-intermediate and resistant S. pneumoniae strains. Against all strains of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, the MICs of VCM and TEIC were under 2 microg/mL, and no resistant strain was detected, suggesting that these agents had excellent activities against these species. 15.9% of E. faecalis strains and 1.2% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate to LZD. 17.1% of E. faecium strains showed intermediate or resistant to QPR/DPR. Against all strains of Clostridium difficile, the MIC of VCM was under 1 microg/mL, suggesting that VCM had excellent activity. Carbapenems showed good activity against Clostridiales, Bacteroides spp., and Prevotella spp., but one strain of Bacteroides fragilis showed resistant to carbapenems. And so, the susceptibility of this species should be well-focused in the future at detecting continuously. PMID:22808693

  11. [First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans/ Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaria, María C; Bianchini, Hebe M; Castello, Liliana; Carloni, Graciela; Di Martino, Ana; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Litterio, Mirta; Rollet, Raquel; Rossetti, Adelaida; Predari, Silvia C

    2011-01-01

    Through time, anaerobic bacteria have shown good susceptibility to clinically useful antianaerobic agents. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial resistance profile of most of the anaerobic species related to severe infections in humans has been modified in the last years and different kinds of resistance to the most active agents have emerged, making their effectiveness less predictable. With the aim of finding an answer and for the purpose of facilitating the detection of anaerobic antimicrobial resistance, the Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología developed the First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans. This document resulted from the compatibilization of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, the international literature and the work and experience of the Subcommittee. The Consensus document provides a brief taxonomy review, and exposes why and when anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be conducted, and which antimicrobial agents can be used according to the species involved. The recommendations on how to perform, read and interpret in vitro anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests with each method are exposed. Finally, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the classification of antibiotics according to their in vitro activities, the natural and acquired mechanisms of resistance, the emerging resistance and the regional antibiotic resistance profile of clinically relevant anaerobic species are shown.

  12. [First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans/ Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaria, María C; Bianchini, Hebe M; Castello, Liliana; Carloni, Graciela; Di Martino, Ana; Fernández Canigia, Liliana; Litterio, Mirta; Rollet, Raquel; Rossetti, Adelaida; Predari, Silvia C

    2011-01-01

    Through time, anaerobic bacteria have shown good susceptibility to clinically useful antianaerobic agents. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial resistance profile of most of the anaerobic species related to severe infections in humans has been modified in the last years and different kinds of resistance to the most active agents have emerged, making their effectiveness less predictable. With the aim of finding an answer and for the purpose of facilitating the detection of anaerobic antimicrobial resistance, the Anaerobic Subcommittee of the Asociación Argentina de Microbiología developed the First Argentine consensus guidelines for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing of clinically relevant anaerobic bacteria in humans. This document resulted from the compatibilization of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations, the international literature and the work and experience of the Subcommittee. The Consensus document provides a brief taxonomy review, and exposes why and when anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests should be conducted, and which antimicrobial agents can be used according to the species involved. The recommendations on how to perform, read and interpret in vitro anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibility tests with each method are exposed. Finally, the antibiotic susceptibility profile, the classification of antibiotics according to their in vitro activities, the natural and acquired mechanisms of resistance, the emerging resistance and the regional antibiotic resistance profile of clinically relevant anaerobic species are shown. PMID:21491069

  13. Exogenous nitrate attenuates nitrite toxicity to anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangbin; Vilcherrez, David; Carvajal-Arroyo, Jose Maria; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2016-02-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (anammox) can be severely inhibited by one of its main substrates, nitrite (NO2(-)). At present, there is limited information on the processes by which anammox bacteria are able to tolerate toxic NO2(-). Intracellular consumption or electrochemically driven (transmembrane proton motive force) NO2(-) export are considered the main mechanisms of NO2(-) detoxification. In this work, we evaluated the potential of exogenous nitrate (NO3(-)) on relieving NO2(-) toxicity, putatively facilitated by NarK, a NO3(-)/NO2(-) transporter encoded in the anammox genome. The relative contribution of NO3(-) to NO2(-) detoxification was found to be pH dependent. Exposure of anammox cells to NO2(-) in absence of their electron donating substrate, ammonium (NH4(+)), causes NO2(-) stress. At pH 6.7 and 7.0, the activity of NO2(-) stressed cells was respectively 0 and 27% of the non-stressed control activity (NO2(-) and NH4(+) fed simultaneously). Exogenous NO3(-) addition caused the recovery to 42% and 80% of the control activity at pH 6.7 and 7.0, respectively. The recovery of the activity of NO2(-) stressed cells improved with increasing NO3(-) concentration, the maximum recovery being achieved at 0.85 mM. The NO3(-) pre-incubation time is less significant at pH 7.0 than at pH 6.7 due to a more severe NO2(-) toxicity at lower pH. Additionally, NO3(-) caused almost complete attenuation of NO2(-) toxicity in cells exposed to the proton gradient disruptor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone at pH 7.5, providing evidence that the NO3(-) attenuation is independent of the proton motive force. The absence of a measurable NO3(-) consumption (or NO3(-) dependent N2 production) during the batch tests leaves NO3(-) dependent active transport of NO2(-) as the only plausible explanation for the relief of NO2(-) inhibition. We suggest that anammox cells can use a secondary transport system facilitated by exogenous NO3(-) to alleviate NO2(-) toxicity. PMID

  14. Enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria for application after direct low-temperature anaerobic sewage treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampman, C.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Luesken, F.; Alen, T.A.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Camp, op den H.J.M.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Temmink, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Despite many advantages of anaerobic sewage treatment over conventional activated sludge treatment, it has not yet been applied in temperate zones. This is especially because effluent from low-temperature anaerobic treatment contains nitrogen and dissolved methane. The presence of nitrogen and metha

  15. 新型OxyPlateTM厌氧系统隔离眼部厌氧菌的评估%Evaluation of the new OxyPlateTM Anaerobic System for the isolation of ocular anaerobic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emily K. Deschler; Paul P. Thompson; Regis Paul Kowalski

    2013-01-01

    目的:厌氧细菌可引起眼部感染,我们测试OxyPlateTM厌氧系统(OxyPlateTM Anaerobic System,OXY)隔离可引起眼部疾病的厌氧细菌.方法:OXY不需要直接的厌氧条件(比如厌氧袋,罐),将其与常规的厌氧袋培养基相比.琼脂培养基上眼部厌氧细菌菌株在好氧和厌氧条件下(厌氧袋)行标准的菌落计数:(1)OXY(好氧);(2)5%羊血(sheep blood,SB);(3)巧克力琼脂;(4)Schaedler琼脂.测试的眼部体外培养细菌来自眼内炎,泪囊炎,包括10个丙酸杆菌和3个放线菌种类.在每个培养条件下,每个细菌菌落计数隔离,排名从大到小,并在非参数比较下确定最佳的培养条件.结果:所有的厌氧条件对于厌氧菌株呈阳性反应.厌氧菌在有氧条件下的SB和Schaedler的琼脂中无法增长.痤疮丙酸杆菌在巧克力琼脂中生长稀疏.作为一种厌氧系统,在厌氧袋SB分离比OXY(P=0.0028)和巧克力琼脂(P=0.0028)分离出更多的菌落数.结论:虽然OXY经测试并没比其他的厌氧系统更高效,它似乎是一个合理隔离厌氧细菌的替代方法.其琼脂培养基在一个专门设计的盘并不需要厌氧袋使得OXY优于其他厌氧系统.%AIM: Anaerobic bacteria can cause ocular infections. We tested the OxyPlateTM Anaerobic System (OXY) to isolate pertinent anaerobic bacteria that can cause ocular disease.METHODS: OXY, which does not require direct anaerobic conditions (i.e. bags, jars), was compared to conventional isolation of incubating culture media in anaerobic bags. Standard colonies counts were performed on anaerobic ocular bacterial isolates under aerobic and anaerobic conditions (anaerobic bags) using agar media: 1) OXY (aerobic only), 2) 5% sheep blood (SB), 3) Chocolate, and 4) Schaedler. The bacteria tested were de-identified ocular isolates cultured from endophthalmitis and dacryocystitis that include 10 Propionibacterium acnes and 3 Actinomyces species. The colony counts for each bacteria isolate, on each

  16. Comparative study of biological hydrogen production by pure strains and consortia of facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiligsmann, Serge; Masset, Julien; Hamilton, Christopher; Beckers, Laurent; Thonart, Philippe

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, a simple and rapid method was developed in order to assess in comparative tests the production of binary biogas mixtures containing CO(2) and another gaseous compound such as hydrogen or methane. This method was validated and experimented for the characterisation of the biochemical hydrogen potential of different pure strains and mixed cultures of hydrogen-producing bacteria (HPB) growing on glucose. The experimental results compared the hydrogen production yield of 19 different pure strains and sludges: facultative and strict anaerobic HPB strains along with anaerobic digester sludges thermally pre-treated or not. Significant yields variations were recorded even between different strains of the same species by i.e. about 20% for three Clostridium butyricum strains. The pure Clostridium butyricum and pasteurianum strains achieved the highest yields i.e. up to 1.36 mol H(2)/mol glucose compared to the yields achieved by the sludges and the tested Escherichia and Citrobacter strains.

  17. Degradation Action of the Anaerobic Bacteria and Oxygen to the Polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xiang-Guo; ZHANG Ke

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen could prohibit anaerobic bacterium in the produced water and degrade the polymer molecular chains.Aiming at problems making up aerobic polymer solution by the produced water in Daqing Oil Field, some evaluations were done on the viscosity characteristics of polymer solution and bactericide in anaerobic and aerobic environments. Reasonable aerobic concentration of the produced water was obtained. The experimental results indicate that the viscosity of polymer solution confected by the produced water in the aerobic environment is higher than that of the polymer solution confected by the produced water in the anaerobic environment, and the reasonable ments, but the sterilization effect is better in the aerobic environment.

  18. Monitoring Methanotrophic Bacteria in Hybrid Anaerobic-Aerobic Reactors with PCR and a Catabolic Gene Probe

    OpenAIRE

    Miguez, Carlos B; Shen, Chun F; Bourque, Denis; Guiot, Serge R; Groleau, Denis

    1999-01-01

    We attempted to mimic in small upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) bioreactors the metabolic association found in nature between methanogens and methanotrophs. UASB bioreactors were inoculated with pure cultures of methanotrophs, and the bioreactors were operated by using continuous low-level oxygenation in order to favor growth and/or survival of methanotrophs. Unlike the reactors in other similar studies, the hybrid anaerobic-aerobic bioreactors which we used were operated synchronously, not...

  19. Diversity and enrichment of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing bacteria from wastewater sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Luesken, Francisca A.; van Alen, Theo A.; van der Biezen, Erwin; Frijters, Carla; Toonen, Ger; Kampman, Christel; Hendrickx, Tim L. G.; Zeeman, Grietje; Temmink, Hardy; Strous, Marc; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Recently discovered microorganisms affiliated to the bacterial phylum NC10, named “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera”, perform nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation. These microorganisms could be important players in a novel way of anaerobic wastewater treatment where ammonium and residual dissolved methane might be removed at the expense of nitrate or nitrite. To find suitable inocula for reactor startup, ten selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in The Netherlands w...

  20. Reduction and Immobilization of Radionuclides and Toxic Metal Ions Using Combined Zero Valent Iron and Anaerobic Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenly J. Weathers; Lynn E. Katz

    2002-05-29

    The use of zero valent iron, permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for groundwater remediation continues to increase. AN exciting variation of this technology involves introducing anaerobic bacteria into these barriers so that both biological and abiotic pollutant removal processes are functional. This work evaluated the hypothesis that a system combining a mixed culture of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) with zero valent iron would have a greater cr(VI) removal efficiency and a greater total Cr(VI) removal capacity than a zero valent iron system without the microorganisms. Hence, the overall goal of this research was to compare the performance of these types of systems with regard to their Cr(VI) removal efficiency and total Cr(VI) removal capacity. Both batch and continuous flow reactor systems were evaluated.

  1. Disulfide bond-dependent mechanism of protection against oxidative stress in pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase of anaerobic Desulfovibrio bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita, Nicolas; Hatchikian, E Claude; Nouailler, Matthieu; Dolla, Alain; Pieulle, Laetitia

    2008-01-22

    Oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate forming acetyl-coenzyme A is a crucial step in many metabolic pathways. In most anaerobes, this reaction is carried out by pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), an enzyme normally oxygen sensitive except in Desulfovibrio africanus (Da), where it shows an abnormally high oxygen stability. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have specified a disulfide bond-dependent protective mechanism against oxidative conditions in Da PFOR. Our data demonstrated that the two cysteine residues forming the only disulfide bond in the as-isolated PFOR are crucial for the stability of the enzyme in oxidative conditions. A methionine residue located in the environment of the proximal [4Fe-4S] cluster was also found to be essential for this protective mechanism. In vivo analysis demonstrated unambiguously that PFOR in Da cells as well as two other Desulfovibrio species was efficiently protected against oxidative stress. Importantly, a less active but stable Da PFOR in oxidized cells rapidly reactivated when returned to anaerobic medium. Our work demonstrates the existence of an elegant disulfide bond-dependent reversible mechanism, found in the Desulfovibrio species to protect one of the key enzymes implicated in the central metabolism of these strict anaerobes. This new mechanism could be considered as an adaptation strategy used by sulfate-reducing bacteria to cope with temporary oxidative conditions and to maintain an active dormancy. PMID:18161989

  2. Isolation and identification of bacteria responsible for simultaneous anaerobic ammonium and sulfate removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a novel biological reaction,in which ammonium is oxidized with sulfate as the electron acceptor under anoxic conditions.Ammonium and sulfate are cosmopolitan chemical species which are an integral part of the global nitrogen and sulfur cycles.A detailed exploration of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation is quite practical.In this work,a bacterial strain named ASR has been isolated from an anaerobic ammonia and sulfate removing reactor working under steady-state.On the basis of electron microscopy,physiological tests and 16S rDNA phylogenetic sequence analysis,the strain ASR is found to be related to Bacillus benzoevorans.According to the biological carbon source utilization test,the strain ASR could use many carbon sources.Its optimum pH value and temperature were 8.5 and 30 °C,respectively.The test proves that the strain ASR is able to use sulfate to oxidize ammonia anaerobically.The maximum ammonia and sulfate removal rates were 44.4% and 40.0%,respectively.The present study provided biological evidence for the confirmation and development of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation and brought new insights into the global nitrogen and sulfur cycles.

  3. Decoloration of textile wastewater by means of a fluidized-bed loop reactor and immobilized anaerobic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiou, D. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Demokritos University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)]. E-mail: dgeorgio@env.duth.gr; Aivasidis, A. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Demokritos University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2006-07-31

    Textile wastewater was treated by means of a fluidized-bed loop reactor and immobilized anaerobic bacteria. The main target of this treatment was decoloration of the wastewater and transformation of the non-biodegradable azo-reactive dyes to the degradable, under aerobic biological conditions, aromatic amines. Special porous beads (Siran'' (registered)) were utilized as the microbial carriers. Acetic acid solution, enriched with nutrients and trace elements, served both as a pH-regulator and as an external substrate for the growth of methanogenic bacteria. The above technique was firstly applied on synthetic wastewater (an aqueous solution of a mixture of different azo-reactive dyes). Hydraulic residence time was gradually decreased from 24 to 6 h over a period of 3 months. Full decoloration of the wastewater could be achieved even at such a low hydraulic residence time (6 h), while methane-rich biogas was also produced. The same technique was then applied on real textile wastewater with excellent results (full decoloration at a hydraulic residence time of 6 h). Furthermore, the effluent proved to be highly biodegradable by aerobic microbes (activated-sludge). Thus, the above-described anaerobic/aerobic biological technique seems to be a very attractive method for treating textile wastewater since it is cost-effective and environment-friendly.

  4. Anaerobic bacteria in upper respiratory tract and head and neck infections: microbiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Anaerobes are the predominant components of oropharyngeal mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin of upper respiratory tract and head and neck. This review summarizes the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology and antimicrobials therapy of these infections. These include acute and chronic otitis media, mastoiditis and sinusitis, pharyngo-tonsillitis, peritonsillar, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses, suppurative thyroiditis, cervical lymphadenitis, parotitis, siliadenitis, and deep neck infections including Lemierre Syndrome. The recovery from these infections depends on prompt and proper medical and when indicated also surgical management.

  5. Anaerobic nitrite-dependent methane-oxidizing bacteria - novel participants in methane cycling of drained peatlands ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Irina; Sukhacheva, Marina; Menko, Ekaterina; Sirin, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Northern peatlands are one of the key sources of atmospheric methane. Process-based studies of methane dynamic are based on the hypothesis of the balance between microbial methane production and oxidation, but this doesn't explain all variations in and constraints on peatland CH4 emissions. One of the reasons for this discrepancy could be anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM) - the process which is still poorly studied and remained controversial. Very little is known about AOM in peatlands, where it could work as an important 'internal' sink for CH4. This lack of knowledge primarily originated from researchers who generally consider AOM quantitatively insignificant or even non-existent in northern peatland ecosystems. But not far ago, Smemo and Yavitt (2007) presented evidence for AOM in freshwater peatlands used indirect techniques including isotope dilution assays and selective methanogenic inhibitors. Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation NC10 group bacteria (n-damo) were detected in a minerotrophic peatland in the Netherlands that is infiltrated by nitrate-rich ground water (Zhu et al., 2012). Present study represents the first, to our knowledge, characterization of AOM in human disturbed peatlands, including hydrological elements of artificial drainage network. The experiments were conducted with samples of peat from drained peatlands, as well as of water and bottom sediments of ditches from drained Dubnensky mire massif, Moscow region (Chistotin et al., 2006; Sirin et al., 2012). This is the key testing area of our research group in European part of Russia for the long-term greenhouse gases fluxes measurements supported by testing physicochemical parameters, intensity and genomic diversity of CH4-cycling microbial communities. Only in sediments of drainage ditches the transition anaerobic zone was found, where methane and nitrate occurred, suggested the possible ecological niche for n-damo bacteria. The NC10 group methanotrophs were analyzed by PCR

  6. Potential for using thermophilic anaerobic bacteria for bioethanol production from hemicellulose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, P.; Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2004-01-01

    anaerobic bacterial strains growing optimally at 70-80degreesC for their ethanol production from D-Xylose. The new isolates came from different natural and man-made systems such as hot springs, paper pulp mills and brewery waste water. The test was composed of three different steps; (i) test for conversion...

  7. A genomic view of methane oxidation by aerobic bacteria and anaerobic archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Chistoserdova, Ludmila; Vorholt, Julia A.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    Recent sequencing of the genome and proteomic analysis of a model aerobic methanotrophic bacterium, Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) has revealed a highly versatile metabolic potential. In parallel, environmental genomics has provided glimpses into anaerobic methane oxidation by certain archaea, further supporting the hypothesis of reverse methanogenesis.

  8. Species identification of clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria: a comparison of two matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Ulrik Stenz; Holm, Anette; Knudsen, Elisa;

    2011-01-01

    We compared two matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) systems (Shimadzu/SARAMIS and Bruker) on a collection of consecutive clinically important anaerobic bacteria (n = 290). The Bruker system had more correct identifications to the species level...... (67.2% versus 49.0%), but also more incorrect identifications (7.9% versus 1.4%). The system databases need to be optimized to increase identification levels. However, MALDI-TOF MS in its present version seems to be a fast and inexpensive method for identification of most clinically important...... anaerobic bacteria....

  9. Detection, phylogeny and population dynamics of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria in anaerobic granular sludge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmsen, H.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The research described this thesis concerns the diversity and phylogeny of syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacteria and their ecology in granular sludge, from which they were obtained. 16S rRNA was used as a molecular marker to study both the phylogeny and the ecology of these bacteria. Sequence ana

  10. Bioaugmentation of anaerobic sludge digestion with iron-reducing bacteria: process and microbial responses to variations in hydraulic retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Gahyun; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-01-01

    Although anaerobic digestion (AD) is a widely used option to manage waste activated sludge (WAS), there are some drawbacks related to its slow reaction rate and low energy productivity. This study examined an anaerobic WAS digester, augmented with an iron-reducing microbial consortium, relative to changes in microbial community structure and process performance at decreasing hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 to 10 days. The enhanced methanation performance (approximately 40 % increase in methane yield) by the bioaugmentation was sustained until the HRT was decreased to 12.5 days, under Fe(3+)-rich conditions (ferric oxyhydroxide, 20 mM Fe). Enhanced iron-reducing activity was evidenced by the increased Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio maintained above 50 % during the stable operational phases. A further decrease in HRT to 10 days resulted in a significant performance deterioration, along with a drop in the Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio to <35 %, after four turnovers of operation. Prevailing existence of putative iron-reducing bacteria (IRBs) was identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), with Spirochaetaceae- and Thauera-related organisms being dominant members, and clear dominance shifts among them with respect to decrease in HRT were observed. Lowering HRT led to evident shifts in bacterial community structure likely associated with washout of IRBs, leading to decreases in iron respiration activity and AD performance at a lower HRT. The bacterial community structure shifted dynamically over phases, and the community transitions correlated well with the changes in process performance. Overall, the combined biostimulation and bioaugmentation investigated in this study proved effective for enhanced methane recovery from anaerobic WAS digestion, which suggests an interesting potential for high-rate AD.

  11. Bioaugmentation of anaerobic sludge digestion with iron-reducing bacteria: process and microbial responses to variations in hydraulic retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Gahyun; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Lee, Changsoo

    2016-01-01

    Although anaerobic digestion (AD) is a widely used option to manage waste activated sludge (WAS), there are some drawbacks related to its slow reaction rate and low energy productivity. This study examined an anaerobic WAS digester, augmented with an iron-reducing microbial consortium, relative to changes in microbial community structure and process performance at decreasing hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 20 to 10 days. The enhanced methanation performance (approximately 40 % increase in methane yield) by the bioaugmentation was sustained until the HRT was decreased to 12.5 days, under Fe(3+)-rich conditions (ferric oxyhydroxide, 20 mM Fe). Enhanced iron-reducing activity was evidenced by the increased Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio maintained above 50 % during the stable operational phases. A further decrease in HRT to 10 days resulted in a significant performance deterioration, along with a drop in the Fe(2+) to total Fe ratio to <35 %, after four turnovers of operation. Prevailing existence of putative iron-reducing bacteria (IRBs) was identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), with Spirochaetaceae- and Thauera-related organisms being dominant members, and clear dominance shifts among them with respect to decrease in HRT were observed. Lowering HRT led to evident shifts in bacterial community structure likely associated with washout of IRBs, leading to decreases in iron respiration activity and AD performance at a lower HRT. The bacterial community structure shifted dynamically over phases, and the community transitions correlated well with the changes in process performance. Overall, the combined biostimulation and bioaugmentation investigated in this study proved effective for enhanced methane recovery from anaerobic WAS digestion, which suggests an interesting potential for high-rate AD. PMID:26428233

  12. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Amixicile-Based Inhibitors of the Pyruvate-Ferredoxin Oxidoreductases of Anaerobic Bacteria and Epsilonproteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Andrew J; Bruce, Alexandra M; Gineste, Catherine; Ballard, T Eric; Olekhnovich, Igor N; Macdonald, Timothy L; Hoffman, Paul S

    2016-07-01

    Amixicile is a promising derivative of nitazoxanide (an antiparasitic therapeutic) developed to treat systemic infections caused by anaerobic bacteria, anaerobic parasites, and members of the Epsilonproteobacteria (Campylobacter and Helicobacter). Amixicile selectively inhibits pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) and related enzymes by inhibiting the function of the vitamin B1 cofactor (thiamine pyrophosphate) by a novel mechanism. Here, we interrogate the amixicile scaffold, guided by docking simulations, direct PFOR inhibition assays, and MIC tests against Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter jejuni, and Helicobacter pylori Docking simulations revealed that the nitro group present in nitazoxanide interacts with the protonated N4'-aminopyrimidine of thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). The ortho-propylamine on the benzene ring formed an electrostatic interaction with an aspartic acid moiety (B456) of PFOR that correlated with improved PFOR-inhibitory activity and potency by MIC tests. Aryl substitution with electron-withdrawing groups and substitutions of the propylamine with other alkyl amines or nitrogen-containing heterocycles both improved PFOR inhibition and, in many cases, biological activity against C. difficile Docking simulation results correlate well with mechanistic enzymology and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies that show members of this class of antimicrobials to be specific inhibitors of vitamin B1 function by proton abstraction, which is both novel and likely to limit mutation-based drug resistance. PMID:27090174

  13. Organic carbon recovery and photosynthetic bacteria population in an anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor treating food processing wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitapornpan, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Honda, R; Yamamoto, K

    2013-08-01

    Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) were cultivated by food industry wastewater in the anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor. Organic removal and biomass production and characteristics were accomplished via an explicit examination of the long term performance of the photo-bioreactor fed with real wastewater. With the support of infra-red light transmitting filter, PNSB could survive and maintain in the system even under the continual fluctuations of influent wastewater characteristics. The average BOD and COD removal efficiencies were found at the moderate range of 51% and 58%, respectively. Observed photosynthetic biomass yield was 0.6g dried solid/g BOD with crude protein content of 0.41 g/g dried solid. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed the presence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris and significant changes in the photosynthetic bacterial community within the system. PMID:23489563

  14. Fate of antibiotic resistance bacteria and genes during enhanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge by microwave pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Juan; Liu, Jibao; Zheng, Xiang; Zhang, Junya; Ni, Xiaotang; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-10-01

    The fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated during the sludge anaerobic digestion (AD) with microwave-acid (MW-H), microwave (MW) and microwave-H2O2-alkaline (MW-H2O2) pretreatments. Results showed that combined MW pretreatment especially for the MW-H pretreatment could efficiently reduce the ARB concentration, and most ARG concentrations tended to attenuate during the pretreatment. The subsequent AD showed evident removal of the ARB, but most ARGs were enriched after AD. Only the concentration of tetX kept continuous declination during the whole sludge treatment. The total ARGs concentration showed significant correlation with 16S rRNA during the pretreatment and AD. Compared with unpretreated sludge, the AD of MW and MW-H2O2 pretreated sludge presented slightly better ARB and ARGs reduction efficiency. PMID:26970692

  15. In Vitro Activities of Cefminox against Anaerobic Bacteria Compared with Those of Nine Other Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Hoellman, Dianne B.; Spangler, Sheila K.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Appelbaum, Peter C.

    1998-01-01

    The agar dilution MIC method was used to test the activity of cefminox, a β-lactamase-stable cephamycin, compared with those of cefoxitin, cefotetan, moxalactam, ceftizoxime, cefotiam, cefamandole, cefoperazone, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 357 anaerobes. Overall, cefminox was the most active β-lactam, with an MIC at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of 1.0 μg/ml and an MIC90 of 16.0 μg/ml. Other β-lactams were less active, with respective MIC50s and MIC90s of 2.0 and 64.0...

  16. Effect of the growth of anaerobic bacteria on the surface pH of solid media.

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, B; Brown, F V

    1985-01-01

    Changes in surface pH occurring after varying periods of anaerobic incubation were measured for a total of 23 test solid media. There was little change in the surface pH of uninoculated plates, but plates inoculated with Bacteriodes fragilis showed a striking fall in pH, to pH 5 in the case of some of the test media. The problems of controlling the surface pH of solid media are discussed and possible methods of control are considered.

  17. Survival of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Horizontal Gene Transfer Control Antibiotic Resistance Gene Content in Anaerobic Digesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer H.; Novak, John T.; Knocke, William R.; Pruden, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) vs. their antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during wastewater sludge treatment is critical in order to reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance through process optimization. Here, we spiked high concentrations of tetracycline-resistant bacteria, isolated from mesophilic (Iso M1-1—a Pseudomonas sp.) and thermophilic (Iso T10—a Bacillus sp.) anaerobic digested sludge, into batch digesters and monitored their fate by plate counts and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) of their corresponding tetracycline ARGs. In batch studies, spiked ARB plate counts returned to baseline (thermophilic) or 1-log above baseline (mesophilic) while levels of the ARG present in the spiked isolate [tet(G)] remained high in mesophilic batch reactors. To compare results under semi-continuous flow conditions with natural influent variation, tet(O), tet(W), and sul1 ARGs, along with the intI1 integrase gene, were monitored over a 9-month period in the raw feed sludge and effluent sludge of lab-scale thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digesters. sul1 and intI1 in mesophilic and thermophilic digesters correlated positively (Spearman rho = 0.457–0.829, P < 0.05) with the raw feed sludge. There was no correlation in tet(O) or tet(W) ratios in raw sludge and mesophilic digested sludge or thermophilic digested sludge (Spearman rho = 0.130–0.486, P = 0.075–0.612). However, in the thermophilic digester, the tet(O) and tet(W) ratios remained consistently low over the entire monitoring period. We conclude that the influent sludge microbial composition can influence the ARG content of a digester, apparently as a result of differential survival or death of ARBs or horizontal gene transfer of genes between raw sludge ARBs and the digester microbial community. Notably, mesophilic digestion was more susceptible to ARG intrusion than thermophilic digestion, which may be attributed to a higher rate of ARB survival and

  18. Survival of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Horizontal Gene Transfer Control Antibiotic Resistance Gene Content in Anaerobic Digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer H; Novak, John T; Knocke, William R; Pruden, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) vs. their antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during wastewater sludge treatment is critical in order to reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance through process optimization. Here, we spiked high concentrations of tetracycline-resistant bacteria, isolated from mesophilic (Iso M1-1-a Pseudomonas sp.) and thermophilic (Iso T10-a Bacillus sp.) anaerobic digested sludge, into batch digesters and monitored their fate by plate counts and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) of their corresponding tetracycline ARGs. In batch studies, spiked ARB plate counts returned to baseline (thermophilic) or 1-log above baseline (mesophilic) while levels of the ARG present in the spiked isolate [tet(G)] remained high in mesophilic batch reactors. To compare results under semi-continuous flow conditions with natural influent variation, tet(O), tet(W), and sul1 ARGs, along with the intI1 integrase gene, were monitored over a 9-month period in the raw feed sludge and effluent sludge of lab-scale thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digesters. sul1 and intI1 in mesophilic and thermophilic digesters correlated positively (Spearman rho = 0.457-0.829, P < 0.05) with the raw feed sludge. There was no correlation in tet(O) or tet(W) ratios in raw sludge and mesophilic digested sludge or thermophilic digested sludge (Spearman rho = 0.130-0.486, P = 0.075-0.612). However, in the thermophilic digester, the tet(O) and tet(W) ratios remained consistently low over the entire monitoring period. We conclude that the influent sludge microbial composition can influence the ARG content of a digester, apparently as a result of differential survival or death of ARBs or horizontal gene transfer of genes between raw sludge ARBs and the digester microbial community. Notably, mesophilic digestion was more susceptible to ARG intrusion than thermophilic digestion, which may be attributed to a higher rate of ARB survival and/or horizontal gene

  19. An antibacterial assay of aqueous extract of garlic against anaerobic/microaerophilic and aerobic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Elsom, Giles K.; Hide, Denis; Salmon, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Both the minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration (expressed in terms of thiosulphinate concentration) of an aqueous extract of garlic was determined against nine species of bacteria. Helicobacter pylori proved to be extremely sensitive to garlic extract, whilst Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus all were moderately sensitive to the garlic extract treat...

  20. Pretreatment of wheat straw and conversion of xylose and xylan to ethanol by thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Jensen, K.; Nielsen, P.;

    1996-01-01

    . Of five different thermophilic bacteria used in this study only two strains produced ethanol with xylan as substrate, one of them being the strain A3 isolated from an Icelandic hot-spring. Probably other degradation products formed in the presence of oxygen might act as inhibitors. Adaptation...

  1. Community composition and activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria in the rhizosphere of salt-marsh grass Spartina alterniflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanling; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Yin, Guoyu; Gao, Juan; Jiang, Xiaofen; Lin, Xianbiao; Li, Xiaofei; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) as an important nitrogen removal pathway has been investigated in intertidal marshes. However, the rhizosphere-driven anammox process in these ecosystems is largely overlooked so far. In this study, the community dynamics and activities of anammox bacteria in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere sediments of salt-marsh grass Spartina alterniflora (a widely distributed plant in estuaries and intertidal ecosystems) were investigated using clone library analysis, quantitative PCR assay, and isotope-tracing technique. Phylogenetic analysis showed that anammox bacterial diversity was higher in the non-rhizosphere sediments (Scalindua and Kuenenia) compared with the rhizosphere zone (only Scalindua genus). Higher abundance of anammox bacteria was detected in the rhizosphere (6.46 × 10(6)-1.56 × 10(7) copies g(-1)), which was about 1.5-fold higher in comparison with that in the non-rhizosphere zone (4.22 × 10(6)-1.12 × 10(7) copies g(-1)). Nitrogen isotope-tracing experiments indicated that the anammox process in the rhizosphere contributed to 12-14 % N2 generation with rates of 0.43-1.58 nmol N g(-1) h(-1), while anammox activity in the non-rhizosphere zone contributed to only 4-7 % N2 production with significantly lower activities (0.28-0.83 nmol N g(-1) h(-1)). Overall, we propose that the rhizosphere microenvironment in intertidal marshes might provide a favorable niche for anammox bacteria and thus plays an important role in nitrogen cycling. PMID:27225476

  2. In vitro activities of cefminox against anaerobic bacteria compared with those of nine other compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoellman, D B; Spangler, S K; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1998-03-01

    The agar dilution MIC method was used to test the activity of cefminox, a beta-lactamase-stable cephamycin, compared with those of cefoxitin, cefotetan, moxalactam, ceftizoxime, cefotiam, cefamandole, cefoperazone, clindamycin, and metronidazole against 357 anaerobes. Overall, cefminox was the most active beta-lactam, with an MIC at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of 1.0 microg/ml and an MIC90 of 16.0 microg/ml. Other beta-lactams were less active, with respective MIC50s and MIC90s of 2.0 and 64.0 microg/ml for cefoxitin, 2.0 and 128.0 microg/ml for cefotetan, 2.0 and 64.0 microg/ml for moxalactam, 4.0 and > 128.0 microg/ml for ceftizoxime, 16.0 and > 128.0 microg/ml for cefotiam, 8.0 and >128.0 microg/ml for cefamandole, and 4.0 and 128.0 microg/ml for cefoperazone. The clindamycin MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.5 and 8.0 microg/ml, respectively, and the metronidazole MIC50 and MIC90 were 1.0 and 4.0 microg/ml, respectively. Cefminox was especially active against Bacteroides fragilis (MIC90, 2.0 microg/ml), Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (MIC90, 4.0 microg/ml), fusobacteria (MIC90, 1.0 microg/ml), peptostreptococci (MIC90, 2.0 microg/ml), and clostridia, including Clostridium difficile (MIC90, 2.0 microg/ml). Time-kill studies performed with six representative anaerobic species revealed that at the MIC all compounds except ceftizoxime were bactericidal (99.9% killing) against all strains after 48 h. At 24 h, only cefminox and cefoxitin at 4x the MIC and cefoperazone at 8x the MIC were bactericidal against all strains. After 12 h, at the MIC all compounds except moxalactam, ceftizoxime, cefotiam, cefamandole, clindamycin, and metronidazole gave 90% killing of all strains. After 3 h, cefminox at 2 x the MIC produced the most rapid effect, with 90% killing of all strains. PMID:9517922

  3. Studies on some characteristics of hydrogen production by cell-free extracts of rumen anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, A E; Winter, W T; Godbout, D M

    1977-03-01

    Hydrogen production was studied in the following rumen anaerobes: Bacteroides clostridiiformis, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Enbacterium limosum, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Megasphaera elsdenii, Ruminococcus albus, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens. Clostridium pasteurianum and Escherichia coli were included for comparative purposes. Hydrogen production from dithionite, dithionite-reduced methyl viologen, pyruvate, and formate was determined. All species tested produced hydrogen from dithionite-reduce methyl viologen, but only C. pasteurianum, B. clostridiiformis, E. limosum, and M. elsdenii produced hydrogen from dithionite. All species except E. coli produced hydrogen from pyruvate, but activity was low or absent in extracts of E. limosum, F. necrophorum, R. albus, and R. flavefaciens unless methyl viologen was added. Hydrogen was produced from formate only by E. coli, B. clostridiiformis, E. limosum, F. necrophorum, and R. flavefaciens. Extracts were subjected to ultracentrifugation in an effort to determine the solubility of hydrogenase. The hydrogenase of all species except E. coli appeared to be soluble, although variable amounts of hydrogenase activity were detected in the pellet. Treatment of extracts of the rumen microbial species with DEAE-cellulose resulted in loss ofhydrogen production from pyruvate. Activity was restored by the addition of methyl viologen. It is concluded that hydrogen production in these rumen microorganisms is similar to that in the saccharolytic clostridia.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria found on dental bib clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt-Holland, Addy; Murphy, Christina M; Powers, Anne; Kublin, Claire L; Jeong, Youjin Natalie; DiMattia, Michelle; Pham, Linh; Park, Angel; Finkelman, Matthew; Lombard, Maureen; Hanley, James B; Paster, Bruce J; Kugel, Gerard

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-use dental bib clips are considered to present relatively low risks for transmitting infections and, thus, are thought to only require disinfection between patient visits. This study was designed to: 1) determine the presence and composition of bacterial contaminants on reusable rubber-faced metal bib clips after dental treatment at the hygiene clinic at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine and 2) evaluate the effectiveness of the disinfection for this clip type. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial contaminant loads on the surfaces of the clips were investigated immediately after hygiene treatments were rendered and again after clips were disinfected. The species and strains of bacterial isolates were identified using 16S rDNA sequencing and Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray analyses. The results demonstrated that although the use of disinfection proved to be significantly effective, some clips retained at least one bacterium on their surfaces after disinfection. Although the bacterial species present on disinfected clips were typical skin or environmental isolates, some were oral in origin. In the study's settings, bacterial presence on the clips did not indicate an infectious disease problem. The different bacterial loads on clips suggest that cross-contamination risks may not be the same for all clinics, and that this difference may be related to the type of treatments and services performed.

  5. Kinetic analysis of hydrogen production using anaerobic bacteria in reverse micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhi, Xiaohua; Yang, Haijun; Yuan, Zhuliang; Shen, Jianquan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Laboratory of New Materials, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun North First Street 2, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2010-04-15

    The micellar formation and entrapment of bacteria cell in reverse micelles were investigated by ultraviolet spectrum (UV), fluorescence spectrum, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydrogen production in reverse micelles was confirmed. The Gompertz equation was employed to evaluate the hydrogen-producing behavior in reverse micellar systems. Different systems including dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (AOT)-isooctane, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-benzene and SDS-carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) reverse micelles were analysized. The results revealed that the maximum rate of hydrogen production (R{sub m}) was also suitable to formulate the relationship between hydrogen-producing rate and hydrogen productivity in reverse micelles. (author)

  6. Anaerobic hydrocarbon and fatty acid metabolism by syntrophic bacteria and their impact on carbon steel corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Neil Lyles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The microbial metabolism of hydrocarbons is increasingly associated with the corrosion of carbon steel in sulfate-rich marine waters. However, how such transformations influence metal biocorrosion in the absence of an electron acceptor is not fully recognized. We grew a marine alkane-utilizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfoglaeba alkanexedens, with either sulfate or Methanospirillum hungatei as electron acceptors, and tested the ability of the cultures to catalyze metal corrosion. Axenically, D. alkanexedens had a higher instantaneous corrosion rate and produced more pits in carbon steel coupons than when the same organism was grown in syntrophic co-culture with the methanogen. Since anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation pathways converge on fatty acid intermediates, the corrosive ability of a known fatty acid-oxidizing syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus aciditrophicus was compared when grown in pure culture or in co-culture with a H2-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacterium (Desulfovibrio sp., strain G11 or a methanogen (M. hungatei. The instantaneous corrosion rates in the cultures were not substantially different, but the syntrophic, sulfate-reducing co-culture produced more pits in coupons than other combinations of microorganisms. Lactate-grown cultures of strain G11 had higher instantaneous corrosion rates and coupon pitting compared to the same organism cultured with hydrogen as an electron donor. Thus, if sulfate is available as an electron acceptor, the same microbial assemblages produce sulfide and low molecular weight organic acids that exacerbated biocorrosion. Despite these trends, a surprisingly high degree of variation was encountered with the corrosion assessments. Differences in biomass, initial substrate concentration, rates of microbial activity or the degree of end product formation did not account for the variations. We are forced to ascribe such differences to the metallurgical properties of the coupons.

  7. Anaerobic hydrocarbon and fatty acid metabolism by syntrophic bacteria and their impact on carbon steel corrosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Christopher N; Le, Huynh M; Beasley, William Howard; McInerney, Michael J; Suflita, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The microbial metabolism of hydrocarbons is increasingly associated with the corrosion of carbon steel in sulfate-rich marine waters. However, how such transformations influence metal biocorrosion in the absence of an electron acceptor is not fully recognized. We grew a marine alkane-utilizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium, Desulfoglaeba alkanexedens, with either sulfate or Methanospirillum hungatei as electron acceptors, and tested the ability of the cultures to catalyze metal corrosion. Axenically, D. alkanexedens had a higher instantaneous corrosion rate and produced more pits in carbon steel coupons than when the same organism was grown in syntrophic co-culture with the methanogen. Since anaerobic hydrocarbon biodegradation pathways converge on fatty acid intermediates, the corrosive ability of a known fatty acid-oxidizing syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus aciditrophicus was compared when grown in pure culture or in co-culture with a H2-utilizing sulfate-reducing bacterium (Desulfovibrio sp., strain G11) or a methanogen (M. hungatei). The instantaneous corrosion rates in the cultures were not substantially different, but the syntrophic, sulfate-reducing co-culture produced more pits in coupons than other combinations of microorganisms. Lactate-grown cultures of strain G11 had higher instantaneous corrosion rates and coupon pitting compared to the same organism cultured with hydrogen as an electron donor. Thus, if sulfate is available as an electron acceptor, the same microbial assemblages produce sulfide and low molecular weight organic acids that exacerbated biocorrosion. Despite these trends, a surprisingly high degree of variation was encountered with the corrosion assessments. Differences in biomass, initial substrate concentration, rates of microbial activity or the degree of end product formation did not account for the variations. We are forced to ascribe such differences to the metallurgical properties of the coupons.

  8. Laboratory identification of anaerobic bacteria isolated on Clostridium difficile selective medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Cristina; Warszawski, Nathalie; Korsak, Nicolas; Taminiau, Bernard; Van Broeck, Johan; Delmée, Michel; Daube, Georges

    2016-06-01

    Despite increasing interest in the bacterium, the methodology for Clostridium difficile recovery has not yet been standardized. Cycloserine-cefoxitin fructose taurocholate (CCFT) has historically been the most used medium for C. difficile isolation from human, animal, environmental, and food samples, and presumptive identification is usually based on colony morphologies. However, CCFT is not totally selective. This study describes the recovery of 24 bacteria species belonging to 10 different genera other than C. difficile, present in the environment and foods of a retirement establishment that were not inhibited in the C. difficile selective medium. These findings provide insight for further environmental and food studies as well as for the isolation of C. difficile on supplemented CCFT.

  9. Anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from a Venezuelan oil field and its potential use in microbial improved oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebbau, G.; Fernandez, B.; Marin, A. [INTEVEP S.A., Caracas (Venezuela)

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this work is to determine the ability of indigenous bacteria from a Venezuelan oil field to grow under reservoir conditions inside a porous media, and to produce metabolites capable of recovering residual crude oil. For this purpose, samples of formation waters from a central-eastern Venezuelan oil reservoir were enriched with different carbon sources and a mineral basal media. Formation water was used as a source of trace metals. The enrichments obtained were incubated at reservoir temperature (71{degrees}C), reservoir pressure (1,200 psi), and under anaerobic conditions for both outside and inside porous media (Berea core). Growth and metabolic activity was followed outside porous media by measuring absorbance at 660 nm, increases in pressure, and decreases in pH. Inside porous media bacterial activity was determined by visual examination of the produced waters (gas bubbles and bacterial cells). All the carbohydrates tested outside porous media showed good growth at reservoir conditions. The pH was lowered, gases such as CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} were identified by GC. Surface tension was lowered in some enrichments by 30% when compared to controls. Growth was decreased inside porous media, but gases were produced and helped displace oil. In addition, 10% residual oil was recovered from the Berea core. Mathematical modeling was applied to the laboratory coreflood experiment to evaluate the reproducibility of the results obtained.

  10. Shifts in the community structure and activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria along an estuarine salinity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanling; Jiang, Xiaofen; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Lin, Xianbiao; Gao, Juan; Li, Xiaofei; Yin, Guoyu; Yu, Chendi; Wang, Rong

    2016-06-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a major microbial pathway for nitrogen (N) removal in estuarine and coastal environments. However, understanding of anammox bacterial dynamics and associations with anammox activity remains scarce along estuarine salinity gradient. In this study, the diversity, abundance, and activity of anammox bacteria, and their potential contributions to total N2 production in the sediments along the salinity gradient (0.1-33.8) of the Yangtze estuarine and coastal zone, were studied using 16S rRNA gene clone library, quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay, and isotope-tracing technique. Phylogenetic analysis showed a significant change in anammox bacterial community structure along the salinity gradient (P 16S rRNA gene g-1 and related significantly with salinity (P < 0.05). The anammox activity varied between 0.08 and 6.46 nmol N g-1 h-1 and related closely with anammox bacterial abundance (P < 0.01). Contributions of anammox activity to total N loss were highly variable along the salinity gradient, ranging from 5 to 77% and were significantly negatively correlated with salinity (P < 0.01). Sediment organic matter was also recognized as an important factor in controlling the relative role of anammox to total N2 production in the Yangtze estuarine and coastal zone. Overall, our data demonstrated a biogeographical distribution of anammox bacterial diversity, abundance, and activity along the estuarine salinity gradient and suggested that salinity is a major environmental control on anammox process in the estuarine and coastal ecosystems.

  11. Vertical profiles of community abundance and diversity of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and bacteria in a simple waste landfill in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Ding, Linjie; Wang, Xu; Chi, Zifang; Lei, Jiansen

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) is considered to be an important sink of CH4 in habitats as marine sediments. But, few studies focused on AMO in landfills which may be an important sink of CH4 derived from waste fermentation. To show evidence of AMO and to uncover function anaerobic methanotroph (ANME) community in landfill, different age waste samples were collected in Jinqianpu landfill located in north China. Through high-throughput sequencing, Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales archaea associated with ANME and reverse methanogenic archaea of Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium were detected. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (Desulfobulbus and Desulfococcus) which could couple with ANME-conducting AMO were also found. But, the community structure of ANME had no significant difference with depths. From the results of investigation, we can come to a conclusion that sulfate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (SR-DAMO) would be the dominant AMO process in the landfill, while iron-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (M/IR-DAMO) process was weak though concentration of ferric iron was large in the landfill. Denitrification-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (NR-DAMO) was negative because of lack of nitrate and relevant function microorganisms in the landfill. Results also indicate that CH4 mitigation would have higher potential by increasing electron acceptor contents and promoting the growth of relevant function microorganisms. PMID:25561057

  12. Vertical profiles of community abundance and diversity of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and bacteria in a simple waste landfill in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Ding, Linjie; Wang, Xu; Chi, Zifang; Lei, Jiansen

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) is considered to be an important sink of CH4 in habitats as marine sediments. But, few studies focused on AMO in landfills which may be an important sink of CH4 derived from waste fermentation. To show evidence of AMO and to uncover function anaerobic methanotroph (ANME) community in landfill, different age waste samples were collected in Jinqianpu landfill located in north China. Through high-throughput sequencing, Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales archaea associated with ANME and reverse methanogenic archaea of Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium were detected. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (Desulfobulbus and Desulfococcus) which could couple with ANME-conducting AMO were also found. But, the community structure of ANME had no significant difference with depths. From the results of investigation, we can come to a conclusion that sulfate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (SR-DAMO) would be the dominant AMO process in the landfill, while iron-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (M/IR-DAMO) process was weak though concentration of ferric iron was large in the landfill. Denitrification-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (NR-DAMO) was negative because of lack of nitrate and relevant function microorganisms in the landfill. Results also indicate that CH4 mitigation would have higher potential by increasing electron acceptor contents and promoting the growth of relevant function microorganisms.

  13. Dissimilatory Reduction of Elemental Selenium to Selenide in Sediments and Anaerobic Cultures of Selenium Respiring Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, M. J.; Switzer-Blum, J.; Oremland, R. S.

    2001-12-01

    Selenium contaminated environments often contain elemental Se (Se0) in their sediments that originates from dissimilatory reduction of Se oxyanions. The forms of Se in sedimentary rocks similarly contain high proportions of Se0, but much of the Se is also in the form of metal selenides, Se-2. It is not clear if the occurrence of these selenides is due to microbial reduction of Se0, or some other biological or chemical process. In this investigation we examined the possibility that bacterial respiratory reduction of Se0 to Se-2 could explain the presence of the latter species in sedimentary rocks. We conducted incubations of anoxic sediment slurries amended with different forms of Se0. High levels of Se0 (mM) were added to San Francisco Bay sediments in order to enhance the detection of soluble HSe-, which was precipitated with Cu2+ then redissolved and quantified by ICP-MS. Concentrations of HSe- were highest in live samples amended with red amorphous Se0 formed by either microbial reduction of Se+4 ("biogenic Se0") or by chemical oxidation of H2Se(g) ("chem. Se0"); very little HSe- was formed in those amended with black crystalline Se0, indicating the general lack of reactivity of this allotrope. Controls poisoned with 10% formalin did not produce HSe- from additions of chem. Se0. Reduction of both forms of red amorphous Se0 to HSe- occurred vigorously in growing cultures of Bacillus selenitireducens, an anaerobic halophile previously isolated from sediments of Mono Lake, CA. Up to 73% and 68% of red amorphous, biogenic Se0 or chem. Se0, respectively, was reduced to HSe- during growth of B. selenitireducens, (incubation time ~ 200 hrs): oxidation of lactate to acetate as well as cell density increases indicated that a dissimilatory reduction pathway was likely. Reduction was most enhanced when cells were previously grown on elemental sulfur or Se+4. In contrast to the growth experiments, washed cell suspensions of B. selenitireducens exhibited no HSe- production

  14. Anaerobic degradation of cyclohexane by sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated marine sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eJaekel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fate of cyclohexane, often used as a model compound for the biodegradation of cyclic alkanes due to its abundance in crude oils, in anoxic marine sediments has been poorly investigated. In the present study, we obtained an enrichment culture of cyclohexane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria from hydrocarbon-contaminated intertidal marine sediments. Microscopic analyses showed an apparent dominance by oval cells of 1.5×0.8 m. Analysis of a 16S rRNA gene library, followed by whole-cell hybridization with group- and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes showed that these cells belonged to a single phylotype, and were accounting for more than 80% of the total cell number. The dominant phylotype, affiliated with the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus cluster of the Deltaproteobacteria, is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of cyclohexane. Quantitative growth experiments showed that cyclohexane degradation was coupled with the stoichiometric reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Substrate response tests corroborated with hybridization with a sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe suggested that the dominant phylotype apparently was able to degrade other cyclic and n-alkanes, including the gaseous alkanes propane and n-butane. Based on GC-MS analyses of culture extracts cyclohexylsuccinate was identified as a metabolite, indicating an activation of cyclohexane by addition to fumarate. Other metabolites detected were 3-cyclohexylpropionate and cyclohexanecarboxylate providing evidence that the overall degradation pathway of cyclohexane under anoxic conditions is analogous to that of n-alkanes.

  15. Use of anaerobic green fluorescent protein versus green fluorescent protein as reporter in lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, José M; Langa, Susana; Revilla, Concepción; Margolles, Abelardo; Medina, Margarita; Arqués, Juan L

    2015-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are commonly used in the production of fermented and probiotic foods. Development of molecular tools to discriminate the strains of interest from the endogenous microbiota in complex environments like food or gut is of high interest. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like chromophores strictly requires molecular oxygen for maturation of fluorescence, which restrict the study of microorganisms in low-oxygen environments. In this work, we have developed a noninvasive cyan-green fluorescent based reporter system for real-time tracking of LAB that is functional under anoxic conditions. The evoglow-Pp1 was cloned downstream from the promoters D-alanyl-D-alanine carboxypeptidase and elongation factor Tu of Lactobacillus reuteri CECT925 using pNZ8048 and downstream of the lactococcal P1 promoter using pT1NX. The classical gfp was also cloned in pT1NX. These recombinant expression vectors were electroporated into Lactococccus, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus strains with biotechnological and/or probiotic interests to assess and compare their functionality under different conditions of oxygen and pH. The expression was analyzed by imaging and fluorometric methods as well as by flow cytometry. We demonstrate that reporter systems pNZ:TuR-aFP and pT1-aFP are two versatile molecular markers for monitoring LAB in food and fecal environments without the potential problems caused by oxygen and pH limitations, which could be exploited for in vivo studies. Production of the fluorescent protein did not disturb any important physiological properties of the parental strains, such as growth rate, reuterin, or bacteriocin production. PMID:26129953

  16. Ethanol and hydrogen production by two thermophilic, anaerobic bacteria isolated from Icelandic geothermal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Perttu E P; Beck, Steinar R; Orlygsson, Jóhann; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2008-11-01

    Microbial fermentations are potential producers of sustainable energy carriers. In this study, ethanol and hydrogen production was studied by two thermophilic bacteria (strain AK15 and AK17) isolated from geothermal springs in Iceland. Strain AK15 was affiliated with Clostridium uzonii (98.8%), while AK17 was affiliated with Thermoanaerobacterium aciditolerans (99.2%) based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Both strains fermented a wide variety of sugar residues typically found in lignocellulosic materials, and some polysaccharides. In the batch cultivations, strain AK17 produced ethanol from glucose and xylose fermentations of up to 1.6 mol-EtOH/mol-glucose (80% of the theoretical maximum) and 1.1 mol-EtOH/mol-xylose (66%), respectively. The hydrogen yields by AK17 were up to 1.2 mol-H2/ mol-glucose (30% of the theoretical maximum) and 1.0 mol-H2/mol-xylose (30%). The strain AK15 produced hydrogen as the main fermentation product from glucose (up to 1.9 mol-H2/mol-glucose [48%]) and xylose (1.1 mol-H2/mol-xylose [33%]). The strain AK17 tolerated exogenously added ethanol up to 4% (v/v). The ethanol and hydrogen production performance from glucose by a co-culture of the strains AK15 and AK17 was studied in a continuous-flow bioreactor at 60 degrees C. Stable and continuous ethanol and hydrogen co-production was achieved with ethanol yield of 1.35 mol-EtOH/mol-glucose, and with the hydrogen production rate of 6.1 mmol/h/L (H2 yield of 0.80 mol-H2/mol-glucose). PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that the AK17 became the dominant bacterium in the bioreactor. In conclusion, strain AK17 is a promising strain for the co-production of ethanol and hydrogen with a wide substrate utilization spectrum, relatively high ethanol tolerance, and ethanol yields among the highest reported for thermoanaerobes.

  17. Thermotoga profunda sp. nov. and Thermotoga caldifontis sp. nov., anaerobic thermophilic bacteria isolated from terrestrial hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Koji; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Hosoyama, Akira; Ohji, Shoko; Fujita, Nobuyuki; Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

    2014-06-01

    Two thermophilic, strictly anaerobic, Gram-negative bacteria, designated strains AZM34c06(T) and AZM44c09(T), were isolated from terrestrial hot springs in Japan. The optimum growth conditions for strain AZM34c06(T) were 60 °C, pH 7.4 and 0% additional NaCl, and those for strain AZM44c09(T) were 70 °C, pH 7.4 and 0% additional NaCl. Complete genome sequencing was performed for both strains, revealing genome sizes of 2.19 Mbp (AZM34c06(T)) and 2.01 Mbp (AZM44c09(T)). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the concatenated predicted amino acid sequences of 33 ribosomal proteins showed that both strains belonged to the genus Thermotoga. The closest relatives of strains AZM34c06(T) and AZM44c09(T) were the type strains of Thermotoga lettingae (96.0% similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and 84.1% similarity based on ribosomal proteins) and Thermotoga hypogea (98.6 and 92.7% similarity), respectively. Using blast, the average nucleotide identity was 70.4-70.5% when comparing strain AZM34c06(T) and T. lettingae TMO(T) and 76.6% when comparing strain AZM44c09(T) and T. hypogea NBRC 106472(T). Both values are far below the 95% threshold value for species delineation. In view of these data, we propose the inclusion of the two isolates in the genus Thermotoga within two novel species, Thermotoga profunda sp. nov. (type strain AZM34c06(T) = NBRC 106115(T) = DSM 23275(T)) and Thermotoga caldifontis sp. nov. (type strain AZM44c09(T) = NBRC 106116(T) = DSM 23272(T)).

  18. Antiparasitic drug nitazoxanide inhibits the pyruvate oxidoreductases of Helicobacter pylori, selected anaerobic bacteria and parasites, and Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Paul S; Sisson, Gary; Croxen, Matthew A; Welch, Kevin; Harman, W Dean; Cremades, Nunilo; Morash, Michael G

    2007-03-01

    Nitazoxanide (NTZ) exhibits broad-spectrum activity against anaerobic bacteria and parasites and the ulcer-causing pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Here we show that NTZ is a noncompetitive inhibitor (K(i), 2 to 10 microM) of the pyruvate:ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductases (PFORs) of Trichomonas vaginalis, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, H. pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni and is weakly active against the pyruvate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli. To further mechanistic studies, the PFOR operon of H. pylori was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli, and the multisubunit complex was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Pyruvate-dependent PFOR activity with NTZ, as measured by a decrease in absorbance at 418 nm (spectral shift from 418 to 351 nm), unlike the reduction of viologen dyes, did not result in the accumulation of products (acetyl coenzyme A and CO(2)) and pyruvate was not consumed in the reaction. NTZ did not displace the thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) cofactor of PFOR, and the 351-nm absorbing form of NTZ was inactive. Optical scans and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses determined that the spectral shift (A(418) to A(351)) of NTZ was due to protonation of the anion (NTZ(-)) of the 2-amino group of the thiazole ring which could be generated with the pure compound under acidic solutions (pK(a) = 6.18). We propose that NTZ(-) intercepts PFOR at an early step in the formation of the lactyl-TPP transition intermediate, resulting in the reversal of pyruvate binding prior to decarboxylation and in coordination with proton transfer to NTZ. Thus, NTZ might be the first example of an antimicrobial that targets the "activated cofactor" of an enzymatic reaction rather than its substrate or catalytic sites, a novel mechanism that may escape mutation-based drug resistance. PMID:17158936

  19. Anaerobic BTEX degradation in oil sands tailings ponds: Impact of labile organic carbon and sulfate-reducing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasik, Sebastian; Wick, Lukas Y; Wendt-Potthoff, Katrin

    2015-11-01

    The extraction of bitumen from oil sands in Alberta (Canada) produces volumes of tailings that are pumped into large anaerobic settling-basins. Beside bitumen, tailings comprise fractions of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) that derive from the application of industrial solvents. Due to their toxicity and volatility, BTEX pose a strong concern for gas- and water-phase environments in the vicinity of the ponds. The examination of two pond profiles showed that concentrations of indigenous BTEX decreased with depth, pointing at BTEX transformation in situ. With depth, the relative contribution of ethylbenzene and xylenes to total BTEX significantly decreased, while benzene increased relatively from 44% to 69%, indicating preferential hydrocarbon degradation. To predict BTEX turnover and residence time, we determined BTEX degradation rates in tailings of different depths in a 180-days microcosm study. In addition, we evaluated the impact of labile organic substrates (e.g. acetate) generally considered to stimulate hydrocarbon degradation and the contribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) to BTEX turnover. In all depths, BTEX concentrations significantly decreased due to microbial activity, with degradation rates ranging between 4 and 9 μg kg(-1) d(-1). BTEX biodegradation decreased linearly in correlation with initial concentrations, suggesting a concentration-dependent BTEX transformation. SRB were not significantly involved in BTEX consumption, indicating the importance of methanogenic degradation. BTEX removal decreased to 70-90% in presence of organic substrates presumptively due to an accumulation of acetate that lowered BTEX turnover due to product inhibition. In those assays SRB slightly stimulated BTEX transformation by reducing inhibitory acetate levels. PMID:26066083

  20. Bioelectricity generation in microbial fuel cell using natural microflora and isolated pure culture bacteria from anaerobic palm oil mill effluent sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Muhamad Hanif Md; Mubarak, Mohd Fahmi Muhammad; Elmi, Hassan Sh Abdirahman; Ibrahim, Norahim; Wahab, Mohd Firdaus Abdul; Ibrahim, Zaharah

    2015-08-01

    A double-chambered membrane microbial fuel cell (MFC) was constructed to investigate the potential use of natural microflora anaerobic palm oil mill effluent (POME) sludge and pure culture bacteria isolated from anaerobic POME sludge as inoculum for electricity generation. Sterilized final discharge POME was used as the substrate with no addition of nutrients. MFC operation using natural microflora anaerobic POME sludge showed a maximum power density and current density of 85.11mW/m(2) and 91.12mA/m(2) respectively. Bacterial identification using 16S rRNA analysis of the pure culture isolated from the biofilm on the anode MFC was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain ZH1. The electricity generated in MFC using P. aeruginosa strain ZH1 showed maximum power density and current density of 451.26mW/m(2) and 654.90mA/m(2) respectively which were five times higher in power density and seven times higher in current density compared to that of MFC using anaerobic POME sludge.

  1. Comparison of two transport systems available in Japan (TERUMO kenkiporter II and BBL Port-A-Cul) for maintenance of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Daichi; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Asako; Sakizono, Kenji; Kotani, Yoko; Miki, Kanji; Naito, Takuya; Niki, Marie; Miyamoto, Junko; Tamai, Koji; Nagata, Kazuma; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Tachikawa, Ryo; Otsuka, Kojiro; Katakami, Nobuyuki; Tomii, Keisuke

    2014-01-01

    The kenkiporter II (KP II) transport system is commonly used in many hospitals in Japan for transporting bacterial specimens to microbiology laboratories. Recently, the BBL Port-A-Cul (PAC) fluid vial became available. However, no reports thus far have compared the effectiveness of these two transport systems. We chose 4 aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria as well as 8 anaerobic organisms, and prepared three strains of each bacterium in culture media for placement into PAC and KP II containers. We compared the effectiveness of each transport system for preserving each organism at 6, 24, and 48 h after inoculation at room temperature. Thirty-six strains out of 12 bacteria were used in this study. The PAC system yielded better recovery in quantity of organisms than the KP II system at 6, 24 and 48 h. More strains were significantly recovered with the PAC system than with the KP II at 24 h (36/36 vs. 23/36, P vs. 12/36, P < 0.001). The PAC system was better in the recovery of viable organisms counted at 24 and 48 h after inoculation compared with the KP II system. The PAC system may be recommended for the transfer of bacterial specimens in clinical settings. PMID:24462420

  2. Experimental otitis media in gerbils and chinchillas with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and other aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Fulghum, R S; Brinn, J E; Smith, A M; Daniel, H J; Loesche, P J

    1982-01-01

    To ascertain the usefulness of Mongolian gerbils as an inbred model for otitis media, 52 Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, strain MONT/Tum) were compared with 26 chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) for susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3. Haemophilus influenzae type b, and a polymicrobic culture including anaerobes (Streptococcus intermedius, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Corynebacterium sp.). Organisms were inoculated percutaneously into the supe...

  3. Biomarker evidence for widespread anaerobic methane oxidation in Mediterranean sediments by a consortium of methanogenic archae and bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Pancost, R.D.; Lint, S. de; Maarel, M.J.E.C. van der; Gottschal, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Although abundant geochemical data indicate that anaerobic methane oxidation occurs in marine sediments, the linkage to specific microorganisms remains unclear. In order to examine processes of methane consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Medite

  4. Characterization of specific membrane fatty acids as chemotaxonomic markers for sulfate-reducing bacteria involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvert, M.; Boetius, A.; Knittel, K.;

    2003-01-01

    and aggregate number in combination with pore water sulfate data provide further evidence of this finding. Using mass balance calculations we present a cell-specific fatty acid pattern most likely displaying a very close resemblance to the still uncultured Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus species involved in AOM.......Membrane fatty acids were extracted from a sediment core above marine gas hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, NE Pacific. Anaerobic sediments from this environment are characterized by high sulfate reduction rates driven by the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). The assimilation of methane carbon...... into bacterial biomass is indicated by carbon isotope values of specific fatty acids as low as -103parts per thousand. Specific fatty acids released from bacterial membranes include C(16:1omega5c) , C(17:1omega6c) , and cyC(17:0omega5,6) , all of which have been fully characterized by mass spectrometry...

  5. Aerobe and anaerobe facultative Gram-negative bacteria rod-shaped in the ruminal fluid of dairy cattle fed with different diets containing tropical forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CES Freitas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to analyse the population of aerobe and anaerobe facultative Gram-negative rod-shaped in the ruminal fluid of dairy cattle and calves fed with different sources of tropical forage. Samples of ruminal fluid were collected from 30 cows fed with sorghum silage, 32 cows fed with Brachiaria brizantha pasture, 12 calves fed with sorghum silage, and 11 calves fed with sugarcane. Fifteen ml of ruminal fluid were collected by sterile catheter and syringe puncture to the rumen. After serial decimal dilutions, samples were inoculated in plates containing MacConkey agar and incubated at 37 °C for 72 h. Calves fed with sorghum silage showed higher detection rate and larger population of these bacteria (8.4 X 10(6 colony forming units CFU/ml when compared with adult cows fed with the same forage (1.4 X 10(5 CFU/ml. The most frequent genera identified in all groups were Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Proteus. The most frequently identified bacteria in pasture-fed cows was Enterobacter spp., while Klebsiella spp. was the most frequently identified bacteria in cows fed with sorghum silage. Enterobacter spp. and Proteus spp. were more frequently observed in isolates from calves (P < 0.01. Future studies should clarify the differences between these populations.

  6. Molecular Fingerprint and Dominant Environmental Factors of Nitrite-Dependent Anaerobic Methane-Oxidizing Bacteria in Sediments from the Yellow River Estuary, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Pengze; Li, Mingcong; Wei, Guangshan; Li, Han; Gao, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is performed by “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera” (M. oxyfera), which connects the carbon and nitrogen global nutrient cycles. In the present study, M. oxyfera-like bacteria sequences were successfully recovered from Yellow River Estuary sediments using specific primers for 16S rRNA and pmoA genes. A M. oxyfera-like sequences analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene revealed greater diversity compared with the pmoA gene; the 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from the Yellow River Estuary sediments belong to groups A as well as B and were mainly found in freshwater habitats. Quantitative PCR showed that 16S rRNA gene abundance varied from 9.28±0.11×103 to 2.10±0.13×105 copies g-1 (dry weight), and the pmoA gene abundance ranged from 8.63±0.50×103 to 1.83±0.18×105 copies g-1 (dry weight). A correlation analysis showed that the total organic carbon (TOC) and ammonium (NH4+) as well as the ratio of total phosphorus to total nitrogen (TP/TN) influenced the M. oxyfera-like bacteria distribution in the Yellow River Estuary sediments. These findings will aid in understanding the n-damo bacterial distribution pattern as well as their correlation with surrounding environmental factors in temperate estuarine ecosystems. PMID:26368535

  7. Constraints on mechanisms and rates of anaerobic oxidation of methane by microbial consortia: process-based modeling of ANME-2 archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Orcutt

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM is the main process responsible for the removal of methane generated in Earth's marine subsurface environments. However, the biochemical mechanism of AOM remains elusive. By explicitly resolving the observed spatial arrangement of methanotrophic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria found in consortia mediating AOM, potential intermediates involved in the electron transfer between the methane oxidizing and sulfate reducing partners were investigated via a consortium-scale reaction transport model that integrates the effect of diffusional transport with thermodynamic and kinetic controls on microbial activity. Model simulations were used to assess the impact of poorly constrained microbial characteristics such as minimum energy requirements to sustain metabolism and cell specific rates. The role of environmental conditions such as the influence of methane levels on the feasibility of H2, formate and acetate as intermediate species, and the impact of the abundance of intermediate species on pathway reversal were examined. The results show that higher production rates of intermediates via AOM lead to increased diffusive fluxes from the methane oxidizing archaea to sulfate reducing bacteria, but the build-up of the exchangeable species can cause the energy yield of AOM to drop below that required for ATP production. Comparison to data from laboratory experiments shows that under the experimental conditions of Nauhaus et al. (2007, none of the potential intermediates considered here is able to support metabolic activity matching the measured rates.

  8. Diverse anaerobic Cr(VI) tolerant bacteria from Cr(VI)-contaminated 100H site at Hanford

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, R.; Phan, R.; Lam, S.; Leung, C.; Brodie, E. L.; Hazen, T. C.

    2007-12-01

    Hexavalent Chromium [Cr(VI)] is a widespread contaminant found in soil, sediment, and ground water. Cr(VI) is more soluble, toxic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic compared to its reduced form Cr(III). In order to stimulate microbially mediated reduction of Cr(VI), a poly-lactate compound HRC was injected into the chromium contaminated aquifers at site 100H at Hanford. Based on the results of the bacterial community composition using high-density DNA microarray analysis of 16S rRNA gene products, we recently investigated the diversity of the dominant anaerobic culturable microbial population present at this site and their role in Cr(VI) reduction. Positive enrichments set up at 30°C using specific defined anaerobic media resulted in the isolation of an iron reducing isolate strain HAF, a sulfate reducing isolate strain HBLS and a nitrate reducing isolate, strain HLN among several others. Preliminary 16S rDNA sequence analysis identifies strain HAF as Geobacter metallireducens, strain HLN as Pseudomonas stutzeri and strain HBLS as a member of Desulfovibrio species. Strain HAF isolated with acetate as the electron donor utilized propionate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Growth was optimal at 37°C, pH of 6.5 and 0% salinity. Strain HLN isolated with lactate as electron donor utilized acetate, glycerol and pyruvate as alternative carbon sources, and reduced metals like Mn(IV) and Cr(VI). Optimal growth was observed at 37°C, at a pH of 7.5 and 0.3% salinity. Anaerobic active washed cell suspension of strain HLN reduced almost 95 micromolar Cr(VI) within 4 hours relative to controls. Further, with 100 micromolar Cr(VI) as the sole electron acceptor, cells of strain HLN grew to cell numbers of 4.05X 107/ml over a period of 24hrs after an initial lag, demonstrating direct enzymatic Cr(VI) reduction by this species. 10mM lactate served as the sole electron donor. These results demonstrate that Cr

  9. Anaerobes beyond anaerobic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, D. Z.; Pereira, M A; Alves, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms are widespread in nature. Sediments, gastrointestinal tracks, volcanic vents, geothermal sources are examples of habitats where anaerobic metabolism prevail, in some cases at extreme temperature, pH and pressure conditions. In such microbial ecosystems waste of some is food for others in a true integrated structure. Anaerobic microorganisms are able to use a wide variety of organic and inorganic compounds. Recalcitrant compounds, such as hydrocarbons, a...

  10. Acid pre-treatment of sewage anaerobic sludge to increase hydrogen producing bacteria HPB: effectiveness and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, T; Sassi, G; Ruggeri, B

    2008-01-01

    The present study is aimed to test the effectiveness and the reproducibility of the acid pre-treatment of sewage sludge to suppress the methanogenic bacteria activity, in order to increase the hydrogen forming bacteria activity, mainly Clostridium species. The treated sludge has been tested on glucose reach medium under mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C), in batch mode to quantify the biological fermentative hydrogen production. In the whole series of experiments, the main components of biogas are hydrogen (52-60%) and carbon dioxide (40-48%); no methane and hydrogen sulphide were present in it. The rate of biogas production reached a maximum of 75 ml/lh. An overall mean hydrogen conversion efficiency was 11.20% on the assumption of maximum of 3 mol H2/mol glucose. Clostridium spp. multiplied ten times after 10 h of fermentation and over that thousand times at the end of fermentation.

  11. 厌氧菌检测技术在口腔颌面部感染治疗中的应用%Application of anaerobic bacteria detection in oral and maxillofacial infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包振英; 林琴; 孟彦宏; 何淳; 苏家增; 彭歆

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of anaerobic bacteria in the patients with oral and maxillofacial infection.Methods:Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultures from 61 specimens of pus from the patients with oral and maxillofacial infection in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery,Peking University School of Stomatology were identified.The culture type was evaluated by API 20A kit and drug resistance test was performed by Etest method.The clinical data and antibacterial agents for the treatment of the 61 cases were collected,and the final outcomes were recor-ded.Results:The bacteria cultures were isolated from all the specimens,with aerobic bacteria only in 6 cases (9 .8%),anaerobic bacteria only in 7 cases (1 1 .5%),and both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria in 48 cases (78.7%).There were 55 infected cases (90.2%)with anaerobic bacteria,and 81 anaero-bic bacteria stains were isolated.The highest bacteria isolation rate of Gram positive anaerobic bacteria could be found in Peptostreptococcus,Bifidobacterium and Pemphigus propionibacterium.No cefoxitin, amoxicillin/carat acid resistant strain was detected in the above three Gram positive anaerobic bacteria. The highest bacteria isolation rate of Gram negative anaerobic bacteria could be detected in Porphy-romonas and Prevotella.No metronidazole,cefoxitin,amoxicillin/carat acid resistant strain was found in the two Gram negative anaerobic bacteria.In the study,48 patients with oral and maxillofacial infection were treated according to the results of drug resistance testing,and the clinical cure rate was 81 .3%. Conclusion:Mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria cultures are very common in most oral and maxillofa-cial infection patients.Anaerobic bacteria culture and drug resistance testing play an important role in clinical treatment.%目的:探讨口腔颌面部感染患者的厌氧菌病原菌分布及耐药情况,以指导临床治疗。方法:对北京大学口腔医学

  12. Experimental otitis media in gerbils and chinchillas with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and other aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulghum, R S; Brinn, J E; Smith, A M; Daniel, H J; Loesche, P J

    1982-05-01

    To ascertain the usefulness of Mongolian gerbils as an inbred model for otitis media, 52 Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus, strain MONT/Tum) were compared with 26 chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) for susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3. Haemophilus influenzae type b, and a polymicrobic culture including anaerobes (Streptococcus intermedius, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Corynebacterium sp.). Organisms were inoculated percutaneously into the superior chamber of the middle ear bulla. The gerbils and chinchillas shared similar susceptibilities and responses to the inoculated organisms as determined by X-ray, otoscopic, histopathological, and microbiological determinations at 5 to 7 days. Koch's postulate studies proved the role of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in the pathology found in both animal models. The animals were also susceptible to the polymicrobic culture, although the relative virulence of the individual members of this mixture was low, suggesting that these species potentiated as a polymicrobic mixture. The Corynebacterium sp. appeared to elicit the greatest histopathological response in chronic (8-week) studies in gerbils. The gerbils were found to be useful as an alternative animal model for the study of otitis media of bacterial etiology.

  13. Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenaka Akio

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs. More than 4000 ESTs were sequenced from representatives of the two major groups of rumen Cilates: the order Entodiniomorphida (Entodinium simplex, Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Metadinium medium, Diploplastron affine, Polyplastron multivesiculatum and Epidinium ecaudatum and the order Vestibuliferida, previously called Holotricha (Isotricha prostoma, Isotricha intestinalis and Dasytricha ruminantium. Results A comparison of the sequences with the completely sequenced genomes of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, followed by large-scale construction and analysis of phylogenies, identified 148 ciliate genes that specifically cluster with genes from the Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic clustering with bacterial genes, coupled with the absence of close relatives of these genes in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, indicates that they have been acquired via Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT after the colonization of the gut by the rumen Ciliates. Conclusion Among the HGT candidates, we found an over-representation (>75% of genes involved in metabolism, specifically in the catabolism of complex carbohydrates, a rich food source in the rumen. We propose that the acquisition of these genes has greatly facilitated the Ciliates' colonization of the rumen providing evidence for the role of HGT in the adaptation to new niches.

  14. Horizontal gene transfer from Bacteria to rumen Ciliates indicates adaptation to their anaerobic, carbohydrates-rich environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Guénola; McEwan, Neil R; Dutilh, Bas E; Jouany, Jean-Pierre; Macheboeuf, Didier; Mitsumori, Makoto; McIntosh, Freda M; Michalowski, Tadeusz; Nagamine, Takafumi; Nelson, Nancy; Newbold, Charles J; Nsabimana, Eli; Takenaka, Akio; Thomas, Nadine A; Ushida, Kazunari; Hackstein, Johannes HP; Huynen, Martijn A

    2006-01-01

    Background The horizontal transfer of expressed genes from Bacteria into Ciliates which live in close contact with each other in the rumen (the foregut of ruminants) was studied using ciliate Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs). More than 4000 ESTs were sequenced from representatives of the two major groups of rumen Cilates: the order Entodiniomorphida (Entodinium simplex, Entodinium caudatum, Eudiplodinium maggii, Metadinium medium, Diploplastron affine, Polyplastron multivesiculatum and Epidinium ecaudatum) and the order Vestibuliferida, previously called Holotricha (Isotricha prostoma, Isotricha intestinalis and Dasytricha ruminantium). Results A comparison of the sequences with the completely sequenced genomes of Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes, followed by large-scale construction and analysis of phylogenies, identified 148 ciliate genes that specifically cluster with genes from the Bacteria and Archaea. The phylogenetic clustering with bacterial genes, coupled with the absence of close relatives of these genes in the Ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, indicates that they have been acquired via Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) after the colonization of the gut by the rumen Ciliates. Conclusion Among the HGT candidates, we found an over-representation (>75%) of genes involved in metabolism, specifically in the catabolism of complex carbohydrates, a rich food source in the rumen. We propose that the acquisition of these genes has greatly facilitated the Ciliates' colonization of the rumen providing evidence for the role of HGT in the adaptation to new niches. PMID:16472398

  15. Formation of tellurium nanocrystals during anaerobic growth of bacteria that use Te oxyanions as respiratory electron acceptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baesman, S.M.; Bullen, T.D.; Dewald, J.; Zhang, Dongxiao; Curran, S.; Islam, F.S.; Beveridge, T.J.; Oremland, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Certain toxic elements support the metabolism of diverse prokaryotes by serving as respiratory electron acceptors for growth. Here, we demonstrate that two anaerobes previously shown to be capable of respiring oxyanions of selenium also achieve growth by reduction of either tellurate [Te(VI)] or tellurite [Te(IV)] to elemental tellurium [Te(0)]. This reduction achieves a sizeable stable-Te-isotopic fractionation (isotopic enrichment factor [??] = -0.4 to -1.0 per ml per atomic mass unit) and results in the formation of unique crystalline Te(0) nanoarchitectures as end products. The Te(0) crystals occur internally within but mainly externally from the cells, and each microorganism forms a distinctly different structure. Those formed by Bacillus selenitireducens initially are nanorods (???10-nm diameter by 200-nm length), which cluster together, forming larger (???1,000-nm) rosettes composed of numerous individual shards (???100-nm width by 1,000-nm length). In contrast, Sulfurospirillium barnesii forms extremely small, irregularly shaped nanospheres (diameter < 50 nm) that coalesce into larger composite aggregates. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction indicate that both biominerals are composed entirely of Te and are crystalline, while Raman spectroscopy confirms that they are in the elemental state. These Te biominerals have specific spectral signatures (UV-visible light, Raman) that also provide clues to their internal structures. The use of microorganisms to generate Te nanomaterials may be an alternative for bench-scale syntheses. Additionally, they may also generate products with unique properties unattainable by conventional physical/chemical methods. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Formation of tellurium nanocrystals during anaerobic growth of bacteria that use Te oxyanions as respiratory electron acceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baesman, Shaun M; Bullen, Thomas D; Dewald, James; Zhang, Donghui; Curran, Seamus; Islam, Farhana S; Beveridge, Terry J; Oremland, Ronald S

    2007-04-01

    Certain toxic elements support the metabolism of diverse prokaryotes by serving as respiratory electron acceptors for growth. Here, we demonstrate that two anaerobes previously shown to be capable of respiring oxyanions of selenium also achieve growth by reduction of either tellurate [Te(VI)] or tellurite [Te(IV)] to elemental tellurium [Te(0)]. This reduction achieves a sizeable stable-Te-isotopic fractionation (isotopic enrichment factor [epsilon] = -0.4 to -1.0 per ml per atomic mass unit) and results in the formation of unique crystalline Te(0) nanoarchitectures as end products. The Te(0) crystals occur internally within but mainly externally from the cells, and each microorganism forms a distinctly different structure. Those formed by Bacillus selenitireducens initially are nanorods ( approximately 10-nm diameter by 200-nm length), which cluster together, forming larger ( approximately 1,000-nm) rosettes composed of numerous individual shards ( approximately 100-nm width by 1,000-nm length). In contrast, Sulfurospirillum barnesii forms extremely small, irregularly shaped nanospheres (diameter < 50 nm) that coalesce into larger composite aggregates. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction indicate that both biominerals are composed entirely of Te and are crystalline, while Raman spectroscopy confirms that they are in the elemental state. These Te biominerals have specific spectral signatures (UV-visible light, Raman) that also provide clues to their internal structures. The use of microorganisms to generate Te nanomaterials may be an alternative for bench-scale syntheses. Additionally, they may also generate products with unique properties unattainable by conventional physical/chemical methods. PMID:17277198

  17. Constraints on mechanisms and rates of anaerobic oxidation of methane by microbial consortia: process-based modeling of ANME-2 archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Orcutt

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM is the main process responsible for the removal of methane generated in Earth's marine subsurface environments. However, the biochemical mechanism of AOM remains elusive. By explicitly resolving the observed spatial arrangement of methanotrophic archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria found in consortia mediating AOM, potential intermediates involved in the electron transfer between the methane oxidizing and sulfate reducing partners were investigated via a consortium-scale reaction transport model that integrates the effect of diffusional transport with thermodynamic and kinetic controls on microbial activity. Model simulations were used to assess the impact of poorly constrained microbial characteristics such as minimum energy requirements to sustain metabolism, substrate affinity and cell specific rates. The role of environmental conditions such as the influence of methane levels on the feasibility of H2, formate and acetate as intermediate species, and the impact of the abundance of intermediate species on pathway reversal was examined. The results show that higher production rates of intermediates via AOM lead to increased diffusive fluxes from the methane oxidizing archaea to sulfate reducing bacteria, but the build-up of the exchangeable species causes the energy yield of AOM to drop below that required for ATP production. Comparison to data from laboratory experiments shows that under the experimental conditions of Nauhaus et al. (2007, neither hydrogen nor formate is exchanged fast enough between the consortia partners to achieve measured rates of metabolic activity, but that acetate exchange might support rates that approach those observed.

  18. Influence of an aerobic fungus grown on solid culture on ruminal degradability and on a mixture culture of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, R; Pimentel-González, D J; Figueira, A C; Viniegra-González, G; Campos-Montiel, R G

    2010-06-01

    In this work, the effect of a solid fungal culture of Aspergillus niger (An) grown on coffee pulp on the in situ ruminal degradability (RD) of corn stover was evaluated. In addition, the effect of its extracts on the in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD) and on a mixed culture of anaerobic cellulolytic bacteria (MCACB) was also investigated. The solid ferment was a crude culture of An, grown on coffee pulp. Regarding in situ RD, a significant difference (p < 0.05) was found between treatment with 200 g/day of the solid culture and control (no solid culture added) on dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre on RD. All the water extracts (pH 4, 7 and 10) enhanced IVDMD and stimulated the cellulolytic activity on a MCACB. Ultrafiltration results showed that active compounds with a molecular weight lower than 30 kDa were responsible for the effect on MCACB. Such results suggest that the effects of the solid An culture in RD are related to the presence of water soluble compounds having a molecular weight lower than 30 kDa.

  19. Effect of Growth Promoting Bacteria on the Growth Rate and Lipid Content of Microalgae Chorella sp in Sludge Liquor of Anaerobic Digester of Dairy Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyunanto A. Nugroho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae are microorganisms that have potential as biofuel feedstock since it has relatively high content of lipid. To be economically feasible, microalgae has to be cultivated in lower operational cost. Liquor of anaerobic sludge is one of the choices since it contents high concentration in nutrient. To boost its productivity, growth promoting bacteria (GPB was added in the medium. The objective of this research is to observe the influence of GPB on the growth rate and oil content of the algae. The experiment used three treatment in respect to the dose of GPB added to the medium, and was done in triplicate. The three treatments are A3 (spiked with 3 ml of GPB inoculum, A6 (spiked with 6 ml of GPB inoculum and A9 (spiked with 9 ml of GPB inoculum, and one more treatment as a control (A0. Result showed that the higher the dose of GPB added, the higher the lipid content of microalgae. For the growth rate of microalga, the highest growth rate was observed on A6 treatment, while the lowest one was observed on the control.

  20. Distribution of tetracycline resistance genes in anaerobic treatment of waste sludge: The role of pH in regulating tetracycline resistant bacteria and horizontal gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haining; Chen, Yinguang; Zheng, Xiong; Su, Yinglong; Wan, Rui; Yang, Shouye

    2016-10-01

    Although pH value has been widely regarded as an important factor that affects resource recovery of waste sludge, the potential influence of diverse pHs on the distribution of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) during sludge anaerobic treatment is largely unknown. Here we reported that in the range of pH 4-10, 0.58-1.18 log unit increase of target TRGs was observed at pH 4, compared with that at pH 7, while 0.70-1.31 log unit further removal were obtained at pH 10. Mechanism study revealed that varied pHs not only altered the community structures of tetracycline resistant bacteria (TRB), but also changed their relative abundances, benefitting the propagation (acidic pHs) or attenuation (alkaline pHs) of TRB. Further investigation indicated that the amount and gene-possessing abilities of key genetic vectors for horizontal TRGs transfer were greatly promoted at acidic pHs but restricted under alkaline conditions. PMID:27485281

  1. Metabolic characteristics of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria with organic matters%有机物作用的厌氧氨氧化菌代谢特性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙佳晶; 张蕾; 张超; 陈晓波

    2012-01-01

    厌氧氨氧化(Anammox)工艺是近年来废水生物脱氮领域的新技术,非常适合于处理含有机物的废水。本文介绍了厌氧氨氧化工艺的特点,详细介绍了有机物对厌氧氨氧化菌的抑制和促进机制。有机物对厌氧氨氧化菌的抑制主要来自两个方面:一是有机物促进异养菌反硝化菌的大量繁殖形成基质竞争抑制;二是废水中的醇类、抗生素等有毒有害有机物会对厌氧氨氧化菌产生毒性抑制。有机物对厌氧氨氧化菌代谢的促进作用也有两种:一是特定的有机物可作为能源被厌氧氨氧化菌利用,促进厌氧氨氧化菌的代谢;二是通过控制废水处理系统中的碳氮比,使厌氧氨氧化菌和反硝化菌在废水处理系统中协同互生。最后指出开发有毒有机废水预处理、驯化厌氧氨氧化污泥、菌种流加等是解决问题的途径。%Anaerobic ammonium oxidation(Anammox),a new biological nitrogen removal process in wastewater treatment,is very suitable for the treatment of wastewater containing organic matters.This paper introduces the characteristics of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process,especially the inhibitive and stimulative mechanisms of organic matters to the bacteria.Two mechanisms are attributed to organic matters induced inhibition,one is heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria promoted by organic matters can compete with anammox bacteria for substrates;the other one is that alcohols,antibiotics and other toxic organics in wastewater leads to toxic inhibition to anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria.The stimulation of organic matters to anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria also can be explained in two aspects:one is that certain organic matters can be used by anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria as energy source,and thus enhance their metabolism;the other is anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria and denitrifying bacteria can form symbiote with proper C:N ratio.The pretreatment of

  2. Isolation of three anaerobic electrogenic bacteria and their physiological and biochemical properties%3株厌氧产电菌的分离与特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹然; 朱葛夫; 张净瑞; 刘紫璇; 刘超翔; 黄栩

    2014-01-01

    Three anaerobic electrogenic bacteria named as Z1,Z2 and Z3 were isolated from a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) by the method of Hungate roll tube. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA gene sequence indicated that strain Z1 belonged to Citrobacter,while both strain Z2 and Z3 belonged to Clostridium. The physiological and biochemical characteristics showed that Z1 was facultative anaerobe,while Z2 and Z3 were strict anaerobes. Z1,Z2 and Z3 could tolerate acidic pH conditions,and the optimum pH level was 5 to 7.5. The optimum temperature of Z1 was 35 ℃,while the optimum temperature of Z2 and Z3 was 30 ℃. The optimum NaCl concentration range of three strains was 0.1%to 2.0%. Sucrose,starch,sodium propionate,sodium acetate could be used as their carbon sources. The study of electrocatalytic activity showed that these strains all had a reduction peak at voltage of -0.29 V and they were applicable for the cathode of microbial fuel cell (MFC). The adding of a mixture of three kinds of strains might significantly shorten the time of start-up stage of MFC and enhance electricity production efficiency by 18.1%.%采用Hungate厌氧菌培养技术从微生物电解池(MEC)中分离得到3株厌氧产电菌Z1、Z2和Z3。16S rDNA基因测序和系统发育树构建结果表明,Z1属于柠檬酸杆菌属(Citrobacter),Z2和Z3属于梭菌属(Clostridium)。生理生化特性研究表明,Z1为兼性厌氧菌,Z2和 Z3为严格厌氧菌;3种菌株能够耐受较酸的 pH 值条件,在pH值为5~7.5的环境中增殖良好;Z1的最适生长温度为35℃,Z2和Z3的最适生长温度为30℃;3种菌株的最适NaCl浓度为0.1%~2.0%;均能以蔗糖、淀粉、丙酸钠、乙酸钠等为碳源生长。产电活性测试试验表明,3种菌株在-0.29 V时具有较大还原峰,氧化峰不明显,适用于微生物燃料电池(MFC)的阴极。在MFC的启动试验中,加入3种菌株的混合物后,可显著缩短其启动周期

  3. 厌氧氨氧化细菌和反硝化厌氧甲烷氧化细菌在岸边带土壤中的分布规律%Distribution of anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing bacteria in soil profile in the riparian zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏超; 祝贵兵; 邹雨璇; 周蓉; 赵思研

    2015-01-01

    厌氧氨氧化(anaerobic ammonium oxidation,anammox)和反硝化厌氧甲烷氧化(nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation,n-damo)的发现打破了人们长久以来对生物氮、碳循环的传统认识.厌氧氨氧化细菌(anammox bacteria)和反硝化厌氧甲烷氧化细菌(n-damo bacteria)在水生态系统均有分布,并且在全球氮、碳循环中发挥重要作用.但它们在岸边带土壤中的存在和分布还不甚清楚.因此,本文对湖泊岸边带土壤中厌氧氨氧化细菌和反硝化厌氧甲烷氧化细菌的存在和分布进行了研究.基于厌氧氨氧化细菌hzsB基因(联氨合成酶关键基因)和M.oxyfera-like细菌16S rRNA基因的序列分析,分别证明了厌氧氨氧化细菌和M.oxffera-like细菌在白洋淀湖泊岸边带深层土壤中的共同存在.厌氧氨氧化细菌hzsB基因定量PCR结果显示,其主要分布在地下水位附近及以下部分(40~100 cm),而在表层(0~40 cm)土壤中未被检测到.M.oxyfera-like 细菌16S rRNA基因定量PCR结果显示,不同深度的土壤均有M.oxyfera-like细菌分布,并且其丰度随着土壤深度的增加而递增.这些结果说明厌氧氨氧化细菌和M.oxyfera-like细菌在湖泊岸边带深层土壤中共同存在,并且有不同的分布规律.

  4. Anaerobic thermophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canganella, Francesco; Wiegel, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    The term "extremophile" was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of "extreme" environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally "hot environments" on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong to the Archaea has definitely

  5. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Canganella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong

  6. Succession of lignocellulolytic bacterial consortia bred anaerobically from lake sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korenblum, Elisa; Jiménez Avella, Diego; van Elsas, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria degrade lignocellulose in various anoxic and organically rich environments, often in a syntrophic process. Anaerobic enrichments of bacterial communities on a recalcitrant lignocellulose source were studied combining polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresi

  7. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Field, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the high sensitivity of the anaerobic bacteria (ie. methanogenic bacteria) to toxic compounds. The anaerobic technologies were initially developed for the treatment of non-toxic organic wastewaters. As the techn...

  8. Screening of aspartate dehydrogenase of bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Shoko; Okamura, Tokumitsu; Yasumasa, Izumi; Takeno, Tomomi; Ohsugi, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Fifty-two strains of bacteria cultured under aerobic conditions and 12 strains of bacteria cultured under anaerobic conditions demonstrated high activity staining of aspartate dehydrogenase with NAD^+. Four strains of bacteria cultured under aerobic conditions and 7 strains of bacteria cultured under anaerobic conditions demonstrated high activity staining of aspartate dehydrogenase with NADP^+. Seven strains of bacteria cultured under aerobic conditions and 4 strains of bacteria cultured und...

  9. Competition and coexistence of sulfate-reducing bacteria, acetogens and methanogens in a lab-scale anaerobic bioreactor as affected by changing substrate to sulfate ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dar, S.A.; Kleerebezem, R.; Stams, A.J.M.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muyzer, G.

    2008-01-01

    The microbial population structure and function of natural anaerobic communities maintained in lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors at different lactate to sulfate ratios and in the absence of sulfate were analyzed using an integrated approach of molecular techniques and chemical analysis. T

  10. Biomarker evidence for widespread anaerobic methane oxidation in Mediterranean sediments by a consortium of methanogenic archaea and bacteria : The Medinaut Shipboard Scientific Party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pancost, Richard D.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; de Lint, Saskia; van der Maarel, Marc J.E.C.; Gottschal, JC

    2000-01-01

    Although abundant geochemical data indicate that anaerobic methane oxidation occurs in marine sediments, the linkage to specific microorganisms remains unclear, In order to examine processes of methane consumption and oxidation, sediment samples from mud volcanoes at two distinct sites on the Medite

  11. The anaerobic digestion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, C.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Boone, D.R. [Oregon Graduate Inst., Portland, OR (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The microbial process of converting organic matter into methane and carbon dioxide is so complex that anaerobic digesters have long been treated as {open_quotes}black boxes.{close_quotes} Research into this process during the past few decades has gradually unraveled this complexity, but many questions remain. The major biochemical reactions for forming methane by methanogens are largely understood, and evolutionary studies indicate that these microbes are as different from bacteria as they are from plants and animals. In anaerobic digesters, methanogens are at the terminus of a metabolic web, in which the reactions of myriads of other microbes produce a very limited range of compounds - mainly acetate, hydrogen, and formate - on which the methanogens grow and from which they form methane. {open_quotes}Interspecies hydrogen-transfer{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}interspecies formate-transfer{close_quotes} are major mechanisms by which methanogens obtain their substrates and by which volatile fatty acids are degraded. Present understanding of these reactions and other complex interactions among the bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion is only now to the point where anaerobic digesters need no longer be treated as black boxes.

  12. Comparison of nitroethane, 2-nitro-1-propanol, lauric acid, Lauricidin and the Hawaiian marine algae, Chaetoceros, for potential broad-spectrum control of anaerobically grown lactic acid bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gastrointestinal tract of bovines often contains bacteria that contribute to disorders of the rumen and may also contain foodborne or opportunistic human pathogens as well as bacteria capable of causing mastitis in cows. Thus, there is a need to develop broad-spectrum therapies that are effecti...

  13. Anaerobic biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Enso-Fenox process has been very successfully used to remove chlorinated phenolic compounds from pulp bleaching effluents. It is a two-stage anaerobic/aerobic process consisting of a nonmethanogenic anaerobic fluidized bed followed by a trickling filter. Studies have been conducted on reductive dechlorination of chlorinated aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions with chlorinated phenols as the sole carbon and energy source. Approximately 40% of the added chlorophenols was converted to CH4 and CO2. Substrate loading rates were 20 mg/L/d at hydraulic detention times of 2-4 days with 90% substrate conversion efficiency. Reductive dechlorination of mono, di-, tri-, and pentachlorophenols has been demonstrated in anaerobic sewage sludge. The following constituents were tested in the laboratory at their approximate concentrations in coal conversion wastewater (CCWW) and were anaerobically degraded in serum bottles: 1,000 mg/L phenol; 500 mg/L resorcinol; 1,000 mg/L benzoic acid; 500 mg/L p-cresol; 200 mg/L pyridine; 2,000 mg/L benzoic acid; 250 mg/L 40 methylcatechol; 500 mg/L 4-ethylpyridine; and 2,000 mg/L hexanoic acid. A petrochemical may initially exhibit toxicity to an unacclimated population of methane-fermenting bacteria, but with acclimation the toxicity may be greatly reduced or disappear. In addition, the microorganisms may develop the capacity to actually degrade compounds which showed initial toxicity. Since biomass digestion requires a complete consortium of bacteria, it is relevant to study the effect of a given process as well as to individual steps within the process. A toxicant can inhibit the rate-limiting step and/or change the step that is rate-limiting. Both manifestations of toxicity can severely affect the overall process

  14. Simple and Versatile Turbidimetric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Cultures Using a Customized 3D Printed Culture Tube Holder and a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer: Application to Facultative and Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Margarida R. G.; Marques, Sara; Cabrita, Ana R. J.; Wallace, R. John; Thompson, Gertrude; Fonseca, António J. M.; Oliveira, Hugo M.

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213) and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897) anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256). For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells. PMID:27630632

  15. Simple and versatile turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid cultures using a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer: application to facultative and strictly anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida R. G. Maia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213 and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897 anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256. For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (RSD < 3.5% was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  16. Simple and Versatile Turbidimetric Monitoring of Bacterial Growth in Liquid Cultures Using a Customized 3D Printed Culture Tube Holder and a Miniaturized Spectrophotometer: Application to Facultative and Strictly Anaerobic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Margarida R G; Marques, Sara; Cabrita, Ana R J; Wallace, R John; Thompson, Gertrude; Fonseca, António J M; Oliveira, Hugo M

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce a novel strategy for turbidimetric monitoring of bacterial growth in liquid culture. The instrumentation comprises a light source, a customized 3D printed culture tube holder and a miniaturized spectrophotometer, connected through optical cables. Due to its small footprint and the possibility to operate with external light, bacterial growth was directly monitored from culture tubes in a simple and versatile fashion. This new portable measurement technique was used to monitor the growth of facultative (Escherichia coli ATCC/25922, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC/29213) and strictly (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens JW11, Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus P18, and Propionibacterium acnes DSMZ 1897) anaerobic bacteria. For E. coli and S. aureus, the growth rates calculated from normalized optical density values were compared with those ones obtained using a benchtop spectrophotometer without significant differences (P = 0.256). For the strictly anaerobic species, a high precision (relative standard deviation < 3.5%) was observed between replicates up to 48 h. Regarding its potential for customization, this manifold could accommodate further developments for customized turbidimetric monitoring, such as the use of light-emitting diodes as a light source or flow cells.

  17. Techniques for controlling variability in gram staining of obligate anaerobes.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, M. J.; Thatcher, E; Cox, M E

    1995-01-01

    Identification of anaerobes recovered from clinical samples is complicated by the fact that certain gram-positive anaerobes routinely stain gram negative; Peptostreptococcus asaccharolyticus, Eubacterium plautii, Clostridium ramosum, Clostridium symbiosum, and Clostridium clostridiiforme are among the nonconformists with regard to conventional Gram-staining procedures. Accurate Gram staining of American Type Culture Collection strains of these anaerobic bacteria is possible by implementing fi...

  18. Anaerobic Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Ju, Mei-Ting; Li, Wei-Zun; Liu, Le; Wang, Yan-Nan; Chang, Chein-Chi

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on the focus of Anaerobic Process. It is divided into the following sections. Pretreatment Organic waste Multiple-stage co-digestion Process Methodology and Technology. PMID:27620085

  19. Rumen bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rumen is the most extensively studied gut community and is characterized by its high population density, wide diversity and complexity of interactions. This complex, mixed microbial culture is comprised of prokaryote organisms including methane-producing archaebacteria, eukaryote organisms, such as ciliate and flagellate protozoa, anaerobic phycomycete fungi and bacteriophage. Bacteria are predominant (up to 1011 viable cells per g comprising 200 species) but a variety of ciliate protozoa occur widely (104-106/g distributed over 25 genera). The anaerobic fungi are also widely distributed (zoospore population densities of 102-104/g distributed over 5 genera). The occurrence of bacteriophage is well documented (107-109 particles/g). This section focuses primarily on the widely used methods for the cultivation and the enumeration of rumen microbes, especially bacteria, which grow under anaerobic conditions. Methods that can be used to measure hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, xylanases, amylases and proteinases) are also described, along with cell harvesting and fractionation procedures. Brief reference is also made to fungi and protozoa, but detailed explanations for culturing and enumerating these microbes is presented in Chapters 2.4 and 2.5

  20. 液相条件下低温常压 DBD 等离子对厌氧细菌的杀灭研究%Study on Anaerobic Bacteria Sterilization by Low Temperature Atmospheric DBD Plasma in Liquid Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨博; 郭斯青; 郭荣; 陈欢欢; 谢博厚

    2015-01-01

    The rules of Anaerobic Bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus sterilization by Low Temperature Atmospheric DBD was studied , in terms of plasma voltage , plasma current and exposure time.It was indicated that there was a linear dependent between plasma parameters and sterilization capacity , and Leakage of cellular protein and DNA was also observed during initial treatment stage of plasma exposure by UV-visible spectrophotometer examination , which meant the bacteria activity was reduced successfully.%采用低温常压DBD等离子灭菌技术,研究了不同等离子体放电参数(电压、电流及放电时间等)对液相中乳酸杆菌的杀灭影响规律。研究发现,等离子体杀灭液相中乳酸杆菌的能力与其放电参数线性相关;紫外可见吸收光谱检测发现等离子体处理初期细胞蛋白质和DNA已经开始泄漏,细菌活性被有效削减。

  1. Anaerobic Treatment of Methanolic Wastes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettinga, G.; Geest, van der A.Th.; Hobma, S.W.; Laan, van der J.B.R.

    1979-01-01

    Although it is well known that methanol can be fermented directly by a specific species of methane bacteria, viz. Methanosarcina barkeri, until now little information was available about the effect of important environmental factors on the anaerobic fermentation of methanol. As methanol can be the m

  2. Quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization: a hypothesized competition mode between two dominant bacteria groups in hydrogen-producing anaerobic sludge processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C-L; Chen, C-C; Lin, C-Y; Liu, W-T

    2009-01-01

    Two hydrogen-producing continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) fed respectively with glucose and sucrose were investigated by polymerase chain reaction-denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). The substrate was fed in a continuous mode decreased from hydraulic retention time (HRT) 10 hours to 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2 hours. Quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) observations further demonstrated that two morphotypes of bacteria dominated both microbial communities. One was long rod bacteria which can be targeted either by Chis150 probe designed to hybridize the gram positive low G + C bacteria or the specific oligonucleotide probe Lg10-6. The probe Lg10-6, affiliated with Clostridium pasteurianum, was designed and then checked with other reference organisms. The other type, unknown group, which cannot be detected by Chis150 was curved rod bacteria. Notably, the population ratios of the two predominant groups reflected the different operational performance of the two reactors, such as hydrogen producing rates, substrate turnover rates and metabolites compositions. Therefore, a competition mode of the two dominant bacteria groups was hypothesized. In the study, 16S rRNA-based gene library of hydrogen-producing microbial communities was established. The efficiency of hydrogen yields was correlated with substrates (glucose or sucrose), HRT, metabolites compositions (acetate, propionate, butyrate and ethanol), thermal pre-treatment (seed biomass was heated at 100 degrees C for 45 minutes), and microbial communities in the bioreactor, not sludge sources (municipal sewage sludge, alcohol-processing sludge, or bean-processing sludge). The designed specific oligonucleotide probe Lg10-6 also provides us a useful and fast molecular tool to screen hydrogen-producing microbial communities in the future research.

  3. Evaluation of surface contamination of bacteria in various dental clinics with special reference to obligate and facultative anaerobic spore bearing bacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan I, Jessica Yolanda Jeevitha, Sambandam Cecilia, Jayalakshmi M, Premavathy RK and Shantha S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The occupational health and safety is an important prerequisite in dental clinic setup for well being of both the doctor and patient. Both the patient and dentist are always at the risk of infections. Aim and objectives: There is no proper literature on the survey of bacterial spores, especially of Clostridium species in dental clinics. Hence an attempt has been made in the present pilot study to evaluate the surface contamination with special reference to bacterial spores. Materials and methods: Various dental clinics from Chennai city, India were selected for the present study. Samples were collected from two clinics each from endodontic, prosthodontic, orthodontic, and periodontic. In each clinic important places were selected for sampling. The samples were collected in the form of swabs. The swabs thus obtained were inoculated into Robertson Cooked Meat Medium and was incubated in anaerobic condition at 370C for 7 days. Each day the tubes were examined for turbidity and colour change and were noted. At the end of 7th day the smear was prepared from each tube and gram staining was performed. The gram stained slides were examined microscopically for the presence of spore bearing bacilli especially with special reference to terminal spore bearing bacilli. Results and conclusion: From the present study it is clear that the dental clinics invariably posses a lot of aerobic and anaerobic spores irrespective of stringent disinfection procedures. Hence it is mandatory for the dental clinics to undergo periodical microbiological surveillance and to take proper steps in the control of bacterial spores.

  4. Anaerobe Tolerance to Oxygen and the Potentials of Anaerobic and Aerobic Cocultures for Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Kato

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The anaerobic treatment processes are considered to be well-established methods for the elimination of easily biodegradable organic matter from wastewaters. Some difficulties concerning certain wastewaters are related to the possible presence of dissolved oxygen. The common belief is that anaerobes are oxygen intolerant. Therefore, the common practice is to use sequencing anaerobic and aerobic steps in separate tanks. Enhanced treatment by polishing off the residual biodegradable oxygen demand from effluents of anaerobic reactors, or the biodegradation of recalcitrant wastewater pollutants, usually requires sequenced anaerobic and aerobic bacteria activities. However, the combined activity of both bacteria can also be obtained in a single reactor. Previous experiments with either pure or mixed cultures showed that anaerobes can tolerate oxygen to a certain extent. The oxygen toxicity to methanogens in anaerobic sludges was quantified in batch experiments, as well as in anaerobic reactors. The results showed that methanogens have a high tolerance to oxygen. In practice, it was confirmed that dissolved oxygen does not constitute any detrimental effect on reactor treatment performance. This means that the coexistence of anaerobic and aerobic bacteria in one single reactor is feasible and increases the potentials of new applications in wastewater treatment

  5. 血清IgG抗体含量与口腔厌氧菌致牙髓感染的关系%Relationship between contents of serum IgG antibody and pulp infections caused by oral anaerobic bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕朋君; 马珅; 刘晓斌

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To observe the relationship between the level of serum IgG antibody and the pulp infections caused by oral anaerobic bacteria by referring to the characteristics of specific response between antigen and anti‐body so as to reduce the infection rate .METHODS The patients with pulp diseases who were treated in the hospi‐tal from Jan 2013 to Jan 2014 were enrolled in the study and divided into the group B ,C ,and D ,with 10 cases in each ;meanwhile 10 healthy subjects were chosen as the group A .The IgG antibody contents in the 10 internation‐al standard anaerobic bacteria strains isolated from the serum of the patients with infections and the healthy sub‐jects were determined by using ELISA method ,the relationship between the pulp infections and the oral anaerobic bacteria was specifically analyzed ,and the statistical analysis of data was performed with the use of SPSS 17 .0 software .RESULTS The average level of serum antibody in Prevotella intermedia was significantly lower in the group A than in the group B ,C ,and D (P<0 .05) .As compared with the group A ,the OD values of other three groups were more than 2 .1 ,and all were positive .There was significant difference in the average level of serum antibody in Porphyromonas gingivalis among the healthy subjects ,the patients with pulp infections ,and the pa‐tients with pulp‐periodontal diseases (P<0 .05) ,as compared with the patients with periodontal disease ,howev‐er ,the difference was not significant .There was no significant difference in the OD value of serum antibody in the anaerobic bacteria among the four groups .CONCLUSION The ELISA ,as is applied for the analysis of the anaero‐bic bacteria causing the pulp infections ,may contribute to considerably higher isolation rate and accuracy than the traditional microbial culture ,and it can be used as a conventional method for the detection of pathogenic bacteria causing pulp infections .%目的:利用抗原与抗体特异反应的

  6. The potential of bacteria isolated from ruminal contents of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep to hydrolyse seaweed components and produce methane by anaerobic digestion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan G; Withers, Susan; Sutherland, Alastair D

    2013-01-01

    The production of methane biofuel from seaweeds is limited by the hydrolysis of polysaccharides. The rumen microbiota of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep was studied for polysaccharidic bacterial isolates degrading brown-seaweed polysaccharides. Only nine isolates out of 65 utilized >90% of the polysaccharide they were isolated on. The nine isolates (eight Prevotella spp. and one Clostridium butyricum) utilized whole Laminaria hyperborea extract and a range of seaweed polysaccharides, including alginate (seven out of nine isolates), laminarin and carboxymethylcellulose (eight out of nine isolates); while two out of nine isolates additionally hydrolysed fucoidan to some extent. Crude enzyme extracts from three of the isolates studied further had diverse glycosidases and polysaccharidase activities; particularly against laminarin and alginate (two isolates were shown to have alginate lyase activity) and notably fucoidan and carageenan (one isolate). In serial culture rumen microbiota hydrolysed a range of seaweed polysaccharides (fucoidan to a notably lesser degree) and homogenates of L. hyperborea, mixed Fucus spp. and Ascophyllum nodosum to produce methane and acetate. The rumen microbiota and isolates represent potential adjunct organisms or enzymes which may improve hydrolysis of seaweed components and thus improve the efficiency of seaweed anaerobic digestion for methane biofuel production. PMID:23170956

  7. Microbial reefs in the Black Sea fueled by anaerobic oxidation of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelis, W.; Seifert, R.; Nauhaus, K.;

    2002-01-01

    of densely aggregated archaea ( phylogenetic ANME-1 cluster) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus group). If incubated in vitro, these mats perform anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction. Obviously, anaerobic microbial consortia can generate both carbonate...

  8. Ammonia effect on hydrogenotrophic methanogens and syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Han; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-rich substrates can cause inhibition on anaerobic digestion process. Syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens are important for the ammonia inhibitory mechanism on anaerobic digestion. The roles and interactions of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens...

  9. 硫酸盐还原菌及其在废水厌氧治理中的应用%Application of sulfate-reducing bacteria to anaerobic wastewater treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖利萍; 张镭; 李月

    2011-01-01

    硫酸盐还原菌(SRB)在废水处理方面有独特的优势,在厌氧环境中能以硫酸盐作为电子受体降解有机污染物.本文阐明了SRB处理废水中污染物的机理,综述了国内外利用SRB处理重金属离子废水、含硫酸盐有机废水和酸性矿山废水的研究进展.最后总结了目前在工程应用方面尚存在的问题.%Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) has unique advantage in wastewater treatment and can degrade organic pollutants with sulfate as electron acceptor in the anaerobic environment. This paper introduced the SRB mechanism for wastewater treatment, summarized the applications of SRB on the treatment of heavy metal wastewater , organic wastewater containing sulfate and acid mine wastewater at home and abroad. At last, the current problems in engineering application are explained.

  10. An investigation into the removal of Salmonella and enteric indicator bacteria from the separated liquid fraction of raw or anaerobically digested pig manure using novel on-farm woodchip biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, G; Lawlor, P G; Carney, K N; Zhan, X; Gutierrez, M; Gardiner, G E

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the removal of Salmonella and enteric indicator bacteria from the liquid fraction of raw and anaerobically digested (AD) pig manure in woodchip biofilters over a 14 week (98 day) period. Antibiotic susceptible Salmonella Infantis was detected in one influent material (liquid fraction of raw manure) on two occasions but was not found in the effluent at any time point. Furthermore, mean coliform reductions of 56% were observed in the biofilters treating the liquid fraction of raw manure. However, a mean increase of 228% was found in those treating the liquid from AD manure, despite the fact that the microbial challenge to these biofilters was lower. In addition, relatively high coliform counts were still present in the effluent from both biofilter treatments, especially in the systems treating the liquid fraction of AD manure. However, findings for Escherichia coli and Enterococcus were more promising, with reductions observed for both treatments (10 and 18.5% for E. coli and 71 and 87% for Enterococcus). Moreover, E. coli and Enterococcus were at, or just above, the limit of detection in the final effluents. Overall, although, there are no microbial limits for discharge or washwaters, the woodchip filter effluent would appear safe for discharge to waterways or use on-farm as regards Salmonella, E. coli and Enterococcus but not coliform. In conclusion, woodchip biofilters offer potential as a low-cost sustainable novel treatment option for the removal of pathogens from the liquid fraction of pig manure.

  11. Anaerobic Metabolism and Bioremediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Raj

    Nitroaromatic compounds pollute soil, water, and food via use of pesticides, plastics, pharmaceuticals, landfill dumping of industrial wastes, and the military use of explosives. Biotransformation of trinitrotoluene and other nitroaromatics by aerobic bacteria in the laboratory has been frequently reported, but the anaerobic bacterial metabolism of nitroaromatics has not been studied as extensively perhaps due to the difficulty in working with anaerobic cultures and the slow growth of anaerobes. Sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria can metabolize nitroaromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions if appropriate electron donors and electron acceptors are present in the environment.

  12. Anaerobic workout

    OpenAIRE

    McAdam, Ewan J.

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic technology cannot directly replace current wastewater treatment processes exclusively. The UASB reactor configuration removes slightly less organic carbon by comparison as the process relies on lamella separation for passive clarification rather than using fine pores like anMBR. By contrast, whilst anMBR can operate as a single unit process for organic carbon removal, the membrane surface has to be cleaned using gas sparging to limit surface deposition, which requires extra energy. ...

  13. Anaerobic biodegradability of macropollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini

    2002-01-01

    A variety of test procedures for determination of anaerobic biodegradability has been reported. This paper reviews the methods developed for determination of anaerobic biodegradability of macro-pollutants. Anaerobic biodegradability of micro-pollutants is not included. Furthermore, factors import...

  14. 舟山群岛海域沉积物厌氧氨氧化细菌多样性%Diversity of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria in marine sediments from the Zhoushan Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东声; 刘镇盛; 张海峰; 王小谷; 王春生

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation ( anammox) is an important process regulating the balance of marine nitrogen and ecosystem health, particularly under anoxic conditions. The Zhoushan Islands are located east of the Changjiang river estuary, and collect a high load of anthropogenic nitrogen, which leads to severe eutrophication and seasonal hypoxia. Therefore, bacteria that mediate the anammox process are of major interest in this area. Although the importance of anammox-mediating bacteria is known, few studies on these bacteria have been conducted in the East China Sea. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the diversity, community composition, and distribution of anammox bacteria in the Zhoushan Islands. Field surveys were conducted in June 2012; triplicate surface sediment samples were collected at each site and stored in sterile plastic bags at-80℃ for subsequent DNA extraction and molecular analysis. Total genomic DNA was extracted using the Fast DNA SPIN Kit for soil. Environmental DNA extracted from sediment samples was used as the template for PCR amplification of anammox 16S rRNA genes using primers Amx368f—Amx820r. The purified fragments were cloned and sequenced for phylogenetic and statistical analyses. In total, 297 sequences belonging to 16 operational taxonomic units ( OTUs) were obtained from five 16S rRNA gene libraries. The biodiversity of anammox bacteria was examined using rarefaction analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, the Chao1 estimator, and Shannon index calculations. EZ3-1, EZ3-3, and EZ1-5 exhibited higher diversity than EZ1-3 and EZ3-5. A significant positive correlation between Shannon index and organic carbon content indicate that sediment organic carbon content plays an important role in modulating anammox bacterial diversity in the Zhoushan Island area. Weighted UniFrac PCoA analysis of the 16S rRNA genes demonstrated spatial heterogeneity in the community composition of anammox bacteria; the anammox bacteria in

  15. Molecular AND logic gate based on bacterial anaerobic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arugula, Mary Anitha; Shroff, Namita; Katz, Evgeny; He, Zhen

    2012-10-21

    Enzyme coding genes that integrate information for anaerobic respiration in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were used as input for constructing an AND logic gate. The absence of one or both genes inhibited electrochemically-controlled anaerobic respiration, while wild type bacteria were capable of accepting electrons from an electrode for DMSO reduction.

  16. Methanol conversion in high-rate anaerobic reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    An overview on methanol conversion in high-rate anaerobic reactors is presented, with the focus on technological as well as microbiological aspects. The simple C1-compound methanol can be degraded anaerobically in a complex way, in which methanogens, sulfate reducing bacteria and homoacetogens inter

  17. Anaerobic infections in the head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaqchali, S

    1988-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria form the predominant flora of the oral cavity, outnumbering facultative organisms by 10-1,000: 1. The type of anaerobic bacteria and their concentration depend on the anatomical site and the degree of anaerobiosis in the different sites in the mouth. Three groups of anaerobic bacteria inhabit the oral cavity; the strict anaerobes, the moderate anaerobes, and the microaerophilic group of organisms. The majority of anaerobic bacterial infections occurring in the region of the mouth, head and neck are caused by the commensal flora. These infections include dental and periodontal disease where the predominant organisms are Bacteroides species, Veillonella, Bifidobacteria, Peptococcus, Peptostreptococcus and Propionibacterium species. More recently, Bacteroides endontalis has been isolated from a periapical abscess of endodontal origin and B. gingivalis, B. intermedius, Haemophilus actinomycetemcomitans and Wollinella species in chronic periodontal disease. Treponema species and other strict anaerobes are seen in smears of severe periodontal disease and acute necrotising gingivitis, but have not yet been isolated in pure culture. Until such time, their role in disease remains uncertain. Fusobacterium nucleatum is specially associated with severe orofacial infections which may extend into the mediastinum. Other anaerobic infections include chronic otitis media, chronic sinusitis and mastoiditis, and brain abscess. Treatment of these conditions should include the use of beta-lactamase resistant antimicrobials, such as clindamycin or one of the nitroimidazoles with penicillin.

  18. Evidence for PAH Removal Coupled to the First Steps of Anaerobic Digestion in Sewage Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Glenda Cea-Barcia; Hélène Carrère; Jean Philippe Steyer; Dominique Patureau

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been brought to the fore, but information on removal kinetics and anaerobic degrading bacteria is still lacking. In order to explore the organic micropollutants removal kinetics under anaerobic conditions in regard to the methane production kinetics, the removal rate of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was measured in two anaerobic batch reactors series fed with a highly loaded secondary sludge as growth substrate. The results u...

  19. New Understanding on Metabolism of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Bacteria Based on Metagenomics Technology%基于宏基因组技术获得的对厌氧氨氧化菌代谢的新理解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁爽; 郑平; 陆慧锋; 唐崇俭

    2012-01-01

    厌氧氨氧化菌(Anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria,AAOB)是化能自养菌,由于其生理代谢的奇异性、细胞结构的特殊性以及对氮素循环的重要性,已成为环境工程、微生物以及海洋生物学等领域的研究热点.然而.AAOB未能实现纯培养的现状已成为AAOB代谢途径研究的巨大障碍近年来兴起的宏基因组技术(Metagenomics)为AAOB代谢途径的研究提供了新手段.采用宏基因组技术,可直接研究微生物群体中某特定微生物基因组的结构与功能,摆脱了传统微生物学研究对纯培养的依赖,使未培养微生物的认识和开发成为可能本文首先简述获取AAOB宏基因组信息的过程,然后通过比较由传统代谢研究方法和宏基因组技术获得的AAOB代谢途径的研究成果,论述基于宏基因组技术获得的对AAOB代谢的新理解,得出以下结果和结论:1)AAOB的碳素固定途径为乙酰辅酶A途径,碳素固定的还原力来自NADH或者QH2;2)AAOB氮素转化的重要中问产物是NO,而非NH2OH,并提出了以NO为核心的AAOB代谢的改进模型;3)AAOB的ATP合成途径为氧化磷酸化,推测的电子传递途径为N2H4-QH2-细胞色素bc1 复合体;细胞色素bc1复合体再将电子用于NO2还原和N2H4合成AAOB的宏基因组技术使AAOB代谢途径的研究更具方向性.随着分子生物学理论和技术的不断发展,宏基因组学的升级技术(如宏转录组学、宏蛋白质组学)将为AAOB代谢途径的研究提供新的方法与平台.%Anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria (AAOB) belong to chemolitho-autotrophs. AAOB have become one of the research hotspots in the field of environmental engineering, microbiology and oceanography because of their specificities in metabolism, cell structure and nitrogen cycle. However, AAOB can not been cultivated in pure culture, which has become a great obstacle to study their metabolic pathways in further. Nowadays, fast-developing metagenomics provides

  20. The molecular biological characterization of a strain of biohydrogen-producing anaerobe in Clostridium Genus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-feng; REN Nan-qi; ZHENG Guo-xiang; LIU Min; HU Li-jie; CHEN Ying; WANG Xiang-jing

    2005-01-01

    The anaerobic process of biohydrogen production was developed recently. The isolation and identification of biohydrogen producing anaerobic bacteria with high evolution rate and yield is an important foundation of the fermented biohydrogen production process through which anaerobic bacteria digest organic wastewater. By considering physiological and biochemical traits, morphological characteristics and a 16S rDNA sequence, the isolated Rennanqilyf33 is shown to be a new species.

  1. How to make a living from anaerobic ammonium oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kartal, B.; De Almeida, N.M.; Maalcke, W.J.; Op den Camp, H.J.M.; Jetten, M.S.M.; Keltjens, J.T.

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria primarily grow by the oxidation of ammonium coupled to nitrite reduction, using CO2 as the sole carbon source. Although they were neglected for a long time, anammox bacteria are encountered in an enormous species (micro)diversity in virtually any anoxi

  2. Simultaneous Nitrite-Dependent Anaerobic Methane and Ammonium Oxidation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luesken, F.A.; Sánchez. J.; Van Alen, T.A.; Sanabria, J.; Op den Camp, H.J.; Jetten, M.S.; Kartal, B.

    2011-01-01

    itrite-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (n-damo) and ammonium (anammox) are two recently discovered processes in the nitrogen cycle that are catalyzed by n-damo bacteria, including "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera," and anammox bacteria, respectively. The feasibility of coculturing anamm

  3. Genetic, phenotypic and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based identification of anaerobic bacteria and determination of their antimicrobial susceptibility at a University Hospital in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunoki, Tomoyuki; Matsumura, Yasufumi; Nakano, Satoshi; Kato, Karin; Hotta, Go; Noguchi, Taro; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nagao, Miki; Takakura, Shunji; Ichiyama, Satoshi

    2016-05-01

    The accuracies of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and the phenotypic method using VITEK 2 were compared to the accuracy of 16S rRNA sequence analysis for the identification of 170 clinically isolated anaerobes. The antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was also evaluated. Genetic analysis identified 21 Gram-positive species in 14 genera and 29 Gram-negative species in 11 genera. The most frequently isolated genera were Prevotella spp. (n = 46), Bacteroides spp. (n = 25) and Clostridium spp. (n = 25). MALDI-TOF MS correctly identified more isolates compared with VITEK 2 at the species (80 vs. 58%, respectively; p < 0.01) and genus (85 vs. 71%, respectively; p < 0.01) levels. More than 90% of the isolates of the three major genera identified (Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Clostridium species other than Clostridium difficile) were susceptible to beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations, carbapenems, metronidazole and chloramphenicol. MALDI-TOF MS provided better identification results than VITEK2. Commonly used anti-anaerobic agents indicated that the isolates of the three most frequently identified anaerobic genera exhibited good antimicrobial susceptibility. PMID:26898667

  4. Enhanced anaerobic biological treatment of phenolic wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    The combined treatment requirements for a high strength phenolic wastewater were examined in batch and semicontinuous anaerobic methanogenic bioassays. Solvent extraction pretreatment and in-situ addition of activated carbon during anaerobic treatment were effective in removing phenol from a coal liquefaction wastewater from the H-coal process. The selective pH adjustment of high strength phenolic wastewater followed by diisopropyl ether extraction reduced the phenolic concentration to non-inhibitory levels, and removed non-phenolic inhibitory compounds. The weakly acid nature of phenol and substituted phenols allows for their selective removal by solvent extraction. Anaerobic bacteria were able to degrade phenol in the solvent extracted wastwater, however, the bacteria exhibited instability under semicontinuous feeding conditions. The addition of activated carbon to the stressed phenol-degrading cultures improved their ability to remove phenol from solution. Further investigation into the role activated carbon performed during anaerobic phenol treatment demonstrated its importance as a biological support, in addition to providing adsorptive capacity for organic (including inhibitory) compounds. The similar study of other support materials (ion exchange resins) which did not possess an adsorptive capacity for organic compounds supported these findings. Excellent agreement was demonstrated among physical evaluation methods, performance bioassays, radiolabelled cell adsorption studies, and scanning electron microscopy observations in judging the value of the materials as biological supports.

  5. Gender comparisons in anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity tests.

    OpenAIRE

    Maud, P. J.; Shultz, B B

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity test scores between young active men and women. Three performance measures of anaerobic power and two of anaerobic capacity were administered to a sample comprising 52 male and 50 female college students (means age = 21.4 yrs). Results indicated significant differences between men and women in body height, weight and per cent fat, in fat free mass (FFM), anaerobic power, and anaerobic capacity when recorded as gros...

  6. Enzymes involved in the anaerobic oxidation of n-alkanes: from methane to long-chain paraffins

    OpenAIRE

    Amy V. Callaghan

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play key roles in the biogeochemical cycling of methane and non-methane alkanes. To date, there appear to be at least three proposed mechanisms of anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM). The first pathway is mediated by consortia of archaeal anaerobic methane oxidizers and sulfate-reducing bacteria via ‘reverse methanogenesis’ and is catalyzed by a homologue of methyl-coenzyme M reductase. The second pathway is also mediated by anaerobic methane oxidizers and sulfate-red...

  7. Research in anti- anaerobe mechanism of nanometer materials%纳米材料抗厌氧菌机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊德鑫; 梁明

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the antimicrobial spectrum of nanometer materials to 33 strains of ordinary anaerobic pathogenic bacteria isolated from 11 genera. METHODS:The anti anaerobic effects of nanometer materials were examined and measured by test tube dilution method.RESULTS:In most tubes, there were no bacteria growth in nanometer suspension.CONCLUSION: there is a wide antimicrobial spectrum of nanometer materials and it can effectively inhibit the growth of the anaerobic bacteria.

  8. Bacterial vaginosis with special reference to anaerobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumati A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and to estimate the prevalence of anaerobic organisms in vaginal discharge of women suffering from bacterial vaginosis. Settings and Design: Patients attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of a Medical College Hospital. A one year cross-sectional study. Methods and Materials: High vaginal swabs taken from 174 female patients complaining of abnormal vaginal discharge. BV was diagnosed by clinical composite criteria and by gram stain. Anaerobes were isolated and identified from the discharge. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi square test, with level of significance set at a value of P< 0.05. Results: BV was diagnosed in 68.39% of the cases by using clinical composite criteria and in 58.4% of the cases by gram stain. Anaerobic culture isolation of vaginal swabs revealed that out of 174 cases 143 (82.65% were culture positive for anaerobes. Bacteroides were significantly raised in BV as compared with non bacterial vaginosis (NBV; < 0.05%. Conclusions: Anaerobic bacteria are important pathogens in the causation of bacterial vaginosis along with other aerobic organisms. Bacteroides and peptostreptococci are significantly raised in BV.

  9. Effect of methanogenic substrates on anaerobic oxidation of methane and sulfate reduction by an anaerobic methanotrophic enrichment

    OpenAIRE

    Meulepas, R.J.W.; Jagersma, C.G.; Khadem, A.F.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P. N. L.

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) is assumed to be a syntrophic process, in which methanotrophic archaea produce an interspecies electron carrier (IEC), which is subsequently utilized by sulfate-reducing bacteria. In this paper, six methanogenic substrates are tested as candidate-IECs by assessing their effect on AOM and SR by an anaerobic methanotrophic enrichment. The presence of acetate, formate or hydrogen enhanced SR, but did not inhibit AOM, nor did ...

  10. Clostridium difficile: the anaerobe that made the grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, Jon S

    2012-04-01

    Unlike other anaerobic bacteria of clinical importance, Clostridium difficile has managed to enter into the realm of public awareness. Following the trail blazed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), C. difficile has made the transition from being an obscure anaerobic bacterium, mainly of interest to specialist anaerobic microbiologists, to that of an infamous "superbug" responsible for outbreaks of hospital-acquired infection that commonly result in serious disease and death. This report picks out key moments, particularly in the UK, which tracked the rise in both the public and political awareness of this organism. PMID:22293217

  11. Combined Anaerobic-Aerobic Bacterial Degradation of Dyes

    OpenAIRE

    R. Wilfred Sugumar; Sandhya Sadanandan

    2010-01-01

    Wastewaters from the dye baths of a non-formal textile-dyeing unit containing C.I. Acid Orange 7 and C.I. Reactive Red 2 were subjected to degradation in a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria. The technical samples of the dyestuffs and the dye bath wastes were treated in an anaerobic reactor, using an adapted mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms. The dyestuffs were biotransformed into colourless substituted amine metabolites in the reactor. T...

  12. Complex community of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation bacteria in coastal sediments of the Mai Po wetland by PCR amplification of both 16S rRNA and pmoA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhou, Zhichao; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2015-02-01

    In the present work, both 16S rRNA and pmoA gene-based PCR primers were employed successfully to study the diversity and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the surface and lower layer sediments at the coastal Mai Po wetland. The occurrence of n-damo bacteria in both the surface and subsurface sediments with high diversity was confirmed in this study. Unlike the two other known n-damo communities from coastal areas, the pmoA gene-amplified sequences in the present work clustered not only with some freshwater subclusters but also within three newly erected marine subclusters mostly, indicating the unique niche specificity of n-damo bacteria in this wetland. Results suggested vegetation affected the distribution and community structures of n-damo bacteria in the sediments and n-damo could coexist with sulfate-reducing methanotrophs in the coastal ecosystem. Community structures of the Mai Po n-damo bacteria based on 16S rRNA gene were different from those of either the freshwater or the marine. In contrast, structures of the Mai Po n-damo communities based on pmoA gene grouped with the marine ones and were clearly distinguished from the freshwater ones. The abundance of n-damo bacteria at this wetland was quantified using 16S rRNA gene PCR primers to be 2.65-6.71 × 10(5) copies/g dry sediment. Ammonium and nitrite strongly affected the community structures and distribution of n-damo bacteria in the coastal Mai Po wetland sediments.

  13. Anaerobic Digestion: Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Batstone, Damien J.

    2011-01-01

    with very little dry matter may also be called a digest. The digest should not be termed compost unless it specifically has been composted in an aerated step. This chapter describes the basic processes of anaerobic digestion. Chapter 9.5 describes the anaerobic treatment technologies, and Chapter 9...

  14. Anaerobic sludge granulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff Pol, L.W.; Castro Lopes, de S.I.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews different theories on anaerobic sludge granulation in UASB-reactors that have been proposed during the past two decades
    This paper reviews different theories on anaerobic sludge granulation in UASB-reactors that have been proposed during the past two decades. The initial stage

  15. A review on regulation methods of nitrite oxidizing bacteria in one-stage anaerobic ammonia oxidation process%一段式厌氧氨氧化工艺亚硝酸盐氧化菌抑制方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢丽; 殷紫; 尹志轩; 王悦超; 周琪

    2016-01-01

    近年来,厌氧氨氧化工艺(anaerobic ammonium oxidation, Anammox)作为一种新型的脱氮技术,由于其耗能少、效率高而被应用于高氨氮废水的处理中。然而,实际运行的厌氧氨氧化工程中有时会出现亚硝酸盐氧化菌(nitrite oxidizing bacteria, NOB)大量繁殖的情况,导致硝酸盐积累,脱氮效率下降。在一段式 Anammox 反应器中,通过控制某些影响因素,如调节体系中的溶解氧,控制游离氨和游离亚硝酸的浓度,调控碳源浓度以及外加中间产物(N2H4、NO 和 NH2OH)等方式,能够在维持 Anammox 工艺脱氮效率的同时有效抑制 NOB。除了系统地综述一段式 Anammox 工艺中 NOB 抑制手段以外,将进一步讨论实际 Anammox 工程应用中抑制 NOB 大量繁殖行之有效的手段。%In recent years,anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox), a new technology for nitrogen removal, has been used in the treatment of high-strength ammonia wastewater due to its low energy consumption and high treatment efficiency. Whereas, the accumulation of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) often occurs in full-scale Anammox process, leading to the accumulation of nitrate and deterioration of nitrogen removal effectiveness. In two-stage Anammox processes, NOB accumulation often occurs in partial nitritation stage, the inhibition of which has been discussed in details. While in one-stage Anammox process, NOB accumulation is more common and fatal due to the complexity brought by the coexistence of functional bacteria like ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB), NOB, anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) and denitrifiers. It has been reported that NOB could be effectively suppressed in the one-stage Anammox process by some methods, e.g. regulating dissolved oxygen, altering the free ammonia and free nitrous acid concentration, adjusting carbon source and adding externally intermediate products (N2H4, NO, NH2OH), etc. The regulation methods

  16. Anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds: a genetic and genomic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Manuel; Zamarro, María Teresa; Blázquez, Blas; Durante-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Juárez, Javier F; Valderrama, J Andrés; Barragán, María J L; García, José Luis; Díaz, Eduardo

    2009-03-01

    Aromatic compounds belong to one of the most widely distributed classes of organic compounds in nature, and a significant number of xenobiotics belong to this family of compounds. Since many habitats containing large amounts of aromatic compounds are often anoxic, the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds by microorganisms becomes crucial in biogeochemical cycles and in the sustainable development of the biosphere. The mineralization of aromatic compounds by facultative or obligate anaerobic bacteria can be coupled to anaerobic respiration with a variety of electron acceptors as well as to fermentation and anoxygenic photosynthesis. Since the redox potential of the electron-accepting system dictates the degradative strategy, there is wide biochemical diversity among anaerobic aromatic degraders. However, the genetic determinants of all these processes and the mechanisms involved in their regulation are much less studied. This review focuses on the recent findings that standard molecular biology approaches together with new high-throughput technologies (e.g., genome sequencing, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metagenomics) have provided regarding the genetics, regulation, ecophysiology, and evolution of anaerobic aromatic degradation pathways. These studies revealed that the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds is more diverse and widespread than previously thought, and the complex metabolic and stress programs associated with the use of aromatic compounds under anaerobic conditions are starting to be unraveled. Anaerobic biotransformation processes based on unprecedented enzymes and pathways with novel metabolic capabilities, as well as the design of novel regulatory circuits and catabolic networks of great biotechnological potential in synthetic biology, are now feasible to approach.

  17. 柑橘黄龙病兼性厌氧型伴生细菌的分离及优势菌群分析%Isolation of facultative anaerobic and entophytic bacteria companioned Huanglongbing pathogen-infected citrus tissues and determination of dominant bacterial populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颜方; 殷幼平; 王玉玺; 李佳; 陈世伟; 王中康

    2011-01-01

    柑橘黄龙病是世界柑橘生产上最具毁灭性的病害,主要由难人工培养的韧皮杆菌所引起(Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus)[1].近年的研究结果表明黄龙病发病组织内除了韧皮杆菌外,还可能有促进或抑制黄龙病菌生长的伴生性细菌[2,3].国内外已有不少关于植物内生细菌的研究报道[4],但关于柑橘内生细菌的报道较少.本研究旨在以多年生发病与健康柑橘植株的内生细菌为研究对象,采用定向分离方法培养兼性厌氧型内生细菌,利用基于16S rRNA的PCR-DGGE宏基因组学方法分析比较柑橘健株与病株内生菌群的差异,旨在发现与黄龙病伴生的功能性内生细菌.%To analyze the diversity of entophytic bacteria and find the companion microbe in Huanglongbing pathogen-infected and healthy citrus plant tissues, various parts of citrus tissues were collected from different locations of citrus planting areas. The facultative anaerobic and entophytic bacteria were isolated and identified based on bacterial morphology, physiology, biochemistry characteristics and PCR-DGGE analysis (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, analysis of the sequence of 16S rRNA V6-V8 fragment). By the directional isolation of the facultative anaerobic and entophytic bacteria and 16S rDNA amplification methods, total 12 genera of bacteria were identified from 19 cultivable bacterial populations. The dominant bacterial population were Bacillus sp. (IF: 21.03% ), Planococcus sp. (IF:20.69% ) and Pseudomonas sp. (IF: 17.44% ) in healthy citrus tissues, while Curtobacterium sp. (IF: 29.07% ), Bacillus sp. (IF: 23.12% ) , Microbacterium sp. (IF; 21.09% )in infected citrus plants. Based on the results of DGGE, 9 genera of cultured bacteria were identified. The dominant bacteria population was Serratia sp. (IF: 28% ), and Pantoea sp. (IF: 14% ) was second only to it. ' Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' was found only in tangerine pith of deformed orange fruit

  18. EVALUATION OF A TWO-STAGE TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC SEWAGE WITH ANAEROBIC-AEROBIC MICROBIAL FILM

    OpenAIRE

    A.Mesdaghinia

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the feasibility of a two stage continuous system employing anaerobic-aerobic microbial film for domestic wastewater treatment and the effect of iron on the behavior of sulfate reducing bacteria in anaerobic metabolism. A bench scale system with an anaerobic filter followed by aerobic fixed units used plastic media and was operated in up flow manner with hydraulic detention times of 6 hours, whereas the aerobic unit utilized diffused aeration. Raw do...

  19. Molecular characterization and fermentative hydrogen production of a wild anaerobe in clostridium genus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yongfeng; REN Nanqi; YANG Chuanping; LI Jianzheng; LI Peng

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic process of biohydrogen production is developed in this paper.The isolation and identification of high efficient biohydrogen production anaerobic bacteria are the important foundations for the fermented biohydrogen production process by anaerobic digesting organic wastewater.Taking the physiological and biochemical traits,the morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence into consideration,the isolate Rennanqilyf33 is a new species.

  20. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  1. Overview of the anaerobic toxicity caused by organic forest industry wastewater pollutants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierra-Alvarez, R.; Field, J.A.; Kortekaas, S.; Lettinga, G.

    1994-01-01

    Numerous types of organic environmental pollutants are encountered in forest industry effluents which potentially could inhibit consortia of anaerobic bacteria. The purpose of this study was to collect anaerobic bioassay data from the literature to better estimate the impact of these pollutants on a

  2. Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures for improved detection of fecal coliforms from recreational waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, J D; Tunnicliff, B; Brickler, S K; Kramer, R E; Sinclair, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures significantly enhanced detection of fecal coliforms in surface-water samples from recreational beaches. In contrast to standard aerobic incubation, anaerobic incubation suppressed overgrowth of masking, noncoliform bacteria but did not increase the frequency of fecal coliform recovery.

  3. Anaerobic Digestion and its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process. The initials "AD" may refer to the process of anaerobic digestion, or the built systems of anaerobic digesters. While there are many kinds of digesters, the biology is basically the same for all. Anaerobic digesters are built...

  4. An investigation of inhibition effect of metronidazole before and after using advanced oxidation process (UV254/H2O2 on specific methanogenic activity of anaerobic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Mirzaee

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Different concentrations of metronidazole had an inhibition effect on anaerobic digestions and therefore the efficient pretreatment method is needed to reduce this inhibition effect. The UV254/H2O2 process is an effective method for degradation and conversion of metronidazole to more biodegradable compounds for anaerobic bacteria consumption and, in turn, to increase biogasproduction in anaerobic digestions.

  5. Diversity of anaerobic microbes in spacecraft assembly clean rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Alexander; Vaishampayan, Parag; Osman, Shariff; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2010-05-01

    Although the cultivable and noncultivable microbial diversity of spacecraft assembly clean rooms has been previously documented using conventional and state-of-the-art molecular techniques, the occurrence of obligate anaerobes within these clean rooms is still uncertain. Therefore, anaerobic bacterial communities of three clean-room facilities were analyzed during assembly of the Mars Science Laboratory rover. Anaerobic bacteria were cultured on several media, and DNA was extracted from suitable anaerobic enrichments and examined with conventional 16S rRNA gene clone library, as well as high-density phylogenetic 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip) technologies. The culture-dependent analyses predominantly showed the presence of clostridial and propionibacterial strains. The 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from clone libraries revealed distinct microbial populations associated with each clean-room facility, clustered exclusively within gram-positive organisms. PhyloChip analysis detected a greater microbial diversity, spanning many phyla of bacteria, and provided a deeper insight into the microbial community structure of the clean-room facilities. This study presents an integrated approach for assessing the anaerobic microbial population within clean-room facilities, using both molecular and cultivation-based analyses. The results reveal that highly diverse anaerobic bacterial populations persist in the clean rooms even after the imposition of rigorous maintenance programs and will pose a challenge to planetary protection implementation activities.

  6. Early Microbial Evolution: The Age of Anaerobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William F; Sousa, Filipa L

    2016-02-01

    In this article, the term "early microbial evolution" refers to the phase of biological history from the emergence of life to the diversification of the first microbial lineages. In the modern era (since we knew about archaea), three debates have emerged on the subject that deserve discussion: (1) thermophilic origins versus mesophilic origins, (2) autotrophic origins versus heterotrophic origins, and (3) how do eukaryotes figure into early evolution. Here, we revisit those debates from the standpoint of newer data. We also consider the perhaps more pressing issue that molecular phylogenies need to recover anaerobic lineages at the base of prokaryotic trees, because O2 is a product of biological evolution; hence, the first microbes had to be anaerobes. If molecular phylogenies do not recover anaerobes basal, something is wrong. Among the anaerobes, hydrogen-dependent autotrophs--acetogens and methanogens--look like good candidates for the ancestral state of physiology in the bacteria and archaea, respectively. New trees tend to indicate that eukaryote cytosolic ribosomes branch within their archaeal homologs, not as sisters to them and, furthermore tend to root archaea within the methanogens. These are major changes in the tree of life, and open up new avenues of thought. Geochemical methane synthesis occurs as a spontaneous, abiotic exergonic reaction at hydrothermal vents. The overall similarity between that reaction and biological methanogenesis fits well with the concept of a methanogenic root for archaea and an autotrophic origin of microbial physiology. PMID:26684184

  7. Variation of EPS,enzyme activity,and bacteria density in sewage sludge during the anaerobic/aerobic digestion processes by ultrasonic sludge treatment%超声波-缺氧/好氧消化过程污泥EPS、酶活性及菌落数的变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚炜婷; 孙水裕; 郑莉; 尹光彩; 李楚华; 蔡明山; 许燕滨; 童文锦

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the sludge anaerobic/aerobic digestion mechanism by ultrasonic sludge treatment,the index proportion of EPS and dissolved substances(polysaccharides,protein and DNA),enzyme activities(protease activity and dehydorgenase activity) were measured in the anaerobic/aerobic digestion by the optimal ultrasonic treatment(28 kHz ultrasonic frequency,0.1 W·mL-1 ultrasonic density,15 min ultrasonic time and 12 h ultrasonic interval time).It showed that the performances of anaerobic/aerobic digestion were greatly improved by ultrasonic treatment,with the removal rate of VSS reaching 40.14% after digestion for 10 days,20% more than that of the controlled,and at the same time great amount of soluble organics was released.The index proportions of EPS and dissolved substances in the ultrasonic sludge and the control were almost the same,indicating that ultrasonic could promote oxygen/aerobic sludge digestion but would not change the index proportion of EPS and their dissolved substances.The variation trend of enzyme activities increased at the beginning and then dropped off after 10 days' digestion,with the maximum value appearing on the fourth day.The protease activity of ultrasonic sludge was more than that of the controlled during 0~5 d digestion,due to the markedly improved protease activity and the high-speed biological reaction.Organic matter degradation ratio was also improved greatly,leading to the improved VSS removal rate in ultrasonic sludge.While the variation of dehydrogenase activity in ultrasonic sludge was almost the same compared with the controlled,it was therefore unable to represent ultrasonic promotion by sludge anaerobic/aerobic digestibility.The variation trend of sludge bacteria density also increased at the beginning and then dropped off after 10 days' digestion,but it is controversial for the measurement of bacteria density.Further study is needed.%为研究超声波促进污泥缺氧/好氧消化的机理,采用

  8. Some unique features of alkaliphilic anaerobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roof, Erin; Pikuta, Elena; Otto, Christopher; Williams, George; Hoover, Richard

    2013-09-01

    This article explores two topics involving the examination of four strains of alkaliphilic anaerobes. The first topic was dedicated to detection of the ability of microorganisms to metabolize alternative chirality substrates. Two saccharolytic anaerobic bacteria were chosen for the first experiment: Anaerovirgula multivorans strain SCAT, which is gram positive and spore-forming; and Spirochaeta dissipatitropha, strain ASpC2T, which is gram negative. It was found that both checked sugarlytics were able to use L-ribose and L-arabinose, as growth substrates. The second part was concerned of study a chemolithotrophy in two halo-alkaliphilic sulfate reducing bacteria: Desulfonatornum thiodismutans strain MLF1T and Desulfonatronum lacustre strain Z-7951T. The experiments with lithotrophs had demonstrated that strain MLF1T was capable to grow without any organic source of carbon, while strain Z-7951T had required at least 2 mM sodium acetate for growth. Anaerobic technique was used for preparation of the growth media and maintenance of these bacterial cultures. Standard methods for Gram, spore, and flagella staining were applied for characterization of cytomorphology. In this article, the results of the experiments performed on cytological, physiological, and biochemical levels are presented and discussed.

  9. Enumeration of Organohalide Respirers in Municipal Wastewater Anaerobic Digesters

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J.K. Smith; Boothe, Melissa A; Brice A. Fiddler; Tania M. Lozano; Russel K. Rahi; Krzmarzick, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Organohalide contaminants such as triclosan and triclocarban have been well documented in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), but the degradation of these contaminants is not well understood. One possible removal mechanism is organohalide respiration by which bacteria reduce the halogenated compound. The purpose of this study was to determine the abundance of organohalide-respiring bacteria in eight WWTP anaerobic digesters. The obligate organohalide respiring Dehalococcoides mccar...

  10. Arsenic, Anaerobes, and Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, J. F.; Oremland, R. S.; Switzer Blum, J.; Hoeft, S. E.; Baesman, S. M.; Bennett, S.; Miller, L. G.; Kulp, T. R.; Saltikov, C.

    2013-12-01

    Arsenic is an element best known for its highly poisonous nature, so it is not something one would associate with being a well-spring for life. Yet discoveries made over the past two decades have delineated that not only are some microbes resistant to arsenic, but that this element's primary redox states can be exploited to conserve energy and support prokaryotic growth ('arsenotrophy') in the absence of oxygen. Hence, arsenite [As(III)] can serve as an electron donor for chemo- or photo-autotrophy while arsenate [As(V)] will serve as an electron acceptor for chemo-heterotrophs and chemo-autotrophs. The phylogenetic diversity of these microbes is broad, encompassing many individual species from diverse taxonomic groups in the Domain Bacteria, with fewer representatives in the Domain Archaea. Speculation with regard to the evolutionary origins of the key functional genes in anaerobic arsenic transformations (arrA and arxA) and aerobic oxidation (aioB) has led to a disputation as to which gene and function is the most ancient and whether arsenic metabolism extended back into the Archaean. Regardless of its origin, robust arsenic metabolism has been documented in extreme environments that are rich in their arsenic content, such as hot springs and especially hypersaline soda lakes associated with volcanic regions. Searles Lake, CA is an extreme, salt-saturated end member where vigorous arsenic metabolism occurs, but there is no detectable sulfate-reduction or methanogenesis. The latter processes are too weak bio-energetically to survive as compared with arsenotrophy, and are also highly sensitive to the abundance of borate ions present in these locales. These observations have implications with respect to the search for microbial life elsewhere in the Solar System where volcanic-like processes have been operative. Hence, because of the likelihood of encountering dense brines in the regolith of Mars (formed by evapo-concentration) or beneath the ice layers of Europa

  11. ISOLATION OF ANAEROBES IN DEEP SEATED PRESSURE ULCERS USING A NOVEL INNOVATIVE TECHNIQUE OF ANAEROBE ISOLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalbiaktluangi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Isolation of an anaerobe is usually neglected in hospitals with limited resources due to the expensive and complicated technique of anaerobic isolation methods, which is difficult to arrange in such resource poor settings. Conventionally adopted anaerobic culture methods such as Anaerobic jar, Gas-Pak, Anoxomat or Automated glove-box systems are extremely costly and cumbersome for single unit testing, but not suitable for small scale laboratories. However, anaerobic bacteria are not to be overlooked as they have made a comeback in clinical settings and are even showing resistance to Metronidazole, once thought to be the gold standard bullet against anaerobes. Deep seated pressure ulcers are usually the site where anaerobe causes an infection in synergy with aerobes. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES Isolation of anaerobes in deep seated pressure ulcers using a novel innovative technique and to study their antibiogram profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS Swabs taken from depth of deep seated pressure ulcers were immediately inoculated in Brucella blood agar at bedside and placed in polycarbonate airtight jar for anaerobic incubation using a novel innovative Modified Candle Jar technique. In this technique five grams of grease-free grade zero steel wool were dipped in 50ml freshly prepared acidified copper sulphate solution until the copper colour appeared. Excess solution was drained and the steel wool was moulded into a loose pad to fit on an open Petri plate placed on top of the inoculated Brucella blood agar plates. A white-wax candle was placed at the centre of this plate. A small test tube containing mixture of 0.5g sodium-bicarbonate and 0.5g magnesium carbonate was kept ready to be placed inside the jar, just after placing the inoculated plate and incubated for 48 hours. RESULTS Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Bacteroides fragilis were successfully isolated from deep seated pressure ulcers by this method. Antibiogram studies were done using the

  12. Characteristics, Process Parameters, and Inner Components of Anaerobic Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelgadir, Awad; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Jianshe; Xie, Xuehui; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Heng; Liu, Na

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic bioreactor applies the principles of biotechnology and microbiology, and nowadays it has been used widely in the wastewater treatment plants due to their high efficiency, low energy use, and green energy generation. Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic process were shown, and three main characteristics of anaerobic bioreactor (AB), namely, inhomogeneous system, time instability, and space instability were also discussed in this work. For high efficiency of wastewater treatment, the process parameters of anaerobic digestion, such as temperature, pH, Hydraulic retention time (HRT), Organic Loading Rate (OLR), and sludge retention time (SRT) were introduced to take into account the optimum conditions for living, growth, and multiplication of bacteria. The inner components, which can improve SRT, and even enhance mass transfer, were also explained and have been divided into transverse inner components, longitudinal inner components, and biofilm-packing material. At last, the newly developed special inner components were discussed and found more efficient and productive. PMID:24672798

  13. ANAMMOX process start up and stabilization with an anaerobic seed in Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneethi, S; Joseph, Kurian

    2011-10-01

    ANaerobic AMMonium OXidation (ANAMMOX) process, an advanced biological nitrogen removal alternative to traditional nitrification--denitrification removes ammonia using nitrite as the electron acceptor without oxygen. The feasibility of enriching anammox bacteria from anaerobic seed culture to start up an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) for N-removal is reported in this paper. The Anammox activity was established in the AnMBR with anaerobic digester seed culture from a Sewage Treatment Plant in batch mode with recirculation followed by semi continuous process and continuous modes of operation. The AnMBR performance under varying Nitrogen Loading Rates (NLR) and HRTs is reported for a year, in terms of nitrogen transformations to ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate along with hydrazine and hydroxylamine. Interestingly ANAMMOX process was evident from simultaneous Amm-N and nitrite reduction, consistent nitrate production, hydrazine and hydroxylamine presence, notable organic load reduction and bicarbonate consumption. PMID:21775136

  14. Research Progress on Microbial Properties of Nitrite-Dependent Anaerobic Methane-Oxidising Bacteria%亚硝酸盐型甲烷厌氧氧化微生物特性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈李东

    2015-01-01

    亚硝酸盐型甲烷厌氧氧化( nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation, N-DAMO)是新近发现的生物反应,是偶联碳氮循环的关键环节,是环境领域和微生物领域的重大发现. N-DAMO的发现对于完善碳氮生物地球化学循环、丰富微生物学内容和研发新型生物脱氮除碳工艺均具有巨大的推动作用.催化N-DAMO反应的微生物为Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera ( M. oxyfera),其隶属于一新发现的细菌门———NC10门.近年来,M. oxyfera的生物学研究取得了许多突破性进展,如初步探明了其个体形态特征、细胞化学组分特征、富集培养特征、生理生化特征及生态学特征,最突出的例子包括发现了M. oxyfera独特的细胞(星状)形态及特殊的脂肪酸(10MeC16:1△7)组分等.最近,N-DAMO的机制研究方面也有了突破性进展:发现了地球上第4种生物产氧途径.目前认为,M. oxyfera具有内产氧功能,其首先将NO2-还原为NO,然后将2分子NO进行歧化反应生成N2和O2,最后利用生成的O2对甲烷进行氧化.本文系统地介绍了M. oxyfera各方面的微生物特性.%Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation ( N-DAMO ) is a recently discovered process that constitutes a unique association between the two major global elements essential for life, carbon and nitrogen. This process is one of the most important discoveries in the fields of environmental science and microbiology. The discovery of N-DAMO process supplements biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen in nature, extends microbial diversity and urges development of novel simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal process. The N-DAMO process is mediated by the bacterium “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera” (M. oxyfera), which belongs to the candidate phylum NC10. Currently, a series of breakthroughs have been made in the research of M. oxyfera. The properties of M. oxyfera morphology, chemical composition, enrichment culture

  15. Laboratory survey and literature review of anaerobic bacteriology: foundations of a clinically orientated and evidence-based workup for anaerobic cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Bart; Magerman, Koen; Waumans, Luc; Cartuyvels, Reinoud

    2016-09-01

    Since the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in routine microbiology laboratories, identification of anaerobic bacteria has become easier. These increased possibilities provide new challenges concerning analytical workup and reporting of anaerobes. In February 2015, an extensive web-based survey on pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical procedures of anaerobic microbiology was sent to 53 Belgian, university and non-university hospital laboratories. Answers of 34 participating laboratories revealed a huge diversity in all analytical stages of anaerobic microbiology. Whether or not colony types were identified was mainly based on anatomical origin of the sample, colony morphology, and total number of different anaerobic isolates in the sample, while reporting of isolate results and performing anti-microbial susceptibility testing was mainly based on anatomical origin of the sample, number of different anaerobic isolates, and the identification of the anaerobic bacteria. These variety of workup procedures were mainly expert-based and have not been extensively clinically validated. For this reason, a standardized, clinically orientated, and feasible procedure for the workup of anaerobic cultures was developed, using MALDI-TOF MS identification, based upon literature data and existing guidelines. PMID:27344540

  16. 一个硫酸盐还原细菌富集物对丁草胺的厌氧降解%Anaerobic degradation of butachlor by sulfate-reducing bacteria enrichment culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶央芳; 杜宇峰

    2000-01-01

    An enrichment culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria,capable of anaerabic degrading butachlor,was obtained.The degradation kinetics of butachlor by the enrichment culture was determined and the optimum concentration of butachlor,the optimum pH and temperature for degradation of butachlor were observed..%通过多次富集培养,得到一个能有效厌氧降解丁草胺的硫酸盐还原细菌(SRB)富集物,并对该富集物的生长动力学以及生长的最适丁草胺浓度、最适pH和最适温度作了探讨.

  17. Investigations on the inactivation of selected bacteria and viruses during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic alkaline cofermentation of biological waste materials, food residues and other animal residues; Seuchenhygienische Untersuchungen zur Inaktivierung ausgewaehlter Bakterien und Viren bei der mesophilen und thermophilen anaeroben alkalischen Faulung von Bio- und Kuechenabfaellen sowie anderen Rest- und Abfallstoffen tierischer Herkunft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoferer, M. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Umwelt- und Tierhygiene sowie Tiermedizin mit Tierklinik

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the inactivation kinetics of a number of different bacteria (Salmonella Senftenberg, Escherichia coli O157, Enterococcus faecium) and viruses (Bovine Enterovirus (ECBO), Equine Rhinovirus (ERV), Poliovirus, Bovine Parvovirus (BPV)) during the process of anaerobic cofermentation. Experiments were conducted in a semi-technical biogas plant at the University of Hohenheim. The fermenter was fed with a mixture of slurry from pigs or cattle (75%) and leftovers (25%) and was run under mesophilic (30 C + 35 C) as well as under thermophilic temperature conditions (50 C + 55 C). Volume and filter-sandwich germ-carriers were specifically developed and/or optimised for these analyses. Parallel to the experiments at the University of Hohenheim and under almost identical process conditions, various viruses (African Swine Fever Virus, Pseudorabies Virus, Classical Swine Fever Virus, Foot and Mouth Disease Virus, Swine Vesicular Disease Virus) were examined at the Federal Research Centre for Virus Diseases of Animals in Tuebingen. The results obtained at each research institution are directly compared. (orig.)

  18. Dehalococcoides mccartyi gen. nov., sp. nov., obligately organohalide-respiring anaerobic bacteria relevant to halogen cycling and bioremediation, belong to a novel bacterial class, Dehalococcoidia classis nov., order Dehalococcoidales ord. nov. and family Dehalococcoidaceae fam. nov., within the phylum Chloroflexi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Frank E; Yan, Jun; Ritalahti, Kirsti M; Adrian, Lorenz; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Müller, Jochen A; Fullerton, Heather; Zinder, Stephen H; Spormann, Alfred M

    2013-02-01

    Six obligately anaerobic bacterial isolates (195(T), CBDB1, BAV1, VS, FL2 and GT) with strictly organohalide-respiring metabolisms were obtained from chlorinated solvent-contaminated aquifers, contaminated and uncontaminated river sediments or anoxic digester sludge. Cells were non-motile with a disc-shaped morphology, 0.3-1 µm in diameter and 0.1-0.2 µm thick, and characteristic indentations on opposite flat sides of the cell. Growth occurred in completely synthetic, reduced medium amended with a haloorganic electron acceptor (mostly chlorinated but also some brominated compounds), hydrogen as electron donor, acetate as carbon source, and vitamins. No other growth-supporting redox couples were identified. Aqueous hydrogen consumption threshold concentrations were pentyl-2-furyl)-nonanoate and 8-(5-hexyl-2-furyl)-octanoate were detected in strains FL2, BAV1 and GT, but not in strains 195(T) and CBDB1. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the six isolates shared more than 98 % identity, and phylogenetic analysis revealed an affiliation with the phylum Chloroflexi and more than 10 % sequence divergence from other described isolates. The genome sizes and G+C contents ranged from 1.34 to 1.47 Mbp and 47 to 48.9 mol% G+C, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, genome-wide average nucleotide identity and phenotypic characteristics, the organohalide-respiring isolates represent a new genus and species, for which the name Dehalococcoides mccartyi gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. Isolates BAV1 ( = ATCC BAA-2100  = JCM 16839  = KCTC 5957), FL2 ( = ATCC BAA-2098  = DSM 23585  = JCM 16840  = KCTC 5959), GT ( = ATCC BAA-2099  = JCM 16841  = KCTC 5958), CBDB1, 195(T) ( = ATCC BAA-2266(T)  = KCTC 15142(T)) and VS are considered strains of Dehalococcoides mccartyi, with strain 195(T) as the type strain. The new class Dehalococcoidia classis nov., order Dehalococcoidales ord. nov. and family Dehalococcoidaceae fam

  19. Potential Application of Anaerobic Extremophiles for Hydrogen Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    During substrate fermentation many anaerobes produce the hydrogen as a waste product, which often regulates the growth of the cultures as an inhibitor. In nature the hydrogen is usually removed from the ecosystem due to its physical properties or by consumption of hydrogen by secondary anaerobes, which sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors as is seen in the classical example in anaerobic microbial communities via the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur- reducers. It was demonstrated previously on mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH that bacterial hydrogen production could provide an alternative energy source. But at neutral pH the original cultures can easily be contaminated by methanogens, a most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and the cultivation of human pathogens on a global scale is very dangerous. In our laboratory, experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria that excrete hydrogen as the end metabolic product were performed at different temperature regimes. Mesophilic and moderately thermophilic bacterial cultures have been studied and compared for the most effective hydrogen production. For high-mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many methanogens are known to exist. Furthermore, the development of pathogenic contaminant microorganisms is virtually impossible: carbonate-saturated solutions are used as antiseptics in medicine. Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as most safe process for global Scale industry in future. Here we present experimental data on the rates of hydrogen productivity for mesophilic, alkaliphilic, obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirocheta americana ASpG1 and moderately thermophilic, alkaliphilic, facultative anaerobe Anoxybacillus pushchinoensis K1 and

  20. FNR-mediated regulation of bioluminescence and anaerobic respiration in the light-organ symbiont Vibrio fischeri

    OpenAIRE

    Septer, Alecia N.; Bose, Jeffrey L.; Dunn, Anne K.; Stabb, Eric V.

    2010-01-01

    Vibrio fischeri induces both anaerobic respiration and bioluminescence during symbiotic infection. In many bacteria, the oxygen-sensitive regulator FNR activates anaerobic respiration, and a preliminary study using the light-generating lux genes from V. fischeri MJ1 cloned in Escherichia coli suggested that FNR stimulates bioluminescence. To test for FNR-mediated regulation of bioluminescence and anaerobic respiration in V. fischeri, we generated fnr mutants of V. fischeri strains MJ1 and ES1...

  1. Anaerobic biotransformation of estrogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czajka, Cynthia P. [Department of Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada); Londry, Kathleen L. [Department of Microbiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2 (Canada)]. E-mail: londryk@cc.umanitoba.ca

    2006-08-31

    Estrogens are important environmental contaminants that disrupt endocrine systems and feminize male fish. We investigated the potential for anaerobic biodegradation of the estrogens 17-{alpha}-ethynylestradiol (EE2) and 17-{beta}-estradiol (E2) in order to understand their fate in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Cultures were established using lake water and sediment under methanogenic, sulfate-, iron-, and nitrate-reducing conditions. Anaerobic degradation of EE2 (added at 5 mg/L) was not observed in multiple trials over long incubation periods (over three years). E2 (added at 5 mg/L) was transformed to estrone (E1) under all four anaerobic conditions (99-176 {mu}g L{sup -1} day{sup -1}), but the extent of conversion was different for each electron acceptor. The oxidation of E2 to E1 was not inhibited by E1. Under some conditions, reversible inter-conversion of E2 and E1 was observed, and the final steady state concentration of E2 depended on the electron-accepting condition but was independent of the total amount of estrogens added. In addition, racemization occurred and E1 was also transformed to 17-{alpha}-estradiol under all but nitrate-reducing conditions. Although E2 could be readily transformed to E1 and in many cases 17-{alpha}-estradiol under anaerobic conditions, the complete degradation of estrogens under these conditions was minimal, suggesting that they would accumulate in anoxic environments.

  2. SAR11 bacteria linked to ocean anoxia and nitrogen loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsementzi, Despina; Wu, Jieying; Deutsch, Samuel;

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the SAR11 clade constitute up to one half of all microbial cells in the oxygen-rich surface ocean. SAR11 bacteria are also abundant in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), where oxygen falls below detection and anaerobic microbes have vital roles in converting bioavailable nitrogen to N2 gas....... Anaerobic metabolism has not yet been observed in SAR11, and it remains unknown how these bacteria contribute to OMZ biogeochemical cycling. Here, genomic analysis of single cells from the world’s largest OMZ revealed previously uncharacterized SAR11 lineages with adaptations for life without oxygen...

  3. Degradation of methyl bromide in anaerobic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Strohmaler, F.E.

    1994-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) was anaerobically degraded in saltmarsh sediments after reaction with sulfide. The product of this nucleophilic substitution reaction was methanethiol, which underwent further chemical and bacterial reactions to form dimethyl sulfide. These two gases appeared transiently during sediment incubations because they were metabolized by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing bacteria. A second, less significant reaction of MeBr was the exchange with chloride, forming methyl chloride, which was also susceptible to attack by sulfide. Incubation of 14C-labeled methyl iodide as an analogue of MeBr resulted in the formation of 14CH4 and 14CO2 and also indicated that sulfate-reducing bacteria as well as methanogens metabolized the methylated sulfur intermediates. These results suggest that exposed sediments with abundant free sulfide, such as coastal salt-marshes, may constitute a sink for atmospheric MeBr.

  4. Molecular analysis of the biomass of a fluidized bed reactor treating synthetic vinasse at anaerobic and micro-aerobic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, E.; Lopes, A.; Fdz-Polanco, M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Garcia Encina, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial communities (Bacteria and Archaea) established in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor used to treat synthetic vinasse (betaine, glucose, acetate, propionate, and butyrate) were characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phylogenetic analysis. This study was focu

  5. Methanotrophic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, R S; Hanson, T. E.

    1996-01-01

    Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehy...

  6. Phototrophic bacteria and their role in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueper, H. G.

    1985-01-01

    An essential step that cannot be bypassed in the biogeochemical cycle of sulfur today is dissimilatory sulfate reduction by anaerobic bacteria. The enormous amounts of sulfides produced by these are oxidized again either anaerobically by phototrophic bacteria or aerobically by thiobacilli and large chemotrophic bacteria (Beggiatoa, Thiovulum, etc.). Phototrophic bacteria use sulfide, sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite as electron donors for photosynthesis. The most obvious intermediate in their oxidative sulfur metabolism is a long chain polysulfide that appears as so called sulfur globules either inside (Chromatiaceae) or outside (Ectothiorhodospiraceae, Chlorobiaceae, and some of the Rhodospirillaceae) the cells. The assimilation of sulfur compounds in phototrophic bacteria is in principle identical with that of nonphototrophic bacteria. However, the Chlorobiaceae and some of the Chromatiaceae and Rhodospirillaceae, unable to reduce sulfate, rely upon reduced sulfur for biosynthetic purposes.

  7. Correlation of anaerobic ammonium oxidation and denitrification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of the nitrous organic wastewater treated was studied in seven anaerobic sequencing batch reactors(ASBRs)(0 #-6 #) which had been run under stable anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox). By means of monitoring and data analysis of COD, NH4+-N, NO2--N, NO3--N and pH, and of microbial test, the results revealed that the optimal Anammox performance was achieved from 2# reactor in which COD/NH4+-N was 1.65, Anammox bacteria and denitrification bacteria could coexist, and Anammox reaction and denitrification reaction could occur simultaneously in the reactors. The ratio of NH4+-N consumed: NO2--N consumed: NO3--N produced was 1:1.38:0.19 in 0# reactor which was not added glucose in the wastewater. When different ratio of COD and NH4+-N was fed for the reactors, the ratio of NO2--N consumed: NH4+-N consumed was in the range of 1.51-2.29 and the ratio of NO3-N produced: NH4+-N consumed in the range of 0-0.05.

  8. My Lifelong Passion for Biochemistry and Anaerobic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thauer, Rudolf Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Early parental influence led me first to medical school, but after developing a passion for biochemistry and sensing the need for a deeper foundation, I changed to chemistry. During breaks between semesters, I worked in various biochemistry labs to acquire a feeling for the different areas of investigation. The scientific puzzle that fascinated me most was the metabolism of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium kluyveri, which I took on in 1965 in Karl Decker's lab in Freiburg, Germany. I quickly realized that little was known about the biochemistry of strict anaerobes such as clostridia, methanogens, acetogens, and sulfate-reducing bacteria and that these were ideal model organisms to study fundamental questions of energy conservation, CO2 fixation, and the evolution of metabolic pathways. My passion for anaerobes was born then and is unabated even after 50 years of study.

  9. Inhibition of the anaerobic digestion process by linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    it is important to investigate the effect of these xenobiotic compounds on an anaerobic environment. The inhibitory effect of Linear Alkylbenzene Sulfonates (LAS) on the acetogenic and methanogenic step of the anaerobic digestion process was studied. LAS inhibit both acetogenesis from propionate...... and methanogenesis from acetate and hydrogen and it is shown that the propionate-utilising bacteria are more sensitive to the presence of LAS than the acetoclastic methanogens. It has been proven that the inhibition intensity depends on the solids concentration and thus the term "biomass specific LAS concentration......" has been introduced in order to describe the phenomenon better. Conclusively, it is believed that the inhibitory effect of LAS is the main reason that anaerobic microbial enrichments on LAS have not been succeeded yet. Also, the inhibition caused by LAS on the acetogenic and methanogenic step...

  10. Anaerobic azo dye reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Zee, van der, KG Kristoffer

    2002-01-01

    Azo dyes, aromatic moieties linked together by azo (-N=N-) chromophores, represent the largest class of dyes used in textile-processing and other industries. The release of these compounds into the environment is undesirable, not only because of their colour, but also because many azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic and/or mutagenic to life. To remove azo dyes from wastewater, a biological treatment strategy based on anaerobic reduction of the azo dyes, followed by aerobic transfo...

  11. Potential application of anaerobic extremophiles for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-11-01

    In processes of the substrate fermentation most anaerobes produce molecular hydrogen as a waste end product, which often controls the culture growth as an inhibitor. Usually in nature the hydrogen is easily removed from an ecosystem, due to its physical features, and an immediate consumption by the secondary anaerobes that sometimes behave as competitors for electron donors; a classical example of this kind of substrate competition in anaerobic microbial communities is the interaction between methanogens and sulfate- or sulfur-reducers. Previously, on the mixed cultures of anaerobes at neutral pH, it was demonstrated that bacterial hydrogen production could provide a good alternative energy source. At neutral pH the original cultures could easily contaminated by methanogens, and the most unpleasant side effect of these conditions is the development of pathogenic bacteria. In both cases the rate of hydrogen production was dramatically decreased since some part of the hydrogen was transformed to methane, and furthermore, the cultivation with pathogenic contaminants on an industrial scale would create an unsafe situation. In our laboratory the experiments with obligately alkaliphilic bacteria producing hydrogen as an end metabolic product were performed at different conditions. The mesophilic, haloalkaliphilic and obligately anaerobic bacterium Spirochaeta americana ASpG1T was studied and various cultivation regimes were compared for the most effective hydrogen production. In a highly mineralized media with pH 9.5-10.0 not many known methanogens are capable of growth, and the probability of developing pathogenic contaminants is theoretically is close to zero (in medicine carbonate- saturated solutions are applied as antiseptics). Therefore the cultivation of alkaliphilic hydrogen producing bacteria could be considered as a safe and economical process for large-scale industrial bio-hydrogen production in the future. Here we present and discuss the experimental data

  12. Evidence for PAH Removal Coupled to the First Steps of Anaerobic Digestion in Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Cea-Barcia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been brought to the fore, but information on removal kinetics and anaerobic degrading bacteria is still lacking. In order to explore the organic micropollutants removal kinetics under anaerobic conditions in regard to the methane production kinetics, the removal rate of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was measured in two anaerobic batch reactors series fed with a highly loaded secondary sludge as growth substrate. The results underscore that organic micropollutants removal is coupled to the initial stages of anaerobic digestion (acidogenesis and acetogenesis. In addition, the organic micropollutants kinetics suggest that the main removal mechanisms of these hydrophobic compounds are biodegradation and/or sequestration depending on the compounds.

  13. Metabolic Capabilities of Microorganisms Involved in and Associated with the Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane

    OpenAIRE

    Wegener, Gunter; Krukenberg, Viola; Ruff, S. Emil; Kellermann, Matthias Y.; Knittel, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    In marine sediments the anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulfate as electron acceptor (AOM) is responsible for the removal of a major part of the greenhouse gas methane. AOM is performed by consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and their specific partner bacteria. The physiology of these organisms is poorly understood, which is due to their slow growth with doubling times in the order of months and the phylogenetic diversity in natural and in vitro AOM enrichments. Here w...

  14. Anaerobic Cultures from Preserved Tissues of Baby Mammoth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Fisher, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Microbiological analysis of several cold-preserved tissue samples from the Siberian baby mammoth known as Lyuba revealed a number of culturable bacterial strains that were grown on anaerobic media at 4 C. Lactic acid produced by LAB (lactic acid bacteria) group, usually by members of the genera Carnobacterium and Lactosphera, appears to be a wonderful preservative that prevents other bacteria from over-dominating a system. Permafrost and lactic acid preserved the body of this one-month old baby mammoth and kept it in exceptionally good condition, resulting in this mammoth being the most complete such specimen ever recovered. The diversity of novel anaerobic isolates was expressed on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic levels. Here we discuss the specifics of the isolation of new strains, differentiation from trivial contamination, and preliminary results for the characterization of cultures.

  15. Anaerobic cultures from preserved tissues of baby mammoth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Fisher, Daniel; Hoover, Richard B.

    2011-10-01

    Microbiological analysis of several cold-preserved tissue samples from the Siberian baby mammoth known as Lyuba revealed a number of culturable bacterial strains that were grown on anaerobic media at 3 oC. Lactic acid produced by LAB (lactic acid bacteria) group, usually by members of the genera Carnobacterium and Lactosphera, appears to be a wonderful preservative that keeps other bacteria from colonizing a system. Permafrost and lactic acid preserved the body of this one month-old baby mammoth and kept it in exceptionally good condition, resulting in this mammoth being the most complete sample of the species ever recovered. The diversity of novel psychrophilic anaerobic isolates was expressed on morphological, physiological and phylogenetic levels. Here, we discuss the specifics of the isolation of new psychrophilic strains, differentiation from trivial contamination, and preliminary results for characterization of the cultures.

  16. New perspectives in anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Lier, J.B.; Tilche, A.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær;

    2001-01-01

    requirements. In fact, most advances were achieved during the last three decades, when high-rate reactor systems were developed and a profound insight was obtained in the microbiology of the anaerobic communities. This insight led to a better understanding of anaerobic treatment and, subsequently, to a broader......The IWA specialised group on anaerobic digestion (AD) is one of the oldest working groups of the former IAWQ organisation. Despite the fact that anaerobic technology dates back more than 100 years, the technology is still under development, adapting novel treatment systems to the modern...

  17. Molecular characterization of anaerobic dehalogenation by Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans

    OpenAIRE

    Smidt, H.

    2001-01-01

    Haloorganics such as chlorophenols and chlorinated ethenes are among the most abundant pollutants in soil, sediments and groundwater, mainly caused by past and present industrial and agricultural activities. Due to bioaccumulation and toxicity, these compounds threaten the integrity of the environment, and human and animal health. A recently discovered, phylogenetically diverse, group of anaerobic so-called halorespiring bacteria is able to couple the reductive dehalogenation of various haloo...

  18. Nitrogen loss by anaerobic oxidation of ammonium in rice rhizosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, San'an; Li, Hu; Yang, Xiaoru; Zhang, Zhaoji; Weng, Bosen; Huang, Fuyi; Zhu, Gui-Bing; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic oxidation of ammonium (anammox) is recognized as an important process for nitrogen (N) cycling, yet its role in agricultural ecosystems, which are intensively fertilized, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the presence, activity, functional gene abundance and role of anammox bacteria in rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere paddy soils using catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization, isotope-tracing technique, quantitative PCR assay and 16S rRNA gene cl...

  19. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the Arabian Sea - their distribution in relation to thiosulfate-oxidising and heterotrophic bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    and surface waters. We also examined their occurrence relative to certain sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (aer obic and anaerobic Thiobacillus-like) and to aerobic and anaerobic heterotrophs. Attempts have also been made to establish the generic affinity of... observations together with cell morphology and pigment characteristics were used to identify the isolates to the generic level (Table 5). Strains resembling Desulfomonas, Desulfovibrio. Desulfobacter and De- 626 BULLETIN OF MARINE SClENCE. VOL 47. NO.3. 1990...

  20. Application of bacteria involved in the biological sulfur cycle for paper mill effluent purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.H.; Lens, P.N.L.; Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Muyzer, G.; Dijkman, H.; Zessen, van E.; Luimes, F.J.T.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    In anaerobic wastewater treatment, the occurrence of biological sulfate reduction results in the formation of unwanted hydrogen sulfide, which is odorous, corrosive and toxic. In this paper, the role and application of bacteria in anaerobic and aerobic sulfur transformations are described and exempl

  1. Methods for distinguishing gram-positive from gram-negative bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Carlone, G M; Valadez, M J; Pickett, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Lysis by KOH and hydrolysis of L-alanine-4-nitroanilide were compared with the Gram reaction of aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic bacteria. Both tests correlated well with the Gram reaction with nonfermentative bacilli and Bacillus species, whereas they did not correlate with nonsporulating anaerobes. Only campylobacteria were KOH positive and L-alanine-4-nitroanilide and gram negative.

  2. Microbial Ecology of Anaerobic Digesters: The Key Players of Anaerobiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayyaz Ali Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion is the method of wastes treatment aimed at a reduction of their hazardous effects on the biosphere. The mutualistic behavior of various anaerobic microorganisms results in the decomposition of complex organic substances into simple, chemically stabilized compounds, mainly methane and CO2. The conversions of complex organic compounds to CH4 and CO2 are possible due to the cooperation of four different groups of microorganisms, that is, fermentative, syntrophic, acetogenic, and methanogenic bacteria. Microbes adopt various pathways to evade from the unfavorable conditions in the anaerobic digester like competition between sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB and methane forming bacteria for the same substrate. Methanosarcina are able to use both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic pathways for methane production. This review highlights the cellulosic microorganisms, structure of cellulose, inoculum to substrate ratio, and source of inoculum and its effect on methanogenesis. The molecular techniques such as DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis utilized for dynamic changes in microbial communities and FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization that deal with taxonomy and interaction and distribution of tropic groups used are also discussed.

  3. [Anaerobic biodegradation of phthalic acid esters (Paes) in municipal sludge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Feng; Zhou, Wen; Lin, Qing-Qi; Yang, Xiu-Hong; Wang, Shi-Zhong; Cai, Xin-De; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2014-04-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs), a class of organic pollutants with potent endocrine-disrupting properties, are widely present in municipal sludge. Study of PAEs biodegradation under different anaerobic biological treatment processes of sludge is, therefore, essential for a safe use of sludge in agricultural practice. In this study, we selected two major sludge PAEs, i.e. di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-enthylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), to investigate their biodegradation behaviors in an anaerobic sludge digestion system and a fermentative hydrogen production system. The possible factors influencing PAEs biodegradation in relation to changes of sludge properties were also discussed. The results showed that the biodegradation of DBP reached 99.6% within 6 days, while that of DEHP was 46.1% during a 14-day incubation period in the anaerobic digestion system. By comparison, only 19.5% of DBP was degraded within 14 days in the fermentative hydrogen production system, while no degradation was detected for DEHP. The strong inhibition of the degradation of both PAEs in the fermentative hydrogen production system was ascribed to the decreases in microbial biomass and ratios of gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria and fungi/ bacteria, and the increase of concentrations of volatile fatty acids (e. g. acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) during the fermentative hydrogen-producing process.

  4. Anaerobic Mercury Methylation and Demethylation by Geobacter bemidjiensis Bem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Liu, Yurong; Johs, Alexander; Zhao, Linduo; Wang, Tieshan; Yang, Ziming; Lin, Hui; Elias, Dwayne A; Pierce, Eric M; Liang, Liyuan; Barkay, Tamar; Gu, Baohua

    2016-04-19

    Microbial methylation and demethylation are two competing processes controlling the net production and bioaccumulation of neurotoxic methylmercury (MeHg) in natural ecosystems. Although mercury (Hg) methylation by anaerobic microorganisms and demethylation by aerobic Hg-resistant bacteria have both been extensively studied, little attention has been given to MeHg degradation by anaerobic bacteria, particularly the iron-reducing bacterium Geobacter bemidjiensis Bem. Here we report, for the first time, that the strain G. bemidjiensis Bem can mediate a suite of Hg transformations, including Hg(II) reduction, Hg(0) oxidation, MeHg production and degradation under anoxic conditions. Results suggest that G. bemidjiensis utilizes a reductive demethylation pathway to degrade MeHg, with elemental Hg(0) as the major reaction product, possibly due to the presence of genes encoding homologues of an organomercurial lyase (MerB) and a mercuric reductase (MerA). In addition, the cells can strongly sorb Hg(II) and MeHg, reduce or oxidize Hg, resulting in both time and concentration-dependent Hg species transformations. Moderate concentrations (10-500 μM) of Hg-binding ligands such as cysteine enhance Hg(II) methylation but inhibit MeHg degradation. These findings indicate a cycle of Hg methylation and demethylation among anaerobic bacteria, thereby influencing net MeHg production in anoxic water and sediments. PMID:27019098

  5. Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Siti; Dahlan, Irvan

    2013-09-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

  6. [Detection of anaerobic processes and microorganisms in immobilized activated sludge of a wastewater treatment plant with intense aeration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litti, Iu V; Nekrasova, V K; Kulikov, N I; Siman'kova, M V; Nozhevnikova, A N

    2013-01-01

    Attached activated sludge from the Krasnaya Polyana (Sochi) wastewater treatment plant was studied after the reconstruction by increased aeration and water recycle, as well as by the installation of a bristle carrier for activated sludge immobilization. The activated sludge biofilms developing under conditions of intense aeration were shown to contain both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Activity of a strictly anaerobic methanogenic community was revealed, which degraded organic compounds to methane, further oxidized by aerobic methanotrophs. Volatile fatty acids, the intermediates of anaerobic degradation of complex organic compounds, were used by both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Anaerobic oxidation of ammonium with nitrite (anammox) and the presence of obligate anammox bacteria were revealed in attached activated sludge biofilms. Simultaneous aerobic and anaerobic degradation of organic contaminants by attached activated sludge provides for high rates of water treatment, stability of the activated sludge under variable environmental conditions, and decreased excess sludge formation. PMID:25509405

  7. Economic viability of anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A. [INFOENERGIE, Ettenhausen (Switzerland)

    1996-01-01

    The industrial application of anaerobic digestion is a relatively new, yet proven waste treatment technology. Anaerobic digestion reduces and upgrades organic waste, and is a good way to control air pollution as it reduces methane and nitrous gas emissions. For environmental and energy considerations, anaerobic digestion is a nearly perfect waste treatment process. However, its economic viability is still in question. A number of parameters - type of waste (solid or liquid), digester system, facility size, product quality and end use, environmental requirements, cost of alternative treatments (including labor), and interest rates - define the investment and operating costs of an anaerobic digestion facility. Therefore, identical facilities that treat the same amount and type of waste may, depending on location, legislation, and end product characteristics, reveal radically different costs. A good approach for evaluating the economics of anaerobic digestion is to compare it to treatment techniques such as aeration or conventional sewage treatment (for industrial wastewater), or composting and incineration (for solid organic waste). For example, the cost (per ton of waste) of in-vessel composting with biofilters is somewhat higher than that of anaerobic digestion, but the investment costs 1 1/2 to 2 times more than either composting or anaerobic digestion. Two distinct advantages of anaerobic digestion are: (1) it requires less land than either composting or incinerating, which translates into lower costs and milder environmental and community impacts (especially in densely populated areas); and (2) it produces net energy, which can be used to operate the facility or sold to nearby industries.

  8. Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velsen, van A.F.M.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes an

  9. Microbial Diversity and Characteristics in Anaerobic Environments in KURT Groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Underground Research Tunnel (URT) located in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon, South Korea was recently constructed as an experimental site to study radionuclide transport, biogeochemistry, radionuclide-mineral interactions for the geological disposal of high level nuclear waste. Groundwater sampled from URT was used to examine microbial diversity and to enrich metal reducing bacteria for studying microbe-metal interactions. Genomic analysis indicated that the groundwater contained diverse microorganisms such as metal reducers, metal oxidizers, anaerobic denitrifying bacteria, and bacteria for reductive dechlorination. Metal-reducing bacteria enriched from the groundwater was used to study metal reduction and biomineralization. The metal-reducing bacteria enriched with acetate or lactate as the electron donors showed the bacteria reduced Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, Mn(IV) oxide, and Cr(VI) as the electron acceptors. Preliminary study indicated that the enriched bacteria were able to use glucose, lactate, acetate, and hydrogen as electron donors while reducing Fe(III)-citrate or Fe(III) oxyhydroxide as the electron acceptor. The bacteria exhibited diverse mineral precipitation capabilities including the formation of magnetite, siderite, and rhodochrosite. The results indicated that Fe(III)- and metal-reducing communities are present in URT at the KAERI

  10. Anaerobic biodegradation of TCBPA in river sediment and the role of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) in TCBPA′s degradation%河道底泥中四氯双酚A的厌氧降解及硫酸盐还原菌对其降解效率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世诚; 李玲玲; 任源; 黄志立; 张丽君

    2014-01-01

    In this research, serum bottle experiments were established to investigate the anaerobic transformation of TCBPA with Lianjiang River sediments ( Guiyu Town, Guangdong Province) , and the changes of sulfate-reducing bacteria ( SRB) in this process. The results showed that the order of anaerobic degradation rates of TCBPA in the sediments under different reducing conditions was methanogenic condition> sulfate-reducing condition> inoculated control. The degradation rate constants of each condition were 0. 0844 d-1 , 0. 0694 d-1 , and 0. 0561 d-1 , while their half-lives were 8.2 d, 10.0 d, and 12.4 d, respectively. The degradation rate of TCBPA was enhanced by the addition of electron donors. Compared with the inoculated control sample, the degradation rate constant increased to 0. 0722 d-1 and the half-life decreased to 9. 6 d. On the other hand, the degradation was inhibited by the addition of butyl phthalate. The degradation rate constant decreased to 0.0491 d-1, and the half-life increased to 14.1 d. Real time PCR experiment proved the positive role of SRB in the process of TCBPA degradation.%本文采用血清瓶实验研究了贵屿镇练江底泥TCBPA的厌氧降解特性以及该过程中硫酸盐还原菌的变化情况.结果表明,在不同还原条件下,TCBPA 降解效率顺序为:产甲烷环境>硫酸盐还原环境>接种控制,对应降解速率常数分别为:0.0844 d-1、0.0694 d-1、0.0561 d-1,半衰期分别为:8.2 d、10.0 d、12.4 d.与接种控制组相比,加入电子供体可加速TCBPA降解,降解速率常数可达0.0722 d-1,半衰期为9.6 d.加入邻苯二甲酸丁酯后,TCBPA降解受到抑制,降解速率常数为0.0491 d-1,半衰期为14.1 d.使用Comparative Ct法进行荧光定量PCR实验,结果表明硫酸盐还原菌在TCBPA降解过程中起到了积极的作用.

  11. Anaerobic digestion for simultaneous sewage sludge treatment and CO biomethanation: process performance and microbial ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Wang, Wen; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    in an anaerobic reactor was presented. Batch experiments showed that CO was inhibitory to methanogens, but not to bacteria, at CO partial pressure between 0.25 and 1 atm under thermophilic conditions. During anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge supplemented with CO added through a hollow fiber membrane (HFM....... However, the two species were distributed differently in the liquid phase and in the biofilm. Although carboxidotrophic activities test showed that CO was converted by both archaea and bacteria, the bacterial species responsible for CO conversion are unknown....

  12. EVALUATION OF A TWO-STAGE TREATMENT OF DOMESTIC SEWAGE WITH ANAEROBIC-AEROBIC MICROBIAL FILM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Mesdaghinia

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the feasibility of a two stage continuous system employing anaerobic-aerobic microbial film for domestic wastewater treatment and the effect of iron on the behavior of sulfate reducing bacteria in anaerobic metabolism. A bench scale system with an anaerobic filter followed by aerobic fixed units used plastic media and was operated in up flow manner with hydraulic detention times of 6 hours, whereas the aerobic unit utilized diffused aeration. Raw domestic sewage was fed to the anaerobic unit, and the aerobic unit was fed with the anaerobic unit was fed with the anaerobic effluent. Although, the anaerobic filter did not show a considerable organic removal with domestic sex age it was improved when glucose was added to the influent to increase influent soluble COD. When glucose was added the anaerobic filter removed about 290 mg/1 of influent soluble COD. The aerobic unit produced an excellent effluent with COD, BOD5 and TSS concentrations of 37 mg/1, 9 mg/1 and 10 mg/l respectively. Overall, the system removed 95 percent of influent COD, 97 percent of influent BOD5 and 96 percent of influent TSS.

  13. Degradation of BTEX by anaerobic bacteria: physiology and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (so-called BTEX) is often observed. The cleanup of these toxic compounds has gained much attention in the last decades. In situ bioremediation of aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated soils and gr

  14. Degradation of benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons by anaerobic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Weelink, S.A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Accidental spills, industrial discharges and gasoline leakage from underground storage tanks have resulted in serious pollution of the environment with monoaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (so-called BTEX). High concentrations of BTEX have been detected in soils, sediments and groundwater. The mobility and toxicity of the BTEX compounds are of major concern. In situ bioremediation of BTEX by using naturally occurring microorganisms or introduced microor...

  15. Production of Bioethanol From Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Thermophilic Anaerobic Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.

    2006-01-01

    Bioethanol (ethanol produced from biomass) as a motor fuel is an attractive renewable fully sustainable energy sources as a means of lowering dependence on fossil fuels and air pollution towards greenhouse gasses, particularly CO2. Bioethanol, unlike gasoline, is an oxygenated fuel, which burns...... cleaner and thus lowers emissions of CO, NOx and unburned hydrocarbons pollutants, which are constituents in ground level ozone and particulate matter pollution (smog). In addition, bioethanol can replace currently used gasoline octane booster MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether), which causes serious...... are residual lignocellulose (wastes) created from forest industries or from agricultural food crops (wheat straw, corn stover, rice straw). The lignocellulose contains lignin, which binds carbohydrate polymers (cellulose and hemicellulose) forming together a rather resistant structure. In this regards, a pre...

  16. Degradation of benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons by anaerobic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weelink, S.A.B.

    2008-01-01

    Accidental spills, industrial discharges and gasoline leakage from underground storage tanks have resulted in serious pollution of the environment with monoaromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (so-called BTEX). High concentrations of BTEX have been detected in soi

  17. AccR is a master regulator involved in carbon catabolite repression of the anaerobic catabolism of aromatic compounds in azoarcus sp. CIB

    OpenAIRE

    Valderrama, J. Andrés; Shingler, Victoria; Carmona Pérez, Manuel; Díaz, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mechanisms underlying carbon catabolite repression (CCR) control of the anaerobic degradation of aromatic compounds have previously remained elusive. Results: Phosphorylated AccR was identified as a transcriptional repressor of aromatic degradation operons expressed under anaerobic conditions. Conclusion: The response regulator AccR controls the succinate-dependent CCR in Azoarcus sp. CIB. Significance: AccR is a master regulator that controls anaerobic CCR in bacteria. © 2014 by ...

  18. Sulfate inhibition effect on sulfate reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Al Zuhair

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in the potential of bacterial sulfate reduction as an alternative method for sulfate removal from wastewater. Under anaerobic conditions, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB utilize sulfate to oxidize organic compounds and generate sulfide (S2-. SRB were successfully isolated from sludge samples obtained from a local petroleum refinery, and used for sulfate removal. The effects of initial sulfate concentration, temperature and pH on the rate of bacterial growth and anaerobic sulfate removal were investigated and the optimum conditions were identified. The experimental data were used to determine the parameters of two proposed kinetic model, which take into consideration substrate inhibition effect. Keywords: Sulfate Reducing Bacteria, Sulfate, Kinetic Model, Biotreatement, Inhibition Received: 31 August 2008 / Received in revised form: 18 September 2008, Accepted: 18 September 2008 Published online: 28 September 2008

  19. Anaerobic fungal populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  20. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Plugge, Caroline M.; Zhang, Weiwen; Scholten, Johannes C. M.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB) are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas me...

  1. Big bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, HN; Jørgensen, BB

    2001-01-01

    , the 80 x 600 mum large Epulopiscium sp. from the gut of tropical fish, are presumably living in a very nutrient-rich medium. Many large bacteria contain numerous inclusions in the cells that reduce the volume of active cytoplasm. The most striking examples of competitive advantage from large cell size...

  2. Biotransformation of nonylphenol ethoxylates during sewage treatment under anaerobic and aerobic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Biotransformation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) during continuous anaerobic sewage treatment was compared with the aerobic treatment of sewage spiked with 23 μmol/L technical NPEOs over a period of 90 d. Immediate degradation of NPEOs was observed under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions, indicating that the enzymes and bacteria required for NPEO degradation existed abundantly in both aerobic and anaerobic sludge. Both treatments achieved high removal (>92%) of the spiked NPEO9 mixture.Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis showed that short-chain NPEOs (NPEO1-NPEO3) accumulated in anaerobic (2.01-2.56 μmol/L) and aerobic (1.62-2.03 μmol/L) effluents, with nonylphenol (NP) (0.24-0.31 μmol/L) as another group of metabolites in the anaerobic effluent, and nonylphenoxy carboxylates (NPECs) (2.79-3.30 μmol/L) in the aerobic effluent. Significant accumulation of NP in the anaerobic sludge and NPEO1-3 in the sludge of two reactors was observed. These results indicated that it was difficult to control these harmful metabolites in the conventional treatment processes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles of sludge samples support the speculation that the NPEO degradation bacteria might be the dominant indigenous species.

  3. Enhanced biogas yield from energy crops with rumen anaerobic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, Jindrich; Zabranska, Jana; Dohanyos, Michal [Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environmental Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Mrazek, Jakub; Strosova, Lenka; Fliegerova, Katerina [Laboratory of Anaerobic Microbiology, Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics, CAS, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-06-15

    Anaerobic fungi (AF) are able to degrade crop substrates with higher efficiency than commonly used anaerobic bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate ways of use of rumen AF to improve biogas production from energy crops under laboratory conditions. In this study, strains of AF isolated from feces or rumen fluid of cows and deer were tested for their ability to integrate into the anaerobic bacterial ecosystem used for biogas production, in order to improve degradation of substrate polysaccharides and consequently the biogas yield. Batch culture, fed batch culture, and semicontinuous experiments have been performed using anaerobic sludge from pig slurry fermentation and different kinds of substrates (celluloses, maize, and grass silage) inoculated by different genera of AF. All experiments showed a positive effect of AF on the biogas yield and quality. AF improved the biogas production by 4-22%, depending on the substrate and AF species used. However, all the cultivation experiments indicated that rumen fungi do not show long-term survival in fermenters with digestate from pig slurry. The best results were achieved during fed batch experiment with fungal culture Anaeromyces (KF8), in which biogas production was enhanced during the whole experimental period of 140 days. This result has not been achieved in semicontinuous experiment, where increment in biogas production in fungal enriched reactor was only 4% after 42 days. (copyright 2012 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Assessment of hydrogen metabolism in commercial anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Tobias; Theiss, Juliane; Röske, Kerstin; Rother, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Degradation of biomass in the absence of exogenous electron acceptors via anaerobic digestion involves a syntrophic association of a plethora of anaerobic microorganisms. The commercial application of this process is the large-scale production of biogas from renewable feedstock as an alternative to fossil fuels. After hydrolysis of polymers, monomers are fermented to short-chain fatty acids and alcohols, which are further oxidized to acetate. Carbon dioxide, molecular hydrogen (H2), and acetate generated during the process are converted to methane by methanogenic archaea. Since many of the metabolic pathways as well as the syntrophic interactions and dependencies during anaerobic digestion involve formation, utilization, or transfer of H2, its metabolism and the methanogenic population were assessed in various samples from three commercial biogas plants. Addition of H2 significantly increased the rate of methane formation, which suggested that hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis is not a rate-limiting step during biogas formation. Methanoculleus and Methanosarcina appeared to numerically dominate the archaeal population of the three digesters, but their proportion and the Bacteria-to-Archaea ratio did not correlate with the methane productivity. Instead, hydrogenase activity in cell-free extracts from digester sludge correlated with methane productivity in a positive fashion. Since most microorganisms involved in biogas formation contain this activity, it approximates the overall anaerobic metabolic activity and may, thus, be suitable for monitoring biogas reactor performance. PMID:26995607

  5. Anaerobic oxidation of methane above gas hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, NE Pacific Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treude, T.; Boetius, A.; Knittel, K.;

    2003-01-01

    At Hydrate Ridge (HR), Cascadia convergent margin, surface sediments contain massive gas hydrates formed from methane that ascends together with fluids along faults from deeper reservoirs. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), mediated by a microbial consortium of archaea and sulfate-reducing...... bacteria, generates high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide in the surface sediments. The production of sulfide supports chemosynthetic communities that gain energy from sulfide oxidation. Depending on fluid flow, the surface communities are dominated either by the filamentous sulfur bacteria Beggiatoa...

  6. Anaerobic oxidation of fatty acids by Clostridium bryantii sp. nov. : a sporeforming, obligately syntrophic bacterium

    OpenAIRE

    Stieb, Marion; Schink, Bernhard

    1985-01-01

    From marine and freshwater mud samples strictly anaerobic, Gram-positive, sporeforming bacteria were isolated which oxidized fatty acids in obligately syntrophic association with H2-utilizing bacteria. Even-numbered fatty acids with up to 10 carbon atoms were degraded to acetate and Hz, odd-numbered fatty acids with up to 11 carbon atoms including 2-methylbutyrate were degraded to acetate, propionate and H2. Neither fumarate, sulfate, thiosulfate, sulfur, nor nitrate were reduced. A marine is...

  7. A characterization of anaerobic colonization and associated mucosal adaptations in the undiseased ileal pouch.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Smith, F M

    2012-02-03

    INTRODUCTION: The resolution of pouchitis with metronidazole points to an anaerobic aetiology. Pouchitis is mainly seen in patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (UCP). We have recently found that sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), a species of strict anaerobe, colonize UCP exclusively. Herein, we aimed to correlate levels of different bacterial species (including SRB) with mucosal inflammation and morphology. METHODS: Following ethical approval, fresh faecal samples and mucosal biopsies were taken from 9 patients with UCP and 5 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis pouches (FAPP). For the purposes of comparison, faecal samples and mucosal biopsies were also taken from the stomas of 7 of the 9 patients with UC (UCS). Colonization by four types of strict anaerobes (SRB, Clostridium perfringens, Bifidobacteria and Bacteroides) as well as by three types of facultative anaerobes (Enterococci, Coliforms and Lactobacilli) was evaluated. Inflammatory scores and mucosal morphology were assessed histologically in a blinded fashion by a pathologist. RESULTS: In general, strict anaerobes predominated over facultative in the UCP (P = 0.041). SRB were present in UCP exclusively. Even after exclusion of SRB from total bacterial counts, strict anaerobes still predominated. In the UCS, facultative anaerobes predominated. Strict and facultative anaerobes were present at similar levels in the FAPP. Enterococci were present at significantly reduced levels in the UCP when compared with the UCS (P = 0.031). When levels of SRB and other anaerobic species were individually correlated with mucosal inflammation and morphology, no trends were observed. CONCLUSION: We have previously identified that SRB exclusively colonize UCP. In addition we have now identified a novel increase in the strict\\/facultative anaerobic ratio within the UCP compared to UCS. These stark differences in bacterial colonization, however, appear to have limited impact on mucosal inflammation or morphology.

  8. SAR11 bacteria linked to ocean anoxia and nitrogen loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsementzi, Despina; Wu, Jieying; Deutsch, Samuel;

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the SAR11 clade constitute up to one half of all microbial cells in the oxygen-rich surface ocean. SAR11 bacteria are also abundant in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), where oxygen falls below detection and anaerobic microbes have vital roles in converting bioavailable nitrogen to N2 gas...... activity. These results link SAR11 to pathways of ocean nitrogen loss, redefining the ecological niche of Earth’s most abundant organismal group....

  9. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, A S; Dhagat, N N

    2001-04-01

    inorganic matter in the absence of molecular oxygen. Complex polymeric materials such as polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids (fat and grease) are first hydrolyzed to soluble products by extracellular enzymes, secreted by microorganisms, so as to facilitate their transport or diffusion across the cell membrane. These relatively simple, soluble compounds are fermented or anaerobically oxidized, further to short-chain fatty acids, alcohols, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and ammonia. The short-chain fatty acids (other than acetate) are converted to acetate, hydrogen gas, and carbon dioxide. Methanogenesis finally occurs from the reduction of carbon dioxide and acetate by hydrogen. The initial stage of anaerobic degradation, i.e. acid fermentation is essentially a constant BOD stage because the organic molecules are only rearranged. The first stage does not stabilize the organics in the waste. However this step is essential for the initiation of second stage methane fermentation as it converts the organic material to a form, usable by the methane producing bacteria. The second reaction is initiated when anaerobic methane forming bacteria act upon the short chain organic acids produced in the 1st stage. Here these acids undergo methane fermentation with carbon dioxide acting as hydrogen acceptor and getting reduced to methane. The methane formed, being insoluble in water, escapes from the system and can be tapped and used as an energy source. The production and subsequent escape of methane causes the stabilization of the organic material. The methane-producing bacteria consist of several different groups. Each group has the ability to ferment only specific compounds. Therefore, the bacterial consortia in a methane producing system should include a number of different groups. When the rate of bacterial growth is considered, then the retention time of the solids becomes important parameter. The acid fermentation stage is faster as compared to the methane fermentation stage. This

  10. Effects of Oxytetracycline on Methane Production and the Microbial Communities During Anaerobic Digestion of Cow Manure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Xin; WANG Chun-yong; LI Run-dong; ZHANG Yun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the dynamics of bacterial and archaeal communities during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion (37°C) of cow manure were investigated. Before anaerobic digestion, OTC was added to digesters at concentrations of 20, 50, and 80 mg L-1, respectively. Compared with no-antibiotic control, all methane productions underwent different levels of inhibition at different concentrations of OTC. Changes in the bacterial and archaeal communities were discussed by using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Results showed that OTC affected the richness and diversity of bacterial and archaeal communities. The bacterial genus Flavobacterium and an uncultured bacterium (JN256083.1) were detected throughout the entire process of anaerobic digestion and seemed to be the functional bacteria. Methanobrevibacter boviskoreani and an uncultured archaeon (FJ230982.1) dominated the archaeal communities during anaerobic digestion. These microorganisms may have high resistance to OTC and may play vital roles in methane production.

  11. Anaerobic biofilm reactors for dark fermentative hydrogen production from wastewater: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barca, Cristian; Soric, Audrey; Ranava, David; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Ferrasse, Jean-Henry

    2015-06-01

    Dark fermentation is a bioprocess driven by anaerobic bacteria that can produce hydrogen (H2) from organic waste and wastewater. This review analyses a relevant number of recent studies that have investigated dark fermentative H2 production from wastewater using two different types of anaerobic biofilm reactors: anaerobic packed bed reactor (APBR) and anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR). The effect of various parameters, including temperature, pH, carrier material, inoculum pretreatment, hydraulic retention time, substrate type and concentration, on reactor performances was investigated by a critical discussion of the results published in the literature. Also, this review presents an in-depth study on the influence of the main operating parameters on the metabolic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide to researchers and practitioners in the field of H2 production key elements for the best operation of the reactors. Finally, some perspectives and technical challenges to improve H2 production were proposed. PMID:25746594

  12. Anaerobic degradation of landfill leachate using an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactor with microbial sulfate reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Olfa Ben Dhia; Bouallagui, Hassib; Cayol, Jean-luc; Ollivier, Bernard; Fardeau, Marie-Laure; Hamdi, Moktar

    2009-08-15

    This study evaluated the anaerobic degradation of landfill leachate and sulfate reduction as a function of COD/(SO(4)(2-)) ratio in an upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactor. The reactor, which was inoculated with a mixed consortium, was operated under a constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 days. We investigated the effect of COD/(SO(4)(2-)) ratio variation on the sulfate reduction efficiency, hydrogen sulfide production, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, conductivity, and pH variation. The best reactor performance, with significant sulfate reduction efficiency and COD removal efficiency of 91% and 87%, respectively, was reached under a COD/(SO(4)(2-)) ratio of 1.17. Under these conditions, microscopic analysis showed the abundance of vibrios and rod-shaped bacterial cells. Two anaerobic bacteria were isolated from the reactor sludge. Phylogenetic studies performed on these strains identified strain A1 as affiliated to Clostridium genus and strain H1 as a new species of sulfate-reducing bacteria affiliated to the Desulfovibrio genus. The closest phylogenetic relative of strain H1 was Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, at 96% similarity for partial 16S RNA gene sequence data. Physiological and metabolic characterization was performed for this strain.

  13. The valuation of malnutrition in the mono-digestion of maize silage by anaerobic batch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinken, L; Urban, I; Haun, E; Urban, I; Weichgrebe, D; Rosenwinkel, K-H

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a technology which is used to produce methane from organic solids and energy crops. Especially in recent years, the fermentation of energy crops has become more and more important because of increasing costs for energy and special benefits for renewable energy sources in Germany. Anaerobic bacteria require macro and micro nutrients to grow. Absence of these elements can inhibit the anaerobic process significantly. In particular mono-substrates like maize or certain industrial wastewater often cannot provide all required nutrients. For this reason this research investigates the influence of substrate and trace elements on anaerobic digestion in detail. Different agricultural anaerobic biomasses are analysed with special regard to their trace element content. Based on these results, the influence of three trace elements (iron, cobalt, and nickel) on anaerobic digestion was studied in anaerobic batch tests at different sludge loading rates and for different substrates (maize and acetate). Biogas production was found to be 35% for maize silage and up to 70% higher for acetate with trace element dosage than in the reference reactor. PMID:18957759

  14. Nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria in aerobic granules formed in sequencing batch airlift reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fang; YANG Fenglin; QI Aijiu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria isolated from aerobic granules.Aerobic granules were formed in an internal-circulate sequencing batch airlift reactor(SBAR)and biodegradation of NH3 -N was analyzed in the reactor.Bacteria were isolated and determined from aerobic granules using selected media.The growth properties and morphology of bacteria colonies were observed by controlling aerobic or anaerobic conditions in the culture medium.It was found that bacteria in aerobic granules were diverse and some of them were facultative aerobes.The diversity of bacteria in aerobic granules was a premise of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

  15. The ecology and biotechnology of sulphate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muyzer, G.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are anaerobic microorganisms that use sulphate as a terminal electron acceptor in, for example, the degradation of organic compounds. They are ubiquitous in anoxic habitats, where they have an important role in both the sulphur and carbon cycles. SRB can cause a seri

  16. Ammonia effect on hydrogenotrophic methanogens and syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Han; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    Substrates that contain high ammonia levels can cause inhibition on anaerobic digestion process and unstable biogas production. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of different ammonia levels on pure strains of (syntrophic acetate oxidizing) SAO bacteria and hydrogenotrophic...

  17. Effect of metalloporphyrins on red autofluorescence from oral bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.C. Volgenant; M.H. van der Veen; J.J. de Soet; J.M. ten Cate

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the red autofluorescence from bacterial species related to dental caries and periodontitis in the presence of different nutrients in the growth medium. Bacteria were grown anaerobically on tryptic soy agar (TSA) supplemented with nutrients, including magnesium-por

  18. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, A S; Dhagat, N N

    2001-04-01

    inorganic matter in the absence of molecular oxygen. Complex polymeric materials such as polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids (fat and grease) are first hydrolyzed to soluble products by extracellular enzymes, secreted by microorganisms, so as to facilitate their transport or diffusion across the cell membrane. These relatively simple, soluble compounds are fermented or anaerobically oxidized, further to short-chain fatty acids, alcohols, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and ammonia. The short-chain fatty acids (other than acetate) are converted to acetate, hydrogen gas, and carbon dioxide. Methanogenesis finally occurs from the reduction of carbon dioxide and acetate by hydrogen. The initial stage of anaerobic degradation, i.e. acid fermentation is essentially a constant BOD stage because the organic molecules are only rearranged. The first stage does not stabilize the organics in the waste. However this step is essential for the initiation of second stage methane fermentation as it converts the organic material to a form, usable by the methane producing bacteria. The second reaction is initiated when anaerobic methane forming bacteria act upon the short chain organic acids produced in the 1st stage. Here these acids undergo methane fermentation with carbon dioxide acting as hydrogen acceptor and getting reduced to methane. The methane formed, being insoluble in water, escapes from the system and can be tapped and used as an energy source. The production and subsequent escape of methane causes the stabilization of the organic material. The methane-producing bacteria consist of several different groups. Each group has the ability to ferment only specific compounds. Therefore, the bacterial consortia in a methane producing system should include a number of different groups. When the rate of bacterial growth is considered, then the retention time of the solids becomes important parameter. The acid fermentation stage is faster as compared to the methane fermentation stage. This

  19. Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-containing wastewater from distilleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioprocess evaluation of a staged arrangement of a Pulse Driven Loop Reaktor (PDLR) and a Pulsed Anaerobic Filter (PAF) using highly polluted cherry slops as industrial wastewater shows a COD removal efficiency of 80-90% at loading rates of 8-4 kg COD/(M3.d). Contamination of cherry slops by sulfate (2 g/l) and copper (150-200 mg/l) reduces COD degradation to 40-50 percent. A pulsed anaerobic baffled reactor was envisaged as a corrective tool to improve mineralisation in the presence of sulfate-rich substrates by confining sulfate reducing bacteria to the first 4 chambers of the reactor. Phasing slightly improves COD degradation yield, but is not sufficient for stable process performance. Consequently, the use of lactic acid in stead of sulfuric acid in cherry-fermentation was suggested as a preventive method to avoid sulphide-induced digester failure. (orig.)

  20. [Reductive Dechlorination of Trichloroethylene by Benzoate-Enriched Anaerobic Cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-wei; Yang, Xiao-yong; Hu, An-yi; Yu, Chang-ping

    2015-10-01

    Gas chromatography was used to monitor the reductive dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) by anaerobic enrichment cultures with benzoate as the sole carbon source. The 454 pyrosequencing technique was used to investigate the microbial community and the real-time quantitative PCR was used to quantify the gene copies of Dehalococcoides spp. (DHC). The results showed that TCE was dechlorinated to vinyl chloride along with the formation of methane in 94 days. The anaerobic enrichment cultures exhibited a high diversity, which were classified into 16 phyla, 33 classes, 52 orders, 88 families and 129 genera, while 51.2% of them belonged to unclassified group, which inferred that there were a large portion of bacteria with unknown functional in this system. Degradation of TCE was accomplished by reductive dechlorinating and other functional populations, and the DHC which carried tceA gene could be the dominant reductive dechlorinating populations in the system. PMID:26841609

  1. Anaerobic Metabolism: Linkages to Trace Gases and Aerobic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megonigal, J. P.; Hines, M. E.; Visscher, P. T.

    2003-12-01

    's surface area, they have a profound influence on the biogeochemistry of the planet. This is evident from the observation that the O2 and CH4 content of Earth's atmosphere are in extreme disequilibrium (Sagan et al., 1993). The combination of high aerobic primary production and anoxic sediments provided the large deposits of fossil fuels that have become vital and contentious sources of energy for modern industrialized societies. Anaerobic metabolism is responsible for the abundance of N2 in the atmosphere; otherwise N2-fixing bacteria would have consumed most of the N2 pool long ago (Schlesinger, 1997). Anaerobic microorganisms are common symbionts of termites, cattle, and many other animals, where they aid digestion. Nutrient and pollutant chemistry are strongly modified by the reduced conditions that prevail in wetland and aquatic ecosystems.This review of anaerobic metabolism emphasizes aerobic oxidation, because the two processes cannot be separated in a complete treatment of the topic. It is process oriented and highlights the fascinating microorganisms that mediate anaerobic biogeochemistry. We begin this review with a brief discussion of CO2 assimilation by autotrophs, the source of most of the reducing power on Earth, and then consider the biological processes that harness this potential energy. Energy liberation begins with the decomposition of organic macromolecules to relatively simple compounds, which are simplified further by fermentation. Methanogenesis is considered next because CH4 is a product of acetate fermentation, and thus completes the catabolism of organic matter, particularly in the absence of inorganic electron acceptors. Finally, the organisms that use nitrogen, manganese, iron, and sulfur for terminal electron acceptors are considered in order of decreasing free-energy yield of the reactions.

  2. Microbiology and physiology of anaerobic fermentations of cellulose. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Investigations into the biochemistry and physiology of the four major groups of microorganisms (primary, ancillary, secondary and methane bacteria) involved in the anaerobic conversion of cellulose to methane and carbon dioxide are presented. The investigations of the ancillary bacteria emphasize the isolation of new strains and increasing ethanol production with T. ethanolicus. These studies involve genetic modifications, enzymological studies on the regulation of appropriate enzymes and a study of the effect of inorganic pyrophosphate on growth and fermentation patterns. The acetogenic bacteria forming acetate from carbon dioxide were studied from the aspects of the enzymology of acetate from the standpoint from one carbon compound, bioenergetics emphasizing hydrogen metabolism and energy coupling H2 cycling and the structure and function of electron transfer components. Research on secondary bacteria emphasizes the sulfate reducing bacteria from the aspects of H2 cycling, specificities of electron transfer proteins and enzymes, the mechanism of bisulfite reductase and the enzymology and physiology of new genera of sulfate reducing bacteria. The biochemistry and physiology of both H2-utilizing and acetate utilizing methanogenic are reported. The studies with H2-utilizing methanogens stress the hydrogenase and the effect of inorganic pyrophosphate on growth. The research on the acetate-utilizing methanogens involve the bioenergetics of sulfite reduction and the mechanism of acetate formation induced by pyrophosphate. 143 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs

  3. Presence and diversity of anammox bacteria in cold hydrocarbon-rich seeps and hydrothermal vent sediments of the Guaymas Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russ, L.; Kartal, B.; Op den Camp, H.J.M.; Sollai, M.; Le Bruchec, J.; Caprais, J.-C.; Godfroy, A.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrothermally active sediments are highly productive, chemosynthetic areas which are characterized by the rapid turnover of particulate organic matter under extreme conditions in which ammonia is liberated. These systems might be suitable habitats for anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria

  4. Microbial degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether with anaerobic sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Yang-hsin, E-mail: yhs@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Hsi-Ling [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 407, Taiwan, ROC (China); Peng, Yu-Huei [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDE-3 was degraded with two anaerobes in different rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glucose addition augment the debromination efficiencies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen gas was detected and relative microbes were identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extra-carbon source enhanced degradation partial due to H{sub 2}-generation bacteria. - Abstract: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardant additives for many plastic and electronic products. Owing to their ubiquitous distribution in the environment, multiple toxicity to humans, and increasing accumulation in the environment, the fate of PBDEs is of serious concern for public safety. In this study, the degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-3) in anaerobic sludge and the effect of carbon source addition were investigated. BDE-3 can be degraded by two different anaerobic sludge samples. The by-products, diphenyl ether (DE) and bromide ions, were monitored, indicating the reaction of debromination within these anaerobic samples. Co-metabolism with glucose facilitated BDE-3 biodegradation in terms of kinetics and efficiency in the Jhongsing sludge. Through the pattern of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments in denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), the composition of the microbial community was analyzed. Most of the predominant microbes were novel species. The fragments enriched in BDE-3-degrading anaerobic sludge samples are presumably Clostridium sp. This enrichment coincides with the H{sub 2} gas generation and the facilitation of debromination during the degradation process. Findings of this study provide better understanding of the biodegradation of brominated DEs and can facilitate the prediction of the fate of PBDEs in the environment.

  5. Microbial aggregates in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaric, N; Blaszczyk, R

    1990-01-01

    The phenomenon aggregation of anaerobic bacteria gives an opportunity to speed up the digestion rate during methanogenesis. The aggregates are mainly composed of methanogenic bacteria which convert acetate and H2/CO2 into methane. Other bacteria are also included in the aggregates but their concentration is rather small. The aggregates may also be formed during acetogenesis or even hydrolysis but such aggregates are not stable and disrupt quickly when not fed. A two stage process seems to be suitable when high concentrated solid waste must be treated. Special conditions are necessary to promote aggregate formation from methanogenic bacteria but aggregates once formed are stable without feeding even for a few years. The structure, texture and activity of bacterial aggregates depend on several parameters: (1)--temperature and pH, (2)--wastewater composition and (3)--hydrodynamic conditions within the reactor. The common influence of all these parameters is still rather unknown but some recommendations may be given. Temperature and pH should be maintained in the range which is optimal for methanogenic bacteria e.g. a temperature between 32 and 50 degrees C and a value pH between 6.5 and 7.5. Wastewaters should contain soluble wastes and the specific loading rate should be around one kgCOD(kgVSS)-1 d-1. The concentration of the elements influences aggregate composition and probably structure and texture. At high calcium concentration a change in the colour of the granules has been observed. Research is necessary to investigate the influence of other elements and organic toxicants on maintenance of the aggregates. Hydrodynamic conditions seem to influence the stability of the granules over long time periods. At low liquid stream rates, aggregates may starve and lysis within the aggregates is possible which results in hollowing of aggregates and their floating. At high liquid stream rates the aggregates may be disrupted and washed out of the reactor as a flocculent

  6. Microbial decolorization of reactive black-5 in a two-stage anaerobic-aerobic reactor using acclimatized activated textile sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sagarika; Dafale, Nishant; Rao, Nageswara Neti

    2006-10-01

    A two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment process based on mixed culture of bacteria isolated from textile dye effluent was used to degrade reactive black 5 dye (RB-5). The anaerobic step was studied in more detail by varying the dye concentration from 100 to 3000 mg l(-1). The results showed that major decolorization was achieved during the anaerobic process. The time required for decolorization by > 90% increased as the concentration of the dye increased. It was also found that maintaining dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration below 0.5 mg l(-1 )and addition of a co-substrate viz., glucose, facilitates anaerobic decolorization reaction remarkably. An attempt was made to identify the metabolites formed in anaerobic process by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-VIS spectrophotometry. A plate assay was performed for the detection of dominant decolorizing bacteria. Only a few bacterial colonies with high clearing zones (decolorization zones) were found. The results showed that under anaerobic condition RB-5 molecules were reduced and aromatic amines were generated. The aromatic amine metabolite was partly removed in subsequent aerobic bio-treatment. It was possible to achieve more than 90% decolorization and approximately 46% reduction in amine metabolite concentration through two-stage anaerobic-aerobic treatment after a reaction period of 2 days.

  7. Energetics and kinetics of anaerobic aromatic and fatty acid degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInerney, M.J.

    1992-11-16

    The kinetics of benzoate degradation by the anaerobic syntrophic bacterium, Syntrophus buswellii, was studied in coculture with Desulfovibrio strain G11. The threshold value for benzoate degradation was dependent on the acetate concentration with benzoate threshold values ranging from 2.4 [mu]M at 20 mM acetate to 30.0 [mu]M at 65 mM acetate. Increasing acetate concentrations also inhibited the rate of benzoate degradation with a apparent K[sub i] for acetate inhibition of 7.0 mM. Lower threshold values were obtained when nitrate rather than sulfate was the terminal electron acceptor. These data are consistent with a thermodynamic explanation for the threshold, and suggest that there is a minimum Gibbs free energy value required for the degradation of benzoate. An acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase has been isolated from Syntrophomonas wolfei; it is apparently a key enzyme controlling the synthesis of poly-B-hydroxyalkanoate from acetyl-CoA in this organism. Kinetic characterization of the acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase from S. wolfei showed that it is similar in its structural, kinetic, and apparent regulatory properties to other biosynthetic acetoacetyl-CoA thiolases from phylogenetically distinct bacteria that synthesize PHA. Intracellular concentrations of CoA and acetyl-CoA are believed to be critical factors regulating the activity of the acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase in S. wolfei. We have also isolated and characterized several new halophilic anaerobic fermentative anaerobes. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that one of these bacteria is a new species in the genus, Haloanaerobium. Two other species appear to be members of the genus, Halobacteroides. Several halophilic acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria have also been isolated and their physiological properties are currently under investigation. We have also isolated an acetate-using dissimilatory iron-reducing bacterium.

  8. Anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor and process for wastewater treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Amy, Gary

    2015-07-09

    An anaerobic electrochemical membrane bioreactor (AnEMBR) can include a vessel into which wastewater can be introduced, an anode electrode in the vessel suitable for supporting electrochemically active microorganisms (EAB, also can be referred to as anode reducing bacteria, exoelectrogens, or electricigens) that oxidize organic compounds in the wastewater, and a cathode membrane electrode in the vessel, which is configured to pass a treated liquid through the membrane while retaining the electrochemically active microorganisms and the hydrogenotrophic methanogens (for example, the key functional microbial communities, including EAB, methanogens and possible synergistic fermenters) in the vessel. The cathode membrane electrode can be suitable for catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction to generate hydro en.

  9. Anaerobic treatment of lactic waste and goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luís Magaña-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion was carried out to obtain biogas from lactic waste in combination with goat manure. Waste from lactic products such as cream, cheese and whey was mixed with goat manure using three formulations; the quantity of waste from cream and cheese was maintained, and only the quantity of manure and whey was varied. Methanogenic bacteria obtained from predigestion of goat manure were used as inoculants. Temperature was 35ºC and pH 7.0.Biogas methane percentage was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed that the highest methane concentration obtained was 82% with formulation III.

  10. Evaluation on the microbial interactions of anaerobic ammonium oxidizers and heterotrophs in Anammox biofilm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Ruscalleda, Mael; Smets, Barth F.

    2012-01-01

    and the affecting factors were evaluated with both experimental and modeling approaches. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis illustrated that Anammox bacteria and heterotrophs accounted for 77% and 23% of the total bacteria, respectively, even without addition of an external carbon source......Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) is a cost-effective new process to treat high-strength nitrogenous wastewater. In this work, the microbial interactions of anaerobic ammonium oxidizers and heterotrophs through the exchange of soluble microbial products (SMP) in Anammox biofilm....... Experimental results showed the heterotrophs could grow both on SMP and decay released substrate from the metabolism of the Anammox bacteria. However, heterotrophic growth in Anammox biofilm (23%) was significantly lower than that of nitrifying biofilm (30–50%). The model predictions matched well...

  11. NC10 bacteria in marine oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padilla, Cory; Bristow, Laura A.; Sarode, Neha;

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria of the NC10 phylum link anaerobic methane oxidation to nitrite denitrification through a unique O2-producing intra-aerobic methanotrophy pathway. A niche for NC10 in the pelagic ocean has not been confirmed. We show that NC10 bacteria are present and transcriptionally active in oceanic....... rRNA and mRNA transcripts assignable to NC10 peaked within the OMZ and included genes of the putative nitrite-dependent intra-aerobic pathway, with high representation of transcripts containing the unique motif structure of the nitric oxide (NO) reductase of NC10 bacteria, hypothesized...

  12. Anaerobic Digestion of Piggery Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Velsen, van, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process by which organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide by microbes in the absence of air (oxygen). In nature, anaerobic conversions occur at all places where organic material accumulates and the supply of oxygen is deficient, e.g. in marshes and lake sediments. Microbial formation of methane also plays a role in the ruminant digestion.In digestion units, the external conditions acting upon the process can be regulated to speed it up as c...

  13. Microbial populations of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating wastewater from a gelatin industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A M; Bergamasco, R; Gimenes, M L; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2001-12-01

    The microbial populations of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor, used for treating wastewater from the gelatin industry, were studied by microbiological methods and phase-contrast and electron microscopy. Microscopy examination of the sludge showed a complex mixture of various rod-shaped and coccoid bacterial pluslong filaments and verymobile curved rods. In addition free-living anaerobic ciliates and flagellates were also observed. The trophic group population observed in decreasing order of dominance were hydrolytic and acetogenic at 10(6) and sulfate reducing and methanogenic at 10(5). The rate of methane production in anaerobic granular sludge cultivated in growth medium supplement with formate pressurized with H2:CO2 showed a significant increase in methane yield compared with theseed culture containingthe same substrate and atmosphere of N2:CO2. Similar rates of methane production were observed when the growth medium was supplemented with acetate pressurized either with H2:CO2 or N2:CO2. The number of total anaerobic bacteria at 10(7), fecal coliforms and total coliforms at 10(6), and fecal streptococci at 10(3) is based on colony counts on solid media. The four prevalent species of facultative anaerobic gram-negative bacteria that belong to the family of Enterobacteriaceae were identified as Escherichia coli, Esherichia fergusonii, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Citrobacter freundii. The species Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas veronii, Acinetobacter iwoffi and Stenotrophomonas maltophila were the most frequently isolated glucose fermenting and nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli.

  14. Treatment of Chinese Traditional Medicine Wastewater by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG You-zhi; WANG Feng-jun; BAO Li

    2005-01-01

    The influence factors treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction by photosynthetic bacteria are tested and discussed. The results indicate that the method of photosynthetic bacteria can eliminate COD and BCD from wastewater in high efficiency. And it also has high load shock resistance. On the conditions of slight aerobic and semi-darkness, treating wastewater of Chinese traditional medicine extraction, the method has better efficiency to eliminate COD and BOD from the wastewater than those by anaerobic illumination and aerobic darkness treatments. After pretreatment of hydrolytic acidization, the removal rate of COD in the wastewater reached more than 85 %, and that rate of BOD reached more than 90% in the treating system of photosynthetic bacteria. It may be more feasible and advantageous than traditional anaerobic biological process to treat organic wastewater using PSB system.

  15. The phenomenon of granulation of anaerobic sludge.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshoff Pol, L.W.

    1989-01-01

    Successful high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment can only be accomplished when the slowgrowing anaerobic biomass is efficiently held back in the anaerobic treatment system. This biomass retention can be achieved in various ways including immobilization of the organisms on fixed materials and immo

  16. Viscosity evolution of anaerobic granular sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pevere, A.; Guibaud, G.; Hullebusch, van E.D.; Lens, P.N.L.; Baudu, M.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the apparent viscosity at steady shear rate of sieved anaerobic granular sludge (20¿315 ¿m diameter) sampled from different full-scale anaerobic reactors was recorded using rotation tests. The ¿limit viscosity¿ of sieved anaerobic granular sludge was determined from the apparent vis

  17. Kinetics and modeling of anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion modeling started in the early 1970s when the need for design and efficient operation of anaerobic systems became evident. At that time not only was the knowledge about the complex process of anaerobic digestion inadequate but also there were computational limitations. Thus, th...

  18. Methanethiol Removal from Biogas by Biological Conversion in an Anaerobic Biotrickling Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳佳; 张卫江; 徐姣

    2015-01-01

    In this study, methanethiol(MT)-degradation bacteria were cultivated by using MT, methanol and trimethylamine as carbon sources under anaerobic conditions. It was found that the batch bacteria used MT and metha-nol as carbon sources grew faster than those used trimethylamine. The enriched bacteria used MT and methanol as the carbon sources were respectively inoculated in different biotrickling filters. The biological conversion performance of MT under anaerobic conditions was investigated in biotrickling filters. The results showed that the performance of the biotrickling filter inoculated with the bacteria enriched using MT was better than that inoculated with the bacteria en-riched using methanol. When the inlet concentration of MT was 0.005vol%(50,ppm), the empty bed residence time was 50 s, pH value was 8.0, and the flow rate of the nutrient solution was 10 L/h, the removal efficiency of MT reached 95.3%. Adding methanol stimulated the growth of the biomass and the degradation of MT, but caused that some bacteria only degrading methanol outcompeted the bacteria only degrading MT. The concentration of sodium bicarbonate in the nutrient solution needed to be controlled lower than 30 g/L, otherwise, it would be harmful to the degradation of MT.

  19. Quantitative real-time PCR analyses of sulfate-reducing bacteria in swine manure and the inhibitory effects of condensed tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorous chemicals produced by anaerobic bacteria in stored swine manure are a nuisance and potential health hazard. One of the more odorous compounds is hydrogen sulfide (H2S), produced primarily by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). However, little is known about these bacteria in stored swine manu...

  20. Single-cell analysis of growth and cell division of the anaerobe Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouchka eFievet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen significant progress in understanding basic bacterial cell cycle properties such as cell growth and cell division. While characterization and regulation of bacterial cell cycle is quite well documented in the case of fast growing aerobic model organisms, no data has been so far reported for anaerobic bacteria. This lack of information in anaerobic microorganisms can mainly be explained by the absence of molecular and cellular tools such as single cell microscopy and fluorescent probes usable for anaerobes and essential to study cellular events and/or subcellular localization of the actors involved in cell cycle.In this study, single-cell microscopy has been adapted to study for the first time, in real time, the cell cycle of a bacterial anaerobe, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough (DvH. This single-cell analysis provides mechanistic insights into the cell division cycle of DvH, which seems to be governed by the recently discussed so-called incremental model that generates remarkably homogeneous cell sizes. Furthermore, cell division was reversibly blocked during oxygen exposure. This may constitute a strategy for anaerobic cells to cope with transient exposure to oxygen that they may encounter in their natural environment, thereby contributing to their aerotolerance. This study lays the foundation for the first molecular, single-cell assay that will address factors that cannot otherwise be resolved in bulk assays and that will allow visualization of a wide range of molecular mechanisms within living anaerobic cells.

  1. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of free oxygen in bio-gasification is a sparsely studied area, apart from the common argument of oxygen being toxic and inhibitory for anaerobic micro-cultures. Some studies have, however, revealed increased solubilisation of organic matter in the presence of some free oxygen in anaerobic digestion. This article analyses these counterbalancing phenomena with a mathematical modelling approach using the widely accepted biochemical model ADM 1. Aerobic oxidation of soluble carbon and inhibition of obligatory anaerobic organisms are modelled using standard saturation type kinetics. Biomass dependent first order hydrolysis kinetics is used to relate the increased hydrolysis rate with oxygen induced increase in biomass growth. The amended model, ADM 1-Ox (oxygen, has 25 state variables and 22 biochemical processes, presented in matrix form. The computer aided simulation tool AQUASIM 2.1 is used to simulate the developed model. Simulation predictions are evaluated against experimental data obtained using a laboratory batch test array comprising miniature anaerobic bio-reactors of 100 ml total volume each, operated under different initial air headspaces giving rise to the different oxygen loading conditions. The reactors were initially fed with a glucose solution and incubated at 35 Celsius, for 563 hours. Under the oxygen load conditions of 22, 44 and 88 mg/L, the ADM1-Ox model simulations predicted the experimental methane potentials quite adequately. Both the experimental data and the simulations suggest a linear reduction of methane potential with respect to the increase in oxygen load within this range.

  2. Production of a ruminant protein supplement by anaerobic fermentation of feedlot waste filtrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, C.A.; Erdman, M.D.

    1977-01-01

    In studies initiated to develop simple and efficient procedures for the production of feed supplements, it was shown that the filtrate from feedlot wastes diluted with water and filtered could be fermented under anaerobic conditions by mixed rumen bacteria, Lactobacilli, or natural microflora from the feedlot wastes to produce a protein-rich feed supplement. The filtrate is low in carbohydrate and therefore supplemental carbohydrate in the form of whey, molasses, starch from potato processing wastes, or corn starch is necessary. Rigid anaerobic conditions need not be maintained nor must aseptic conditions be observed. (JSR)

  3. Highly enriched Betaproteobacteria growing anaerobically with p-xylene and nitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Probian, Christina; Wilkes, Heinz;

    2010-01-01

    The identity of the microorganisms capable of anaerobic p-xylene degradation under denitrifying conditions is hitherto unknown. Here, we report highly enriched cultures of freshwater denitrifying bacteria that grow anaerobically with p-xylene as the sole organic carbon source and electron donor. ....... Long curved rods, with 95% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to Denitratisoma oestradiolicum, dominated the enrichment cultures (>91% of all cells), as detected by phylotype-specific probes. These Rhodocyclaceae microorganisms were distantly related to other denitrifying hydrocarbon...

  4. Mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial consortia, recovered from an uncontaminated site (consortium A) and other from an uranium mine (consortium U), was investigated. The highest efficiency of U (VI) removal by both consortia (97%) occurred at room temperature and at pH 7.2. Furthermore, it was found that U (VI) removal by consortium A occurred by enzymatic reduction and bioaccumulation, while the enzymatic process was the only mechanism involved in metal removal by consortium U. FTIR analysis suggested that after U (VI) reduction, U (IV) could be bound to carboxyl, phosphate and amide groups of bacterial cells. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA showed that community A was mainly composed by bacteria closely related to Sporotalea genus and Rhodocyclaceae family, while community U was mainly composed by bacteria related to Clostridium genus and Rhodocyclaceae family.

  5. Mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Monica [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, FCT-DQF (edificio 8), Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Faleiro, Maria Leonor [IBB - Centro de Biomedicina Molecular e Estrutural, Universidade do Algarve, FCT, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Costa, Ana M. Rosa da [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica do Algarve, Universidade do Algarve, FCT, DQF, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Chaves, Sandra; Tenreiro, Rogerio [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biodiversidade, Genomica Integrativa e Funcional (BioFIG), Campus de FCUL, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Matos, Antonio Pedro [Servico de Anatomia Patologica, Hospital Curry Cabral, Lisboa (Portugal); Costa, Maria Clara, E-mail: mcorada@ualg.pt [Centro de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade do Algarve, FCT-DQF (edificio 8), Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal)

    2010-12-15

    The mechanism of uranium (VI) removal by two anaerobic bacterial consortia, recovered from an uncontaminated site (consortium A) and other from an uranium mine (consortium U), was investigated. The highest efficiency of U (VI) removal by both consortia (97%) occurred at room temperature and at pH 7.2. Furthermore, it was found that U (VI) removal by consortium A occurred by enzymatic reduction and bioaccumulation, while the enzymatic process was the only mechanism involved in metal removal by consortium U. FTIR analysis suggested that after U (VI) reduction, U (IV) could be bound to carboxyl, phosphate and amide groups of bacterial cells. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA showed that community A was mainly composed by bacteria closely related to Sporotalea genus and Rhodocyclaceae family, while community U was mainly composed by bacteria related to Clostridium genus and Rhodocyclaceae family.

  6. Anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye;

    2003-01-01

    by the immobilization of the biomass, which forms static biofilms, particle-supported biofilms, or granules depending on the reactor's operational conditions. The advantages of the high-rate anaerobic digestion over the conventional aerobic wastewater treatment methods has created a clear trend for the change......-rate anaerobic treatment systems based on anaerobic granular sludge and biofilm are described in this chapter. Emphasis is given to a) the Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) systems, b) the main characteristics of the anaerobic granular sludge, and c) the factors that control the granulation process...

  7. Ultrasonic waste activated sludge disintegration for improving anaerobic stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiehm, A; Nickel, K; Zellhorn, M; Neis, U

    2001-06-01

    The pretreatment of waste activated sludge by ultrasonic disintegration was studied in order to improve the anaerobic sludge stabilization. The ultrasound frequency was varied within a range from 41 to 3217 kHz. The impact of different ultrasound intensities and treatment times was examined. Sludge disintegration was most significant at low frequencies. Low-frequency ultrasound creates large cavitation bubbles which upon collapse initiate powerful jet streams exerting strong shear forces in the liquid. The decreasing sludge disintegration efficiency observed at higher frequencies was attributed to smaller cavitation bubbles which do not allow the initiation of such strong shear forces. Short sonication times resulted in sludge floc deagglomeration without the destruction of bacteria cells. Longer sonication brought about the break-up of cell walls, the sludge solids were distintegrated and dissolved organic compounds were released. The anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge following ultrasonic pretreatment causing microbial cell lysis was significantly improved. There was an increase in the volatile solids degradation as well as an increase in the biogas production. The increase in digestion efficiency was proportional to the degree of sludge disintegration. To a lesser degree the deagglomeration of sludge flocs also augmented the anaerobic volatile solids degradation. PMID:11337847

  8. Aerobic and anaerobic growth of Paracoccus denitrificans on methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamforth, C W; Quayle, J R

    1978-10-01

    1. The dye-linked methanol dehydrogenase from Paracoccus denitrificans grown aerobically on methanol has been purified and its properties compared with similar enzymes from other bacteria. It was shown to be specific and to have high affinity for primary alcohols and formaldehyde as substrate, ammonia was the best activator and the enzyme could be linked to reduction of phenazine methosulphate. 2. Paracoccus denitrificans could be grown anaerobically on methanol, using nitrate or nitrite as electron acceptor. The methanol dehydrogenase synthesized under these conditions could not be differentiated from the aerobically-synthesized enzyme. 3. Activities of methanol dehydrogenase, formaldehyde dehydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase, nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were measured under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions. 4. Difference spectra of reduced and oxidized cytochromes in membrane and supernatant fractions of methanol-grown P. denitrificans were measured. 5. From the results of the spectral and enzymatic analyses it has been suggested that anaerobic growth on methanol/nitrate is made possible by reduction of nitrate to nitrite using electrons derived from the pyridine nucleotide-linked dehydrogenations of formaldehyde and formate, the nitrite so produced then functioning as electron acceptor for methanol dehydrogenase via cytochrome c and nitrite reductase. PMID:718372

  9. Microbial community analysis of ambient temperature anaerobic digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciotola, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Food, Agriculture and Biological Engineering

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which designs for Chinese and Indian fixed-dome anaerobic digesters were modified in an effort to produce smaller and more affordable digesters. While these types of systems are common in tropical regions of developing countries, they have not been used in colder climates because of the low biogas yield during the winter months. Although there is evidence that sufficient biogas production can be maintained in colder temperatures through design and operational changes, there is a lack of knowledge about the seasonal changes in the composition of the microbial communities in ambient temperature digesters. More knowledge is needed to design and operate systems for maximum biogas yield in temperate climates. The purpose of this study was to cultivate a microbial community that maximizes biogas production at psychrophilic temperatures. The study was conducted on a 300 gallon experimental anaerobic digester on the campus of Ohio State University. Culture-independent methods were used on weekly samples collected from the digester in order to examine microbial community response to changes in ambient temperature. Microbial community profiles were established using universal bacterial and archaeal primers that targeted the 16S rRNA gene. In addition to the methanogenic archaea, this analysis also targeted some of the other numerically and functionally important microbial taxa in anaerobic digesters, such as hydrolytic, fermentative, acetogenic and sulfate reducing bacteria. According to preliminary results, the composition of the microbial community shifts with changes in seasonal temperature.

  10. Modelling of Two-Stage Anaerobic Treating Wastewater from a Molasses-Based Ethanol Distillery with the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittikhun Taruyanon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of ADM1 model to simulate the dynamic behaviour of a two-stage anaerobic treatment process treating the wastewater generated from the ethanol distillery process. The laboratory-scale process comprised an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB connecting in series, was used to treat wastewater from the ethanol distillery process. The CSTR and UASB hydraulic retention times (HRT were 12 and 70 hours, respectively. The model was developed based on ADM1 basic structure and implemented with the simulation software AQUASIM. The simulated results were compared with measured data obtained from using the laboratory-scale two-stage anaerobic treatment process to treat wastewater. The sensitivity analysis identified maximum specific uptake rate (km and half-saturation constant (Ks of acetate degrader and sulfate reducing bacteria as the kinetic parameters which highly affected the process behaviour, which were further estimated. The study concluded that the model could predict the dynamic behaviour of a two-stage anaerobic treatment process treating the ethanol distillery process wastewater with varying strength of influents with reasonable accuracy.

  11. Does nuclear tissue infected with bacteria following disc herniations lead to Modic changes in the adjacent vertebrae?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, H. B.; Lambert, Peter; Rollason, Jess;

    2013-01-01

    ) in vertebrae are observed in 6 % of the general population and in 35-40 % of people with low back pain. These changes are strongly associated with low back pain. There are probably a mechanical cause and an infective cause that causes MC. Several studies on nuclear tissue from herniated discs have demonstrated...... the presence of low virulent anaerobic microorganisms, predominantly Propionibacterium acnes, in 7-53 % of patients. At the time of a herniation these low virulent anaerobic bacteria may enter the disc and give rise to an insidious infection. Local inflammation in the adjacent bone may be a secondary effect...... isolated. In the discs with a nucleus with anaerobic bacteria, 80 % developed new MC in the vertebrae adjacent to the previous disc herniation. In contrast, none of those with aerobic bacteria and only 44 % of patients with negative cultures developed new MC. The association between an anaerobic culture...

  12. Anaerobic waste water purification and biogas production in a pulsed bioreactor. Anaerobe Abwasserreinigung mit Biogasgewinnung in einem gepulsten Bioreaktor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, K.Y.

    1986-12-18

    The author's experiments were carried out in a novel type of bioreactor. In view of the advantages in the anaerobic process (high concentrations of biomass), the microorganisms were retained inside the bioreactor by fixation on a carrier. To avoid the problems otherwise encountered in bioreactors with fixed bacteria, in the pulsed bioreactor the block of foamed polymer carrying the bacteria is moved upwards and downwards in a single period at longer intervals of time. The reactor geometry and the pulsed movement assure a uniform and strong flow through the carrier material; gas bubbles are quickly removed from the bacterial surfaces and led out of the bioreactor, thus ensuring uniform bacterial supply and discharge. The biochemical conversion rate was determined using a highly burdened liquid filtrate waste. The conversion rate and gas productivity were found to be a function of the time of residue and room burden.

  13. Invasion of dentinal tubules by oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, R M; Jenkinson, H F

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules commonly occurs when dentin is exposed following a breach in the integrity of the overlying enamel or cementum. Bacterial products diffuse through the dentinal tubule toward the pulp and evoke inflammatory changes in the pulpo-dentin complex. These may eliminate the bacterial insult and block the route of infection. Unchecked, invasion results in pulpitis and pulp necrosis, infection of the root canal system, and periapical disease. While several hundred bacterial species are known to inhabit the oral cavity, a relatively small and select group of bacteria is involved in the invasion of dentinal tubules and subsequent infection of the root canal space. Gram-positive organisms dominate the tubule microflora in both carious and non-carious dentin. The relatively high numbers of obligate anaerobes present-such as Eubacterium spp., Propionibacterium spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Peptostreptococcus micros, and Veillonella spp.-suggest that the environment favors growth of these bacteria. Gram-negative obligate anaerobic rods, e.g., Porphyromonas spp., are less frequently recovered. Streptococci are among the most commonly identified bacteria that invade dentin. Recent evidence suggests that streptococci may recognize components present within dentinal tubules, such as collagen type I, which stimulate bacterial adhesion and intra-tubular growth. Specific interactions of other oral bacteria with invading streptococci may then facilitate the invasion of dentin by select bacterial groupings. An understanding the mechanisms involved in dentinal tubule invasion by bacteria should allow for the development of new control strategies, such as inhibitory compounds incorporated into oral health care products or dental materials, which would assist in the practice of endodontics.

  14. Effect of incubation conditions on anaerobic susceptibility testing results.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, P R; Niles, A C

    1982-01-01

    We determined the effect of performing antimicrobial susceptibility tests in five different anaerobic incubation systems: GasPak jar, large GasPak jar, evacuated-gassed anaerobic jar, anaerobic chamber, and Bio-Bag. Growth of the anaerobes was equivalent in all five incubation systems. The results of testing 38 anaerobes against 11 antimicrobial agents were comparable for the anaerobic jars and anaerobic chamber. However, discordant results were observed for metronidazole and cefamandole test...

  15. Anaerobic Bacteremia: Impact of Inappropriate Therapy on Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yangsoon; Park, Yongjung; Kim, Myungsook; Choi, Jun Yong; Yong, Dongeun; Jeong, Seok Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Investigation on incidence and mortality of anaerobic bacteremia (AB) is clinically relevant in spite of its infrequent occurrence and not often explored, which report varies according to period and institutions. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the incidence and risk factors related to mortality and assess clinical outcomes of AB in current aspect. Materials and Methods Characteristics of AB patients and anaerobic bacteria from blood culture at a university hospital in 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The correlation between risk factors and 28-day patient mortality was analyzed. Results A total of 70 non-duplicated anaerobic bacteria were isolated from blood of 70 bacteremia patients in 2012. The history of cardiovascular disease as host's risk factor was statistically significant (P = 0.0344) in univariate and multivariate analysis. Although the inappropriate therapy was not statistically significant in univariate and multivariate analysis, the survival rate of bacteremia was significantly worse in patients who had inappropriate therapy compared with those underwent appropriate therapy (hazard ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–6.9; P = 0.004). The most frequently isolated organism was Bacteroides fragilis (32 isolates, 46%), followed by Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (10, 14%), and non-perfringens Clostridium (7, 10%). Conclusion The incidence of AB in 2012 was 2.3% (number of AB patients per 100 positive blood culture patients) and the mortality rate in patients with clinically significant AB was 21.4%. In addition, AB was frequently noted in patients having malignancy and the survival rate of AB was significantly worse in patients who received inappropriate therapy compared with those underwent appropriate therapy. PMID:27433379

  16. Model-Based Feasibility Assessment of Membrane Biofilm Reactor to Achieve Simultaneous Ammonium, Dissolved Methane, and Sulfide Removal from Anaerobic Digestion Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xueming; Liu, Yiwen; Peng, Lai; Yuan, Zhiguo; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) is proposed to achieve simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide from main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors. To avoid dissolved methane stripping, oxygen is introduced through gas-permeable membranes, which also from the substratum for the growth of a biofilm likely comprising ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB), anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria, denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) microorganisms, aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). A mathematical model is developed and applied to assess the feasibility of such a system and the associated microbial community structure under different operational conditions. The simulation studies demonstrate the feasibility of achieving high-level (>97.0%), simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide in the MBfRs from both main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors through adjusting the influent surface loading (or hydraulic retention time (HRT)) and the oxygen surface loading. The optimal HRT was found to be inversely proportional to the corresponding oxygen surface loading. Under the optimal operational conditions, AOB, DAMO bacteria, MOB, and SOB dominate the biofilm of the main-stream MBfR, while AOB, Anammox bacteria, DAMO bacteria, and SOB coexist in the side-stream MBfR to remove ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide simultaneously.

  17. Thermophilic fermentative bacteria from a deep borehole in granitic rock in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewzyk, Ulrich; Szewzyk, Regine; Stenstroem, Thor-Axel

    1997-07-01

    A borehole drilled to a final depth of 6779 m in granitic rock in Gravberg, Sweden, was sampled and examined for the presence and activity of anaerobic bacteria. The application of anaerobic enrichment and isolation techniques resulted in pure cultures of various fermenting bacteria. Growth in enrichment cultures was observed only in those cultures inoculated from water samples from a depth of 3500 m. Pure cultures of anaerobic, fermenting bacteria were obtained with the following substrates: glucose, starch, xylane, ethanol, and lactate. All isolated bacteria were so far undiscribed bacteria by means of their physiological properties. One strain of the glucose fermenting bacteria was further characterized concerning its phylogenetic position and was found to be closest related to Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum. However, by means of its characteristic metabolism, it was clearly separated from C. thermohydrosulfuricum. No sulfate-reducing or methanogenic bacteria were found in any of the samples. Fermentative bacteria growing in the presence of hematite often reduced the iron and induced the formation and deposition of insoluble iron sulfides.

  18. Anaerobic digestion of solid material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vavilin, V.A.; Lokshina, L.Y.; Flotats, X.;

    2007-01-01

    A new multidimensional (3 and 2D) anaerobic digestion model for cylindrical reactor with non-uniform influent concentration distributions was developed to study the way in which mixing intensity affects the efficiency of continuous-flow anaerobic digestion. Batch experiments reported and simulated...... earlier by Vavilin and Angelidaki (2005) were used to modernize a kinetic scheme and to obtain the corresponding kinetic coefficients. In the new models, hydrolytic microorganisms were included using Contois kinetics for the hydrolysis/acidogenesis degradation of municipal solid waste (MSW). Monod...... kinetics was applied for description of methanogenesis. Both hydrolytic and methanogenic microorganisms were assumed to be inhibited by high volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration. According to the new distributed models, the mixing level reduction expressed by increasing dimensionless Peclet number may...

  19. Response of pulse phenol injection on an anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Assam (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Veeramani, H. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai (India). Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering

    2005-05-01

    The performance of a three-stage suspended growth continuous system consisting of anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic reactors was evaluated after injection of a pulse phenol shock load in the anaerobic reactor. The synthetic feed contained phenol, cyanide, thiocyanate and ammonia-nitrogen. Anaerobic reactor required 22 days to regain its previous cyanide removal efficiency and the reactor achieved a new steady state in terms of phenol removal. The anoxic reactor achieved its previous phenol and the thiocyanate removal efficiency in seven to nine days. In the aerobic reactor, nitrification was severely inhibited due to the washout of nitrifying bacteria. The aerobic reactor was the most sensitive in terms of phenol shock load in the three-stage system. (author)

  20. Anaerobic procedures of wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zupančič, Tadeja

    2013-01-01

    Highly polluted wastewater is formed in dairies, pig farms and slaughterhouses. Before released into watercourses, wastewater should be properly processed with different treatment procedures in wastewater treatment plants. The thesis deals with the descriptions of mechanical, physical and chemical, and biological wastewater treatment procedures and the description of the factors which affect the reactions in wastewater treatment plants. I give special emphasis on anaerobic wastewater treatmen...

  1. Anaerobic digestion of aliphatic polyesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmejkalová, Pavla; Kužníková, Veronika; Merna, Jan; Hermanová, Soňa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic processes for the treatment of plastic materials waste represent versatile and effective approach in environmental protection and solid waste management. In this work, anaerobic biodegradability of model aliphatic polyesters, poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), and poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), in the form of powder and melt-pressed films with varying molar mass, was studied. Biogas production was explored in batch laboratory trials at 55 ± 1°C under a nitrogen atmosphere. The inoculum used was thermophilic digested sludge (total solids concentration of 2.9%) from operating digesters at the Central Waste Water Treatment Plant in Prague, Czech Republic. Methanogenic biodegradation of PCLs typically yielded from 54 to 60% of the theoretical biogas yield. The biodegradability of PLAs achieved from 56 to 84% of the theoretical value. High biogas yield (up to 677 mL/g TS) with high methane content (more than 60%), comparable with conventionally processed materials, confirmed the potential of polyester samples for anaerobic treatment in the case of their exploitation in agriculture or as a packaging material in the food industry. PMID:27191559

  2. Decrease in anaerobe-related bacteraemias and increase in Bacteroides species isolation rate from 1998 to 2007: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarovitch, Tsilia; Freimann, Sarit; Shapira, Galina; Blank, Helena

    2010-06-01

    Conflicting data have accumulated in recent years regarding the incidence of anaerobic bacteraemias. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bacteraemias due to anaerobic bacteria and evaluate the importance of anaerobic blood cultures in a university hospital in Israel. A retrospective survey which focused on anaerobic blood culture bottles was performed on blood cultures received in our laboratory during the decade from January 1998 to December 2007. Anaerobic-related bacteraemias decreased during that period, whereas a significant increase was observed in Bacteroides species isolated from the blood cultures (from 18% during 1998-2002 to 43% during 2003-2007). Comparison of the medical records of 54 patients with Bacteroides-related bacteraemia during the two end periods (1998-1999 and 2006-2007) revealed a marked increase in complex underlying diseases. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus type II were found in 29% of the patients in 1998-1999 and increased to 43-45% of the patients in 2006-2007. Ischemic heart disease also increased from 14% of the patients in 1998-1999 to 43% in 2006-2007. We conclude that although positive anaerobic blood cultures account for a small percentage of positive blood samples, the growing involvement of Bacteroides species-related bacteraemias together with an increase in complex underlying diseases in these patients emphasize the importance of anaerobic blood cultures, particularly in patients with co-morbidities.

  3. Relationships between anaerobic consortia and removal efficiencies in an UASB reactor degrading 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Cigal, Canan

    2008-04-01

    To gain more insight into the interactions between anaerobic bacteria and reactor performances (chemical oxygen demand-COD, 2,4 dichlorophenol-2,4 DCP removals, volatile fatty acid-VFA, and methane gas productions) and how they depended on operational conditions the microbial variations in the anaerobic granular sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating 2,4 DCP was studied. The study was composed of two parts. In the first part, the numbers of methanogens and acedogens in the anaerobic granular sludge were counted at different COD removal efficiencies. The relationships between the numbers of methanogens, the methane gas production and VFA production were investigated. The COD removal efficiencies increased to 74% from 30% while the number of total acedogens decreased to 10 from 30 cfu ml(-1). The number of total methanogens and acedogens varied between 11 x 10(3) and 10 x 10(9)MPN g(-1) and 10 and 30 cfu ml(-1) as the 2,4 DCP removal efficiencies were obtained between 60% and 99%, respectively. It was seen that, as the number of total acedogens decreased, the COD removal efficiencies increased. However, the number of total methanogens increased as the COD removal efficiencies increased. Correlations between the bacterial number and with the removal efficiencies obtained in different operational conditions were investigated. From the results presented in this paper a high correlation between the number of bacteria, COD removals, methane gas percentage, 2,4 DCP removals and VFA was observed. In the second part, methanogen bacteria in the anaerobic granular sludge were identified. Microbial observations and biochemical tests were applied to identify the anaerobic microorganisms from the anaerobic granular sludge. In the reactor treating 2,4 DCP, Methanobacterium bryantii, Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanococcus voltae, Methanosarcina mazei, Methanosarcina acetivorans, Methanogenium bourgense and

  4. Relationships between anaerobic consortia and removal efficiencies in an UASB reactor degrading 2,4 dichlorophenol (DCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Cigal, Canan

    2008-04-01

    To gain more insight into the interactions between anaerobic bacteria and reactor performances (chemical oxygen demand-COD, 2,4 dichlorophenol-2,4 DCP removals, volatile fatty acid-VFA, and methane gas productions) and how they depended on operational conditions the microbial variations in the anaerobic granular sludge from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating 2,4 DCP was studied. The study was composed of two parts. In the first part, the numbers of methanogens and acedogens in the anaerobic granular sludge were counted at different COD removal efficiencies. The relationships between the numbers of methanogens, the methane gas production and VFA production were investigated. The COD removal efficiencies increased to 74% from 30% while the number of total acedogens decreased to 10 from 30 cfu ml(-1). The number of total methanogens and acedogens varied between 11 x 10(3) and 10 x 10(9)MPN g(-1) and 10 and 30 cfu ml(-1) as the 2,4 DCP removal efficiencies were obtained between 60% and 99%, respectively. It was seen that, as the number of total acedogens decreased, the COD removal efficiencies increased. However, the number of total methanogens increased as the COD removal efficiencies increased. Correlations between the bacterial number and with the removal efficiencies obtained in different operational conditions were investigated. From the results presented in this paper a high correlation between the number of bacteria, COD removals, methane gas percentage, 2,4 DCP removals and VFA was observed. In the second part, methanogen bacteria in the anaerobic granular sludge were identified. Microbial observations and biochemical tests were applied to identify the anaerobic microorganisms from the anaerobic granular sludge. In the reactor treating 2,4 DCP, Methanobacterium bryantii, Methanobacterium formicicum, Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanococcus voltae, Methanosarcina mazei, Methanosarcina acetivorans, Methanogenium bourgense and

  5. Potential for anaerobic conversion of xenobiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Dolfing, J.; Haagensen, Frank;

    2003-01-01

    This review covers the latest research on the anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic xenobiotic compounds, with emphasis on surfactants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalate esters, polychlorinated biphenyls, halogenated phenols, and pesticides. The versatility of anaerobic reactor systems...... regarding the treatment of xenobiotics is shown with the focus on the UASB reactor, but the applicability of other reactor designs for treatment of hazardous waste is also included. Bioaugmentation has proved to be a viable technique to enhance a specific activity in anaerobic reactors and recent research...

  6. Mechanism of anaerobic (microbial) corrosion. Technical summary report No. 1, 1 Jun-31 Dec 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iverson, W.P.; Olson, G.J.

    1982-12-01

    This report in the form of three papers describes research into the role of bacteria in anaerobic corrosion processes. During the year we have given more evidence for a novel mechanism of anaerobic corrosion in which a volatile, highly reactive phosporous compound is produced as a result of the activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibio desuluricans). The corrosion product is an amorphous type of iron phosphide which can be detected by the formation of phosphine upon its acidification. Phosphine (in addition to H2S) has been detected from all the cases of suspected anaerobic corrosion (including tubercles from the inside of water pipes) examined so far. In examining the headspace over growing cultures of Desulfovibio to detect this volatile phosphorus containing compound, using a gas chromatograph (GC) with a flame photometric detector (FPD) specific for phosphorus and sulfur, two sulfur compounds, in addition to H2S, were detected and identified. These compounds, methylmercaptan, and dimethyldisulfide, were found to be relatively non-corrosive to iron under anaerobic conditions. No volatile phosphorus compounds were detected.

  7. Effect of thermal hydrolysis and ultrasounds pretreatments on foaming in anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, N; Cano, R; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2014-10-01

    Foam appears regularly in anaerobic digesters producing operational and safety problems. In this research, based on the operational observation at semi-industrial pilot scale where sludge pretreatment mitigated foaming in anaerobic digesters, this study aimed at evaluating any potential relationship between foaming tools applied to activated sludge at lab-scale (foam potential, foam stability and Microthrix parvicella abundance) and the experimental behavior observed in pilot scale and full-scale anaerobic digesters. The potential of thermal hydrolysis and ultrasounds for reducing foaming capacity was also evaluated. Filamentous bacteria abundance was directly linked to foaming capacity in anaerobic processes. A maximum reduction of M.parvicella abundance (from 5 to 2) was reached using thermal hydrolysis with steam explosion at 170°C and ultrasounds at 66.7kWh/m(3), showing both good anti-foaming properties. On the other hand, foam potential and stability determinations showed a lack of consistency with the bacteria abundance results and experimental evidences.

  8. Bacterial community composition and abundance in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Bo Yue; Qi Wang; Zechun Huang; Qifei Huang; Zengqiang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The abundance and phylogenetic composition of bacterial community in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfill were compared through real-time polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.In semi-aerobic landfill scenario,the bacterial 16S rRNA copy numbers in leachate had no significant reduction from initial stage to stable period.In the scenario of anaerobic landfill,the largest bacterial 16S rRNA gene copy number was found in leachate at initial stage,but it reduced significantly at stable period.Moreover,methane-oxidizing bacteria population in stable period was lower than that in initial period in both two landfill processes.However,semi-aerobic landfill leachate had more methanotrophic bacteria populations than that in the anaerobic one.Furthermore,according to the sequences and phylogenetic analysis,obvious difference could be detected in bacterial community composition in different scenarios.Proteobacteria and bacteroidetes took up a dominantly higher proportion in semi-aerobic landfill leachate.To summarize up,different landfill methods and its landfill ages had crucial impacts on bacterial abundance and composition in leachate of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills.

  9. Effect of thermal hydrolysis and ultrasounds pretreatments on foaming in anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, N; Cano, R; Fdz-Polanco, F

    2014-10-01

    Foam appears regularly in anaerobic digesters producing operational and safety problems. In this research, based on the operational observation at semi-industrial pilot scale where sludge pretreatment mitigated foaming in anaerobic digesters, this study aimed at evaluating any potential relationship between foaming tools applied to activated sludge at lab-scale (foam potential, foam stability and Microthrix parvicella abundance) and the experimental behavior observed in pilot scale and full-scale anaerobic digesters. The potential of thermal hydrolysis and ultrasounds for reducing foaming capacity was also evaluated. Filamentous bacteria abundance was directly linked to foaming capacity in anaerobic processes. A maximum reduction of M.parvicella abundance (from 5 to 2) was reached using thermal hydrolysis with steam explosion at 170°C and ultrasounds at 66.7kWh/m(3), showing both good anti-foaming properties. On the other hand, foam potential and stability determinations showed a lack of consistency with the bacteria abundance results and experimental evidences. PMID:25168914

  10. Azoarcus sp. CIB, an anaerobic biodegrader of aromatic compounds shows an endophytic lifestyle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endophytic bacteria that have plant growth promoting traits are of great interest in green biotechnology. The previous thought that the Azoarcus genus comprises bacteria that fit into one of two major eco-physiological groups, either free-living anaerobic biodegraders of aromatic compounds or obligate endophytes unable to degrade aromatics under anaerobic conditions, is revisited here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Light, confocal and electron microscopy reveal that Azoarcus sp. CIB, a facultative anaerobe β-proteobacterium able to degrade aromatic hydrocarbons under anoxic conditions, is also able to colonize the intercellular spaces of the rice roots. In addition, the strain CIB displays plant growth promoting traits such nitrogen fixation, uptake of insoluble phosphorus and production of indoleacetic acid. Therefore, this work demonstrates by the first time that a free-living bacterium able to degrade aromatic compounds under aerobic and anoxic conditions can share also an endophytic lifestyle. The phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rDNA and nifH genes confirmed that obligate endophytes of the Azoarcus genus and facultative endophytes, such as Azoarcus sp. CIB, locate into different evolutionary branches. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of a bacterium, Azoarcus sp. CIB, able to degrade anaerobically a significant number of aromatic compounds, some of them of great environmental concern, and to colonize the rice as a facultative endophyte. Thus, Azoarcus sp. CIB becomes a suitable candidate for a more sustainable agricultural practice and phytoremediation technology.

  11. In Vitro Activities of Daptomycin, Vancomycin, Quinupristin- Dalfopristin, Linezolid, and Five Other Antimicrobials against 307 Gram-Positive Anaerobic and 31 Corynebacterium Clinical Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerrin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

    2003-01-01

    The activities of daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide, and eight other agents were determined against 338 strains of gram-positive anaerobic bacteria and corynebacteria by the NCCLS reference agar dilution method with supplemented brucella agar for the anaerobes and Mueller-Hinton agar for the corynebacteria. The daptomycin MICs determined on Ca2+-supplemented (50 mg/liter) brucella agar plates were one- to fourfold lower than those determined in unsupplemented media. Daptomycin was highly activ...

  12. Medium factors on anaerobic production of rhamnolipids by Pseudomonas aeruginosa SG and a simplifying medium for in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Zhou, Jidong; Han, Siqin; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Aerobic production of rhamnolipid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was extensively studied. But effect of medium composition on anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa was unknown. A simplifying medium facilitating anaerobic production of rhamnolipid is urgently needed for in situ microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). Medium factors affecting anaerobic production of rhamnolipid were investigated using P. aeruginosa SG (Genbank accession number KJ995745). Medium composition for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by P. aeruginosa is different from that for aerobic production of rhamnolipid. Both hydrophobic substrate and organic nitrogen inhibited rhamnolipid production under anaerobic conditions. Glycerol and nitrate were the best carbon and nitrogen source. The commonly used N limitation under aerobic conditions was not conducive to rhamnolipid production under anaerobic conditions because the initial cell growth demanded enough nitrate for anaerobic respiration. But rhamnolipid was also fast accumulated under nitrogen starvation conditions. Sufficient phosphate was needed for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. SO4(2-) and Mg(2+) are required for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. Results will contribute to isolation bacteria strains which can anaerobically produce rhamnolipid and medium optimization for anaerobic production of rhamnolipid. Based on medium optimization by response surface methodology and ions composition of reservoir formation water, a simplifying medium containing 70.3 g/l glycerol, 5.25 g/l NaNO3, 5.49 g/l KH2PO4, 6.9 g/l K2HPO4·3H2O and 0.40 g/l MgSO4 was designed. Using the simplifying medium, 630 mg/l of rhamnolipid was produced by SG, and the anaerobic culture emulsified crude oil to EI24 = 82.5 %. The simplifying medium was promising for in situ MEOR applications. PMID:26925616

  13. Molecular ecology of anaerobic reactor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofman-Bang, H. Jacob Peider; Zheng, D.; Westermann, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic reactor systems are essential for the treatment of solid and liquid wastes and constitute a core facility in many waste treatment plants. Although much is known about the basic metabolism in different types of anaerobic reactors, little is known about the microbes responsible...... to the abundance of each microbe in anaerobic reactor systems by rRNA probing. This chapter focuses on various molecular techniques employed and problems encountered when elucidating the microbial ecology of anaerobic reactor systems. Methods such as quantitative dot blot/fluorescence in-situ probing using various...

  14. Zero valent iron simultaneously enhances methane production and sulfate reduction in anaerobic granular sludge reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-05-15

    Zero valent iron (ZVI) packed anaerobic granular sludge reactors have been developed for improved anaerobic wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to describe the enhanced methane production and sulfate reduction in anaerobic granular sludge reactors with the addition of ZVI. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using long-term experimental data sets from two independent ZVI-enhanced anaerobic granular sludge reactors with different operational conditions. The model satisfactorily describes the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, sulfate reduction and methane production data from both systems. Results show ZVI directly promotes propionate degradation and methanogenesis to enhance methane production. Simultaneously, ZVI alleviates the inhibition of un-dissociated H2S on acetogens, methanogens and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) through buffering pH (Fe(0) + 2H(+) = Fe(2+) + H2) and iron sulfide precipitation, which improve the sulfate reduction capacity, especially under deterioration conditions. In addition, the enhancement of ZVI on methane production and sulfate reduction occurs mainly at relatively low COD/ [Formula: see text] ratio (e.g., 2-4.5) rather than high COD/ [Formula: see text] ratio (e.g., 16.7) compared to the reactor without ZVI addition. The model proposed in this work is expected to provide support for further development of a more efficient ZVI-based anaerobic granular system.

  15. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  16. Degradation of TCE using sequential anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapatwala, Kirit D.; Babu, G. R. V.; Baresi, Larry; Trunzo, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria capable of degrading trichloroethylene (TCE) were isolated from contaminated wastewaters and soil sites. The aerobic cultures were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (four species) and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The optimal conditions for the growth of aerobic cultures were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of TCE for Pseudomonas sps. were also determined. The aerobic cells were immobilized in calcium alginate in the form of beads. Degradation of TCE by the anaerobic and dichloroethylene (DCE) by aerobic cultures was studied using dual reactors - anaerobic biofilm and aerobic immobilized bed reactor. The minimal mineral salt (MMS) medium saturated with TCE was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the anaerobic reactor. The MMS medium saturated with DCE and supplemented with xylenes and toluene (3 ppm each) was pumped at the rate of 1 ml per hour into the fluidized air-uplift-type reactor containing the immobilized aerobic cells. The concentrations of TCE and DCE and the metabolites formed during their degradation by the anaerobic and aerobic cultures were monitored by GC. The preliminary study suggests that the anaerobic and aerobic cultures of our isolates can degrade TCE and DCE.

  17. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by pretreatment: effect of volatile to total solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Duan, Xu; Chen, Jianguang; Fang, Kuo; Feng, Leiyu; Yan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qi

    2016-06-01

    In this study the effect of volatile to total solids (VS/TS) on anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) pretreated by alkaline, thermal and thermal-alkaline strategies was studied. Experimental results showed that the production of methane from sludge was increased with VS/TS. When anaerobic digesters were fed with sludge pretreated by the thermal-alkaline method, the average methane yield was improved from 2.8 L/d at VS/TS 0.35 to 4.7 L/d at VS/TS 0.56. Also, the efficiency of VS reduction during sludge anaerobic digestion varied between 18.9% and 45.6%, and increased gradually with VS/TS. Mechanism investigation of VS/TS on WAS anaerobic digestion suggested that the general activities of anaerobic microorganisms, activities of key enzymes related to sludge hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis, and the ratio of Archaea to Bacteria were all increased with VS/TS, showing good agreement with methane production. PMID:26698921

  18. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati, E-mail: suparnirahayu@yahoo.co.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Semarang, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia); Purwanto,, E-mail: p.purwanto@che.undip.ac.id; Budiyono, E-mail: budiyono@live.undip.ac.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH{sub 4}/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH{sub 4}: 81.23% and CO{sub 2}: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  19. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature

  20. Microbial communities involved in anaerobic degradation of unsaturated or saturated long chain fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, D.Z.; Pereira, M.A.; Stams, A.J.M.; Alves, M. M.; Smidt, H.

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic long-chain fatty acid (LCFA)-degrading bacteria were identified by combining selective enrichment studies with molecular approaches. Two distinct enrichment cultures growing on unsaturated and saturated LCFAs were obtained by successive transfers in medium containing oleate and palmitate, respectively, as the sole carbon and energy sources. Changes in the microbial composition during enrichment were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiling of PCR...

  1. Studies on the pathogenicity of anaerobes, especially Prevotella bivia, in a rat pyometra model.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikamo, H; Kawazoe, K.; Izumi, K.; Watanabe, K.; Ueno, K.; Tamaya, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Prevotella bivia is one of the anaerobic bacteria that resides in the flora of the female genital tract. We studied the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model. METHODS: The experimental animal (rat) model of pyometra was developed to investigate the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model. RESULTS: In the groups inoculated with aerobes alone, the infection rate was 10% (1/10) in the Staphylococcus aureus- or Staphylococcus agalactiae-inoculated group and 20% (2...

  2. Studies on the Pathogenicity of Anaerobes, Especially Prevotella bivia, in a Rat Pyometra Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mikamo, H; Kawazoe, K.; Izumi, K.; Watanabe, K.; Ueno, K.; Tamaya, T

    1998-01-01

    Objective: Prevotella bivia is one of the anaerobic bacteria that resides in the flora of the female genital tract. We studied the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model.Methods: The experimental animial (rat) model of pyometra was developed to investigate the pathogenicity of P. bivia in a rat pyometra model.Results: In the groups inoculated with aerobes alone, the infection rate was 10% (1/10) in the Staphylococcus aureus- or Staphylococcus agalactiae -inoculated group and 20% (2...

  3. The physicochemical characteristics and anaerobic degradability of desiccated coconut industry waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakya, H N; Khuntia, Himanshu Kumar; Mukherjee, Niranjan; Aniruddha, R; Mudakavi, J R; Thimmaraju, Preeti

    2015-12-01

    Desiccated coconut industries (DCI) create various intermediates from fresh coconut kernel for cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The mechanized and non-mechanized DCI process between 10,000 and 100,000 nuts/day to discharge 6-150 m(3) of malodorous waste water leading to a discharge of 264-6642 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) daily. In these units, three main types of waste water streams are coconut kernel water, kernel wash water and virgin oil waste water. The effluent streams contain lipids (1-55 g/l), suspended solids (6-80 g/l) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) at concentrations that are inhibitory to anaerobic bacteria. Coconut water contributes to 20-50% of the total volume and 50-60% of the total organic loads and causes higher inhibition of anaerobic bacteria with an initial lag phase of 30 days. The lagooning method of treatment widely adopted failed to appreciably treat the waste water and often led to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (propionic acid) along with long-chain unsaturated free fatty acids. Biogas generation during biological methane potential (BMP) assay required a 15-day adaptation time, and gas production occurred at low concentrations of coconut water while the other two streams did not appear to be inhibitory. The anaerobic bacteria can mineralize coconut lipids at concentrations of 175 mg/l; however; they are severely inhibited at a lipid level of ≥350 mg/g bacterial inoculum. The modified Gompertz model showed a good fit with the BMP data with a simple sigmoid pattern. However, it failed to fit experimental BMP data either possessing a longer lag phase and/or diauxic biogas production suggesting inhibition of anaerobic bacteria.

  4. The physicochemical characteristics and anaerobic degradability of desiccated coconut industry waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakya, H N; Khuntia, Himanshu Kumar; Mukherjee, Niranjan; Aniruddha, R; Mudakavi, J R; Thimmaraju, Preeti

    2015-12-01

    Desiccated coconut industries (DCI) create various intermediates from fresh coconut kernel for cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The mechanized and non-mechanized DCI process between 10,000 and 100,000 nuts/day to discharge 6-150 m(3) of malodorous waste water leading to a discharge of 264-6642 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) daily. In these units, three main types of waste water streams are coconut kernel water, kernel wash water and virgin oil waste water. The effluent streams contain lipids (1-55 g/l), suspended solids (6-80 g/l) and volatile fatty acids (VFA) at concentrations that are inhibitory to anaerobic bacteria. Coconut water contributes to 20-50% of the total volume and 50-60% of the total organic loads and causes higher inhibition of anaerobic bacteria with an initial lag phase of 30 days. The lagooning method of treatment widely adopted failed to appreciably treat the waste water and often led to the accumulation of volatile fatty acids (propionic acid) along with long-chain unsaturated free fatty acids. Biogas generation during biological methane potential (BMP) assay required a 15-day adaptation time, and gas production occurred at low concentrations of coconut water while the other two streams did not appear to be inhibitory. The anaerobic bacteria can mineralize coconut lipids at concentrations of 175 mg/l; however; they are severely inhibited at a lipid level of ≥350 mg/g bacterial inoculum. The modified Gompertz model showed a good fit with the BMP data with a simple sigmoid pattern. However, it failed to fit experimental BMP data either possessing a longer lag phase and/or diauxic biogas production suggesting inhibition of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:26612563

  5. XoxF-Type Methanol Dehydrogenase from the Anaerobic Methanotroph “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera”

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ming L.; Wessels, Hans J. C. T.; Pol, Arjan; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Mike S.M. Jetten; van Niftrik, Laura; Keltjens, Jan T.

    2014-01-01

    “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera” is a newly discovered anaerobic methanotroph that, surprisingly, oxidizes methane through an aerobic methane oxidation pathway. The second step in this aerobic pathway is the oxidation of methanol. In Gram-negative bacteria, the reaction is catalyzed by pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (MDH). The genome of “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” putatively encodes three different MDHs that are localized in one large gene cluster: one...

  6. Environental assessment of methane oxidizers nitrite driven bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    VAELLO LÓPEZ, MARIA TERESA

    2013-01-01

    The nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (N-DAMO) bacteria has been discovered in the last decade and there is little known about its environmental distribution and contribution to the oxidation of methane (CH4). Because CH4 is of environmental concern due to its contribution to global warming, it has become very important to look for ways to reduce it. The purpose of this thesis is the acquisition of established molecular tools and their application in microbial ecology investiga...

  7. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Wenyan Chen; Qiang Cai; Yuan Zhao; Guojuan Zheng; Yuting Liang

    2014-01-01

    Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested...

  8. Performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules for removal of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An Chunjiang [Department of Environmental Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); He Yanling [Department of Environmental Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Huang Guohe, E-mail: gordon.huang@uregina.ca [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Sino-Canada Research Academy of Energy and Environmental Studies, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Liu Yonghong [Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Polytechnic University, Xi' an 710048 (China)

    2010-07-15

    The performance of mesophilic anaerobic granules to degrade octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) was investigated under various conditions. The results of batch experiments showed that anaerobic granules were capable of removing HMX from aqueous solution with high efficiency. Both biotic and abiotic mechanisms contributed to the removal of HMX by anaerobic granules under mesophilic conditions. Adsorption appeared to play a significant role in the abiotic process. Furthermore, HMX could be biodegraded by anaerobic granules as the sole substrate. After 16 days of incubation, 99.04% and 96.42% of total HMX could be removed by 1 g VSS/L acclimated and unacclimated granules, respectively. Vancomycin, an inhibitor of acetogenic bacteria, caused a significant inhibition of HMX biotransformation, while 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid, an inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria, only resulted in a slight decrease of metabolic activity. The presence of the glucose, as a suitable electron donor and carbon source, was found to enhance the degradation of HMX by anaerobic granules. Our study showed that sulfate had little adverse effects on biotransformation of HMX by anaerobic granules. However, nitrate had significant inhibitory effect on the extent of HMX removal especially in the initial period. This study offered good prospects of using high-rate anaerobic technology in the treatment of munition wastewater.

  9. Increase of the efficiency of anaerobic digestion by various pre-treatment processes of sewage sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Łukasz Krawczyk; Małgorzata Budych; Łukasz Chrzanowski; Agnieszka Drożdżyńska; Roman Marecik; Agnieszka Piotrowska-Cyplik; Artur Szwengiel; Katarzyna Czaczyk; Paweł Cyplik

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the effects of pre-treatment increase of the efficiency of anaerobic digestion on waste activated sludge. There were four methods for pre-treatment of the waste activated sludge: A – thermally treated at 121°C for 30 min, homogenized and hydrolysed by Bacillus subtilis bacteria, B – thermally treated at 121°C for 30 min and homogenized, C – thermally treated at 121°C for 30 min and hydrolysed by B. subtilis bacteria, D &nda...

  10. Development of Electroactive and Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing (Anammox Biofilms from Digestate in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Gino Di Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial Fuel cells (MFCs have been proposed for nutrient removal and energy recovery from different wastes. In this study the anaerobic digestate was used to feed H-type MFC reactors, one with a graphite anode preconditioned with Geobacter sulfurreducens and the other with an unconditioned graphite anode. The data demonstrate that the digestate acts as a carbon source, and even in the absence of anode preconditioning, electroactive bacteria colonise the anodic chamber, producing a maximum power density of 172.2 mW/m2. The carbon content was also reduced by up to 60%, while anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox bacteria, which were found in the anodic compartment of the reactors, contributed to nitrogen removal from the digestate. Overall, these results demonstrate that MFCs can be used to recover anammox bacteria from natural sources, and it may represent a promising bioremediation unit in anaerobic digestor plants for the simultaneous nitrogen removal and electricity generation using digestate as substrate.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of coffee waste

    OpenAIRE

    L. Neves; Ribeiro, R.; Oliveira, Rosário; Alves, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    The anaerobic co-digestion of five different by-products from instant coffee substitutes production was studied in mesophilic conditions. The co-substrate was the excess of sewage sludge from the wastewater treatment plant located in the same coffee factory. Four of the tested wastes produced methane in the range of 0.24-0.28 m³CH4(STP)/kgVSinitial . Reduction of 50-73% in total solids and 75-80% in volatile solids were obtained and the hydrolysis rate constants were in the ran...

  12. Ammonia effect on hydrogenotrophic methanogens and syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Han; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    methanogens. Two pure strains of hydrogenotrophic methanogens (i.e: Methanoculleus bourgensis and Methanoculleus thermophiles) and two pure strains of SAO bacteria (i.e: Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans and Thermacetogenium phaeum) were inoculated under four different ammonia (0.26, 3, 5 and 7g NH4+-N......, the total incubation periods of hydrogenotrophic methanogens were significantly shorter compared to the SAO bacteria incubation periods. Thus, it seems that hydrogenotrophic methanogens could be equally, if not more, tolerant to high ammonia levels compared to SAO bacteria.......Substrates that contain high ammonia levels can cause inhibition on anaerobic digestion process and unstable biogas production. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of different ammonia levels on pure strains of (syntrophic acetate oxidizing) SAO bacteria and hydrogenotrophic...

  13. Sulfur cycling and metabolism of phototrophic and filamentous sulfur bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, R.; Brune, D.; Poplawski, R.; Schmidt, T. M.

    1985-01-01

    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria taken from different habitate (Alum Rock State Park, Palo Alto salt marsh, and Big Soda Lake) were grown on selective media, characterized by morphological and pigment analysis, and compared with bacteria maintained in pure culture. A study was made of the anaerobic reduction of intracellular sulfur globules by a phototrophic sulfur bacterium (Chromatium vinosum) and a filamentous aerobic sulfur bacterium (Beggiatoa alba). Buoyant densities of different bacteria were measured in Percoll gradients. This method was also used to separate different chlorobia in mixed cultures and to assess the relative homogeneity of cultures taken directly or enriched from natural samples (including the purple bacterial layer found at a depth of 20 meters at Big Soda Lake.) Interactions between sulfide oxidizing bacteria were studied.

  14. Bacteria isolated from amoebae/bacteria consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Richard L.

    1995-01-01

    New protozoan derived microbial consortia and method for their isolation are provided. Consortia and bacteria isolated therefrom are useful for treating wastes such as trichloroethylene and trinitrotoluene. Consortia, bacteria isolated therefrom, and dispersants isolated therefrom are useful for dispersing hydrocarbons such as oil, creosote, wax, and grease.

  15. Instrumentation in anaerobic treatment - research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.; Lier, van J.B.

    2006-01-01

    High rate anaerobic treatment reactors are able to uncouple solids and liquid retention time, resulting in high biomass concentrations. Principal advantages of anaerobic treatment include: energy efficiency, low biomass yield, low nutrient requirement and high volumetric organic loadings. In order t

  16. Carbon monoxide conversion by anaerobic bioreactor sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and 55degreesC
    Seven different anaerobic sludges from wastewater treatment reactors were screened for their ability to convert carbon monoxide (CO) at 30 and

  17. Anaerobic critical velocity in four swimming techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, H P; Fernandes, R J; Vilas-Boas, J P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess critical velocity in order to control and evaluate anaerobic swimming training. 51 highly trained male swimmers performed maximal 15, 25, 37.5 and 50 m in the 4 swimming techniques to determine critical velocity from the distance-time relationship. Anaerobic critical velocity was compared with 100 m swimming performance and corresponding partials. Complementarily, 9 swimmers performed a 6×50 m (4 min interval) training series at front crawl individual anaerobic critical velocity, capillary blood lactate concentrations being assessed after each repetition. The mean±SD values of anaerobic critical velocity and its relationship with the 100 m event were: 1.61±0.07 (r=0.60, p=0.037), 1.53±0.05 (r=0.81, p=0.015), 1.33±0.05 (r=0.83, p=0.002), and 1.75±0.05 (r=0.74, p=0.001), for butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and front crawl, respectively. However, differences between anaerobic critical velocity and performance were observed (with exception of the second half of the 100 m swimming events in breaststroke and butterfly). Lactate concentration values at the end of the series were 14.52±1.06 mmol.l (-1), which suggests that it was indeed an anaerobic training set. In this sense, anaerobic critical velocity can be used to prescribe anaerobic training intensities.

  18. 21 CFR 866.2120 - Anaerobic chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anaerobic chamber. 866.2120 Section 866.2120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2120 Anaerobic chamber....

  19. Arsenic biotransformation and release by bacteria indigenous to arsenic contaminated groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Dhiraj; Kazy, Sufia K; Banerjee, Tirtha Das; Gupta, Ashok K; Pal, Taraknath; Sar, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic (As) biotransformation and release by indigenous bacteria from As rich groundwater was investigated. Metabolic landscape of 173 bacterial isolates indicated broad catabolic repertoire including abundance of As(5+) reductase activity and abilities in utilizing wide ranges of organic and inorganic respiratory substrates. Abundance of As homeostasis genes and utilization of hydrocarbon as carbon/electron donor and As(5+) as electron acceptor were noted within the isolates. Sediment microcosm study (for 300 days) showed a pivotal role of metal reducing facultative anaerobic bacteria in toxic As(3+) release in aqueous phase. Inhabitant bacteria catalyze As transformation and facilitate its release through a cascade of reactions including mineral bioweathering and As(5+) and/or Fe(3+) reduction activities. Compared to anaerobic incubation with As(5+) reducing strains, oxic state and/or incubation with As(3+) oxidizing bacteria resulted in reduced As release, thus indicating a strong role of such condition or biocatalytic mechanism in controlling in situ As contamination. PMID:25782634

  20. Potential effects of bacteria on radionuclide transport from a Swedish high level nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microorganisms can influence radionuclide migration if their concentration are high in comparison with other organic particles. Data on the numbers of microorganisms in undisturbed ground-water have been collected. The average number of cells in the samples from 17 levels in 5 boreholes was 3.0 x 105 cells ml-1. A biofilm experiment indicated an active microbial rock surface population. Radiographic uptake experiments suggest inactive bulk water populations. The bulk water microbial cells in deep ground water might then be inactive cells detached from active biofilms. Enrichment cultures for anaerobic bacteria demonstrated the presence of anaerobic bacteria capable of growth on C-1 compounds with hydrogen and carbon dioxide, presumably methanogenic bacteria. Further, growth in enrichment cultures with sulphate as electron-acceptor and lactate as carbon source proved dissimilatory sulphate reducing bacteria to be present. (author)

  1. Taxonomic composition and physiological and biochemical properties of bacteria in the digestive tracts of earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byzov, B. A.; Tikhonov, V. V.; Nechitailo, T. Yu.; Demin, V. V.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.

    2015-03-01

    Several hundred bacterial strains belonging to different taxa were isolated and identified from the digestive tracts of soil and compost earthworms. Some physiological and biochemical properties of the bacteria were characterized. The majority of intestinal bacteria in the earthworms were found to be facultative anaerobes. The intestinal isolates as compared to the soil ones had elevated activity of proteases and dehydrogenases. In addition, bacteria associated with earthworms' intestines are capable of growth on humic acids as a sole carbon source. Humic acid stimulated the growth of the intestinal bacteria to a greater extent than those of the soil ones. In the digestive tracts, polyphenol oxidase activity was found. Along with the data on the taxonomic separation of the intestinal bacteria, the features described testified to the presence of a group of bacteria in the earthworms intestines that is functionally characteristic and is different from the soil bacteria.

  2. Enzymes involved in the anaerobic oxidation of n-alkanes: from methane to long-chain paraffins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy V. Callaghan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic microorganisms play key roles in the biogeochemical cycling of methane and non-methane alkanes. To date, there appear to be at least three proposed mechanisms of anaerobic methane oxidation (AOM. The first pathway is mediated by consortia of archaeal anaerobic methane oxidizers and sulfate-reducing bacteria via ‘reverse methanogenesis’ and is catalyzed by a homologue of methyl-coenzyme M reductase. The second pathway is also mediated by anaerobic methane oxidizers and sulfate-reducing bacteria, wherein the archaeal members catalyze both methane oxidation and sulfate reduction and zero-valent sulfur is a key intermediate. The third AOM mechanism is a nitrite-dependent, intra-aerobic pathway described for the denitrifying bacterium, ‘Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera.’ It is hypothesized that AOM proceeds via reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide, followed by the conversion of two nitric oxide molecules to dinitrogen and molecular oxygen. The latter can be used to functionalize the methane via a particulate methane monooxygenase. With respect to non-methane alkanes, there also appears to be novel mechanisms of activation. The most well-described pathway is the addition of non-methane alkanes across the double bond of fumarate to form alkyl-substituted succinates via the putative glycyl radical enzyme, alkylsuccinate synthase (also known as methylalkylsuccinate synthase. Other proposed mechanisms include anaerobic hydroxylation via ethylbenzene dehydrogenase-like enzymes and an ‘intra-aerobic’ denitrification pathway similar to that described for ‘M. oxyfera.’

  3. Prospects of Anaerobic Digestion Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As the world's largest developing country, China must face the problem of managing municipal solid waste, and the challenge of organic waste disposal is even more serious. Considering the characteristics of traditional waste disposal technologies and the subsequent secondary pollution, anaerobic digestion has various advantages such as reduction in the land needed for disposal and preservation of environmental quality. In light of the energy crisis, this paper focuses on the potential production of biogas from biowaste through anaerobic digestion processes, the problems incurred by the waste collection system, and the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. Use of biogas in a combined heat and power cogeneration system is also discussed. Finally, the advantages of anaerobic digestion technology for the Chinese market are summarized. The anaerobic digestion is suggested to be a promising treating technology for the organic wastes in China.

  4. Anaerobic biorefinery: Current status, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdeenarunat, Chayanon; Nguyen, Duc; Surendra, K C; Shrestha, Shilva; Rajendran, Karthik; Oechsner, Hans; Xie, Li; Khanal, Samir Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) has been in use for many decades. To date, it has been primarily aimed at treating organic wastes, mainly manures and wastewater sludge, and industrial wastewaters. However, with the current advancements, a more open mind is required to look beyond these somewhat restricted original applications of AD. Biorefineries are such concepts, where multiple products including chemicals, fuels, polymers etc. are produced from organic feedstocks. The anaerobic biorefinery concept is now gaining increased attention, utilizing AD as the final disposal step. This review aims at evaluating the potential significance of anaerobic biorefineries, including types of feedstocks, uses for the produced energy, as well as sustainable applications of the generated residual digestate. A comprehensive analysis of various types of anaerobic biorefineries has been developed, including both large-scale and household level applications. Finally, future directives are highlighted showing how anaerobic biorefinery concept could impact the bioeconomy in the near future. PMID:27005786

  5. Bleach vs. Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Bleach vs. Bacteria By Sharon Reynolds Posted April 2, 2014 Your ... hypochlorous acid to help kill invading microbes, including bacteria. Researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health ...

  6. Characteristics and performance of anaerobic wastewater treatment (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary: Pakistan's current population of 180 million is expected to grow to about 221 million by the year 2025. In developing countries such as Pakistan water pollution is a major threat to the livelihood of people. Pakistan is also currently experiencing profound demographic, economic changes and energy crisis that have major implications for water management. The contamination of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with heavy metals is a major environmental problem. Each pollution problem calls for specific optimal and cost effective solution so if one technology proves less or ineffective other takes its place. Every day the vast amounts of the municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes are released in to the environment and create serious problems. Anaerobic digestion is very attractive and cost-effective option and technology for the highly loaded waste water treatment and energy conversion. The anaerobic process is in many ways ideal for waste treatment. It has several significant advantages over other available methods. In this process organic matter is utilized as source of electron donor to reduce carbon dioxide to produce methane gas. It involves three bacterial groups namely: hydrolytic, acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria that work optimally at pH and temperature ranges of 6.8 to 7.5 and 30-35 degree C, respectively. The residence time in a digester varies with the amount and type of feed material, the configuration of the digestion system, and whether it be one-stage or two-stage. It is ideal for all kinds of wastewaters. Currently anaerobic technology is being operated at full scale in many industrialized nations. (author)

  7. Synergy in Sulfur Cycle: The Biogeochemical Significance of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria in Syntrophic Associations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    assemblage of bacteria not only utilizes organic acids, fatty acids, alcohols and hydrogen as electron donors but also more complex compounds (hydrocarbons and sugars). Morphologically and ecologically diverse, the SRB include both gram positive and gram... dioxide either chemoautotrophically or photoautotrophically. Between these two major groups, the SRBs act as important anaerobic terminal oxidizers of organic matter. They trophically link the heterotrophic degradative bacteria to the synthetic ones...

  8. Bacteria and lignin degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Hongli YUAN; Jinshui YANG

    2009-01-01

    Lignin is both the most abundant aromatic (phenolic) polymer and the second most abundant raw material.It is degraded and modified by bacteria in the natural world,and bacteria seem to play a leading role in decomposing lignin in aquatic ecosystems.Lignin-degrading bacteria approach the polymer by mechanisms such as tunneling,erosion,and cavitation.With the advantages of immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility,bacteria deserve to be studied for their ligninolytic potential.

  9. An advanced anaerobic biofilter with effluent recirculation for phenol removal and methane production in treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Tabassum, Salma; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2016-09-01

    An advanced anaerobic biofilter (AF) was introduced for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW), and effluent recirculation was adopted to enhance phenol removal and methane production. The results indicated that AF was reliable in treating diluted CGW, while its efficiency and stability were seriously reduced when directly treating raw CGW. However, its performance could be greatly enhanced by effluent recirculation. Under optimal effluent recirculation of 0.5 to the influent, concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenol in the effluent could reach as low as 234.0 and 14.2mg/L, respectively. Also, the rate of methane production reached 169.0mLCH4/L/day. Though CGW seemed to restrain the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, especially methanogens, the inhibition was temporary and reversible, and anaerobic bacteria presented strong tolerance. The activities of methanogens cultivated in CGW could quickly recover on feeding with glucose wastewater (GW). However, the adaptability of anaerobic bacteria to the CGW was very poor and the activity of methanogens could not be improved by long-term domestication. By analysis using the Haldane model, it was further confirmed that high effluent recirculation could result in high activity for hydrolytic bacteria and substrate affinity for toxic matters, but only suitable effluent recirculation could result in high methanogenic activity.

  10. An advanced anaerobic biofilter with effluent recirculation for phenol removal and methane production in treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yajie; Tabassum, Salma; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2016-09-01

    An advanced anaerobic biofilter (AF) was introduced for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW), and effluent recirculation was adopted to enhance phenol removal and methane production. The results indicated that AF was reliable in treating diluted CGW, while its efficiency and stability were seriously reduced when directly treating raw CGW. However, its performance could be greatly enhanced by effluent recirculation. Under optimal effluent recirculation of 0.5 to the influent, concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenol in the effluent could reach as low as 234.0 and 14.2mg/L, respectively. Also, the rate of methane production reached 169.0mLCH4/L/day. Though CGW seemed to restrain the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, especially methanogens, the inhibition was temporary and reversible, and anaerobic bacteria presented strong tolerance. The activities of methanogens cultivated in CGW could quickly recover on feeding with glucose wastewater (GW). However, the adaptability of anaerobic bacteria to the CGW was very poor and the activity of methanogens could not be improved by long-term domestication. By analysis using the Haldane model, it was further confirmed that high effluent recirculation could result in high activity for hydrolytic bacteria and substrate affinity for toxic matters, but only suitable effluent recirculation could result in high methanogenic activity. PMID:27593269

  11. Hygiene tests in the anaerobic digestion of household refuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, H.; Philipp, W.; Wekerle, J.; Strauch, D.

    In a pilot plant the disinfecting effect of composting the effluent of an anaerobic mesophilic digestion process of the organic fraction of household refuse was investigated. The dewatered effluent was mixed with straw as bulking material, put in not aerated windrows and aerobically composted. It was further investigated whether the influent of the digester could be disinfected with lime milk prior to the anaerobic mesophilic digestion process. For the evaluation of the disinfection salmonellas, enterococci, klebsiellas, parvo-, polio- and rotavirus were used as test agents. Temperature, total aerobic germ count, enterobacteriaceae and coliforms were also considered. The effect of lime milk in the influent on the digestion process, survival of the test bacteria and gas production was also studied. Both treatments can result in a hygienically safe product. But composting under the conditions given should not be operated during the winter period. Lime treatment of the influent results in a disinfection of the effluent which immediately can be utilized as liquid sludge in agriculture. (orig.)

  12. Effect of increasing total solids contents on anaerobic digestion of food waste under mesophilic conditions: performance and microbial characteristics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    Full Text Available The total solids content of feedstocks affects the performances of anaerobic digestion and the change of total solids content will lead the change of microbial morphology in systems. In order to increase the efficiency of anaerobic digestion, it is necessary to understand the role of the total solids content on the behavior of the microbial communities involved in anaerobic digestion of organic matter from wet to dry technology. The performances of mesophilic anaerobic digestion of food waste with different total solids contents from 5% to 20% were compared and the microbial communities in reactors were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing technology. Three stable anaerobic digestion processes were achieved for food waste biodegradation and methane generation. Better performances mainly including volatile solids reduction and methane yield were obtained in the reactors with higher total solids content. Pyrosequencing results revealed significant shifts in bacterial community with increasing total solids contents. The proportion of phylum Chloroflexi decreased obviously with increasing total solids contents while other functional bacteria showed increasing trend. Methanosarcina absolutely dominated in archaeal communities in three reactors and the relative abundance of this group showed increasing trend with increasing total solids contents. These results revealed the effects of the total solids content on the performance parameters and the behavior of the microbial communities involved in the anaerobic digestion of food waste from wet to dry technologies.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of seaweed for biogas: a kinetic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjaneyulu, K.; Tarwadi, S.J.; Mehta, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    A kinetic study of biogas production in batch digesters by anaerobic digestion of seaweed, Sargassum tenerrimum, with a mixed bacterial culture consisting of methanogenic bacteria and an algin-degrading bacterial strain was carried out at different concentrations of dry total solids. Specific rate constants of biogas production during the lag, exponential and monomolecular (stationary) phases of bacterial growth were determined. About half the total volume of biogas was generated during the exponential phase irrespective of the concentration of seaweed in the digesters. The specific rates of substrate destruction and biogas generation in the stationary phase decreased with increasing substrate concentration. The yield of biogas per gram dry total solids of seaweed was about the same at all concentrations, but with a marked decline at 12% (w/v) total solids. The maximum destruction of volatile solids effected was about 63% over a period of 72 days.

  14. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in a bioreactor treating slaughterhouse wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Reginatto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium oxidation was thought to be an exclusively aerobic process; however, as recently described in the literature, it is also possible under anaerobic conditions and this process was named ANAMMOX. This work describes the operation of a system consisting of a denitrifying reactor coupled to a nitrifying reactor used for removal of nitrogen from slaughterhouse wastewater. During operation of the denitrifying reactor an average nitrogen ammonium removal rate of 50 mg/Ld was observed. This biomass was used to seed a second reactor, operated in repeated fed batch mode, fed with synthetic medium specific to the growth of bacteria responsible for the ANAMMOX process. The nitrogen loading rate varied between 33 and 67 mgN/Ld and average nitrogen removal was 95% and 40%, respectively. Results of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH confirmed the presence of anammox-like microorganisms in the enriched biomass.

  15. Adaptation of anaerobically grown Thauera aromatica, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Desulfococcus multivorans to organic solvents on the level of membrane fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duldhardt, Ilka; Gaebel, Julia; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Härtig, Claus; Schauer, Frieder; Heipieper, Hermann J

    2010-03-01

    The effect of different solvents and pollutants on the cellular fatty acid composition of three bacterial strains: Thauera aromatica, Geobacter sulfurreducens and Desulfococcus multivorans, representatives of diverse predominant anaerobic metabolisms was investigated. As the prevailing adaptive mechanism in cells of T. aromatica and G. sulfurreducens whose cellular fatty acids patterns were dominated by palmitic acid (C16:0) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1cis), the cells reacted by an increase in the degree of saturation of their membrane fatty acids when grown in the presence of sublethal concentrations of the chemicals. Next to palmitic acid C16:0, the fatty acid pattern of D. multivorans was dominated by anteiso-branched fatty acids which are characteristic for several sulfate-reducing bacteria. The cells responded to the solvents with an increase in the ratio of straight-chain saturated (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0) to anteiso-branched fatty acids (C15:0anteiso, C17:0anteiso, C17:1anteisoΔ9cis). The results show that anaerobic bacteria react with similar mechanisms like aerobic bacteria in order to adapt their membrane to toxic organic solvents. The observed adaptive modifications on the level of membrane fatty acid composition can only be carried out with de novo synthesis of the fatty acids which is strictly related to cell growth. As the growth rates of anaerobic bacteria are generally much lower than in the so far investigated aerobic bacteria, this adaptive response needs more time in anaerobic bacteria. This might be one explanation for the previously observed higher sensitivity of anaerobic bacteria when compared with aerobic ones. PMID:21255320

  16. Vertical distribution and anaerobic biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments in Hong Kong, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chun-Hua [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhou, Hong-Wei [Department of Environmental Health Science, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Wong, Yuk-Shan [Department of Biology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong); Tam, Nora Fung-Yee, E-mail: bhntam@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2009-10-15

    The vertical distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at different sediment depths, namely 0-2 cm, 2-4 cm, 4-6 cm, 6-10 cm, 10-15 cm and 15-20 cm, in one of the most contaminated mangrove swamps, Ma Wan, Hong Kong was investigated. It was the first time to study the intrinsic potential of deep sediment to biodegrade PAHs under anaerobic conditions and the abundance of electron acceptors in sediment for anaerobic degradation. Results showed that the total PAHs concentrations (summation of 16 US EPA priority PAHs) increased with sediment depth. The lowest concentration (about 1300 ng g{sup -1} freeze-dried sediment) and the highest value (around 5000 ng g{sup -1} freeze-dried sediment) were found in the surface layer (0-2 cm) and deeper layer (10-15 cm), respectively. The percentage of high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs (4 to 6 rings) to total PAHs was more than 89% at all sediment depths. The ratio of phenanthrene to anthracene was less than 10 while fluoranthene to pyrene was around 1. Negative redox potentials (Eh) were recorded in all of the sediment samples, ranging from - 170 to - 200 mv, with a sharp decrease at a depth of 6 cm then declined slowly to 20 cm. The results suggested that HMW PAHs originated from diesel-powered fishing vessels and were mainly accumulated in deep anaerobic sediments. Among the electron acceptors commonly used by anaerobic bacteria, sulfate was the most dominant, followed by iron(III), nitrate and manganese(IV) was the least. Their concentrations also decreased with sediment depth. The population size of total anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria increased with sediment depth, reaching the peak number in the middle layer (4-6 cm). In contrast, the aerobic heterotrophic bacterial count decreased with sediment depth. It was the first time to apply a modified electron transport system (ETS) method to evaluate the bacterial activities in the fresh sediment under PAH stress. The vertical drop of the ETS activity suggested that

  17. Intracellular Bacteria in Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görtz, Hans-Dieter; Brigge, Theo

    Intracellular bacteria in humans are typically detrimental, and such infections are regarded by the patients as accidental and abnormal. In protozoa it seems obvious that many bacteria have coevolved with their hosts and are well adapted to the intracellular way of life. Manifold interactions between hosts and intracellular bacteria are found, and examples of antibacterial resistance of unknown mechanisms are observed. The wide diversity of intracellular bacteria in protozoa has become particularly obvious since they have begun to be classified by molecular techniques. Some of the bacteria are closely related to pathogens; others are responsible for the production of toxins.

  18. Effect of music on anaerobic exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atan, T

    2013-03-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to "slow rhythm music", "fast rhythm music" or "no music". 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise. PMID:24744463

  19. Biophysical properties of membrane lipids of anammox bacteria : I. Ladderane phospholipids form highly organized fluid membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumann, Henry A.; Longo, Marjorie L.; Stroeve, Pieter; Poolman, Bert; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Stuart, Marc C. A.; Damste, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Schouten, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    Anammox bacteria that are capable of anaerobically oxidizing ammonium (anammox) with nitrite to nitrogen gas produce unique membrane phospholipids that comprise hydrocarbon chains with three or five linearly condensed cyclobutane rings. To gain insight into the biophysical properties of these 'ladde

  20. Effect of methanogenic substrates on anaerobic oxidation of methane and sulfate reduction by an anaerobic methanotrophic enrichment.

    KAUST Repository

    Meulepas, Roel J W

    2010-05-06

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction (SR) is assumed to be a syntrophic process, in which methanotrophic archaea produce an interspecies electron carrier (IEC), which is subsequently utilized by sulfate-reducing bacteria. In this paper, six methanogenic substrates are tested as candidate-IECs by assessing their effect on AOM and SR by an anaerobic methanotrophic enrichment. The presence of acetate, formate or hydrogen enhanced SR, but did not inhibit AOM, nor did these substrates trigger methanogenesis. Carbon monoxide also enhanced SR but slightly inhibited AOM. Methanol did not enhance SR nor did it inhibit AOM, and methanethiol inhibited both SR and AOM completely. Subsequently, it was calculated at which candidate-IEC concentrations no more Gibbs free energy can be conserved from their production from methane at the applied conditions. These concentrations were at least 1,000 times lower can the final candidate-IEC concentration in the bulk liquid. Therefore, the tested candidate-IECs could not have been produced from methane during the incubations. Hence, acetate, formate, methanol, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen can be excluded as sole IEC in AOM coupled to SR. Methanethiol did inhibit AOM and can therefore not be excluded as IEC by this study.

  1. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Fuqing; Shi Jian [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States); Lv Wen; Yu Zhongtang [Department of Animal Sciences, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Li Yebo, E-mail: li.851@osu.edu [Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, 1680 Madison Ave., Wooster, OH 44691 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVS{sub feed}, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVS{sub feed}. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO{sub 3}/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  2. Comparison of different liquid anaerobic digestion effluents as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Compared methane production of solid AD inoculated with different effluents. ► Food waste effluent (FWE) had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens. ► Solid AD inoculated with FWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 4. ► Dairy waste effluent (DWE) was rich of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. ► Solid AD inoculated with DWE produced the highest methane yield at F/E ratio of 2. - Abstract: Effluents from three liquid anaerobic digesters, fed with municipal sewage sludge, food waste, or dairy waste, were evaluated as inocula and nitrogen sources for solid-state batch anaerobic digestion of corn stover in mesophilic reactors. Three feedstock-to-effluent (F/E) ratios (i.e., 2, 4, and 6) were tested for each effluent. At an F/E ratio of 2, the reactor inoculated by dairy waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 238.5 L/kgVSfeed, while at an F/E ratio of 4, the reactor inoculated by food waste effluent achieved the highest methane yield of 199.6 L/kgVSfeed. The microbial population and chemical composition of the three effluents were substantially different. Food waste effluent had the largest population of acetoclastic methanogens, while dairy waste effluent had the largest populations of cellulolytic and xylanolytic bacteria. Dairy waste also had the highest C/N ratio of 8.5 and the highest alkalinity of 19.3 g CaCO3/kg. The performance of solid-state batch anaerobic digestion reactors was closely related to the microbial status in the liquid anaerobic digestion effluents.

  3. The role of acidification in the inhibition of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by vaginal lactobacilli during anaerobic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Jeremy J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaginal lactobacilli protect the female genital tract by producing lactic acid, bacteriocins, hydrogen peroxide or a local immune response. In bacterial vaginosis, normal lactobacilli are replaced by an anaerobic flora and this may increase susceptibility to Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a facultative anaerobe. Bacterial interference between vaginal lactobacilli and N. gonorrhoeae has not been studied in liquid medium under anaerobic conditions. By co-cultivating N. gonorrhoeae in the presence of lactobacilli we sought to identify the relative contributions of acidification and hydrogen peroxide production to any growth inhibition of N. gonorrhoeae. Methods Three strains of N. gonorrhoeae distinguishable by auxotyping were grown in the presence of high concentrations (107-108 cfu/mL of three vaginal lactobacilli (L. crispatus, L. gasseri and L. jensenii in an anerobic liquid medium with and without 2-(N-morpholino-ethanesulfonic (MES buffer. Fusobacterium nucleatum was used as an indicator of anaerobiosis. Bacterial counts were performed at 15, 20 and 25 h; at 25 h pH and hydrogen peroxide concentrations were measured. Results Growth of F. nucleatum to >108 cfu/mL at 25 h confirmed anaerobiosis. All bacteria grew in the anaerobic liquid medium and the addition of MES buffer had negligible effect on growth. L. crispatus and L. gasseri produced significant acidification and a corresponding reduction in growth of N. gonorrhoeae. This inhibition was abrogated by the addition of MES. L. jensenii produced less acidification and did not inhibit N. gonorrhoeae. Hydrogen peroxide was not detected in any experiment. Conclusions During anaerobic growth, inhibition of N. gonorrhoeae by the vaginal lactobacilli tested was primarily due to acidification and abrogated by the presence of a buffer. There was no evidence of a specific mechanism of inhibition other than acid production under these conditions and, in particular, hydrogen peroxide was

  4. Energy balance of a two-phase anaerobic digestion process for energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielonka, Simon; Lemmer, Andreas; Oechsner, Hans; Jungbluth, Thomas [University of Hohenheim, State Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Bioenergy, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    This article deals with the digestion of energy crops in a two-phase biogas process based on an anaerobic leach-bed reactor combined with an anaerobic filter. The biogas process is a microbiological conversion of biomass into methane and carbon dioxide. This process is carried out by different microorganisms and can be divided into four steps which normally take place in only one digester. To be able to digest difficult energy crops by mono-digestion and to meet the different needs of the several bacteria, which take part in the four-step process of the methane production, the process was divided into two phases: (i) an anaerobic batch leach-bed phase, where the leachate was produced and (ii) an anaerobic filter, where the organic fraction of the leachate was converted into biogas. Considering the results of the experiments, the two-phase digestion of energy crops exhibited stable digestion behavior. No biological imbalance of the process, e.g. due to a sudden change of substrate, was detected either in the leach bed or in the anaerobic filter. Variation in suitability for two-phase fermentation with an anaerobic batch leach-bed reactor was observed for various substrates. The different substrates varied in their influence on acid formation and concentration as well as an influence on the course of the pH value. Therefore, an effect on the distribution of energy to the phases could be observed. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Modelling Methane Production and Sulfate Reduction in Anaerobic Granular Sludge Reactor with Ethanol as Electron Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Dai, Xiaohu; Wang, Qilin; Pan, Yuting; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a mathematical model based on growth kinetics of microorganisms and substrates transportation through biofilms was developed to describe methane production and sulfate reduction with ethanol being a key electron donor. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data from two case studies conducted in granule-based Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactors. The results suggest that the developed model could satisfactorily describe methane and sulfide productions as well as ethanol and sulfate removals in both systems. The modeling results reveal a stratified distribution of methanogenic archaea, sulfate-reducing bacteria and fermentative bacteria in the anaerobic granular sludge and the relative abundances of these microorganisms vary with substrate concentrations. It also indicates sulfate-reducing bacteria can successfully outcompete fermentative bacteria for ethanol utilization when COD/SO42‑ ratio reaches 0.5. Model simulation suggests that an optimal granule diameter for the maximum methane production efficiency can be achieved while the sulfate reduction efficiency is not significantly affected by variation in granule size. It also indicates that the methane production and sulfate reduction can be affected by ethanol and sulfate loading rates, and the microbial community development stage in the reactor, which provided comprehensive insights into the system for its practical operation.

  6. Energetics and Application of Heterotrophy in Acetogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchmann, Kai; Müller, Volker

    2016-07-15

    Acetogenic bacteria are a diverse group of strictly anaerobic bacteria that utilize the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for CO2 fixation and energy conservation. These microorganisms play an important part in the global carbon cycle and are a key component of the anaerobic food web. Their most prominent metabolic feature is autotrophic growth with molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide as the substrates. However, most members also show an outstanding metabolic flexibility for utilizing a vast variety of different substrates. In contrast to autotrophic growth, which is hardly competitive, metabolic flexibility is seen as a key ability of acetogens to compete in ecosystems and might explain the almost-ubiquitous distribution of acetogenic bacteria in anoxic environments. This review covers the latest findings with respect to the heterotrophic metabolism of acetogenic bacteria, including utilization of carbohydrates, lactate, and different alcohols, especially in the model acetogen Acetobacterium woodii Modularity of metabolism, a key concept of pathway design in synthetic biology, together with electron bifurcation, to overcome energetic barriers, appears to be the basis for the amazing substrate spectrum. At the same time, acetogens depend on only a relatively small number of enzymes to expand the substrate spectrum. We will discuss the energetic advantages of coupling CO2 reduction to fermentations that exploit otherwise-inaccessible substrates and the ecological advantages, as well as the biotechnological applications of the heterotrophic metabolism of acetogens.

  7. Energetics and Application of Heterotrophy in Acetogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchmann, Kai; Müller, Volker

    2016-07-15

    Acetogenic bacteria are a diverse group of strictly anaerobic bacteria that utilize the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for CO2 fixation and energy conservation. These microorganisms play an important part in the global carbon cycle and are a key component of the anaerobic food web. Their most prominent metabolic feature is autotrophic growth with molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide as the substrates. However, most members also show an outstanding metabolic flexibility for utilizing a vast variety of different substrates. In contrast to autotrophic growth, which is hardly competitive, metabolic flexibility is seen as a key ability of acetogens to compete in ecosystems and might explain the almost-ubiquitous distribution of acetogenic bacteria in anoxic environments. This review covers the latest findings with respect to the heterotrophic metabolism of acetogenic bacteria, including utilization of carbohydrates, lactate, and different alcohols, especially in the model acetogen Acetobacterium woodii Modularity of metabolism, a key concept of pathway design in synthetic biology, together with electron bifurcation, to overcome energetic barriers, appears to be the basis for the amazing substrate spectrum. At the same time, acetogens depend on only a relatively small number of enzymes to expand the substrate spectrum. We will discuss the energetic advantages of coupling CO2 reduction to fermentations that exploit otherwise-inaccessible substrates and the ecological advantages, as well as the biotechnological applications of the heterotrophic metabolism of acetogens. PMID:27208103

  8. In situ biodegradation potential of aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, D. W.; Barker, J. F.

    1992-04-01

    Three types of experiments were conducted to assess the potential for enhancing the in situ biodegradation of nine aromatic hydrocarbons in anaerobic, leachate-impacted aquifers at North Bay, Ontario, and at Canada Forces Base Borden. Laboratory micrososms containing authentic aquifer material and groundwater from the North Bay site were amended with nitrate and glucose. No significant losses of aromatic hydrocarbons were observed compared to unamended controls, over a period of 187 days. A total of eight in situ biodegradation columns were installed in the North Bay and Borden aquifers. Remedial additions included electron acceptors (nitrate and sulphate) and primary substrates (acetate, lactate and yeast extract). Six aromatic hydrocarbons [toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, cumene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene ( 1,2,4-TMB)] were completely degraded in at least one in situ column at the North Bay site. Only toluene was degraded in the Borden aquifer. In all cases, aromatic hydrocarbon attenuation was attributed to biodegradation by methanogenic and fermentative bacteria. No evidence of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation was observed in columns remediated with nitrate or primary substrates. A continuous forced gradient injection experiment with sulphate addition was conducted at the North Bay site over a period of 51 days. The concentration of six aromatic hydrocarbons was monitored over time in the injection wells and at piezometer fences located 2, 5 and 10 m downgradient. All compounds except toluene reached injection concentration between 14 and 26 days after pumping began, and showed some evidence of selective retardation. Toluene broke through at a subdued concentration (˜ 50% of injection levels), and eventually declined to undetectable levels on day 43. This attenuation was attributed to adaptation and biodegradation by anaerobic bacteria. The results from these experiments indicate that considerable anaerobic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in

  9. Characterizing the Anaerobic Response of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Quantitative Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Terashima, Mia; Specht, Michael; Naumann, Bianca; Hippler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The versatile metabolism of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is reflected in its complex response to anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic response is also remarkable in the context of renewable energy because C. reinhardtii is able to produce hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. To identify proteins involved during anaerobic acclimation as well as to localize proteins and pathways to the powerhouses of the cell, chloroplasts and mitochondria from C. reinhardtii in aerobic and anaerobic...

  10. Multivariate monitoring of anaerobic co-digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    Anaerobic digestion processes for production of renewable energy in the form of biogas, and in the future hydrogen, are becoming increasingly important worldwide. Sustainable solutions for renewable energy production systems are given high political priority, amongst other things due to global...... warming and environmental concerns. Anaerobic digestion applied in agriculture can simultaneously convert heterogeneous biomasses and wastes from the primary agricultural sector and from the bio processing industries, for instance food processing, pharma, and biofuel production, into valuable organic...... distinct scales. The aim was to investigate, whether changes in the chemical environment in the anaerobic digesters could be monitored by NIRS enabling biogas plant operators to respond to the process dynamics. Results show that several key intermediates suitable for control of the anaerobic digestion...

  11. Exocellular electron transfer in anaerobic microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Plugge, C.M.; Eekert, van M.H.A.; Dolfing, J.; Schraa, G.

    2006-01-01

    Exocellular electron transfer plays an important role in anaerobic microbial communities that degrade organic matter. Interspecies hydrogen transfer between microorganisms is the driving force for complete biodegradation in methanogenic environments. Many organic compounds are degraded by obligatory

  12. An anaerobic mitochondrion that produces hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxma, Brigitte; Graaf, Rob M. de; Staay, Georg W.M. van der; Alen, Theo A. van; Ricard, Guenola; Gabaldón, Toni; Hoek, Angela H.A.M. van; Moon-van der Staay, Seung Yeo; Koopman, Werner J.H.; Hellemond, Jaap J. van; Tielens, Aloysius G.M.; Friedrich, Thorsten; Veenhuis, Marten; Huynen, Martijn A.; Hackstein, Johannes H.P.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogenosomes are organelles that produce ATP and hydrogen, and are found in various unrelated eukaryotes, such as anaerobic flagellates, chytridiomycete fungi and ciliates. Although all of these organelles generate hydrogen, the hydrogenosomes from these organisms are structurally and metabolicall

  13. Characterization and Adaptation of Anaerobic Sludge Microbial Communities Exposed to Tetrabromobisphenol A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Emilie; Cooper, Ellen; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in the environment is raising questions about its potential ecological and human health impacts. TBBPA is microbially transformed under anaerobic conditions to bisphenol A (BPA). However, little is known about which taxa degrade TBBPA and the adaptation of microbial communities exposed to TBBPA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effect of TBBPA on microbial community structure during the start-up phase of a bench-scale anaerobic sludge reactor, and identify taxa that may be associated with TBBPA degradation. TBBPA degradation was monitored using LC/MS-MS, and the microbial community was characterized using Ion Torrent sequencing and qPCR. TBBPA was nearly completely transformed to BPA via reductive debromination in 55 days. Anaerobic reactor performance was not negatively affected by the presence of TBBPA and the bulk of the microbial community did not experience significant shifts. Several taxa showed a positive response to TBBPA, suggesting they may be associated with TBBPA degradation. Some of these taxa had been previously identified as dehalogenating bacteria including Dehalococcoides, Desulfovibrio, Propionibacterium, and Methylosinus species, but most had not previously been identified as having dehalogenating capacities. This study is the first to provide in-depth information on the microbial dynamics of anaerobic microbial communities exposed to TBBPA. PMID:27463972

  14. Inactivation of Selected Bacterial Pathogens in Dairy Cattle Manure by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion (Balloon Type Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy E. Manyi-Loh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%–99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days < Escherichia coli sp. (62 days < Salmonella sp. (133 days from a viable count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure, respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  15. Inactivation of selected bacterial pathogens in dairy cattle manure by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (balloon type digester).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Okoh, Anthony I; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael

    2014-07-14

    Anaerobic digestion of animal manure in biogas digesters has shown promise as a technology in reducing the microbial load to safe and recommended levels. We sought to treat dairy manure obtained from the Fort Hare Dairy Farm by investigating the survival rates of bacterial pathogens, through a total viable plate count method, before, during and after mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Different microbiological media were inoculated with different serial dilutions of manure samples that were withdrawn from the biogas digester at 3, 7 and 14 day intervals to determine the viable cells. Data obtained indicated that the pathogens of public health importance were 90%-99% reduced in the order: Campylobacter sp. (18 days) count of 10.1 × 103, 3.6 × 105, 7.4 × 103 to concentrations below the detection limit (DL = 102 cfu/g manure), respectively. This disparity in survival rates may be influenced by the inherent characteristics of these bacteria, available nutrients as well as the stages of the anaerobic digestion process. In addition, the highest p-value i.e., 0.957 for E. coli showed the statistical significance of its model and the strongest correlation between its reductions with days of digestion. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the specific bacterial pathogens in manure can be considerably reduced through anaerobic digestion after 133 days.

  16. Removal of anaerobic soluble microbial products in a biological activated carbon reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaojing; Zhou, Weili; He, Shengbing

    2013-09-01

    The soluble microbial products (SMP) in the biological treatment effluent are generally of great amount and are poorly biodegradable. Focusing on the biodegradation of anaerobic SMP, the biological activated carbon (BAC) was introduced into the anaerobic system. The experiments were conducted in two identical lab-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. The high strength organics were degraded in the first UASB reactor (UASB1) and the second UASB (UASB2, i.e., BAC) functioned as a polishing step to remove SMP produced in UASB1. The results showed that 90% of the SMP could be removed before granular activated carbon was saturated. After the saturation, the SMP removal decreased to 60% on the average. Analysis of granular activated carbon adsorption revealed that the main role of SMP removal in BAC reactor was biodegradation. A strain of SMP-degrading bacteria, which was found highly similar to Klebsiella sp., was isolated, enriched and inoculated back to the BAC reactor. When the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 10,000 mg/L and the organic loading rate achieved 10 kg COD/(m3 x day), the effluent from the BAC reactor could meet the discharge standard without further treatment. Anaerobic BAC reactor inoculated with the isolated Klebsiella was proved to be an effective, cheap and easy technical treatment approach for the removal of SMP in the treatment of easily-degradable wastewater with COD lower than 10,000 mg/L. PMID:24520716

  17. Next-generation RNA-based fluorescent biosensors enable anaerobic detection of cyclic di-GMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin C; Wilson, Stephen C; Hammond, Ming C

    2016-09-30

    Bacteria occupy a diverse set of environmental niches with differing oxygen availability. Anaerobic environments such as mammalian digestive tracts and industrial reactors harbor an abundance of both obligate and facultative anaerobes, many of which play significant roles in human health and biomanufacturing. Studying bacterial function under partial or fully anaerobic conditions, however, is challenging given the paucity of suitable live-cell imaging tools. Here, we introduce a series of RNA-based fluorescent biosensors that respond selectively to cyclic di-GMP, an intracellular bacterial second messenger that controls cellular motility and biofilm formation. We demonstrate the utility of these biosensors in vivo under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and we show that biosensor expression does not interfere with the native motility phenotype. Together, our results attest to the effectiveness and versatility of RNA-based fluorescent biosensors, priming further development and application of these and other analogous sensors to study host-microbial and microbial-microbial interactions through small molecule signals. PMID:27382070

  18. Characterization and Adaptation of Anaerobic Sludge Microbial Communities Exposed to Tetrabromobisphenol A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Lefevre

    Full Text Available The increasing occurrence of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA in the environment is raising questions about its potential ecological and human health impacts. TBBPA is microbially transformed under anaerobic conditions to bisphenol A (BPA. However, little is known about which taxa degrade TBBPA and the adaptation of microbial communities exposed to TBBPA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effect of TBBPA on microbial community structure during the start-up phase of a bench-scale anaerobic sludge reactor, and identify taxa that may be associated with TBBPA degradation. TBBPA degradation was monitored using LC/MS-MS, and the microbial community was characterized using Ion Torrent sequencing and qPCR. TBBPA was nearly completely transformed to BPA via reductive debromination in 55 days. Anaerobic reactor performance was not negatively affected by the presence of TBBPA and the bulk of the microbial community did not experience significant shifts. Several taxa showed a positive response to TBBPA, suggesting they may be associated with TBBPA degradation. Some of these taxa had been previously identified as dehalogenating bacteria including Dehalococcoides, Desulfovibrio, Propionibacterium, and Methylosinus species, but most had not previously been identified as having dehalogenating capacities. This study is the first to provide in-depth information on the microbial dynamics of anaerobic microbial communities exposed to TBBPA.

  19. Characterization and Adaptation of Anaerobic Sludge Microbial Communities Exposed to Tetrabromobisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Emilie; Cooper, Ellen; Stapleton, Heather M; Gunsch, Claudia K

    2016-01-01

    The increasing occurrence of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in the environment is raising questions about its potential ecological and human health impacts. TBBPA is microbially transformed under anaerobic conditions to bisphenol A (BPA). However, little is known about which taxa degrade TBBPA and the adaptation of microbial communities exposed to TBBPA. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effect of TBBPA on microbial community structure during the start-up phase of a bench-scale anaerobic sludge reactor, and identify taxa that may be associated with TBBPA degradation. TBBPA degradation was monitored using LC/MS-MS, and the microbial community was characterized using Ion Torrent sequencing and qPCR. TBBPA was nearly completely transformed to BPA via reductive debromination in 55 days. Anaerobic reactor performance was not negatively affected by the presence of TBBPA and the bulk of the microbial community did not experience significant shifts. Several taxa showed a positive response to TBBPA, suggesting they may be associated with TBBPA degradation. Some of these taxa had been previously identified as dehalogenating bacteria including Dehalococcoides, Desulfovibrio, Propionibacterium, and Methylosinus species, but most had not previously been identified as having dehalogenating capacities. This study is the first to provide in-depth information on the microbial dynamics of anaerobic microbial communities exposed to TBBPA. PMID:27463972

  20. Progress in Anaerobic Digestion Models%国内外厌氧消化模型研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨双春; 邓丹; 梁丹丹; 潘一

    2012-01-01

    The anaerobic biological method is a process of low energy consumption and high efficiency to deal with high concentration organic wastewater. An anaerobic digestion model describes how the bacteria and the facultative anaerobic bacteria decompose the biodegradable organic in the sludge into carbon dioxide, methane and water under anaerobic conditions. As a structure model, it contains all procedures, including the production processes of decomposition and hydrolysis, acid, acetic acid and methane. In this paper, some sludge anaerobic digestion models are reviewed, such as the single-phase anaerobic digestion model (SP- ADM1), the Two-Phase Anaerobic Digestion Model (TP-ADM1), the combination of the Anaerobic Digestion and the Activated Sludge (ADM1-ASMs), the Sulfate Reduction of Anaerobic Digestion Model (SR-ADM1), the Nitrate Reduction of Anaerobic Digestion Expansion Model (NR-ADEM1), the Gas Production and its Expansion of the Anaerobic Digestion Model (GPAE-ADM1), the Sedimentation Tank of Anaerobic Digestion Model (ST-ADM1), and the Inhibition Kinetics of Anaerobic Digestion Model (IK-ADM1). In addition, the anaerobic digestion models are evaluated in comparison with the anaerobic digestion model 1, and some suggestions are made for future researches .%厌氧生物法是一种适用于处理高浓度有机废水的高效低能耗的处理工艺,厌氧消化模型是表述兼性细菌和厌氧细菌将可生物降解的有机物分解成二氧化碳、甲烷和水的过程模型.它是一个具有分解和水解、产酸、产乙酸和产甲烷等过程的复杂的结构化模型.本文主要介绍了国内外污泥厌氧消化模型的研究现状及其进展,模型包括厌氧消化1号模型(ADM1)、好氧活性污泥-厌氧消化模型(ASM1-ADM1)、单相中温-厌氧消化模型(SPMT-ADM1)、单相高温-厌氧消化模型(SPHT-ADM1)、两相-厌氧消化模型(TP-ADM1)、厌氧消化-活性污泥复合模型(ADM1 -ASMs)、硫酸盐

  1. Pyrosequencing reveals microbial community profile in anaerobic bio-entrapped membrane reactor for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kok Kwang; Shi, Xueqing; Ong, Say Leong; Ng, How Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, pharmaceutical wastewater with high salinity and total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was treated by an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) and an anaerobic bio-entrapped membrane reactor (AnBEMR). The microbial populations and communities were analyzed using the 454 pyrosequencing method. The hydraulic retention time (HRT), membrane flux and mean cell residence time (MCRT) were controlled at 30.6h, 6L/m(2)h and 100d, respectively. The results showed that the AnBEMR achieved higher TCOD removal efficiency and greater biogas production compared to the AnMBR. Through DNA pyrosequencing analysis, both the anaerobic MBRs showed similar dominant groups of bacteria and archaea. However, phylum Elusimicrobia of bacteria was only detected in the AnBEMR; the higher abundance of dominant archaeal genus Methanimicrococcus found in the AnBEMR could play an important role in degradation of the major organic pollutant (i.e., trimethylamine) present in the pharmaceutical wastewater. PMID:26577579

  2. Comparative Studies of Alternative Anaerobic Digestion Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Inman, David C.

    2004-01-01

    Washington D.C. Water and Sewage Authority is planning to construct a new anaerobic digestion facility at its Blue Plains WWTP by 2008. The research conducted in this study is to aid the designers of this facility by evaluating alternative digestion technologies. Alternative anaerobic digestion technologies include thermophilic, acid/gas phased, and temperature phased digestion. In order to evaluate the relative merits of each, a year long study evaluated the performance of bench scale dig...

  3. Anaerobic Digestion of Paper Mill Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan; Siti Baizura Mahat; Md. Fadjil Md. Din; A. Yuzir; Othman, N.

    2012-01-01

    In general, paper mill wastewater contains complex organic substances which could not be treated completely using conventional treatment processes, e.g. aerobic processes. As a result, anaerobic technology is a promising alternative for paper mill wastewater treatment due to its ability to degrade hard organic compounds. In the present study, treatment of paper mill wastewater using a stage anaerobic reactor was investigated. The more specific objectives of this study were to confirm whether ...

  4. Psychrophilic anaerobic treatment of low strength wastewaters.

    OpenAIRE

    Rebac, S.

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to design a high-rate anaerobic system for the treatment low strength wastewaters under psychrophilic conditions.Psychrophilic (3 to 20 °C) anaerobic treatment of low strength synthetic and malting wastewater was investigated using a single and two stage expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor system. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies found in the experiments with synthetic wastewater exceeded 90 % in the single stage reactor at im...

  5. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Atan, T.

    2013-01-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-...

  6. Numerically dominant denitrifying bacteria from world soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, T N; Betlach, M R; Tiedje, J M

    1977-04-01

    Nineteen soils, three freshwater lake sediments, and oxidized poultry manure were examined to determine the dominant denitrifier populations. The samples, most shown or expected to support active denitrification, were from eight countries and included rice paddy, temperate agricultural, rain forest, organic, and waste-treated soils. Over 1,500 organisms that could grow anaerobically on nitrate agar were isolated. After purification, 146 denitrifiers were obtained, as verified by production of N(2) from NO(3) (-). These isolates were characterized by 52 properties appropriate for the Pseudomonas-Alcaligenes group. Numerical taxonomic procedures were used to group the isolates and compare them with nine known denitrifier species. The major group isolated was representative of Pseudonomas fluorescens biotype II. The second most prevalent group was representative of Alcaligenes. Other Pseudomonas species as well as members of the genus Flavobacterium, the latter previously not known to denitrify, also were identified. One-third of the isolates could not utilize glucose or other carbohydrates as sole carbon sources. Significantly, none of the numerically dominant denitrifiers we isolated resembled the most studied species: Pseudomonas denitrificans, Pseudomonas perfectomarinus, and Paracoccus denitrificans. Denitrification appears to be a property of a very diverse group of gram-negative, motile bacteria, as shown by the large number (22.6%) of ungrouped organisms. The diversity of denitrifiers from a given sample was usually high, with at least two groups present. Denitrifiers, nitrite accumulators, and organisms capable of anaerobic growth were present in the ratio of 0.20+/-0.23:0.81+/-0.23:1. There were few correlations between their numbers and the sample characteristics measured. However, the temperatures at which isolates could grow were significantly related to the temperatures of the environments from which they were isolated. Regression analysis revealed few

  7. SLEEP DEPRIVATION INDUCED ANXIETY AND ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Arzu Vardar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation induced anxiety on anaerobic performance. Thirteen volunteer male physical education students completed the Turkish version of State Anxiety Inventory and performed Wingate anaerobic test for three times: (1 following a full-night of habitual sleep (baseline measurements, (2 following 30 hours of sleep deprivation, and (3 following partial-night sleep deprivation. Baseline measurements were performed the day before total sleep deprivation. Measurements following partial sleep deprivation were made 2 weeks later than total sleep deprivation measurements. State anxiety was measured prior to each Wingate test. The mean state anxiety following total sleep deprivation was higher than the baseline measurement (44.9 ± 12.9 vs. 27.6 ± 4.2, respectively, p = 0.02 whereas anaerobic performance parameters remained unchanged. Neither anaerobic parameters nor state anxiety levels were affected by one night partial sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that 30 hours continuous wakefulness may increase anxiety level without impairing anaerobic performance, whereas one night of partial sleep deprivation was ineffective on both state anxiety and anaerobic performance

  8. Genomics of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Sarah; Goh, Yong Jun; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    Probiotic bacteria from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species belong to the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria phylum, respectively. Lactobacilli are members of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group, a broadly defined family of microorganisms that ferment various hexoses into primarily lactic acid. Lactobacilli are typically low G + C gram-positive species which are phylogenetically diverse, with over 100 species documented to date. Bifidobacteria are heterofermentative, high G + C content bacteria with about 30 species of bifidobacteria described to date.

  9. Learning Chemistry from Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Clardy, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Jon Clardy Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University All animals, including humans, originated and evolved on a planet already teeming with bacteria, and the two kingdoms of life have been competing and cooperating through their joint history. Although bacteria are most familiar as pathogens, some bacteria produce small molecules that are essential for the biology of animals and other eukaryotes. This lecture explores some of...

  10. Multidimensional modelling to investigate interspecies hydrogen transfer in anaerobic biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batstone, D J; Picioreanu, C; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2006-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a multistep process, mediated by a functionally and phylogenetically diverse microbial population. One of the crucial steps is oxidation of organic acids, with electron transfer via hydrogen or formate from acetogenic bacteria to methanogens. This syntrophic microbiological process is strongly restricted by a thermodynamic limitation on the allowable hydrogen or formate concentration. In order to study this process in more detail, we developed an individual-based biofilm model which enables to describe the processes at a microbial resolution. The biochemical model is the ADM1, implemented in a multidimensional domain. With this model, we evaluated three important issues for the syntrophic relationship: (i) Is there a fundamental difference in using hydrogen or formate as electron carrier? (ii) Does a thermodynamic-based inhibition function produced substantially different results from an empirical function? and; (iii) Does the physical co-location of acetogens and methanogens follow directly from a general model. Hydrogen or formate as electron carrier had no substantial impact on model results. Standard inhibition functions or thermodynamic inhibition function gave similar results at larger substrate field grid sizes (> 10 microm), but at smaller grid sizes, the thermodynamic-based function reduced the number of cells with long interspecies distances (> 2.5 microm). Therefore, a very fine grid resolution is needed to reflect differences between the thermodynamic function, and a more generic inhibition form. The co-location of syntrophic bacteria was well predicted without a need to assume a microbiological based mechanism (e.g., through chemotaxis) of biofilm formation.

  11. Enumeration of Organohalide Respirers in Municipal Wastewater Anaerobic Digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan Jk; Boothe, Melissa A; Fiddler, Brice A; Lozano, Tania M; Rahi, Russel K; Krzmarzick, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Organohalide contaminants such as triclosan and triclocarban have been well documented in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), but the degradation of these contaminants is not well understood. One possible removal mechanism is organohalide respiration by which bacteria reduce the halogenated compound. The purpose of this study was to determine the abundance of organohalide-respiring bacteria in eight WWTP anaerobic digesters. The obligate organohalide respiring Dehalococcoides mccartyi was the most abundant and averaged 3.3 × 10(7) copies of 16S rRNA genes per gram, while the Dehalobacter was much lower at 2.6 × 10(4) copies of 16S rRNA genes per gram. The genus Sulfurospirillum spp. was also detected at 1.0 × 10(7) copies of 16S rRNA genes per gram. No other known or putatively organohalide-respiring strains in the Dehalococcoidaceae family were found to be present nor were the genera Desulfitobacterium or Desulfomonile. PMID:26508873

  12. Enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophic bacteria from Taihu sediments by a membrane biofilm bioreactor at ambient temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenghui; Wu, Qing; Lei, Ting; Liang, Peng; Huang, Xia

    2016-03-01

    Denitrification coupled to anaerobic methane oxidation is a recently discovered process performed by bacteria affiliated to the NC10 phylum. These microorganisms could play important roles in the energy-efficient way of anaerobic wastewater treatment where residual dissolved methane might be removed at the expense of nitrate or nitrite. The difficulty to enrich these microorganisms due to a slow growth rate, especially at low temperatures, limited its application in engineering field. In this study, an NC10 bacteria community was enriched from Taihu sediments by a membrane biofilm bioreactor at ambient temperature of 10-25 °C. After 13 months enrichment, the maximum denitrification rate of the enriched culture reached 0.54 mM day(-1) for nitrate and 1.06 mM day(-1) for nitrite. Anaerobic methane oxidation coupled denitrification was estimated from the (13)C-labeled CO2 ((13)CO2) production during batch incubations with (13)CH4. Furthermore, analysis of 16S rRNA genes clone library confirmed the presence of NC10 phylum bacteria and fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that NC10 bacteria dominated the reactor. All of the results indicated the NC10 bacteria community was competitive in terms of treating nitrate-contaminated water or wastewater under natural conditions. PMID:26578374

  13. D/H fractionation in lipids of facultative and obligate denitrifying and sulfate reducing bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, M. R.; Sessions, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids has been shown to vary broadly in both cultured bacteria and in environmental samples. Culturing studies have indicated that this variability may primarily reflect metabolism; however, the limited number of organisms studied thus far prevents application of these trends to interpretation of environmental samples. Here we report D/H fractionations in anaerobic bacteria, including both facultative and obligate anaerobic organisms with a range of electron donors, acceptors, and metabolic pathways. Experiments using the metabolically flexible alphaproteobacterium Paracoccus denitrificans probe particular central metabolic pathways using a range of terminal electron acceptors. While a large range of δD values has been observed during aerobic metabolism, denitrifying cultures produce a more limited range in δD values that are more similar to each other than the corresponding aerobic culture. Data from the sulfate reducing bacteria Desulfobacterium autotrophicum and Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus indicate that chemolithoautotrophy and anaerobic heterotrophy can produce similar δD values, and are similar between bacteria despite differing metabolic pathways. These results suggest that the fractionation of D/H depends both on the specific metabolic pathway and the electron acceptor. While this is not inconsistent with previous studies, it suggests the simple correspondence between δD and metabolism previously understood from aerobic bacteria is not universally applicable.

  14. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work is underway using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale, to develop start-up and operating procedures, and to generate effluent for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and batch-fed conditions have been made lasting 36, 90, and over 200 days. Solids solubilization and gas production rates and total solids destruction have met or exceeded the target values of 0.6 g cellulose per L of reactor per day, 0.5 L off-gas per L of reactor per day, and 80% destruction of solids, respectively. Successful start-up procedures have been developed, and preliminary effluent characterization and disposal studies have been done. A simple dynamic process model has been constructed to aid in further process development and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester. 7 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  15. Anaerobic digestion of cellulosic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaerobic digestion is a potentially attractive technology for volume reduction of low-level radioactive cellulosic wastes. A substantial fraction of the waste is converted to off-gas and a relatively small volume of biologically stabilized sludge is produced. Process development work has been completed using a 75-L digester to verify rates and conversions obtained at the bench scale. Start-up and operating procedures have been developed, and effluent was generated for characterization and disposal studies. Three runs using batch and fed-batch conditions were made lasting 36, 90, and 423 d. Solids solubilization rates and gas production rates averaged approximately 1.8 g cellulose per L of reactor per d and 1.2 L of off-gas per L reactor per d. Greater than 80% destruction of the volatile suspended solids was obtained. A simple dynamic process model was constructed to aid in process design and for use in process monitoring and control of a large-scale digester

  16. Genome sequence of Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548, an anaerobic bacterium from the phylum Lentisphaerae, isolated from the human gastro-intestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Passel, Mark W.J. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Kant, Ravi [University of Helsinki; Palva, Airi [University of Helsinki; Lucas, Susan [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Copeland, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lapidus, Alla L. [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Davenport, Karen W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Sims, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Kyrpides, Nikos C [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Richardson, Paul [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; De Vos, Willem M. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Smidt, Hauke [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands; Zoetendal, Erwin G. [Wageningen University and Research Centre, The Netherlands

    2011-01-01

    Victivallis vadensis ATCC BAA-548 represents the first cultured representative from the novel phylum Lentisphaerae, a deep-branching bacterial lineage. Few cultured bacteria from this phylum are known, and V. vadensis therefore represents an important organism for evolutionary studies. V. vadensis is a strictly anaerobic sugar-fermenting isolate from the human gastro-intestinal tract.

  17. Bioaugmentation of a Two-Stage Thermophilic (68°C/55°C) Anaerobic Digestion Concept for Improvement of the Methane Yield From Cattle Manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø Nielsen, Henrik; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of improving a two-stage (68°C/55°C) anaerobic digestion concept for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, a 10-24% increase of the specific methane yield from cattle manure and its fractions was obtained, when the substrates were inoculated with bacteria of...... of the two-stage setup....

  18. Influence of temperature fluctuation on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of municipal organic solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A laboratory-scale experiment was carried out to assess the influence of temperature fluctuation on thermophilic anaerobic digestion of municipal organic solid waste (MOSW). Heating failure was simulated by decreasing temperature suddenly from 55 ℃ to 20 ℃ suddenly; 2 h time is needed for temperature decrease and recovery. Under the conditions ofS.0 g/(L·d) and 15 d respectively for MOSW load and retention time, following results were noted: (1) biogas production almost stopped and VFA (volatile fatty acid) accumulated rapidly, accompanied by pH decrease; (2) with low temperature (20 ℃) duration of 1, 5, 12 and 24 h, it took 3, 11, 56 and 72 h for the thermophilic anaerobic digestion system to reproduce methane after temperature fluctuation;(3) the longer the low temperature interval lasted, the more the methanogenic bacteria would decay; hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis were all influenced by temperature fluctuation; (4) the thermophilic microorganisms were highly resilient to temperature fluctuation.

  19. Anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification is the dominant methane sink in a deep lake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutzmann, Joerg S.; Stief, Peter; Brandes, Josephin;

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification, also known as “nitrate/nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation” (n-damo), was discovered in 2006. Since then, only a few studies have identified this process and the associated microorganisms in natural environments. In aquatic sediments......, the close proximity of oxygen- and nitrate-consumption zones can mask n-damo as aerobic methane oxidation. We therefore investigated the vertical distribution and the abundance of denitrifying methanotrophs related to Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera with cultivation-independent molecular...... techniques in the sediments of Lake Constance. Additionally, the vertical distribution of methane oxidation and nitrate consumption zones was inferred from high-resolution microsensor profiles in undisturbed sediment cores. M. oxyfera-like bacteria were virtually absent at shallow-water sites (littoral...

  20. Anaerobic Halo-Alkaliphilic Baterial Community of Athalassic, Hypersaline Mono Lake in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.; Marsic, Damien; Ng, Joseph D.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The microorganisms of soda Mono Lake and other similar athalassic hypersaline alkaline soda lakes are of significance to Astrobiology. The microorganisms of these regimes represent the best known terrestrial analogs for microbial life that might have inhabited the hypersaline alkaline lakes and evaporites confined within closed volcanic basins and impact craters during the late Noachian and early Hesperian epochs (3.6 - 4.2 Gya) of ancient Mars. We have investigated the anaerobic microbiota of soda Mono Lake in northern California. In this paper we discuss the astrobiological significance of these ecosystems and describe several interesting features of two novel new species of anaerobic halo-alkaliphilic bacteria (Spirochaeta americana, sp. nov. and Desulfonatronum paiuteum, sp. nov) that we have isolated from Mono Lake.

  1. Biological conversion of biogas to methanol using methanotrophs isolated from solid-state anaerobic digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Johnathon P; Ge, Xumeng; Li, Yueh-Fen; Yu, Zhongtang; Li, Yebo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to isolate methanotrophs (methane oxidizing bacteria) that can directly convert biogas produced at a commercial anaerobic digestion (AD) facility to methanol. A methanotrophic bacterium was isolated from solid-state anaerobic digestate. The isolate had characteristics comparable to obligate methanotrophs from the genus Methylocaldum. This newly isolated methanotroph grew on biogas or purified CH4 and successfully converted biogas from AD to methanol. Methanol production was achieved using several methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) inhibitors and formate as an electron donor. The isolate also produced methanol using phosphate with no electron donor or using formate with no MDH inhibitor. The maximum methanol concentration (0.43±0.00gL(-1)) and 48-h CH4 to methanol conversion (25.5±1.1%) were achieved using biogas as substrate and a growth medium containing 50mM phosphate and 80mM formate. PMID:26630583

  2. Real-Time Molecular Monitoring of Chemical Environment in ObligateAnaerobes during Oxygen Adaptive Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Wozei, Eleanor; Lin, Zhang; Comolli, Luis R.; Ball, David. A.; Borglin, Sharon; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Downing, Kenneth H.

    2009-02-25

    Determining the transient chemical properties of the intracellular environment canelucidate the paths through which a biological system adapts to changes in its environment, for example, the mechanisms which enable some obligate anaerobic bacteria to survive a sudden exposure to oxygen. Here we used high-resolution Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy to continuously follow cellular chemistry within living obligate anaerobes by monitoring hydrogen bonding in their cellular water. We observed a sequence of wellorchestrated molecular events that correspond to changes in cellular processes in those cells that survive, but only accumulation of radicals in those that do not. We thereby can interpret the adaptive response in terms of transient intracellular chemistry and link it to oxygen stress and survival. This ability to monitor chemical changes at the molecular level can yield important insights into a wide range of adaptive responses.

  3. Application of dynamic membranes in anaerobic membranes in anaerobic membrane bioreactor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erşahin, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) physically ensure biomass retention by the application of a membrane filtration process. With growing application experiences from aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the combination of membrane and anaerobic processes has received much attention and become m

  4. Co-occurrence of nitrite-dependent anaerobic ammonium and methane oxidation processes in subtropical acidic forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Han; Wang, Yong-Feng; Chan, Ho-Wang; Wu, Ruo-Nan; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2016-09-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) and nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) are two new processes of recent discoveries linking the microbial nitrogen and carbon cycles. In this study, 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene of anammox bacteria and pmoA gene of n-damo bacteria were used to investigate their distribution and diversity in natural acidic and re-vegetated forest soils. The 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved featured at least three species in two genera known anammox bacteria, namely Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans, Candidatus Brocadia fulgida, and Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis while the pmoA gene amplified was affiliated with two species of known n-damo bacteria Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera and a newly established Candidatus Methylomirabilis sp. According to the results, the diversity of anammox bacteria in natural forests was lower than in re-vegetated forests, but no significant difference was observed in n-damo community between them. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that both anammox and n-damo bacteria were more abundant in the lower layer (10-20 cm) than the surface layer (0-5 cm). The abundance of anammox bacteria varied from 2.21 × 10(5) to 3.90 × 10(6) gene copies per gram dry soil, and n-damo bacteria quantities were between 1.69 × 10(5) and 5.07 × 10(6) gene copies per gram dry soil in the two different layers. Both anammox and n-damo bacteria are reported for the first time to co-occur in acidic forest soil in this study, providing a more comprehensive information on more defined microbial processes contributing to C and N cycles in the ecosystems. PMID:27178181

  5. Microbiological Diversity of the Anaerobic Sludge During Treatment of Venezuelan Oilfield Produced Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajacuri María Patricia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation the microbial abundances in the granular sludge of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASB were compared: the first one fed with production waters of light oil (31.1-39.0° API, from the zuliana region (Venezuela (APP and the second one with glucose. To this respect, the populations of glucose fermenting bacteria (BFG, acetogenic bacteria (BAC, metanogens (MET, sulfatereducing bacteria (BSR, nitrate-reducing bacteria (BNRand heterotrophic bacteria were monitored, using selective culture media. The microbial density was correlated with physicochemical parameters: pH, total alkalinity, COD, SO4 =, NO3-, as well as with the percentages of CH4, CO2 and N2in the biogas. The results exhibit significant differences between the microbial diversity of both reactors, with a proportion of BFG > BSR > MET > BAC > BNR for the glucose reactor and of MET > BNR > BAC > BSR > BFG for the APP. The abundance of bacteria in the glucose reactor was in the order of 108, whereas in the APP reactor was of 105, which ensues from the organic and mineral composition of effluents. The results presented in this study reach evidences on the population dynamics in sludge of UASB reactors, during the treatment of oilfield produced waters.

  6. Changes in microbial community structures due to varying operational conditions in the anaerobic digestion of oxytetracycline-medicated cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Gokhan; Aydin, Sevcan; Akyol, Çağrı; Yenigun, Orhan; Ince, Orhan; Ince, Bahar

    2016-07-01

    Management of manure containing veterinary antibiotics is a major concern in anaerobic treatment systems because of their possible adverse effects on microbial communities. Therefore, the aim of study was to investigate how oxytetracycline (OTC) influences bacteria and acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens under varying operational conditions in OTC-medicated and non-medicated anaerobic cow manure digesters. Concentrations of OTC and its metabolites throughout the anaerobic digestion were determined using ultraviolet-high-performance liquid chromatography (UV-HPLC) and tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), respectively. Fluorescent in situ hybridization, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, cloning, and sequencing analyses were used to monitor changes in microbial community structures. According to the results of analytical and molecular approaches, operating conditions highly influence active microbial community dynamics and associate with biogas production and elimination of OTC and its metabolites during anaerobic digestion of cow manure in the presence of an average initial concentration of 2.2 mg OTC/L. The impact of operating conditions has a drastic effect on acetoclastic methanogens than hydrogenotrophic methanogens and bacteria. PMID:27026176

  7. Anaerobic degradation of homocyclic aromatic compounds via arylcarboxyl-coenzyme A esters: organisms, strategies and key enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, Matthias; Löffler, Claudia; Morris, Brandon E L; Kung, Johannes W

    2014-03-01

    Next to carbohydrates, aromatic compounds are the second most abundant class of natural organic molecules in living organic matter but also make up a significant proportion of fossil carbon sources. Only microorganisms are capable of fully mineralizing aromatic compounds. While aerobic microbes use well-studied oxygenases for the activation and cleavage of aromatic rings, anaerobic bacteria follow completely different strategies to initiate catabolism. The key enzymes related to aromatic compound degradation in anaerobic bacteria are comprised of metal- and/or flavin-containing cofactors, of which many use unprecedented radical mechanisms for C-H bond cleavage or dearomatization. Over the past decade, the increasing number of completed genomes has helped to reveal a large variety of anaerobic degradation pathways in Proteobacteria, Gram-positive microbes and in one archaeon. This review aims to update our understanding of the occurrence of aromatic degradation capabilities in anaerobic microorganisms and serves to highlight characteristic enzymatic reactions involved in (i) the anoxic oxidation of alkyl side chains attached to aromatic rings, (ii) the carboxylation of aromatic rings and (iii) the reductive dearomatization of central arylcarboxyl-coenzyme A intermediates. Depending on the redox potential of the electron acceptors used and the metabolic efficiency of the cell, different strategies may be employed for identical overall reactions.

  8. Effects of phosphate addition on methane fermentation in the batch and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sho; Shintani, Masaki; Sanchez, Zoe Kuizon; Kimura, Kohei; Numata, Mitsuru; Yamazoe, Atsushi; Kimbara, Kazuhide

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia inhibition of methane fermentation is one of the leading causes of failure of anaerobic digestion reactors. In a batch anaerobic digestion reactor with 429 mM NH3-N/L of ammonia, the addition of 25 mM phosphate resulted in an increase in methane production rate. Similar results were obtained with the addition of disodium phosphate in continuous anaerobic digestion using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. While methane content and production rate decreased in the presence of more than 143 mM NH3-N/L of ammonium chloride in UASB, the addition of 5 mM disodium phosphate suppressed ammonia inhibition at 214 mM NH3-N/L of ammonium chloride. The addition prevented acetate/propionate accumulation, which might be one of the effects of the phosphate on the ammonia inhibition. The effects on the microbial community in the UASB reactor was also assessed, which was composed of Bacteria involved in hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis, and dehydrogenation, as well as Archaea carrying out methanogenesis. The change in the microbial community was observed by ammonia inhibition and the addition of phosphate. The change indicates that the suppression of ammonia inhibition by disodium phosphate addition could stimulate the activity of methanogens, reduce shift in bacterial community, and enhance hydrogen-producing bacteria. The addition of phosphate will be an important treatment for future studies of methane fermentation.

  9. Ammonia effect on hydrogenotrophic methanogens and syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Han; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-rich substrates can cause inhibition on anaerobic digestion process. Syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens are important for the ammonia inhibitory mechanism on anaerobic digestion. The roles and interactions of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens...... to ammonia inhibition effect are still unclear. The aim of the current study was to determine the ammonia toxicity levels of various pure strains of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Moreover, ammonia toxicity on the syntrophic cultivated strains of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens was tested. Thus......, four hydrogenotrophic methanogens (i.e. Methanoculleus bourgensis, Methanobacterium congolense, Methanoculleus thermophilus and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus), two SAOB (i.e. Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans and Thermacetogenium phaeum) and their syntrophic cultivation, were assessed under 0...

  10. How honey kills bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.S. Kwakman; A.A. te Velde; L. de Boer; D. Speijer; C.M.J.E. Vandenbroucke-Grauls; S.A.J. Zaat

    2010-01-01

    With the rise in prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity. To characterize all bactericidal factors in a medical-grade honey, we used a novel approach of successive neutralization of individual honey bactericidal factors. All bacteria t

  11. Lipidomics as an important key for the identification of beer-spoilage bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Řezanka, T; Matoulková, D; Benada, O; Sigler, K

    2015-06-01

    Electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was used for characterizing intact plasmalogen phospholipid molecules in beer-spoilage bacteria. Identification of intact plasmalogens was carried out using collision-induced dissociation and the presence of suitable marker molecular species, both qualitative and quantitative, was determined in samples containing the anaerobic bacteria Megasphaera and Pectinatus. Using selected ion monitoring (SIM), this method had a limit of detection at 1 pg for the standard, i.e. 1-(1Z-octadecenyl)-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine and be linear in the range of four orders of magnitude from 2 pg to 20 ng. This technique was applied to intact plasmalogen extracts from the samples of contaminated and uncontaminated beer without derivatization and resulted in the identification of contamination of beer by Megasphaera and Pectinatus bacteria. The limit of detection was about 830 cells of anaerobic bacteria, i.e. bacteria containing natural cyclopropane plasmalogenes (c-p-19:0/15:0), which is the majority plasmalogen located in both Megasphaera and Pectinatus. The SIM ESI-MS method has been shown to be useful for the analysis of low concentration of plasmalogens in all biological samples, which were contaminated with anaerobic bacteria, e.g. juice, not only in beer. Significance and impact of the study: Electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) using collision-induced dissociation was used to characterize intact plasmalogen phospholipid molecules in beer-spoilage anaerobic bacteria Megasphaera and Pectinatus. Using selected ion monitoring (SIM), this method has a detection limit of 1 pg for the standard 1-(1Z-octadecenyl)-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine and is linear within four orders of magnitude (2 pg to 20 ng). The limit of detection was about 830 cells of bacteria containing natural cyclopropane plasmalogen (c-p-19:0/15:0). SIM ESI-MS method is useful for analyzing low

  12. Metallization of bacteria cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Xiangfeng; (黎向锋); LI; Yaqin; (李雅芹); CAI; Jun; (蔡军); ZHANG; Deyuan; (张德远)

    2003-01-01

    Bacteria cells with different standard shapes are well suited for use as templates for the fabrication of magnetic and electrically conductive microstructures. In this paper, metallization of bacteria cells is demonstrated by an electroless deposition technique of nickel-phosphorus initiated by colloid palladium-tin catalyst on the surfaces of Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus. The activated and metallized bacteria cells have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Results showed that both Citeromyces matritensis and Bacillus cereus had no deformation in shape after metallization; the metallized films deposited on the surfaces of bacteria cells are homogeneous in thickness and noncrystalline in phase structure. The kinetics of colloid palladium-tin solution and electroless plating on bacteria cells is discussed.

  13. Occurrence of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation in the Yangtze Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, L.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past several decades, a large quantity of reactive nitrogen has been transported into the Yangtze estuarine and coastal water, due to intense human activities in the Yangtze River Basin. At present, it annually receives a high load of anthropogenic inorganic nitrogen (about 1.1 × 1011 mol N) from increased agricultural activities, fish farming, and domestic and industrial wastewater discharge in the Yangtze River Basin, consequently leading to severe eutrophication and frequent occurrences of harmful algal blooms in the estuary and adjacent coastal areas. Hence, the microbial nitrogen transformations are of major concern in the Yangtze Estuary. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) has been reported to play a significant role in the removal of reactive nitrogen in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the occurrences of anammox bacteria and associated activity in the Yangtze Estuary were evidenced with molecular and isotope-tracing techniques. It is observed that the anammox bacteria at the study area mainly consisted of Candidatus Scalindua, Brocadia, Kuenenia. Salinity was found to be a key environmental factor controlling distribution and diversity of the anammox bacterial community at the estuarine ecosystem. Also, temperature and organic carbon had significant influences on anammox bacterial biodiversity. Q-PCR assays of anammox bacteria indicated that their abundance had a range of 2.63 ×106 - 9.48 ×107 copies g-1 dry sediment, with high spatiotemporal heterogeneity. The potential anammox activities measured in the present work varied between 0.94 - 6.61nmol N g-1 dry sediment h-1, which were related to temperature, nitrite and anammox bacterial abundance. On the basis of the 15N tracing experiments, the anammox process was estimated to contribute 6.6 - 12.9 % to the total nitrogen loss whereas the remainder was attributed to denitrification.

  14. The effect of outside conditions on anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Min; WANG Shu-bo

    2016-01-01

    Organic carbon, inorganic carbon, temperature, pH and ORP are all to have a certain influence on the anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction. We can draw some conclusions on the optimum conditions of anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction. The optimum temperature of the anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction is 30-35℃. And the optimum pH of the anaerobic ammonia reaction is 7.5-8.3. The presence of organic matters can affect the anaerobic ammonia reaction, and different organic matters have different influence on it. The concentration of the inorganic carbon also exist great influence on the reaction. High inorganic carbon concentration also can inhibit anaerobic ammonia oxidation reaction.

  15. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David

    2012-01-31

    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  16. Mechanism and Effect of Temperature on Variations in Antibiotic Resistance Genes during Anaerobic Digestion of Dairy Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Duan, Man-Li

    2016-07-01

    Animal manure comprises an important reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), but the variation in ARGs during anaerobic digestion at various temperatures and its underlying mechanism remain unclear. Thus, we performed anaerobic digestion using dairy manure at three temperature levels (moderate: 20 °C, mesophilic: 35 °C, and thermophilic: 55 °C), to analyze the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities by quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We found that 8/10 detected ARGs declined and 5/10 decreased more than 1.0 log during thermophilic digestion, whereas only four and five ARGs decreased during moderate and mesophilic digestion, respectively. The changes in ARGs and bacterial communities were similar under the moderate and mesophilic treatments, but distinct from those in the thermophilic system. Potential pathogens such as Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Corynebacterium were removed by thermophilic digestion but not by moderate and mesophilic digestion. The bacterial community succession was the dominant mechanism that influenced the variation in ARGs and integrons during anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion decreased the amount of mesophilic bacteria (Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria) carrying ARGs. Anaerobic digestion generally decreased the abundance of integrons by eliminating the aerobic hosts of integrons (Actinomycetales and Bacilli). Thermophilic anaerobic digestion is recommended for the treatment and reuse of animal manure.

  17. Succession of microbial community and enhanced mechanism of a ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge process treating chloronitrobenzenes wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Liang, E-mail: felix79cn@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Jin, Jie [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Lin, Haizhuan [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Wenzhou Environmental Protection Design Scientific Institute, Wenzhou 325000 (China); Gao, Kaituo [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xu, Xiangyang, E-mail: xuxy@zju.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory for Water Pollution Control and Environmental Safety, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • The combined ZVI–UASB process was established for the degradation of chloronitrobenzenes. • There were the better shock resistance and buffering capacity for anaerobic acidification in the combined process. • Novel ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge (ZVI–AGS) was successfully developed. • Adaptive shift of microbial community was significant in ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge system. - Abstract: The combined zero-valent iron (ZVI) and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process is established for the treatment of chloronitrobenzenes (ClNBs) wastewater, and the succession of microbial community and its enhanced mechanism are investigated in the study. Results showed that compared with the control UASB (R1), the stable COD removal, ClNBs transformation, and dechlorination occurred in the combined system (R2) when operated at influent COD and 3,4-Dichloronitrobenzene (3,4-DClNB) loading rates of 4200–7700 g m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and 6.0–70.0 g m{sup −3} d{sup −1}, and R2 had the better shock resistance and buffering capacity for the anaerobic acidification. The dechlorination for the intermediate products of p-chloroanaline (p-ClAn) to analine (AN) occurred in R2 reactor after 45 days, whereas it did not occur in R1 after a long-term operation. The novel ZVI-based anaerobic granular sludge (ZVI–AGS) was successfully developed in the combined system, and higher microbial activities including ClNB transformation and H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} production were achieved simultaneously. The dominant bacteria were closely related to the groups of Megasphaera, Chloroflexi, and Clostridium, and the majority of archaea were correlated with the groups of Methanosarcinalesarchaeon, Methanosaetaconcilii, and Methanothrixsoehngenii, which are capable of reductively dechlorinating PCB, HCB, and TCE in anaerobic niche and EPS secretion.

  18. Anaerobic Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Microorganisms Identified in Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples by Stable Isotope Probing

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Weimin; Sun, Xiaoxu; Cupples, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation potential was investigated in samples from a range of sources. From these 22 experimental variations, only one source (from wastewater treatment plant samples) exhibited MTBE degradation. These microcosms were methanogenic and were subjected to DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) targeted to both bacteria and archaea to identify the putative MTBE degraders. For this purpose, DNA was extracted at two time points, subjected to ultracentrif...

  19. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic rumen fungus Orpinomyces - insights into an AT-rich genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Matthew J; Theodorou, Michael K; Brookman, Jayne L

    2005-01-01

    The anaerobic gut fungi occupy a unique niche in the intestinal tract of large herbivorous animals and are thought to act as primary colonizers of plant material during digestion. They are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi but molecular analysis of this group has been hampered by difficulties in their culture and manipulation, and by their extremely high A+T nucleotide content. This study begins to answer some of the fundamental questions about the structure and organization of the anaerobic gut fungal genome. Directed plasmid libraries using genomic DNA digested with highly or moderately rich AT-specific restriction enzymes (VspI and EcoRI) were prepared from a polycentric Orpinomyces isolate. Clones were sequenced from these libraries and the breadth of genomic inserts, both genic and intergenic, was characterized. Genes encoding numerous functions not previously characterized for these fungi were identified, including cytoskeletal, secretory pathway and transporter genes. A peptidase gene with no introns and having sequence similarity to a gene encoding a bacterial peptidase was also identified, extending the range of metabolic enzymes resulting from apparent trans-kingdom transfer from bacteria to fungi, as previously characterized largely for genes encoding plant-degrading enzymes. This paper presents the first thorough analysis of the genic, intergenic and rDNA regions of a variety of genomic segments from an anaerobic gut fungus and provides observations on rules governing intron boundaries, the codon biases observed with different types of genes, and the sequence of only the second anaerobic gut fungal promoter reported. Large numbers of retrotransposon sequences of different types were found and the authors speculate on the possible consequences of any such transposon activity in the genome. The coding sequences identified included several orphan gene sequences, including one with regions strongly suggestive of structural proteins such as collagens

  20. Bacterial and archaeal phylogenetic diversity associated with swine sludge from an anaerobic treatment lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinali-Rezende, Juliana; Pereira, Zelina L; Sanz, José L; Chartone-Souza, Edmar; Nascimento, Andréa M A

    2012-11-01

    Over the last decades, the demand for pork products has increased significantly, along with concern about suitable waste management. Anaerobic-lagoon fermentation for swine-sludge stabilization is a good strategy, although little is known about the microbial communities in the lagoons. Here, we employed a cloning- and sequencing-based analysis of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize and quantify the prokaryotic community composition in a swine-waste-sludge anaerobic lagoon (SAL). DNA sequence analysis revealed that the SAL library harbored 15 bacterial phyla: Bacteroidetes, Cloroflexi, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Deinococcus-Thermus, Synergystetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Chlorobi, Fibrobacteres, Verrucomicrobia and candidates division OP5, OP8, WWE1, KSB1, WS6. The SAL library was generally dominated by carbohydrate-oxidizing bacteria. The archaeal sequences were related to the Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota phyla. Crenarchaeota predominated in the library, demonstrating that it is not restricted to high-temperature environments, being also responsible for ammonium oxidation in the anaerobic lagoon. Euryarchaeota sequences were associated with the hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanomicrobiales and Methanobacteriales). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the number of bacterial cells was at least three orders of magnitude higher than the number of archaeal cells in the SAL. The identified prokaryotic diversity was ecologically significant, particularly the archaeal community of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, which was responsible for methane production in the anaerobic lagoon. This study provided insight into the archaeal involvement in the overall oxidation of organic matter and the production of methane. Therefore, the treatment of swine waste in the sludge anaerobic lagoon could represent a potential inoculum for the start-up of municipal solid-waste digesters. PMID:22828793

  1. Catalase (KatA plays a role in protection against anaerobic nitric oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengchang Su

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA is a common bacterial pathogen, responsible for a high incidence of nosocomial and respiratory infections. KatA is the major catalase of PA that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, a reactive oxygen intermediate generated during aerobic respiration. Paradoxically, PA displays elevated KatA activity under anaerobic growth conditions where the substrate of KatA, H2O2, is not produced. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon and define the role of KatA in PA during anaerobiosis using genetic, biochemical and biophysical approaches. We demonstrated that anaerobic wild-type PAO1 cells yielded higher levels of katA transcription and expression than aerobic cells, whereas a nitrite reductase mutant ΔnirS produced ∼50% the KatA activity of PAO1, suggesting that a basal NO level was required for the increased KatA activity. We also found that transcription of the katA gene was controlled, in part, by the master anaerobic regulator, ANR. A ΔkatA mutant and a mucoid mucA22 ΔkatA bacteria demonstrated increased sensitivity to acidified nitrite (an NO generator in anaerobic planktonic and biofilm cultures. EPR spectra of anaerobic bacteria showed that levels of dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC, indicators of NO stress, were increased significantly in the ΔkatA mutant, and dramatically in a ΔnorCB mutant compared to basal levels of DNIC in PAO1 and ΔnirS mutant. Expression of KatA dramatically reduced the DNIC levels in ΔnorCB mutant. We further revealed direct NO-KatA interactions in vitro using EPR, optical spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. KatA has a 5-coordinate high spin ferric heme that binds NO without prior reduction of the heme iron (Kd ∼6 μM. Collectively, we conclude that KatA is expressed to protect PA against NO generated during anaerobic respiration. We proposed that such protective effects of KatA may involve buffering of free NO when potentially toxic

  2. SAR11 bacteria linked to ocean anoxia and nitrogen loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsementzi, Despina; Wu, Jieying; Deutsch, Samuel; Nath, Sangeeta; Rodriguez-R, Luis M.; Burns, Andrew S.; Ranjan, Piyush; Sarode, Neha; Malmstrom, Rex R.; Padilla, Cory C.; Stone, Benjamin K.; Bristow, Laura A.; Larsen, Morten; Glass, Jennifer B.; Thamdrup, Bo; Woyke, Tanja; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T.; Stewart, Frank J.

    2016-08-01

    Bacteria of the SAR11 clade constitute up to one half of all microbial cells in the oxygen-rich surface ocean. SAR11 bacteria are also abundant in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), where oxygen falls below detection and anaerobic microbes have vital roles in converting bioavailable nitrogen to N2 gas. Anaerobic metabolism has not yet been observed in SAR11, and it remains unknown how these bacteria contribute to OMZ biogeochemical cycling. Here, genomic analysis of single cells from the world’s largest OMZ revealed previously uncharacterized SAR11 lineages with adaptations for life without oxygen, including genes for respiratory nitrate reductases (Nar). SAR11 nar genes were experimentally verified to encode proteins catalysing the nitrite-producing first step of denitrification and constituted ~40% of OMZ nar transcripts, with transcription peaking in the anoxic zone of maximum nitrate reduction activity. These results link SAR11 to pathways of ocean nitrogen loss, redefining the ecological niche of Earth’s most abundant organismal group.

  3. A bacterial population analysis of granular sludge from an anaerobic digester treating a maize-processing waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howgrave-Graham, A.R.; Wallis, F.M. (Natal Univ., Pietermaritzburg (ZA). Dept. of Microbiology and Plant Pathology); Steyn, P.L. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa))

    1991-01-01

    Microbial population studies were conducted on a dense granular sludge, with excellent settling, thickening and nutrient removal properties, from a South African clarigester treating effluent from a factory producing glucose and other carbohydrates from maize. The bacterial population comprised a heterogeneous group including acetogens, enterobacteria, sulphate-reducers, spirochaetes, heterofermentative lactobacilli and methanogens. The presence of these bacteria and lack of propionic acid and butyric acid bacteria suggests that the microbial activity of this anaerobic digester involved acetate and lactate metabolism rather than propionate or butyrate catabolism as a source of precursors for methane production. (author).

  4. Microbial community characteristics of semi-dry anaerobic digestion with organic waste%有机生活垃圾半干发酵菌群的分布变化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于美玲; 张大雷; 李玉婷; 董晓莹; 王晓明; 寇巍

    2015-01-01

    The organic waste mainly refers to the solid waste that is generated by residents’ daily life. If the organic waste is converted into energy through anaerobic digestion, it will reduce the adverse impact on the environment and contribute to reduction in consumption of fossil fuel. Analysis of the space and time differences of various kinds of microbial community in fermentation process, plays a very important role for controlling the fermentation process effectively, understanding the fermentation stage, optimization of fermentation conditions and improving the efficiency of biogas production. This paper investigated the temporal and spatial distribution of microbial community during the semi-dry fermentation of organic waste, and studied the relationship of acid production, methane production and ammonia production using most probable number (MPN). The experiment used anaerobic fermentation under one-time charging medium temperature (37℃), and designed six sampling positions. The inoculum was biogas slurry fermented with pig manure, and the concentration was 30%, pH value was adjusted to 7.0 before anaerobic fermentation. The results showed that, in the early stage of organic waste anaerobic fermentation, large amounts of air existed in the reactor, and there was less number of anaerobic bacteria. With the formation of the anaerobic environment and rich nutrients, the number of anaerobic bacteria began to rise. The anaerobic acidification bacteria and anaerobic ammonification bacteria proliferated earliest, and the acidification bacteria was prior to reach maximum than ammonification bacteria and occupied the dominant position. The methane bacteria didn’t proliferate at the start-up phase, they enter the fast growth stage after 15 days, and the peak value was 3.24×109 mL-1 on the 25th day. In the gas peak decline period, the number of anaerobic ammonification bacteria and anaerobic acidification bacteria began to decline, however, the methane bacteria

  5. Niche segregation of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and anammox bacteria in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    OpenAIRE

    Pitcher, A.; Villanueva, L; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.; G. J. Reichart; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have emerged as significant factors in the marine nitrogen cycle and are responsible for the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and dinitrogen gas, respectively. Potential for an interaction between these groups exists; however, their distributions are rarely determined in tandem. Here we have examined the vertical distribution of AOA and anammox bacteria through the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), one of ...

  6. Effects of lipid concentration on anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yifei, E-mail: sunif@buaa.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Dian; Yan, Jiao [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Qiao, Wei [College of Chemical Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Wang, Wei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhu, Tianle [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Lipid in municipal biomass would not inhibited the anaerobic digestion process. • A lipid concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. • The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with the increasing of the lipid contents. • Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process. - Abstract: The influence of the lipid concentration on the anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste-activated sludge was assessed by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and by bench-scale tests in a mesophilic semi-continuous stirred tank reactor. The effect of increasing the volatile solid (VS) concentration of lipid from 0% to 75% was investigated. BMP tests showed that lipids in municipal biomass waste could enhance the methane production. The results of bench-scale tests showed that a lipids concentration of 65% of total VS was the inhibition concentration. Methane yields increased with increasing lipid concentration when lipid concentrations were below 60%, but when lipid concentration was set as 65% or higher, methane yields decreased sharply. When lipid concentrations were below 60%, the pH values were in the optimum range for the growth of methanogenic bacteria and the ratios of volatile fatty acid (VFA)/alkalinity were in the range of 0.2–0.6. When lipid concentrations exceeded 65%, the pH values were below 5.2, the reactor was acidized and the values of VFA/alkalinity rose to 2.0. The amount of Brevibacterium decreased with increasing lipid content. Long chain fatty acids stacked on the methanogenic bacteria and blocked the mass transfer process, thereby inhibiting anaerobic digestion.

  7. Characteristics of high-sulfate wastewater treatment by two-phase anaerobic digestion process with Jet-loop anaerobic fluidized bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Chao-hai; WANG Wen-xiang; DENG Zhi-yi; WU Chao-fei

    2007-01-01

    A new anaerobic reactor,Jet-loop anaerobic fluidized bed(JLAFB),was designed for treating high-sulfate wastewater.The treatment characteristics,including the effect of influent COD/SO42- ratio and alkalinity and sulfide inhibition in reactors,were discussed for a JLAFB and a general anaerobic fluidized bed(AFB)reactor used as sulfate-reducing phase and methane-producing phase,respectively,in two-phase anaerobic digestion process.The formation of granules in the two reactors was also examined.The results indicated that COD and sulfate removal had different demand of influent COD/S042- ratios.When total COD removal Was up to 85%,the ratio was only required up to 1.2,whereas,total sulfate removal up to 95%required it exceeding 3.0.The alkalinity in the two reactors increased linearly with the growth of influent alkalinity.Moreover,the change of influent alkalinity had no significant effect on pH and volatile fatty acids(VFA)in the two reactors.Influent alkalinity kept at 400-500 mg/t,could meet the requirement of the treating process.The JLAFB reactor had great advantage in avoiding sulfide and free-H2S accumulation and toxicity inhibition on microorganisms.When sulfate loading rate was up to 8.1 kg/(m3·d),the sulfide and free-H2S concentrations in JLAFB reactor were 58.6 and 49.7 mg/L,respectively.Furthermore,the granules,with offwhite color,ellipse shape and diameters of 1.0-3.0 mm,could be developed in JLAFB reactor.In granules,different groups of bacteria were distributed in different layers,and some inorganic metal compounds such as Fe,Ca,Mg etc.were found.

  8. Biohydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation of waste. Final project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakashev, D.; Angelidaki, I.

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this project was to investigate and increase dark fermentative hydrogen production from organic wastes by optimizing important process parameters (reactor type, pH, temperature, organic loading, retention time, inoculation strategy, microbial composition). Labscale experiments were carried out at the Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. A two steps process for hydrogen production in the first step and methane production in the second step in serial connected fully mixed reactors was developed and could successfully convert organic matter to approx. 20-25 % hydrogen and 15-80 % to methane. Sparging with methane produced in the second stage could significantly increase the hydrogen production. Additionally it was shown that upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor system was very promising for high effective biohydrogen production from glucose at 70 deg C. Glucose-fed biofilm reactors filled with plastic carriers demonstrated high efficient extreme thermophilic biohydrogen production with mixed cultures. Repeated batch cultivations via exposure of the cultures to increased concentrations of household solid waste was found to be most useful method to enhance hydrogen production rate and reduce lag phase of extreme thermophilic fermentation process. Low level of pH (5.5) at 3-day HRT was enough to inhibit completely the methanogenesis and resulted in stable extreme thermophilic hydrogen production. Homoacetogenisis was proven to be an alternative competitor to biohydrogen production from organic acids under thermophilic (55 deg. C) conditions. With respect to microbiology, 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed to monitor the spatial distribution of hydrogen producing bacteria in sludge and granules from anaerobic reactors. An extreme thermophilic (70 deg. C), strict anaerobic, mixed microbial culture with high hydrogen producing potential was enriched from digested household waste. Culture

  9. [Anaerobic-aerobic infection in acute appendicitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamchich, V I; Ulitovskiĭ, I V; Savich, E I; Znamenskiĭ, V A; Beliaeva, O A

    1998-01-01

    362 patients with acute appendicitis (AA) were examined. For microbiological diagnosis of aerobic and anaerobic nonclostridial microflora we used complex accelerated methods (including evaluation of gram-negative microorganisms in comparison with tinctorial-fermentative method of differential staining according to oxygen sensitivity of catalasopositive together with aerobic and cathalasonegative anaerobic microorganisms) as well as complete bacteriologic examination with determination of sensitivity of the above microorganism to antimicrobial remedies. High rate of aerobic-anaerobic microbial associations and substantial identity of microflora from appendicis and exudate from abdominal cavity was revealed, which evidenced the leading role of endogenous microorganisms in etiology and pathogenesis of AA and peritonitis i. e. autoinfection. In patients with destructive forms of AA, complicated by peritonitis it is recommended to use the accelerated method of examination of pathologic material as well as the complete scheme of examination with the identification of the isolated microorganisms and the correction of antibiotic treatment. PMID:9511291

  10. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation is summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis are discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process is presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration to have significant effects on CH4 production rate. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter s by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost is presented.

  11. Biochar from anaerobically digested sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inyang, Mandu; Gao, Bin; Pullammanappallil, Pratap; Ding, Wenchuan; Zimmerman, Andrew R

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of anaerobic digestion on biochar produced from sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was anaerobically digested to produce methane. The digested residue and fresh bagasse was pyrolyzed separately into biochar at 600 degrees C in nitrogen environment. The digested bagasse biochar (DBC) and undigested bagasse biochar (BC) were characterized to determine their physicochemical properties. Although biochar was produced from the digested residue (18% by weight) and the raw bagasse (23%) at a similar rate, there were many physiochemical differences between them. Compared to BC, DBC had higher pH, surface area, cation exchange capacity (CEC), anion exchange capacity (AEC), hydrophobicity and more negative surface charge, all properties that are generally desirable for soil amelioration, contaminant remediation or wastewater treatment. Thus, these results suggest that the pyrolysis of anaerobic digestion residues to produce biochar may be an economically and environmentally beneficial use of agricultural wastes. PMID:20634061

  12. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  13. The effect of tannic compounds on anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is an alternative to the conventional aerobic treatment processes for the removal of easily biodegradable organic matter in medium to high strength industrial wastestreams. Anaerobic treatment has several advantages, however one important disadvantage is the high sensi

  14. Effect of Different Filling Materials in Anammox Bacteria Enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek ÖZGÜN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox is a process that ammonium as electron donor is oxidized to nitrogen gas using nitrite as electron acceptor. Compared to conventional nitrification-denitrification processes, this process is used less oxygen and no organic material (methanol, glucose. However, the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria (11-30 days is disadvantages. Therefore, batch reactors have been carried out in these bacteria enrichment. In this study continuously operated upflow anaerobic sludge reactor (UASB using different filling materials disposing of sensitive and slow-growing Anammox bacteria out of the system is purposed. Design and Methods: System is operated up-flow column reactor at 2 days hydraulic retention time (HRT in 45 days. In this study, ceramic stones and Linpor filling material are used. Using synthetic wastewater containing ammonium and nitrite, Ar/CO2 anaerobic conditions (95/5% supplied with gas. System is operated at a temperature 253 C in UASB. Temperature, pH, ammonia-nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen are measured. Results: Both filling material reactors are operated in 45 days. Ceramic stones filling reactor is observed quickly reaches 90% were used reactor ammonium removal. The ammonium nitrogen removal was slower in Linpor filling materials reactor. Nitrite removal is reached up to 90% in both the reactor. When compared to the stoichiometric equation in Linpor was composed of large amounts of nitrate. At the end of 25 days the results were similar to ceramic stone filling reactor with Linpor filling material reactors. Conclusions and Original Value: Anammox process as from nitrogen removal processes was discovered in 1995. Anammox bacteria that make up this process due to very low growth rates of microbial bacteria in the system must be kept in the system. Most of the studies in the literature, these bacteria enrichment stage is started instead of a continuous batch reactor system. In this study

  15. Helicobacter ganmani sp nov., a urease-negative anaerobe isolated from the intestines of laboratory mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, B.R.; O'Rourke, J.L.; Vandamme, P.;

    2001-01-01

    Spiral bacteria were isolated from the intestines of laboratory mice during a study examining the presence of Helicobacter species and other spiral organisms naturally infecting mice maintained at four different animal facilities in Sydney, Australia. One group of 17 isolates, cultured from mice...... from three of the four facilities, were found to be helicobacters but did not fall within any of the 18 currently recognized species. These isolates were unusual in that they only grew anaerobically at 37 degreesC and were incapable of growth under microaerobic conditions. Like Helicobacter rodentium...

  16. Review:Anaerobic ammonium oxidation for treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei ZHANG; Ping ZHENG; Chongojian TANG; Ren-cun JIN

    2008-01-01

    The concept of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is presently of great interest.The functional bacteria belonging to the Planctomycete phylum and their metabolism are investigated by microbiologists.Meanwhile,the ANAMMOX is equally valuable in treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters.Related processes including partial nitritation-ANAMMOX and completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) have been developed,and lab-scale experiments proved that both processes were quite feasible in engineering with appropriate control.Successful full-scale practice in the Netherlands will ac-celerate application of the process in future.This review introduces the microbiology and more focuses on application of the ANAMMOX process.

  17. Mechanistic modeling of biocorrosion caused by biofilms of sulfate reducing bacteria and acid producing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dake; Li, Yingchao; Gu, Tingyue

    2016-08-01

    Biocorrosion is also known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). Most anaerobic MIC cases can be classified into two major types. Type I MIC involves non-oxygen oxidants such as sulfate and nitrate that require biocatalysis for their reduction in the cytoplasm of microbes such as sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB). This means that the extracellular electrons from the oxidation of metal such as iron must be transported across cell walls into the cytoplasm. Type II MIC involves oxidants such as protons that are secreted by microbes such as acid producing bacteria (APB). The biofilms in this case supply the locally high concentrations of oxidants that are corrosive without biocatalysis. This work describes a mechanistic model that is based on the biocatalytic cathodic sulfate reduction (BCSR) theory. The model utilizes charge transfer and mass transfer concepts to describe the SRB biocorrosion process. The model also includes a mechanism to describe APB attack based on the local acidic pH at a pit bottom. A pitting prediction software package has been created based on the mechanisms. It predicts long-term pitting rates and worst-case scenarios after calibration using SRB short-term pit depth data. Various parameters can be investigated through computer simulation.

  18. Main Factors Effecting Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-fei

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (ANAMMOX) drew more attentions because of its denitrification in wastewater with low carbon resource. The external conditions of ANAMMOX are relatively harsh,however this reaction does not require the participation of oxygen and organics. So the research and technology development of ANAMMOX has the significance of sustainable development.In this paper, the main influencing factors of ANAMMOX were summarized,Combined with recent research status of ANAMMOX technology, the development trend of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation technology was prospected.

  19. The Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H; Kamp, G

    1996-05-15

    The existence and the regulatory mechanisms of the Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa are discussed. There are three reasons for the controversy surrounding this phenomenon. 1) The different definitions of the Pasteur effect, 2) the antagonistic effect of metabolic depression and its species specific response to hypoxia, as well as 3) the laboratory-specific differences in the experimental procedures for analyzing the Pasteur effect and its regulation. This review aims to clarify the confusion about the existence of the Pasteur effect in facultative anaerobic metazoa and to offer possible molecular mechanisms.

  20. Startup and stabilization of anaerobic membrane bioreactors at ambient temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Benito Peña, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in wastewater treatment in last decades to reduce human footprint. Primarily, anaerobic technology focused on treatment and stabilization of sludge, but now the tendency is to give it a major role in low cost treatment of high/low strength wastewaters, since anaerobic digestion offers energy generation through gas production. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBR) combine anaerobic digestion with membrane filtration. They are becoming a feasible opti...

  1. The Financial Feasibility of Anaerobic Digestion for Ontario's Livestock Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Weersink, Alfons; Mallon, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This report is an investigation of the financial feasibility of farm based anaerobic digestion investments under Ontario's Standard Offer Contract electricity prices. Using Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA) Agricultural Anaerobic Digestion Calculation Spreadsheet (AADCS) anaerobic digestion inputs, outputs, cost and revenues were estimated and used to conduct a financial analysis on the feasibility of four sized farm base anaerobic digestion investments. The res...

  2. Extracellular communication in bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhabra, S.R.; Philipp, B.; Eberl, L.;

    2005-01-01

    molecules, in different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria they control pathogenicity, secondary metabolite production, biofilm differentiation, DNA transfer and bioluminescence. The development of biosensors for the detection of these signal molecules has greatly facilitated their subsequent chemical...

  3. Indicator For Pseudomonas Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Ruth

    1990-01-01

    Characteristic protein extracted and detected. Natural protein marker found in Pseudomonas bacteria. Azurin, protein containing copper readily extracted, purified, and used to prepare antibodies. Possible to develop simple, fast, and accurate test for marker carried out in doctor's office.

  4. Niche segregation of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and anammox bacteria in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitcher, A.; Villanueva, L.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.; Reichart, G.J.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have emerged as significant factors in the marine nitrogen cycle and are responsible for the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite and dinitrogen gas, respectively. Potential for an interaction between these groups exists;

  5. In vitro fermentation response of laying hen cecal bacteria to combinations of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) prebiotic with alfalfa and layer ration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of combining a prebiotic with an alfalfa molting diet on fermentation by laying hen cecal bacteria. Cecal contents from laying hens were diluted to a 1:3000 concentration with an anaerobic dilution solution and added to serum tubes fi...

  6. Treatment of domestic sewage in a two-step system anaerobic filter/anaerobic hybrid reactor at low temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwalli, T.A.; Zeeman, G.; Oahn, K.L.T.; Lettinga, G.

    2002-01-01

    The treatment of domestic sewage at low temperature of 13 degrees Celsius was investigated in a two-step system consisting of an anaerobic filter (AF) + an anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor operated at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs)

  7. Anaerobic Digestion. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie, John W., Ed.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a four-lesson unit on anaerobic digestion control. Areas addressed include: (1) anaerobic sludge digestion (considering the nature of raw sludge, purposes of anaerobic digestion, the results of digestion, types of equipment, and other topics); (2) digester process control (considering feeding…

  8. The Influence of Hydration on Anaerobic Performance: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Justin A.; Green, James M.; Bishop, Phillip A.; Richardson, Mark T.; Neggers, Yasmin H.; Leeper, James D.

    2012-01-01

    This review examines the influence of dehydration on muscular strength and endurance and on single and repeated anaerobic sprint bouts. Describing hydration effects on anaerobic performance is difficult because various exercise modes are dominated by anaerobic energy pathways, but still contain inherent physiological differences. The critical…

  9. Changing anaerobic spectrum in suppurative lung disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beena, V K; Kumari, G R; Rao, P V; Murty, M V; Shivananda, P G

    1996-01-01

    A spectrum of three different anaerobes were isolated from a debilitated patient with suppurative lung disease, within a two-year period. Repeated isolation from three consecutive samples and symptomatic relief with metronidazole provide clinical evidence of anaerobic lung infection. This case emphasizes the importance of anaerobic culture in cases of protracted pulmonary suppurative disease. PMID:8822645

  10. Survival of bacteria from human dental plaque under various transport conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, C I; Newbrun, E

    1977-09-01

    The effects of transport media, temperature, and anaerobiosis on the survival of bacteria from human supragingival dental plaque were studied. Individual samples were obtained by passing sterile, unwaxed dental floss through the interproximal spaces. The plaque-bearing portion of floss was immediately placed in vials containing reduced transport fluid, viability-preserving microbistatic medium, or reduced salt solution transport fluid. Plaque samples were dispersed by ultrasonic oscillation, serially diluted, and plated in duplicate on MM10-sucrose-blood agar, mitis salivarius bacitracin agar, and Rogosa tomato juice agar. Initial viable counts (time 0) were compared with viable count determinations after 48- and 72-h storage. Quantitative recovery (>30%) of various groups of oral bacteria was accomplished from both reduced transport fluid and viability-preserving microbistatic medium after 48- and 72-h storage. Storage of dental plaque in reduced salt solution proved unsatisfactory for most bacteria (less than 10% survival). Since growth of some bacteria may occur in viability-preserving microbistatic medium and the charcoal present interferes with colonly enumeration on low-dilution plates, we found reduced transport fluid to be the most suitable medium for transport and recovery of bacteria from supragingival dental plaque. Subzero storage (-196 and -40 degrees C) did not enhance the survival of bacteria from dental plaque; storage at moderate (5 and 20 degrees C) temperatures gave better recovery of viable bacteria. Survival after anaerobic or aerobic storage was comparable for total colony-forming units; however, anaerobic storage enhanced survival of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Since these organisms are specifically associated with dental caries, anaerobic techniques are preferred for caries activity testing of plaque.

  11. Metabolic capabilities of microorganisms involved in and associated with the anaerobic oxidation of methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter eWegener

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In marine sediments the anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulfate as electron acceptor (AOM is responsible for the removal of a major part of the greenhouse gas methane. AOM is performed by consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME and their specific partner bacteria. The physiology of these organisms is poorly understood, which is due to their slow growth with doubling times in the order of months and the phylogenetic diversity in natural and in vitro AOM enrichments. Here we study sediment-free long-term AOM enrichments that were cultivated from seep sediments sampled off the Italian Island Elba (20°C; hereon called E20 and from hot vents of the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, cultivated at 37°C (G37 or at 50°C (G50. These enrichments were dominated by consortia of ANME-2 archaea and Seep-SRB2 partner bacteria (E20 or by ANME-1, forming consortia with Seep-SRB2 bacteria (G37 or with bacteria of the HotSeep-1 cluster (G50. We investigate lipid membrane compositions as possible factors for the different temperature affinities of the different ANME clades and show autotrophy as characteristic feature for both ANME clades and their partner bacteria. Although in the absence of additional substrates methane formation was not observed, methanogenesis from methylated substrates (methanol and methylamine could be quickly stimulated in the E20 and the G37 enrichment. Responsible for methanogenesis are archaea from the genus Methanohalophilus and Methanococcoides, which are minor community members during AOM (1 to 7‰ of archaeal 16S rRNA gene amplicons. In the same two cultures also sulfur disproportionation could be quickly stimulated by addition of zero-valent colloidal sulfur. The isolated partner bacteria are likewise minor community members (1 to 9‰ of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons, whereas the dominant partner bacteria (Seep-SRB1a, Seep-SRB2 or HotSeep-1 did not grow on elemental sulfur. Our results support a

  12. Metabolic Capabilities of Microorganisms Involved in and Associated with the Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Gunter; Krukenberg, Viola; Ruff, S Emil; Kellermann, Matthias Y; Knittel, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    In marine sediments the anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulfate as electron acceptor (AOM) is responsible for the removal of a major part of the greenhouse gas methane. AOM is performed by consortia of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (ANME) and their specific partner bacteria. The physiology of these organisms is poorly understood, which is due to their slow growth with doubling times in the order of months and the phylogenetic diversity in natural and in vitro AOM enrichments. Here we study sediment-free long-term AOM enrichments that were cultivated from seep sediments sampled off the Italian Island Elba (20°C; hereon called E20) and from hot vents of the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California, cultivated at 37°C (G37) or at 50°C (G50). These enrichments were dominated by consortia of ANME-2 archaea and Seep-SRB2 partner bacteria (E20) or by ANME-1, forming consortia with Seep-SRB2 bacteria (G37) or with bacteria of the HotSeep-1 cluster (G50). We investigate lipid membrane compositions as possible factors for the different temperature affinities of the different ANME clades and show autotrophy as characteristic feature for both ANME clades and their partner bacteria. Although in the absence of additional substrates methane formation was not observed, methanogenesis from methylated substrates (methanol and methylamine) could be quickly stimulated in the E20 and the G37 enrichment. Responsible for methanogenesis are archaea from the genus Methanohalophilus and Methanococcoides, which are minor community members during AOM (1-7‰ of archaeal 16S rRNA gene amplicons). In the same two cultures also sulfur disproportionation could be quickly stimulated by addition of zero-valent colloidal sulfur. The isolated partner bacteria are likewise minor community members (1-9‰ of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons), whereas the dominant partner bacteria (Seep-SRB1a, Seep-SRB2, or HotSeep-1) did not grow on elemental sulfur. Our results support a functioning of AOM as

  13. Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C M

    2007-08-01

    There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata (dry extracts), Usnea barbata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis (supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2] extracts). Additionally, the following characteristic plant substances were tested: usnic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, harpagoside, boswellic acid and gentiopicroside. The extracts and compounds were tested against 29 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the agar dilution test. U. barbata-extract and usnic acid were the most active compounds, especially in anaerobic bacteria. Usnea CO2-extract effectively inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains - MRSA), Propionibacterium acnes and Corynebacterium species. Growth of the dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur was also inhibited by Usnea-extract. Besides the Usnea-extract, Rosmarinus-, Salvia-, Boswellia- and Harpagophytum-extracts proved to be effective against a panel of bacteria. It is concluded that due to their antimicrobial effects some of the plant extracts may be used for the topical treatment of skin disorders like acne vulgaris and seborrhoic eczema. PMID:17291738

  14. Environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and the use of anaerobic residues as soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosey, F.E. [VFA Services Ltd., Herts (United Kingdom)

    1996-01-01

    This paper defines the environmental role of anaerobic digestion within the overall objective of recovering energy from renewable biomass resources. Examples and opportunities for incorporating anaerobic digestion into biomass-to-energy schemes are discussed, together with environmental aspects of anaerobic digestion plants. These include visual, public amenity, pathogens and public health, odor control, and gaseous emissions. Digestate disposal and the benefits of restrictions on recycling organic wastes and biomass residues back to the land are discussed, particularly as they relate to American and European codes of practice and environmental legislation. The paper concludes that anaerobic digestion, if performed in purpose-designed reactors that efficiently recover and use biogas, is an environmentally benign process that can enhance energy recovery and aid the beneficial land use of plant residues in many biomass-to-energy schemes.

  15. Use of Response Surface Methodology to Optimize Culture Conditions for Hydrogen Production by an Anaerobic Bacterial Strain from Soluble Starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieu, Hoa Thi Quynh; Nguyen, Yen Thi; Dang, Yen Thi; Nguyen, Binh Thanh

    2016-05-01

    Biohydrogen is a clean source of energy that produces no harmful byproducts during combustion, being a potential sustainable energy carrier for the future. Therefore, biohydrogen produced by anaerobic bacteria via dark fermentation has attracted attention worldwide as a renewable energy source. However, the hydrogen production capability of these bacteria depends on major factors such as substrate, iron-containing hydrogenase, reduction agent, pH, and temperature. In this study, the response surface methodology (RSM) with central composite design (CCD) was employed to improve the hydrogen production by an anaerobic bacterial strain isolated from animal waste in Phu Linh, Soc Son, Vietnam (PL strain). The hydrogen production process was investigated as a function of three critical factors: soluble starch concentration (8 g L-1 to 12 g L-1), ferrous iron concentration (100 mg L-1 to 200 mg L-1), and l-cysteine concentration (300 mg L-1 to 500 mg L-1). RSM analysis showed that all three factors significantly influenced hydrogen production. Among them, the ferrous iron concentration presented the greatest influence. The optimum hydrogen concentration of 1030 mL L-1 medium was obtained with 10 g L-1 soluble starch, 150 mg L-1 ferrous iron, and 400 mg L-1 l-cysteine after 48 h of anaerobic fermentation. The hydrogen concentration produced by the PL strain was doubled after using RSM. The obtained results indicate that RSM with CCD can be used as a technique to optimize culture conditions for enhancement of hydrogen production by the selected anaerobic bacterial strain. Hydrogen production from low-cost organic substrates such as soluble starch using anaerobic fermentation methods may be one of the most promising approaches.

  16. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15 mi

  17. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer, pro

  18. Anaerobic Pre-treatment of Strong Sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halalsheh, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of applying low cost anaerobic technology for the treatment of relatively high strength sewage of Jordan using two-stage and one-stage UASB reactors operated at ambient temperatures. The wastewater produced in Jordan is characterised

  19. Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chynoweth, David P.; Teixeira, Arthur A.; Owens, John M.; Haley, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    A document discusses the adaptation of a patented biomass-digesting process, denoted sequential batch anaerobic composting (SEBAC), to recycling of wastes aboard a spacecraft. In SEBAC, high-solids-content biomass wastes are converted into methane, carbon dioxide, and compost.

  20. Essential metal depletion in an anaerobic reactor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osuna, M.B.; Iza, J.M.; Zandvoort, M.H.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of the absence of trace elements on the conversion of a mixture of volatile fatty acids by a distillery anaerobic granular sludge was investigated. Two UASB reactors were operated under identical operational conditions except for the influent trace metal concentrations, during 140 days. E