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Sample records for bacopa monniera linn

  1. Effect of Bacopa monniera Linn. extract on murine immune response in vitro.

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    Saraphanchotiwitthaya, Aurasorn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Sripalakit, Pattana

    2008-10-01

    The study was to investigate and compare the effects of the Bacopa monniera Linn. extract and bacoside A on the ICR mice immune system in vitro. Splenocyte proliferation without or with mitogen (lipopolysaccharide, pokeweed mitogen, phytohaemagglutinin and concanavalin A) and phagocytic activity were assayed. The results showed that B. monniera extract at 0.001-1 mg/mL slightly suppressed splenocyte proliferation (SI 0.7) and decreased T-lymphocyte proliferation (SI 0.4) at 0.001 and 0.1 mg/mL with concanavalin A. Bacoside A at 0.001 mg/mL gave the highest splenocyte proliferation (SI 1.5) and strongly increased T-lymphocyte proliferation (SI 2.0) at 0.1 mg/mL with concanavalin A. Thus, it is possible to attribute the effect of B. monniera extract on splenocyte proliferation to the presence of bacoside A with other combined components. However, only B. monniera extract at 10 mg/mL produced a slight increase in lysosomal enzyme activity (PI 1.2), indicating a weak effect on phagocytic activation. It might be concluded that B. monniera manifests various effects on the murine immune system depending on the immune cell types, in accordance with its folklore uses. New assays are being carried out to study its mechanisms and to further investigate its applications in the treatment of human immune mediated diseases.

  2. Hepatoprotective effect of Bacoside-A, a major constituent of Bacopa monniera Linn.

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    Sumathi, T; Nongbri, A

    2008-10-01

    Bacoside-A (B-A) was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against d-GalN induced liver injury in rats. B-A is a major constituent isolated from the plant Bacopa monniera Linn. B-A (10mg/kg of body weight) was administered orally once daily for 21 days and then d-GalN (300 mg/kg of body weight) was injected on 21st day after final administration of B-A. B-A reduces the elevated levels of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma-GT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 5'nucleotidase (5'ND). In addition B-A also significantly restored towards normalization of the decreased levels of Vit-C, and Vit-E induced by d-GalN both in liver and plasma. These results suggest that B-A has hepatoprotective effect against d-GalN induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

  3. Experimental and Clinical Evaluation of Nootropic Activity of Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi

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    B N Dhawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa monniera Linn. (Brahmi is an annual creeper belonging to familyScrophulariaceae and growing all over the Indian sub-continent in marshy areas. It is a major Medhya Rasayana used in Ayurveda for treatment of memory disorders. Large number of saponins and glycosides has been isolated from the plant. Most of the experimental and clinical studies have been done with crude extracts or standardized preparation of the two active saponins Bacosides A and B.Extracts or saponin mixture facilitate learning, improve consolidation of learned behavior and delay extinction in several models of learnt behavior in normal rats and mice as well as in chemically induced or transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease. They also prevent or reverse amnesia produced by drugs, stress or ischemic hypoxia. Other CNS effects include anti-anxiety, anti-convulsant and analgesic activity. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the mechanism of these CNS effects.Extracts as well as the bacoside preparation have been found safe and well tolerated in healthy volunteers in single dose or chronic administration for several weeks in a number of double blind placebo controlled studies in India and abroad. Chronic administration significantly improved information processing, learning and memory consolidation. It was found more effective than caffeine in a comparative study.Double blind placebo controlled studies with bacoside preparation have demonstrated beneficial effects and safety in elderly patients with Age Related Memory Impairment and in children with Attention Deficit Memory Disorder. It has also been found useful in anxiety neurosis, epilepsy and sleep disturbances in post menopausal women.The standardized preparation is marketed as a prescription drug after having obtained the necessary regulatory approval in India, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa and as an OTC product in several other south east Asian and African countries.Bacopa monniera Linn

  4. Antihypercholesterolemic effect of Bacopa monniera linn. on high cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolemia in rats

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    Venkatakrishnan Kamesh; Thangarajan Sumathi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera (AEBM) on high cholesterol diet-induced rats. Methods: The shade-dried and coarsely powdered whole plant material (Bacopa monniera) was extracted with 90% ethanol, finally filtered and dried in vacuum pump. The experimental rats were divided into 4 groups: control (group-I), Rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) for 45 days [4% cholesterol (w/w) and 1% cholic acid], Rats fed with HCD for 45 days+AEBM (40mg/kg, body weight/day orally) for last 30 days (group-III) and AEBM alone (group-IV). Blood and tissues (Aorta) were removed to ice cold containers for various biochemical and histological analysis. Results: AEBM treatment significantly decreased the levels of TC, TG, PL, LDL, VLDL, atherogenic index, LDL/HDL ratio, and TC/HDL ratio but significantly increased the level of HDL when compared to HCD induced rats. Activities on liver antioxidant status (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, GST) were significantly raised with concomitant reduction in the level of LPO were obtained in AEBM treated rats when compared to HCD rats. Treatment with AEBM significantly lowered the activity of SGOT, LDH and CPK. Histopathology of aorta of cholesterol fed rat showed intimal thickening and foam cell deposition were noted. Conclusions:These results suggests that AEBM extended protection against various biochemical changes and aortic pathology in hypercholesterolemic rats. Thus the plant may therefore be useful for therapeutic treatment of clinical conditions associated hypercholesterolemia.

  5. The pharmacology of Bacopa monniera. A review

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    Ali Esmail Al-Snafi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa monniera was distributed in the warmer and wetlands regions of the world. It was widely used in traditional medicine to treat various complains. Bacopa monniera contained alkaloid brahmine , nicotinine, herpestine, bacosides A[3-( α-L-arabinopyranosyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-10, 20-dihydroxy-16-keto-dammar-24-ene] , triterpenoid saponins , saponins A, B and C, betulinic acid , D-mannitol , stigmastanol , β-sitosterol , stigmasterol. and pseudojujubogenin glycoside. The pharmacological studies showed that Bacopa monniera possessed many pharmacological effects included central nervous effects ( memory enhancement , antidepressant , anxiolytic , anticonvulsant and antiparkinsonian , antioxidant , gastrointestinal , endocrine , antimicrobial , anti-inflammatory , analgesic , cardiovascular and smooth muscle relaxant effects. The present review focused on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Bacopa monniera.

  6. A new triterpenoid saponin from Bacopa monniera

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    Yun Zhou; De Yun Kong; Ling Peng; Wei Dong Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin,bacopaside Ⅸ,was isolated from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst.and its structure was elucidated as 3-0-{β-d-glucopyranosyl(1 → 4)[α-1-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-d-glucop-yranosyl}-20-O-α-1-axabinopyranosyljujubogenin by spectroscopic methods and some chemical transformations.

  7. Anticonvulsant activity of Bacopa monniera in rodents

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    Darpan Kaushik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa monnieri (L, belonging to the Scrophulariaceae family and commonly known as Brahmi, is well known in India for its CNS activity but its neuropharmacological effect has not yet been explored. In the present study, the antiepileptic effects of the plant were investigated. The ethanolic extract of Bacopa monniera was tested for anticonvulsant activity in albino rats, using different convulsive models. The ethanolic extract of leaves produced significant anticonvulsant activity for all the different models studied. The present study shows a probable mechanism of action similar to that of benzodiazepines (GABA agonist. Thus, these results emphasize the need to diversify by using alternative therapeutic approaches pertaining to herbal medicine, where a single easily available plant may provide solutions to several therapeutic challenges, as observed in the anticonvulsant action of ethanolic extract of B. monniera.Bacopa monniera, da família Scrophulariaceae, e comumente denominada Brahmi, é bem conhecida na Índia por sua atividade no Sistema Nervoso Central, mas seu efeito neurofarmacológico não foi, ainda, explorado. No presente estudo, investigaram-se os efeitos antiepilépticos da planta. O extrato etanólico da Bacopa monniera foi testado quanto à atividade anticonvulsivante em ratos albinos, utilizando-se diferentes modelos de convulsão. O extrato etanólico das folhas produziu atividade anticonvulsivante significativa para todos os diferentes modelos estudados. O presente estudo mostra provável mecanismo de ação semelhante ao dos benzodiazepínicos (agonista do GABA. Assim sendo, esses resultados enfatizam a necessidade de diversificar, utilizando-se abordagens terapêuticas alternativas da medicina natural, em que uma planta facilmente disponível pode fornecer soluções para vários desafios terapêuticos, como o observado na ação anticonvulsivante do extrato etanólico de Bacopa monniera.

  8. Bacopa monniera Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Impairment of Spatial Memory in Mice

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    Manish Kumar Saraf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scopolamine, an anticholinergic, is an attractive amnesic agent for discerning the action of candidate antiamnesic drugs. Bacopa monniera Linn (Syn. Brahmi is one such antiamnesic agent that is frequently used in the ancient Indian medical system. We have earlier reported the reversal of diazepam-induced amnesia with B. monniera. In this study we wanted to test if scopolamine-induced impairment of spatial memory can also be ameliorated by B. monniera using water maze mouse model. The objective of study was to study the effect of B. monniera on scopolamine-induced amnesia. We employed Morris water maze scale to test the amnesic effect of scopolamine and its reversal by B. monniera. Rotarod test was conducted to screen muscle coordination activity of mice. Scopolamine significantly impaired the acquisition and retrieval of memory producing both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Bacopa monniera extract was able to reverse both anterograde and retrograde amnesia. We propose that B. monniera's effects on cholinergic system may be helpful for developing alternative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Bacoside A3--a triterpenoid saponin from Bacopa monniera.

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    Rastogi, S; Pal, R; KulshreshthaDK

    1994-05-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, bacoside A3, a constituent of bacosides the saponin mixture of Bacopa monniera, was isolated and characterized. Its structure was established as 3-beta-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->3)-O- [alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl(1-->2) ]O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]jujubogenin by chemical and spectral analyses. The cis-isomer of ebelin lactone was also obtained as one of the artefacts of the aglycone and its structure revised.

  10. Antioxidant activity of Bacopa monniera in rat frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus.

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    Bhattacharya, S K; Bhattacharya, A; Kumar, A; Ghosal, S

    2000-05-01

    The effect of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. was assessed on rat brain frontal cortical, striatal and hippocampal superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities, following administration for 7, 14 or 21 days. The effects induced by this extract (bacoside A content 82% +/- 0.5%), administered in doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg, orally, were compared with the effects induced by (-) deprenyl (2 mg/kg, p. o.) administered for the same time periods. Bacopa monniera (BM) induced a dose-related increase in SOD, CAT and GPX activities, in all the brain regions investigated, after 14 and 21 days of drug administration. On the contrary, deprenyl induced an increase in SOD, CAT and GPX activities in the frontal cortex and striatum, but not in the hippocampus, after treatment for 14 or 21 days. The results suggest that BM, like deprenyl, exhibits a significant antioxidant effect after subchronic administration which, unlike the latter, extends to the hippocampus as well. The results suggest that the increase in oxidative free radical scavenging activity by BM may explain, at least in part, the cognition- facilitating action of BM, recorded in Ayurvedic texts, and demonstrated experimentally and clinically.

  11. A review on Bacopa monniera: Current research and future prospects

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    Gohil Kashmira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, the use of herbal products has increased tremendously in the western world as well as in developed countries. Lately, one of the outstandingly important medicinal plants, widely used therapeutically in the orient and becoming increasingly popular in the west is Bacopa monniera, a well-known nootropic. The present review summarizes our current knowledge of pharmacological actions, preclinical and clinical studies, major bioactives, reported mechanisms of actions, clinical efficacy, safety and the possibility of interactions of the herb with the conventional drugs. Simultaneously, research updates as well as avenues for further research are also mentioned concerning the plant.

  12. Bacopa monniera, a reputed nootropic plant: an overview.

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    Russo, A; Borrelli, F

    2005-04-01

    Bacopa monniera (BM), a traditional Ayurvedic medicine, used for centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. The plant, plant extract and isolated bacosides (the major active principles) have been extensively investigated in several laboratories for their neuropharmacological effects and a number of reports are available confirming their nootropic action. In addition, researchers have evaluated the anti-inflammatory, cardiotonic and other pharmacological effects of BM preparations/extracts. Therefore, in view of the important activities performed by this plant, investigation must be continued in the recently observed actions described in this paper. Moreover, other clinical studies have to be encouraged, also to evidence any side effects and possible interactions between this herbal medicine and synthetic drugs.

  13. EVALUATION OF BEHAVIORAL ACTIVITY OF BACOPA MONNIERA AND SYZYGIUM CUMINI IN COMBINATION

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    Dalal Pramod Homdeo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major factor responsible for behavioral disorder. The main objective of the present work is to investigate the evaluation of behavioral activity of Bacopa monniera (aerial part and Syzygium cumini (seed coat, individually and in combination by using different extracts (viz; ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and methanol: water. Three different models which are used for behivoral activity such as Forced swim test (FST, Elevated plus maze method (EPM, Open field test (OFT. The result of FST indicated that immobility time significantly decreased in group treated with combination of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera and ethyl acetate extract of Syzygium cumini in dose (200/40 mg/kg as compared to control. The result of EPM indicated that percent no of open arm entries and time spent in group treated with combination of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera and ethyl acetate extract of Syzygium cumini in dose (200/40 mg/kg as compared to control. OFT indicates that number of occurrences at center and duration at center significantly increased in group treated with combination of methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera and ethyl acetate extract of Syzygium cumini in dose (200/40 mg/kg as compared to control group. Therefore it is clearly proved that Bacopa monniera and Syzygium cumini plant in combination showed promising behavioral activity.

  14. Chemical structures of constituents from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera.

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    Ohta, Tomoe; Nakamura, Seikou; Nakashima, Souichi; Oda, Yoshimi; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Fukaya, Masashi; Yano, Mamiko; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Two new dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, bacomosaponins A and B, and three new phenylethanoid glycosides, bacomosides A, B1, and B2, were isolated from the whole plant of Bacopa monniera Wettst. The chemical structures of the new constituents were characterized on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. In the present study, bacomosaponins A and B with acyl groups were obtained from the whole plant of B. monniera. This is the first report of acylated dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides isolated from B. monniera. In addition, dammarane-type triterpene saponins significantly inhibited the aggregation of 42-mer amyloid β-protein.

  15. Antidepressant activity of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera in experimental models of depression in rats.

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    Sairam, K; Dorababu, M; Goel, R K; Bhattacharya, S K

    2002-04-01

    Bacopa monniera Wettst. (syn. Herpestis monniera L.; Scrophulariaceae) is a commonly used Ayurvedic drug for mental disorders. The standardized extract was reported earlier to have significant anti-oxidant effect, anxiolytic activity and improve memory retention in Alzheimer's disease. Presently, the standardized methanolic extract of Bacopa monniera (bacoside A - 38.0+/-0.9) was investigated for potential antidepressant activity in rodent models of depression. The effect was compared with the standard antidepressant drug imipramine (15 mg/kg, ip). The extract when given in the dose of 20 and 40 mg/kg, orally once daily for 5 days was found to have significant antidepressant activity in forced swim and learned helplessness models of depression and was comparable to that of imipramine.

  16. Enhancement of basolateral amygdaloid neuronal dendritic arborization following Bacopa monniera extract treatment in adult rats

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    Venkata Ramana Vollala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the ancient Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda, Bacopa monniera is classified as Medhya rasayana, which includes medicinal plants that rejuvenate intellect and memory. Here, we investigated the effect of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera on the dendritic morphology of neurons in the basolateral amygdala, a region that is concerned with learning and memory. METHODS: The present study was conducted on 2¹/2-month-old Wistar rats. The rats were divided into 2-, 4- and 6-week treatment groups. Rats in each of these groups were further divided into 20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg dose groups (n = 8 for each dose. After the treatment period, treated rats and age-matched control rats were subjected to spatial learning (T-maze and passive avoidance tests. Subsequently, these rats were killed by decapitation, the brains were removed, and the amygdaloid neurons were impregnated with silver nitrate (Golgi staining. Basolateral amygdaloid neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic branching points (a measure of dendritic arborization and dendritic intersections (a measure of dendritic length were quantified. These data were compared with the data from the age-matched control rats. RESULTS: The results showed an improvement in spatial learning performance and enhanced memory retention in rats treated with Bacopa monniera extract. Furthermore, a significant increase in dendritic length and the number of dendritic branching points was observed along the length of the dendrites of the basolateral amygdaloid neurons of rats treated with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of Bacopa monniera (BM for longer periods of time (i.e., 4 and 6 weeks. CONCLUSION: We conclude that constituents present in Bacopa monniera extract have neuronal dendritic growth-stimulating properties.

  17. In vitro evaluation of Bacopa monniera extract and individual constituents on human recombinant monoamine oxidase enzymes.

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    Singh, Rajbir; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Bhateria, Manisha; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2014-09-01

    Bacopa monniera is a traditional Ayurvedic medicinal plant that has been used worldwide for its nootropic action. Chemically standardized extract of B. monniera is now available as over the counter herbal remedy to enhance memory in children and adults. Considering the nootropic action of B. monniera, we evaluated the effect of clinically available B. monniera extract and six of B. monniera constituents (bacoside A3, bacopaside I, bacopaside II, bacosaponin C, bacosine, and bacoside A mixture) on recombinant human monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes. The effect of B. monniera extract and individual constituents on human recombinant MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes was evaluated using MAO-Glo(TM) assay kit (Promega Corporation, USA), following the instruction manual. IC50 and mode of inhibition were measured for MAO enzymes. Bacopaside I and bacoside A mixture inhibited the MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes. Bacopaside I exhibited mixed mode of inhibition with IC50 and Ki values of 17.08 ± 1.64 and 42.5 ± 3.53 µg/mL, respectively, for MAO-A enzyme. Bacopaside I is the major constituent of B. monniera, which inhibited the MAO-A enzyme selectively.

  18. In vitro evaluation of Bacopa monniera on anti-Helicobacter pylori activity and accumulation of prostaglandins.

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    Goel, R K; Sairam, K; Babu, M Dora; Tavares, I A; Raman, A

    2003-01-01

    Bacopa monniera is an Indian tratidional medicine widely used to improve intellectual functions. Earlier, we had reported the prophylactic and curative effects of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera (BME) in various gastric ulcer models. The effect was due to augmentation of the defensive mucosal factors like increase in mucin secretion, life span of mucosal cells and gastric antioxidant effect rather than on the offensive acid-pepsin secretion. The present study includes evaluation of standardized BME (bacoside A content--35.5 +/- 0.9) on other contributing factors towards ulcerogenesis. BME in the dose of 1000 microg/ml showed anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in vitrol and in the dose of 10 microg/ml increased in vitro of prostanoids (PGE and PGI2) in human colonic mucosal incubates. It may be concluded that these factors may contribute to antiulcerogenic activity of BME.

  19. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators: role of Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst.

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    Viji, Vijayan; Helen, Antony

    2011-10-01

    Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst is a renowned plant in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. The present study seeks to identify the anti-inflammatory activity of two fractions from the methanolic extract of Bacopa, viz. the triterpenoid and bacoside-enriched fractions. The ability of these two fractions to inhibit the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 was tested using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peritoneal exudate cells in vitro. We found that triterpenoid and bacoside-enriched fractions significantly inhibited LPS-activated TNF-α, IL-6 and nitrite production in mononuclear cells. Significant antioxidant activity was exhibited by the bacoside enriched fraction compared to the triterpenoid fraction. Carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema assay revealed that triterpenoid and bacoside-enriched fractions exerted anti-oedematogenic effect, while in the arthritis model only the triterpenoid fraction exerted an anti-arthritic potential. The present study provides an insight into the ability of Bacopa monniera to inhibit inflammation through modulation of pro-inflammatory mediator release.

  20. Anxiolytic activity of a standardized extract of Bacopa monniera: an experimental study.

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    Bhattacharya, S K; Ghosal, S

    1998-04-01

    Bacopa monniera Wettst. (syn. Herpestis monniera L.; Hindi - Brahmi) is classified in Ayurveda, the classical Indian system of medicine, as Medhyarasayana, a group of plant derived drugs used as nervine tonics to promote mental health and improve memory and intellect. Earlier experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the memory-promoting action of the plant extracts and that of its active saponins, bacoside A and B. The present study was designed to investigate the anxiolytic activity of a standardized extract (bacoside A content 25.5 ± 0.8%) of B. monniera (BM), since the plant is used in Ayurveda in clinical conditions resembling the modern concept of anxiety disorders. The animal models used have been extensively validated as experimental models of anxiety and included the open-field, elevated plusmaze, social interaction and novelty-suppressed feeding latency tests in rats. BM was used at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, p.o. and the results were compared with those elicited by lorazepam, a well known benzodiazepine anxiolytic, used at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, i.p. BM produced a dose-related anxiolytic activity, qualitatively comparable to that of lorazepam, in all the test parameters. However, statistically significant results were elicited usually by the higher two doses of BM. BM did not produce any significant motor deficit, at the doses used, as was evidenced by using the rota-rod test. The findings correlate with the clinical use of the plant in Ayurveda. The advantage of B. monniera over the widely used benzodiazepine anxiolytics lies in the fact that it promotes cognition unlike the amnesic action of the latter.

  1. Root endophyte Piriformospora indica DSM 11827 alters plant morphology, enhances biomass and antioxidant activity of medicinal plant Bacopa monniera.

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    Prasad, Ram; Kamal, Shwet; Sharma, Pradeep K; Oelmüller, Ralf; Varma, Ajit

    2013-12-01

    Unorganized collections and over exploitation of naturally occurring medicinal plant Bacopa monniera is leading to rapid depletion of germplasm and is posing a great threat to its survival in natural habitats. The species has already been listed in the list of highly threatened plants of India. This calls for micropropagation based multiplication of potential accessions and understanding of their mycorrhizal associations for obtaining plants with enhanced secondary metabolite contents. The co-cultivation of B. monniera with axenically cultivated root endophyte Piriformospora indica resulted in growth promotion, increase in bacoside content, antioxidant activity and nuclear hypertrophy of this medicinal plant.

  2. Dammarane triterpene saponin from Bacopa monniera as the superoxide inhibitor in polymorphonuclear cells.

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    Pawar, R; Gopalakrishnan, C; Bhutani, K K

    2001-11-01

    The hydroalcoholic extract of the whole plant of Bacopa monniera Wettst. (Scrophulariaceae), exhibited an inhibitory effect on superoxide released from polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) assay. The major saponin bacoside A(3) was found to be responsible for this effect in the herb. This compound showed 85, 91.66, 91.66, and 83 % inhibitions of NBT reduction at the concentrations of 200, 100, 50, and 25 microg/ml, respectively, with an IC(50) value of 10.22 microg/ml. These inhibitory effects were compared with those of the standard positive controls, quercetin and ascorbic acid with IC(50) of 111 and 14.16 microg/ml, respectively. Another major saponin bacopasaponin C was found to be much less potent as compared to bacoside A(3) whereas the remaining two mixtures of saponins were found to be inactive.

  3. Prophylactic and curative effects of Bacopa monniera in gastric ulcer models.

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    Sairam, K; Rao, C V; Babu, M D; Goel, R K

    2001-11-01

    Bacopa monniera Wettst. (BM, syn. Herpestis monniera L; Scrophulariaceae), is an Ayurvedic drug used as a rasayana. Its fresh juice was earlier reported to have significant antiulcerogenic activity. In continuation, methanolic extract of BM (BME) standardized to bacoside-A content (percentage-38.0 +/- 0.9), when given in the dose of 10-50 mg/kg, twice daily for 5 days, showed dose-dependent anti-ulcerogenic on various gastric ulcer models induced by ethanol, aspirin, 2 h cold restraint stress and 4 h pylorus ligation. BME in the dose of 20 mg/kg, given for 10 days, twice daily showed healing effects against 50% acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers. Further work was done to investigate the possible mechanisms of its action by studying its effect on various mucosal offensive acid-pepsin secretion and defensive factors like mucin secretion, mucosal cell shedding, cell proliferation and antioxidant activity in rats. BME 20 mg/kg showed no effect on acid-pepsin secretion, increased mucin secretion, while it decreased cell shedding with no effect on cell proliferation. BME showed significant antioxidant effect per se and in stressed animals. Thus, the gastric prophylactic and curative effects of BME may be due to its predominant effect on mucosal defensive factors.

  4. Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.

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    Stough, Con; Downey, Luke A; Lloyd, Jenny; Silber, Beata; Redman, Stephanie; Hutchison, Chris; Wesnes, Keith; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2008-12-01

    While Ayurvedic medicine has touted the cognitive enhancing effects of Bacopa monniera for centuries, there is a need for double-blind placebo-controlled investigations. One hundred and seven healthy participants were recruited for this double-blind placebo-controlled independent group design investigation. Sixty-two participants completed the study with 80% treatment compliance. Neuropsychological testing using the Cognitive Drug Research cognitive assessment system was conducted at baseline and after 90 days of treatment with a special extract of Bacopa monniera (2 x 150 mg KeenMind) or placebo. The Bacopa monniera product significantly improved performance on the 'Working Memory' factor, more specifically spatial working memory accuracy. The number of false-positives recorded in the Rapid visual information processing task was also reduced for the Bacopa monniera group following the treatment period. The current study provides support for the two other published studies reporting cognitive enhancing effects in healthy humans after a 90 day administration of the Bacopa monniera extract. Further studies are required to ascertain the effective dosage range, the time required to attain therapeutic levels and the effects over a longer term of administration.

  5. Neuroprotective role of Bacopa monniera extract against aluminium-induced oxidative stress in the hippocampus of rat brain.

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    Jyoti, Amar; Sharma, Deepak

    2006-07-01

    Bacopa monniera is a nerve tonic used extensively in traditional Indian medicinal system "Ayurveda". Reports regarding its various antioxidative, adaptogenic and memory enhancing roles have already appeared in the last few decades. In the present study, aluminium chloride (AlCl(3)) was used to generate neurotoxicity. We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of Bacopa extract against aluminium-induced changes in peroxidative products, such as thio-barbituric acid-reactive substance (TBA-RS) and protein carbonyl contents and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Effect on lipofuscin (age pigments) accumulation and ultrastructural changes were also studied. Bacopa effects were compared with those of l-deprenyl. Co-administration of Bacopa extract during aluminium treatment significantly prevented the aluminium-induced decrease in SOD activity as well as the increased oxidative damage to lipids and proteins. Protective effect was also observed at microscopic level. Fluorescence and electron microscopic studies revealed considerable inhibition of intraneuronal lipofuscin accumulation and necrotic alteration in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Observations showed that Bacopa's neuroprotective effects were comparable to those of l-deprenyl at both biochemical and microscopic levels.

  6. Effect of bacoside extract from Bacopa monniera on physical fatigue induced by forced swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, T; Phani Kumar, G; Pandareesh, M D; Swamy, M S L; Khanum, Farhath; Bawa, A S

    2012-04-01

    The antifatigue effect of bacoside extract (BME) from Bacopa monniera (L.) Wettst. was investigated. Rats were subjected to weight-loaded forced swim test (WFST) every alternate day for 3 weeks. The BME at a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight was administered orally to rats for 2 weeks in order to evaluate the following biomarkers of physical fatigue: swimming time, change in body weight, lipid peroxidation, lactic acid (LA), glycogen, antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and blood parameters, namely blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatine kinase (CK). The exhaustive swimming time was increased by 3-fold in the BME supplemented group compared with that of the control group on day 13. The BME treatment lowered malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in brain, liver and muscle tissues by 11.2%, 16.2% and 37.7%, respectively, compared with the control exercised group (p < 0.05). The BME also reduced the LA, serum BUN and CK activities significantly compared with that of the control. Administration of BME significantly protected the depletion of SOD and CAT activities. The HSP-70 expression studies by western blot also confirmed the antifatigue property of BME. The present study thus indicates that BME ameliorates the various impairments associated with physical fatigue.

  7. Bacopa monniera leaf extract ameliorates hypobaric hypoxia induced spatial memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hota, Sunil Kumar; Barhwal, Kalpana; Baitharu, Iswar; Prasad, Dipti; Singh, Shashi Bala; Ilavazhagan, Govindasamy

    2009-04-01

    Hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment has been attributed to several factors including increased oxidative stress, depleted mitochondrial bioenergetics, altered neurotransmission and apoptosis. This multifactorial response of the brain to hypobaric hypoxia limits the use of therapeutic agents that target individual pathways for ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia induced memory impairment. The present study aimed at exploring the therapeutic potential of a bacoside rich leaf extract of Bacopa monniera in improving the memory functions in hypobaric conditions. The learning ability was evaluated in male Sprague Dawley rats along with memory retrieval following exposure to hypobaric conditions simulating an altitude of 25,000 ft for different durations. The effect of bacoside administration on apoptosis, cytochrome c oxidase activity, ATP levels, and oxidative stress markers and on plasma corticosterone levels was investigated. Expression of NR1 subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, neuronal cell adhesion molecules and was also studied along with CREB phosphorylation to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of bacoside action. Bacoside administration was seen to enhance learning ability in rats along with augmentation in memory retrieval and prevention of dendritic atrophy following hypoxic exposure. In addition, it decreased oxidative stress, plasma corticosterone levels and neuronal degeneration. Bacoside administration also increased cytochrome c oxidase activity along with a concomitant increase in ATP levels. Hence, administration of bacosides could be a useful therapeutic strategy in ameliorating hypobaric hypoxia induced cognitive dysfunctions and other related neurological disorders.

  8. The molecular links of re-emerging therapy: A review of evidence of Brahmi (Bacopa monniera

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    Deepali eMathur

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The convolution associated with memory is being resolved with advancement in neuroscience. According to the concurrent assumptions, synaptic plasticity forms one of the basis of memory formation, stabilization and strengthening. In Alzheimer's disease (AD, which is generally characterized by memory dysfunction, connections amongst the cells in the brain are attenuated or lost leading to degeneration, of neural networks. Numerous attempts have been made to find new therapies for memory dysfunction with increasing attention and investments being laid on herbal drugs. Many herbal plants and extracts have already documented beneficial results when tested for antiamnesic effects. Brahmi (Bacopa monniera is one such common herbal drug, which is employed for a long time in the Indian and chinese medical system in order to treat several disorders. Previous research has shown that Brahmi exerts many pharmacological effects including memory boosting capacity in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and Schizophrenia, exhibiting antiparkinsonian, antistroke, and anticonvulsant potentials. The present review discusses the chemical constituents of Brahmi along with in vitro and in vivo studies based on the pharmacological effects exerted by it. The efficacy of Brahmi in treating various disorders has evoked sufficient research in recent years and time is ripe to launch multiple clinical trials.

  9. Evaluation of In Vivo Wound Healing Activity of Bacopa monniera on Different Wound Model in Rats

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    S. Murthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing effects of 50% ethanol extract of dried whole plant of Bacopa monniera (BME was studied on wound models in rats. BME (25 mg/kg was administered orally, once daily for 10 days (incision and dead space wound models or for 21 days or more (excision wound model in rats. BME was studied for its in vitro antimicrobial and in vivo wound breaking strength, WBS (incision model, rate of contraction, period of epithelization, histology of skin (excision model, granulation tissue free radicals (nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation, antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione, acute inflammatory marker (myeloperoxidase, connective tissue markers (hydroxyproline, hexosamine, and hexuronic acid, and deep connective tissue histology (dead space wound. BME showed antimicrobial activity against skin pathogens, enhanced WBS, rate of contraction, skin collagen tissue formation, and early epithelization period with low scar area indicating enhanced healing. Healing effect was further substantiated by decreased free radicals and myeloperoxidase and enhanced antioxidants and connective tissue markers with histological evidence of more collagen formation in skin and deeper connective tissues. BME decreased myeloperoxidase and free radical generated tissue damage, promoting antioxidant status, faster collagen deposition, other connective tissue constituent formation, and antibacterial activity.

  10. Influence of organic supplements on production of shoot and callus biomass and accumulation of bacoside in Bacopa monniera (L.) Pennell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parale, Anuradha; Barmukh, Rajkumar; Nikam, Tukaram

    2010-04-01

    Production of valuable secondary metabolites through plant cell or organ culture is the best suited alternative to extraction of whole plant material and to increase production of secondary metabolites in in-vitro systems, feeding precursor or intermediate metabolites is an obvious and popular approach. The present investigation was aimed to study the influence of feeding of organic supplements, glycine (0-125 μM), ferulic acid (0-200 μM), phenylalanine (0-200 μM), α-ketoglutaric acid (0-200 μM) and pyruvic acid (0-200 μM) on production of bacoside-A (a triterpenoid type secondary metabolite responsible for cognition effects) in shoot and callus biomass of Bacopa monniera (L.) Pennell. The shoots were raised in liquid Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium fortified with 5 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA) and callus biomass on agar solidified MS medium containing 1 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4 -D) in conjunction with 5 μM 1-napthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Among the organic supplements used, 100 μM pyruvic acid effectively enhanced the production of bacoside-A in shoot as well as callus biomass. The bacoside-A content in in-vitro raised shoot biomass was 4.0 and 1.2 times higher as compared to control and shoot biomass of naturally grown plants respectively. Inclusion of pyruvic acid in MS medium for in-vitro shoot cultures of B. monniera, can be adapted for enhanced production of bacoside-A.

  11. Effect of bacosides, alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. (brahmi), on experimental amnesia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Kamal; Singh, Manjeet

    2005-07-01

    To investigate the effect of bacosides (alcoholic extract of brahmi) on scopolamine (3 mg kg(-1), ip), sodium nitrite (75 mg kg(-1), ip) and BN52021 (15 mg kg(-1), ip) induced experimental amnesia in mice, using Morris water maze test, all the agents were administered 30 min before the acquisition trials on each day and repeated for 4 consecutive days, and on 5th day during the retrieval trials. Bacosides on anterograde administration (before training) in mice, significantly decreased the escape latency time (ELT) during the acquisition trials for 4 consecutive days and increased the time spent (TS) in target quadrant during the retrieval trials on 5th day, and on retrograde administration (after training) bacosides were found not to affect TS significantly. Bacosides also significantly decreased the ELT and increased the TS in mice treated anterogradely with scopolamine and sodium nitrite. Bacosides did not exhibit any significant effect on TS of mice treated retrogradely with sodium nitrite. On the other hand, bacosides significantly increased the TS of mice treated retrogradely with BN52021. On the basis of the present results it can be concluded that bacosides facilitate anterograde memory and attenuate anterograde experimental amnesia induced by scopolamine and sodium nitrite possibly by improving acetylcholine level and hypoxic conditions, respectively. Beside this bacosides also reversed BN52021 induced retrograde amnesia, probably due to increase in platelet activating factor (PAF) synthesis by enhancing cerebral glutamate level.

  12. In vitro effects of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera and its five individual active constituents on human P-glycoprotein activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajbir; Rachumallu, Ramakrishna; Bhateria, Manisha; Panduri, Jagadeesh; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2015-01-01

    1. For centuries Bacopa monniera (BM) has been used as an herbal drug for the treatment of various mental ailments. A chemically standardized alcoholic extract of BM is clinically available over the counter herbal remedy for memory enhancement in children and adults. Consumption of herbal preparations has been reported to alter the function of membrane transporters, especially P-glycoprotein (P-gp), ATP-dependent drug efflux transporter responsible for the development of herb-drug interactions. 2. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effect of BM extract and its five individual active constituents (namely, bacopaside I, bacopaside II and bacopasaponin C, bacoside A and bacoside A3) on P-gp function using luminescent P-gp ATPase assay and Rh123 transport assay across human MDR1 gene transfected LLC-GA5-COL150 cell line. 3. It was observed that BM extract and its five individual constituents inhibited both basal activity as well as verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity, suggesting their affinity towards P-gp. Further, BM and its five active constituents inhibited the rhodamine 123 (Rh123) transport across LLC-GA5-COL150 cell monolayer with bacopaside II being the most potent inhibitor of P-gp, which decreased P-gp efflux ratio of Rh123 by fourfold in comparison to control. 4. Our finding may prove beneficial in predicting the potential herb-drug interactions of BM on concomitant medication with P-gp substrate drugs in clinical settings.

  13. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF BACOPA MONNIERI LINN.

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    Monic Shah et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate in-vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract of whole plant of Bacopa monnieri Linn. Family- Scrophularaceae. The total Phenolic content was determined using folin ciocalteau method while the total flavonoid content was determined using aluminium chloride method. In vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated using the Reducing power assay, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay, nitric oxide scavenging activity, superoxide scavenging activity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. The hydroalcoholic extract had more phenol concentration (116.1 mg/g of extract when compared to aqueous extract (58 mg/g of extract. The flavonoid content was more in hydroalcoholic extract (242.6 mg/g of extract when compared to that of aqueous extract (202.8 mg/g of extract. The reducing power and hydrogen peroxide scavenging of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. The nitric oxide scavenging activity, superoxide scavenging activity and Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity was also concentration dependent with IC50 value being 254.70 µg/ml , 934.06 µg/ml and 510.60 µg/ml respectively for Aqueous extract and 169.22 µg/ml, 495.83 µg/ml, 488 µg/ml respectively for hydroalcoholic extract. The order of the antioxidant potency of the whole plant extract is Hydroalcoholic >> aqueous. The results clearly indicate that aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract of Bacopa monnieri has anti oxidant property which may be due to the presence of phenols and flavonoids.

  14. STUDIES ON BEHAVIORAL, BIOCHEMICAL, IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL AND QUANTIFICATION OF DOPAMINE AND ITS METABOLITES IN THE STRIATUM OF 6-HYDROXY DOPAMINE INDUCED PARKINSONISM IN RATS - ATTENUATION BY BACOSIDEA, A MAJOR PHYTOCONSTITUENT OF BACOPA MONNIERA

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    Chandrasekar Shobana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacoside-A, a major constituent isolated from Bacopa monniera is held in high repute as a potent nerve tonic. Rats were pretreated with Bacoside - A (10mg/kg and 20mg/kg body weight for 21 days. A Parkinsonian model in rats was developed by giving 6-hydroxy dopamine (12μg/2μl in 0.1% ascorbic acid- saline in the right striatum on 22nd day. A significant protection on lipid peroxidation, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase was observed in the striatum of lesioned group animals pretreated with 10 mg/kg body weight of Bacoside-A for 21 days as compared to lesion group animals. We tested the behavioral response at different time points after injection of 6-hydroxy dopamine to evaluate the onset and progression of behavioral abnormalities. Also quantification of dopamine and its metabolites, DOPAC and HVA was done using HPLC coupled with electrochemical detector. The results showed a reduction in the levels of dopamine and its metabolites, increase in the locomotor activity, increase in "depression"-like behavior and a marked change in the social behavior in the 6 - hydroxy dopamine induced group whereas learning and memory abilities were not affected. Finally, all of these results were exhibited by an increase in the density of TH-IR fibers in the ipsilateral substantia nigra of the lesioned group following treatment with Bacoside- A. This study indicates that Bacoside-A, an active compound from Bacopa monniera, is helpful in attenuating the changes caused by 6-hydroxy dopamine induced lesions and has therapeutic potential in fighting against Parkinson's disease

  15. ASSESSMENT OF ANALGESIC, ANTIDIARRHOEAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE WHOLE PLANT OF BACOPA MONNIERI LINN

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    Siraj Md. Afjalus

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of the whole plant of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Scrophulariaceae was investigated for its possible analgesic, antidiarrhoeal and cytotoxic activities in animal models. The extract produced significant writhing inhibition in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice at the oral dose of 250 mg/kg & 500 mg/kg body weight (p<0.001 comparable to the standard drug Diclofenac sodium at the dose of 25 mg/kg of body weight. The extract showed antidiarrhoeal activity on castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice; it increased mean latent period and decreased the frequency of defecation significantly at the oral dose of 500 mg/kg body weight comparable to the standard drug Loperamide at the dose of 50 mg/kg of body weight. The crude extract produced the most prominent cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp Artemia salina (LC50 = 26.30 µg/ml.

  16. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, M. Sajimol, E-mail: sajimollazar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, St.Teresa' s College , Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Mathew, Lizzy [Department of Botany, St.Teresa' s College , Kochi-11, Kerala (India); Alex, Roselin [Department of Biotechnology, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22 (India); Deepa, G. D. [NCAAH, Cochin University of Science and Technology,Kochi-22, Kerala (India); Jayalekshmi, S., E-mail: jayalekshmi@cusat.ac.in [Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi-22 (India)

    2014-01-28

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

  17. L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals for plant cell biological studies and as a growth enhancing agent for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, M. Sajimol; Mathew, Lizzy; Alex, Roselin; Deepa, G. D.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the prospects of ZnS:Mn nanocrystals capped with L- serine, a bio-compatible amino acid, synthesized by wet chemical route, as efficient fluorescent probes for plant cell biological studies have been investigated. The present synthesis route using bio-compatible material is a low cost and easy to control method. The colloidal stability of the capped nano crystals is very good as they remain stable without settling down for long time. It is observed that L- serine significantly modifies the structural and optical characteristics of the ZnS:Mn nanocrystals and hence is suitable as a bio-compatible capping agent. The structural properties of L- serine capped nanocrystals were investigated by XRD technique. The size of the L- serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals is found to be around 2 nm . The optical characterization of the nanocrystals was carried out on the basis of photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The intense photoluminescence emission observed around 597nm for L-serine capped ZnS:Mn offers high prospects of applications in bio-imaging fields. The unique optical properties of nanoparticles make them appealing as in vivo and in vitro fluorophores in a variety of biological investigations. In the present study, L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals were used as a staining dye in fluorescent microscope for observing cell division, cell structure etc. These nanocrystals were also incorporated into the culture media along with the normal auxin- cytokinin hormone combinations in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium for micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri Linn. (Brahmi:Scrophulariaceae), an Ayurvedic medicine. The results suggest that L-serine capped ZnS:Mn nanocrystals can act as efficient enhancers towards quick callusing and shoot proliferation.

  18. Behavioral deficit and decreased GABA receptor functional regulation in the hippocampus of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jobin; Gangadharan, Gireesh; Kuruvilla, Korah P; Paulose, C S

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, alterations of the General GABA and GABA(A) receptors in the hippocampus of pilocarpine-induced temporal lobe epileptic rats and the therapeutic application of Bacopa monnieri and its active component Bacoside-A were investigated. Bacopa monnieri (Linn.) is a herbaceous plant belonging to the family Scrophulariaceae. Hippocampus is the major region of the brain belonging to the limbic system and plays an important role in epileptogenesis, memory and learning. Scatchard analysis of [³H]GABA and [³H]bicuculline in the hippocampus of the epileptic rat showed significant decrease in B(max) (P Bacoside-A treatment reverses all these changes near to control. Our results suggest that decreased GABA receptors in the hippocampus have an important role in epilepsy associated behavioral deficit, Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A have clinical significance in the management of epilepsy.

  19. Brain Enhancing Ingredients from Āyurvedic Medicine: Quintessential Example of Bacopa monniera, a Narrative Review

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    Hemant K. Singh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Āyurveda, the science (ved of life (ayu, owing its origin to Veda, the oldest recorded wisdom of human civilization written in 3500 BCE, contains extensive knowledge of various diseases and their therapeutic approaches. It essentially relied on nature and the immune system of an individual, and therapeutic interventions were introduced only to augment the immune system. Āyurveda had eight specialties, including psycho-neuroscience (a combination of psychology, clinical psychology and psychiatry and a unique promotive therapy encompassing nutrition, rejuvenation and geriatrics. The symptoms of various brain disorders, including memory disorder, were well defined. The goal of Āyurveda was to help an individual to achieve his cherished goal of leading a healthy life of 100 years. To achieve this, great emphasis was laid on nutrition, diet and a good conduct by the two great exponents of Āyurveda viz. Carak and Suśruta. By following these regimens, an individual could lead a less stressful life free from emotional disturbances. Both Carak and Suśruta had believed that these in combination with rasayana (rejuvenating plants could enable an individual to lead a healthy life of 100 years.

  20. Triterpenoid glycosides from Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishna, Chillara; Rao, Chirravuri V; Trimurtulu, Golakoti; Vanisree, Mulabagal; Subbaraju, Gottumukkala V

    2005-12-01

    Two triterpenoid glycosides have been isolated along with 10 known saponins from Bacopa monnieri. Structures of the compounds have been elucidated as 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] jujubogenin (1) and 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] pseudojujubogenin (2) by high resolution NMR spectral data and chemical correlations. Further, the chemical compositions of bacosides A and B have been delineated.

  1. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent.

  2. Olematu linn / Nicola Desiderio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Desiderio, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    10. Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalist (kuraator Richard Burdett). Näitusest "Linn, arhitektuur ja ühiskond". Itaalia paviljoni väljapanekust "Uus linn. Itaalia 2026. Kutse Vemasse" (kuraator Franco Purini), lühidalt Belgia väljapanekust ja Saksa paviljoni ekspositsioonist "Muundatav linn"

  3. Olematu linn / Nicola Desiderio

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Desiderio, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    10. Veneetsia arhitektuuribiennaalist (kuraator Richard Burdett). Näitusest "Linn, arhitektuur ja ühiskond". Itaalia paviljoni väljapanekust "Uus linn. Itaalia 2026. Kutse Vemasse" (kuraator Franco Purini), lühidalt Belgia väljapanekust ja Saksa paviljoni ekspositsioonist "Muundatav linn"

  4. A comparative pharmacognostical and preliminary physico-chemical analysis of stem and leaf of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel and Bacopa floribunda (R.BR.) Wettst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbannavar, Jyoti S; Chandola, H M; Harisha, C R; Khanpara, Komal; Shukla, V J

    2013-01-01

    Brahmi is a well-known herbal drug having an effect on brain as a memory enhancer. Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel and Bacopa floribunda (R.Br.) Wettst are both marketed in the name of Brahmi. The present study differentiates Bacopa monnieri and Bacopa floribunda in morphology, transverse section (T.S.) of root and leaf, powder microscopy, and chemical constituents. Morphological characters show color difference in flower, stem and leaf and differences in microscopic study, organoleptic study, and powder characteristics. Morphologically, Bacopa monnieri leaf is fleshy and more succulent than Bacopa floribunda leaf. There is also a difference in the interval of the stem internodes of the two. Physico-chemical analysis revealed presence of 26% bacoside A in Bacopa floribunda leaf and 27% in Bacopa floribunda stem, which is higher than the bacoside A content in leaf (22%) and stem (18%) of Bacopa monnieri. However due to the hemolytic action of bacoside A, which is the toxic effect of the chemical constituent, it seems likely that Bacopa monnieri is more popular in regular use than Bacopa floribunda.

  5. Determination of bacoside A by HPTLC in Bacopa monnieri extract

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    Prakash Om

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple sensitive HPTLC method developed for the determination of bacoside A in the plant Bacopa monnieri extracts. The stationary phase was precoated silica gel GF254. The mobile phase used was dichloromethane: methanol: water (4.5: 1.0: 0.1 v/v/v. The plate was scanned and quantified at 225 nm for bacoside A. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy and specificity. The proposed HPTLC method provides a faster and cost effective qualitative control for routine analysis of bacoside A in extracts containing Bacopa monnieri saponins.

  6. Rakvere linn jagas kultuuriraha

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Rakvere linn toetab tänavu erinevate spordivõistluste ja kultuuriürituste korraldamist, teiste seas muusikafestivali Green Christmas, alternatiivkultuuri festivali WHA 2005 ja Rakvere rahvamaja pärimusmuusika kontsertide sarja

  7. Jumala linn / Margus Paju

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    Paju, Margus

    2004-01-01

    Tallinna VIII Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali filme - Ladina-Ameerika mängufilmid "Jumala linn" ("Cidade de Deus") : režissöörid Fernando Meirelles, Katia Lund : Brasiilia - Prantsusmaa - Ameerika Ühendriigid 2002

  8. Effect of vermicompost extracts on the in vitro micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri

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    Suman Kashyap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: To study the effect of vermicompost (VC extracts on micropropagation of Bacopa monnieri (Linn Pennell. Aims: The aim was to develop low cost and economical tissue culture media for micropropagation using VC extracts. Settings and Design: VC and its extracts act as a plant growth promoting organic substitute containing humic substances. VC extracts were used as a low cost plant tissue culture media. Subjects and Methods : Aqueous extracts of VC (30% supplemented with 8 g/L agar as the experimental media and Murashige and Skoog media was used as control to support the micropropagation of B. monnieri. Hardening of tissue cultured plantlets was carried out using VC and its spray in the medium of cocopeat. The well-developed plantlets were transferred to the greenhouse and then into the field. Statistical Analysis Used: Student′s t-test and Tukey′s studentized range (honest significant difference test was considered for analyses of significance for various growth parameters such as development of roots, shoots, leaves, nodes, weight (in milligrams and percentage survival of plantlets from nodal explants of B.monnieri to detect differences observed between the two media. Results: The results have indicated that the aqueous extract of VC is most suitable as a component of tissue culture media for well establishment of explants. And the VC extract with the chemical supplements in the form of hormones, micronutrients or vitamins along with VC have a negative effect on the overall survival of plantlets. Conclusions: This study has indicated that by standardizing the technique, it is possible to develop the plants that respond to micropropagation in an economical way. Thus, the economical and the innovative technique implemented in this study significantly enhanced the production of the medicinal plant.

  9. Improved neuroprotective effects by combining Bacopa monnieri and Rosmarinus officinalis supercritical CO2 extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Escalon, Enrique; Melnick, Steven J

    2014-04-01

    Ethnobotanical evidence suggests that herbs such as brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) may possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. We compared the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of supercritical extract of Bacopa monnieri and rosemary antioxidant extract obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis as well as their combination to examine the effects on human glial (U-87 MG) and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cells. Bacopa monnieri extract, rosemary antioxidant extract, and their combination (1:1) are not cytotoxic in both glial and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell lines up to 200 μg/mL concentration. The combination of extracts of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant has better antioxidant potential and antilipid peroxidation activity than either agent alone. Although the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant showed almost similar inhibition of phospho tau expression as Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract alone, the combination has better inhibitory effect on amyloid precursor protein synthesis and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor production in hypothalamus cells than single agents. These results suggest that the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant is more neuroprotective than Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract.

  10. Use of the cryptogein gene to stimulate the accumulation of Bacopa saponins in transgenic Bacopa monnieri plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sukanya; Garai, Saraswati; Jha, Sumita

    2012-10-01

    Genetic transformation of the Indian medicinal plant, Bacopa monnieri, using a gene encoding cryptogein, a proteinaceous elicitor, via Ri and Ti plasmids, were established and induced bioproduction of bacopa saponins in crypt-transgenic plants were obtained. Transformed roots obtained with A. rhizogenes strain LBA 9402 crypt on selection medium containing kanamycin (100 mg l(-1)) dedifferentiated forming callus and redifferentiated to roots which, spontaneously showed shoot bud induction. Ri crypt-transformed plants thus obtained showed integration and expression of rol genes as well as crypt gene. Ti crypt-transformed B. monnieri plants were established following transformation with disarmed A. tumefaciens strain harboring crypt. Transgenic plants showed significant enhancement in growth and bacopa saponin content. Bacopasaponin D (1.4-1.69 %) was maximally enhanced in transgenic plants containing crypt. In comparison to Ri-transformed plants, Ri crypt-transformed plants showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) enhanced accumulation of bacoside A(3), bacopasaponin D, bacopaside II, bacopaside III and bacopaside V. Produced transgenic lines can be used for further research on elicitation in crypt-transgenic plants as well as for large scale production of saponins. Key message The cryptogein gene, which encodes a proteinaceous elicitor is associated with increase in secondary metabolite accumulation-either alone or in addition to the increases associated with transformation by A. rhizogenes.

  11. Isejuhtiv linn / Marten Kaevats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaevats, Marten

    2015-01-01

    9. septembril 2015 algav kolmas Tallinna arhitektuuribiennaal TAB kannab pealkirja "Isejuhtiv linn" ja räägib sellest, millised muutused võivad meid ümbritsevas linnas aset leida, kui rakendub kolmas tööstusrevolutsioon ja kasutusele võetakse isejuhtivad autod. TAB näitab sel korral linnaehituse ja arhitektuuri uusi võimalusi ning kutsub üles arutlema nende elluviimise metodoloogia üle. Kuraator Marten Kaevats

  12. Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A for ameliorating epilepsy associated behavioral deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jobin; Paul, Jes; Nandhu, M S; Paulose, C S

    2010-07-01

    Bacopa monnieri is an outstanding nervine tonic used for raising the mental performance. It helps in concentration, comprehension, recall and alertness, Brahmi is particularly beneficial as it aids in categorizing information in brain and its subsequent expression. Bacopa is also called as a natural antioxidant which may give details its neuroprotective role seen in the memory centers of the brain. Epilepsy is neuronal disorder characterized by learning, cognitive and memory impairments. The present review summarizes information concerning botany, chemistry and beneficial effect of Bacopa monnieri on epilepsy associated behavioral deficits.

  13. Linn ja kultuur / Mart Kalm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kalm, Mart, 1961-

    1998-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline konverents 'Linn ja kultuur'13.-17. maini Stockholmis. Eestlastest osales ettekandega TTÜ professor Ülo Tärno ja arhitekt Peep Männiksaar. Äsjavalminud Stockholmi moodsa kunsti ja arhitektuurimuuseumist hoonest (arhitekt R. Moneo).

  14. Beneficial effects of Bacopa monnieri extract on opioid induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Muhammad; Subhan, Fazal; Ullah, Ihsan; Ali, Gowhar; Alam, Javaid; Shah, Rehmat

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of morphine and illicit street heroin and their amelioration by a standardized methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri (L.) (mBME) in rats. Morphine or street heroin was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg for 14 and 21 days. mBME (40 mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg) was administered two hours before morphine or street heroin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the standardization of bacoside-A major components in mBME. The antioxidant potential of mBME was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Administration of morphine and street heroin resulted in marked elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and creatinine. Histopathological changes induced by morphine and street heroin after 14 days were of reversible nature while treatment for 21 days was associated with irreversible changes. Pretreatment with mBME or ascorbic acid restored the elevation of serum ALT, AST and creatinine and protected liver and kidneys from the toxicological influence of morphine and street heroin. HPLC analysis showed that mBME contained bacoside-A major components i.e. bacoside-A3 (37.5 μg/mg), bacopaside-II (4.62 μg/mg) and bacopasaponin-C (1.91 μg/mg). The EC50 for the DPPH free radical scavenging assay revealed that mBME possessed strong antioxidant potential. These results concluded that as compared to morphine, street heroin was associated with severe biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Bacopa monnieri having strong antioxidant potential may provide a beneficial herbal remedy for the efficient management of opioid related hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  15. Beneficial effects of Bacopa monnieri extract on opioid induced toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahid

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of morphine and illicit street heroin and their amelioration by a standardized methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri (L. (mBME in rats. Morphine or street heroin was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg for 14 and 21 days. mBME (40 mg/kg or ascorbic acid (50 mg/kg was administered two hours before morphine or street heroin. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used for the standardization of bacoside-A major components in mBME. The antioxidant potential of mBME was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Administration of morphine and street heroin resulted in marked elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and creatinine. Histopathological changes induced by morphine and street heroin after 14 days were of reversible nature while treatment for 21 days was associated with irreversible changes. Pretreatment with mBME or ascorbic acid restored the elevation of serum ALT, AST and creatinine and protected liver and kidneys from the toxicological influence of morphine and street heroin. HPLC analysis showed that mBME contained bacoside-A major components i.e. bacoside-A3 (37.5 μg/mg, bacopaside-II (4.62 μg/mg and bacopasaponin-C (1.91 μg/mg. The EC50 for the DPPH free radical scavenging assay revealed that mBME possessed strong antioxidant potential. These results concluded that as compared to morphine, street heroin was associated with severe biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Bacopa monnieri having strong antioxidant potential may provide a beneficial herbal remedy for the efficient management of opioid related hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  16. Bacopa monnieri as an Antioxidant Therapy to Reduce Oxidative Stress in the Aging Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Simpson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The detrimental effect of neuronal cell death due to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in age-related cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. The Indian herb Bacopa monnieri is a dietary antioxidant, with animal and in vitro studies indicating several modes of action that may protect the brain against oxidative damage. In parallel, several studies using the CDRI08 extract have shown that extracts of Bacopa monnieri improve cognitive function in humans. The biological mechanisms of this cognitive enhancement are unknown. In this review we discuss the animal studies and in vivo evidence for Bacopa monnieri as a potential therapeutic antioxidant to reduce oxidative stress and improve cognitive function. We suggest that future studies incorporate neuroimaging particularly magnetic resonance spectroscopy into their randomized controlled trials to better understand whether changes in antioxidant status in vivo cause improvements in cognitive function.

  17. Neuropharmacological review of the nootropic herb Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Sebastian; Borowski, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms-anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, β-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research.

  18. Genetic transformation of Bacopa monnieri by wild type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes stimulates production of bacopa saponins in transformed calli and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sukanya; Garai, Saraswati; Jha, Sumita

    2011-05-01

    We have developed an efficient transformation system for Bacopa monnieri, an important Indian medicinal plant, using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains LBA 9402 and A4. Transformed roots induced by strain LBA 9402 spontaneously dedifferentiated to callus while excised roots induced by strain A4 spontaneously showed induction of shoot buds within 10 days. PCR and RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence and expression of the rolAB and rolC genes at the transcription level in pRi A4 transformed cultures indicating that the TL-DNA was integrated retained and expressed in the A4-Ri transformed shoots. Transformed calli showed the presence of rolAB or rol A, TR and ags genes. Transformed plants showed morphological features typically seen in transgenic plants produced by A. rhizogenes. Growth and biomass accumulation was significantly higher in the transformed shoots (twofold) and roots (fourfold) than in the non-transformed (WT) plants. In pRi A4-transformed plants, the content of bacopasaponin D, bacopasaponin F, bacopaside II and bacopaside V was enhanced significantly as compared to WT plants of similar age while bacoside A3 and bacopasaponin C content was comparable with that of WT plants. Significant increase in content of five bacopa saponins could be detected in pRi 9402-transformed callus cultures. There is an overall stimulatory effect on accumulation of bacopa saponins in transformed plants and cells of B. monnieri establishing the role of endogenous elicitation by Ri T-DNA of A. rhizogenes.

  19. Stability studies of saponins in Bacopa monnieri dried ethanolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phrompittayarat, Watoo; Wittaya-areekul, Sakchai; Jetiyanon, Kanchalee; Putalun, Waraporn; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok

    2008-11-01

    Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (Brahmi) is currently used as a drug and food supplement for memory improvement. However, studies on the physical and chemical stability of the extract components, especially on the lead compound important for pre-formulation, have not yet been reported. In this study, the stabilities of the crude extract and the diluted crude extract were investigated at various temperatures using saponin glycosides, bacopaside I and bacoside A3 as markers for quantitative analysis. The stability testing of bacopaside I and bacoside A3 standard solution was performed at various temperatures and pH values. The quantity of both compounds under all conditions was analyzed using HPLC techniques. The moisture adsorption of the crude extract was determined at 5, 40, 60 and 80 degrees C at 75 % relative humidity using gravimetric methods. The results revealed that the crude extract quickly adsorbed moisture up to 54 % w/w at both 40 and 80 degrees C, while it only slowly adsorbed moisture at 5 degrees C. The amounts of intact bacopaside I and bacoside A3 in the crude extract decreased drastically at 80 degrees C, slowly at 40 and 60 degrees C, and remained unchanged at 5 degrees C during the period of investigation. Moreover, the amount of both compounds in the standard solution dropped sharply at a pH of 1.2 but slowly at pH 6.8 and 9.0, respectively. The pre-formulation data could be further used for improvement of the final product quality.

  20. Semecarpus anacardium Linn.: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semalty, Mona; Semalty, Ajay; Badola, Ashutosh; Joshi, Geeta Pant; Rawat, M S M

    2010-01-01

    Semecarpus anacardium Linn. (Family: Anacardiaceae), commonly known 'Ballataka' or 'Bhilwa', has been used in various traditional system of medicines for various ailments since ancient times. Its nuts contain a variety of biologically active compounds such as biflavonoids, phenolic compounds, bhilawanols, minerals, vitamins and amino acids, which show various medicinal properties. The fruit and nut extract shows various activities like antiatherogenic, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-reproductive, CNS stimulant, hypoglycemic, anticarcinogenic and hair growth promoter. The article reviews the various activities of the plant.

  1. Identification of fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn.: A pharmacognostical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevalia, Jignesh; Patel, Bhupesh

    2011-10-01

    Gokshura is a well-known Ayurvedic drug that is used in many preparations. Botonically it is identified as Tribulus terrestris Linn., especially the roots and fruits of the plant. But instead the fruits of another plant Pedalium murex Linn. are commonly used and the drug is frequently substituted. Pharmacognostical study has been carried out to identify the distinguishing features, both morphological and microscopic, of the fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn. This knowledge should help reduce the problem of substitution of the genuine drug.

  2. Võru linn ja turism / Anu Kikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kikas, Anu

    2009-01-01

    Autori hinnangul ei kasuta Võru linn piisavalt ära oma olemasolevaid ressursse turismi edendamiseks, turismialane areng on aga pidurdunud info liikumatuse ning rahvusvaheliste transpordiliinide puudumise ja kauguse tõttu

  3. Pharmacognostical profile of Paederia foetida Linn. leaves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shetti, Sandeep; Chellappan, Dinesh Kumar; Sharma, Indra Prakash; Kalusalingam, Anandarajagopal

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. (P. foetida) are commonly known as skunk vine or Chinese fever vine, are used for various ailments medicinally throughout Asia and other tropical parts of the world by traditional healers...

  4. Võru linn ja turism / Anu Kikas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kikas, Anu

    2009-01-01

    Autori hinnangul ei kasuta Võru linn piisavalt ära oma olemasolevaid ressursse turismi edendamiseks, turismialane areng on aga pidurdunud info liikumatuse ning rahvusvaheliste transpordiliinide puudumise ja kauguse tõttu

  5. Chemical compounds from Chenopodium album Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei

    2017-06-01

    Bioactive components from Chenopodium album Linn. were isolated and identified in this research. Light petroleum, dichloromethane and n-BuOH were firstly applied to partition the 75% EtOH extract of Chenopodium album Linn. which were then subjected to normal-phase silica, ODS silica gel column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC chromatography. By the employment of NMR method in this study, chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated. Three known compounds were isolated from Chenopodium album Linn., and identified as Isolariciresinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (7’S, 8R, 8’R)-Isolariciresinol (2) and (7’S, 8R, 8’S)-Isolariciresinol (3) by comparison of their spectral data with references. This is the first time that isolation of the compounds mentioned above from Chenopodium album Linn. was achieved.

  6. Effect of Bacopa monnieri on Cognitive functions in Alzheimer’s disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Goswami

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alzheimer’s disease is a degenerative condition mostly affecting the elderly. It significantly affects the patient’s quality of life. So far there is no proven effective therapeutic intervention for such patients. Bacopa monnieri is an indigenous plant which is found throughout India. It has been referred in Ayurveda since centuries as a “Medhya Rasayan” (nootropic. Studies have shown various effects of Bacopa monnieri among which is its inhibitory effect on the enzyme cholinesterase. This can result in decrease in the breakdown of acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter whose decreased levels are seen in Alzheimer’s disease.Aims & Objectives: We conducted this study to evaluate the effect of Bacopa monnieri on cognitive functions in Alzheimer’s disease patients.Study Design: This was an open label, prospective, uncontrolled, non-randomized trial. Study population included all newly diagnosed patients of Alzheimer’s disease in the Psychiatry Outdoor Patient Department between 60-65 years of age. Baseline scores on Mini Mental State Examination Scale (MMSES were recorded for all patients. Subsequently all patients took 300 mg of Bacopa monnieri standardized extract (Bacognize® orally twice a day for 6 months. MMSES scores were recorded again after the completion of study drug.Results: Mean age of 39 patients who completed the study was 65.23 years. Study patients showed statistically significant improvements in various components of MMSES including orientation of time, place & person, attention and in their language component in terms of reading, writing & comprehension at the end of trial. The patients involved in this trial also reported improvement in their quality of life, and decrease in the irritability and insomnia.Conclusion: The results of our clinical trial show that Bacopa monnieri standardized extract (Bacognize® 300 mg twice a day orally for 6 months results in improvement in some aspects of cognitive

  7. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi Nejad; Erfani Nejad; Yusef Naanaie; Zarrin

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae) is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro) of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a g...

  8. Carl Linné sidemed Baltimaadega / Linda Kongo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kongo, Linda, 1929-

    2007-01-01

    Carl Linné sidemed Baltimaadega on loonud tema õpilased ja õpilaste õpilased, kes siirdusid kuulama tema loenguid Uppsala Ülikoolis. Mitmed Baltimaadelt pärit loodusteadlased täiendasid end Linné õpilase Johann Andreas Murray juures. Tartu Ülikooli raamatukogus on hoiul üks Linné kiri

  9. Carl Linné sidemed Baltimaadega / Linda Kongo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kongo, Linda, 1929-

    2007-01-01

    Carl Linné sidemed Baltimaadega on loonud tema õpilased ja õpilaste õpilased, kes siirdusid kuulama tema loenguid Uppsala Ülikoolis. Mitmed Baltimaadelt pärit loodusteadlased täiendasid end Linné õpilase Johann Andreas Murray juures. Tartu Ülikooli raamatukogus on hoiul üks Linné kiri

  10. Solanum nigrum Linn.- A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Mohamed Saleem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum nigrum Linn. (Solanaceae commonly known as ′Black nightshade′ that have been extensively used in traditional medicine in India and other parts of world to cure liver disorders, chronic skin ailments (psoriasis and ringworm, inflammatory conditions, painful periods, fevers, diarrhoea , eye diseases, hydrophobia, etc. It has been found that Solanum nigrum contains the substances, such as total alkaloid, steroid alkaloid, steroidal saponins and glycoprotein, exhibiting anti-tumor activity. In Indian traditional medicine, the plant is used as a hepatoprotective agent. In this review, we have explored the phyto-pharmacological properties of the Solanum nigrum plant and compiled its vast pharmacological applications to comprehend and synthesize the subject of its potential image of multipurpose medicinal agent.

  11. Investigation of biochemical responses of Bacopa monnieri L. upon exposure to arsenate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Seema; Srivastava, Sudhakar; Dwivedi, Sanjay; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2013-08-01

    Widespread contamination of arsenic (As) is recognized as a global problem due to its well-known accumulation by edible and medicinal plants and associated health risks for the humans. In this study, phytotoxicity imposed upon exposure to arsenate [As(V); 0-250 μM for 1-7 days] and ensuing biochemical responses were investigated in a medicinal herb Bacopa monnieri L. vis-à-vis As accumulation. Plants accumulated substantial amount of As (total 768 μg g(-1) dw at 250 μM As(V) after 7 days) with the maximum As retention being in roots (60%) followed by stem (23%) and leaves (17%). The level of cysteine and total nonprotein thiols (NP-SH) increased significantly at all exposure concentrations and durations. Besides, the level of metalloid binding ligands viz., glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs) increased significantly at the studied concentrations [50 and 250 μM As(V)] in both roots and leaves. The activities of various enzymes viz., arsenate reductase (AR), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT) showed differential but coordinated stimulation in leaves and roots to help plants combat As toxicity up to moderate exposure concentrations (50 μM). However, beyond 50 μM, biomass production was found to decrease along with photosynthetic pigments and total soluble proteins, whereas lipid peroxidation increased. In conclusion, As accumulation potential of Bacopa may warrant its use as a phytoremediator but if Bacopa growing in contaminated areas is consumed by humans, it may prove to be toxic for health.

  12. Methyl jasmonate mediates upregulation of bacoside A production in shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poojadevi; Yadav, Sheetal; Srivastava, Anshu; Shrivastava, Neeta

    2013-07-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MJ) enhances the production of a range of secondary metabolites including triterpenoid saponins in a variety of plant species. Here, it enhanced production of bacoside A, a valuable triterpenoid saponin having nootropic therapeutic activity in in vitro shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, the only known source of bacoside A. The highest yield was with 50 μM MJ giving 4.4 mg bacoside A/g dry wt; an 1.8-fold increase (compared to control) after 1 week.

  13. Increased excitability and metabolism in pilocarpine induced epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jobin; Paul, Jes; Nandhu, M S; Paulose, C S

    2010-09-01

    We have evaluated the acetylcholine esterase and malate dehydrogenase activity in the muscle, epinephrine, norepinephrine, insulin and T3 content in the serum of epileptic rats. Acetylcholine esterase and malate dehydrogenase activity increased in the muscle and decreased in the heart of the epileptic rats compared to control. Insulin and T3 content were increased significantly in the serum of the epileptic rats. Our results suggest that repetitive seizures resulted in increased metabolism and excitability in epileptic rats. Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A treatment prevents the occurrence of seizures there by reducing the impairment on peripheral nervous system.

  14. RP - HPLC Method for Determination of Piperine from Piper longum Linn. and Piper nigrum Linn

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Piper longum Linn. and Piper nigrum Linn. are used as spices and medicines. Quantitative determination of piperine was undertaken to provide an easy and simple analytical method, which can be used as a routine quality control method. RP-HPLC was performed using methanol and water as mobile phase. The detection and quantification was performed at a wavelength of 345 nm. Linearity of detector response for piperine was between the concentrations 0.005% to 0.1%. The correlation coefficient obtai...

  15. BACOPA MONNIERI (L. PENNELL –A GOOD BIOMARKER OF WATER POLLUTION/CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain. K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of water pollution on Bacopa monnieri was studied by culturing their rooted propagules in various polluted water samples and Hoagland nutrient medium artificially contaminated with different micro-level concentrations of HgCl2. Anatomical observations of those plants showed safranin-stained masses deposited in the xylem vessels of stem. The plants treated in chemical solutions which are free from metallic ions, under threshold level of HgCl2, and control plants were devoid of such deposits. Similar deposits were observed in plants cultured in various local water samples. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric analyses of these water samples and the bioaccumulation property of the plant detected the presence of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn at various levels. The occurrence of the localized stained deposits in the xylem vessels of the stem of the plants cultured in polluted/contaminated aqueous medium, eventhough the growth medium contamination is micro-levels, is indicative of high sensitivity of Bacopa monnieri plants towards water pollution irrespective of the chemical nature of the pollutants. Although these stained deposits are not specific to any individual element that causes pollution, detection of water contamination is possible by observing the safranin-stained masses in the xylem vessels of this medicinal plant.

  16. Wound healing and protease inhibition activity of Bacoside-A, isolated from Bacopa monnieri wettest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharath, R; Harish, B G; Krishna, V; Sathyanarayana, B N; Swamy, H M Kumara

    2010-08-01

    Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettest. (Scrophulariaceae) is a well-known medicinal herb. In the Indian system of medicine it is known as Brahmi (Sanskrit) and Indian water hyssop. Methanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri and its isolated constituent Bacoside-A were screened for wound healing activity. Bacoside-A was screened for wound healing activity by excision, incision and dead space wound on Swiss albino rats. Significant wound healing activity was observed in both extract and the Bacoside-A treated groups. The SDS-PAGE caseinolytic zymogram analysis of inhibition of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) enzyme from the excision wound by Bacoside-A, an isolated constituent, was done with the concentrations 100 and 200 micromg/ml. In Bacoside-A treated groups, epithelialization of the excision wound was faster with a high rate (18.30 +/- 0.01 days) of wound contraction. The tensile strength of the incision wound was increased (538.47 +/- 0.14 g) in the Bacoside-A treated group. In the dead space wound model, the weight of the granuloma was also increased (89.15 +/- 0.08 g). The histological examination of the granuloma tissue of the Bacoside-A treated group showed increased cross-linking of collagen fibers and absence of monocytes. The wound healing activity of Bacoside-A was more effective in various wound models compared to the standard skin ointment Nitrofurazone.

  17. Efficacy of Standardized Extract of Bacopa monnieri (Bacognize®) on Cognitive Functions of Medical Students: A Six-Week, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abichandani, L. G.; Thawani, Vijay; Gharpure, K. J.; Naidu, M. U. R.; Venkat Ramana, G.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. Bacopa monnieri, popularly known as Brahmi, has been traditionally used in Ayurveda since ages for its memory enhancing properties. However, data on placebo-controlled trial of Bacopa monnieri on intellectual sample is scarce. Hence this study was planned to evaluate the effect of Bacopa monnieri on memory of medical students for six weeks. Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of Bacopa monnieri on memory of medical students with six weeks' administration. Method and Material. This was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled noncrossover, parallel trial. Sixty medical students of either gender from second year of medical school, third term, regular batch, were enrolled from Government Medical College, Nagpur, India. Baseline biochemical and memory tests were done. The participants were randomly divided in two groups to receive either 150 mg of standardized extract of Bacopa monnieri (Bacognize) or matching placebo twice daily for six weeks. All baseline investigations were repeated at the end of the trial. Students were followed up for 15 days after the intervention. Results. Statistically significant improvement was seen in the tests relating to the cognitive functions with use of Bacopa monnieri. Blood biochemistry also showed a significant increase in serum calcium levels (still within normal range). PMID:27803728

  18. Urease inhibitor from Datisca cannabina linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammad, Noor; Ahmad, Manzoor; Arif Lodhi, Muhammad; Jehan, Noor; Khan, Zahid; Ranjit, Rosa; Shaheen, Farzana; Iqbal Choudhary, Muhammad

    2008-06-01

    A new flavonoid datisdirin (1), along with eight known compounds tectochrysine, cearoin, sideroxyline, ursolic acid, corosolic acid, arjunolic acid, erythrodiol and oleanolic acid, were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of D. cannabina Linn. The structure of compound 1 was deduced on the basis of its spectral data. Datisdirin showed activity against the ureases enzyme.

  19. Linn - sajandi suur armastus / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    Tate Modern'is avatud näitusest "Sajandi linn : kunst ja kultuur modernses metropolis". Pariisi, Viini, Moskva, Lagose, Rio de Janeiro, Tokyo, New Yorgi, Londoni ja Bombay väljapanekutest. Järgneb 20. apr. 2002, lk. 8

  20. Linn - sajandi suur armastus / Katrin Kivimaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimaa, Katrin, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    Tate Modern'is avatud näitusest "Sajandi linn : kunst ja kultuur modernses metropolis". Pariisi, Viini, Moskva, Lagose, Rio de Janeiro, Tokyo, New Yorgi, Londoni ja Bombay väljapanekutest. Järgneb 20. apr. 2002, lk. 8

  1. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL GEL OF MAGNIFERA INDICA LINN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaikwad D.D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To formulate Magnifera indica Linn bark extract in to a gel. Ethanolic extract of dried bark of Magnifera indica Linn were subjected to priliminery phytochemical evaluation studies. Different gel formulations of ethanolic extract of Magnifera indica linn (2% w/v were prepared using polymers carbopol 934 & HPMC by varying their concentration. These formulation were evaluated for physical parameters, drug contains, Ph, viscosity, Extrudability, Spread ability, primary skin irritation, study.Keywords:

  2. Evaluation of variability in Bacopa monnieri (L. Pennell using morphological and biochemical markers

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    L. S. Roshni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Bacopa monnieri (L. Pennell., is a well recognized medicinal herb having memory boosting property. Eleven accessions were collected from various parts of Kerala State, India and variation in thirty characters including twelve qualitative and eighteen quantitative traits were recorded. One way ANOVA on quantitative traits showed significant variations among accessions.   The dendrogram generated on the basis of metric traits revealed accession BM 9 from Kozhikkode as the outlier.  Principal components analysis (PCA was performed to identify the significant characters to delimit the taxa and it revealed that quantitative characters like plant length, number of nodes per plant, inter nodal length, leaf length, pedicel length and flower length were the most significant ones.  Biochemical characters including total saponin and bacoside A content were also found as the highly loaded characters.  The variability records in B. monnieri can be implied to screen superior germplasm on the basis of desirable quality traits such as biomass, saponin and bacoside content.  Industrial relevance. In the traditional, Indian system of medicine, several herbs have been used in the formulation of brain or nerve tonics.  Bacopa monnieri is the prime species for this purpose.  The plant is having a wide range of distribution pattern ranging from lower mild salt affected coastal belt to higher elevation in Kerala state.  The plant is now cultivated as valuable raw drug resource in the state.  However, the price of the raw drug is determined on the basis of quality, especially on the basis of its active principle.  In the present report, morphological and biochemical traits (total saponin and bacoside A including quality parameters of the raw drug excisable from B. monnieri were analyzed for accessions from different agro climatic regions in the state which can be used as a model for the screening of superior accessions, thus make organised

  3. Anatomia das raízes de Bacopa salzmanii (Benth. Wettst. Ex Edwall e Bacopa Monnierioides (Cham. Robinson (Scrophulariaceae em ambientes aquático e terrestre

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    Bona Cleusa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho enfoca a anatomia das raízes de Bacopa salzmanii (Benth. Wettst. Ex Edwall e B. monnierioides (Cham. Robinson e suas adaptações aos ambientes aquático e terrestre. Foram analisadas raízes adventícias das duas espécies, coletadas no Município de Bonito e no Pantanal do Mato Grosso do Sul. As análises foram feitas do ápice à base da raiz, enfatizando a origem e desenvolvimento dos tecidos. O meristema apical apresenta a mesma estrutura nas duas espécies e não sofre alterações marcantes com a mudança do ambiente. Todos os tecidos se originam de três camadas distintas, na região do promeristema. A endoderme jovem é meristemática e dá origem ao córtex. O aerênquima é abundante e os septos podem conter espessamento em fi. A exoderme é unisseriada e composta por células curtas e longas. A coifa das duas espécies é pouco desenvolvida e apresenta estrutura semelhante nos dois ambientes.

  4. Quantitative determination of the major saponin mixture bacoside A in Bacopa monnieri by HPLC.

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    Deepak, M; Sangli, G K; Arun, P C; Amit, A

    2005-01-01

    Bacoside A, the putative bioactive component of the Indian medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri, was found to be a mixture of saponins with bacoside A3 (1), bacopaside II (2), jujubogenin isomer of bacopasaponin C (3) and bacopasaponin C (4) as major constituents. An HPLC method together with an optimised extraction procedure was developed for the estimation of 1-4 in B. monnieri to enable standardisation of the latter. Concentration ranges of the analytes in samples of B. monnieri collected from different regions of India were 0.14-0.85% (w/w) (1), 0.12-0.69% (2), 0.05-0.72% (3) and 0.05-0.44% (4). The importance of using bacoside A, with known concentrations of 1-4, as a reference standard for the routine analysis of B. monnieri is highlighted. Two common flavonoids, luteolin and apigenin, were present in all samples of B. monnieri.

  5. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by Bacopa monnieri standardized extract and constituents.

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    Ramasamy, Seetha; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong

    2014-02-24

    Bacopa monnieri and the constituents of this plant, especially bacosides, possess various neuropharmacological properties. Like drugs, some herbal extracts and the constituents of their extracts alter cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, causing potential herb-drug interactions. The effects of Bacopa monnieri standardized extract and the bacosides from the extract on five major CYP isoforms in vitro were analyzed using a luminescent CYP recombinant human enzyme assay. B. monnieri extract exhibited non-competitive inhibition of CYP2C19 (IC50/Ki = 23.67/9.5 µg/mL), CYP2C9 (36.49/12.5 µg/mL), CYP1A2 (52.20/25.1 µg/mL); competitive inhibition of CYP3A4 (83.95/14.5 µg/mL) and weak inhibition of CYP2D6 (IC50 = 2061.50 µg/mL). However, the bacosides showed negligible inhibition of the same isoforms. B. monnieri, which is orally administered, has a higher concentration in the gut than the liver; therefore, this herb could exhibit stronger inhibition of intestinal CYPs than hepatic CYPs. At an estimated gut concentration of 600 µg/mL (based on a daily dosage of 300 mg/day), B. monnieri reduced the catalytic activities of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to less than 10% compared to the total activity (without inhibitor = 100%). These findings suggest that B. monnieri extract could contribute to herb-drug interactions when orally co-administered with drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19.

  6. Inhibition of Human Cytochrome P450 Enzymes by Bacopa monnieri Standardized Extract and Constituents

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    Seetha Ramasamy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa monnieri and the constituents of this plant, especially bacosides, possess various neuropharmacological properties. Like drugs, some herbal extracts and the constituents of their extracts alter cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes, causing potential herb-drug interactions. The effects of Bacopa monnieri standardized extract and the bacosides from the extract on five major CYP isoforms in vitro were analyzed using a luminescent CYP recombinant human enzyme assay. B. monnieri extract exhibited non-competitive inhibition of CYP2C19 (IC50/Ki = 23.67/9.5 µg/mL, CYP2C9 (36.49/12.5 µg/mL, CYP1A2 (52.20/25.1 µg/mL; competitive inhibition of CYP3A4 (83.95/14.5 µg/mL and weak inhibition of CYP2D6 (IC50 = 2061.50 µg/mL. However, the bacosides showed negligible inhibition of the same isoforms. B. monnieri, which is orally administered, has a higher concentration in the gut than the liver; therefore, this herb could exhibit stronger inhibition of intestinal CYPs than hepatic CYPs. At an estimated gut concentration of 600 µg/mL (based on a daily dosage of 300 mg/day, B. monnieri reduced the catalytic activities of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to less than 10% compared to the total activity (without inhibitor = 100%. These findings suggest that B. monnieri extract could contribute to herb-drug interactions when orally co-administered with drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19.

  7. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FICUS GLOMERATA LINN. BARK

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    Jagtap Supriya G.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ficus glomerata Linn. (Moraceae, commonly known as Ficus racemosa. A large deciduous tree distributed all over India and Ceylon, found throughout the year, grows in evergreen forest, moist localities, along the sides of ravines and banks of streams. Gular (Ficus glomerata Linn. is well known, commonly used plant in various disorders. It has been traditionally claimed to be useful in asthmatic condition, as an antitussive and anti-inflammatory. Successive soxhlet extractions of dried powdered bark were carried out using petroleum ether and methanol as a solvent. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts were tested in vitro against two different bacterial species Bacillus substilis and Escherichia coli by cup plate diffusion method were used in this investigation. The results of antimicrobial activity revealed that methanolic extract showed good activity as compared to petroleum ether extract. Methanolic extract is more potent towards gram - positive bacteria. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were compared with standard antibiotics.

  8. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Tridax procumbens Linn

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    V.Bharathi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Tridax procumbens Linn belongs to the family Compositae. The extracts of Tridax procumbens have been reported to have various pharmacological effects like mosquito repellant activity, leishmanicidal, hepatoprotective effect on liver antioxidant system, immunomodulatory effect, wound healing activity and antiprotozoal effects.The methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of Tridax procumbens were used for this study. The antibacterial activity of methanolic and ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Tridax procumbens Linn (L. were examined against Escherichia coli,,Klebsiella pneumoniae,Salmonella typhi, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial activity was investigated by disc and agarwell diffusion method. The ethyl acetate extracts of the Tridax procumbens showed effective inhibition against the Staphylococcus aureus thancompared to other organism. Therefore the leaves of Tridax procumbens can be considered to be the promising source of antimicrobial compounds.

  9. Decreased GABA receptor in the cerebral cortex of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A

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    Mathew Jobin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstact Background Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the cerebral cortex, maintains the inhibitory tones that counter balances neuronal excitation. When this balance is perturbed, seizures may ensue. Methods In the present study, alterations of the general GABA, GABAA and GABAB receptors in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat and the therapeutic application of Bacopa monnieri were investigated. Results Scatchard analysis of [3H]GABA, [3H]bicuculline and [3H]baclofen in the cerebral cortex of the epileptic rat showed significant decrease in Bmax (P Aά1, GABAAγ, GABAAδ, GABAB and GAD where down regulated (P Aά5 subunit and Cyclic AMP responsible element binding protein were up regulated. Confocal imaging study confirmed the decreased GABA receptors in epileptic rats. Epileptic rats have deficit in radial arm and Y maze performance. Conclusions Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A treatment reverses epilepsy associated changes to near control suggesting that decreased GABA receptors in the cerebral cortex have an important role in epileptic occurrence; Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside-A have therapeutic application in epilepsy management.

  10. Neuroprotective potential of Bacopa monnieri and Bacoside A against dopamine receptor dysfunction in the cerebral cortex of neonatal hypoglycaemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roshni Baby; Joy, Shilpa; Ajayan, M S; Paulose, C S

    2013-11-01

    Neonatal hypoglycaemia initiates a series of events leading to neuronal death, even if glucose and glycogen stores return to normal. Disturbances in the cortical dopaminergic function affect memory and cognition. We recommend Bacopa monnieri extract or Bacoside A to treat neonatal hypoglycaemia. We investigated the alterations in dopaminergic functions by studying the Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor subtypes. Receptor-binding studies revealed a significant decrease (p Bacoside A ameliorated the dopaminergic and cAMP imbalance as effectively as the glucose therapy. The upregulated Bax expression in the present study indicates the high cell death in hypoglycaemic neonatal rats. Enzyme assay of SOD confirmed cortical cell death due to free radical accumulation. The gene expression of SOD in the cortex was significantly downregulated (p < 0.001). Bacopa treatment showed a significant reversal in the altered gene expression parameters (p < 0.001) of Bax and SOD. Our results suggest that in the rat experimental model of neonatal hypoglycaemia, Bacopa extract improved alterations in D1, D2 receptor expression, cAMP signalling and cell death resulting from oxidative stress. This is an important area of study given the significant motor and cognitive impairment that may arise from neonatal hypoglycaemia if proper treatment is not implemented.

  11. SUN PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF Clitoria Ternata Linn, Canna Indica Linn FLOWER

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    N.S. NAIKWADE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunscreen resources mostly obtained from plants in form of natural substances which are ability to absorb ultraviolet ray in the UVA region. This paper evaluates UV absorption ability of flowers from Clitoria ternata Linn (Fabaceae, Canna indica Linn (Scitaminaceae, as an anti-solar agent. Extracts were prepared by maceration with a mixture of distilled water and methanol (1:1. The method is performed by UV spectrophotomety in the range of 200 to 400 nm and results of all the extracts shows effective UV absorption in the given range.

  12. Kummardus Carl Linnéle / Andres Toode

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    Toode, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Suur botaanik ja loodusteadlane Carl Linné soovitas oma sõjalise funktsiooni kaotanud kindlustesse või nende varemetesse ürdiaedu rajada. Narva linnus jätkab seda traditsiooni: linnuse Läänehoovi rajati Carl Linné aed. Konkursist võtsid osa ka Eesti Maaülikooli üliõpilased

  13. Kadunud ja äraneetud linn / Jüri Liim

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    Liim, Jüri

    2000-01-01

    Paldiski linna kujutavad tõsielufilmid "Äraneetud linn" : režissöör ja operaator Andres Sööt : Eesti Kroonikafilm 1996 ning "Paldiski, kadunud linn" : režissöör Sabine Hackenberg : Hackengerg (Baden-Württembergi filmiakadeemia) 1999

  14. Kadunud ja äraneetud linn / Jüri Liim

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    Liim, Jüri

    2000-01-01

    Paldiski linna kujutavad tõsielufilmid "Äraneetud linn" : režissöör ja operaator Andres Sööt : Eesti Kroonikafilm 1996 ning "Paldiski, kadunud linn" : režissöör Sabine Hackenberg : Hackengerg (Baden-Württembergi filmiakadeemia) 1999

  15. Kummardus Carl Linnéle / Andres Toode

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    Toode, Andres

    2010-01-01

    Suur botaanik ja loodusteadlane Carl Linné soovitas oma sõjalise funktsiooni kaotanud kindlustesse või nende varemetesse ürdiaedu rajada. Narva linnus jätkab seda traditsiooni: linnuse Läänehoovi rajati Carl Linné aed. Konkursist võtsid osa ka Eesti Maaülikooli üliõpilased

  16. PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF KAKAMACHI (SOLANUM NIGRUM LINN

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    Jani Dilip K.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Kakamachi (Solanum nigrum Linn belongs to family Solanaceae and is being used in Ayurveda in skin diseases and diabetes. It is being sold in the market under the common name Makoy. In order to ensure correct botanical standardization to remove the controversy, a detailed pharmacognostic study on whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn has been carried out. The review on this drug shows that the drug is known since Vedic period. This is the plant amongst the few plants, which are used widely for purposes like Shaka Dravya (Vegetable drug. This study confirms that Solanum nigrum Linn fulfill the standard parameters, decided by the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeial committee of India. The Physiochemical standards like ash value, alcohol soluble extracts, water soluble extracts etc, were also with the limits of the values mentioned in Pharmacopoeia. The heavy metals analysis of Kakamachi was carried out for Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic, etc., shows that the drug, is free from the abnormal levels of heavy metals. The qualitative study shows the presence of Saponins, Tannins and Alkaloids in Kakamachi. The standard monogram prepared concludes that these parameters could be useful for future standard.

  17. Phytochemical Studies on Cissus quadrangularis Linn.

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    Achal Thakur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (Family: Vitaceae is an ancient medicinal plant, named as Hadjod in Hindi. A triterpene d-amyrin acetate (1, aliphatic acid hexadecanoic acid ( 3 and stilbene glucoside trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucoside ( 9 were isolated for the first time from the stems of Cissus quadrangularis, along with previously reported compounds namely, δ- amyrone ( 2 d-amyrin ( 4 , β-sitosterol ( 5 , kaempferol ( 6 , quercetin ( 7 and resveratrol ( 8 . The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds were performed by spectroscopic techniques (IR, UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS and by direct comparison with literature.

  18. Enhanced bacoside production in shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri under the influence of abiotic elicitors.

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    Sharma, Munish; Ahuja, Ashok; Gupta, Rajinder; Mallubhotla, Sharada

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different abiotic elicitors [jasmonic acid, copper sulphate (CuSO4) and salicyclic acid] at varying concentrations on the stimulation of biomass and bacoside production in in vitro Bacopa monnieri shoot culture was studied. A systematic study conducted over a period of 35 days indicated that the maximum bacoside production (6.74 mg g(-1) dry weight (DW)) was obtained after a lag of 7 days and thereafter, the content decreased gradually to again increase at 28 days (5.91 mg g(-1) DW). Therefore, elicitation experiments were carried out over a period of 3, 6 and 9 days. The shoot cultures treated with 45 mg L(-1) of CuSO4 exhibited the highest bacoside content of 8.73 mg g(-1) DW (∼1.42-fold higher) than in control cultures (6.14 mg g(-1) DW). This study indicates the effectiveness of abiotic elicitation on bacoside production in in vitro shoot cultures of this medicinally important herb known for its memory-enhancing properties.

  19. Polyphenol Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Herbal Tea from Vietnamese Water Hyssop (Bacopa monnieri

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    Phan-Tai Huan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable process to produce herbal tea from Vietnamese water hyssop (Bacopa monnieri has been conducted. The product can be used as traditional Ayuvedic medicinal herb. In this study, factors affecting drying process have been investigated including temperature ranging from 60 to 80°C, material thickness from 0.18 to 0.54 g/cm2 and air velocity from 0.5 to 1.5 m/s. Total polyphenols and soluble solid contents were observed during the process. Antioxidant capacity of raw and dried water hyssop have been also evaluated. The optimum result showed that at temperature of 60°C, material thickness of 0.18 g/cm2 and air velocity of 1.5 m/s, polyphenols content and total soluble solids in final herbal tea were found at 15.13 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 4.00%. With saponins concentrations of 0.53% and 0.50%, the IC50 values of 3.94 µg/ml and 4.45 µg/ml were found in the raw and dried water hyssop tea, respectively. It’s required to dry water hyssop at optimum condition in 180 minutes and chop materials into 1mm lengths before being used as herbal tea.

  20. Development of optimal medium content for bioelements accumulation in Bacopa monnieri (L.) in vitro culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łojewski, Maciej; Muszyńska, Bożena; Smalec, Agata; Reczyński, Witold; Opoka, Włodzimierz; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna

    2014-10-01

    Bacopa monnieri is one of the most interesting plants from the Ayurveda system. The aims of present research were, basing on in vitro shoot culture of B. monnieri, to determine content and to evaluate the influence of physiologically important metabolites on the selected bioelements accumulation in biomass. The most significant increase in biomass production was observed in the culture medium enriched with 0.5 mg/L of anthranilic acid. In this medium also, the highest accumulation of Mg was noted. The highest concentration of iron was determined in B. monnieri in vitro culture enriched with 0.25 g/L of serine. The addition of L-tryptophan, magnesium sulfate, and zinc hydroaspartate caused only a small increase in the accumulation of copper in B. monnieri. Increase in Zn accumulation was obtained in biomass from in vitro culture of B. monnieri with the addition of magnesium sulfate and zinc hydroaspartate. In the case of Na, the maximum level of this element was in biomass from medium enriched with zinc hydroaspartate. Twofold increase in K concentration was obtained in biomass from cultures on medium with addition of serine and magnesium sulfate. The concentrations of Ca in biomass of all studied media were at the similar level.

  1. Action of Bacopa monnieri to antagonize cisplatin-induced emesis in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew

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    Ihsan Ullah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa monnieri (BM, family Scrophulariaceae is used in several traditional systems of medicine for the management of epilepsy, depression, neuropathic pain, sleep disorders and memory deficits. The present study investigated the potential of BM methanol (BM-MetFr and BM n-butanol fractions (BM-ButFr to reduce chemotherapy-induced emesis in Suncus murinus (house musk shrew. Cisplatin (30 mg/kg, i.p. reliably induced retching and/or vomiting over a 2 day period. BM-MetFr (10–40 mg/kg, s.c. and BM-ButFr (5–20 mg/kg, s.c. antagonized the retching and/or vomiting response by ∼59.4% (p  0.05. In conclusion, the n-butanol fractions of BM have anti-emetic activity comparable with palonosetron and MPG. BM may be useful alone or in combination with other anti-emetic drugs for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced emesis in man.

  2. Heavy metal accumulation potential and medicinal property of Bacopa monnieri - a paradox

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    Nabeesa Salim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioaccumulation of Mercury and Cadmium in Bacopa monnieri (L. Pennell, cultivated in Hoagland medium artificially contaminated with micro quantities of HgCl2 and CdCl2 is investigated. Bioaccumulation potential of B. monnieri is more towards Cd than Hg. Absorption and translocation of Hg and Cd are proportional to the availability of the metal in the growth media and period of growth. Effect of acidic pH showed enhanced accumulation while basic pH resulted in significant reduction in the accumulation of Hg and exorbitant reduction of Cd. As a result of combined treatment of HgCl2 and CdCl2, accumulation was very low in both acidic and basic pH. In addition to pH, antagonistic effect of Ca2+ present in lime water which was added to raise the pH of the growth medium also controls the accumulation and absorption of Hg and Cd ions. Bioaccumulation of Hg and Cd in B. monnieri reveals the phytoremediation potential while the bioaccumulation is hazards to health since the plant is highly medicinal and one important ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations.

  3. New York, rändurite linn / Kadri Kerge

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    Kerge, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    New York on linn, mille elanikkond ja ruum on pidevas muutumises. Ehitustegevuse tulemusena on uue ilme saanud kõik linnaosad. Aktuaalseim teema New Yorgi arhitektuuriringkondades ja ehituses on nn. ultrapilvelõhkujatega seonduv

  4. New York, rändurite linn / Kadri Kerge

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    Kerge, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    New York on linn, mille elanikkond ja ruum on pidevas muutumises. Ehitustegevuse tulemusena on uue ilme saanud kõik linnaosad. Aktuaalseim teema New Yorgi arhitektuuriringkondades ja ehituses on nn. ultrapilvelõhkujatega seonduv

  5. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

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    Sadeghi Nejad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a growth inhibitor against 24 clinical isolates of Candida, including C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis also three species of Aspergillus, including A. niger, A. flavus, and A. terreus. Materials and Methods The ethanolic extract of myrtle leaves was prepared by maceration method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Myrtus communis leaves extract was determined by agar-well diffusion technique. Amphotericin B and clotrimazole were used as the positive control in this assay. Results The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs values of Myrtus communis leaves extract ranged 0.625-5.0 µg/µL and 5-40 µg/µL against tested Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Conclusions Results revealed that the ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis leaves have antifungal potency against both pathogenic tested fungi, and it can be used as a natural antifungal agent.

  6. A REVIEW ON BAUHINIA VARIEGATA LINN

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    Sahu G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauhinia variegata linn. (Kachnar/Raktakanchan is a medium sized tree with hairy branches belonging to family Leguminosae. The various parts of trees like flowers buds, flowers, stem bark, stem, leaves, seeds and root are popular in various system of medicines like ayurveda, unani and homeopathy in India for the cure of variety of diseases. This is widely used for the manufacture of wood wool board, production of gum and fibers and for a forestation to conserve the nature. Various traditional claims have been made on this tree for curing in number of diseases; considerable efforts have been made by researcher to verify its utility through scientific pharmacological screenings. The reported biological activities are anti-diabetic activity, anti-inflammatory activity, immune-modulatory activity, anti-tumour activity, hepatoprotective activity, antibacterial activity, haemagglutinating activity, haematinic activity, antimicrobial activity, antiulcer activity, anticarcinogenic activity. This review represents a detailed survey of the literature on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, traditional, medicinal uses and pharmacological activities of Bauhinia variegata Linn.

  7. DETAILED COMPARATIVE PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF ANNONA SQUAMOSA LINN. AND ANNONA RETICULATA LINN. LEAVES

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    Jani Switu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Annona squamosa Linn. and Annona reticulata Linn. are locally known as Sitaphala and Ramphala respectively both belongs to family Annonaceae. Leaves of both are used in various diseases like suppurant, toothache, anthelmintic commonly. Individually A. squamosa is used in anti diabetic, antispasmodic, dandruff and A. reticulate is used in flatulence and toothache. Till date there is no scientific comparative study has been reported. Pharmacognostical study of A. squamosa shows lysogenous cavity and sparse trichome where as, A. reticulate shows multicellular trichomes filled with tannin and stone cells. The powder characters of A. squamosa are stone cells and prismatic crystals of calcium oxalate whereas A. reticulate shows pitted stones cells and micro rosettes crystals of calcium oxalate. Annular vessels, lysogenous cavity and paracytic stomata are common characters observed in both the leaves.

  8. RP - HPLC Method for Determination of Piperine from Piper longum Linn. and Piper nigrum Linn

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    M. K. Santosh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Piper longum Linn. and Piper nigrum Linn. are used as spices and medicines. Quantitative determination of piperine was undertaken to provide an easy and simple analytical method, which can be used as a routine quality control method. RP-HPLC was performed using methanol and water as mobile phase. The detection and quantification was performed at a wavelength of 345 nm. Linearity of detector response for piperine was between the concentrations 0.005% to 0.1%. The correlation coefficient obtained for the linearity was 0.998. The assay value of piperine for fruit and root of P. longum was found to be 0.879% and 0.31%. The assay value of piperine for fruit of P. nigrum was 4.5%. The recovery value of standard piperine was 99.4%. Low value of standard deviation and coefficient of variation are indicative of high precision of the method.

  9. Pärnu linn pole valmis europrojekte ohverdama / Teet Roosaar

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    Roosaar, Teet, 1963-

    2010-01-01

    Haridustöötajate sissetulekuid kärpides säästaks Pärnu linn 9,1 milj., kultuuritöötajate palku vähendades 1,7 ja hoolekandeasutuste töötajate palku kärpides 2,5 milj. krooni. Kui linn loobuks europrojektidest, jääksid palgakärped tegemata

  10. Dose-dependent effect of homoeopathic drug Zinc sulphate on plant growth using Bacopa monnieri as model system

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    Vivek Kumar Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is one of the essential micronutrients in plants required in very low quantity for plant growth and development. In higher concentration, it is known to to reduce the rate of photosynthesis, So homoeopathic preparations tested to see it role on plan growth. Objective: To analyse the effect of homoeopathic preparation of Zinc sulphate on plants through in-vitro assay using Bacopa monnieri as a model plant system. Materials and Methods: Six homoeopathic potencies (1X to 6X of Zinc sulphate were used on a decimal scale along with the control (MS basal agar medium. The samples were evaluated by adding fixed amount (100 μl in the media as well as by dipping the explants in the test sample overnight. At the completion of the incubation period (14 days the fresh and dry weight, number and length of the roots, number and length of the shoots and the number of leaves were analysed. Results: It was observed that Zinc sulphate showed growth inhibition at potencies from 1X to 5X, whereas at potency 6X, it exhibited growth promotion effect, when compared with the control. Conclusion: Homoeopathic drug (Zinc sulphate exhibited growth promotion at higher potency (6X and growth inhibition at lower potencies (1X to 5X on Bacopa monneiri.

  11. Quality assessment of Achyranthas aspera Linn. seed

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    Neerja Rani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyranthas aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae seeds were studied to determine the various parameters for pharmacognostical standards. The whole plant of A. aspera is reported to have good medicinal values in traditional systems of medicine. The present paper deals with pharmacognostical examination of morphological and microscopical characters and physic-chemical investigations of seeds including determination of loss on drying, ash values, extractives values, foreign organic matter, crude fiber content, and hemolytic activity. The preliminary phytochemical screening, elemental analysis, microbial contamination of powdered drug, were also carried out. High performance thin layer chromatography profile developed for the seeds was to aid in identification of the drug and also in isolating and identifying the biomarker compound responsible for the bioactivity.

  12. Two New Flavones from Tridax procumbens Linn

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    Runsheng Xu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new flavones, 8,3′-dihydroxy-3,7,4′-trimethoxy-6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl flavone (1 and 6,8,3′-trihydroxy-3,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone (2 were isolated from Tridax procumbens Linn., together with the four known compounds puerarin (3, esculetin (4, oleanolic acid (5 and betulinic acid (6. The structures of the two new flavones were elucidated based on chemical analysis and spectral methods (IR, 1D and 2D NMR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS. The antioxidant activity of the two new flavones were evaluated by two methods, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays, and the data showed that compounds 1 and 2 have certain antioxidant activity, with the antioxidant activity of compound 2 being stronger than that of compound 1.

  13. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL PROFILE OF PAEDERIA FOETIDA LINN. LEAVES

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    Dinesh Kumar Chellappan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. (P. foetida are commonly known as skunk vine or Chinese fever vine, are used for various ailments medicinally throughout Asia and other tropical parts of the world by traditional healers. The plant is mainly used for arthritis and rheumatic disorders. The whole plant shows tonic, astringent and antiphlogistic actions and has been used in tenesmus. This present work presents a detailed pharmacognostical study of the leaf of the crude drug P. foetida. The samples were studied using procedures of light, confocal microscopy, WHO recommended physico-chemical determinations and authentic phytochemical procedures. The physico-chemical, morphological and histological parameters presented in this study may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of P. foetida and may possibly help to differentiate the drug from its adulterants.

  14. Loranthus micranthus Linn.: Biological Activities and Phytochemistry

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    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Loranthus micranthus Linn. is a medicinal plant from the Loranthaceae family commonly known as an eastern Nigeria species of the African mistletoe and is widely used in folkloric medicine to cure various ailments and diseases. It is semiparasitic plant because of growing on various host trees and shrubs and absorbing mineral nutrition and water from respective host. Hence, the phytochemicals and biological activities of L. micranthus demonstrated strong host and harvesting period dependency. The leaves have been proved to possess immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiarrhoeal, and hypolipidemic activities. This review summarizes the information and findings concerning the current knowledge on the biological activities, pharmacological properties, toxicity, and chemical constituents of Loranthus micranthus.

  15. Phytopharmacological Profile of Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. (Oleaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Mittal; Satish, Sardana; Anima, Pandey

    2016-04-01

    Plants are the real basis towards animal life and are also central to people's livelihood. The contributions of the plants in performing varied religious celebrations and in other multiple beneficiaries like medicine, human happiness as well as in treating deadly diseases can never be neglected. In treating diseases, the plants and their constituents are better choice than any other synthetic chemical. The nature has been kind enough to provide the human beings with various types of medicinal plants and in the real sense these form the storehouse of curing almost all the ailments. Consequently, most of the drugs which are being used in preparing formulations have their origin and roots in the plants which form the chief natural source of medicines. Even in modern era, the plant-derived drugs are being extensively used, either in their original or semi-synthetic form. It is because their natural phytoconstituents are highly innocuous posing relatively fewer or no side effects. Based upon their observations, analysis and experience, our ancestors used many plants for medicinal purposes and thus their efforts need to be supported by scientific evidence. Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. is one of such important plants. It has been extensively used by the tribes all over India to treat different diseases which mainly include body pains, toothache, stomach ache, ulcers, and sexual impotency. Chemistry of the plant revealed the presence of mainly secoiridoids, terpenoids, flavonoids and tannins. Not much scientific support was given to the folklore claims for this plant but some of its traditional uses were investigated like spasmolytic, wound healing, antimicrobial, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, antiulcer and antioxidant activities. This article is the review of research works done on the plant Jasminum grandiflorum Linn. to date. As a part of it the local names, morphology, traditional claims, chemistry and pharmacological activities have been discussed.

  16. NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL EXPLORATION OF THUJA OCCIDENTALIS LINN.

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    Deb Lokesh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In present study, oral administration of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses of the aqueous extract of Thuja occidentalis Linn in rats and mice were evaluated for its anxiolytic, nootropic, anticonvulsant and motor coordination activity by using different animal models. The number of entries as well as the duration of stay in the open arms significantly increased (***p<0.001 in Elevated plus-maze test and in Open field test showed significant (*p<0.5, ***p<0.001 increase of open field Ambulation, Rearing, Self grooming activity at centre in dose dependent manner when comparison to vehicle treated rats, moreover, the open field faecal dropping was also decreased that indicate anxiolytic activity of extract. Significant retention and recovery as compare to control group has been recorded in scopolamine induced amnesia that support nootropic activity of extract. In Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ - induced seizures, extract dose dependently inhibited the incidence of convulsions and significantly (*p<0.5, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 delayed the onset of spasm and clones in PTZ treated mice compare to vehicle treated mice. Significant (***p<0.001 motor in-coordination and increased in immobility time was recorded in case of Rota rod test and Tail suspension test respectively that indicate CNS depression activity of the extract. On the basis of these investigations, we may partially conclude that aqueous extract of Thuja occidentalis Linn aerial part can not recommend to patients in day time or before bed due to its CNS activity, but it could be a potent anxiolytic, nootropic, anticonvulsant and CNS depressant for next generation.

  17. Analgesic activity of various extracts of Punica granatum (Linn flowers

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    Chakraborthy Guno

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of flowers of Punica granatum (Linn. (N.O. Family Punicaceae were investigated for analgesic activity in mice using hot plate method. The flowers of Punica granatum (Linn were collected from the local market of Mumbai, Maharashtra and were in a dried condition. The dried powdered flowers (500 gm were extracted in a soxhlet apparatus by using different solvents. Mice weighing 15-25 gm were taken for the experiment. The reaction time of animals in all the groups was noted at 30, 60 and 120 min after drug administration. All data were analyzed with Student-t test. The various extract of the flowers of Punica granatum (Linn showed significant analgesic activity at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. A maximum analgesic activity was found at 60 min, after drug administration, which was equivalent to the standard drug used as morphine sulphate.

  18. Protective effect of bacoside A on cigarette smoking-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbarasi, Kothandapani; Vani, Ganapathy; Devi, Chennam Srinivasulu Shyamala

    2005-01-01

    Chronic exposure to cigarette smoke affects the structure and function of mitochondria, which may account for the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases. Bacopa monniera Linn., used in traditional Indian medicine for various neurological disorders, was shown to possess mitrochondrial membrane-stabilizing properties in the rat brain during exposure to morphine. We investigated the protective effect of bacoside A, the active principle of Bacopa monniera, against mitochondrial dysfunction in rat brain induced by cigarette smoke. Male Wistar albino rats were exposed to cigarette smoke and administered bacoside A for a period of 12 weeks. The mitochondrial damage in the brain was assessed by examining the levels of lipid peroxides, cholesterol, phospholipid, cholesterol/phospholipid (C/P) ratio, and the activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, NADH dehydrogenase, and cytochrome C oxidase. The oxidative phosphorylation (rate of succinate oxidation, respiratory control ratio and ADP/O ratio, and the levels of ATP) was evaluated for the assessment of mitochondrial functional capacity. We found significantly elevated levels of lipid peroxides, cholesterol, and C/P ratio, and decreased levels of phospholipids and mitochondrial enzymes in the rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Measurement of oxidative phosphorylation revealed a marked depletion in all the variables studied. Administration of bacoside A prevented the structural and functional impairment of mitochondria upon exposure to cigarette smoke. From the results, we suggest that chronic cigarette smoke exposure induces damage to the mitochondria and that bacoside A protects the brain from this damage by maintaining the structural and functional integrity of the mitochondrial membrane.

  19. Attenuation of cisplatin-induced emetogenesis by standardized Bacopa monnieri extracts in the pigeon: behavioral and neurochemical correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Ihsan; Subhan, Fazal; Rudd, John A; Rauf, Khalid; Alam, Javaid; Shahid, Muhammad; Sewell, Robert D E

    2014-11-01

    Nausea and vomiting are the most distressing and common side effects of cancer chemotherapy which often result in patient noncompliance. In the present study, standardized methanolic and n-butanolic fractions of Bacopa monnieri were evaluated against cisplatin-induced emesis in the pigeon in relation to their activity on central and intestinal neurotransmitters levels. Cisplatin (7.0 mg/kg, i. v.) induced reproducible emesis without lethality in healthy pigeons. The methanolic (10-40 mg/kg) and the bacoside-rich n-butanolic fractions of B. monnieri (5-20 mg/kg), as well as the antioxidant N-(2-mercaptopropionyl) glycine (10 mg/kg), attenuated cisplatin-induced emesis by 66.3% (p bacoside-rich n-butanolic fractions might be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of emetogenic chemotherapy, and this warrants further study in other models of emesis.

  20. Effect of cadmium on growth, bacoside A, and bacopaside I of Bacopa monnieri (L.), a memory enhancing herb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Poonam; Khatoon, Sayyada; Tandon, P K; Rai, Vartika

    2014-01-01

    Bacopa monnieri (L.) is an important medicinal plant mainly known as a memory enhancing herb. It is important to see the effect of metal pollution on its active constituents. In this context, efforts have been made to observe the effect of Cd on the triterpenoid saponins bacoside A and bacopaside I in this plant. The influence of the metal on growth parameters like protein, chlorophyll content, and biomass has also been observed. It is interesting to note that the bacoside A and bacopaside I gradually increased by the Cd treatment up to 10 μM and then decreased at higher concentrations, that is, 50 and 100 μM, but the concentration of these components was more in all the treated plants as compared to control. On the contrary, protein, chlorophyll content, and biomass decreased with the increase in metal concentration and exposure duration due to metal toxicity.

  1. Effect of Cadmium on Growth, Bacoside A, and Bacopaside I of Bacopa monnieri (L., a Memory Enhancing Herb

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    Poonam Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa monnieri (L. is an important medicinal plant mainly known as a memory enhancing herb. It is important to see the effect of metal pollution on its active constituents. In this context, efforts have been made to observe the effect of Cd on the triterpenoid saponins bacoside A and bacopaside I in this plant. The influence of the metal on growth parameters like protein, chlorophyll content, and biomass has also been observed. It is interesting to note that the bacoside A and bacopaside I gradually increased by the Cd treatment up to 10 μM and then decreased at higher concentrations, that is, 50 and 100 μM, but the concentration of these components was more in all the treated plants as compared to control. On the contrary, protein, chlorophyll content, and biomass decreased with the increase in metal concentration and exposure duration due to metal toxicity.

  2. Endophytic fungi found in association with Bacopa monnieri as potential producers of industrial enzymes and antimicrobial bioactive compounds

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    Meenu Katoch

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to screen the endophytic fungal species of ethano-medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri (L. Pennell for their ability to produce antimicrobial substances against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Endophytes were also screened for their ability to produce amylase, cellulase, protease and lipase to evaluate their ecological role within the host plant. Twenty-six endophytes were isolated and seventeen were identified. All the isolated endophytes exhibited amylolytic activity. Lipolytic, cellulolytic, proteolytic activity was shown by 98, 28 and 31% isolates, respectively. Similarly, all the endophytes (100% exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against K. pneumonia, while seventeen endophytes (89.5% were active against S. aureus. Fourteen endophytes (78.9% showed significant antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis and C. albicans. Eleven (57.8%, nine (50%, four (21% endophytes were active against S. typhimurium, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, respectively.

  3. Pharmacognostic evaluation of Cayratia trifolia (Linn.) leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar; Jyoti Gupta; Sunil Kumar; Renu Arya; Tarun Kumar; Ankit Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To present a detailed pharmacognostic study of the leaf of Cayratia trifolia (C. trifolia) Linn. (Vitaceae), an important plant in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: The macroscopy, microscopy, physiochemical analysis, preliminary testing, fluorescence analysis of powder of the plant and other WHO recommended methods for standardization were investigated. Results:Leaves are trifoliolated with petioles (2-3 cm) long. Leaflets are ovate to oblong-ovate, (2-8 cm) long, (1.5-5 cm) wide, pointed at the tip. The leaf surface shows the anisocytic type stomata covered with guard cells followed by epidermis layer. Leaf surface contents including veins, vein islet and vein termination were also determined. Transverse section of leaf shows the epidermis layer followed by cuticle layer and vascular bandles (xylem and phloem). The mesophyll is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Abundant covering trichomes emerge from the upper epidermis. Trichomes are uniseriate and multicellular. Strips of collenchyma are present below and upper layer of epidermis. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile of the C. trifolia is helpful in developing standards for quality, purity and sample identification.

  4. Neuropharmacological activity of Lippia nodiflora Linn.

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    Kumaresan P Thirupathy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the recent years, plants containing flavonoids have gained much more interest in research area, as they are found to be specific ligands for benzodiazepine receptors. Material and Methods: In our investigation, we evaluated the neuropharmacological profile of petroleum, chloroform and ethanolic extracts of aerial part of Lippia nodiflora Linn. With experimental models using test such as potentiation of diazepam-induced sleeping time, locomotor activity, motor coordination, exploratory behavior pattern, elevated plus maze and maximal electroshock convulsions. Diazepam at doses of 5, 4, and 1 mg/kg served as standard. Results: Results showed that the ethanolic extract of L. nodifl ora at both doses (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o. and its chloroform extract at a higher dose of 500 mg/kg produced central inhibitory (sedative effects, anticonvulsant effect and anxiolytic effect in mice. Values were statistically significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 when compared to the control group. The petroleum ether extract of plant at both dose levels (250 and 500 mg/kg p.o. did not produce any central effects. Conclusion: In conclusion, we can say that the ethanolic and chloroform extracts showed the central inhibitory activity due to the presence of fl avonoids and this fact was also supported by the finding that the petroleum ether extract did not show any central effect and flavonoids were not found in it.

  5. Structural investigation of Mimosa pudica Linn fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, S. R.; Pattojoshi, P.; Tiwari, T. N.; Mallick, B.

    2016-12-01

    Sensitive plant (Mimosa pudica Linn.) fibre is a natural fibre with electrically conductive property. Because of its electro-active sensing nature, it has been found very interesting among physicists, chemists, biologists, material scientists and technologists. So far as our knowledge is concerned; there is no report on the X-ray structure of M. pudica fibre using diffraction technique. In the present report, the M. pudica fibre has been extracted from the stem of the herb by sinking the stem in 10% NaOH solution for one week. The diffraction pattern of the fibre is found out to be cellulose-I. The effect of the fibre structure and its orientation due to different mounting have been investigated using X-ray diffraction technique. The I max of cellulose-I has been observed along (002) and (10overline{1)} for the perpendicular and parallel mounting of the native-fibre, respectively. Full width at half maxima of the diffraction profile turns out to be decreased with fibre orientation. Dimension of crystallite size D hkl estimated in the perpendicular mounting D_{hkl}^{ bot } is more as compared to that of the parallel mounting D_{hkl}^{{^{allel } }} . The smallest crystallite sizes observed in both parallel and perpendicular mounting are 18.78 and 30.78 Å respectively. It is expected that the present study may help to analyse the X-ray diffraction of fibre materials in general and natural fibres in particular.

  6. GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM LINN: AN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW

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    Rahman Khaleequr

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium herbaceum Linn is known as cotton plant, belongs to the family Malvaceae, and occupies an imperative place in traditional systems of medicine especially in Unani and Ayurvedic medicines. The plant is widely distributed throughout western India, Africa, Middle East countries, central Asia and graded availability is found in Iran, Afghanistan, Russian and Turkistan. The qualitative phytochemical study of this plant extract indicates the presence of carbohydrates, saponins, steroids, glycosides, phenolic compounds such as tannins and flavonoids. The principle pigment of cotton seed is gossypol, a phenolic compound. The unsaponifiable fraction of Indian cottonseed oil contains sitosterol, ergostoerol, lipids, gossypol, oleic, palmitic, and linoleic acids. The herb has been used traditionally from antiquity, in the treatment of inadequate lactation, bronchial asthma, dysmenorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery, otalgia, sexual debility, general weakness, diabetes, lung and skin diseases. It chiefly possesses antifertlility, galactagogue, antispermatogenic, antidiabetic, antiviral and antibacterial activity. This work is an endeavor to explore and assemble the various pharmacological action and pharmacognostic aspects of the plant G. herbaceum reported till date.

  7. Structural investigation of Mimosa pudica Linn fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, S. R.; Pattojoshi, P.; Tiwari, T. N.; Mallick, B.

    2017-04-01

    Sensitive plant ( Mimosa pudica Linn.) fibre is a natural fibre with electrically conductive property. Because of its electro-active sensing nature, it has been found very interesting among physicists, chemists, biologists, material scientists and technologists. So far as our knowledge is concerned; there is no report on the X-ray structure of M. pudica fibre using diffraction technique. In the present report, the M. pudica fibre has been extracted from the stem of the herb by sinking the stem in 10% NaOH solution for one week. The diffraction pattern of the fibre is found out to be cellulose-I. The effect of the fibre structure and its orientation due to different mounting have been investigated using X-ray diffraction technique. The I max of cellulose-I has been observed along (002) and (10\\overline{1)} for the perpendicular and parallel mounting of the native-fibre, respectively. Full width at half maxima of the diffraction profile turns out to be decreased with fibre orientation. Dimension of crystallite size D hkl estimated in the perpendicular mounting D_{hkl}^{ \\bot } is more as compared to that of the parallel mounting D_{hkl}^{{^{allel } }}. The smallest crystallite sizes observed in both parallel and perpendicular mounting are 18.78 and 30.78 Å respectively. It is expected that the present study may help to analyse the X-ray diffraction of fibre materials in general and natural fibres in particular.

  8. A New Diterpenoid from the Seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn

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    Yong-Jiang Xu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A new cassane-type d iterpene, named Phangininoxy A (1 and one known Phanginin A (2 were isolated from the exact of seeds of Caesalpinia sappan Linn. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, mainly 1D and 2D NMR.

  9. Tallinna Visioonikonverents 2010 : Linn ja linnakultuur 22. sajandil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinna Lauluväljaku ruumides 22. novembril toimunud Tallinna Visioonikonverentsist "Linn ja linnakultuur 22. sajandil", kus arutleti teemal, milline võiks olla Tallinn saja aasta pärast. Konverentsil esinesid Toomas Vitsut, Mart Saarma, Jan Sturesson, Raivo Raave, Satish Kumar, Juhani Pallasmaa ning moderaatoriteks olid Hardo Aasmäe ja Mati Heidmets

  10. BARLERIA CRISTATA LINN.: PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND HPTLC ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekaran Narmadha; Kanakasabapathi Devaki

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemical examination (qualitative and quantitative) and HPTLC analysis of phytochemicals of the crude extract Barleria cristata Linn. leaves were investigated. Preliminary phytochemical screening of various extracts of the leaves revealed the presence of compounds such as amino acids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, proteins, phenolic groups, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. HPTLC finger printing analysis support the presence of alkaloids and phenolic compounds (Quercetin) in this...

  11. Pharmacological activities of Solanum melongena Linn. (Brinjal plant)

    OpenAIRE

    Mitali Das; Nilotpal Barua

    2013-01-01

    Solanum melongena Linn. is a herbaceous plant, with coarsely lobed leaves, white to purple flowers, fruit is berry and are grown mainly for food and medicinal purposes. The plant contains flavonoids, tropane, glycoalkaloids, arginine, lanosterol, gramisterol, aspartic acid as important constituents. The plant is reported to have analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, antiplatelet, intraocular pressure reducing, CNS depressant and ana...

  12. Tallinna Visioonikonverents 2010 : Linn ja linnakultuur 22. sajandil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Tallinna Lauluväljaku ruumides 22. novembril toimunud Tallinna Visioonikonverentsist "Linn ja linnakultuur 22. sajandil", kus arutleti teemal, milline võiks olla Tallinn saja aasta pärast. Konverentsil esinesid Toomas Vitsut, Mart Saarma, Jan Sturesson, Raivo Raave, Satish Kumar, Juhani Pallasmaa ning moderaatoriteks olid Hardo Aasmäe ja Mati Heidmets

  13. Pharmacognostic study of Lantana camara Linn. root

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was carried out to perform the pharmacognostic evaluation of Lantana camara Linn. root. Method: The pharmacognostic evaluation was done in terms of organoleptic, macro-microscopy, fluorescence analysis and physicochemical parameters. Results: The characteristic macroscopic features showed that the root consists of 25-40 cm long, 0.2-4.0 cm thick pieces which are usually branched, shallow, tough, creamish-brown externally, outer surface rough due to longitudinal wrinkles, with hard fracture, characteristic odour and pungent taste. The main microscopic characters of the root shows exfoliating cork, consisting of about 10-15 rows of tangentially elongated, thick-walled cells followed by cortex consisting of polygonal parenchymatous cells, a few containing rhomboidal shaped calcium oxalate crystals. Endodermis consists of 3-4 layers of non-lignified, thick-walled rounded parenchymatous cells followed by a single layer of non-lignified pericycle. Phloem, a wide zone of xylem consisting of lignified pitted vessels and bi-to triseriate medullary rays are also present. Proximate physicochemical analysis of the root power showed loss on drying, total ash, water soluble ash, sulphated ash values as 0.52, 4.26, 3.8 and 5.8 % w/w respectively. Successive extraction of the root powder with petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol, water yielded 0.19, 0.35, 2.19 and 2.0 % w/w respectively. Fluorescence study imparted characteristic colors to the root powder when observed under visible, short and long wavelength light. Conclusions: Various pharmacognostic parameters evaluated in this study helps in identification and standardization of Lantana camara L. root in crude form.

  14. Anti hyperglycemic activities of Annona muricata (Linn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, David Olawale; Komolafe, Omobola Aderibigbe; Adewole, Olarinde Stephen; Obuotor, Efere Martins; Adenowo, Thomas Kehinde

    2008-10-25

    This study was designed to determine the effects of methanolic extracts of Annona muricata (Linn) on the blood glucose level of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Thirty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned into three groups (A, B and C) of ten rats each. Group A was the control, Group B was untreated hyperglycemic group and group C was A. muricata-treated group. Hyperglycemia was induced in groups B and C by a single intraperitoneal injection of 80 mg/kg streptozotocin dissolved in 0.1 M citrate buffer. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with equivalent volume of citrate buffer and all the animals were monitored for four weeks. Daily intra peritoneal injection of 100 mg/kg A. muricata was administered to group C rats for two weeks and the animals were monitored for another two weeks. The data obtained were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The result showed a mean body weight of 206 +/- 7.74 g, 173.29+/-5.13 g and 197 +/- 5.62 g respectively for the control, untreated diabetic and A. muricata-treated diabetic group, and a mean blood glucose concentration of 3.78 +/- 0.190 mmol/L, 21.64 +/- 2.229 mmol/L and 4.22 +/- 0.151 mmol/L for the control, untreated diabetic and treated diabetic groups respectively. A significant difference exists between the blood glucose concentrations of treated and untreated hyperglycemic groups of rats. The result of this study demonstrated that A. muricata possesses anti-hyperglycemic activities.

  15. Antileishmanial and immunomodulatory potential of Ocimumsanctum Linn. and Cocosnucifera Linn. in murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Gaurav; Kaur, Sukhbir; Kaur, Jaspreet; Kaur, Rupinder; Raina, Puneet

    2017-03-01

    The role of immunomodulation in the therapeutic treatment of visceral leishmaniasis has gained eminence in view of moderate to severe drawbacks of the currently available drugs like toxicity, drug resistance and prohibitive costs. The potential for modulation of the immune system of many herbal plants can be tapped to address these problems. We conducted the present research study to investigate the antileishmanial and immunomodulatory effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn. and Cocos nucifera Linn. during the progression of visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mouse model. The IC50 values of the ethanolic leaf extract of O. sanctum and that of the aqueous husk-fibre extract of C. nucifera against the sodium stibogluconate (SSG) susceptible strain (MHOM/IN/80/Dd8) were found to be 73.3 and 62 µg/ml respectively. On treatment of infected BALB/c mice with the extracts, we observed a reduction in hepatic parasite load by 43.63 % (O. sanctum), 65.42 % (C. nucifera) and 75.61 % (O. sanctum + C. nucifera) at 1st post treatment day (p.t.d.), while at 15th p.t.d., the reduction was 73.61 % (O. sanctum), 76.59 % (C. nucifera) and 94.12 % (O. sanctum + C. nucifera). This was accompanied by an up-scaling of the DTH response, skewing of the humoral response towards Th1 type and hepatoprotection in the form of normalization of liver function tests. Overall, administration of the extracts of these two plants in combination as compared to their administration alone rescued the affected mice from the disease greatly, which can be attributed to their antileishmanial and immunomodulatory activities.

  16. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronpirin, Chalinee; Pattarachotanant, Nattaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB), a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight), while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively). Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL) significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL) significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL) and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL) fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD). Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications.

  17. Protective Effect of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. Extracts against Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage in Human Keratinocytes

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    Chalinee Ronpirin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica Linn., Cocos nucifera Linn., and Averrhoa carambola Linn. and their biological effect on human keratinocytes affected by the ultraviolet B (UVB, a major cause of cell damage and skin cancer through induction of DNA damage, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and apoptosis. The richest antioxidant activity was found in ethanol fraction of M. indica (21.32 ± 0.66 mg QE/g dry weight, while the lowest one was found in aqueous fractions of M. indica and C. nucifera (1.76 ± 2.10 and 1.65 ± 0.38 mg QE/g dry weight, respectively. Ethanol and aqueous fractions of A. carambola (250 µg/mL significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. The expression of cleaved caspase 3 in UVB-treated group was significantly greater than that in untreated group. Both fractions of A. carambola (50, 100, and 250 µg/mL significantly decreased the expression of cleaved caspase 3. Regarding the induction of DNA repair, ethanol (100 and 250 µg/mL and aqueous (50, 100 and 250 µg/mL fractions of A. carambola significantly decreased the percentage of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD. Taken together, our results suggest that both fractions of A. carambola may be potentially developed for dermal applications.

  18. Morpho anatomical studies of leaves of Abutilon indicum (linn.) sweet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramadoss Karthikeyan; PannemVenkatesh; Nesepogu Chandrasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pharmacognostic parameters of the leaves of Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet which will assist in standardization, quality assurance, purity and sample identification of the species. Methods: The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, microscopic, powder microscopic, leaf constants and fluorescence analysis. Results:Macroscopic study showed that the leaf shape -cordate, Size -2-4 cm long, Colour - Green, Odour -Characteristic, Taste -Characteristic, Surface - Smooth, Apex -Acute to acuminate, Lamina-Simple, Cordate, Reticulate, Dentate, Margin-Crenate-Dentate. The microscopic features of leaves were observed as covering trichomes, glandular trichome, vascular bundles, crystals, stomata ,mucilage secretory cells adaxial epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and lateral vein. Further the study was evaluated leaf constants, powder microscopy and fluorescence study of leaf powder. Conclusion: Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in the identification and standardization of Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.

  19. Cholinergic basis of memory improving effect of Ocimum tenuiflorum linn

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    Joshi H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer′s disease. Nootropic agents are used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities. The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of Ocimum tenuiflorum Linn. as a nootropic and anticholinesterase agent in mice. Ethanol extract of dried whole plant of O. tenuiflorum Linn. ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg and aging-induced memory deficits in mice. Passive avoidance paradigm served as the exteroceptive behavioural model. O. tenuiflorum extract increased step-down latency and acetyl cholinesterase inhibition significantly. Hence, O. tenuiflorum can be employed in the treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer′s disease.

  20. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF PIPER LONGUM LINN A REVIEW

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    Chauhan Khushbu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have shown tremendous potential for the development of the new drug molecules for various serious diseases. Many plant derived products have found to play an important role in various disease conditions. Piper longum Linn. is a native of the Indo-Malaya region, belongs to family Piperaceae. Piper longum Linn. (Piperaceae has been used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of various pathological conditions. The tribal population uses the plant for cardiovascular activities, anti-inflammatory activity and as a spice. Alkaloids, Lignans and volatile oil are reported in this plant. Extract of Piper longum fruits have been shown to posses various activities like Bio-availibity enhancer, immunomodulatory effect, antiasthamatic and hepatoprotective activity. In the present review an attempt has been made to explore different aspects of Piper longum.

  1. New anthraquinones from the stem of Morinda citrifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Sattar, Fouzia A; Begum, Sabira; Gulzar, Tahsin; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2006-10-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of the stem of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. have led to the isolation of two new compounds, morindicinone (=2-hydroxy-1,8-dimethoxy-7-methoxymethylanthraquinone, 1) and morindicininone (=4-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dimethoxyanthraquinone, 2), as well as two known constituents, 2-hydroxyanthraquinone (3) and 2-methoxyanthraquinone (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis including 2D-NMR techniques.

  2. Chemical Constituents from the Stems of Morinda citrifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Sattar, Fouzia A; Begum, Sabira; Gulzar, Tahsin; Ahmad, Fayaz

    2007-07-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of the stems of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. have led to the isolation of two new compounds, morindicone (9-hydroxy-2-methoxy-4-methyl-3,10-anthracenedione, 1) and morinthone (4-methoxy-3-heptadecylxanthone, 2), as well as two known constituents, 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (3) and 2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis including 2D NMR techniques.

  3. A New Ursane type Sulfated Saponin from Zygophyllum fabago Linn.

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    Saleha Suleman Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One new sulfated saponin 3β,23,30-trihydroxyurs-20-en-28-al-23-sulfate 3-O-β- D -xylopyranoside (Zygofaboside C; 1 was purified from the water soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Zygophyllum fabago Linn. The structure of the compound was elucidated through spectral studies, especially 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-FAB mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data.

  4. In vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activities of Bauhinia variegata Linn

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    Rajani G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : To evaluate the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Bauhinia variegata Linn. for in vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity. Materials and Methods : Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the stem bark and root of B. variegata Linn. were prepared and assessed for in vitro antioxidant activity by various methods namely total reducing power, scavenging of various free radicals such as 1,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide. The percentage scavenging of various free radicals were compared with standard antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA. The extracts were also evaluated for antihyperlipidemic activity in Triton WR-1339 (iso-octyl polyoxyethylene phenol-induced hyperlipidemic albino rats by estimating serum triglyceride, very low density lipids (VLDL, cholesterol, low-density lipids (LDL, and high-density lipid (HDL levels. Result : Significant antioxidant activity was observed in all the methods, (P < 0.01 for reducing power and (P < 0.001 for scavenging DPPH, super oxide, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide radicals. The extracts showed significant reduction (P < 0.01 in cholesterol at 6 and 24 h and (P < 0.05 at 48 h. There was significant reduction (P < 0.01 in triglyceride level at 6, 24, and 48 h. The VLDL level was also significantly (P < 0.05 reduced from 24 h and maximum reduction (P < 0.01 was seen at 48 h. There was significant increase (P < 0.01 in HDL at 6, 24, and 48 h. Conclusion : From the results, it is evident that alcoholic and aqueous extracts of B. variegata Linn. can effectively decrease plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and VLDL and increase plasma HDL levels. In addition, the alcoholic and aqueous extracts have shown significant antioxidant activity. By the virtue of its antioxidant activity, B. variegata Linn. may show antihyperlipidemic activity.

  5. STUDIES OF PHARMACOGNOSTICAL PROFILES OF DANSONIA DIGITATA linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakirubha, T; Ramprasath, D; Karunambigai, K; Nagavalli, D; Hemalatha, S

    2004-10-01

    The macroscopic characters of the whole plant, physical constant values, extractive values, preliminary phyto-chemical tests, fluorescence characters under ultra-violet light after treatment with different reagents of the powdered leaves form the tree of Adansonia digitata linn., [Bombacaceae] were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical screening on the methanolic extract of the plant was also performed. These studies will help in identification of this plant for further research.

  6. Kas linn on äriettevõte või kodu? / Toomas Vitsut

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    Vitsut, Toomas, 1960-

    2002-01-01

    Tallinna abilinnapea leiab, et linn ja riik ei saa eraettevõtte eesmärke ja selle saavutamiseks vajalikke meetodeid endale tegevusjuhiseks seada, sest linn on meie kodu, mitte äri, millest tulu saavad vaid vähesed. Autor: Keskerakond

  7. Carl von Linné jälgedes / Piret Veigel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veigel, Piret, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Alanud aastal tähistatakse Carl von Linné, taimede ülemaailmselt käibiva teadusliku klassifitseerimise süsteemi rajaja 300. sünniaastapäeva. Loodusteadlase majast ja aiast Uppsalas, tema suvekodust Hammarby's ja Fredriksdali vabaõhumuuseumist Helsingborgis, kus leiab Linné-aegset maaharimist

  8. Carl von Linné jälgedes / Piret Veigel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veigel, Piret, 1961-

    2007-01-01

    Alanud aastal tähistatakse Carl von Linné, taimede ülemaailmselt käibiva teadusliku klassifitseerimise süsteemi rajaja 300. sünniaastapäeva. Loodusteadlase majast ja aiast Uppsalas, tema suvekodust Hammarby's ja Fredriksdali vabaõhumuuseumist Helsingborgis, kus leiab Linné-aegset maaharimist

  9. Exploitation of microbes for enhancing bacoside content and reduction of Meloidogyne incognita infestation in Bacopa monnieri L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupali; Tiwari, Sudeep; Saikia, Shilpi K; Shukla, Virendra; Singh, Rashmi; Singh, S P; Kumar, P V Ajay; Pandey, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Despite the vast exploration of rhizospheric microbial wealth for crop yield enhancement, knowledge about the efficacy of microbial agents as biocontrol weapons against root-knot disease is scarce, especially in medicinal plants, viz., Bacopa monnieri. In the present investigation, rhizospheric microbes, viz., Bacillus megaterium, Glomus intraradices, Trichoderma harzianum ThU, and their combinations were evaluated for the management of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and bacoside content enhancement in B. monnieri var CIM-Jagriti. A novel validated method Fourier transform near infrared was used for rapid estimation of total bacoside content. A significant reduction (2.75-fold) in root-knot indices was observed in the combined treatment of B. megaterium and T. harzianum ThU in comparison to untreated control plants. The same treatment also showed significant enhancement (1.40-fold) in total bacoside contents (plant active molecule) content using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) method that analyses samples rapidly in an hour without solvent usage and provides ample scope for natural product studies.

  10. Silica-based monolithic column with evaporative light scattering detector for HPLC analysis of bacosides and apigenin in Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pamita; Kumar, Neeraj; Singh, Bikram; Singh, Virendra; Kaur, Inderjeet

    2009-08-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method using a silica-based monolithic column coupled with evaporative light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of bacosides (bacoside A, bacopaside I, bacoside A(3), bacopaside II, bacopaside X, bacopasaponin C) and apigenin in Bacopa monnieri. The chromatographic resolution was achieved on a Chromolith RP-18 (100x4.6 mm) column with acetonitrile/water (30:70) as mobile phase in isocratic elution at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. The drift tube temperature of the ELSD was set to 95 degrees C, and the nitrogen flow rate was 2.0 SLM (standard liter per minute). The calibration curves revealed a good linear relationship (r(2) > 0.9988) within the test ranges. The detection limits (S/N = 3) and the quantification limits (S/N = 10) for the compounds were in the range of 0.54-6.06 and 1.61-18.78 microg/mL, respectively. Satisfactory average recovery was observed in the range of 95.8-99.0%. The method showed good reproducibility for the quantification of these compounds in B. monnieri with intra- and inter-day precision of less than 0.69 and 0.67%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to quantify analytes in nine accessions of B. monnieri and thus provides a new basis for overall quality assessment of B. monnieri.

  11. A Bacoside containing Bacopa monnieri extract reduces both morphine hyperactivity plus the elevated striatal dopamine and serotonin turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauf, Khalid; Subhan, Fazal; Sewell, Robert D E

    2012-05-01

    Bacopa monnieri (BM) has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as a nootropic, anxiolytic, antiepileptic and antidepressant. An n-butanol extract of the plant (nBt-ext BM) was analysed and found to contain Bacoside A (Bacoside A3, Bacopaside II and Bacopasaponin C). The effects of the BM extract were then studied on morphine-induced hyperactivity as well as dopamine and serotonin turnover in the striatum since these parameters have a role in opioid sensitivity and dependence. Mice were pretreated with saline or nBt-ext BM (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg, orally), 60 min before morphine administration and locomotor activity was subsequently recorded. Immediately after testing, striatal tissues were analysed for dopamine (DA), serotonin (5HT) and their metabolites using HPLC coupled with electrochemical detection. The results indicated that nBt-ext BM significantly (p < 0.001) decreased locomotor activity in both the saline and morphine treated groups. Additionally, nBt-ext BM significantly lowered morphine-induced dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-H1AA) upsurges in the striatum but failed to affect DA, 5-HT and their metabolites in the saline treated group. These findings suggest that nBt-ext BM has an antidopaminergic/serotonergic effect and may have potential beneficial effects in the treatment of morphine dependence.

  12. Reversion of BDNF, Akt and CREB in Hippocampus of Chronic Unpredictable Stress Induced Rats: Effects of Phytochemical, Bacopa Monnieri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Somoday; Kumar, Sourav; Saha, Goutam Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aims of the present study were to explore the behavioural effects and to understand the possible mode of action of Bacopa monnieri extract (BME) on chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced depressive model and the biochemical alterations such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), Akt, cyclic-AMP response element binding (CREB) protein level in the hippocampus of rats. Methods We examined the effects of chronic administration of BME on CUS exposed rats for 28 days. Behavioural changes were assessed by sucrose consumption and open field test to assess the effect of BME on CUS-induced depression. The mechanisms underlying antidepressant like action of BME was further evaluated by measuring levels of BDNF, Akt, and CREB in the hippocampus of rat brain and compared with the standard tricyclic antidepressant drug imipramine (20 mg/kg body weight). Results Exposure to CUS for 28 days produced depression-like behavior in rats, as indicated by significant decreases in sucrose consumption, locomotor activity including decreased BDNF, Akt and CREB levels in the hippocampus. Daily administration of BME at a dose of (80 mg/kg body weight) significantly reverses the behavioral alteration and restored the normal level of BDNF, total and phospho-Akt, total and phospho CREB in the hippocampus of CUS induced rats as compared to vehicle treated control rats. Conclusion These findings suggest that BME ameliorates CUS induced behavioural depression in rats and that can be used as a potent therapeutic agent in treating depressive like behavior. PMID:28096878

  13. Influence of seasons, different plant parts, and plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution in Bacopa monnieri

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    Watoo Phrompittayarat

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brahmi or Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. is becoming popular as a food supplement due to its enhancing effect onmemory and intellect. Previous studies showed that a group of saponins are active compounds in this plant. However, untilnow little evidence has been obtained to indicate whether saponins are consistently present throughout the plant growthstages or the compounds are affected by the seasons. In order to answer those questions, we cultivated Brahmi under thenet house in three seasons. Influence of plant growth stages on saponin quantity and distribution was also investigated.In each season, treatments were plant ages with different plant parts having a factorial completely randomized design with 3replications. Five saponins, i.e. bacoside A3, bacopaside II, bacopaside X, bacopasaponin C and bacopaside I, were analyzedusing HPLC and reported as total saponins.The results showed that total saponin contents in Brahmi were the highest in rainy season while the weight yield ofBrahmi was the highest in summer. Ages of Brahmi (1-4 months slightly affected total saponin content. High level of totalsaponins (1.91±0.48% w/w was detected at the shoot of Brahmi. These findings indicate that the saponin quantity is affectedby seasons and the distribution of the saponins is different in each part of the plant. This information will be beneficial tothe production of Brahmi for both household and industry

  14. Microbial modulation of bacoside A biosynthetic pathway and systemic defense mechanism in Bacopa monnieri under Meloidogyne incognita stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupali; Singh, Akanksha; Srivastava, Madhumita; Singh, Vivek; Gupta, M. M.; Pandey, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Plant-associated beneficial microbes have been explored to fulfill the imperative function for plant health. However, their impact on the host secondary metabolite production and nematode disease management remains elusive. Our present work has shown that chitinolytic microbes viz., Chitiniphilus sp. MTN22 and Streptomyces sp. MTN14 singly as well as in combination modulated the biosynthetic pathway of bacoside A and systemic defense mechanism against Meloidogyne incognita in Bacopa monnieri. Interestingly, expression of bacoside biosynthetic pathway genes (3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase, and squalene synthase) were upregulated in plants treated with the microbial combination in the presence as well as in absence of M. incognita stress. These microbes not only augmented bacoside A production (1.5 fold) but also strengthened host resistance via enhancement in chlorophyll a, defense enzymes and phenolic compounds like gallic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid and cinnamic acid. Furthermore, elevated lignification and callose deposition in the microbial combination treated plants corroborate well with the above findings. Overall, the results provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of priming by beneficial microbes and underscore their capacity to trigger bacoside A production in B. monnieri under biotic stress. PMID:28157221

  15. POLYPODIUM VULGARE LINN. A VERSATILE HERBAL MEDICINE: A REVIEW

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    Pervaiz Ahmad Dar*, G. Sofi and M. A. Jafri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Polypodium vulgare Linn. also called as Bisfaij in Unani system of medicine is a perineal fern growing to a height of 30cm. Polypodium vulgare Linn. rhizome is used in European, American, Chinese, and Unani and Ayurveda traditions. It is claimed to be efficacious in jaundice, dropsy, scurvy and combined with mallows it removes hardness of the spleen. The distilled water of the roots and leaves is considered good for ague (malarial fever, and the fresh or dried roots, mixed with honey and applied to the nose, were used in the treatment of polypus The fresh root is used in the form of decoction, or powder for melancholia and also for rheumatic swelling of the joints. The rhizome extract was found to possess anti-epileptic activity. The ecdysones present in the rhizome (0.07%-1% dry weightwas seen to act topically on a wide variety of arthropods and caused abnormal molting and death, so ecdysone analogues may be useful not only as insecticides but also miticides. The aqueous extract of Polypodium vulgare Linn. was found to possess analgesic activity, protective effect in various neurological and neurodegenerative disorders, stimulatory effect on the adrenoceptors, and antioxidant properties.

  16. Proteomics analysis of antimalarial targets of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanna Chaijaroenkul; Artitiya Thiengsusuk; Kanchana Rungsihirunrat; Stephen Andrew Ward; Kesara Na-Bangchang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible protein targets for antimalarial activity of Garcinia mangostana Linn. (G. mangostana) (pericarp) in 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clone using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Methods: 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum was exposed to the crude ethanolic extract of G.mangostana Linn. (pericarp) at the concentrations of 12µg/mL (IC50 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%) and 30 µg/mL (IC90 level: concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 90%) for 12 h. Parasite proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by LC/MS/MS.Results:At the IC50 concentration, about 82% of the expressed parasite proteins were matched with the control (non-exposed), while at the IC90 concentration, only 15% matched proteins were found. The selected protein spots from parasite exposed to the plant extract at the concentration of 12 µg/mL were identified as enzymes that play role in glycolysis pathway, i.e., phosphoglycerate mutase putative, L-lactate dehydrogenase/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphoglycerate kinase. The proteosome was found in parasite exposed to 30 µg/mL of the extract.Conclusions:Results suggest that proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway may be the targets for antimalarial activity of G. mangostana Linn. (pericarp).

  17. Proteomics analysis of antimalarial targets of Garcinia mangostana Linn.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanna; Chaijaroenkul; Artitiya; Thiengsusuk; Kanchana; Rungsihirunrat; Stephen; Andrew; Ward; Kesara; Na-Bangchang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate possible protein targets for antimalarial activity of Garcina mangostana Linn.(G.mangostana)(pericarp)in 3D7 Plasmodium falciparum clone using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry(LC/MS/MS).Methods:3D7 Plasmodium falciparum was exposed to the crude ethanolic extract of G.mangostana Linn.(pericarp)at the concentrations of 12μg/mL(1C50level:concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 50%)and 30μg/mL(1C90level:concentration that inhibits parasite growth by 90%)for 12 h.Parasite proteins were separated by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and identified by LC/MS/MS.Results:At the IC50concentration,about 82%of the expressed parasite proteins were matched with the control(non-exposed),while at the IC90concentration,only 15%matched proteins were found.The selected protein spots from parasite exposed to the plant extract at the concentration of 12μg/mL were identified as eneymes that play role in glycolysis pathway,i.e.,phosphoglyeerate mutase putative,L-lactate dehydrogenase/glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase,and fruetose-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphoglyeerate kinase.The proteosome was found in parasite exposed to 30μg/mL of the extract.Conclusions:Results suggest that proteins involved in the glycolysis pathway may be the targets for antimalarial activity of G.mangostana Linn.(pericarp).

  18. ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF COIX LACHRYMA LINN. AND ASPARAGUS COCHINCHINENSISLINN. AS BREAST ANTICANCER DRUGS

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    RESMI MUSTARICHIE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic crisis, the use of plant medicine forcancer prevention should be investigated. Coix lachryma Linn and Asparagus cochinchinensis Linn are among eleven of species of medicinal plants that are noted as plant medicine for cancer in Indonesia, although their mechanism of action are still unknown. The eleven plants were screened using in vitro methods, Sulforhodamin B against breast cancer cells (MCF"7 and skin (KB. The research included a maceration process using ethanol as solvent and an anti"cancer testing process in vitro using Sulforhodamin B indicated by the value of percentage viability. Extracts were classed as being 'active anticancer' if they showed IC50 values below 100 ppm.. Coix lachryma Linn. and Asparagus cochinchinensis Linn. show breast and skin anticancer activity withIC50 values 6.51 ppm and 11.3 ppm of MCF"7 cells. The ethanol plant extracts were further extracted using various solvents with increasing polarity: n"hexane, methylene chloride, and ethyl acetate. The methylene chloride extract of Coix lachryma Linn. had IC50 = 2.75 ppm against MCF"7 cells. Against KB cells, methylene chloride extracts of Coix lachryma Linn. gave IC50 = 5.16 ppm. For Asparagus cochinchinensis Linn., an ethyl acetate extract had IC50 = 3.70 ppm against KB cancer cells and IC50 = 9.80 ppm against MCF"7 cancer cells. These data indicated that both plants can be used as anticancer drugs on breast and skin cancers.

  19. Evaluation of anticancer potential of Bacopa monnieri L. against MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231 cell line

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    Md. Nasar Mallick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri contains bacoside A and B, brahmin, cucurbitacins, and betulinic acid. Currently, cucurbitacins have also been reported for their strong anti-tumorigenic and anti-proliferative activity by inducing cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and formation of multiplied cells. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of dichloromethane (DCM fraction of B. monnieri on two different cell lines. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of B. monnieri was prepared using soxhlet extraction method and different fractions (hexane, DCM, methanol, acetone, and water of ethanolic extracts were prepared. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay of ethanolic extract and of all fractions was carried out on MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231 cell lines. The presence of cucurbitacins and betulinic acid in these fractions was confirmed by high-performance thin layer chromatography. Results: The IC50 values of ethanolic extract of B. monnieri in MCF-7 and MDA-MB 231 cell lines were 72.0 μg/mL and 75.0 μg/mL, respectively. The DCM fraction of B. monnieri showed maximum cytotoxic activity among all fraction upto 72 h and was found to be 57.0 μg/mL and 42.0 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed good cytotoxic activity in DCM fraction in both the cell lines may be due to the presence of cucurbitacins and betulinic acid in DCM fraction.

  20. EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SEEDS OF PHYLA NODIFLORA LINN.

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    Patel Janki B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Jalapippali’ described in classical texts of Ayurveda is botanically identified as Phyla nodiflora Linn. (Syn. Lippia nodiflora Rich. In present study methanolic extract of seeds of Phyla nodiflora Linn. was screened for in-vitro antibacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria by cup- plate method. The methanolic extract of the seeds significantly inhibit the growth of bacteria as compared to the standard bactericide (streptomycin. The study reveals that the methanolic fraction of seeds of Phyla nodiflora Linn possesses significant antibacterial activity.

  1. Evaluation of diuretic activity of different extracts of Mimosa pudica Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghel, A; Rathore, D S; Gupta, V

    2013-10-15

    In that study, Mimosa pudica linn was tested for diuretic activity using the lipschitz test. The ethanolic and aqoues extract of Mimosa pudica Linn. was studied at two dose level 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) b.wt. Furosemide (20 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) was used as standard drug in a 0.9% saline solution. Urine volumes were measured for all the groups up to 5 h. The ethanolic extract of Mimosa pudica linn was exhibited significant diuretic activity at doses of 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) b.wt. by increasing total urine volume and ion concentration of Na+ k+ and Cl-.

  2. Chemical and biological investigations of Dillenia indica Linn.

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    Most. Nazma Parvin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of four compounds namely, lupeol (1, betulinaldehyde (2, betulinic acid (3 and stigmasterol (4 were isolated from the stem extract of Dillenia indica Linn. The structures of the isolated compounds (1-4 were established by extensive spectroscopic studies. The crude methanolic extracts and its n-hexane, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane and chloroform soluble partitionates demonstrated weak antimicrobial activity against a wide range of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The extractives revealed significant cytotoxic activity when tested by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. In addition, the extractives exhibited significant free radical scavenging activity when compared with the standard drug ascorbic acid.

  3. Phytochemical characterisation of an important medicinal plant, Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hameed; Khan, Ashfaq Ahmad

    2017-03-14

    The project was intended to the phytochemical characterisation from the rudimentary methanolic extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides Linn., which escorts to the isolation of stigmasterol (1), β-sitosterol (2), octadecanoic acid (3), scopoletin (4) and 1-piperoylpiperidine (5). Literature validates the medicinal authentication of these compounds extorted from other sources, while our previous findings regarding microbial activities of different solvent systems fractions are favouring the presence of medicinally important compounds in this species. Herein, however, we report these natural products for the first time from this species.

  4. PRELIMINARY PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STANDARDIZATION OF AERIAL PARTS OF ARTEMISIA ABSINTHIUM LINN.

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    Ahamad Javed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia absinthium Linn. is an important medicinal plant of family Asteraceae. It is commonly known as Afsanteen. The whole plant is used in Indian traditional systems of medicine specifically indicated in chronic fever, swellings, inflammation of liver, gastric problems, enlargement of spleen, urinary disorders and for wound healing. As the herb is used widely in the Indian traditional systems of medicine, it was thought worthwhile to undertake the standardization of its aerial parts. The results of preliminary pharmacognostic standardization of aerial parts of A. absinthium are very helpful in determination of quality and purity of the crude drug and its marketed formulation.

  5. Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f. sweet: A comprehensive review

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    V J Galani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f. Sweet is a popular Indian medicinal plant, which has long been used in traditional Ayurvedic Indian medicine for various diseases. This plant is pharmacologically studied for nootropic, aphrodisiac, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antidiarrheal, antimicrobial, antiviral, nematicidal, antiulcer, anticonvulsant, analgesic and central nervous depressant activities. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities reported are included in view of the many recent findings of importance on this plant.

  6. Cassia fistula Linn: Potential candidate in the health management

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    Arshad H Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassia fistula Linn is known as Golden shower has therapeutics importance in health care since ancient times. Research findings over the last two decade have confirmed the therapeutics consequence of C. fistula in the health management via modulation of biological activities due to the rich source of antioxidant. Several findings based on the animal model have confirmed the pharmacologically safety and efficacy and have opened a new window for human health management. This review reveals additional information about C. fistula in the health management via in vivo and in vitro study which will be beneficial toward diseases control.

  7. Phytochemical studies on the seed extract of Piper nigrum Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Munawwer; Afshan, Farhana; Tariq, Rajput M; Siddiqui, Bina S; Gulzar, Tahsin; Mahmood, Azhar; Begum, Sabira; Khan, Bushra

    2005-10-01

    The petroleum ether extract of dried ground seeds of Piper nigrum Linn. and some column fractions of this extract were subjected to GC and GC-MS analysis, resulting in the identification of fourteen compounds (1-14) by using NIST Mass spectral search program 1998 and the Kovat's retention indices. Ten of the compounds (1, 2, 4-12) are reported for the first time from this plant. All the fractions showed insecticidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and against the fourth instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi Liston, determined by the WHO method.

  8. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY TEST OF EXTRACT NYAMPLUNG (Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. LEAVES

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    Mutiara Novianti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity from ethanol extract of nyamplung (Callophylum inophyllum Linn. leaves from Indonesia against Escherichia coli has been done. The extraction was done by soklet extraction using ethanol. Antibacterial activity test using the Optical Density method at λmax 600 nm. The result of phytochemical screening from ethanol extract showed that there were flavonoid compounds, saponins, tannins, phenols and triterpenoids. The result of antibacterial activity test showed that the optimum activity occurs at incubation time of 3 hours with percentase inhibition persentase i.e. 59.03 %.

  9. Assessment of Curcuma longa linn. on learning and memory in rats

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    K. Lohit

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: C. longa linn. may be useful in enhancing learning. Further dose ranging preclinical studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of curcumin on memory. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1086-1090

  10. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Llanchezhian, R; Joseph C, Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-01-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940...

  11. Study on cow urine and Linn seed in farmyard: A natural, cost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on cow urine and Linn seed in farmyard: A natural, cost effective, ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Though chemicals and bactericides control BLB, they also cause several health and environmental hazards.

  12. Pharmacognostic Standards for Mimusops elengi Linn - A Review

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    Rakesh S Shivatare

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are nature′s gift to human beings to make disease free healthy life, and play a vital role to preserve our health. They are believed to be much safer and proven elixir in the treatment of various ailments. Pharmacognostic studies of crude drug plays a very important role in identification, purity and quality of crude drugs. The Mimusops elengi Linn.commonly known Spanish cherry, belonging to Sapotaceae family. It is a large ornamental evergreen tree cultivated in India and generally reared in gardens for the sake of its fragrant flowers. The bark, fruit and seeds of Mimusops elengi possess several medicinal properties such as astringent, tonic, and febrifuge. Chemical studies have shown that, Bark contain tannin, triterpenoids and flower contain volatile oil as well as seeds contain fixed fatty oil. Through this review, the authors hope to attract the attention of natural product researchers throughout the world to focus on pharmacognostic standards of Mimusops elengi Linn. and it may be useful in developing new standards for Mimusops elengi.

  13. PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF OXALIS CORNICULATA LINN.: A REVIEW

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    Merugu Srikanth , Tadigotla Swetha* and Veeresh B.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Many herbal remedies have been employed in various medical systems for treatment and management of different diseases. The plant Oxalis corniculata Linn. has been used in different system of traditional medication for the treatment of diseases and ailments of human beings. β-sitosterol, betulin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, ethyl gallate, methoxyflavones, apigenin, and 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were previously isolated from the whole plant of Oxalis corniculata.linn. The review reveals that wide ranges of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from the plant like flavanoids, tannins, phytosterols, phenol, glycosides, fatty acids, galacto-glycerolipid and volatile oil. The leaves contain flavonoids, iso vitexine and vitexine-2”- O- beta – Dglucopyrunoside. It is rich source of essential fatty acids like palmitic acid, oleic, linoleic, linolenic and stearic acids. It has been reported that the plant contains anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, antifungal, antiulcer, antinociceptive, anticancer, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, hypolipedemic, abortificient, antimicrobial and wound healing properties. The current study is therefore reviewed to provide requisite phytochemical and pharmacological detail about the plant.

  14. ANTIOXIDANT, ANALGESIC AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF MIMUSOPS ELENGI LINN. LEAVES

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    Utpal Kumar Karmakar et al.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mimusops elengi Linn. (Family: Sapotaceae is a tree which is traditionally used against a number of diseases including ulcers, headache, dental diseases, wound and fever. In the present study crude methanolic extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. leaf was investigated for possible antioxidant, analgesic and cytotoxic activity. The extract exhibited statistically significant antioxidant activity in DPPH free radical scavenging and Nitric oxide scavenging test. The analgesic activity of the sample was studied using acetic acid induced writhing of white albino mice and hot plate test. The extract produced 45.61% and 63.85% (P<0.001 writhing inhibition at the doses of 250mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively which is comparable to the standard drug diclofenac sodium was found to be 76.69% at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. In hot plate test the extract exerted significant (P<0.001 prolongation in the response of latency time to the heat stimulus. The cytotoxic activity of the extract was assessed by brine shrimp lethality bioassay as an indicator of toxicity in which LC50= 80μg/ml and LC90 = 320μg/ml for sample. All the results tend to justify the traditional uses of the plant and require further investigation to identify the chemicals.

  15. Microscopic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of Origanum majorana Linn leaves

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    BP Pimple

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the microscopic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of Origanum majorana Linn leaves. Methods: Fresh and dried powdered leaf samples was studies for its morphology, microscopy, organoleptic characters, fluorescence analysis and various other WHO recommended methods for standardisation. Results: Leaves are simple, petiolated, ovate to oblong-ovate, (0.5-1.5 cm long, (0.2-0.8 cm wide, with obtuse apex, entire margin, reticulate veination and symmetrical but tapering base. The microscopy revealed the dorsiventral nature of the leaf. Both the surfaces show presence of numerous covering trichomes, diacytic stomata and thin walled, wavy epidermal cells. The covering trichomes are multicellular, uniseriate, thin walled and pointed. In the midrib region, the epidermis is followed by collenchyma and vascular bundle (xylem and phloem. Whereas; the mesophyll exhibited only palisade cells and spongy parenchyma. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile can serve as tool for developing standards for identification, quality and purity of Origanum majorana Linn leaves.

  16. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON LEAVES OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS LINN.

    OpenAIRE

    Sangeeta Kumari , Swati Jain , Rita Pal , Sumitra Nain* and Sarvesh Paliwal

    2013-01-01

    The study is aimed at development of physicochemical parameters and to investigate the active principle present in Tridax procumbens Linn. Tridax procumbens Linn. (Asteraceae) commonly known as Coat Buttons is an important plant used against various disorders in indigenous system of medicine such as Wound-Healing, Hepatoprotective, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-diabetic and Immunomodulatory activities. However its functional properties and the underlying mechanism of action have not been clearly de...

  17. ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF TEPHROSIA PURPUREA LINN IN DEXAMETHASONE INDUCED RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Tanvir Shaikh; Tabrej Mujawar; Rashid Akthar; Sufiyan Ahmad; Mohib Khan

    2011-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (family Fabaceae) is considered in system of folklore medicine in the treatment of diabetes. The present experimental investigation established the lipid lowering properties of ethanolic extract of leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. on experimentally Dexamethasone induced rats. The lipid parameters studied are Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLD...

  18. Initial Study on the Antibacterial Action of Mentha spicata Linn Extract in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-ying; WANG Xue-bing; HAN Wei-li; CUI Bao-an

    2010-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the antibacterial action of Mentha spicata Linn extract in vitro.[Method] The cylinder-plate method was used to measure the inhibitory zone size of Mentha spicata Linn extract.The test-tube double dilution method was used to measure the minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC)of Mentha spicata Linn extract on the four kinds of animal pathogenic bacteria,which could determine the antibacterial effect.[Result] The decoction,alcohol extract and volatile oil of Mentha spicata Linn had the different antibacterial effects on the four kinds of animal pathogenic bacteria.Especially the inhibition effect on the pig staphylococcus was comparatively obvious.MIC of Mentha spicata Linn decoction I,alcohol extract III,volatile oil V and volatile oil VI were respectively 31.25,62.5,2.32 and 2.31 mg/ml.[Conclusion] The decoction,alcohol extract and volatile oil of Mentha spicata Linn had the certain antibacterial effect in vitro,and the extracts which were gained by the different extraction methods had the different inhibition effects on the experimental bacteria.

  19. Analysis of propagation of Bacopa monnieri (L.) from hairy roots, elicitation and Bacoside A contents of Ri transformed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Largia, Muthiah Joe Virgin; Satish, Lakkakula; Johnsi, Rajaiah; Shilpha, Jayabalan; Ramesh, Manikandan

    2016-08-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes mediated transformation has been experimented in leaf explants of the memory herb Bacopa monnieri in order to assess the regeneration potential of hairy roots (HR) followed by the elicitation of transformed plants for increased Bacoside A production. Out of the four strains tested, A4 and MTCC 532 derived HR exhibited regrowth in MS basal medium while MTCC 2364 derived HR showed regeneration in MS medium supplemented with suitable phyto hormones. R1000 derived HR possessed no regeneration potential. Comparable to A4, MTCC 532 derived HR displayed maximum regrowth frequency of about 85.71 ± 1.84 % with an increase in biomass to threefold. Therefore, five HR plant lines (MTCC 532 derived) were generated and maintained in MS basal liquid medium in which HR3 topped the others in producing a huge biomass of about 67.09 ± 0.66 g FW. PCR amplification and southern hybridization analysis of rol A gene (280 bp) has been performed in order to confirm the transformation process. Moreover, HR3 plant line has accumulated highest total phenolic content of about 165.68 ± 0.82 mg GAE/g DW and highest total flavonoid content of about 497.78 ± 0.57 mg QRE/g DW when compared to other lines and untransformed controls. In addition, HR3 plant extract showed 85.58 ± 0.14 % of DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) inhibition displaying its reliable anti oxidant potential. Further on elicitation with 10 mg/L chitosan for 2 weeks, HR3 has produced 5.83 % of Bacoside A which is fivefold and threefold increased production when compared to untransformed and transformed unelicited controls respectively. This is the first report on eliciting HR plants for increased metabolite accumulation in B. monnieri.

  20. In vitro cultures of Bacopa monnieri and an analysis of selected groups of biologically active metabolites in their biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bożena; Łojewski, Maciej; Sułkowska-Ziaja, Katarzyna; Szewczyk, Agnieszka; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Hałaszuk, Patrycja

    2016-11-01

    Bacopa monnieri L. Pennell (Scrophulariaceae) is one of the most important plants in the system of Indian medicine (Ayurveda). This paper studies the optimal growth of B. monnieri for effective accumulation of metabolites. Biomass growth of this plant could be accomplished in liquid cultures on Murashige & Skoog medium. Powdered shoots of in vitro cultures of B. monnieri were extracted by methanol for indole compounds, phenolic compounds and bacosides for RP-HPLC analysis. Fatty acid analysis was performed via gas chromatography. Anti-inflammatory effect of B. monnieri extracts was evaluated in the A549 cells. COX-2 and cPGES expression was analyzed using Western blots. l-Tryptophan and serotonin were found in biomass from in vitro cultures of B. monnieri on MS medium and in biomass from the MS mediums enriched with the different additions such as of 0.1 g/L magnesium sulphate, 0.1 g/L zinc hydroaspartate, 0.1 g/L l-tryptophan, 0.25 g/L serine, 0.5 g/L serine and 0.5 mg/L anthranilic acid. The content of l-tryptophan and serotonin compounds was significant in biomass from medium with the addition of 0.1 g/L zinc hydroaspartate (0.72 mg/g dry weight and 1.19, respectively). Phenolic compounds identified in biomass from the same variants of MS medium were chlorogenic acid (ranging from 0.20 to 0.70 mg/g dry weight), neochlorogenic acid (ranging from 0.11 to 0.40 mg/g dry weight) and caffeic acid (ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg/g dry weight). The main group of fatty acids in biomass was saturated fatty acids (53.4%). The predominant fatty acid was palmitic acid. A significant decrease of COX-2 and cPGES expression was observed in the A549 cells activated with LPS and treated with B. monnieri extracts. As far as we know, this is the first analysis of indole compounds and phenolic acids in this plant. The multi-therapeutic effect of B. monnieri is expressed by the activity of bacosides. Information about the presence of indole and phenolic compounds

  1. Larvicidal activity of a toxin from the seeds of Jatropha curcas Linn. against Aedes aegypti Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanthakan, Nuchsuk; Nuanchawee, Wetprasit; Sittiruk, Roytrakul; Sunanta, Ratanapo

    2012-06-01

    The larvicidal effects of the crude protein extract and purified toxin, Jc-SCRIP, from the seed coat of Jatropha curcas Linn. against the third instar larvae of mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say, were investigated. This test compared the effects of the purified toxin with crude protein extracts from seed kernels of J. curcas and Ricinus communis. At various concentrations of purified toxin and crude protein extract, the larval mortality of both Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were positively correlated with increased exposure time. The larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were more susceptible to the toxin and both extracts than the larvae of Ae. aegypti. After 24 hours of exposure, the extract showed larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with (LC50) values of 3.89 mg/ml and 0.0575 mg/ml, respectively. The toxin, Jc-SCRIP, showed larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus with (LC50) values of 1.44 mg/ml and 0.0303 mg/ ml, respectively. These results indicated that the crude protein extract and Jc-SCRIP were more toxic to the third instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus than that of Ae. aegypti. The potent larvicidal activities of the seed coat extract and the Jc-SCRIP toxin from J. curcas suggest that they may be used as bioactive agents to control the mosquito population.

  2. Behavioral deficit and decreased GABA receptor functional regulation in the cerebellum of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monnieri and bacoside A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jobin; Peeyush Kumar, T; Khan, Reas S; Paulose, C S

    2010-04-01

    In the present study, the effects of Bacopa monnieri and its active component, bacoside A, on motor deficit and alterations of GABA receptor functional regulation in the cerebellum of epileptic rats were investigated. Scatchard analysis of [(3)H]GABA and [(3)H]bicuculline in the cerebellum of epileptic rats revealed a significant decrease in B(max) compared with control. Real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification of GABA(A) receptor subunits-GABA(Aalpha1), GABA(Aalpha5,) and GABA(Adelta)-was downregulated (Pbacoside A reversed these changes to near-control levels. Our results suggest that changes in GABAergic activity, motor learning, and memory deficit are induced by the occurrence of repetitive seizures. Treatment with B. monnieri and bacoside A prevents the occurrence of seizures thereby reducing the impairment of GABAergic activity, motor learning, and memory deficit.

  3. Cerebroprotective effect of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. root extract

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    P. Muralidharan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the cerebroprotective effect of the aqueous extract of the roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. (250 and 500 mg/kg in hypoxic rats. Hypoxia was induced by providing sodium nitrite drinking water to rats for 14 days. Extract at the tested doses promoted the locomotor activity and spatial behavior significantly, which was impaired in hypoxic rats. The extract administration restored the decreased levels of brain enzymes such as glutamate and dopamine and decreased acetylcholinesterase (AchE activity significantly. Levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and catalase were reduced due to hypoxia and were restored to near normalcy by administration of ethanol extract of G. glabra. Increased lipid peroxidation in hypoxic rats was also restored significantly by extract treatment. Thus, this study suggests that ethanol extract of G. glabra possess a cerebroprotective effect in hypoxic rats, which may be mediated by its antioxidant effects.

  4. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON LEAVES OF CASSIA OBTUSIFOLIA LINN.

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    Sufiyan Ahmad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the macroscopical and microscopical studies on leaves of Cassia obtusifolia Linn. Some distinct and different characters were observed with section of young thin leaves. The anatomy of the leaves was studied by taking transverse section of midrib. The chloroplasts are much more concentrated in the palisade layer of the mesophyll. There is only one large vascular bundle in the midrib. The midrib was stained with toluidine blue. This helps to resolve the vascular tissues with greater certainty. The xylem and phloem were also observed. Powder microscopical examination showed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem fibres and starch grain. Physiochemical parameter and preliminary phytochemical study of the leaves powder were also carried out.

  5. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Investigation on Leaves of Ficus microcarpa Linn.

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    Ravichandra V D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ficus microcarpa Linn. (Syn: Ficus nitidas; Family: Moraceae grows in Tropical and Subtropical regions of India, used for variety of purpose in traditional medicine. The usefulness of this plant is described in many folk books including Ayurveda and different biologically active phytoconstituents were isolated from plant. But no reports are available on morph anatomy, and phytochemical studies, hence present attempt was undertaken to investigate the microscopically and preliminary phytochemical and Physico-chemical studies on the leaves of Ficus microcarpa. The study reveals the leaves are variable, coriaceous, oblong, elliptic to broadly elliptic or obovate. The transverse section of the leaves shows presence of epidermis, sponge parenchyma, bicollateral vascular bundles, nonglandular, glandular trichome and spiral vessels. The powder microscopy revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, glandular trichome, covering trichome and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals. Physicochemical parameters like ash value, extractive value and phytochemical screening with different reagents showed the presence of fluorescence compounds, steroids, triterpenoids, phenols, tannins and flavonoids.

  6. Novel lipid constituents identified in seeds of Nigella sativa (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, B.K.; Verma, Manjul; Gupta, Meenal [Vikram University (India). School of Studies in Chemistry and Biochemistry]. E-mail: bkmehta11@yahoo.com

    2008-07-01

    Novel lipids were isolated from the unsaponifiable matter extracted from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn by using n-hexane. The new dienoate and two monoesters were the new lipids identified by spectral (IR, {sup 1}H- and {sup 13}C-NMR spectra, mass spectrum, elemental analysis) and chemical analysis. The dienoate (1) was identified as methylnonadeca-15,17-dienoate and two monoesters were identified as pentyl hexadec-12-enoate (2) and pentyl pentadec-11-enoate (3). Linoleic acid, oleic acid, {beta}-sitosterol and stigmasterol were identified as part of the lipid structures. All compounds exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus and poor activity against shigella spp, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. (author)

  7. Wound healing activity of Sida cordifolia Linn. in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Rajesh S; Chaurasiya, Pradeep K; Rajak, Harish; Singour, Pradeep K; Toppo, Fedelic Ashish; Jain, Ankit

    2013-01-01

    The present study provides a scientific evaluation for the wound healing potential of ethanolic (EtOH) extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. (SCL) plant. Excision, incision and burn wounds were inflicted upon three groups of six rats each. Group I was assigned as control (ointment base). Group II was treated with 10% EtOH extract ointment. Group III was treated with standard silver sulfadiazine (0.01%) cream. The parameters observed were percentage of wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength including histopathological studies. It was noted that the effect produced by the ethanolic extract of SCL ointment showed significant (P < 0.01) healing in all wound models when compared with the control group. All parameters such as wound contraction, epithelialization period, hydroxyproline content, tensile strength and histopathological studies showed significant (P < 0.01) changes when compared with the control. The ethanolic extract ointment of SCL effectively stimulates wound contraction; increases tensile strength of excision, incision and burn wounds.

  8. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS LINN.: A PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajapati PK

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants have a significant role in maintaining human health and improving quality of life. gokshura  (Tribulus terrestris Linn. one of such plants, is mentioned in Ayurvedic texts for  various therapeutic properties like balya (strengthening, brimhana (nutritive, rasayana (rejuvenator, mootrala (diuretic, shothahara (anti-inflammatory, vajikarana (aphrodisiac etc. and useful in the management of mutrakrichhra (dysurea, ashmari (renal calculi etc. It is a perennial plant, grown predominantly in India and Africa. Its extract contains alkaloids, saponins, resins, flavanoids and nitrates. Considering its therapeutic values, a review has been done to gather information on different aspects of gokshura. Besides Ayurvedic references, the present paper also emphasizes on recent researches carried out on this plant for its clinical and pharmacological evaluation.

  9. Ethnomedicinal and phytopharmacological potential of Crataegus oxyacantha Linn. - A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CP Kashyap; Vikrant Arya; Narender Thakur

    2012-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicines are practiced in the entire world and their ethnopharmacological records reveal that most of the people of the world have been using plants, animals, micro-organisms and minerals for treating various diseases. Crataegus oxyacantha (C. oxyacantha) Linn. (Rosaceae) commonly known as Hawthorn is an official plant in Homeopathic System of Medicine to treat various conditions of cardiovascular system. In recent times, this drug has been subjected to phytochemical, pharmacological, pre-clinical and clinical investigations and many new investigations have been indicated. Current review finds ethnomedicinal and phytopharmacological potential of leaves, flowers, berries, bark etc. for exploring the immense medicinal potential of Hawthorn. At the same time, studies to evaluate the dosage, toxicity and interactions with drugs and herbs on simultaneous use, which is imperative for optimal and safe utilization of this plant, are explained. There are few comprehensive reports available on clinical use of Hawthorn in chronic heart failure patients have shown promising results.

  10. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Cleome viscosa Linn. extract

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    Gupta Nishant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Cleome viscosa Linn. (Capparidaceae against carbon tetrachloride (CCI 4 induced hepatotoxicity in experimental animal models. Materials and Methods: Leaf powder of Cleome viscosa was extracted with ethanol. The hepatoprotective activity of the extract was assessed in CCI 4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Various biochemical parameters were estimated and histopathological studies were also performed on rat liver. The hepatoprotective activity was also supported by determining a functional parameter, i.e. thiopental-induced sleep of mice poisoned with CCl 4 . Results: The test material was found effective as hepatoprotective, through in vivo and histopathological studies. The extract was found to be effective in shortening the thiopental induced sleep in mice poisoned with CCl 4 . The hepatoprotective effect of ethanolic extract was comparable to that of silymarin, a standard hepatoprotective agent. Conclusion: The results of the present study show that ethanolic extract of Cleome viscosa has significant hepatoprotective activity.

  11. Pharmacological activities of Solanum melongena Linn. (Brinjal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum melongena Linn. is a herbaceous plant, with coarsely lobed leaves, white to purple flowers, fruit is berry and are grown mainly for food and medicinal purposes. The plant contains flavonoids, tropane, glycoalkaloids, arginine, lanosterol, gramisterol, aspartic acid as important constituents. The plant is reported to have analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, antiplatelet, intraocular pressure reducing, CNS depressant and anaphylactic reaction inhibitory activities. Traditional herbal medicine existed before the application of modern scientific method to health care and even today majority of the world population depends on herbal health care practices. This review gives an overview mainly on the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological actions of Solanum melongena.

  12. Antioxidant activity of fraction of Tephrosia purpurea linn.

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    Soni K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (Family: Leguminosae was found to significantly inhibit the carbon tetrachloride-induced lipid peroxidation in vivo and superoxide generation in vivo . The ethyl acetate fraction of the same extract was studied for free radical scavenging and antilipid peroxidation activity. The IC50 values in both of these in vitro assays were found to be significantly reduced for ethyl acetate fraction compared with the ethanolic extract of the plant. The observation was further supported by comparing the in vivo antioxidant activity for both the ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction. The study concluded that the ethanolic extract of T. purpurea exhibits antioxidant activity in vivo and the ethyl acetate soluble fraction has improved antioxidant potential than the extract.

  13. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STATUS OF DATURA FASTUOSA LINN

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    Dhiman Anju

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants constitute an effective source of traditional and modern medicines. Traditional system of medicine enlightened the importance of Datura fastuosa Linn (Solanaceae to have a great medicinal value. The roots, dried leaves and flowering tops have been used in India for their narcotic and antispasmodic properties in the treatment of numerous ailments and conditions. The juice of fresh leaves, or a poultice of them, is used to relieve painful swellings earache. The seeds and root possess antidiarrhoeal, antipyretic properties and are used to treat insanity and fever. The present paper enlightens the chemical profile and pharmacological potential of D. fastuosa and encourages the traditional use to find new therapeutic effects, but under the guidance of a qualified practitioner.

  14. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of Momordica charantia linn. fruits

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    Roshan Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant Momordica charantia Linn. belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is known as bitter gourd in English and karela in Hindi. Earlier claims show that the plant is used in stomachic ailments as a carminative tonic; as an antipyretic and antidiabetic agent; and in rheumatoid arthritis and gout. The fruit has been claimed to contain charantin, steroidal saponin, momordium, carbohydrates, mineral matters, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, glucosides, etc. The ethanolic extract of the fruit showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, proteins, and carbohydrates. The present study was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-immersion tests in mice, while yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanolic extracts (250 and 500 mg/kg, po. showed an analgesic and antipyretic effect, which was significantly higher than that in the control rats. The observed pharmacological activities provide the scientific basis to support traditional claims as well as explore some new and promising leads.

  15. PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA LINN.

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    Maisale A B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata Linn belonging to family Fabaceae are used traditionally as appetizer, diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic. Seeds are coarse powdered and exhaustively with hot solvent (Soxhlet extraction by ethanol and maceration with chloroform water I.P. Five concentrations (10-100 mg/ml of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were studied for anthelmentic activity by using Eudrilus euginiae earthworms. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed paralysis and death of worms in concentration (10-100 mg/ml dependent manner. Alcoholic extract of Vigna unguiculata showed significant activity than aqueous extract. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml and distilled water were included in the assay as standard drug and control respectively. The result showed seeds of vigna unguiculata possessed potential anthelmintic activity. The seeds extract also showed presence of flavonoids, and glycosides by preliminary phytochemical investigations.

  16. PENGARUH EKSTRAK DAUN LEGUNDI (Vitex trifolia Linn TERHADAP KEMATIAN LARVA Aedes albopictus

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    Nia Sari Nastiti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPengendalian Aedes albopictus penting dilakukan karena merupakan salah satu vektor penyakit yang mampumembawa dan menularkan virus Chikungunya. Di antara cara pengendalian yang perlu dikembangkan adalahpengendalian secara hayati, karena aman bagi manusia dan organisme lain serta ramah lingkungan. Pengendalian hayatiyang dapat digunakan adalah daun Legundi (Vitex trifolia linn. Vitex trifolia linn telah diketahui mengandung bahan aktifalkaloid, saponin, flafonoid. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak daun Vitex trifolia linnterhadap kematianlarva Aedes albopictus.Jenis penelitian ini adalah quasi experiment, menggunakan Post Test OnlyControl Group Design. Obyekpenelitian ini adalah 750 ekor larva Aedes albopictus instar IV yang berasal dari hasil penangkaran di Balai BesarPenelitian dan Pengembangan Vektor dan Reservoir Penyakit (B2P2VRP Salatiga, Jawa Tengah. Ekstrak etanol daunVitex trifolia linn dibuat dari daun Legundi segar yang didestilasi dengan suhu 100oC sampai pekat. Setiap kelompokmedia (gelas penelitian diisi 100 ml air sumur, dan ekstrak etanol daun Vitex trifolia linn dengan konsentrasi 2,5 %, 5 %,7,5 %, 10 %, 12,5 % dan 0 % (kontrol. Selanjutnya pada setiap media dimasukkan 25 ekor larva Aedes albopictus,penghitungan kematian larva dilakukan setiap jam ke 1, 2, 4, dan 24. Replikasi dilakukan sebanyak 5 kali.Hasil uji statistik dengan Oneway Anova diperoleh p=0,000, sehingga (p<0,05 artinya ada perbedaan yangbermakna, yaitu ekstrak daun Vitex trifolia linn dapat mematikan larva Aedes albopictus. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalahpenggunaan ekstrak daun Vitex trifolia linn dengan konsentrasi 12,5 % paling efektif terhadap kematian larva Aedesalbopictus.Kata Kunci: Ekstrak, daun legundi (Vitex trifolia linn, Aedes albopictus

  17. Alterations in Hippocampal Oxidative Stress, Expression of AMPA Receptor GluR2 Subunit and Associated Spatial Memory Loss by Bacopa monnieri Extract (CDRI-08) in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Surya P; Singh, Hemant K; Prasad, S

    2015-01-01

    Bacopa monnieri extract has been implicated in the recovery of memory impairments due to various neurological disorders in animal models and humans. However, the precise molecular mechanism of the role of CDRI-08, a well characterized fraction of Bacopa monnieri extract, in recovery of the diabetes mellitus-induced memory impairments is not known. Here, we demonstrate that DM2 mice treated orally with lower dose of CDRI-08 (50- or 100 mg/kg BW) is able to significantly enhance spatial memory in STZ-DM2 mice and this is correlated with a significant decline in oxidative stress and up regulation of the AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit gene expression in the hippocampus. Treatment of DM2 mice with its higher dose (150 mg/kg BW or above) shows anti-diabetic effect in addition to its ability to recover the spatial memory impairment by reversing the DM2-induced elevated oxidative stress and decreased GluR2 subunit expression near to their values in normal and CDRI-08 treated control mice. Our results provide evidences towards molecular basis of the memory enhancing and anti diabetic role of the Bacopa monnieri extract in STZ-induced DM2 mice, which may have therapeutic implications.

  18. Anatomia funcional de Perna perna (Linné (bivalvia, Mytilidae Functional anatomy of Perna perna (Linné (bivalvia, Mytilidae

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    Walter Narchi

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Perna perna (Linné, 1758 occurs on the Atlantic littoral from Venezuela to Uruguay. The main organ systems were studied in the living animais, particular attention being paid to the ciliary feeding and cleansing mechanisms in the mantle cavity. The anatomy, functioning of the stomach and the ciliary sorting mechanisms are described. The siphons belong to type A (Yongf. 1948b, the ctenidia to type B( 1 (Atkins 1936c and the stomach is of type III (Purchon 1957 or Section I (Dinamani 1967 with sorting mecanisms of type A and B (Reid 1965. A general comparison was made between the genera of the Mytilidae known and some features of Mytella Soot-Ryen, 1955.

  19. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract ofAbroma augusta Linn

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    Sutapa Das

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the Phytochemical and anti-inflammatory property of the different parts of methanolic extracts of Abroma augusta Linn. Materials and methods: Abroma augusta Linn (Family-Malvaceae commonly known as Ulatkambal in Hindi and Devil ’s cotton in English, found in tropical Asia, South and eastern Africa, and Australia. It is mainly used for dysmenorrhoea, ammenorrhoea, sterlilty and other menstrual disorder. The present study aimed at evaluation of Phytochemical and anti-inflammatory study of different parts of Abroma augusta Linn methanolic extract by the carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method. Results: The result showed significant anti-inflammatory property of different parts of Abroma augusta Linn methanolic extract. Conclusions: The methanolic extract of different parts of Abroma augusta Linn showed potent activity comparing with the standard drug diclofenac sodium perhaps due to the alkaloids and flavonoids present in the plant.

  20. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

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    Deepak Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million. The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn. has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control.

  1. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  2. Hepatoprotective activity of bacoside A against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver toxicity in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janani, Panneerselvam; Sivakumari, Kanakarajan; Parthasarathy, Chandrakesan

    2009-10-01

    N-Nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) is a notorious carcinogen, present in many environmental factors. DEN induces oxidative stress and cellular injury due to enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species; free radical scavengers protect the membranes from DEN-induced damage. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of bacoside A (the active principle isolated from Bacopa monniera Linn.) on carcinogen-induced damage in rat liver. Adult male albino rats were pretreated with 15 mg/kg body weight/day of bacoside A orally (for 14 days) and then intoxicated with single necrogenic dose of N-nitrosodiethylamine (200 mg/kg bodyweight, intraperitonially) and maintained for 7 days. The liver weight, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and activity of serum marker enzymes (aspartate transaminases, alanine transaminases, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) were markedly increased in carcinogen-administered rats, whereas the activities of marker enzymes were near normal in bacoside A-pretreated rats. Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutatione-S-transferase, and reduced glutathione) in liver also decreased in carcinogen-administered rats, which were significantly elevated in bacoside A-pretreated rats. It is concluded that pretreatment of bacoside A prevents the elevation of LPO and activity of serum marker enzymes and maintains the antioxidant system and thus protects the rats from DEN-induced hepatotoxicity.

  3. Anticancer activity of Jasminum angustifolium Linn against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells bearing mice

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    Pradeep Rajkumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Present investigations were carried out for evaluation of antitumor and in vitro antioxidant activity of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Jasminum angustifolium Linn. Methods: For its antitumor activity, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC induced swiss albino mice were used and were divided into five group with 6 animal each.The antitumor effect was assessed using viable tumour cell count, packed cell volume, body weight, mean survival time and percentage increase in life span. Apart from that, hematological and liver enzyme studies were noticed upon the ethanol and aqueous extracts of Jasminum angustifolium Linn administered at 500 mg/kg per day for 14 days, after 24 hours of tumor inoculation. Results: Treatment with extracts significantly restored the altered parameters to normal when compared to cancer control group. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanol extract of Jasminum angustifolium Linn possess significant antitumor effects in EAC tumour bearing mice. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(3.000: 271-275

  4. POTENSI ANTIOKSIDAN BERBAGAI SEDIAAN BUAH SIRSAK [ANONNA MURICATA LINN

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    Prasetyorini Prasetyorini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSoursop is a potential source of antioxidant due to high vitamin C and poliphenol content. Antioxidant activity of three different preparations i.e. fruit juice, 96% ethanol extract, and ethyl acetate extract. The antiocdidant were measured by using 1.1-diphenyl-2 pycrihidrazyl (DPPH radical solution. In addition, vitamin C and polyphenol content of each preparation were also measured. Polyphenol content as measured in gram Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE/100 g. Showed the fruit juice, 96% ethanol extract and ethyl acetate extract were 0,473, 0,324, and 0,194, respectively. Vitamin C content (mg/100 g of these three preparations were 36.24, 30.56, and 35.66, respectively. The antioxidant activities (ppm determined by IC50 showed fruit juice, 96% ethanol extract and ethyl acetate extract were 282.61 ppm, 660.08 and 480.26, respectively. There was strong correlation between vitamin C content and antioxidant activity, and between polyphenol content and antioxidant activities. In conclusion, the use of fruit juice as antioxidant source was better than ethyl acetate and ethanol 96% extract.Keywords: antioxidant activity, soursop (Annona muricata Linn, poliphenol, vitamin CABSTRAKSirsak memiliki potensi sebagai sumber antioksidan karena kandungan vitamin C dan polifenol yang cukup tinggi. Aktivitas antioksidan dari tiga sediaan sirsak yaitu sari buah, ekstrak etanol 96% dan ekstrak etil asetat. Pengujian antioksidan dilakukan dengan senyawa radikal 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrilhidrazyl (DPPH. Selain diuji potensi antioksidannya, masing-masing bentuk sediaan juga diukur kadar vitamin C dan kadar polifenolnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kandungan polifenol yang dihitung dalam gram Setara Asam Galat (SAG/100 g sari buah, ekstrak etanol 96% dan ekstrak etil asetat berturut-turut adalah 0,473; 0,324 dan 0,194 dan kandungan vitamin C (mg/100 g berturut-turut adalah 36,24; 30,56, dan 35,66. Aktivitas antioksidan (ppm yang ditunjukkan oleh nilai IC50, untuk

  5. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ISOLATED FLAVONOIDS FROM THE LEAVES OF CORCHORUS AESTUANS LINN.

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    Rashmika Patel * and Manish Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary phytochemical investigation of various extracts of leaves of Corchorus aestuans Linn showed the presence of flavonoids, carbohydrates, saponins, phytosterols, phenolic compounds, triterpenoids, cardiac glycosides and tannins. An attempt has been made to isolate flavonoids and perform antioxidant potential of the same. The antioxidant activity was performed by two in-vitro testing methods, such as scavenging activity on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity by EDTA. The data obtained in these testing systems clearly established the antioxidant potency of Corchorus aestuans Linn.

  6. -Sitosterol-3-O--D-xylopyranoside from the flowers of Tridax procumbens Linn.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Saxena; Sosanna Albert

    2005-05-01

    Tridax procumbens Linn belongs to the natural order Compositae and is locally known as `Ghamra’. It has been found to possess significant medicinal properties. Its leaves are used in bronchial catarrh, dysentery, diarrhoea and to prevent falling of hair. Its flowers and leaves possess antiseptic, insecticidal and parasiticidal properties, and are also used to check haemorrhage from cuts, bruises and wounds. The present work deals with the isolation and identification of steroidal saponin, characterized as -sitosterol 3-O--D-xylopyranoside, which has been isolated from the flowers of Tridax procumbens Linn.

  7. PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF V ITEX NEGUNDO LINN: A REVIEW

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    Zahoor Ullah et al

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Vitex negundo Linn. belong to family Verbenaceae. It is an important medicinal plant. Literature survey of V. negundo revealed the presence of different classes of natural products including essential oil, triterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes, lignan, flavonoids, flavones glycosides, iridoid glycosides, and stilbene derivative. The plant is traditionally reported for its use for the treatment of cough, asthma, fever, eye disease, inflammation, intestinal worms, skin diseases, nervous disorders, leprosy and rheumatism. Roots are tonic, anodyne, febrifuge, bechic, expectorant and diuretic. This review is short review of last two years reporting the natural products isolated and biological potential of Vitex negundo Linn.

  8. Development of quality control parameters for the standardization of bark of Ficus benghalensis Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alok Semwal; Ratendra Kumar; Udai Vir Singh Teotia; Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study with pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical studies of the bark ofFicus benghalensis(F. benghalensis)Linn.Methods:Parameters used to fulfill the objective of the study include various methods such as,Phytochemical test,TLC analysis, foreign matter, ash values, swelling index, fluorescence analysis, extractive value, and moisture content etc. Results:The results of foreign matter were recorded inTables.Conclusion:These parameters can be utilized for quick identification of the bark ofF. bengalensisLinn. and will definitely help in the development of pharmaceutically useful formulations.

  9. AN APPRAISAL ON PHARMACOGNOSY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOACTIVITY OF THUJA OCCIDENTALIS LINN. (CUPRESSACEAE

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    Anju Dhiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Thuja occidentalis Linn. (Cupressaceae has been widely used for many ailments in the traditional system like hepatoprotection, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-arthritic, anti-microbial, anti-cancer etc. because of its medicinal properties. In the nineteenth century, Thuja was commonly used as an externally applied tincture or ointment for the treatment of warts, ringworm and thrush, and a local injection of the tincture was used for treating venereal warts. The present paper summarizes a concise detail about pharmacognostic, phytohemistry and bioactivities of T. occidentalis Linn.

  10. Cognitive effects of a dietary supplement made from extract of Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, phosphatidylserine, and vitamin E in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: a noncomparative, exploratory clinical study

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    Zanotta D

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Danilo Zanotta, Silvana Puricelli, Guido Bonoldi Unità Operativa di Medicina 2, Ospedale di Circolo di Busto Arsizio, Varese, Italy Abstract: A prospective cohort, noncomparative, multicenter trial was conducted to explore the potential of a phytotherapeutic compound, available as a dietary supplement and containing extracts of Bacopa monnieri and Haematococcus pluvialis (astaxanthin plus phosphatidylserine and vitamin E, in improving cognition in subjects diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment. Enrolled subjects (n=104 were aged 71.2±9.9 years and had a mini-mental state examination score of 26.0±2.0 (mean ± standard deviation. They underwent the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog test and the clock drawing test at baseline and upon completion of a 60-day period of dietary supplementation with one tablet daily of the tested compound. In 102 assessable subjects, total ADAS-cog scores improved from 13.7±5.8 at baseline to 9.7±4.9 on day 60, and the clock drawing test scores improved from 8.5±2.3 to 9.1±1.9. Both changes were statistically significant (P<0.001. Memory tasks were the individual components of ADAS-cog showing the largest improvements. In a multivariate analysis, larger improvements in total ADAS-cog score were associated with less compromised baseline mini-mental state examination scores. Perceived efficacy was rated as excellent or good by 62% of study subjects. The tested compound was well tolerated; one nonserious adverse event was reported in the overall study population, and perceived tolerability was rated excellent or good by 99% of the subjects. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with the tested compound shows potential for counteracting cognitive impairment in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and warrants further investigation in adequately controlled, longer-term studies. Keywords: mild cognitive impairment, Bacopa monnieri, astaxanthin, ADAS-cog test, clock drawing

  11. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodlady, Naveena; Patgiri, B J; Harisha, C R; Shukla, V J

    2012-01-01

    Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha) are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood) of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract) an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India). The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2). The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.

  12. In vitro anticancer potential of Semecarpus anacardium Linn

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    Md. Nasar Mallick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Keeping in view the toxicity of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. as reported in the traditional literature, the present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Semecarpus on two different cell lines. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract of Semecarpus was prepared using cold extraction method. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay of ethanolic extract was carried out on HeLa and SiHa cell lines for determination of cytotoxicity. Results: The IC50values of ethanolic extract of S. anacardium in HeLa and SiHa cell lines were 44.0 μg/ml and 57.0 μg/ml, respectively. The extract was standardized by thin-layer chromatography and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Conclusion: The results showed good cytotoxic activity in the ethanolic extract of S. anacardium in both the cell lines may be due to the presence of toxic flavones.

  13. Evaluation of solar dried thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, Derrick A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St Michael (Barbados)

    1999-07-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linne) herbs can be dried at about 50degC reached an equilibrium moisture content after 12 h and 9.5 h using the wire basket solar dryer and oven drying method respectively. The initial moisture content (wet wt. basis), (final moisture content, dry wt. basis (dwb)) determined by the Dean-Stark toluene method, oven and microwave were 75.15% (10.0%), 75.12% (11.85%) and 72.31% (12.50%) respectively. Paired t-test ({alpha} = 0.05, 10 degrees of freedom) showed no significant difference between the Dean-Stark toluene and the oven methods, but a significant difference between these two methods and the microwaves method. The % essential oils extracted after drying by the oven and the wire basket solar methods were 0.5 and 0.6% (per 100 g dwb) respectively. The % oleoresin and ash content were 27% for both drying methods and 1.60, 2.03 and 2.25% for the fresh, oven dried and the wire basket solar dried herb respectively. (Author)

  14. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical analysis of Tamarindus indica Linn. stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveena Kodlady

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica Linn. fruits (Chincha are extensively used in culinary preparations in Indian civilization. Its vast medicinal uses are documented in Ayurvedic classics and it can be used singly or as a component of various formulations. Besides fruit, the Kasta (wood of T. indica L. is also important and used to prepare Kshara (alkaline extract an Ayurvedic dosage form. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical details of Chincha Kasta are not available in authentic literature including API (Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. The study is an attempt in this direction. T. indica L. stem with heartwood was selected and morphological, microscopic and physicochemical standardization characters along with TLC finger print, and fluorescence analysis were documented. Transverse section of stem showed important characters such as phelloderm, stone cells layer, fiber groups, calcium oxalate, crystal fibers, and tylosis in heartwood region. Four characteristic spots were observed under UV long wave, in thin layer chromatography with the solvent combination of toluene: ethyl acetate (8:2. The study can help correct identification and standardization of this plant material.

  15. Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Mimusops elengi Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnima A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 70% ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark was assessed for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in animals. The antiinflammatory activity of ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o was evaluated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing and Eddy′s hot plate models and antipyretic activity was assessed by Brewer′s yeast-induced pyrexia in rats. The ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi (200 mg/kg, p.o significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw oedema at 3rd and 4th h and in cotton pellet model it reduced the transudative weight and little extent of granuloma weight. In analgesic models the ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi decreases the acetic acid-induced writhing and it also reduces the rectal temperature in Brewer′s yeast induced pyrexia. However, Mimusops elengi did not increase the latency time in the hot plate test. These results show that ethanol extract of Mimusops elengi has an antiinflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity.

  16. Aphrodisiac activity of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DK Patel; R. Kumar; D. Laloo; K. Sairam; S. Hemalatha

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study represents an interesting case report for a very good aphrodisiac activity observed during an oral glucose tolerance test performed while evaluating the antidiabetic potential of Pedalium murex Linn. fruit. Methods: Ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex at a dose of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg p.o. was given to the rats followed by administration of 2 g/kg p.o. of glucose 30 min after the administration of extract. Results: Pregnancy was observed in the treated groups after 20-25 days of treatment in females which resulted in birth of pubs ranging upto ten in some females (more significant in case of 500 mg/kg p.o.). The observation also showed a significant increase in weights of pubs along with a normal behavior pattern. The increased pregnancy rate in the drug treated groups may be due to the healthy viable sperm and enhancement of sexual desire of the rats. Conclusion: From the results it may be concluded that the fruits of the plant may be used as a good aphrodisiac agent to promote fertility rate.

  17. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Leaves of Cassia sophera Linn.

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    Arijit Mondal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of Cassia sophera Linn. leaves was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, changes in serum enzymes, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, and total protein levels. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin were restored towards the normalization significantly by the extracts. The decreased serum total protein level was significantly normalized. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Cassia sophera leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. This study suggests that possible activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts.

  18. Antibacterial activity of Lawsonia inermis Linn (Henna) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Habbal O; Hasson SS; El-Hag AH; Al-Mahrooqi Z; Al-Hashmi N; Al-Bimani Z; MS Al-Balushi; Al-Jabri AA

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antibacterial activity of henna (Lawsonia inermis Linn) obtained from different regions of Oman against a wide array of micro-organisms. Methods: Fresh henna samples were obtained from different regions of Oman as leaves and seeds. 100 g fresh and dry leaves and 50 g of fresh and dry seeds were separately soaked in 500 mL of ethanol for three days, respectively, with frequent agitation. The mixture was filtered, and the crude extract was collected. The crude extract was then heated, at 48 ℃ in a water bath to evaporate its liquid content. The dry crude henna extract was then tested for its antibacterial activity using well-diffusion antibiotic susceptibility technique. Henna extracts were investigated for their antibacterial activity at different concentrations against a wide array of different micro-organisms including a laboratory standard bacterial strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCTC 10662) (P. aeruginosa) and eleven fresh clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa obtained from patients attending the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH). 2-Hydroxy-p-Nathoqinone-Tech (2-HPNT, MW=174.16, C10H6O3) was included as control (at 50% concentration) along with the henna samples tested. Results: Henna samples demonstrated antibacterial activity against all isolates but the highest susceptibility was against P. aeruginosa with henna samples obtained from Al-sharqyia region. Conclusions: Omani henna from Al-sharqyia region demonstrates high in vitro anti-P. aeruginosa activity compared with many henna samples from different regions of Oman.

  19. Terminalia catappa Linn seeds as a new food source

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    Monthana Weerawatanakorn

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate their potential use as a new dietary source, the seeds of Terminalia catappa Linn were analyzed for their nutritional and antinutritional properties, and to determine the effect of roasting. The TC seeds contained high levels of protein, oil and essential minerals. The 2 most limiting amino acids were Tryptophan and Lysine. Oleic acid (C18:1 and linoleic acid (C18:2 are the main fatty acids which were determined at 32.4 and 30.3%, respectively. The ratio of saturated: monounsaturated: polyunsaturated fatty acid was close to what is recommended in the dietary guidelines of the American Heart Association. Contents of phenolic compounds and phytates (IP4 + IP5 + IP6 in raw seeds were 64.9 g of GAE/g and 2,110 mg/100g, which are comparable to the values in edible nuts. Trypsin inhibitor activity was 2.3 trypsin inhibitor units/mg. After roasting at 180°C for 4 min, both phenolic compounds and trypsin activity were reduced, while IP6 phytate degraded into IP4 and IP5 forms

  20. Formulation and evaluation of herbal gel of Pothos scandens Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Haneefa KP; Shahima Hanan K; Saraswathi R; Guru Prasad Mohanta; Chandini Nayar

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To formulate Pothos scandens Linn (P. scandens) leaf extract in to a gel and investigate their burn wound healing activity. Methods: Ethanolic extract of dried leaves of P.scandens were subjected to priliminery phytochemical evaluation and wound healing activities studies. Different gel formulations of ethanolic extract of P. scandens (4% w/v) were prepared using polymers carbopol 934 and carbopol 940 by varying their concentration. These formulations were evaluated for physical parameters, drug content, pH, viscosity, extrudability, spreadability, primary skin irritation, pharmacological activity and stability. Results: Wound healing studies of ethanolic extract revealed that P. scandens treated animals were found to epithelise in 22 days while the solvent control and the untreated rats epithelise within 35 and 40 days respectively. The formulation with 1.5% w/w carbopol 934 was found to be more promising as it shows better physicochemical characteristics, higher pharmacological activity and stability compared to other formulations. Conclusions: P. scandens alcoholic extract shows significant improvement in burn wound contraction and hence this is a promising candidate in burn wound healing.

  1. Antianxiety Activity of Methanol Extract of Gelsemium sempervirens (Linn. Ait.

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    Garg Vandana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite significant advances in understanding and management of neuropsychiatric disorders during past few decades, anxiety and depression, still remains the leading cause of deaths, primarily for want of effective and safe treatment of these ailments. Approximately, two third of the anxious or depressed patients respond to the currently available treatment but the magnitude of improvement is still disappointingPurpose of Study: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antianxiety activity of Gelsemium sempervirens (Linn. Ait. Various doses (50,100, 150, 200mg/kg of plant extracts viz., of petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water were administered orally to Swiss Albino Mice before evaluating their behavioural pattern. Diazepam (2.5 mg/kg was used as standard drug.Result: The methanol extract of G. sempervirens (150 mg/kg increased the mean time spent, mean number of arms entries in the open arms of elevated plus maze (EPM and decreased the mean time spent in the closed arms. The locomotor activity of methanol extract was not affected to the same extent as observed for diazepam.Conclusion: The results suggested that methanol extract of G. sempervirens possess anxiolytic effects with no sedative activity when compared to diazepam.

  2. Pedalium murex Linn.: an overview of its phytopharmacological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dinesh Kumar; Laloo, Damiki; Kumar, Rajesh; Hemalatha, Siva

    2011-09-01

    Pedalium murex Linn (family: Pedaliaceae) (P. murex) commonly known as Large Caltrops and Gokhru (India) is a shrub found in the Southern part, Deccan region of India and in some parts of Ceylon. Different parts of the plant are used to treat various ailments like, cough, cold and as an antiseptic. Interestingly, P. murex is reported traditionally to have an excellent cure in patients with reproductive disorders which are mainly impotency in men, nocturnal emissions, gonorrhoea as well as leucorrhoea in women. The plant has also benifited in complications like urinary track disorder as well as gastro intestinal tract disorders. Phytochemically the plant is popular for the presence of a considerable amount of diosgenin and vanillin which are regarded as an important source and useful starting materials for synthesizing steroidal contraceptive drugs and isatin alkaloids. Other phytochemicals reported in the plant includes quercetin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, amino acids (glycine, histidine, tyrosine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and various classes of fatty acids (triacontanoic acid, nonacosane, tritriacontane, tetratriacontanyl and heptatriacontan-4-one). Pharmacologically, the plant have been investigated for antiulcerogenic, nephroprotective, hypolipidemic, aphrodisiac, antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. From all these reports it can be concluded that the plant were found to have a better profile with potential natural source for the treatment of various range of either acute or chronic disease. The overall database of our review article was collected from the scientific sources in regards with all the information of the research article for P. murex published so far.

  3. Immunostimulatory effect of Mimusops elengi Linn stem bark in mice

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    Rakesh S Shivatare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To scrutinise the immunostimulatory activity of methanolic extract of bark of Mimusops elengi Linn (MEMEL in mice. Materials and Methods: The MEMEL was administered orally at the dose of 10, 20, 40 mg/kg/day body weight in mice. The immunostimulatory activities on specific and non-specific immunity were studied by carbon clearance test (CCT, haemagglutination antibody (HA and delayed type hypersensitivity, using sheep red blood cells (SRBC as the antigen. Distilled water served as a control in all the tests and vitamin E 150 mg/kg was used as standard. Result: Oral administration of MEMEL showed a dose-dependent increased immunostimulatory response. Phagocytic index was found to be increased significantly (P < 0.01 in CCT. The production of circulatory antibody titre (humoral antibody response was increased significantly (P < 0.01 and delayed type hypersensitivity reaction was found to be augmented less significantly (P < 0.05 by increasing the mean footpad thickness at 48 hr in response to SRBC as an antigen. Conclusion: This finding suggests that the MEMEL possesses potential for augmenting immune activity by cellular and humoral-mediated mechanisms.

  4. Evaluation of Anti-anxiety Activity of Actaea spicata Linn.

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    Reecha Madaan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Actaea spicata Linn. (Ranunculaceae has been traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as rheumatism, inflammation, nerve diseases, lumbago, scrofula and chorea. Despite a long tradition of use, no systematic phytochemical and pharmacological work has been carried out on this potential plant. Thus, A. spicata was subjected to preliminary anti-anxiety screening studies, with a view to ascertain the verity of its traditional use as an anxiolytic. In the present investigation, roots of the plant were extracted using solvents in order of increasing polarity viz., petroleum ether (60-80C, chloroform, methanol and distilled water. All the crude extracts were evaluated for anti-anxiety activity in mice using elevated plus maze apparatus. Among all these extracts, only methanol extract exhibited significant anti-anxiety activity at a dose of 100 mg/kg in mice with respect to control as well as standard (diazepam, 2 mg/kg. Phytochemical screening showed presence of alkaloids and polyphenols in methanol extract of A. spicata. Thus, Specific methods were adopted to extract total alkaloidal and polyphenol fractions from the plant material and methanol extract of plant, respectively. Polyphenol fraction exhibited significant anxiolytic activity at the dose of 50 mg/kg, while alkaloidal fraction was found to be devoid of any activity.

  5. IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM LINN.

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    Sharma Pravesh Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated In-vitro antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic leaves extract (70: 30 of Gossypium herbaceum Linn. to provide scientific basis for traditional usage of this plant. The In-vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by determining reducing power, total flavonoids and total phenolic contents using standard assay methods. The ability of the extract to scavenge 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH was also assessed using spectroscopic method. Ascorbic acid was used as standard antioxidant and positive control. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extract was increased with the increasing concentration. The IC50 values for DPPH assay of Gossypium herbaceum and ascorbic acid were found to be 44.69µg/ml and 13.80µg/ml respectively. The reducing power of the extract was found to be concentration dependent. Total flavonoid content in the extract was found to be 410 ± 0.74 mg Quercetin equivalents/g of dry material. Total phenolic content in Gossypium herbaceum was found to be 5.86 ± 0.75 mg Gallic acid equivalents/g of dry material. The results obtained from this study indicate that Gossypium herbaceum is a potential source of antioxidants and thus could prevent many radical diseases.

  6. New Bioactive Oleanane Type Compounds from Coriandrum sativum Linn.

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    Muhammad Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five (1–5 new bioactive oleanane type triterpenoids have been isolated from ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanolic extract of Coriandrum sativum Linn. of Umbelliferae family. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant was fractionated in organic solvents. Ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography on HPLC RP-18 to get 1-oxo-11β,21β-dihydroxy-oleanane (1, 1-oxo-11β-hydroxy-21β-O-acetyloleanane (2, 1-oxo-11β-hydroxy-21β-O-angeloyloleanane (3, 1-oxo-11β-O-angeloyl-21β-O-acetyloleanane (4, and 1-oxo-11β,21β-O-dibenzoyloleanane (5. The structures were elucidated after analysis of spectroscopic data, UV, IR, NMR (1H, 13C, 1D, and 2D, and mass measurements. Suspension in water of crude ethyl acetate extract was employed to treat sheep with ringworm disease. All isolated compounds (1–5 displayed excellent activity in terms of inhibition zones, MICs, MBCs, and MFCs against both bacteria and fungi. Ethyl acetate extract showed excellent antiringworm activity in sheep.

  7. Bacopa monnieri Extract (CDRI-08 Modulates the NMDA Receptor Subunits and nNOS-Apoptosis Axis in Cerebellum of Hepatic Encephalopathy Rats

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    Papia Mondal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE, characterized by impaired cerebellar functions during chronic liver failure (CLF, involves N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR overactivation in the brain cells. Bacopa monnieri (BM extract is a known neuroprotectant. The present paper evaluates whether BM extract is able to modulate the two NMDAR subunits (NR2A and NR2B and its downstream mediators in cerebellum of rats with chronic liver failure (CLF, induced by administration of 50 mg/kg bw thioacetamide (TAA i.p. for 14 days, and in the TAA group rats orally treated with 200 mg/kg bw BM extract from days 8 to 14. NR2A is known to impart neuroprotection and that of NR2B induces neuronal death during NMDAR activation. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase- (nNOS- apoptosis pathway is known to mediate NMDAR led excitotoxicity. The level of NR2A was found to be significantly reduced with a concomitant increase of NR2B in cerebellum of the CLF rats. This was consistent with significantly enhanced nNOS expression, nitric oxide level, and reduced Bcl2/Bax ratio. Moreover, treatment with BM extract reversed the NR2A/NR2B ratio and also normalized the levels of nNOS-apoptotic factors in cerebellum of those rats. The findings suggest modulation of NR2A and NR2B expression by BM extract to prevent neurochemical alterations associated with HE.

  8. Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, a halotolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, improves yield and content of secondary metabolites in Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell under primary and secondary salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Nidhi; Yadav, Deepti; Barnawal, Deepti; Maji, Deepamala; Kalra, Alok

    2013-02-01

    Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), an integral component of Indian Ayurvedic medicine system, is facing a threat of extinction owing to the depletion of its natural populations. The present study investigates the prospective of exploitation of halotolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in utilising the salt stressed soils for cultivation of B. monnieri. The effects of two salt tolerant PGPR, Bacillus pumilus (STR2) and Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans (STR36) on the growth and content of bacoside-A, an important pharmaceutical compound in B. monnieri, were investigated under primary and secondary salinity conditions. The herb yields of un-inoculated plants decreased by 48 % under secondary salinization and 60 % under primary salinization than the non salinised plants. Among the rhizobacteria treated plants, E. oxidotolerans recorded 109 and 138 %, higher herb yield than non-inoculated plants subjected to primary and secondary salinity respectively. E. oxidotolerans inoculated plants recorded 36 and 76 % higher bacoside-A content under primary and secondary salinity respectively. Higher levels of proline content and considerably lower levels of lipid peroxidation were noticed when the plants were inoculated with PGPR under all salinity regimes. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that, the treatments with salt tolerant PGPR can be a useful strategy in the enhancement of biomass yield and saponin contents in B. monnieri, as besides being an eco-friendly approach; it can also be instrumental in cultivation of B. monnieri in salt stressed environments.

  9. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THREE ENDANGERED PLANTS (COSTUS SPECIOUS, GLORIOSSA SUPERBA LINN AND RAUVOLFIA SERPENTINE (LINN BENTH FROM KANKER DISTRICT OF CHHATTISGARH, INDIA

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    NITISH KUMAR SAHU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chhattisgarh, the herbal state houses with rich and unique biodiversity of medicinal plants which are widely usedby traditional healers of the state for treatment of various disease and extensively exploited for commercialpurpose which leads to serious threat. Several plants have been studied and listed as rare and endangered whichneed to be conserved. We selected three such plants viz. Costus specious, Gloriossa superba Linn and Rauvolfiaserpentine (Linn Benth., from Kanker district of Chhattisgarh for their phytochemical analysis by chemicalscreening and Thin layer chromatography. On primary analysis of the methanolic and ethanolic extract ofrhizome of C. specious and G. superba and root and leaves of R. serpentine (Linn Benth. we found the presenceof phytocompounds like saponin, tannins, alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and glycosides in them. Thisphytocompounds were further separated by TLC using petroleum ether: methanol: benzene (8:1:1.5 as mobilephase in silica gel coated glass plates. Maximum 9 bands were observed in methanolic extract of rhizome of C.specious with Rf value between 0.05 – 0.97 and 6 bands in methanolic extract of rhizome of G. superba with Rfvalue between 0.02 – 0.94.Similarily in ethanolic and methanolic extract of leaves of R. serpentine (Linn Benth.Maximum 13 bands were observed with Rf value between 0.05 – 0.96 and 0.04 – 0.98 respectively whereasethanolic extract of root showed maximum 11 bands with Rf value between 0.04 – 0.98 in comparison withchloroform and petroleum ether extracts. This result can further help in development of new drugs for diseaseslike cancer and hypertension based on their traditional uses.

  10. Isolation and structural elucidation of chemical constituents from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Sattar, Fouzia A; Ahmad, Fayaz; Begum, Sabira

    2007-08-01

    The fruits of Morinda citrifolia, Linn. afforded a new constituent, morinaphthalenone (1), and three known constituents, scopoletin (2), 1, 3-dimethoxy-anthraquinone (3) and 1, 2-dihydroxy-anthraquinone (4). The structures of these isolated compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D- and 2D-NMR (COSY-45, HMQC, HMBC) techniques, as well as by comparison with published values.

  11. Tallinna linn või aukude plombeerimine = City of Tallinn or filling of holes / Veljo Kaasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaasik, Veljo

    1999-01-01

    "Eesti Päevalehes" ilmunud arhitektide viimase aja karakteersemate tööde hindamistabelist, selles olevast Nissani keskusest (Andres Siim, Hanno Kreis), Hansapanga hoonest ja Stockmanni kaubamajast (Peep Jänes). Tallinna arhitektuurist kui tervikust. Tallinnas on palju tühje krunte, rekonstrueerimist ootavaid linnaosi ja suuri üksikhooneid. Linn realiseerub läbi investorite majandusliku huvitatuse

  12. Tallinna linn või aukude plombeerimine = City of Tallinn or filling of holes / Veljo Kaasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaasik, Veljo

    1999-01-01

    "Eesti Päevalehes" ilmunud arhitektide viimase aja karakteersemate tööde hindamistabelist, selles olevast Nissani keskusest (Andres Siim, Hanno Kreis), Hansapanga hoonest ja Stockmanni kaubamajast (Peep Jänes). Tallinna arhitektuurist kui tervikust. Tallinnas on palju tühje krunte, rekonstrueerimist ootavaid linnaosi ja suuri üksikhooneid. Linn realiseerub läbi investorite majandusliku huvitatuse

  13. Errata to the Werts-Linn Comments on Boyle's "Path Analysis and Ordinal Data."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werts, Charles E.; Linn, Robert L.

    The Werts-Linn procedure for dealing with categorical errors of measurement in "Comments on Boyle's 'Path Analysis and Ordinal Data'" in The American Journal of Sociology, volume 76, number 6, May 1971, is shown to be inappropriate to the problem of ordered categories. (For related document, see TM 002 301.) (DB)

  14. Effect of Alisma plantago-aquatica Linn extract on chronic prostatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the effect of Alisma plantago-aquatica Linn. extract (APLE) on ... Results: A high dose of APLE (480 mg/kg) significantly decreased PI (0.7 ... Index Medicus, JournalSeek, Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, ..... This is an Open Access article that uses a fund- .... Jiang CY, Wang W, Tang JX, Yuan ZR.

  15. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  16. Kohtla-Järve linn ostab üha rohkem Ossipenko firmalt teenuseid / Erik Gamzejev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Gamzejev, Erik, 1967-

    2006-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Severnoje Poberezhje 28. jaan. lk. 1. Kohtla-Järve linn ostis firmalt N&V teenuseid 44,3 miljoni krooni eest. Lisad: Kohtla-Järve linna poolt ASilt N&V ostetud teenused 2005; Kohtla-Järve poolt N&V-lt ostetud teenuste mahu kasv

  17. EMERGENCE OF MESUA FERREA LINN. LEAF EXTRACT AS A POTENT BACTERICIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumder, Rupa; Dastidar,Sujata G.; Basu, S. P.; Mazumder, Avijit; Kumar, Sanjay

    2003-01-01

    The methanolic extract of leaves of Mesua ferrea Linn. were tested for its antibacterial potentiality against 103 various strains of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spps. Klebsiella spps., Streptococus pneumoniae, Sarcina lutea, Lactobacilus arabinosus, Escherichia coli, shigellae, salmonellae, Proteus spps., Pseudomonas spps. and the vibrios. Significant antibacterial effects were produced by the extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sppa., lactobacilli, Escheric...

  18. Heade suhete linn - kõik sõpradele / Väinu Rozental

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rozental, Väinu, 1957-

    2007-01-01

    Autori arvates on Tartust saanud korporatiivne linn, kus võim ja äri jagatakse väikese inimgrupi sees. Vt. samas: Tartu niiditõmbajad: otsused on tehtud linnakodanike huvides; Tartu Rotary Klubi liikmed; Tuntumad tehingud omadele Tartu linnas

  19. Effect Linn ts of aq n on re queous eprodu s leave uctive es extr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    Effect. Linn. Departmen. Wide usage male albino the sperm. Thirty six (3 of the treate .... adversely affect male fertility (Olayemi, 2010). Many antimalarial drugs have been implicated in male infertility. For instance .... d humans. Th ... bee. (Oy. M def syn phy of d has tiology of th esence of a ese alkaloids .... plant foods. Hum.

  20. Activity of Tabanids (Insecta: Diptera: Tabanidae Attacking the Reptiles Caiman crocodilus (Linn. (Alligatoridae and Eunectes murinus (Linn. (Boidae, in the Central Amazon, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth LM Ferreira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Tabanid females are better known as hematophagous on man and other mammals, and linked to mechanical transmission of parasites. The association between tabanids and reptiles is poorly known, but has been gaining more corroboration through experiments and occasional observation in the tropics. The present study was conducted at a military base (CIGS/BI-2, situated 54 km from Manaus, Amazonas, in a small stream in a clearing (02°45'33"S; 59°51'03"W. Observations were made monthly, from April 1997 to March 1998, during two consecutive days. At the same time, other vertebrate animals were offered, including humans. However in this paper only data obtained on a common caiman, Caiman crocodilus (Linn., and an anaconda, Eunectes murinus (Linn., in diurnal observations from 05:30 a.m. to 18:30 p.m., will be discussed. A total of 254 tabanid specimens were collected, 40 from the anaconda and 214 from the caiman. Four tabanid species were recorded on these two reptiles: Stenotabanus cretatus Fairchild, S. bequaerti Rafael et al., Phaeotabanus nigriflavus (Kröber and Tabanus occidentalis Linn. Diurnal activities showed species-specific patterns. The first three species occurred only in the dry season. T. occidentalis occurred during the whole observation period, and with increased frequency at the end of the dry season. We observed preferences for body area and related behavior of the host. Observations on the attack of tabanids on one dead caiman are also presented.

  1. Caracterização e determinação da atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos brutos e frações de Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. (alecrim), Origanum vulgare Linn. (orégano) e Capsicum chinense Jacq. (pimenta habanero)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Nos últimos anos, o interesse por produtos derivados de plantas medicinais que apresentem atividade antimicrobiana tem sido intensificado. O presente estudo buscou caracterizar drogas e extratos vegetais, determinar o teor de polifenóis, taninos, flavonoides, quantificar o marcador escolhido e avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de extratos etanólicos brutos e frações de Rosmarinus officinalis Linn., Origanum vulgare Linn., e Capsicum chinense Jack frente a diferentes micro-organismos (bactéri...

  2. Temaet folkemord i forfatterskapet til Tore Linné Eriksen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Rønning Balsvik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article points to the responsibility historians have in the formation of what we may call the collective memory of persons, groups and states. What are the images of “the other” conveyed in textbooks and media? In Norway, the historian Tore Linné Eriksen has – more than any other scholar – used his research, writings and enormous capacity for work to educate students, youth and the public in general and to create a more just image of “the other”. His driving force has been an extraordinary ability to be at the forefront in spotting international research, as well as his sense of justice and respect for the non-western world. His last extensive work on global history (Globalhistorie 1750–1900 clearly demonstrates these capabilities.In the early 1980s, long before the wave of genocide studies after the Rwanda catastrophe of 1994, Eriksen’s two works on Namibia –Namibia: Kolonialisme, apartheid og frigjøringskamp i det sørlige Afrika (1982 and The Political Economy of Namibia: An Annotated Critical Bibliography (1985 – used the concept of genocide to describe German conduct in Namibia in the early 20th century. In 2007, Eriksen published his book about what he calls the first genocide of the 20th century, Det første folkemordet i det tjuende århundret. Namibia 1903–1908. German and African history is woven into the question of whether the dangerous relations that developed between German settlers and Africans can be labelled genocide. The present article attempts to present Eriksen’s arguments. An introductory section deals with the trends in the international research literature and establishes a link between colonialism and genocide. In 2008, Eriksen’s article on the extinction of the Herero people in Namibia – “Utslettelse av Hererofolket i Namibia 1903– 1908” – was published in Bernt Hagtvets collection of articles, Folkemordenes svarte bok. The following year, Tore Linné Eriksen’s article in the

  3. Hypoglycemic potential of alcoholic root extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino mice

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    Surbhi Sharma

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanolic roots extract of C. occidentalis Linn. possesses hypoglycemic potential for the NIDDM and support the traditional use of the roots of plant as hypoglycemic agent.

  4. Development of quality control parameters for the standardization of fruit ofFicus racemosa Linn. (M)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramandeep Singh; Ashraf Ali; G Jeyabalan; Satinder Kakar; Alok Semwal

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To develop a novelStandardization technique, which can pave the way for rapid determination of different phytoconstitutents ofFicus racemosa(F. racemosa)Linn.(Moraceae). From extensive literature survey it was revealed that no reports were available on, standardization parameters of fruits ofF. racemosaLinn.Methods:Phytochemical test,TLC analysis,Foreign matter,Ash values,Swelling index,Foaming index,Extractive value,Moisture content, Microbiological analysis,Crude fibre content, amino acid content, aflatoxin, toxic element analysis and analysis of pesticide residue were performed in the present investigation for the quality control of the drug.Results:Thus it was thought worthwhile to explore this plant on the basis of it’s standardization parameters.Alkaloids, steroid, flavanoids and tannins were found to be present inF. racemosaLinn. extracts.Ash value, insoluble ash value, soluble ash value, crude fibre content, crude fat,Swelling index andFoaming index were found to be3.96%w/w,9.29%w/w,7.45%w/w,16.65%,(4.39±0.14),1 cm,10.30%w/w.The study will provide referential information for the correct identification of the crude drug.Conclusions:These physicochemical data and phytochemical analysis of different extracts ofF. racemosaLinn. is useful for further studies for pharmacological screening.In future this study will be helpful for qualitative & quantitative analysis of phytoconstituents for isolation of newer molecule fromF. racemosaLinn.

  5. SPINACIA OLERACEA LINN: A PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHARMACOLOGICAL OVERVIEW

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    Gaikwad Priyanka Subhash

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Herbal and natural products of folk medicine have been used for centuries in every culture throughout the world. Scientists and medical professionals have shown increased interest in this field as they recognize the true health benefits of these remedies. “Let food be your medicine and let medicine be your food” was advised by the father of medicine, Hippocrates, over two million ago. It’s still true today that “you are what you eat.” Spinach is a leafy green vegetable that came originally from south-western Asia and is now grown in most parts of the world. Scientifically it is known as Spincia oleracea Linn. (Family-Chenopodiaceae. Though Spinach is most often used as a food, it has medicinal value as well. Spinach is packed with vitamins such as vitamin C, vitamin A and vitamin E and minerals like magnesium, manganese, iron, calcium and folic acid. Spinach is also a good source of chlorophyll, which is known to aid in digestion. Spinach is also rich in the carotenoids beta-carotene and lutein. It is a good source of the bioflavonoid quercetin with many other flavonoids which exhibits anti-oxidant, antiproliferative, antiinfammatory, antihistaminic, CNS depressant, protection against gamma radiation, hepatoprotective properties in addition to its many other benefits. Spinach is also used to prevent the bone loss associated with osteoporosis and for its anti-inflammatory properties in easing the pain of arthritis. Spinach is good for the heart and circulatory system and has energy-boosting properties. Spinach is truly one of nature's most perfect foods.

  6. Transcriptome and proteomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-xia; Jia, Hui-min; Ma, Xiao-wei; Wang, Song-biao; Yao, Quan-sheng; Xu, Wen-tian; Zhou, Yi-gang; Gao, Zhong-shan; Zhan, Ru-lin

    2014-06-13

    Here we used Illumina RNA-seq technology for transcriptome sequencing of a mixed fruit sample from 'Zill' mango (Mangifera indica Linn) fruit pericarp and pulp during the development and ripening stages. RNA-seq generated 68,419,722 sequence reads that were assembled into 54,207 transcripts with a mean length of 858bp, including 26,413 clusters and 27,794 singletons. A total of 42,515(78.43%) transcripts were annotated using public protein databases, with a cut-off E-value above 10(-5), of which 35,198 and 14,619 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and clusters of orthologous groups respectively. Functional annotation against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database identified 23,741(43.79%) transcripts which were mapped to 128 pathways. These pathways revealed many previously unknown transcripts. We also applied mass spectrometry-based transcriptome data to characterize the proteome of ripe fruit. LC-MS/MS analysis of the mango fruit proteome was using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in an LTQ Orbitrap Velos (Thermo) coupled online to the HPLC. This approach enabled the identification of 7536 peptides that matched 2754 proteins. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of transcriptome during mango fruit development and the most comprehensive fruit proteome to date, which are useful for further genomics research and proteomic studies. Our study provides a comprehensive sequence for a systemic view of both the transcriptome and proteome of mango fruit, and a valuable reference for further research on gene expression and protein identification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative micromorphological study of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn

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    Mubo A. Sonibare; Adedapo A. Adeniran

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the leaf epidermis of wild and micropropagated Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. (D. bulbifera) in order to document useful diagnostic features that may be employed for correct crude drug identification and to clear any taxonomic uncertainties in the micropropagated medicinal plant. Methods:Growth responses of micropropagated D. bulbifera were observed on Murashige Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzylamino purine (1.0 mg/L)+α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.2 mg/L)+cysteine (20 mg/L) using nodal segments as explants. Leaves of the wild and micropropagated plants were studied microscopically. Results: More than 80%shoot regeneration and formation of 10%-30%whitish-brown callus were observed within 3 weeks. The highest root proliferation was obtained from Murashige Skoog medium of 6-benzylamino purine (0.05 mg/L) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.01 mg/L) with mean root length of (27.00±1.25) mm and elongated single shoot of mean length (38.00±11.09) mm. Leaf epidermal features that revealed similarities between the wild and micropropagated plants included amphistomatic condition, presence of mucilage, glandular unicellular trichome with multicellular head, polygonal cells with smooth walls, stomata type and shape. Slight variations included thick cuticular wall with closed stomata in wild plant compared to thin walled opened stomata in the in vitro plant. Opening of stomata accounted for larger average stomata sizes of (7.68±0.38) µm and (6.14±0.46) µm on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces, respectively of the micropropagated plant compared to the wild. Conclusions: The diagnostic features obtained in the study could serve as a basis for proper identification for quality control for standardization of the medicinal plant.

  8. Toxicological assessment of Ricinus communis Linn root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilavarasan, Raju; Mallika, Moni; Venkataraman, Subramanian

    2011-03-01

    Ricinus communis Linn (Euphorbiaceae) plant parts are claimed to be used as carminative, asthma, bronchitis, leprosy, anti-inflammatory, cathartic, and aphrodisiac. The toxicological study was carried out in the root part of the plant. The collected root was extracted with methanol and water. The extracts were vacuum-dried to yield the respective aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts. Toxicological assessment sought to determine the safety of Ricinus communis root extracts. The extracts were evaluated in the acute toxicity study (OECD-423 guidelines) and 90 days repeated dose toxicological assessment in Wistar albino rats. The acute oral toxicity of the aqueous (AE) and methanol (ME) extracts did not produce any toxic symptoms or mortality at the dose level of 2000 mg/kg in rats. In the 90 days (sub-chronic toxicity) repeated dose toxicity study the extracts (AE and ME) were administered 1000 mg/kg daily through oral route. The sub-chronic toxicity study demonstrated no significant changes in body weight, food, and water intake. Hematology parameters RBC, WBC, DLC, Hb, blood clotting time, and the biochemical parameters glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol, total protein, total bilirubin AST, ALT, and ALP were estimated. Histopathology observation of the major vital organs (liver, kidney, heart, spleen, lungs, ovary, testis, and brain) were tested. The hematology, biochemical and histopathology evaluations did not show any adverse effects in any of the organs tested. These results demonstrate the non-toxic nature of the root extracts AE and ME can be used for long-term usage in clinical practice.

  9. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies on roots of Bombax ceiba Linn.

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    Pankaj H. Chaudhary

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bombax ceiba Linn. (Bombacaceae is a well-known plant for its antihypertensive, antioxidant, antidiabetic, aphrodisiac and uterine tonicity properties. Aims: To study pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemically the roots of this plant. Methods: Pharmacognostical study included the macroscopic characters like size, color, surface characteristics, texture, fracture characteristics and odor of the roots. The intact root as well as powdered drug were studied under a microscope to analyze the cellular characteristics of the drug. Physicochemical parameter like extractive values, loss on drying (LOD, total ash, water-soluble and acid insoluble ash, foaming index and hemolytic index of Bombax ceiba root powder were determined as per WHO guidelines. Preliminary phytochemical screening and qualitative chemical examination studies have been carried out for the various phytoconstituents. HPTLC have also carried out using cyclohexane: diethyl ether: ethyl acetate as mobile phase. Results: Chemical evaluation and TLC studies shown presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, saponins and tannins. The microscopic characters have shown presence of cork, cambium, xylem vessels, stone cells, starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and phloem fibers. Microscopy analysis of the powder included the cork cells, fibers, calcium oxalate crystals and vessel. The presence of steroids was confirmed in HPTLC fingerprinting studies. Conclusions: Pharmacognostical and preliminary phytochemical screening of Bombax ceiba roots will be useful in order to authenticate, standardize and avoid any adulteration in the raw material. The diagnostic microscopic characters and physicochemical data will be helpful in the development of a monograph. The chromatographic fingerprinting profile can be used to standardize extracts and formulations containing Bombax ceiba roots.

  10. A Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI-08 Restores Learning and Memory by Upregulating Expression of the NMDA Receptor Subunit GluN2B in the Brain of Scopolamine-Induced Amnesic Mice

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    Rakesh Rai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present communication, we have investigated effects of the CDRI-08, a well characterized extract of Bacopa monnieri, on expression of the GluN2B subunit of NMDAR in various brain regions of the scopolamine-induced amnesic mice. Our behavioral data reveal that scopolamine-treated amnesic mice exhibit significant decline in the spatial memory compared to the normal control mice. Our RT-PCR and immunoblotting data revealed that the scopolamine treatment resulted in a significant downregulation of the NMDAR GluN2B subunit expression in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Our enzyme assay data revealed that scopolamine caused a significant increase in the acetylcholinesterase activity in both the brain regions. Further, oral administration of the CDRI-08 to scopolamine-treated amnesic mice restored the spatial memory which was found to be associated with significant upregulation of the GluN2B subunit expression and decline in the acetylcholinesterase activity in prefrontal cortex as well as hippocampus towards their levels in the normal control mice. Our study provides the evidence for the mechanism underlying role of the Bacopa monnieri extract (CDRI-08 in restoring spatial memory in amnesic mice, which may have therapeutic implications.

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial Investigating the Effects of a Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI 08 on Hyperactivity and Inattention in Male Children and Adolescents: BACHI Study Protocol (ANZCTRN12612000827831

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    James D. Kean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clinical diagnoses of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and the use of prescription medications for its treatment have increased in recent years. Current treatments may involve the administration of amphetamine-type substances, a treatment path many parents are apprehensive to take. Therefore, alternative pharmacological treatments are required. Few nutritional or pharmacological alternatives that reduce ADHD associated symptoms (hyperactivity and inattention have been subjected to rigorous clinical trials. Bacopa monnieri is a perennial creeping herb. CDRI 08 is a special extract of Bacopa monnieri which has been subjected to hundreds of scientific studies and has been shown in human randomized controlled trials (RCTs to improve memory, attention, and mood. It is hypothesised that chronic administration of CDRI 08 will improve attention, concentration and behaviour in children with high levels of hyperactivity and/or inattention. This paper reports the protocol for the first 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel groups trial examining the efficacy and safety of CDRI 08 in male children aged 6–14 years with high levels of inattention and hyperactivity. The primary outcome variable will be the level of hyperactivity and inattention measured by the Conners’ Parent Rating Scale (CPRS. Secondary outcome variables include cognition, mood, sleep, and EEG. Trial registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12612000827831.

  12. Effect of iron on lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and bacoside-A content in medicinal plant Bacopa monnieri L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Sarita; Saxena, Rohit

    2006-03-01

    The effect of Fe was investigated in medicinally important plant, Bacopa monnieri L. and the response on malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) was found different in roots and leaves of the metal treated plants. Iron induced stress was observed as indicated by high level of lipid peroxidation, being more steep increase in leaves than roots. In roots, SOD activity was found to increase in metal treated plants except 80 and 160 microM at 72 h, whereas, it decreased in leaves except 10 and 40 microM after 48 h as compared to their respective controls. Among H2O2 eliminating enzymes, POD activity increased in roots, however, it decreased in leaves except at 10 and 40 microM Fe after 48 h as compared to control. At 24 and 48 h, APX activity and ascorbic acid content followed the similar trend and were found to increase in both parts of the metal treated plants as compared to their respective controls. The level of cysteine content in the roots increased at initial period of exposure; however, no marked change in its content was noticed in leaves. In both roots and leaves, non-protein thiol content was found to increase except at higher metal concentrations at 72 h. The data of proline content have shown significant (pbacoside-A (active constituent) content in metal treated plants increases, therefore, it is advisable to assess the biological activity of the plants before using for medicinal purposes, particularly in developing countries.

  13. Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) improved novel object recognition task and increased cerebral vesicular glutamate transporter type 3 in sub-chronic phencyclidine rat model of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyabhan, Pritsana; Wannasiri, Supaporn; Naowaboot, Jarinyaporn

    2016-12-01

    Reduced vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and 2 (VGLUT2) indicate glutamatergic hypofunction leading to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. However, VGLUT3 involvement in cognitive dysfunction has not been reported in schizophrenia. Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) might be a new treatment and prevention for cognitive deficits in schizophrenia by acting on cerebral VGLUT3 density. We aimed to study cognitive enhancement- and neuroprotective-effects of Brahmi on novel object recognition and cerebral VGLUT3 immunodensity in sub-chronic (2 mg/kg, Bid, ip) phencyclidine (PCP) rat model of schizophrenia. Rats were assigned to three groups for cognitive enhancement effect study: Group 1, Control; Group 2, PCP administration; Group 3, PCP+Brahmi. A neuroprotective-effect study was also carried out. Rats were again assigned to three groups: Group 1, Control; Group 2, PCP administration; Group 3, Brahmi+PCP. Discrimination ratio (DR) representing cognitive ability was obtained from a novel object recognition task. VGLUT3 immunodensity was measured in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and cornu ammonis fields 1-3 (CA1-3) using immunohistochemistry. We found reduced DR in the PCP group, which occurred alongside VGLUT3 reduction in all brain areas. PCP+Brahmi showed higher DR score with increased VGLUT3 immunodensity in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. Brahmi+PCP group showed a higher DR score with increased VGLUT3 immunodensity in the prefrontal cortex, striatum and CA1-3. We concluded that reduced cerebral VGLUT3 was involved in cognitive deficit in PCP-administrated rats. Receiving Brahmi after PCP restored cognitive deficit by increasing VGLUT3 in the prefrontal cortex and striatum. Receiving Brahmi before PCP prevented cognitive impairment by elevating VGLUT3 in prefrontal cortex, striatum and CA1-3. Therefore, Brahmi could be a new frontier of restoration and prevention of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Nut extract in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2004-12-01

    The article relates to investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. nut extract (SA), and also an anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin, on carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma tests for their effects on acute and chronic phases of inflammation, respectively. The effect of SA on developing and developed adjuvant arthritis was also evaluated. SA significantly decreased the carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma. Indomethacin also decreased the acute and chronic phases of inflammation. SA decreased the adjuvant induced (arthritis) paw edema after the treatment, in both developing and developed adjuvant arthritis. These results indicate that the potent anti-inflammatory effect and therapeutic efficacy of Semecarpus anacardium LINN. nut extract against all phases of inflammation, is comparable to that of indomethacin.

  15. Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf: An Extensive Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Quality Assessment

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    Veni Bharti

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Standardization and detailed pharmacognostical studies of Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf for authentication and commercial utilization. Methods: Oreganum vulgare Linn. leaf was with standardization according to standard procedures described in WHO, 2011 and I.P. 1996. Results: The physicochemical parameters total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash and sulphated ash were found to be 11.5%, 11%, 5, 10.5% w/w respectively. Foaming index was found be <100. The trace elements were found to be copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, cobalt, manganese, nickel and copper in ethanol extract and phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanol extract showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds etc. Conclusion: The standardization parameters viz. physico-chemical parameters, macroscopy, microscopy, taxonomy, anatomy and preliminary phytochemical screening, microbial and aflatoxin count, HPTLC profile is being reported to help in authentication and development of monograph of this plant.

  16. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. from Lake Sebu, South Cotabato, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descallar, Angem L.; Nuñez, Maria Pamela S.; Cabrera, Maria Luisa N.; Martin, Tres Tinna B.; Obemio, Christine Dawn G.; Lañojan, Rhumer S.

    2017-01-01

    Lycopodium clavatum or locally known as "lumot" is one of the many plants used in the traditional system of medicine here in the Philippines. It has been known that this plant was used for body pains and "facial wipes" recognizing its anti-aging potential by the Obo community in Lake Sebu, South Cotabato. However, there is a lack of sufficient data on its phytochemical components and medicinal properties. Thus, this study is conducted to determine the secondary metabolites present and its antioxidant property of the decoction and ethanolic extracts of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. Free radical scavenging activity of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. was determined by in vitro 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Antioxidant activities were observed which may be due to the presence of alkaloids, steroids, and flavonoids in both decoction and ethanolic extracts.

  17. Hepatoprotective Activity of Oxalis stricta linn. on Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

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    Sohankumar Anilbhai Patel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the hepatoprotective effects of Ethanolic Extract of Oxalis stricta Linn.(EEOS towards Paracetamol intoxicated hepatic damage in Albino rats. The various extracts were prepared dose form 250 mg/kg and 500mg/kg against liver toxicity induced by Paracetamolat a dose of 2 gm/kg p.o once daily. Serum glutamate pyruvate tranaminase (SGPT, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bilirubin content which was elevated due to Paracetamol intoxication was significantly reduced by the extract. Standard drug Silymarin was used as reference. In Paracetamol alone treated animals shows lipid peroxidation was increased with decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, reduced glutathione (GSH levels which represents the hepatic antioxidant status. It was further confirmed by histopathological observations. Futher Histopathological observations indicated. From the results it may be concluded that the 70% ethanolic extract of Oxalis stricta Linn. Possess hepatoprotective activity.

  18. Anti-microbial screening of endophytic fungi from Hypericum perforatum Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huawei; Ying, Chen; Tang, Yifei

    2014-09-01

    Anti-microbial properties of 21 endophytic fungal strains from Hypericum perforatum Linn. were evaluated against three human pathogens, Staphyloccocus aureus, Escherichia coli and Rhodotorula glutinis, and two phytopathogens, Rhizoctonia cerealis and Pyricularia grisea. The results indicated that the ethyl acetate extracts of endophytic fermentation broth had stronger anti-microbial activities than their fermentation broth. And the inhibitory effect of the endophytic extracts on human pathogens was better than those on phytopathogens. Among these endophytic fungi, strains GYLQ-10, GYLQ-24 and GYLQ-22 respectively showed the strongest activities against S. aureu, E. coli, R. glutinis. GYLQ-14 and GYLQ-22 exhibited the most pronounced effect on P. Grisea while both GYLQ-06 and GYLQ-08 had the strongest anti-microbial activities against R. cerealis. Till now, this study is the first report on the isolation of endophytic fungi from H. perforatum Linn. and their anti-microbial evaluation.

  19. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON LEAVES OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS LINN.

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    Sangeeta Kumari , Swati Jain , Rita Pal , Sumitra Nain* and Sarvesh Paliwal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed at development of physicochemical parameters and to investigate the active principle present in Tridax procumbens Linn. Tridax procumbens Linn. (Asteraceae commonly known as Coat Buttons is an important plant used against various disorders in indigenous system of medicine such as Wound-Healing, Hepatoprotective, Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-diabetic and Immunomodulatory activities. However its functional properties and the underlying mechanism of action have not been clearly defined, the present study was undertaken to evaluate anthelmintic activity of methanol extract of leaves of Tridax procumbens L. against Pheretima posthuma (earthworm. Various concentrations (10, 20, 30mg/ml of methanolic extract were evaluated in the bioassay involving determination of time of paralysis (P and time of death (D of the worms. Albendazole was used as standard anthelmintic drug and distilled water was used as control. The results of present study indicated that the methanolic extract of leaves of Tridax procumbens showes significantly dose depending pharmacological activity.

  20. Cholinergic basis of memory-strengthening effect of Foeniculum vulgare Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Hanumanthachar; Parle, Milind

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a decline in cognitive abilities. Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer's disease. Nootropic agents are used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities. The present work was undertaken to assess the potential of Foeniculum vulgare Linn. extract as a nootropic and anticholinesterase agent in mice. Methanolic extract of the whole plant of F. vulgare Linn. administered for eight successive days ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg) and aging- induced memory deficits in mice. The passive avoidance paradigm served as the exteroceptive behavioral model for assessing memory. F. vulgare extract increased step-down latency and acetylcholinesterase inhibition in mice significantly. Hence, F. vulgare can be employed in treatment of cognitive disorders such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Antipsychotic-like activity of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Pandy Vijayapandi; Narasingam Megala; Mohamed Zahurin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing). Methods...

  2. BIODETERIORATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN DRUG TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS LINN. ROOTS DUE TO SPOILAGE OF FUNGI

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    M. Rashidi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Total 15 fungi were obtained to be associated with the roots of Tribulus terrestris Linn. Roots stored at different relative humidities 30, 50, 75, 96 and 100% RH for 90 days. Quantitative estimation of main chemical constituents such as phenols, proteins, alkaloids, glycosides and sugars in relation to association of fungi were done. The drug stored at above 75% relative humidity showed maximum percentage incidence of fungi as well as deterioration of chemical constituents.

  3. Influence of phytochemicals in piper betle linn leaf extract on wound healing

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, Le Thi; Tho, Nguyen Thi; Ha, Do Minh; Hang, Pham Luong; Nghia, Phan Tuan; Thang, Nguyen Dinh

    2015-01-01

    Background Wound healing has being extensively investigated over the world. Healing impairment is caused by many reasons including increasing of free-radicals-mediated damage, delaying in granulation tissue formation, reducing in angiogenesis and decreasing in collagen reorganization. These facts consequently lead to chronic wound healing. Piper betle Linn (Betle) leaves have been folklore used as an ingredient of drugs for cutaneous wound treatment. However, the effect of betle leaf on wound...

  4. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities

    OpenAIRE

    S Ponarulselvam; Panneerselvam, C; K Murugan; Aarthi, N; Kalimuthu, K; S Thangamani

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Methods: Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. Results: SEM showed the formation of silver nanopa...

  5. Growth Inhibition of Struvite Crystals in the Presence of Herbal Extract Boerhaavia diffusa Linn

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    C. K. Chauhan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The formation of a urinary stone, known as nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis, renal calculi or kidney stone is a serious, debilitating problem in all societies throughout the world. Struvite or Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate Hexahydrate (AMPH is one of the components of urinary stone (calculi. Struvite stones are commonly found in women. Struvites form in humans as a result of urinary tract infection with ureolithic urea splitting micro organisms. These stones can grow rapidly forming "staghorn-calculi", which is more painful urological disorder. Therefore, it is of prime importance to study the growth and inhibition of Struvite crystals. Approach: This in vitro study had been carried out in the presence of herbal extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. by using single diffusion gel growth technique. Sodium metasilicate solution of specific gravity 1.05 and an aqueous solution of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate of 0.5 M concentration were mixed so that the pH value 7.0 could be set. After the gelation, equal amount of supernatant solution of 1.0 M magnesium acetate prepared with 0.5 and 1% concentrations of the herbal extract of B. diffusa Linn. were gently poured on the set gels in the respective test tubes in the aseptic medium. Results: The growth of crystals without and with herbal extracts was monitored at regular time intervals. As the concentration of B. diffusa Linn. increased, the inhibition of crystals also increased in the gel media as well as the dissolution of crystals at the gel-liquid interface increases. The de-fragmentation of some grown crystals was also noticed. Conclusion: The herbal extract of B. diffusa Linn. inhibited the growth of struvite crystals in vitro. This study incorporated multidisciplinary interests and may be used for formulating the strategy for prevention or dissolution of urinary stones.

  6. Physiochemical behaviour changes during ripening in fruits of Trewia nudiflora Linn.

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    Kapil Ghai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening occurs with loss of fruit firmness and progressive degradation of the middle lamella and primary cell wall. The fruits of Trewia nudiflora Linn. were collected at different stages of fruit ripening and changes in physicochemical properties were determined. With ripening from immature green to fully ripe fruits, there was increase in fruit index with textural softening, loss of fruit firmness, decrease in cell wall polysaccharides as acetone insoluble solids and decrease in galacturonic acid.

  7. Extraction and purification of curcain, a protease from the latex of Jatropha curcas Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, L K; Dutta, S K

    1991-02-01

    A proteolytic enzyme, curcain, has been extracted from the latex of Jatropha curcas Linn. The enzyme was purified by chromatography on carboxymethyl cellulose and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The homogeneity of protein associated with curcain was established by non-denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using a discontinuous buffer system. The molecular weight of curcain was estimated by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration using a calibration curve of standard proteins to be around 22,000 daltons.

  8. PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER NIGRUM LINN. FRUIT (PIPERACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Kadam, P. V.; K.N. Yadav; F.A. Patel; F.A. Karjikar; M J Patil

    2013-01-01

    Piper species are reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Fruits of Piper nigrum Linn is commonly known as “Kalimiri” belongs to the family of Piperaceae and widely used as a pungent condiment. Traditionally it is used as antipyretic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, rubefacient, counter irritant, antiseptic, antispasmodic agent. Present work is related to standardization of Piper nigrum by using Pharmacognostic (Macroscopy,...

  9. Aphrodisiac activity of methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Kamaldeep; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Anupam

    2003-04-01

    The aphrodisiac properties of the methanol extract of leaves of Passiflora incarnata Linn. have been evaluated in mice by observing the mounting behaviour. The methanol extract of P. incarnata exhibited significant aphrodisiac behaviour in male mice at all doses, i.e. 75, 100 and 150 mg/kg. Amongst these, the highest activity was observed with the 100 mg/kg dose when the mountings were calculated about 95 min after the administration of the test extracts.

  10. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and GC- MS Profiling of Ethanolic Flower Extract of Calotropis gigantea Linn. (Apocyanaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    R.Dhivya; K. Manimegalai

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis gigantea Linn is popularly known as the swallow-wort or milkweed and is used as one of the most important drug in Traditional System of Medicine to treat various ailments. The aim of this study is to screen the phytochemicals present in the ethanolic flower extract of Calotropis gigantea and further analysis of the components present in it by GC-MS analysis. Ten grams of flower power was sequentially extracted by ethanol. The results showed the presence of phytochemical compounds ...

  11. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). Aims: The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. Settings and Design: The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia...

  12. Amelioration of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity by the administration of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2012-10-01

    Sida cordifolia Linn. (Malvaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of the inflammation of oral mucosa, asthmatic bronchitis, nasal congestion and rheumatism. We studied the hepatoprotective activity of 50 % ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia Linn. against alcohol intoxication. The duration of the experiment was 90 d. The substantially elevated levels of toxicity markers such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase due to the alcohol treatment were significantly lowered in the extract-treated groups. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content, which was lowered due to alcohol toxicity, was increased to a near-normal level in the co-administered group. Lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, total collagen and hydroxyproline, which were increased in the alcohol-treated group, were reduced in the co-administered group. The mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 2E1, NF-κB, TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 were found to be increased in the alcohol-treated rats, and their expressions were found to be decreased in the co-administered group. These observations were reinforced by histopathological analysis. Thus, the present study clearly indicates that 50 % ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia Linn. has a potent hepatoprotective action against alcohol-induced toxicity, which was mediated by lowering oxidative stress and by down-regulating the transcription factors.

  13. EFEK LAKSATIF JUS DAUN ASAM JAWA (Tamarindus indica Linn. PADA TIKUS PUTIH YANG DIINDUKSI DENGAN GAMBIR

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    Dian Sundari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn. known to the public as a shade tree and is found in almost all parts of Indonesia. The leaves are called "sinom" in the Java language is also used as a vegetable and medicine Empirically Java acid is used as a remedy gout, ulcers, boils, laxative, fever, menstrual facilitator, inflammation. Laxative effect has been studied (laxative leaf juice tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn. Intestinal transit method and experimental animals used white rats. The dose tested was 3 doses of juice that is 20%, 40% and 60%, which is given orally. For purposes of comparison (positive control is the granting of four Dulcolax ml/200 g bw., While distilled water as negative control. Two days before the experiment is done, all rats were induced constipation with gambier extract 3 g / kg bw. The experimental results showed that the average ratio of intestinal length traversed by charcoal proanalisa Java acidic juice dose group 60%, 40%, 20%; Dulcolax and distilled water, respectively 49.86%, 60.2%, 18.34%, 75.22% and 2.01%. Showed statistically tamarind juice at doses of 40% has laxative properties, but smaller than the Dulcolax.   Keywords: laxative, white mice, Tamarindus indica Linn., leaves, tamarindjuice

  14. Pengaruh antimitosis ekstrak Achyranthes aspera Linn pada pembelahan sel embrio (Cleavage

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    Wurlina Wurlina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To study the antimitotic effect of an extract of the leaf Achyranthes asapera Linn on embryonal cleavage rats (Rattus norwegicus. Rats ova were fertilized in vitro, and thes suitable zygote and embryo were selected to use as samples, which were divided into 5 groups. Each group comprised 80 ova/embryo. Those groups were: group 1. ova for fertilization, group 2. zygote, group 3. 2 cell embryo, group 4. 4 cell embryo and group 5. 8 cell embryo. Each group was divided into 4 treatmens, each of which consisted of 20 ova/ embryos. The treatments were as follows: control treatment receiving TCM 199 media, and treatment 1, 2 and 3 receiving Achyranthes aspera Linn alkaloid of 20, 30, and 40 ppm respectively. Observation to embryonal cleavage and development was out 12 and 24 hours after treatment. Concluded from the results that the administration of Achyranthes aspera Linn as much as 30 ppm in vitro could 1 inhibits fertilization zygote and 2, 4, and 8 cell embryonal cleavage, growth and development 2 induced zygote and embryonal membrane recruitment and blastomere degeneration and 3 inhibits zygote and embryonal mitotic cleavage at metaphase stage.

  15. Analgesic effects of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum linn

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    Naveen Goyal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called ′Country Mallow′ is a perennial plant up to 3 m in height. It is abundantly found as a weed in the sub-Himalayan tract and in the hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles, leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhea, and so on. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive, and antidiarrheal activities. The present study was done to evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of the root of Abutilon indicum Linn. Materials and Methods : The powdered root (900 g was subjected to successive solvent extraction, with solvents in increasing order of polarity, namely, petroleum ether (60 - 80΀C, methanol, and ethanol, using the soxhlet apparatus for 72 hours. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for 72 hours, to obtain a water-soluble extract. The peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing method in Swiss albino mice (20 - 30 g, while the central analgesic activity was evaluated by the tail flick method and the tail immersion method. Results : Results indicated that all the tested extracts, except the methanol extract, exhibited significant analgesic activity in both animals′ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity may be related to the central mechanism or may be due to the peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Conclusion : The present study authenticates the traditional use.

  16. Interventional role of Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn in cancer

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    Zankhana M Buch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn (Zingiberaceae family is a rhizomatous household spice and has been a widely used herb in India since ancient times. Ayurvedic pharmacodynamics of C. longa are described as follows: Rasa - tikta and katu, Guna - rukhsha and laghu, Virya - ushna, Vipak - katu and Doshaghnata - tridoshshamak. It is used as a tonic, carminative, antidiarrheal, hepatoprotective and as a purifying agent. It is also used in cancer management. Since years, haridra has been used as a hemostyptic agent. However, the oncopreventive aspect of haridra has drawn the scientists towards it. Use of haridra in medoja arbuda is documented in Sushrut Samhita. Recently, it has been found that chronic inflammation has played a role in cancer formation. The kapha and vata shamaka property is responsible for the shothghna activity of haridra. Several studies have also proved the anti-inflammatory condition of haridra. The essential oil, containing ar-turmerone, as a major component has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effect of haridra. Experimental studies ′in vitro and in vivo′ in diverse models have also proved the anti-tumor activity of haridra. Curcumin,the chief ingredient, of it is mainly responsible for anticancer property. However other constituents like Turmerone and polysacchrides also play a major role in anti cancer activity. The free radical scavenging activity as well as inhibition of lipid peroxidation by curcumin has been reported by Kuttan et al. The mechanisms underlying the anticancer potential of curcumin are complex. Many reports in literature mention about that work carried out regarding the suppression of proliferation of cells of different tumors. They include the down regulation of transcription factors, inhibiting COX2, LOX, inducible nitric oxide synthase, matrix metalloproteinases 9, cell adhesion molecules along with TNF-α. Curcumin inhibits TNF-α-induced AKT activation whereby levels required for NFkβ gene

  17. Hepatoprotective potential of ethanolic and aqueous extract of flowers of Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) induced by CCl4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ishwer Kale; Mohd Asif Khan; Yusufuddin Irfan; Veerana Goud A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of Sesbania grandiflora(Linn) flower in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity models in rats. Methods:The ethanolic and aqueous extract of Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) flower are screened for its hepatoprotective activity in CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg, i.p) induced liver damage in Swiss albino rats at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw. Results: The ethanolic and aqueous extract of Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) flower significantly (P<0.001) decreases the biochemical parameters (SGOT, SGPT, ALP, TP, and TB). Silymarin (25 mg/kg), a known hepatoprotective drug used for comparison exhibited significant activity (P<0.001). The extract did not shown any mortality up to a dose of 2000 g/kg bw. These findings suggest that the ethanolic and aqueous extract of Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) flower (500mg/kg) was effective in bringing about functional improvement of hepatocytes. The healing effect of this extract was also confirmed by histological observations. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. and aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. of Sesbania grandiflora (Linn) flower have significant effect on the liver of CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity animal models.

  18. Comparison of two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) for their Cr accumulation potential and antioxidant responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinam, Geetgovind; Behera, Sandip K; Mishra, Rohit K; Sinha, Sarita; Mallick, Shekhar; Khare, P B

    2012-08-01

    Study was undertaken to compare Cr accumulation in two ferns (Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. and Microsorium punctatum (Linn.) Copel) and the role of antioxidants were also investigated towards metal tolerance in order to assess the use of ferns in phytomediation/ phytostabilization. Different concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 microg g(-1) dw) of Cr were added to fern planted in pot containing 1 kg soil. In both the ferns, Cr accumulation increased with increase in metal concentration and maximum accumulation of 800.5 microg g(-1) (fronds) and 1457.4 microg g(-1) (roots) in M. punctatum and 660.8 microg g(-1) (fronds) and 1259.6 microg g(-1) (roots) in A. capillus-veneris was recorded. The increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) in A. capillus-veneris was less pronounced than M. punctatum under Cr exposure as compared to their respective controls. In view of less decrease in chlorophyll content and antioxidants along with higher accumulation of Cr in the fronds M. punctatum, is indicative of its higher tolerance towards Cr. However, bioaccumulation factor (concentration of Cr in fronds/concentration of Cr in the soil) of both the ferns was recorded > 1 which qualifies the plants as potential Cr hyperaccumulator and suitable for phytoremediaton.

  19. In Silico and In Vitro Analysis of Bacoside A Aglycones and Its Derivatives as the Constituents Responsible for the Cognitive Effects of Bacopa monnieri.

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    Seetha Ramasamy

    Full Text Available Bacopa monnieri has been used in Ayurvedic medicine to improve memory and cognition. The active constituent responsible for its pharmacological effects is bacoside A, a mixture of dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins containing sugar chains linked to a steroid aglycone skeleton. Triterpenoid saponins have been reported to be transformed in vivo to metabolites that give better biological activity and pharmacokinetic characteristics. Thus, the activities of the parent compounds (bacosides, aglycones (jujubogenin and pseudojujubogenin and their derivatives (ebelin lactone and bacogenin A1 were compared using a combination of in silico and in vitro screening methods. The compounds were docked into 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, D1, D2, M1 receptors and acetylcholinesterase (AChE using AutoDock and their central nervous system (CNS drug-like properties were determined using Discovery Studio molecular properties and ADMET descriptors. The compounds were screened in vitro using radioligand receptor binding and AChE inhibition assays. In silico studies showed that the parent bacosides were not able to dock into the chosen CNS targets and had poor molecular properties as a CNS drug. In contrast, the aglycones and their derivatives showed better binding affinity and good CNS drug-like properties, were well absorbed through the intestines and had good blood brain barrier (BBB penetration. Among the compounds tested in vitro, ebelin lactone showed binding affinity towards M1 (Ki = 0.45 μM and 5-HT2A (4.21 μM receptors. Bacoside A and bacopaside X (9.06 μM showed binding affinity towards the D1 receptor. None of the compounds showed any inhibitory activity against AChE. Since the stimulation of M1 and 5-HT2A receptors has been implicated in memory and cognition and ebelin lactone was shown to have the strongest binding energy, highest BBB penetration and binding affinity towards M1 and 5-HT2A receptors, we suggest that B. monnieri constituents may be transformed in vivo

  20. In Silico and In Vitro Analysis of Bacoside A Aglycones and Its Derivatives as the Constituents Responsible for the Cognitive Effects of Bacopa monnieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Seetha; Chin, Sek Peng; Sukumaran, Sri Devi; Buckle, Michael James Christopher; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong

    2015-01-01

    Bacopa monnieri has been used in Ayurvedic medicine to improve memory and cognition. The active constituent responsible for its pharmacological effects is bacoside A, a mixture of dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins containing sugar chains linked to a steroid aglycone skeleton. Triterpenoid saponins have been reported to be transformed in vivo to metabolites that give better biological activity and pharmacokinetic characteristics. Thus, the activities of the parent compounds (bacosides), aglycones (jujubogenin and pseudojujubogenin) and their derivatives (ebelin lactone and bacogenin A1) were compared using a combination of in silico and in vitro screening methods. The compounds were docked into 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, D1, D2, M1 receptors and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) using AutoDock and their central nervous system (CNS) drug-like properties were determined using Discovery Studio molecular properties and ADMET descriptors. The compounds were screened in vitro using radioligand receptor binding and AChE inhibition assays. In silico studies showed that the parent bacosides were not able to dock into the chosen CNS targets and had poor molecular properties as a CNS drug. In contrast, the aglycones and their derivatives showed better binding affinity and good CNS drug-like properties, were well absorbed through the intestines and had good blood brain barrier (BBB) penetration. Among the compounds tested in vitro, ebelin lactone showed binding affinity towards M1 (Ki = 0.45 μM) and 5-HT2A (4.21 μM) receptors. Bacoside A and bacopaside X (9.06 μM) showed binding affinity towards the D1 receptor. None of the compounds showed any inhibitory activity against AChE. Since the stimulation of M1 and 5-HT2A receptors has been implicated in memory and cognition and ebelin lactone was shown to have the strongest binding energy, highest BBB penetration and binding affinity towards M1 and 5-HT2A receptors, we suggest that B. monnieri constituents may be transformed in vivo to the

  1. In-vitro Antispasmodic Activity Analysis of Methanolic Leaves Extract of Lantana camara Linn. on Excised Rat Ileum.

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    Prasanna P. Ghodake

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to provide the pharmacological basis for medicinal use of Lantana camara Linn. as an antispasmodic agent using in-vitro pharmacological assay. Lantana camara Linn. (Verbenaceae, is a widely growing shrub which found to be toxic to some animal species, has been used in the traditional medicine for treating many ailments. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the antispasmodic effects of Lantana camara leaf constituents on rat ileum. Antispasmodic activity was assessed by the interpolation method on isolated rat ileum. Effects of acetylcholine, methanolic extract of Lantana camara leaves and acetylcholine along with methanolic leaves extract were studied on isolated rat ileum; which later compared with atropine as standard anti-spasmodic agent. The present study results revealed that methanolic leaves extract of Lantana camara Linn. showed promising antispasmodic action on excised rat ileum.

  2. Antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilization activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn. seed

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    Umesh Jayantarao Patil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The antianaphylactic activity of Strychnos potatorum Linn seed extract was evaluated by using compound 48/80 induced anaphylaxis and mast cell stabilization was studied by using peritoneal mast cells of rats. The possible antianaphylactic and mast cell stabilization mechanism was evaluated by using compound 48/80 induced mast cell activation and level of nitric oxide in rat peritoneal mast cells. Materials and Methods: Anaphylactic shock in mice was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of 8 mg/kg compound 48/80, prior to induction of anaphylaxis the animals were treated with S. potatorum Linn. seed extract administered orally 1 h before administration of compound 48/80, the rate mortality was observed in each group of animals. Mast cell stabilization was seen by preincubation of mast cells with the compound 48/80 and the extracts. Results: This study indicates that the chloroform, petroleum ether, and methanolic extracts were shown potent and has significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001 inhibitory effects on compound 48/80 induced anaphylactic reaction and mast cell activation. This compound also inhibited significantly compound 48/80 induced increased level of nitric oxide in rat peritoneal mast cells. Conclusion: We conclude from this study that the different extracts of S. potatorum seed have potent antianaphylactic activity through mast cell stabilization and inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. The inhibitory effect of S. potatorum Linn. on release of histamine and nitric oxide protects from compound 48/80 induced anaphylactic reaction may be through blocking vasodilatation, decrease vascular resistance, hypotension and tachycardia induced by immunogenic agent used in this study.

  3. MICROHABITAT DISTRIBUTION OF ALLAMANDA CARTHATICA LINN. AND PANDIAKA INVOLUCRATA (MOQ JACKSON

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    Ogie- Odia,

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A microhabitat distribution of Allamanda cathartica Linn and Pandiaka involucrata (Moq. Jackson was studied. The plants belong to the families Apocynaceae and Amaranthaceae, respectively. This study was carried out in Uyo municipality, Akwa Ibom State. At each site random sampling method was used in sampling the vegetation within 2m x 2m quadrates and the vegetation components were enumerated and identified to species level. One soil samples was collected from each quadrant to the depth of 20cm using the soil auger. Thus, a total of 20 soil samples were taken and analyzed for soil properties. Results showed that 32 plant species were indentified in the vegetation containing Allamanda cathartica and Pandiaka involucrata both species had 100% frequency. Their densities were 3.6 ± 0.34 and 10.0 + 1.71 stems/ha2, respectively height, crown cover. The soils where these plants grew were strongly acidic with low organic carbon content, high phosphorus and iron content. The soils were sandy loam in nature. The soils had sand particles ranking highest (75.20 ± 1.96 and 75.74 ± 2.63%, followed by clay (13.66 ± 1.96 and 10.40 ± 0.45% and silt texture being sandy loam. Regression analysis between Allamanda cathartica Linn and Pandiaka involucrata, and soil properties revealed that edaphic factors had minor effect on the growth and distribution of these plant species. This showed that Allamanda cathartica Linn and Pandiaka involucrata are not randomly distributed but found in specific areas of soil rich in iron (Fe, Manganese (Mn and Phosphorus contents.

  4. Analgesic Effects of Various Extracts of Root of Abutilon indicum linn.

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    Sumitra Singh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abutilon indicum (Linn. sweet (Malvaceae commonly called “Country Mallow” is a perennial plant up to 3m in
    height. It is abundantly found as weed in sub-Himalayan tract and in hotter parts of India. The plant is traditionally
    used for treatment of several diseases like bronchitis, body ache, toothache, jaundice, diabetes, fever, piles,
    leprosy, ulcers, cystitis, gonorrhea, diarrhoea etc. Abutilon indicum Linn. is reported to have hepatoprotective,
    hypoglycemic, antimicrobial, male contraceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities. The present study was done to
    evaluate the analgesic potential of various extracts of root of Abutilon indicum Linn. The powdered root (900 g
    was subjected to successive solvent extraction with solvents in increasing order of polarity viz. petroleum ether
    (60-80 C°, methanol and ethanol by soxhlet apparatus for 72 hrs. The marc was extracted by cold maceration for
    72 hrs. to obtain water soluble extract. Peripheral analgesic activity was studied using acetic acid induced writhing
    method in Swiss albino mice (20-30 g while central analgesic activity was evaluated by tail flick method and
    tail immersion method. Results indicated that all the tested extracts except methanol extract exhibited significant
    analgesic activity in both animals’ models. Petroleum ether extract showed higher analgesic activity. The activity
    may be related with central mechanism or due to peripheral analgesic mechanisms. Thus the present study authenticates
    the traditional use.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of an Acyclic Isoprenoid from Semecarpus anacardium Linn. and its Antibacterial Potential in vitro - Antimicrobial Activity of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. Seeds -

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    Ayyakkannu Purushothaman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Semecarpus anacardium Linn. is a plant well-known for its antimicrobial, antidiabetic and anti-arthritic properties in the Ayurvedic and Siddha system of medicine. This has prompted the screening of this plant for antibacterial activity. The main aims of this study were to isolate compounds from the plant’s seeds and to evaluate their antibacterial effects on clinical bacterial test strains. Methods: The n-butanolic concentrate of the seed extract was subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC and repeated silica gel column chromatography followed by elution with various solvents. The compound was identified based on observed spectral (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry data. The well diffusion method was employed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the isolated acyclic isoprenoid compound (final concentration: 5 - 15 μg/mL on four test bacterial strains, namely, Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 96, Bacillus cereus

  6. AKTIVITAS ANTIBAKTERI FRAKSI-FRAKSI EKSTRAK SIRIH HIJAU (Piper betle Linn TERHADAP PATOGEN PANGAN [Antibacterial Activity of Fractionated Green Sirih (Piper betle Linn Extract Against Food Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Maggy T. Suhartono

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fractionation of green sirih (Piper betle Linn extract by chromatography colom using the mixture of several solvents i.e. chloroform, ethanol and acetic acid (4:1:1 resulted in 17 fractions. All fractions showed antibacterial activities but only 2 fractions (fraction 3 and fraction 4 showed the highest inhibition towards the six tested bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes. Among the tested bacteria, all fractions of green sirih extracts showed the most effective inhibition against, Salmonella Typhimurium with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 10 mm to 26 mm. Identification using GC-MS found that fraction 3 and fraction 4 contained chavicol; dodecanoic acid, myristic, palmitic and oleic acid.

  7. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of Tamarindus Indica linn

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    S S Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

  8. Determination of anthelmintic activity of the leaf and bark extract of tamarindus indica linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S S; Dey, Monalisha; Ghosh, A K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves and bark of Tamarindus indica Linn using Pheretima posthuma and Tubifex tubifex as test worms. The time of paralysis and time of death were studied and the activity was compared with piperazine citrate as reference standard. The alcohol and aqueous extract of bark of Tamarindus indica exhibited significant anthelmintic activity as evidenced by decreased paralyzing time and death time. The results thus support the use of Tamarindus indica as an anthelmintic agent.

  9. Antitubercular constituents from the hexane fraction of Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saludes, Jonel P; Garson, Mary J; Franzblau, Scott G; Aguinaldo, Alicia M

    2002-11-01

    A crude ethanol extract and hexane fraction from Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) show antitubercular activity. The major constituents of the hexane fraction are E-phytol, cycloartenol, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol, campesta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol and the ketosteroids stigmasta-4-en-3-one and stigmasta-4-22-dien-3-one. E-Phytol, a mixture of the two ketosteroids, and the epidioxysterol derived from campesta-5,7,22-trien-3beta-ol all show pronounced antitubercular activity.

  10. Morinda citrifolia linn leaf extract possesses antioxidant activities and reduces nociceptive behavior and leukocyte migration

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Santos, Rodrigo Correia; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Santos, João Paulo Almeida dos; Santos, Alan Diego da Conceição; Alves, Izabel Almeida; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Nogueira, Paulo Cesar de Lima; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza

    2011-01-01

    This is a copy of an article published in the Journal of Medicinal Food© 2011 - copyright Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.; Journal of Medicinal Food is available online at: http://online.liebertpub.com Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to treat a wide range of diseases. Morinda citrifolia Linn (popularly known as ‘‘Noni’’) has been used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including effects against headache,...

  11. Isolation and structure determination of two new constituents from the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Sattar, Fouzia A; Ahmad, Fayaz; Begum, Sabira

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of the fruits of Morinda citrifolia Linn. have led to the isolation of two new compounds, morinaphthalene (=1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene, (1); and morindafurone (=5-hydroxy-1,10b-dihydro-6H-anthra [1,9-bc] furan-6-one, (2); as well as two known constituents, 1,8-dihydroxy-6-methoxy-3-methyl-9-anthrone (3) and 2,4-dimethoxy-9-anthrone (4). Their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis including 2D NMR techniques.

  12. Controle de qualidade da raiz de Operculina macrocarpa (Linn) Urb., Convolvulaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Michelin,Daniele Carvalho; Finati,Suellen Cristiane Gandolfo; Sacramento, Luis Vitor Silva [UNESP; Vilegas, Wagner [UNESP; Salgado, Hérida Regina Nunes [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    A qualidade dos fitoterápicos inclui rigoroso acompanhamento das diferentes etapas do desenvolvimento e produção destes produtos, desde a coleta do vegetal até a disponibilidade do produto final. Neste trabalho foi realizado o controle da qualidade do da raiz de Operculina macrocarpa (Linn) Urb., popularmente conhecida como batata-de-purga. Para o controle físicoquímico e microbiológico utilizaram-se metodologias farmacopeicas e não farmacopeicas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a raiz ap...

  13. Analgesic activity of extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Abu Taiab Md

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Successive petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of the whole plant of Amaranthus spinosus Linn. were investigated for the analgesic activity. Experiments were carried out with these extracts for their peripheral and central antinociceptive potentials on acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick models in mice, respectively. In both the models, methanolic extract showed significant writhing inhibition as well as the elongation of tail-flick time at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight. A linear dose response relationship was also observed.

  14. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF TURNERA ULMIFOLIA LINN.

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    D. Ramasamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Turnera ulmifolia Linn. belonging to family Turneraceae was investigated to evaluate in-vitro antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of the leaves against gram negative bacteria such as Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. An attempt has been made to compare the activity of extract with standard ciprofloxin. The pathogens were used in the study was showed potential activity of the ethanolic extract of the plant. Maximum activity was seen in case of Pseudomonas fluorescens where the zone diameter was 32 mm (300μg/ml.

  15. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamger; Mazhar, Uzma; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Ahmad, Taseer; Latif, Fouzia; Tabassum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim; Javed, Ibrahim; Ali, Haider

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan and egg albumin induced paw edema in mice, while analgesic activity was assessed using formalin induced paw licking and acetic acid induced abdominal writhing in mice. For determination of antipyretic activity, pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 20% yeast. All the extracts produced significant anti-inflammatory effect however, ether extract produced maximum effect 34% inhibition (p Thymus serphyllum in traditional medicine for inflammation accompanied by pain and fever.

  16. Antihyperglycemic activity of various fractions of Cassia auriculata linn. in alloxan diabetic rats

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    Surana S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Present work describes the potent antidiabetic fraction from flowers of Cassia auriculata Linn. Hydromethanolic extract along with its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were evaluated for antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. The n-butanol fraction exhibited significant reduction (p< 0.001 in blood glucose levels and was also found effective in restoring the blood lipids and proteins to normal level. The activity was found comparable with standard drug phenformin. The hydromethanolic extract and its fractions were subjected to preliminary qualitative chemical investigations which indicated the presence of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids and amino acids.

  17. Phytochemical and pharmacological potentials of Pedalium murex Linn and its traditional medicinal uses

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    Muhammad Imran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the pharmacological and phytochemical aspects of the Pedalium murex (Linn (P. murex and its traditional medicinal uses of different parts of the plant. Flavonoids, phenolic compounds, glycosides, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, phytosterols, tannins, triterpenoids, alkaloids, xanthoproteins, aromatic oil, stable oil, saponins and resins are the main phytochemical groups that have been found in different chemical extracts of P. murex. Pharmacological activities of P. murex have proven its importance for medicinal uses. This review will be helpful to create interest to use P. murex for developing new formulation in therapeutic medicines.

  18. Phytochemical and pharmacological potentials of Pedalium murex Linn and its traditional medicinal uses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Imran; Naresh Kumar; Ferozuddin Nohri; Dileep Kumar; Tayyuba Kousar; Muhammad Tauseef Sultan; Sajjad Ali Ilyas; Shabnam Shahida

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the pharmacological and phytochemical aspects of the Pedalium murex (Linn) (P. murex) and its traditional medicinal uses of different parts of the plant. Flavonoids, phenolic compounds, glycosides, carbohydrates, reducing sugars, phytosterols, tannins, triterpenoids, alkaloids, xanthoproteins, aromatic oil, stable oil, saponins and resins are the main phytochemical groups that have been found in different chemical extracts of P. murex. Pharmacological activities of P. murex have proven its importance for medicinal uses. This review will be helpful to create interest to use P. murex for developing new formulation in therapeutic medicines.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of a novel flavonol glycoside from the Bauhinia variegata Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadava, R N; Reddy, V Madhu Sudhan

    2003-06-01

    Bauhinia variegata Linn. (Leguminosae) is commonly known as 'Kachnar' in Hindi. It is distributed almost throught India. Its powdered bark is traditionally used for tonic, astrain, ulcers. It is also useful in skin diseases. The roots are used as antidote to snake poison. The present article deals with the isolation and structural elucidation of a novel flavonol glycoside 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-3-methoxy-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-O-beta-galactopyranoside (1) from the roots of Bauhinia Variegata and its structure was identified by spectral analysis and chemical degradations. The novel compound (1) showed anti-inflammatory activity.

  20. Two new cytotoxic furoquinoline alkaloids isolated from Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Magdy M D; Ibrahim, Nabaweya A.; El-Sakhawy, Fatma S.

    2016-01-01

    Two new cytotoxic furoquinoline alkaloids were isolated from the leaves of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa; one from the total alkaloidal fraction (acid/base shake-out method) of the CHCl3 extract and identified as 7,8-dihydroxy-4-hydrofuroquinoline and named trivially as Aegelbine-A. The other new...... alkaloid isolated from the pet. ether extract and identified as 4-hydro-7-hydroxy-8-prenyloxyfuroquinoline and named trivially as Aegelbine-B, together with a known alkaloid; aegeline and a known phenolic acid; ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid. The structures of all the isolated compounds were established based on 1D...

  1. Hepatoprotective activity of Ficus carica Linn leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Mohan G.K.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extract of the leaves of Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae was evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in rats with liver damage induced by carbon tetrachloride. The extract at an oral dose of 500 mg/kg exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total serum bilirubin, and malondialdehyde equivalent, an index of lipid peroxidation of the liver. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. The activity of extract was also comparable to that of silymarin, a known hepatoprotective. 

  2. EFFECT OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA FUNGI INOCULATION ON TEAK (Tectona grandis Linn. F AT CIKAMPEK, WEST JAVA

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    Ragil S.B. Irianto

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the effect of Arbuscular Mycorhiza Fungi (AMF on the early growth of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. F plantation. Teak seedlings were inoculated with Glomus aggregatum or Mycofer (mixing of four Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi (AMF : G. margarita, G. manihotis, G. etunicatum and Acalospora spinosa at the time of transplantation. At  three months old the seedlings were planted in Cikampek experimental forest. Results showed that application of G. aggregatum or mycofer to teak could accelerate height and diameter growth by up to 61%and4 7%, respectively, after three months in the field.

  3. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart): Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad G. Jamkhande; Wattamwar, Amruta S.

    2015-01-01

    From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (牛心果 niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart) is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthe...

  4. Influence of ethanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. on mast cells and erythrocytes membrane integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, A B; Dikshit, V J; Damre, A S; Kulkarni, K R; Saraf, M N

    2000-08-01

    The ethanolic extract of T. purpurea Linn. was studied for its in vitro effect on rat mast cell degranulation and erythrocyte membrane integrity in vitro. The extract in concentration of 25-200 microg/ml showed a dose-dependant inhibition of rat mast cell degranulation induded by compound 48/80 and egg albumin. T. purpurea extract was found to inhibit haemolysis of erythrocytes induced by hypotonic solution but accelerated haemolysis induced by heat at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. The studies reveal that the ethanolic extract of T. purpurea may inhibit degranulation of mast cells by a mechanism other than membrane stabilization.

  5. Pharmacognostical and Priliminary Phytochemical Studies on the Leaf Extract of Ficus Pumila Linn.

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    Jasreet Kaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ficus pumila Linn. (Family: Moraceae, commonly known as climbing fig. It is widely used as an ethno medicine in china and India. It is prescribed for a wide variety of ailments like diarrhea, hemorrhoids, treating gastrointestinal, piles, uterine problems and other infections. However, detailed scientific information is not available to identify the plant material and to ascertain its quality and purity. In present communication, morphology anatomical and physico-chemical characters along with phytochemical screening and fluorescence analysis of powdered crude drug were carried out for systemic identification and authentication of leaves. This study provides referential information for identification and characterization of Ficus pumila leaf and its extracts.

  6. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit;

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India...... had the highest genetic diversity while provenances from Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. Overall, the pattern...... of the findings for conservation and use of genetic resources of the species are discussed....

  7. EMERGENCE OF MESUA FERREA LINN. LEAF EXTRACT AS A POTENT BACTERICIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Rupa; Dastidar, Sujata G.; Basu, S.P.; Mazumder, Avijit; Kumar, Sanjay

    2003-01-01

    The methanolic extract of leaves of Mesua ferrea Linn. were tested for its antibacterial potentiality against 103 various strains of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spps. Klebsiella spps., Streptococus pneumoniae, Sarcina lutea, Lactobacilus arabinosus, Escherichia coli, shigellae, salmonellae, Proteus spps., Pseudomonas spps. and the vibrios. Significant antibacterial effects were produced by the extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sppa., lactobacilli, Escherichia coli, shigellae and salmonellae and the results were compared with standard antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Further the extract was proved to be bacterial in its action. PMID:22557104

  8. Emergence of mesua ferrea linn. Leaf extract as a potent bactericide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Rupa; Dastidar, Sujata G; Basu, S P; Mazumder, Avijit; Kumar, Sanjay

    2003-04-01

    The methanolic extract of leaves of Mesua ferrea Linn. were tested for its antibacterial potentiality against 103 various strains of bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spps. Klebsiella spps., Streptococus pneumoniae, Sarcina lutea, Lactobacilus arabinosus, Escherichia coli, shigellae, salmonellae, Proteus spps., Pseudomonas spps. and the vibrios. Significant antibacterial effects were produced by the extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus sppa., lactobacilli, Escherichia coli, shigellae and salmonellae and the results were compared with standard antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Further the extract was proved to be bacterial in its action.

  9. PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PIPER NIGRUM LINN. FRUIT (PIPERACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Kadam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Piper species are reported to have great medicinal value in Indian medicine. Fruits of Piper nigrum Linn is commonly known as “Kalimiri” belongs to the family of Piperaceae and widely used as a pungent condiment. Traditionally it is used as antipyretic, diuretic, aphrodisiac, immune-stimulant, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, digestive, rubefacient, counter irritant, antiseptic, antispasmodic agent. Present work is related to standardization of Piper nigrum by using Pharmacognostic (Macroscopy, Cytomorphology, Physical constants and Photochemical study of fruit. All parameters were studied according to the WHO and Pharmacopoeial guidelines to standardize the Piper nigrum.

  10. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India ...

  11. Sensitivity difference of Streptococcus viridans on 35% Piper betle linn extract and 10% povidone iodine towards recurrent apthous stomatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maharani Laillyza Apriasari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral ulceration often becomes the main reason for the patients to see a dentist. Therapy of the oral ulceration is by giving the palliative therapy with topical antiseptic. Nowadays, there are many researches concerning with the traditional medicines as alternative therapy. One of them is Piper betle linn which contains the antiseptic agent. Purpose: This research is aimed to observe the sensitivity difference of Streptococcus viridans on 35% Piper betle linn extract and 10%povidone iodine. Methods: This laboratory research was conducted by the post test only design with random complete design. The research sampel is Streptococcus viridans culture that was scrapped from the ulcer of the recurrent aphthous stomatitis patient, then it was replicated by using the Federer theory. Results: Inhibitory zone of 35% Piper betle linn extract is bigger than 10% povidone iodine. Conclusion: Streptococcus viridans are more sensitive to 35% Piper bittle linn extract than 10% povidone iodine. 35% Piper betle linn extract has more antibacterial effect than 10% povidone iodine.Latar belakang: Ulserasi rongga mulut seringkali menjadi alasan utama bagi pasien untuk memeriksakan diri ke dokter gigi. Terapi ulserasi rongga mulut adalah pemberian terapi paliatif kepada penderita, seperti: pemberian obat topikal yang mengandung antiseptik. Saat ini banyak penelitian dalam pengembangan obat tradisional yang dapat dijadikan sebagai obat alternatif. Salah satu diantaranya adalah daun sirih yang mengandung zat antiseptik. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui perbedaan sensitivitas Streptococcus viridans terhadap ekstrak daun sirih 35% jika dibandingkan dengan povidone iodine 10%. Metode: Penelitian laboratoris yang dilakukan dengan post test only design dengan rancangan acak lengkap. Sampel penelitian adalah kultur Streptococcus viridans yang diambil melalui swab dari hapusan ulser pada pasien yang menderita stomatitis aftosa rekuren, kemudian dilakukan

  12. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant

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    N′Guessan Bra Yvette Fofie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g (mg of QE/g of plant extract of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus.

  13. Minerals salt composition and secondary metabolites of Euphorbia hirta Linn., an antihyperglycemic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvette Fofie, N'Guessan Bra; Sanogo, Rokia; Coulibaly, Kiyinlma; Kone-Bamba, Diénéba

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical study and research on acute toxicity were performed on the aerial parts (leaves and stems) of Euphorbia hirta Linn. The phytochemical screening and chromatography revealed the presence of saponin, sterol, terpene, alkaloids, polyphenols, tannins and flavonoids and especially mucilage. The evaluation of total polyphenols and total flavonoids gave 120.97 ± 7.07 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) mg/g (mg of GAE/g of extract) of dry extract and 41.4 ± 0.5 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (QE/g) (mg of QE/g of plant extract) of dry extract respectively. The physicochemical study revealed moisture content of 7.73% ± 0.00%, total ash 7.48% ± 0.03%. Sulfuric ash 9.05% ± 0.01%, hydrochloric acid insoluble ash of 0.8% ± 0.02%. The search for minerals salt revealed the presence of Cr, Zn, K, Ca and Mg having an important role in glucose metabolism. The acute toxicity study showed that the toxic dose may be above 3000 mg/kg. The results of these studies indicate that extracts from the leaves and stem of E. hirta Linn. contains trace elements and minerals salt and bioactive secondary metabolites which explain their therapeutic uses for treating diabetes mellitus.

  14. Preliminary pharmacological evaluation of Martynia annua Linn leaves for wound healing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santram Lodhi; Singhai AK

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the wound healing potential of fractions from ethanol extract of Martyniaannua (M. annua) Linn leaves. Methods: Ethanol extract of M. annua Linn leaves was fractionate into three different fractions (MAF-A, MAF-B and MAF-C) which were screened for wound healing potential using two models: excision and incision on rats. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) profile of all fractions were analyzed and TLC of luteolin was also done. The Povidone-Iodine Ointment was used as reference for comparision. Excision and incision wounds were created on dorsal portion of rats for study. Wound contraction, biochemical parameters (protein level and hydroxyproline level) and histopathological study were performed in excision wound model whereas incision model was used for determination of tensile strength. Results: The wound contraction and tensile strength of skin tissues were observed significantly greater in MAF-C fraction treated group than other two fractions (P<0.01). In excision wound method (on day 18) protein content and hydroxyproline were found significantly higher in MAF-C group than control group (P<0.01). Histopathological study also showed better angiogenesis, matured collagen fibres and fibroblast cells as compared with the control group. Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings suggest that fraction MAF-C from ethanol extract of M. annua leaves is found most effective in wound healing.

  15. BIOCHEMICAL ESTIMATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF CLITORIA TERNATEA LINN ROOTS

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    J. C. KALITA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of plant based drugs and chemicals for curing various ailments are as old as human civilization. In recenttimes, emphasis on plant research has increased and collection as well as evaluation of the traditional use ofplants as medicine gets prime importance in the present day scenario. Clitoria ternatea Linn has been using sincethe ancient times for its medicinal values. Almost all the parts of the plant have medicinal property. The root ofthe plant is reported to have anti -diarrheal, Anti histamic, anti-diabetic, cholinergic activity etc. Traditionally theroot has been using for the treatment of many diseases like leucorrhoea, diarrhea, urinary problems, diuretic,impotency, infertility stomach trouble etc. The present work was designed to estimate primary metabolites suchas total ash, crude protein, crude fiber, total lipids and carbohydrates along with the mineral composition of theroot of the plant Clitoria ternatea Linn. Results revealed highest amount of carbohydrate among all the primarymetabolites and highest value was recorded for Magnesium among all the minerals under study.

  16. EXTRACTION AND ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF SECONDARY PLANT METABOLITES FROM ARTABOTRYS HEXAPETALUS (LINN. F. BHANDARI

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    K. M. Sowjanya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the important sources for several drugs. In recent years many drug formulations are based on plant products. The present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of leaves of Artabotrys hexapetalus Linn. belonging to the family Annonaceae. It is widely distributed throughout the southern part of the Asia and china. In the present study, methanolic extracts of leaves of Artabotrys hexapetalus Linn was evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against medically important bacterial and fungal strains. The antimicrobial activity was determined in the extracts using agar well diffusion method. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts (25, 50, 75 and 100 μg/ml of Artabotrys hexapetalus were tested against ten human pathogenic bacteria; and four fungal strains. The results revealed that the remarkable inhibition of the microbial growth was shown against the tested organisms. Phytochemical analysis of the plant was also carried out. The microbial activity of the Artabotrys hexapetalus was due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, this plant can be further studied to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as lead molecules in the development of new pharmaceutically important compounds.

  17. Growth inhibition of Struvite crystals in the presence of juice of Citrus medica Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, C K; Joshi, M J

    2008-10-01

    Struvite, one of the components of urinary stone grows rapidly forming "staghorn-calculi", is a painful urological disorder. It is necessary to study the growth-inhibition of Struvite crystals. This in vitro study has been carried out in the presence of the juice of Citrus medica Linn. by using single diffusion gel growth technique. Sodium metasilicate solution of specific gravity 1.05 and an aqueous solution of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate of 0.5 M concentration were mixed so that the pH value 7.0 could be set. After the gelation, supernatant solutions comprising of pure 1.0 M Magnesium acetate (control solution) as well as mixed with the different concentrations of the juice were gently poured on the set gels. From the study of growth-inhibition behavior of Struvite crystals, it was found that Citrus medica Linn. inhibits the growth of the crystals. This study may be used for formulating the strategy for prevention or dissolution of Struvite.

  18. Evaluation of the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn

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    Ghaisas M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn, to justify the traditional claim endowed upon this herbal drug as a rasayana in Ayurveda. The effect of the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata (EBV on the primary and secondary antibody responses was evaluated by the humoral antibody response for a specific immune response. The effect of EBV on the phagocytic activity was evaluated by the carbon clearance test and neutrophil activation was evaluated by the neutrophil adhesion test for a nonspecific immune response. The data was analysed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramar multiple comparison tests. On oral administration, EBV showed a significant increase in the primary and secondary humoral antibody responses, by increasing the hemagglutinating antibody titre at doses of 250 and 500mg/kg/p.o. There was a significant increase in the phagocytic index and percentage neutrophil adhesion at doses of 250 and 500mg/kg/p.o. The present study reveals that the ethanolic extract of the stem bark of Bauhinia variegata Linn holds a promise as an immunomodulatory agent, which acts probably by stimulating both the specific and nonspecific arms of immunity.

  19. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective : The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM overdose induced hepatotoxicity . Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total Bilirubin (TB was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner.

  20. Estimation of Rhein from Cassia fistula Linn. using validated HPTLC method

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    Sunita Shailajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhein is the major anthraquinone found in Cassia fistula Linn, which is traditionally used as an important component of plant based medicine. Aims and Objective: To develop and validate a High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic method for the estimation of Rhein from C. fistula Linn. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was achieved on silica gel 60 F 254 plates with n-hexane: Ethyl acetate: Formic acid (5:5:0.2, v/v/v as a mobile phase. Detection of Rhein was carried out by derivatizing the plate with 10% ethanolic KOH reagent followed by heating at 110°C for 10 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 4 equipped with winCATS software was used for densitometric scanning at 550 nm. The accuracy of the method was checked by conducting various validation parameters according to ICH (International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Results: The method was found applicable to evaluate the content of Rhein in different plant parts of C. fistula and the impact of different geographical regions on the Rhein content in fruit pulp of C. fistula was also studied. Estimation of Rhein from a herbal formulation containing C. fistula fruit pulp was also carried out using the validated HPTLC method. The developed method was found sensitive and accurate for the estimation of Rhein from various plant matrices. Conclusion: The developed method was found useful for the quantitation of bioactive marker Rhein and can be used as a routine quality control tool for the assessment of botanicals.

  1. Punica granatum Linn. prevention of oral candidiasis in patients undergoing anticancer treatment

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    Manuela Gouvêa Campêlo dos SANTOS

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oral candidiasis is considered one of the complications of antineoplastic therapy of head and neck. Studies show that herbal medicine has proven to be a promising alternative for the treatment of candidiasis. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the gel Punica granatum Linn. in the prevention of oral candidiasis in patients undergoing radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and adverse effects associated with its use. Material and method It was performed a clinical trial, double blind, in the period 2012-2013, with patients seen at a referral hospital for cancer treatment. The sample consisted of 17 patients who did not have signs nor symptoms of oral candidiasis. These patients were divided into two groups: experimental (n=11: composed of patients who used the gel Punica granatum Linn. 6.25% since the beginning of the anticancer treatment and completed a week after the end of the treatment regimen; control (n=6: for patients who used the gel Miconazol 2%, following the same guidelines of the previous group. Data were tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics, the chi-square test and calculation of continuing Yates correction (p<0.05. Result There was no oral candidiasis in 63.6% of patients in the experimental group and in none of the control group patients. Conclusion Most patients who used the experimental gel showed no clinical signs of fungal infection, and there was no association of adverse effects.

  2. Pectin extraction from Citron peel (Citrus medica Linn. and its use in food system

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    Rojanakorn, T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Screening experiments using 25-1 fractional factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and extracting time were the main factors affecting the amount and quality of extracted pectin from Citrus medica Linn. Optimum condition of pectin extraction was studied using central composite design (CCD. Mathematical models relating pH, temperature and extracted time to amount of extracted pectin, equivalent weight, methyl content and anhydrogalacturonic acid content were established. Based on the mathematics models, the condition of pH 2, 100ºC and 105 min was found to be the optimum conditions for pectin extraction from Citrus medica Linn. Mathematical and experimental results were verified. The use of extracted pectin as a gelling agent in pineapple jam revealed no significant difference in gel consistency compared to that of commercial pectin grade 150 (p>0.05. However, the commercial pectin had a higher liking score on the spreadability, texture and overall liking. As a stabilizer in chocolate pasteurised milk, 0.2% of the extracted pectin was required to prevent precipitation of chocolate powder with the similar viscosity obtained from 0.06% κ-carageenan

  3. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON THE ROOT OF BOMBAX CEIBA LINN.

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    Garg Nitika

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present communication attempts to evaluate the physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical studies on the roots of Bombax ceiba Linn. or the silk cotton tree. This tropical tree has a straight tall trunk and its leaves are deciduous in winter. Red flower with 5 petals appear in the spring before the new foliage. The whole plant of Bombax ceiba used as traditional folk medicines for the treatment of antidysenteric, antidiahorreal and antipyretic effects. Bombax ceiba Linn. Contains glycosides, tannins, flavanoid, b-sitosterol and lupeol. The present study deals with phytochemical investigations of Bombax ceiba root including determination of loss on drying, ash values, TLC and extractive values. The preliminary phytochemical screening of powdered drug was also carried out. The qualitative chemical examinations revealed the presence of various phytoconstituents like flavanoid, terpenoid saponins, phenolic compounds and mucilage’s in the extracts. The study revealed specific identities for the particular crude drug which will be useful in identification and control to adulterations of the raw drug.

  4. UJI KHASIAT ANTIDIARE EKSTRAK DAUN SENDOK (PLANTAGO MAJOR LINN. PADA TIKUS PUTIH

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    Dian Sundari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Diare masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat dan merupakan salah satu penyebab utama kematian pada anak di negara berkembang termasuk Indonesia. Diare didefinisikan sebagai buang air besar lembek atau cair tiga kali atau lebih dalam waktu 24 jam. Daun sendok atau daun urat (Plantago major Linn. merupakan tanaman obat yang salah satu penggunaan empiriknya adalah untuk nyeri perut dan disentri. Di dalam daun sendok terkandung  zat-zat kalium alkaloida yang tidak beracun, lendir dengan asam D-galakturonat, pluntagon, aukobin (glikosid, invertin, emulsin (enzim, vitamin C, alkaloida, tanin, minyak lemak. Untuk mengetahui apakah daun sendok mempunyai khasiat sebagai antidiare, maka dilakukan penelitian antidiare menggunakan metode P. Bass. (1973. Bahan uji berupa daun sendok bentuk ekstrak etanol 50% diberikan secara oral pada tikus putih dengan dosis 50 mg dan 150 mg/100 g bb. Sebagai pembanding digunakan Loperamide dosis 0,12 mg/100 g bb. dan sebagai kontrol adalah akuades. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa efek antidiare ekstrak daun sendok baik dosis 50 mg/100 g bb. maupun 150 mg/100 g bb. tidak ada beda nyata terhadap pembanding Loperamide dosis 0,12 mg/100 g bb.   Kata kunci : tanaman obat, daun sendok (Plantago major Linn., antidiare.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Methanolic Extract of Solanum nigrum Linn Berries

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    V Ravi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The present study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of berries of Solanum nigrum Linn. The medicinal values of the berries of Solanum nigrum (Black night shades have been mentioned in ancient literature as useful in disorders of inflammation. Dried pulverized berries of Solanum nigrum were extracted with methanol by using soxhlet apparatus. The effect of methanolic extracts of berries of Solanum nigrum were studied on carrageenan induced paw edema. The methanolic extract decreased the edema induced in hind paw. The methanolic extract of Solanum nigrum (375 mg/kg b.w. has showed significant anti-inflammatory. It has been concluded that methanolic extract of berries of Solanum nigrum Linn (375 mg/kg b.w. augments that it is having good anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced paw edema. Industrial relevance: The herbal medicines are getting more importance in the treatment of inflammation because of the toxic effect of the current therapy used to treat those inflammation using synthetic drugs. Herbal medicine are less toxic and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug with less side effect, less costly affordable and more effective in the treatment of inflammation. Finally the phytochemical screening or elucidation of the bioactive compounds from the plant would be effective drug against inflammation.

  6. In vitro and in vivo antiinflammatory activity of Clerodendrum paniculatum linn. leaves

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    Jeenu Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenes, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, phenolic acid, sterols, and glycosides. This study was intended to evaluate the antiinflammatory activity of various extracts of fresh leaves of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn experimentally by in vitro (human red blood cell membrane stabilization method and in vivo methods (0.1 ml of 1% w/v carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model. Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, alcohol, and aqueous extracts were screened for in vitro antiinflammatory activity. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts which showed, best in vitro antiinflammatory activity was screened for in vivo antiinflammatory activity at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Indomethacin at the dose level of 10 mg/kg was used as reference standard drug. Both the extracts showed a dose dependent significant (P<0.001 reduction in paw edema when compared to the control, at all the time intervals and comparable to indomethacin (reference standard treated group. The results of the present study demonstrate that petroleum ether and chloroform extracts possess significant (P<0.001 antiinflammatory potential which provide scientific basis for the traditional claims of Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn leaves as an antiinflammatory drug.

  7. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants on Allium cepa Linn.

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    Akinboro, A; Bakare, A A

    2007-07-25

    The cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous extracts of five medicinal plants: Azadirachta indica (A. Juss), Morinda lucida (Benth.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf.), Mangifera indica (Linn.) and Carica papaya (Linn.) was evaluated using the Allium cepa assay. The extracts were prepared with tap water as practised locally. Onion bulbs were exposed to 1, 5, 10, 25 and 50%; and 1, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20% concentrations (v/v) of each of the extracts for macroscopic and microscopic analyses, respectively. There was concentration-dependent and statistically significant (Pinhibition of root growth by the extracts when compared with the control. The EC(50) obtained for decoctions of Azadirachta indica. Cymbopogon citratus, Mangifera indica and Carica papaya were 0.6, 3.0, 1.4 and 0.8%, respectively. It was 2.6 and 0.8% for the squeezed extracts of Azadirachta indica and Morinda lucida, respectively. All the tested extracts were observed to have mitodepressive effects on cell division and induced mitotic spindle disturbance in Allium cepa. These results suggest an inhibitory, mitodepressive and turbagenic activities of the aqueous extracts on Allium cepa.

  8. STRUKTUR ANATOMI DAN KUALITAS SERAT KAYU DAN AKAR GANTUNG BERINGIN (FICUS BENJAMINA LINN.

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    Krisdianto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Beringin (Ficus benjamina Linn. is one of typical fast growing tree species which are commonly found in Indonesia. The trees grow with hanging roots which grow larger and often can merged with the main stem, then its timber is not optimally utilized. This paper studies the anatomical structure and fiber quality of main stem and large, medium, and small diameter of hanging roots of beringin (Ficus benjamina Linn. tree. Anatomical structure was observed macroscopically and microscopically, while fiber dimensions were measured from macerated samples. The results show that the anatomical structure pattern of the roots is similar with those of main stem, however the quantity and dimension of anatomical components of hanging roots are smaller and shorter than components of main stem. Likewise, the fiber dimensions of roots are shorter and thinner than those taken from the main stem. Based on fiber dimensions and its derivative value, beringin wood fibers are classified into class quality II for pulp and paper. The creamy white color with white streaky figure of beringin wood from main stem is recommended for indoor decoration products such as wooden venetian blind, while the small roots are recommended for strap or webbing material crafts.

  9. PENGGUNAAN EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH (Piper betle Linn UNTUK MENGHAMBAT BAKTERI Aeromonas hydrophila DAN TOKSISITASNYA PADA IKAN PATIN (Pangasius hypophthalmus (THE USE OF PIPER BETLE LINN EXTRACT ON AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA TO OBSTRUCT AND THE TOKSISITY TO PANGASIUS HYPOPHTHALMUS

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    Siti Aisiah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui   daya  hambat  daun  sirih   yang  paling  besar  terhadap  bakteri Aeromonas Hydrophila, mengetahui konsentrasi minimal ekstrak daun sirih yang mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri  A. hydrophila  dan mengetahui toksisitas konsentrasi efektif dari  ekstrak daun sirih terhadap ikan patin. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan untuk  uji toksisitas  adalah rancangan acak lengkap, terdiri dari 4 perlakuan yaitu A  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak daun sirih konsentrasi 75%, B  = Ikan disuntik dengan ekstrak daun sirih konsentrasi 25%, C  = Kontrol positif (ikan disuntik dengan akuades steril dan D  = Kontrol negatif (ikan tidak disuntik, diulang 3 kali. Hasil uji sensitivitas antibakteri daun sirih yang mempunyai daya hambat dan daya bunuh paling besar terhadap bakteri A. hydrophila adalah ekstrak daun sirih-metanol. Pengujian MIC menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak daun sirih-metanol memiliki daya hambat minimal 25 % terhadap aktivitas bakteri A. hydrophila. Hasil uji toksisitas yang dilakukan terhadap ikan patin dengan konsentrasi 75% dan 25% menunjukkan bahwa mortalitas yang terjadi tidak mencapai 50%. Pengamatan hematologis pada masing-masing perlakuan menunjukkan hasil yang berpengaruh tidak nyata terhadap kesehatan ikan patin. Parameter kualitas air pada penelitian ini yaitu, , kadar oksigen terlarut,  pH, amoniak, CO2 dan suhu masih dapat mendukung kehidupan ikan patin. This research was aimed a finding the part of Piper betle Linn  which had the biggest resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria and to know the minimal concentrate which could obstruct the growth of A. hydrophila  bacteria and to know effective concentrate toxicity of P. betle Linn  to Pangasius hypophthalmus.  The random sampling used proportionate stratified random sampling. In toxicity test, it had be done 4 treatment, which was given to fish, those were : A = fish was injected with 25 % concentrate of extract  P

  10. 诺丽(Morinda citrifolia Linn.)离体培养研究%STUDY ON CULTURE IN VITRO OF NONI (MORINDA CITRIFOLIA LINN.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴田; 蓝增全

    2011-01-01

    为诺丽遗传转化奠定基础及诺丽工厂化育苗提供依据,本实验以诺丽茎尖及带芽茎段为外植体,以3%MS培养基添加不同的激素组合进行离体培养,选择最佳的培养组合.实验结果表明,茎尖在MS或添加NAA(0.3 mg/L)的MS培养基中均可得到完整植株,且在后者中的长势更好.该研究成功建立了诺丽离体再生体系,为规模化生产及遗传转化提供了技术支撑.%To provided a theory foundation of genetic transformation and industrialized breeding of noni ( Morinda citrifolia Linn.), the perfect regeneration system was established using shoot tip and stem with buds of noni as explants in MS culture medium with different hormones combinations.The result showed that the complete plantlet was obtained by shoot tip cultured in MS or MS + NAA (0.3 mg/L), and the growth vigour was more better in the latter medium.The study established the regeneration system of noni, and provided a technology foundation for large scale production.

  11. Comparative antioxidant and bioavailability studies of Vitamin C in Phyllanthus emblica Linn. and its combinations with Piper nigrum Linn. and Zingiber officinale Roscoe

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    Vanita Somasekhar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (amla is used in Ayurveda, the ancient Indian system of medicine and its major constituent is vitamin C which has effective free radical scavenging property. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity and the bioavailability profile of vitamin C in amla and its combinations with piperine and ginger in comparison to synthetic vitamin C using New Zealand rabbits. In vitro antioxidant activity studies of synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger were carried out using different models such as 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Nitric Oxide, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging methods, Total reductive capability and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity estimation. The study results showed that synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger possess significant in vitro antioxidant activity. For bioavailability studies, synthetic vitamin C, amla, amla with piperine and amla with ginger 100 mg/kg, were administered orally and the serum samples were analyzed by HPLC at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 24 hours. Bioavailability studies revealed that amla with piperine combination has higher concentration of vitamin C when compared to synthetic vitamin C. This is probably due to presence of piperine, which is a bioavailability enhancer. The present study supports the fact that amla with piperine combination can be an alternative to synthetic vitamin C.

  12. Mint oil (Mentha spicata Linn.) offers behavioral radioprotection: a radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haksar, A; Sharma, A; Chawla, R; Kumar, Raj; Lahiri, S S; Islam, F; Arora, M P; Sharma, R K; Tripathi, R P; Arora, Rajesh

    2009-02-01

    Mentha spicata Linn. (mint), a herb well known for its gastroprotective properties in the traditional system of medicine has been shown to protect against radiation-induced lethality, and recently its constituents have been found to possess calcium channel antagonizing properties. The present study examined the behavioral radioprotective efficacy of mint oil (obtained from Mentha spicata), particularly in mitigating radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA), which has been proposed as a behavioral endpoint that is mediated by the toxic effects of gamma radiation on peripheral systems, primarily the gastrointestinal system in the Sprague-Dawley rat model. Intraperitoneal administration of Mentha spicata oil 10% (v/v), 1 h before 2 Gy gamma radiation, was found to render significant radioprotection against CTA (p Mentha spicata can be effectively utilized in preventing radiation-induced behavioral changes. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Protective effect of Tamarindus indica linn against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats

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    Pimple B

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Protective effect of Tamarindus indica Linn (Caesalpiniaceae was evaluated by intoxicating the rats with paracetamol (1 g/kg p.o. for seven days. The aqueous extracts of different parts of Tamarindus indica such as fruits, leaves (350 mg/kg p.o. and unroasted seeds (700 mg/kg p.o. were administered for 9 days after the third dose of paracetamol. Biochemical estimations such as aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and total protein were recorded on 4 th and 13 th day. Liver weight variation, thiopentone-induced sleeping time and histopathology were studied on 13 th day. Silymarin (100 mg/kg p.o. was used as a standard. A significant hepatoregenerative effect was observed for the aqueous extracts of tamarind leaves, fruits and unroasted seeds (p< 0.05 as judged from the parameters studied.

  14. PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WHOLE PLANT OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA LINN

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    Joshi Amit

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis gigantea Linn. belongs family Asclepiadaceae and contains flavonoids, tannins, reducing sugars cardiac glycoside alkaloids. In the present study, ethanolic extract of Calotropis gigantea was investigated for its antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity was determined in vitro by reducing power, DPPH and nitric oxide method. Hydroalcohlic extract of Calotropis gigantea shown significant antioxidant activity. Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae commonly known as arka and wild growing tropical plant, which possesses number of medicinal properties. It is reported to contain cardiac glycosides, -sitosterol, madrine, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, trisecharoides and flavonols. The plant has been used for various disease conditions, including leprosy, ulcers, tumours and piles. Various pharmacological activities reported like antifertility, anti-inflammatory activity, hepatoprotective activity, antimyocardial infraction activity and antidiarrhoeal activity.

  15. Effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut milk extract on rat neutrophil functions in adjuvant arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, V R; Shanthi, P; Sachdanandam, P

    2006-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and various inflammatory conditions, by accumulation and liberation of active proteolytic enzymes. The effect of milk extract of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nuts (SA) at a dosage of 150 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for 14 days on adjuvant arthritis was studied to gain some insight into this intriguing disease in relation to neutrophil functions. The decreased phagocytic function of neutrophils (phagocytic index and avidity index) found in adjuvant arthritis was significantly increased by the administration of the drug SA. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species (superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical, H2O2 and myeloperoxidase), lysosomal enzymes (acid phosphatase and cathepsin D) and increased accumulation of neutrophils in the joints observed in adjuvant arthritic animals were reverted back to near normal levels by treatment with SA. The results of this study indicate that SA can be considered to be a good therapeutic agent for inflammation and arthritis.

  16. Antibacterial alkaloids from chelidonium majus linn (papaveraceae) against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guo Ying; Meng, Fan Yan; Hao, Xiao Yan; Zhang, Yun Ling; Wang, Gen Chun; Xu, Gui Li

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the antibacterial effect of extracts and compounds isolated from the aerial part of Chelidonium majus Linn. (Papaveraceae) acting against clinical strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The activities were evaluated by using the macrobroth dilution method and reported as the MICs/MBCs. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the most active extract from the aerial parts (EtOAc) led to the isolation of benzo[c]phenanthridine-type alkaloids 8-hydroxydihydrosanguinarine (hhS), 8-hydroxydihydrochelerythrine (hhC), which were potently active against MRSA strains. The selective antibacterial activity reported in this paper for 8-hydroxylated benzo[c]phenanthridine-type alkaloids isolated from C.majus opens the possibility that they could be helpful for the developing of new antibacterial agents for treating the infection of MRSA which has created nosocomial problem worldwide.

  17. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies of Vaj Turki (Acorus calamus Linn. & Unani Description– A Review

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    Nadir Shahzad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vaj Turki (Acorus calamus Linn. is a marshy perennial herb and rhizomes which has been traditionally used as medicine, against different diseases viz; Nisyan (dementia, Zofe Dimagh (Alzheimers disease, Humma (fever, Zeequn Nafs (asthama, Sual Muzmin (chronic cough, Ziabetus (ziabetes, Dyslipidemia, Quroohe Muzmina (chronic ulcer and mainly for digestive problems such as Dyspepsia (Zofe Hazm, Sue Hazm and Tukhma. A large number of chemical constituents such as phenyl propanoids, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes as well as xanthone glycosides, flavones, lignans, steroids obtained from the Vaj have been proved to show various pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, immunomodulator, anti-inflammatory, nootropic, antipyretic, anti-asthamatic, hypoglycaemic, hepato-protective, cardioprotective, cytotoxic activity etc. The aim of this review is to provide information regarding Unani description in classical texts and scientific studies at current scenario which will motivate the research scholars on the basis of current scientific updates in their field of research.

  18. Profiling of Piper betle Linn. cultivars by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Vikas; Sharma, Deepty; Kumar, Brijesh; Madhusudanan, K P

    2010-12-01

    Piper betle Linn. is a traditional plant associated with the Asian and southeast Asian cultures. Its use is also recorded in folk medicines in these regions. Several of its medicinal properties have recently been proven. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of mainly terpenes and phenols in betel leaves. These constituents vary in the different cultivars of Piper betle. In this paper we have attempted to profile eight locally available betel cultivars using the recently developed mass spectral ionization technique of direct analysis in real time (DART). Principal component analysis has also been employed to analyze the DART MS data of these betel cultivars. The results show that the cultivars of Piper betle could be differentiated using DART MS data.

  19. Studies on the activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea

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    Poonam G Daswani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers using representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.Antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. Effect on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. Effect on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC heat labile toxin (LT, heat stable toxin (ST and cholera toxin (CT was also assessed. The decoction showed antigiardial activity, reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and affected production of CT and action of LT. The decoction of C. rotundus does not have marked antimicrobial activity and exerts its antidiarrheal action by mechanisms other than direct killing of the pathogen.

  20. Studies on the activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daswani, Poonam G; Brijesh, S; Tetali, Pundarikakshudu; Birdi, Tannaz J

    2011-05-01

    To study the antidiarrheal activity of the decoction of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers using representative assays of diarrheal pathogenesis and understand its mechanism of action.Antibacterial, antigiardial and antirotaviral activities were studied. Effect on adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri to HEp-2 cells was evaluated as a measure of effect on colonization. Effect on enterotoxins such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) heat labile toxin (LT), heat stable toxin (ST) and cholera toxin (CT) was also assessed. The decoction showed antigiardial activity, reduced bacterial adherence to and invasion of HEp-2 cells and affected production of CT and action of LT. The decoction of C. rotundus does not have marked antimicrobial activity and exerts its antidiarrheal action by mechanisms other than direct killing of the pathogen.

  1. PRELIMIARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF ZALEYA PENTANDRA AND CORCHORUS DEPRESSUS LINN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Samina; Chaudhary, Bashir Ahmad; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Afzali, Khurram

    2015-01-01

    Zaleya pentandra (Zp) and Cochoms depressus Linn. (Cd) have been considered as herbs with potential therapeutic benefits. Zp and Cd belong to the important family Aizoaceae and Tiliaceae, respectively. The extractions were carried out successively with methanol and dichloromethane at room temperature for 24 h. Preliminary phytochemical screening of Zp and Cd revealed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, saponins, and anthraquinones. The methanolic and dichloromethane extracts of selected plants were subjected to examination of antifungal activity by using agar tube dilution. The extracts were tested against different fungi such as A. nigeir, A. flavus, F. solani, A. funigatis and Mucor. The dichloromethane extract of aerial parts of Cd showed high antifungal activity against A. niger as compared to all other tested extracts.

  2. AKTIVITAS ANTIOKSIDAN EKSTRAK BIJI DUWET (Syzygium cumini Linn. PADA PEROKSIDASI LIPIDA SECARA IN VITRO

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    Rohadi Rohadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available All parts of Syzygium cumini Linn. (duwet were widely used for medicinal plant in the treatment of various deseases. The seed extract was used to lower blood glucose. Cumini's seed had higher phenolic fractions than others. It were prepared by extracted of duwet seed "Genthong" varieties, using various extractants such as 85% ethyl acetate, 50% methanol and 50% ethanol. Duwet seed extract collected then was determined of phenolics compound and antioxidant activity assayed by measuring 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazylradical (DPPH scavenging activity, reducing Ferric ion (Fe3+ power and inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation. The objective was to select one of the extractant which gave highest yield and polyphenolic content and its stronger antioxidant activity. Extractant 50% methanol gave highest the extract yields was 16.29 % (db. and phenolics compounds of extract was composed: total phenolic 45.99±0.25 g-GAE/100 g-extract; total flavonoid 2.28±0.07 g-QE/100 g-extract and total tannin 26.9±0.07 g-TAE/100 g-extract. All of extract exhibited strong on behalf of RSA-DPPH assay 87-95% (100  g-mL-l and reducing power, nevertheless in inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation was moderate 49-55% (400  g-mL-l. Keywords: Syzygium cumini Linn, seed, antioxidant, extraction   ABSTRAK Tanaman duwet (Syzygium cumini Linn. pada semua kompartemennya dimanfaatkan masyarakat untuk pengobatan suatu penyakit. Ekstrak bijinya dimanfaatkan untuk penurun gula darah. Bijinya merupakan bagian tanaman yang kaya senyawa polifenol. Fraksi kaya senyawa fenolik dipreparasi dengan mengekstraksi biji duwet varietas "Genthong", dengan tiga jenis ekstraktan; etil acetat 85%, metanol 50% dan etanol 50%. Ekstrak biji duwet (EBD yang diperoleh dianalisis kelompok senyawa fenolik dan aktivitas antioksidan menggunakan metode uji penangkapan radikal DPPH (2,2-diphenil 1-picrylhydrazyl, uji reduksi ion Feri (ferric reduction antioxidant power-FRAP dan uji penghambatan peroksidasi

  3. TITIK TANGKAP PENGARUH HIPOTENSIF EKSTRAK TANAMAN OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA LINN PADA KUCING

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    Achmad Muhamad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In preliminary reports by others it lias been stated that Oldenlandia corvmbosa Linn had an hypoten­sive effect in rabbits. This study confirmed this finding in cats and found that alcoholic-extracts of the plant decreased resistance in the hindleg significantly in acute experiments. By the used'technique of extraction in which the content of the active component was multiplied by about ten times systemic intravenous infusion of the extract decreased the resistance to flow in the hind leg of the cat about 40 per cent. Thin layer chromatography techniques revealed 4 spots in the alcoholic extract but due to certain constraint factors it was not yet able to detect which spot(s contained the active component(s.

  4. Antimicrobial activities of the crude methanol extract of Acorus calamus Linn.

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    Souwalak Phongpaichit

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A partially-purified fraction obtained from column chromatographic preparation of the crude methanol extract of Acorus calamus Linn. rhizomes was investigated for its antimicrobial activities on various microorganisms including bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi. It exhibited high activity againstfilamentous fungi: Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, and Penicillium marneffei with IC50 values of 0.2, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/ml, respectively. However, it showed moderate activity against yeasts: Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (MIC 0.1-1 mg/ml and low activity against bacteria (MIC 5->10 mg/ml. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that hyphae and conidia treated with this fraction were shrunken and collapsed, which might be due to cell fluid leakage.

  5. An in silico study on antidiabetic activity of bioactive compounds in Euphorbia thymifolia Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Vo, T Hoang; Tran, Ngan; Nguyen, Dat; Le, Ly

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines have become strongly preferred treatment to reduce the negative impacts of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its severe complications due to lesser side effects and low cost. Recently, strong anti-hyperglycemic effect of Euphorbia thymifolia Linn. (E. thymifolia) on mice models has reported but the action mechanism of its bioactive compounds has remained unknown. This study aimed to evaluate molecular interactions existing between various bioactive compounds in E. thymifolia and targeted proteins related to Type 2 DM. This process involved the molecular docking of 3D structures of those substances into 4 targeted proteins: 11-β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase, protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1B and mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase sirtuin-6. In the next step, LigandScout was applied to evaluate the bonds formed between 20 ligands and the binding sites of each targeted proteins. The results identified seven bioactive compounds with high binding affinity (bioactive compounds, in silico approach is performed.

  6. Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Saumya R; Mishra, Satyaranjan; Sahoo, Sabuj; Panda, Prasana K

    2011-04-01

    The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.)). Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w.) to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; Pvariegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w.) exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison) processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy.

  7. Annona reticulata Linn. (Bullock's heart: Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties

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    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of human civilization plants and plant based chemicals are the most important sources of medicines. Phytochemical and different products obtained from plant are used as medicines, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and food supplements. Annona reticulata Linn. (牛心果 niú xīn guǒ; Bullock's heart is a versatile tree and its fruits are edible. Parts of A. reticulata are used as source of medicine and also for industrial products. It possesses several medicinal properties such as anthelmintic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, wound healing and cytotoxic effects. It is widely distributed with phytochemicals like tannins, alkaloids, phenols, glycosides, flavonoids and steroids. Present article is an attempt to highlight over taxonomy, morphology, geographical distribution, phytoconstituents and pharmacological activities of A. reticulata reported so far.

  8. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF Solanum Pubescens LINN ON CCL4 INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS

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    M.Pushpalatha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract of Solanum pubescens Linn was evaluated for hepato protective and antioxidant activities in rats. The plant extract (500mg/kg/day showed a remarkable hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity against Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity as judged from the serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels in liver tissues. CCl4 induced a significant rise in aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, LPO with a reduction of total protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase, and reduced glutathione (GSH. Treatment of rats with plant extract (500 mg/kg significantly (P<0.01 altered serum marker enzymes and antioxidant levels to near normal against CCl4 - treated rats. The activity of the extract at dose of 500 mg/kg was comparable to the standard drug, Silymarin (50 mg/kg, p.o.. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues supported the hepatoprotective activity of plant.

  9. UJI TOKSISITAS AKUT EKSTRAK DAUN PSIDIUM GUAVA LINN (DAUN JAMBU BIJI TERHADAP MENCIT (MUS MUSCULUS

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    Amiyatun Naini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Psidium guava Linn leaf extract as mouthrinse has been suggested to be used against toothache, and also has suggested effect against diarrhea and vomiting, as well as anti spasmodic and rheumatic symptoms, anti inflammation, anti piretic, analgetic, and anti bacterial activity. However, to consider potential side effects, this work aimed to test the acute toxicity of guava leaf extract. For this purpose guava leaf extract was given orally to to groups of ten mice each at a doses of 1.25g, 2.5, 5, 10 and 21 g/kg body weight in a suspension with CMC Na 0,5%. Ten mice were used as control with a dose of 1 ml CMC Na 0,5%. The results suggest no acute toxicity to mice, since even the biggest dose given (show no measurable value of LD 50. It could be concluded that guava leaf extract shows no acute toxicity to mice at tested concentrations.

  10. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and GC- MS Profiling of Ethanolic Flower Extract of Calotropis gigantea Linn. (Apocyanaceae

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    R. Dhivya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Calotropis gigantea Linn is popularly known as the swallow-wort or milkweed and is used as one of the most important drug in Traditional System of Medicine to treat various ailments. The aim of this study is to screen the phytochemicals present in the ethanolic flower extract of Calotropis gigantea and further analysis of the components present in it by GC-MS analysis. Ten grams of flower power was sequentially extracted by ethanol. The results showed the presence of phytochemical compounds of alkaloids, tannins, phenol, flavanoids, sterols, antraquinones, proteins and quinones in the flower extract. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of 14 major compounds. This study forms a basis for the biological characterization and importance of the compounds identified and creates a platform to screen many bioactive components to treat many diseases.

  11. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.):A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nirmal Kumar; Anil Kumar Singh

    2014-01-01

    Plants are used as medicine since ancient time, in organized (Ayurveda, Unani & Siddha) and unorganized (folk, native & tribal) form. In these systems, drugs are described either in Sanskrit or vernacular languages. Avartani (Helicteres isora Linn.) is a medicinal plant which is used in several diseases. It is commonly known as Marodphali, Marorphali, Enthani etc. due to screw like appearance of its fruit. Avartani is used as a folk medicine to treat snake bite, diarrhoea and constipation of new born baby. In the research, antioxidant, hypolipidaemic, antibacterial and antiplasmid activities, cardiac antioxidant, antiperoxidative potency, brain-antioxidation potency, anticancer activity, antinociceptive activity, hepatoprotective activity, anti-diarrheal activity and wormicidal activity in this plant were reviewed.

  12. Protective effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. calyx extract on tetracycline induced testicular toxicity in mice

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    Nawaphat Taweebot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Malvaceae calyx extract (HSE was evaluated for theprotective effect against testicular toxicity induced by tetracycline dose of 20 mg/100 gBW for 14 daysin mice. The extract doses of 20, 50 and 100 mg/100 gBW used in pretreatment by oral administrationfor 4 days and subsequent co-treatment with tetracycline for 14 days had the protective effectexhibiting significantly increasing quality of seminal fluid including an increase in total sperm count,percentage of mobile sperms and viable sperms when compared to the tetracycline treated group (p H. Sabdariffa. calyx extract may be used as protective agent againsttetracycline-induced reproductive toxicity in mice.

  13. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of the roots of Hibiscus esculentus Linn.

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    Sunilson J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Hibiscus esculentus Linn roots inhibited the formation of oxygen derived free radicals invitro with IC 50 of 620 µg/ml, 2300 µg/ml, 870 µg/ml and 610 µg/ml. [Fe 2+ /ascobate system], 730 µg/ml, [Fe 3+ /ADP/ascorbate system], for superoxide radical production, hydroxyl radical generation, nitric oxide radical formation and lipid peroxide formation respectively. The oral administration of the extract (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight, significantly reduce CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats, as judged from the serum and tissue activity of marker enzymes [Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP]. These results were comparable with standard drug silymarin [20 mg/kg, P.O.

  14. Chemicals isolated from Justicia adhatoda Linn reduce fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Pradeepa, Venkatraman; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Narayanan, Raman; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2017-04-01

    Extracts from Justicia adhatoda L. (Acanthaceae) strongly reduced the fitness of the mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linn. The methanolic extracts inhibited several enzymes responsible for protecting insects from oxidative and other damage, including glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, cytochrome P450, and α- and β-esterases. They increased repellency (maximum repellency at 100 ppm) in host-seeking adult females using the "arm-in cage assay." Histopathological examination showed the extracts led to serious midgut cell damage. Justicia adhatoda extracts led to reduced fecundity and oviposition of gravid females compared to controls. The extracts led to substantially reduced A. aegypti survival. We infer that the extracts have potential to reduce pathogen transmission by suppressing population growth of A. aegypti, and possibly other mosquito species.

  15. Isolation and Structural Determination of an Anti Bacterial Constituent from the Leaves of Cassia alata Linn.

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    Barnali Paul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available By different solvent extractions and chromatographic techniques an antibacterial constituent was isolated from leaves of Cassia alata Linn. Infra red spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance studies showed that the isolated compound was chemically 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid. In vitro antibacterial activity of 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid was studied against four Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria using disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid was also recorded against those bacteria by serial dilution technique. Kanamycin was used as positive control. Results showed that 3,4 dihydroxy cinnamic acid had antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria.

  16. Experimental and quantum chemical studies on poriferasterol - A natural phytosterol isolated from Cassia sophera Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmachari, Goutam; Mondal, Avijit; Nayek, Nayana; Kumar, Abhishek; Srivastava, Ambrish Kumar; Misra, Neeraj

    2017-09-01

    Poriferasterol, a biologically relevant phytosterol, has been isolated and identified first-time from Cassia sophera Linn. (family: Caesalpiniaceae) based on detailed spectral studies. Exhaustive theoretical studies on the molecular structure, vibrational spectra, HOMO, LUMO, MESP surfaces and reactivity descriptor of this plant-derived natural molecule have been performed. The experimentally observed FT-IR spectrum of the title compound has been compared with spectral data obtained by DFT-B3LYP/6-311 + G (d,p) method. The UV-visible spectrum of the title compound has also been recorded and the electronic properties, such as frontier orbitals and band gap energy are measured by TD-DFT approach. The 1H and 13C NMR spectrum has been calculated by using the gauge independent atomic orbital method and compared with the observed data.

  17. Phytochemical evaluation of the wild and cultivated varieties of Eranda Mula (Roots of Ricinus communis Linn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Krunal A; Acharya, Rabinarayan; Shukla, V J; Kalyani, Renuka; Khanpara, Komal

    2013-04-01

    In Ayurveda, the roots of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) are used in the treatment Amavata (rheumatism), Sotha (inflammation), Katisula (backache), Udararoga (disease of abdomen), Jwara (fever), etc, Due to high demand, root of the cultivated variety is mainly used in place of wild. But, a comparative phytochemical profile of both varieties is not available till date. Considering this, a preliminary study has been done to ensure basic phytochemical profile of both the varieties. Preliminary physicochemical parameters, phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of alkaloid, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and heavy metal analysis were carried-out in the study. Analysis of physicochemical data reveals no significant difference in between both varieties of roots, while alkaloid was found to be more in cultivated variety (0.34%) than wild one (0.15%). Though, the analytical profiles are almost identical, except the quantity of alkaloid; inferences should be made through well designed pharmacological and clinical studies.

  18. TITIK TANGKAP PENGARUH HIPOTENSIF EKSTRAK TANAMAN OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA LINN PADA KUCING

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    Achmad Muhamad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In preliminary reports by others it lias been stated that Oldenlandia corvmbosa Linn had an hypoten­sive effect in rabbits. This study confirmed this finding in cats and found that alcoholic-extracts of the plant decreased resistance in the hindleg significantly in acute experiments. By the used'technique of extraction in which the content of the active component was multiplied by about ten times systemic intravenous infusion of the extract decreased the resistance to flow in the hind leg of the cat about 40 per cent. Thin layer chromatography techniques revealed 4 spots in the alcoholic extract but due to certain constraint factors it was not yet able to detect which spot(s contained the active component(s.

  19. New Ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpene Glycosides and Benzophenone from Ranunculus muricatus Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bi-Ling; Zou, Hui-Liang; Qin, Fang-Min; Li, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Guang-Xiong

    2015-12-15

    Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides, ranunculosides A (1) and B (2), and a new benzophenone, ranunculone C (3), were isolated from the aerial part of Ranunculus muricatus Linn. The chemical structures of compounds 1-3 were established to be (2S)-ent-kauran-2β-ol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, (2S,4S)-ent-kauran-2β,18-diol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and (R)-3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl]-2-hydroxylpropanoic acid, respectively, by spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the combinational application of RP-HPLC analysis and Mosher's method.

  20. New Ent-Kaurane-Type Diterpene Glycosides and Benzophenone from Ranunculus muricatus Linn.

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    Bi-Ling Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new ent-kaurane diterpene glycosides, ranunculosides A (1 and B (2, and a new benzophenone, ranunculone C (3, were isolated from the aerial part of Ranunculus muricatus Linn. The chemical structures of compounds 1–3 were established to be (2S-ent-kauran-2β-ol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, (2S,4S-ent-kauran-2β,18-diol-15-en-14-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, and (R-3-[2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl]-2-hydroxylpropanoic acid, respectively, by spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by the combinational application of RP-HPLC analysis and Mosher’s method.

  1. Microbicidal effect of medicinal plant extracts (Psidium guajava Linn. and Carica papaya Linn. upon bacteria isolated from fish muscle and known to induce diarrhea in children Uso de extrato de plantas medicinais (Psidium guajava Linn. e Carica papaya Linn. frente a bactérias isoladas de pescado, causadoras de diarréias infantis

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    Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes VIEIRA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Out of the twenty-four samples of shrimp and fish muscle used for this study, twelve were collected near a large marine sewer for waste disposal, 3 km off the coast of Fortaleza (Brazil and used for the isolation of E. coli. Other twelve were collected at the Mucuripe fresh fish market (Fortaleza, Brazil and used for the isolation of Staphylococcus aureus. Ethanol, water and acetone-diluted extracts of guava and papaya leaf sprouts were tested on the bacteria in order to verify their microbicidal potential. The E. coli strains used in the trials were rated LT positive. The papaya leaf extracts (Carica papaya Linn showed no microbicidal activity while the guava sprout extracts (Psidium guajava Linn displayed halos exceeding 13 mm for both species, an effect considered to be inhibitory by the method employed. Guava sprout extracts by 50% diluted ethanol most effectively inhibited E. coli (EPEC, while those in 50% acetone were less effective. It may be concluded that guava sprout extracts constitute a feasible treatment option for diarrhea caused by E. coli or by S. aureus-produced toxins, due to their quick curative action, easy availability in tropical countries and low cost to the consumer.Foram coletadas doze amostras de camarão e peixes nas imediações do interceptor oceânico, em Fortaleza e igual número na Feira de pescado do Mucuripe, Fortaleza, para isolamento de E. coli e Staphylococcus aureus, respectivamente. Extratos aquosos, alcoólicos e cetônicos de broto de goiabeira e de folha de mamão foram testados frente às bactérias para se verificar suas ações antibióticas. As cepas de E. coli utilizadas nos ensaios foram as classificadas como LT positivas. Os extratos de folhas de mamão (Carica papaya Linn não revelaram quaisquer atividades antibióticas enquanto que os preparados com broto de goiabeira (Psidium guajava Linn apresentaram halos sempre >13 mm para as duas espécies, considerados como de inibição pelo m

  2. Antiamnesic evaluation of C. phlomidis Linn. bark extract in mice Avaliação da atividade antiamnésica da casca de C. phlomidis Linn. em camundongos

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Clerodendron phlomidis Linn. (Verbenaceae) is known as Agnimantha in sanskrit. Bark of the plant is used in treating various nervous disorders. In the present study C. phlomidis was investigated for its potential as a nootropic agent in mice. The aqueous extract of the C. phlomidis (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 6 successive days to both young and aged mice. Exteroceptive behavioral models such as elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate shor...

  3. Antidiabetic principles ofLoranthus micranthus Linn. parasitic onPersea americana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patience Ogoamaka Osadebe; Edwin Ogechukwu Omeje; Sylvester Chukwuemeka Nworu; Charles Okechukwu Esimone; Philip Felix Uzor; Ernest kenechukwu David; John Uchechukwu Uzoma

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore antidiabetic principles of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe,Loranthus micranthus Linn. parasitic on Persea Americana.Methods:The weakly acidic fraction of the aqueous methanol extract of the leaves ofLoranthus micranthus (Linn.) was isolated and tested for its antidiabetic activities. The isolation of the weakly acidic fraction was carried out following established physico-chemical based procedures. Furthermore, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated intraperitoneally (ip) with250 mg/kg and400 mg/kg of the weakly acidic fraction, glibenclamide10mg/kg (positive control) and 2 mg/kg of3 % v/v tween20 (negative control). The sugar levels of the treated and untreated animals were determined by withdrawing the blood at regular intervals and testing them with an automated glucometer. The phytochemical analysis of the acidic fraction was carried out using standard procedures. Chromatographic techniques were employed in the subsequent isolation and purification of the constituents of the weakly acidic fraction.Results:It was shown that the maximum effect of the weakly acidic fraction was obtained at24 hours after administration and was found to be statistically comparable with that of the positive control. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, saponins, and acidic compounds in the crude extract and carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenoids and oil in the weakly acidic fraction. Further purification of the weakly acidic fraction of the methanol extract using thin layer chromatography shows that toluene : methanol : diethyl amine (3:1:1) and chloroform: methanol: diethyl amine (9:1:1) are the best solvent system for the isolation of the various components of the weakly acidic fraction of the crude methanol extract ofLoranthus micranthus.Conclusions:The present study has led to the conclusion that the weakly acidic fraction of the plant under study has the potent

  4. Evaluation of In vitro antiviral activity of Datura metel Linn. against rabies virus

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    Soumen Roy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The soxhlet and cold extracts of Datura metel Linn. were evaluated for in vitro antirabies activity. Materials and Methods: Soxhlet and cold extraction method were used to extract Datura (fruit and seed extracts. In vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Based on the CC50 range, the in vitro antirabies activity of the extracts was screened by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test and molecular method. Results: The Datura (fruit and seed extracts were not cytotoxic below 5 mg/ml (CC50. Titer of 10−4 rabies virus challenge virus standard (RV CVS (1 50% tissue culture infective dose [1 TCID50] was obtained by RFFT method and the challenge dose of 10 TCID50 was used for antirabies assay. Datura fruit and seed (soxhlet and cold extracts showed 50% inhibition of RV CVS at 2.5 mg/ml and 1.25 mg/ml (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50], respectively. The tested extracts showed selectivity index (CC50/IC50 ranging from 2 to 4. The viral RNA was extracted and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed which also revealed a 2-fold reduction of viral load at 1.25 mg/ml of the Datura seed (soxhlet methanolic and cold aqueous extracts. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of in vitro antiviral activity of D. metel Linn. against rabies virus. Datura seed extracts have a potential in vitro antirabies activity and, in future, can be further screened for in vivo activity against rabies virus in murine model.

  5. Blechnum Orientale Linn - a fern with potential as antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial agent

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    Lim Yau Y

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blechnum orientale Linn. (Blechnaceae is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various skin diseases, stomach pain, urinary bladder complaints and sterilization of women. The aim of the study was to evaluate antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activity of five solvent fractions obtained from the methanol extract of the leaves of Blechnum orientale Linn. Methods Five solvent fractions were obtained from the methanol extract of B. orientale through successive partitioning with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. Total phenolic content was assessed using Folin-Ciocalteu's method. The antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the scavenging activity of DPPH radicals. Cytotoxic activity was tested against four cancer cell lines and a non-malignant cell using MTT assay. Antibacterial activity was assessed using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays. Standard phytochemical screening tests for saponins, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids were also conducted. Results The ethyl acetate, butanol and water fractions possessed strong radical scavenging activity (IC50 8.6-13.0 μg/ml and cytotoxic activity towards human colon cancer cell HT-29 (IC50 27.5-42.8 μg/ml. The three extracts were also effective against all Gram-positive bacteria tested: Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Stapylococcus epidermidis(minimum inhibitory concentration MIC 15.6-250 μg/ml; minimum bactericidal concentration MBC 15.6-250 μg/ml. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids and tannins. Ethyl acetate and butanol fractions showed highest total phenolic content (675-804 mg gallic acid equivalent/g. Conclusions The results indicate that this fern is a potential candidate to be used as an antioxidant agent, for colon cancer therapy and for treatment of MRSA

  6. Evaluation of Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn. Extract against Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus (Skuse

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    S Sulaiman

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn extract were evaluated against dengue vectors in the laboratory."nMethods: Both Bifenthrin and Acorus calamus Linn crude hexane extract were bioassayed against the adults and larval stages of dengue vectors Aedes aegypti L. and Aedes albopictus(Skuse in the laboratory."nResults: The A. calamus crude hexane extract exhibited a larvicidal activity against 4th-instar Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.4418 and 11.3935 ppm respectively. The plant crude extract exhibited against Ae. albopictus larvae with a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 21.2555 ppm and 36.1061 ppm, respectively. There was a significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp. Larvae (P< 0.05. However, bifenthrin showed a significant difference on larvicidal effect to that of A. calamus hexane extract on both Aedes spp (P< 0.05. In testing the adulticidal activity, this plant extract exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 17.4075 and 252.9458 ppm against Ae .aegypti and a higher LC50 and LC90 values of 43.9952 and 446.1365 ppm respectively on Ae. albopictus. There was no significant difference on the effect of A. calamus extract on both Aedes spp adults (P> 0.05."nConclusion: Bifenthrin however showed a significant difference on both Aedes spp adults (P< 0.05. With the wide availability of A. calamus in Malaysia, it could be utilized for controlling dengue vectors. "n 

  7. A review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. (Vitaceae

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    Dinesh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cayratia trifolia Linn. Domin Syn. Vitis trifolia (Family: Vitaceae is commonly known as Fox grape in English; Amlabel, Ramchana in Hindi and Amlavetash in Sanskrit. It is native to India, Asia and Australia. It is a perennial climber having trifoliated leaves with 2-3 cm long petioles and ovate to oblong-ovate leaflets. Flowers are small greenish white and brown in color. Fruits are fleshy, juicy, dark purple or black, nearly spherical, about 1 cm in diameter. It is found throughout the hills in India. This perennial climber is also found in the hotter part of India from Jammu and Rajasthan to Assam extending into the peninusular India upto 600 m height. Whole plant of Cayratia trifolia has been reported to contain yellow waxy oil, steroids/terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins upon preliminary phytochemical screening. Leaves contain stilbenes (piceid, reveratrol, viniferin, ampelopsin. Stem, leaves, roots are reported to possess hydrocyanic acid, delphinidin and several flavonoids such as cyanidin is reported in the leaves. This plant also contains kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin, triterpenes and epifriedelanol. Infusion of seeds along with extract of tubers is traditionally given orally to diabetic patients to check sugar level of blood. Paste of tuberous is applied on the affected part in the treatment of snake bite. Whole plant is used as diuretic, in tumors, neuralgia and splenopathy. Its climbers wrapped around the neck of frantic bullock and poultice of leaves are used to yoke sores of bullock. The bark extract shows the antiviral, antibacterial, antiprotozoal, hypoglycemic, anticancer and diuretic activity. This article focuses on the upgraded review on chemical and biological properties of Cayratia trifolia Linn. and triggers further investigation on this plant.

  8. Determination of polyphenols and free radical scavenging activity of Tephrosia purpurea linn leaves (Leguminosae

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    Avani Patel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (sarpankh, belonging to the family Leguminaceae, are used for the treatment of jaundice and are also claimed to be effective in many other diseases. This research work was undertaken to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves. Method: The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So, the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-spectrophotometric determination. Result: The total phenolic content of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 9.44 ± 0.22% w/w and 18.44 ± 0.13% w/w, respectively, and total flavonoid estimation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed the content values of 0.91 ± 0.08% w/w and 1.56 ± 0.12%w/w, respectively, for quercetin and 1.85 ± 0.08% w/w and 2.54 ± 0.12% w/w, respectively, for rutin. Further investigations were carried out for in vitro antioxidant activity and radical scavenging activity by calculating its percentage inhibition by means of IC 50 values, all the extracts′ concentrations were adjusted to fall under the linearity range and here many reference standards like tannic acid, gallic acid, quercetin, ascorbic acid were taken for the method suitability. Conclusion: The results revealed that leaves of this plant have antioxidant potential. The results also show the ethanolic extract to be more potent than the aqueous decoction which is claimed traditionally. In conclusion, T. purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae leaves possess the antioxidant substance which may be responsible for the treatment of jaundice and other oxidative stress-related diseases.

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF MUSA ACUMINATE COLLA AND CAJANUS CAJAN (LINN. LEAF EXTRACT

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    Bhakta Tejendra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extract of leaf of Musa acuminate colla and seed of Cajanus cajan (Linn. were taken for the examination of anthelmintic activity on Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (10mg/ml, 20mg/ml, 30 mg/ml of both plant extract were tested and results were expressed in terms of time of paralysis and time of death of worms. Albendazole of same concentration as like as plant extracts was taken as reference standard and normal saline solution as control. Paralysis time can be determined by vigorous shaking when no movement was observed. When whitish substances were secreted from the body that one was termed as death time. Both the extracts show significant anthelmintic activity but among these two Musa acuminate colla showed more anthelmintic activity than Cajanus cajan (Linn.. Future scope involves isolation of active constituents responsible for this action.

  10. [Determination of isorhamnetin in Hippophae rhamnoides Linn from West Sichuan plateau using near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Li-Ming; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Chu; Li, Zhang-Wan; Chen, Cong; Wang, Yan-Ping

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a method for the determination of isorhamnetin in Hippophae rhamnoides Linn from West Sichuan plateau using near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Applying the method of mixing with SiO2, the near infrared spectra (NIS) with the range of 12 000-4 000 cm(-1) were recorded for the Hippophae rhamnoides Linn containing isorhamnetin with the content of 0.1%-0.8%. Calibration models were established using the PLS (partial least squares). Different spectra pretreatments methods were compared. The study showed that spectral information can be extracted thoroughly by constant offset elimination (COE) pretreatments method with the correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.739 8, SEC of 0.107 (standard deviation of the calibration sets) and SEP of 0.073 (standard deviation of the prediction sets). The results indicate that near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is more rapid and convenient than conventional methods.

  11. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Almeida-Souza; Noemi Nosomi Taniwaki; Ana Cláudia Fernandes Amaral; Celeste da Silva Freitas de Souza; Kátia da Silva Calabrese; Ana Lúcia Abreu-Silva

    2016-01-01

    The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work,...

  12. Pengaruh Ekstrak Buah Morinda Citrifolia Linn Terhadap Kualitas, Kuantitas Sperma Dan Kadar Malondialdehyde Testis Tikus Wistar Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Meldawati

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia in Diabetes Mellitus causes increased levels of free radicals. Autooxydation in the process of hyperglycemia triggers the formation of free radicals. Free radicals can damage cell membranes, a lipid peroxide or Malondialdehyde (MDA), if was continued lead to system damage cell membranes and cell death. Morinda Citrifolia Linn contain secondary metabolic compounds that contain nutrients that are also diverse as Vitamins A, C, Niacin, Thiamine and Riboflavin, and minerals such of ...

  13. Survei Korelasi Populasi Sitophylus oryzae Linn.(Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Dengan beberapa Faktor Gudang Penyimpanan Beras di Bulog Medan Dan Sekitarnya

    OpenAIRE

    Sibuea, Pulungan

    2011-01-01

    Pulungan Sibuea "Correlation Population Survey Sitophylus oryzae Linn. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) With several factors Warehouse Storage Bulog Rice in Medan and its surroundings" under the guidance of Ir. Yuswani Pangestiningsih, MS as chairman of the commission supervising and Ir. Marheni, MP as a member of the supervising committee. Research carried out in several rice warehouses in Medan and surrounding BULOG in June to August 2010. This study aimed to know To know the relationship betwee...

  14. Effect of Shodhana (processing) on Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) with special reference to strychnine and brucine content

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V. J.; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2011-01-01

    Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.) commonly known as nux vomica is a poisonous plant used extensively in various ayurvedic formulations, with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommended the administration of Kupeelu only after purification in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (sour gruel), and so on. Apart from the classical methods some other methods are also adopted by the traditional practitioners using castor oil ...

  15. Estimation of Flavonoid, Polyphenolic Content and In-vitro Antioxidant Capacity of leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn. (Leguminosae

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    Avani Patel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Tephrosia purpurea Linn (sarpankh, belonging to the family Leguminosae being used for the treatment of jaundice and claimed to be effective in many other diseases. The present research work wasunder taken to investigate the in-vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts. Method The therapeutic effects of tannins and flavonoids can be largely attributed to their antioxidant properties. So that the quantitative determinations were undertaken. All the methods are based on UV-Spectrophotometric determination.

  16. Anthelmintic activity of a standardized extract from the rhizomes of Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) against experimentally induced cestodiasis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nath, Purobi; Yadav, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rhizomes of a herb Acorus calamus Linn. (Acoraceae) have been widely used as a traditional medicine to cure intestinal-helminthic infections in India and South Africa. Aim: This study was undertaken to investigate the in vivo anthelmintic activity of a standardized methanolic extract obtained from the rhizomes A. calamus in a rodent model. Materials and Methods: A methanolic extract obtained from rhizomes of A. calamus was characterized for active principle using nuclear magne...

  17. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties of ethanol extract of Grewia asiatica Linn. bark in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Inspite of introduction of oral hypoglycemic agents, diabetes and its related complications remains to be a major clinical problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of Grewia asiatica (Linn) stem bark in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced by a single dose of intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (110 mg/kg) in Norwegian Long Evans rats. Ethanol extract of barks from Grewia asiatica (GAE ...

  18. Bacopa monnieri Phytochemicals Mediated Synthesis of Platinum Nanoparticles and Its Neurorescue Effect on 1-Methyl 4-Phenyl 1,2,3,6 Tetrahydropyridine-Induced Experimental Parkinsonism in Zebrafish

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    Jayshree Nellore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current discovery demonstrates the rapid formation of platinum nanoparticles using leaf extract of a neurobeneficial plant, Bacopa monnieri (BmE. The nanoparticles (BmE-PtNPs were stabilized and then coated with varied phytochemicals present within the leaf extract. These nanoparticles demonstrated the same activity of Complex I, as that of oxidizing NADH to NAD+ using a spectrophotometric method. This suggests that BmE-PtNPs are a potential medicinal substance for oxidative stress mediated disease with suppressed mitochondrial complex I, namely, Parkinson's disease (PD. Hence, the neuroprotective potentials of the phytochemical coated nanoparticle were explored in 1-methyl 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine- (MPTP-induced experimental Parkinsonism in zebrafish model. BmE-PtNPs pretreatment significantly reversed toxic effects of MPTP by increasing the levels of dopamine, its metabolites, GSH and activities of GPx, catalase, SOD and complex I, and reducing levels of MDA along with enhanced locomotor activity. Taken together, these findings suggest that BmE-PtNPs have protective effect in MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in this model of Parkinson's disease via their dual functions as mitochondrial complex I and antioxidant activity.

  19. The effect of Psidium guajava Linn leaf extract on Candida albicans adherence and the transversal strength of acrylic resin

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    Amiyatun Naini

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Denture stomatitis is an inflammation of oral cavity due to removable denture wearing. Prevention of denture stomatitis can be effectively done by using mouth rinsing. Currently, Indonesian government is actively promoting traditional herbal medicine as an alternative medicine such as Psidium guajava Linn leaf which has an anti bacterial and anti fungal ability. The purpose of this study was to know the effective concentration and soaking duration to reduce Candida albicans without lowering transversal strength of acrylic resin. This experimental laboratory study was using heat cured acrylic resin plate without surface polishing. The concentration of Psidium guajava Linn leaf extract used in this study were 32%, 34%, 36%, and 38% respectively with 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour and 8 hours soaking duration. The transversal strength was measured in the same concentration with 2 days, 10 days and 60 days soaking duration. Sterile aquadest was used as control. Two direction ANOVA and LSD test were used in data analysis. The result showed significant difference in the number of Candida albicans colony among concentrations and soaking durations. Significant difference was also found in transversal strength among concentrations and soaking durations. It is concluded that the extract of Psidium guajava Linn leaf in 38% concentration with 8 hours soaking duration will lower the Candida albicans colony, whereas 38% concentration with 60 days soaking duration will lower the transversal strength but it is still above the standard value.

  20. Evaluation of Anti-diabetic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic rats.

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    Mrinmay Das

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. (EEAS was investigated in a model of streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. The biochemical parameters studied were: plasma glucose, degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin and peripheral consumption of glucose levels on 1, 3, 7 and 10th day. Ethanolic extract had shown significant protection and lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in glucose tolerance test. In streptozotocin induced diabetic rats the maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed after 2h at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight. The streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed significant reductions in biochemical parameter after treatment with the extract and Glibenclamide (used as standard as compared to the diabetic controls. The ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. exhibited antidiabetic activity and its sensitivity in experimentally induced diabetic rats in dose dependent manner. The current results clearly indicated the beneficial effects of the ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. in both controlling hyperglycemia and the protection of the pancreatic islet cells against oxidative stress in the diabetic animals.

  1. EFEK SITOTOKSIK DAN PEMACUAN APOPTOSIS FRAKSI PETROLEUM ETER EKSTRAK ETANOL DAUN TAPAK LIMAN (Elephantopus scaber Linn TERHADAP SEL HELA

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    Yeni Listyowati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Elephantopus scaber Linn. has been reported to have cytotoxic effects on breast cancer cells and the potential to be developed as anticancer agent. This study aims was to determine the cytotoxic activity and apoptosis induction effect of petroleum ether fractions of ethanolic extract of (Elephantopus scaber Linn leaves against cervical cancer cells (HeLa. Petroleum ether fraction was obtained by dissolving eyhanolic extract in petroleum ether, and the soluble fraction was as petroleum ether fraction. The method used for cytotoxic activity test was MTT test. The concentration series used were 2000; 1500; 1000; 800; 400; 200; 100; 50; 25; 12.5; 6.25 and 3.125 mg/ml. The IC50 used as cytotoxic parameters. The apoptotic observations was conducted using acridine orange and ethidium bromide. The study showed the IC50 of petroleum ether fraction of (Elephantopus scaber Linn ethanolic extract was 185 ug/ml. The study also showed the potency to stimulate apoptosis in HeLa cells.

  2. A STUDY ON IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF FICUS BENGALENSIS LINN. ON DENTAL CARIES PATHOGENS STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS AND ACTINOMYCES VISCOSUS

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    F. M. B. Prashanth, I. Kannan*, C. Sambandam, M. Jayalakshmi, R.K. Premavathy and S. Shantha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aerial roots of Ficus bengalensis Linn. were collected in and around Chennai, Tamilnadu, India They were washed, shade dried and were ground into powder. The powder was extracted with chloroform, petroleum ether, methanol and hexane. The antibacterial screening of the extracts was carried out by determining the zone of inhibition using disc diffusion method. The strains were grown to logarithmic phase in BHI broth and the inoculum was prepared by adjusting the turbidity of bacterial suspension to 0.5 McFarland’s tube. The dried extracts was dissolved in 10% Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO in required concentration. The sterile discs were impregnated with 20 μl of extract. The extract discs were placed on BHI agar plates, which were previously inoculated with test strains and incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. Ampicillin disc (10μg and 10% DMSO impregnated discs were used as positive and negative controls respectively and the zones of inhibition were recorded. The Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by agar dilution method. The results of the present study showed that the methanol and chloroform extracts of Ficus bengalensis Linn. have activity against both Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces viscosus. From the present study it is concluded that Ficus bengalensis Linn. extracts can be used as an effective antibacterial agent against dental caries.

  3. Studies on the active components and antioxidant activities of the extracts of Mimosa pudica Linn. from southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Yuan, Ke; Zhou, Wen-Long; Zhou, Jian; Yang, Ping

    2011-01-01

    The total flavonoid (TF) and total phenolic (TP) contents of the ethanol extracts of the whole plant, stem, leaf, and seed of Mimosa pudica Linn belonging to the genus Mimosa (Family: Fabaceae alt. Leguminosae), which originates from the subtropical regions of southern China, were determined in this experiment. The antioxidant activity of the extracts and 5 flavonoid monomers of M. pudica Linn. were also evaluated by 2 assays, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. In addition, correlation analysis was also made in the present study. The results showed that leaf extracts contained the highest amount of TF and TP, and the content was significantly higher than that found in other parts of the plant. Moreover, the sequence of antioxidant activity of the ethanol extracts was as follows: leaf > the whole plant > seed > stem; the sequence of the 5 flavonoid monomers was as follows: 5,7,3´,4´-tetrahydroxy-6-C-[β-D-apiose-(1→4)]-β-D-glycopyranosyl flavone (1) > isorientin (2) > orientin (3) > isovitexin (4) > vitexin (5), and the antioxidant activity of compound 1 is equivalent to the synthetic antioxidant trolox or a bit stronger than trolox, and significant correlations were found among the active ingredient contents and the results of antioxidant activity. The present study suggested that M. pudica Linn. could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants.

  4. Assessment of the effect of Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. extract on the labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells Avaliação do efeito do extrato de Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. na marcação de elementos sanguíneos com tecnécio-99m e na morfologia de células vermelhas do sangue

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    Kakali De

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. (BM, a traditional Ayurvedic medicine, used for centuries as a memory enhancing, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, sedative and antiepileptic agent. BM extract have been extensively investigated by several authors for their neuropharmacological effects. In nuclear medicine, red blood cells (RBC labeled with technetium-99m (99mTc have several clinical applications. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labeling of RBC with 99mTc. As Bacopa monnieri is extensively used in medicine, we evaluated its influence on the labeling of RBC and plasma proteins using technetium-99m (99mTc. This labeling procedure depends on a reducing agent and usually stannous chloride is used. Blood was incubated with BM extracts. Stannous chloride solution and 99mTc were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P and blood cells (BC were isolated. Samples of P or BC were also precipitated, centrifuged and insoluble fraction (IF and soluble fraction (SF were separated. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI in BC, IF-BC and IF-P were calculated. The %ATI significantly decreased on BC from 95.53±0.45 to 35.41±0.44, on IF-P from 80.20±1.16 to 7.40±0.69 and on IF-BC from 73.31±1.76 to 21.26±1.40. The morphology study of RBC revealed important morphological alterations due to treatment with BM extracts. We suggest that the BM extract effect could be explained by an inhibition of the stannous and pertechnetate ions or oxidation of the stannous ion or by damages induced in the plasma membrane.Bacopa monnieri (L. Wettst. (BM, uma planta tradicional da medicina ayurvédica, é usada por séculos para problemas de memória, antiinflamatória, antitérmica, sedativa e como agente anti-epiléptico. O extrato BM têm sido extensivamente investigada por diversos autores por seus efeitos neurofarmacológicas. Na medicina nuclear, os glóbulos vermelhos (RBC marcados com tecnécio-99m (99mTc tem várias aplica

  5. 浅析无花果利用价值%Analyses the Ficus carica Linn value and in the development of weihai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新娜; 张明洁; 刘艳蓉

    2011-01-01

    the Ficus cafica Linn as a high nutrition, high officinal, greater use of new economic fruit with nutrition, health, medical, watch the multiple value. This paper introduce the Ficus carica Linn nutritional value and medicinal health value, present a brief introduction to its development and utilization status. Ficus carica Linn%无花果作为一种高营养、高药用、多利用的本文详细介绍无花果的营养价值以及药用保健价值新型经济型水果,具有营养、保健、药用、观赏等多重价值。简介其开发利用状况。

  6. Acute and chronic oral toxicity of standardized water extract from the fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn.

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    K Jaijoy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbiaceae is an herbal plant commonly used in Asian traditional medicine systems for treatment of many disorders. In the present study, we investigated for the first time acute and chronic toxicity of the standardized water extract of P. emblica fruit. The water extract of P. emblica was prepared according to the Thai Herbal Pharmacopoeia and standardized to 20% gallic acid. For studying acute toxicity study, single oral dose of 5000 mg water extract /kg body weight was administered to Sprague Dawley rats (five females, five males. The results showed no toxicity in terms of general behavior change, mortality, or change in gross appearance of internal organs (LD50 > 5,000 mg/kg. Chronic toxicity was studied by daily oral dose (ten females, ten males of 300, 600 and 1,200 mg/kg for 270 days. The results showed slightly significant differences in the body and organ weights between the control and treatment groups. In addition, the rats were analyzed for final body and organ weights, necropsy, and hematological, blood chemical and histopathological parameters. Hematological analysis and clinical blood chemistry revealed slightly changes, but were within the normal limits. No gross or histopathology findings were observed in the treatment groups. Altogether, the standardized water extract from the fruit of P. emblica did not produce acute and chronic toxicity in its traditional uses. Industrial relevance: Traditional medicine is still stronghold of more than 50% of the world population, especially in developing countries. Nowadays, a number of medicinal plants (such as Phyllanthus emblica Linn. are commercially available on local markets as a tonic, food and/or dietary supplement product commonly used for clinical management of several conditions. Despite the widespread use of this plant, there is still little literature on the scientific evaluation of their toxicity. Results of the current study provide

  7. Antipsychotic-like activity of Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn. in mice

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    Pandy Vijayapandi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Noni fruit is widely consumed in tropical regions of Indonesia to the Hawaiian Islands. The noni plant has a long history of use as a medicinal plant to treat a wide variety of ailments including CNS disorders. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the antipsychotic effect of noni fruits (Morinda citrifolia Linn. using mouse models of apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and methamphetamine-induced stereotypy (licking, biting, gnawing and sniffing. Methods In acute study, the methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia (MMC at different doses 1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg was administered orally one hour prior to apomorphine (5 mg/kg, i.p and methamphetamine ( 5 mg/kg, i.p injection respectively in Swiss albino mice. In chronic studies, (TAHITIAN NONI® Juice, TNJ was made available freely in daily drinking water at 30, 50 and 100% v/v for 7 days; 30 and 50% v/v for 21 days respectively. On the test day, an equivalent average daily divided dose of TNJ was administered by oral gavage one hour prior to apomorphine treatment. Immediately after apomorphine/ methamphetamine administration, the animals were placed in the cylindrical metal cages and observed for climbing behaviour/ stereotypy and climbing time. Results The acute treatment of MMC (1, 3, 5, 10 g/kg, p.o significantly decreased the apomorphine-induced cage climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice in a dose dependent manner. The MMC also significantly inhibited methamphetamine-induced stereotypy behaviour and climbing time in mice dose-dependently. The 7 and 21 days treatment of TNJ in drinking water at 50 and 100%v/v significantly alleviated the apomorphine-induced climbing behaviour and climbing time in mice. Conclusions The present study results demonstrated the antidopaminergic effect of Morinda citrifolia Linn. in mice, suggesting that noni has antipsychotic-like activity which can be utilized in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However further studies

  8. Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia Linn. gel affect on post-extraction fibroblast acceleration

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    Christian Khoswanto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction is one of treatment frequently done by dentists in clinics, hospital, and even private practices. One thing that is needed to be observed after the treatment is the speed of wound recovery process. Mengkudu is commonly used as medicinal treatments, some of them to heal wounds, but there had never been research of the use of mengkudu fruit on wound recovery after tooth extraction. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mengkudu gel in accelerating the escalation of fibroblast post tooth extraction on Dawley rats. Method: This study was used post test only control group design. Thirty male Dawley rats weigh between 250-300 grams, 3 months of age are being used. Tooth extraction is being done on lower left incisor. The 30 rats are divided into three groups, there are mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia Linn. gel, poviclone iodine, and control group. The data were analyzed statistically using One-Way ANOVA and LSD. Result: The result of every tested group with Kolmogorof-Smirnov test showed p > 0.05. Examination showed there was significant difference in fibroblast amount between the group with mengkudu gel and two other groups (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The application of mengkudu gel can accelerate the escalation of fibroblast after the tooth extraction on Dawley rats.Latar Belakang: Ekstraksi gigi merupakan perawatan yang sering dilakukan oleh dokter gigi baik di klinik, rumah sakit, dan praktekpribadi. Satu hal yang perlu diperhatikan setelahpencabutan gigi adalah kecepatanpenyembuhan luka bekas cabut. Mengkudu merupakan bahan yang sering digunakan untukpengobatan, salah satu diantaranya adalah untukpenyembuhan luka, namunpenelitian untuk kesembuhan luka pasca cabut gigi yang menggunakan mengkudu belum pernah dilakukan sebelumnya. Tujuan: Tujuanpenelitian ini untuk mengetahui efek gel mengkudu dalam mempercepat peningkatan jumlah fibroblas setelah pencabutan gigi tikus Dawley. Metode: Penelitian ini

  9. Main immunomodulatory constituents of Eastern Nigeria Mistletoe,Loranthus micranthus Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.O.Osadebe; E.O.Omeje

    2009-01-01

    Objective:In our continued efforts to isolate the active immunomodulatory and antiviral constituents of Loran-thus micranthus Linn parasitic on Kola acuminata,we set out to fractionate the crude aqueous methanol extract of the plant.The establishment of the most potent fraction(s)as well as the isolation of the pure active second-ary metabolite responsible for the immune stimulatory and antiviral activities in Eastern Nigeria mistletoe has become very needful.This will enable us prove our assumption that this particular specie is different from the European version,Viscum album.Methods:Five solvents of varying polarity namely n-hexane,chloroform, ethylacetate,acetone and methanol were successively employed in the complete fractionation of the crude aque-ous-methanol extract of Eastern Nigerian mistletoe,Loranthus micranthus Linn.,harvested from Kola acumina-ta in that order.The fractions were dried in-vacuo using a rotary evaporator maintained at a temperature of (40 ±5)℃.The different fractions were screened for immunomodulatory activity using a universal model;the cel-lular-mediated delayed type hypersensivity test in experimental mice.This was performed by administering two different dose levels:250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of each fraction against standard positive and negative con-trol.Results:Results of the study established dose-dependent immunostimulatory (upregulatory)effects of the five fractions of the extract as the model used in the study with different percentage stimulations compared to controls.At the dose levels of 500 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight,the percentage stimulation observed were as following:chloroform fraction 311 .11 % and 122.22 %,ethyl acetate fraction 193.38 % and 95. 56%,n-hexane 155.56 % and 3.50 %,acetone fraction 95.56 % and 51 .11 % and methanol fraction 68. 89% and 24.44 % respectively.Levamisole,a known potent immunostimulant,afforded a stimulation of 68. 89% at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg.Conclusion:The study showed that the order of

  10. Morinda citrifolia Linn: potencialidades para su utilización en la salud humana

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    Nirda E González Lavaut

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Noni es el nombre común de la Morinda citrifolia Linn. originaria de la Polinesia, Malasia, Australia, India y el Sudeste de Asia, pero se ha extendido a casi todas las regiones del mundo. En este trabajo se muestran los aspectos más importantes que sobre esta planta aparecen en publicaciones, fundamentalmente de la vía Internet y del Chemical Abstracts en los últimos 5 años, que permitan valorar las potencialidades para su uso en la salud humana. En la medicina tradicional las frutas, flores, hojas, corteza y raíz de esta planta han sido utilizadas para diversos propósitos medicinales. Entre las afecciones más tratadas se encuentran la alergia, artritis, asma, cáncer, diabetes, depresión, debilidad física, desórdenes menstruales, obesidad y estrés. Si bien se ha encontrado en los extractos de varias partes de la planta una elevada cantidad de componentes e incluso algunos se han llegado a aislar, se considera que la acción farmacológica y beneficiosa se alcanza únicamente por el efecto sinérgico de todos los componentes.Noni is the common name given to Morinda citrifolia Linn. It is originating from Polinesia, Malasia, Australia, India and Southeast Asia, but it has extended to almost every region of the world. In this paper, the most important aspects of this plant appearing in publications, Internet and the Chemical Abstracts in the last 5 years that allow to assess the potentialities for its use in human health, are shown. In traditional medicine, the fruit, flowers, leaves, cortex and root of this plant have been used for diverse medicinal purposes. Allergy, arthritis, asthma, cancer, diabetes, depression, physical weakness, menstrual disorders, obesity and stress are among the most treated affections. Although in the extracts of various parts of the plant, a high number of components has been found and even some of them have been isolated, it is considered that the pharmacological and beneficial action is only reached by

  11. Insecticidal and genotoxic activity of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. (Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say, 1823.

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    Dua, Virendra K; Kumar, Arvind; Pandey, Akhilesh C; Kumar, Sandeep

    2013-02-04

    Indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides to eradicate mosquitoes has caused physiological resistance. Plants provide a reservoir of biochemical compounds; among these compounds some have inhibitory effect on mosquitoes. In the present study the larvicidal, adulticidal and genotoxic activity of essential oil of Psoralea corylifolia Linn. against Culex quinquefasciatus Say was explored. Essential oil was isolated from the seeds of P. corylifolia Linn. Larvicidal and adulticidal bioassay of Cx. quinquefasciatus was carried out by WHO method. Genotoxic activity of samples was determined by comet assay. Identification of different compounds was carried out by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry analysis. LC50 and LC90 values of essential oil were 63.38±6.30 and 99.02±16.63 ppm, respectively against Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The LD50 and LD90 values were 0.057±0.007 and 0.109±0.014 mg/cm2 respectively against adult Cx. quinquefasciatus,. Genotoxicity of adults was determined at 0.034 and 0.069 mg/cm2. The mean comet tail length was 6.2548±0.754 μm and 8.47±0.931 μm and the respective DNA damage was significant i.e. 6.713% and 8.864% in comparison to controls. GCMS analysis of essential oil revealed 20 compounds. The major eight compounds were caryophyllene oxide (40.79%), phenol,4-(3,7-dimethyl-3-ethenylocta-1,6-dienyl) (20.78%), caryophyllene (17.84%), α-humulene (2.15%), (+)- aromadendrene (1.57%), naphthalene, 1,2,3,4-tetra hydro-1,6-dimethyle-4-(1-methyl)-, (1S-cis) (1.53%), trans- caryophyllene (0.75%), and methyl hexadecanoate (0.67%). Essential oil obtained from the seeds of P. corylifolia showed potent toxicity against larvae and adult Cx. quinquefasciatus. The present work revealed that the essential oil of P. corylifolia could be used as environmentally sound larvicidal and adulticidal agent for mosquito control.

  12. Hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract.

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    Ojewole, J A O

    2005-12-01

    The leaf of Psidium guajava Linn. (family, Myrtaceae) is used traditionally in African folk medicine to manage, control, and/or treat a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus and hypertension. In order to scientifically appraise some of the anecdotal, folkloric, ethnomedical uses of P. guajava Linn., the present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects of P. guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg) in rat experimental paradigms. The hypoglycemic effect of the plant's extract was examined in normal and diabetic rats, using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus model. Hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats were used to investigate the hypotensive (antihypertensive) effect of the plant's extract. Chlorpropamide (CPP; 250 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as the reference hypoglycemic agent for comparison. Acute oral administrations of the plant's extract (PGE; 50-800 mg/kg, p.o.) caused dose-related, significant (p < 0.05-0.001) hypoglycemia in normal (normoglycemic) and STZ-treated, diabetic rats. Moreover, acute intravenous administrations of the plant's extract (PGE, 50-800 mg/kg i.v.) produced dose-dependent, significant reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in systemic arterial blood pressures and heart rates of hypertensive, Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Although the exact mechanisms of action of the plant's extract still remain speculative at present, it is unlikely that the extract causes hypotension in the mammalian experimental animal model used via cholinergic mechanisms, since its cardiodepressant effects are resistant to atropine pretreatment. The numerous tannins, polyphenolic compounds, flavonoids, pentacyclic triterpenoids, guiajaverin, quercetin, and other chemical compounds present in the plant are speculated to account for the observed hypoglycemic and hypotensive effects of the plant's leaf extract. However, the results of this experimental animal study indicate that the leaf aqueous extract of P. guajava

  13. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms.

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    Hajifattahi, Farnaz; Moravej-Salehi, Elham; Taheri, Maryam; Mahboubi, Arash; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries.

  14. Components Analysis of Punica granatum Linn. Seed%石榴籽成分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杭志奇; 韩清波; 许景松

    2010-01-01

    [目的]对石榴(Punica granatum Linn.)籽主要成分进行分析.[方法]测定石榴籽水分、蛋白质、脂肪、灰分、黄酮类物质和单宁含量,并分析石榴籽油脂肪酸组成成分和干燥脱脂石榴籽蛋白质中氨基酸成分.[结果]石榴籽中蛋白质和脂肪含量相对较高,其含量分别为13.62%、20.29%,石榴籽油中含有8种不饱和脂肪酸和4种饱和脂肪酸,其中不饱和脂肪酸相对含量为92.22%,9,12,15-十八碳三烯酸占82.76%.石榴籽蛋白质中氨基酸组成较完全,其中必需氨基酸含量为31.98%.[结论]该研究可为石榴籽的进一步利用奠定理论基础.

  15. Quantification of total tannin, flavonoid contents and pharmacognostic study of the seeds of Swietenia mahagoni (Linn.

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    Tasmia Rahman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To justify the folkloric use of Swietenia mahagoni (S. mahagoni seeds, 90% ethanolic extract and their aqueous and organic partitioning substances were evaluated for their possible antidiarrhoeal and antimicrobial potentials in vivo. Methods: Crude ethanolic extract of S. mahagoni seeds were subjected and partitioned into fractions using solvents at different polarity. Antimicrobial and antidiarrheal activities were evaluated and subsequently outcomes were corresponded with the conventional standard drugs. Results: The antidiarrheal activity was assessed using mouse model, where unfractionated ethanolic extract significantly reduced, the number, onset, rate and weight of diarrheal episodes. This fraction showed the limited number of defecation episodes of 27.0% and 40.9% at dose of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight respectively and reference drug, loperamide, showed 53% at a dose of 50 mg/kg. All extract fractions exhibited the significant potential to kill or subside the growth of known Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions: Ethanolic extract and their aqueous and organic fractious revealed the seeds of S. mahagoni (Linn. have the potential to be used as a remedy for diarrhea and known pathogenic microbes which ensured the folkloric use of the seeds of S. mahagoni.

  16. A panoramic view on phytochemical, nutritional, ethanobotanical uses and pharmacological values of Trachyspermum ammi Linn.

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    Hafiz Muhammad Asif

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trachyspermum ammi Linn. (T. ammi is an aromatic, grassy, annual plant belonging to Umbelliferae family which grows in the east of India, Pakistan, Iran, and Egypt. T. ammi has been used traditionally to treat arthritis, colic, diarrhea and gastrointestinal problems. In addition to these medicinal uses, T. ammi continues to be valued around the world as an important cooking spice and is believed to relief the common cold, flu-like symptoms, headaches, and even painful menstrual periods. These multiple uses can be explained by its several active compounds. The phytochemical studies on T. ammi seeds have revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, fixed oils, glycosides, tannins, saponin and flavonoids, cumene, thymene, amino acids and dietary fiber essential oils like thymol, c-terpinene, p-cymene. Several pharmacological studies on anti-tussive effect, inhibitory effect on histamine (H1 receptors, antihypertensive, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti mutagenic activities of T. ammi seed extracts have been reported in the literature. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of T. ammi.

  17. Phytochemical Investigations on the Fruits of Durio zibenthinus Linn. For Antimicrobial Activity

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    Balram Prasad Sah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethnobotanical information of the plant Durio zibenthinus Linn has been existing for a quite a long time. In India this plant is mainly available for the treatment only from the Nilgiris. Ethnomedical information suggests the proven fertility enhancing activity of the folklore. Hence, it was proposed to carry out the isolation, characterization, screening and documentation of phytoconstituents from the fruits of Durio zibenthinus. An additional advantage in working on this plant is the close proximity with the phytochemical lab, which was thought to cause the least degradation of the biologically active constituents. Durio zibenthinus (Durian fruit is being used by the people world wide for its fertility-enhancing activity. The tribal people who grow and harvest this plant claim that the fruits of Durian increases fertility in human beings because, “it kills the germs in the reproductive organs”. But as per the references available, individual compounds have not been implicated for their antimicrobial activity. So, this work aims to study the phytoconstituents for the antibacterial or antifungal potential, taking the cue from the ethnopharmacological literature. The determination of the biological activities helps in developing these compounds into drugs for further drug development. The compound was isolated from the chloroform extract of the Fruit pulp extract of Durio zibenthinus is 7,8-dimethoxy-13,13-dimethyl-2,13- dihydro-3H-Pyrano[5,6-c]quinolin2-one.The isolated compound showed significant antibacterial as well as antifungal activity against the microorganisms tested.

  18. Morinda citrifolia Linn leaf extract possesses antioxidant activities and reduces nociceptive behavior and leukocyte migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mairim Russo; Santos, Rodrigo Correia; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; da Conceicão Santos, Alan Diego; Alves, Izabel Almeida; Gelain, Daniel Pens; de Lima Nogueira, Paulo Cesar; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes

    2011-10-01

    Herbal drugs have been used since ancient times to treat a wide range of diseases. Morinda citrifolia Linn (popularly known as "Noni") has been used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years. It is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects, including effects against headache, fever, arthritis, gingivitis, respiratory disorders, infections, tuberculosis, and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and antibacterial properties of the aqueous extract from M. citrifolia leaves (AEMC). Antioxidant activity was observed against lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals. The antinociceptive effect of AEMC was observed in the acetic acid-induced writhing test at the higher dose. Moreover, AEMC significantly reduced the leukocyte migration in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg and showed mild antibacterial activity. Together, the results suggest that properties of M. citrifolia leaf extract should be explored further in order to achieve newer tools for managing painful and inflammation conditions, including those related to oxidant states.

  19. Anti-proliferative and antioxidative activities of Thai noni/Yor (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thani, Wasina; Vallisuta, Omboon; Siripong, Pongpan; Ruangwises, Nongluck

    2010-03-01

    In this study the leaves of the Thai noni/Yor, (Morinda citrifolia Linn.) were extracted by several methods and evaluated against human cancer cell lines: KB (human epidermoid carcinoma), HeLa (human cervical carcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast carcinoma) and HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma) cell lines as well as a Vero (African green monkey kidney) cell line, employing the MTT colorimetric method, comparing it to damnacanthal, rutin, and scopoletin. The dichloromethane extract of the fresh leaf showed a better inhibitory effect against KB and HeLa cells with IC50 values of 21.67 and 68.50 microg/ml, respectively. The dichloromethane extract of dried leaves revealed cytotoxicity against the KB cell line with an IC50 value of 39.00 microg/ml. Other extracts, as well as rutin and scopoletin, showed reduced anti-proliferative effects on all cancer cell lines (IC50 103 to over 600 microg/ml). Interestingly, the damnacanthal had potent cytotoxicity against all cancer cell lines and Vero cell lines. These results suggest Thai noni extracts may be safer than the pure compounds, due to their higher safety ratios, which is a good indicator for possible cancer treatment. Several non-aqueous extracts from the leaves showed antioxidant properties, giving IC50 values of 0.20-0.35 mg/ml. It can be concluded the leaves of M. citrifolia may have benefit as a food supplement for chemoprevention against epidermoid and cervical cancers.

  20. Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaf extracts mitigate UVB-induced erythema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brett J; Deng, Shixin; Palu, Afa K; Jensen, C Jarakae

    2009-07-01

    Morinda citrifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae) leaves have been used in tropical folk medicine to treat topical inflammation and burns. A carbomer gel base, containing the ethanol extract and juice pressed from the leaves, was evaluated for potential allergenic properties in a repeat-insult patch test in 49 volunteers. To investigate the topical photo-protective properties, the combined ethanol extract and leaf juice were evaluated in a UVB-induced erythema model in 25 volunteers. The crude ethanol extract of M. citrifolia leaves was also evaluated in vitro for potential anti-inflammatory activity in a histamine H-1 receptor antagonism assay. There was no evidence of allergenic potential in the repeat-insult patch test. When the combination of ethanol extract and leaf juice was applied, the UVB dose required to induce erythema was almost 3.5 times greater than with untreated skin (P citrifolia leaves inhibited receptor binding by 57%. These results suggest that M. citrifolia leaves are safe for topical use and may be useful in mitigating UVB-induced injury to the skin.

  1. Antimicrobial Potential of Thiodiketopiperazine Derivatives Produced by Phoma sp., an Endophyte of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Palak; Wani, Zahoor A; Nalli, Yedukondalu; Ali, Asif; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2016-11-01

    During the screening of endophytes obtained from Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., the extract from a fungal culture designated as GG1F1 showed significant antimicrobial activity. The fungus was identified as a species of the genus Phoma and was most closely related to Phoma cucurbitacearum. The chemical investigation of the GG1F1 extract led to the isolation and characterization of two thiodiketopiperazine derivatives. Both the compounds inhibited the growth of several bacterial pathogens especially that of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, with IC50 values of less than 10 μM. The compounds strongly inhibited biofilm formation in both the pathogens. In vitro time kill kinetics showed efficient bactericidal activity of these compounds. The compounds were found to act synergistically with streptomycin while producing varying effects in combination with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. The compounds inhibited bacterial transcription/translation in vitro, and also inhibited staphyloxanthin production in S. aureus. Although similar in structure, they differed significantly in some of their properties, particularly the effect on the expression of pathogenecity related genes in S. aureus at sub-lethal concentrations. Keeping in view the antimicrobial potential of these compounds, it would be needful to scale up the production of these compounds through fermentation technology and further explore their potential as antibiotics using in vivo models.

  2. Evaluation of CNS depressant activity of different plant parts of Nyctanthes arbortristis linn.

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    Das Sanjita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the water-soluble portion of the ethanol extracts of flowers, barks, seeds and leaves of Nyctanthes arbortristis Linn. to confirm their CNS depressant activity. The ethanol extracts of the plant parts were obtained by soxhlet extraction. After performing the gross behavioral study, the CNS depressant activity was evaluated by observing the prolongation of sleeping time induced by pentobarbital sodium in mice. Attempts have been made to explore the possible mechanism behind this activity by determining their effect on brain monoamine neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin. The gross behavioral study showed that ethanol extracts of the leaves, flowers and seeds possess significant CNS depressant activity. The leaves, flowers, seeds and barks (600 mg/kg showed significant and dose-dependent prolongation of onset and duration of sleep and so found to cause decrease dopamine and increase serotonin level. From which it can be concluded that the CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extracts of seeds, leaves and flowers may be due to the decrease in dopamine and increase in serotonin level.

  3. Quality control and in vitro antioxidant potential of Coriandrum sativum Linn.

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    Mhaveer Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coriandrum sativum Linn., commonly known as coriander, is a well-known spice and drug in India. It has various health-related benefits and used in various Unani formulations. In this present study, quality assessment of coriander fruits was carried out by studying anatomical characters, physicochemical tests, and chemoprofiling using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS along with in vitro antioxidant potential. Materials and Methods: Standardization was carried out as per the pharmacopeial guidelines. Estimation of heavy metals, pesticides, and aflatoxins was carried out to ascertain the presence of any contaminant in the sample. Chemoprofiling was achieved by thin layer chromatography (TLC by optimizing the mobile phase for different extracts. The most of the pharmacological activities of coriander are based on volatile oil constituents. Hence, GC-MS profiling was also carried out using hexane-soluble fraction of hydro-alcoholic extract. The total phenolic contents and in vitro antioxidant efficacy were determined using previously established methods. Results: The quality control and anatomical studies were very valuable for the identification whereas good antioxidant potential was observed when compared to ascorbic acid. The drug was found free of contaminant when analyzed for pesticides and aflatoxins whereas heavy metals were found under reported limits. Conclusion: The work embodied in this present research can be utilized for the identification and the quality control of the coriander fruit.

  4. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and in silico PASS prediction of Annona reticulata Linn. root extract

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    Prasad G. Jamkhande

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial infections and diseases are frequently associated with several pathogenic strains of bacteria and fungi. Plants of the reticulata genus are a notable source of new therapeutic agents including antioxidant and antimicrobial. This study reports the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanolic root extract of Annona reticulata Linn. The antioxidant property of extract was evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide assay. Antibacterial tests were performed using the agar cup method whereas Poison plate method was used to assess sensitivity of fungal strains. The biological potential of major phytoconstituents as antimicrobial agent was screened by new software based tool, PASS. The dose dependent scavenging was observed at concentrations 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μg/ml which were compared to ascorbic acid. The probable activity (Pa of neoannonin using PASS was found to be 0.541. The extract was significantly active against all strains of bacteria but the largest zone of inhibition was found against B. cereus. Predominant growth reduction was observed in fungi Tricoderma viride and Candida albicans. The results indicate that the extract show potential as a source of new antimicrobial drug and may impart health benefits by its antioxidant property.

  5. Anti-flatulent Studies of Traditional Medicinal Plant Vitex negundo Linn. In Rats

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    Sukhbir Lal Khokra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitex negundo is a shrub from Verbenaceae family and is traditionally used in treatment of various disease and disorders. Oil prepared with the juice of leaves of Vitex-negundo is reported to have very useful medicinal properties like wonderful cures of sloughing wounds and ulcers. In Ayurveda; roots of Vitex negundo is reported to have anti-flatulent properties. Philippines peoples used to make tea from fruits of this plant, which was considered very useful in relieving stomach gas which, we refer to flatulence. Here we studied the anti flatulent activity of different essential oils and extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. The standard drug used was simethicone (10 mg/10 g of flatulent diet, p.o., which inhibited gas production up to 90 % as compared to control. Addition of test drugs (essential oils/ethanolic extracts to the chickpea diet (5 % decreased the amount of gas production significantly up to 69% by root and leaves extracts while dry fruit oil inhibited gas formation to 81%. The anti-flatulent activity in this plant may due to combined effect of flavonoids and triterpenoids constituents. As the safety evaluation study indicates that Vitex negundo is well tolerated at very high doses without any toxic effects. Thus, Vitex negundo has a high potential for the development of modern medicine for the treatment of various diseases.

  6. Voltammetric determination of antioxidant character in Berberis lycium Royel, Zanthoxylum armatum and Morus nigra Linn plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Safeer; Shakeel, Faria

    2012-07-01

    The antioxidant activity potential of three different plant extracts was investigated against superoxide anion radical while employing cyclic voltammetry technique. The plants Berberis lyceum Royle, Morus nigra Linn and Zanthoxylum armatum were selected because of their potential use in the traditional medicine. The voltammetric response of the electrochemically generated superoxide anion radial in DMSO was monitored in the absence and presence of the plat extracts. The decrease in the current was interpreted in terms of antiradical activity of the added extract. The thermodynamic feasibility of the radical scavenging by extracts was accounted in terms of antioxidant activity coefficient (K(ao)) and standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG(o)). The values of K(ao) and ΔG(o) ranged from 1.0 x 102 to 57 x 102 L(-1) and -18 to -27 kJmol(-1), respectively. The possible mechanism of the antioxidant reaction was regarded as E(r)C(i) mechanism i.e. reversible electron transfer followed by hydrogen atom transfer- an irreversible chemical reaction.

  7. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponarulselvam, S; Panneerselvam, C; Murugan, K; Aarthi, N; Kalimuthu, K; Thangamani, S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Methods Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. Results SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 35–55 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centred cubic structure of the bulk silver with the broad peaks at 32.4, 46.4 and 28.0. Conclusions It can be concluded that the leaves of C. roseus can be good source for synthesis of silver nanoparticle which shows antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The important outcome of the study will be the development of value added products from medicinal plants C. roseus for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries. PMID:23569974

  8. In vitro antimicrobial status of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. fruit peel

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    Anju Dhiman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The present investigation evaluated the antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Citrus sinensis Linn. (Rutaceae fruit peel. There is a basis for the traditional use of this plant for local health remedies. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract of C. sinensis fruit peel was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains. Turbidimetric or tube dilution method and paper disc diffusion method were followed. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Results: The C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.78 μg/ ml and minimum bactericidal concentration of 6.25 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. The phytochemistry of C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates (reducing sugars, hexose sugars, non-reducing polysaccharides, gums, and mucilages, flavonoid glycosides, coumarin glycosides, volatile oils, organic acids, fats and fixed oils. Conclusion: Most of the organic chemical constituents reported are aromatic phenolic compounds, which are known for their wide spectra of antimicrobial activity. Therefore, the bacteriostatic and fungistatic action of the tested extract may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic compounds. In short, C. sinensis fruit peel methanolic extract is a potential source of natural antimicrobials.

  9. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis caused during Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanchezhian, R; Joseph C, Roshy; Rabinarayan, Acharya

    2012-04-01

    Bhallataka (Semecarpus anacardium Linn.; Ancardiaceae) is mentioned under Upavisha group in Ayurvedic classics and it is described as a poisonous medicinal plant in Drugs and Cosmetics Act (India), 1940. Fruit of Bhallataka is used either as a single drug or as an ingredient in many compound formulations of Indian systems of medicine to cure many diseases. Tarry oil present in the pericarp of the fruit causes blisters on contact. The major constituent of the tarry oil is anacardic acid and bhilawanol, a mixture of 3-n-pentadec(en)yl catechols. Bhilawanol A and B are known as Urushiols, and also, anacardic acid is closely related to Urushiol. Urushiol-induced contact dermatitis is the medical name given to allergic rashes produced by the oil Urushiol. This paper deals with five case reports of contact dermatitis caused during different stages of Shodhana (purificatory measures) of Bhallataka fruit due to improper handling of the utensils and disposal of media used in Shodhana procedure and their Ayurvedic management. To combat these clinical conditions, the affected persons were advised external application with pounded Nimba (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) leaves on the affected parts and internal administration of Sarivadyasava 30 ml thrice daily after food and Triphala Churna 5 g before food twice daily. Reduction of itching and burning sensation was observed after topical application.

  10. Turmeric (Curcuma Longa Linn. Supplementation as an Alternative to Antibiotics in Poultry Diets

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    Nanung Danar Dono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have been used in non-therapeutic fashion as growth promoter for about 50 years in many parts of the world. It has been proven that supplementation of antibiotics in the diets reduces morbidity and mortality, as well as improve feed efficiency and overall growth performance of broiler chickens. However, the routine use of these antimicrobial growth promoters (AGPs is being curtailed in view of threat to public health occurring through microflora that are developing resistance to antibiotics. This risk has driven European Union and other countries to withdraw authorization of in-feed antibiotics since 1997. Removal of AGPs resulted in substantial increase infections in poultry. As a consequence, the poultry industry needs to find alternatives to antibiotics in order to stem the effects of infection. One comparable alternative is natural sources of herbs and medicinal plants, which later known as phytobiotics. For the last 15 years, these alternatives have been increasingly claimed to increase enteric health, stimulate digestive system, and enhance growth performance. It was reported that turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn. belongs to such class of medicinal plant and may be an alternative to antibiotics in poultry production. In this review, the responses of poultry to diets supplemented with turmeric on growth performance, egg production, health status, and carcass characteristic were briefly discussed.

  11. Radio protective effects of the Ayurvedic medicinal plant Ocimum sanctum Linn. (Holy Basil: A memoir

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    Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of compounds which can selectively protect normal tissues against radiation injury is of immense use because in addition to it protecting the normal tissue, will also permits use of higher doses of radiation to obtain better cancer control and possible cure. However, most of the radio protective compounds investigated possess inadequate clinical application principally due to their inherent systemic toxicity at their optimal protective concentrations. Plants commonly used as medicinal and dietary agents have recently been the focus of attention and studies have shown that Ocimum sanctum Linn. commonly known as the Holy Basil and its water soluble flavonoids, orientin and vicenin protects experimental animals against the radiation-induced sickness and mortality at nontoxic concentrations. Studies with tumor bearing mice have also shown that both Tulsi extract and its flavonoids selectively protect the normal tissues against the tumoricidal effects of radiation. Preclinical studies have also shown that the aqueous extract of the Tulsi leaves; its flavanoids orientin and vicenin, and eugenol, the principal nonpolar constituent present in Tulsi prevent radiation-induced clastogenesis. Mechanistic studies have indicated that free radical scavenging, antioxidant, metal chelating and anti-inflammatory effects may contribute toward the observed protection. In addition, clinical studies with a small number of patients have shown that Tulsi was effective as a radio protective agent. This review summarizes the results related to the radio protective properties of Tulsi and its phytochemicals and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its use as a radio protective agent.

  12. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs.

  13. MORPHO-MOLECULAR STUDIES IN THE NATURAL POPULATIONS OF DIOSCOREA BULBIFERA LINN. IN NIGERIA

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    Adeniyi Jayeola

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dioscorea bulbifera Linn. is a unique wild yam able to thrive in a wide range of ecological zones. Mopho-molecular studies were carried out with a view to relating the observed morphological variation to its genetics. For morphometric study,30 representative herbarium vouchers  were studied while recently expanded leaf tissue samples of 34 accessions of five natural populations were submitted for genomic DNA using sixteen SSR markers. Bulbil size and shape, petiole length, leaf colour and shape varied among populations. A low level of genetic variability characterized the two geographically closest of the five populations (with P=15.15 and 6.06%,; H=0.0646 and 0.0251 while the other populations showed higher values (P varied from 66.6 and 84.85%; H varied from 0.1992 and 0.1992. That the highest value of genetic distance (0.1964 occurred between Iwo and Polytechnic populations was unexpected. The highest value (0.9869 of genetic identity occurred between the Polytechnic and Pebble Road populations as expected. Clustering typically occurred at lower distance scale reflecting the proximity of their genetic distances and therefore low divergence. Conclusively, the use of microsatellite markers allowed the identification of genetic variability among the natural populations of D. bulbifera.

  14. A panoramic view on phytochemical, nutritional, ethanobotanical uses and pharmacological values of Trachyspermum ammi Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hafiz Muhammad Asif; Sabira Sultana; Naveed Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Trachyspermum ammi Linn. (T. ammi) is an aromatic, grassy, annual plant belonging to Umbelliferae family which grows in the east of India, Pakistan, Iran, and Egypt. T. ammi has been used traditionally to treat arthritis, colic, diarrhea and gastrointestinal problems. In addition to these medicinal uses, T. ammi continues to be valued around the world as an important cooking spice and is believed to relief the common cold, flu-like symptoms, headaches, and even painful menstrual periods. These multiple uses can be explained by its several active compounds. The phytochemical studies on T. ammi seeds have revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, fixed oils, glycosides, tannins, saponin and flavonoids, cumene, thymene, amino acids and dietary fiber essential oils like thymol, c-terpinene, p-cymene. Several pharmacological studies on anti-tussive effect, inhibitory effect on histamine (H1) receptors, antihypertensive, antispasmodic, bronchodilator, hepato-protective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti mutagenic activities of T. ammi seed extracts have been reported in the literature. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of T. ammi.

  15. In vitro antibacterial activity of Artemisia annua Linn. growing in India

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    Gupta Prakash

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Artemisia annua Linn. (Asteraceae were investigated for their antibacterial activity by using agar well diffusion assays against five Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus cereus, and Micrococcus luteus and three Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Of the various extracts, the methanol extract showed the strongest activity against most bacteria used in this study. The most sensitive organism to the extracts was M. luteus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were determined by the tube dilution method. The results showed that S. aureus required ~0.25 mg/mL of the methanol extract for inhibition. The HPTLC fingerprint of the methanol extract after derivatization with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid reagent showed a maximum number of separated components. TLC bioautography of the methanol extract showed that the area of inhibition around compounds differentiated at R f = 0.32, R f = 0.42, R f = 0.46, R f = 0.77, and R f = 0.87 against S. aureus. This is the first report of the antibacterial activity of A. annua against food-borne bacteria. The results indicated that aerial parts of A. annua might be potential sources of new antibacterial agents.

  16. Protective Effect of Thunbergia laurifolia (Linn. on Lead Induced Acetylcholinesterase Dysfunction and Cognitive Impairment in Mice

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    Moe Pwint Phyu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thunbergia laurifolia (linn., TL, a natural phenolic compound, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. The current study ascertains the total phenolic content present in TL aqueous leaf extract and also examines the antioxidant ability of the extract in preserving acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity of mice exposed to lead in vivo and in vitro model. Mice were given lead acetate (Pb in drinking water (1 g/L together with TL 100 and 200 mg/kg/day. The result showed that Pb induced AChE dysfunction in both in vitro and in vivo studies. TL significantly prevented Pb induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent manner which was indicated by comparatively better performance of TL treated mice in Morris Water Maze Swimming Test and increased AChE activity in the tissue sample collected from the brains of these mice. TL also exhibited the greatest amount of phenolic content, which has a significant positive correlation with its antioxidant capacity (P<0.05. Taken together, these data suggested that the total phenolic compounds in TL could exhibit antioxidant and in part neuroprotective properties. It may play a potential treatment strategy for Pb contamination.

  17. RECENT ADVANCES ON THE PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PLANT HELICTERES ISORA LINN.

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    Sabale Pramod M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In India, use of different parts of several medicinal plants to cure specific ailments has been in vogue from ancient times and inherited traditionally. The fruits of Helicteres isora Linn (Sterculiaceae have been used in the indigenous system of medicine in India for the treatment of griping bowels and diarrheal diseases. The roots and the bark are expectorant, demulcent, hypoglycemic and useful in colic, scabies, gastropathy, diabetes, diarrhoea and dysentery. The fruits are astringents, refrigerant, stomachic, vulnerary and useful in griping of bowels, flatulence of children and antispasmodic. The barks of H.isora showed prominent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli and fruits against Candida albicans. The presence of flavones, triterpenoids, cucurbitacin, phytosterols, saponins, sugars and phlobatannins were demonstrated in roots and barks H.isora L. The use of medicinal plants in India contributes significantly in primary health care and it is interesting to determine whether actual pharmacological effects support the traditional uses or merely based on folklore. The review revealed that the fruits of H.isora L. were used in diarrhoeal infection and it is anti-candidial but so far no information on antibacterial activities of fruits of H. isora is available hence, attempt was made to find out phytochemical contents and antibacterial potentials of fruits of H.isora against diarrhoeal/enteric bacterial pathogens.

  18. Screening of BADH Activity of Borreria articularies (Linn. for the Inhibition of P. aeruginosa

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    Md Shamsuddin Sultan Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purposes: The present study was designed to investigate the antibacterial activities of the Ethanol and methanol extracts of the leaves of the plant Borreria articularies (Linn. effects on microbial growth inhibition in vitro, microbial cells in vivo and molecular enzyme (BADH targets in vitro.Methods: The preliminary phytochemicals of the extracts was determined by the standard methods and aliquoted with Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and stored at 2-4oC. fluorescein diacetate (FDA and ethidium bromide (EB live-dead cell viability test for distinguishing the membrane active phytochemicals of the plant extract.  Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH activity was assessed by spectrophotometer. Alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, gums, saponin and reducing sugar were found in extracts.Results: The results of the disc diffusion indicated that the crude extracts were able to inhibit the growth of bacteria within a concentration range of 0.5 to 2.0 mg/mL. At a similar concentration range (0.5 to 2.0 mg/mL the extract inhibited the growth of 90.12% of the tested microorganisms. Bacterial cell viability was found minor in the phytochemicals of crude extract. Also, constituents of crude extract inhibited the BADH activity to protect the adaptation in stress environment of the bacteria.Conclusion: Results of the present study showed the possible use of the studied plants extracts in the control of bacterial infections.   

  19. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses

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    Michael Buenor Adinortey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials.

  20. Mathematical modelling of nutrient balance of a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS

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    Sudeep Puthravilakom Sadasivan Nair

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn. recirculating aquaculture system (GRAS has been developed. The GRAS consisted of a culture tank, a screen filter and a foam fractionator for removal of particulate and dissolved solids and a trickling filter for conversion of ammonium- and nitrite-nitrogen to relatively harmless nitrate-nitrogen. The culture of goldfish at a stocking density of 1.08 kg/m3 was continued for a period of two and half months. Based on mass balance analysis of ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen and assuming the trickling filter to be a plug flow reactor, a model was formulated to determine the necessary recirculation flow rate at different times of culture for maintaining the major nutrients, viz., ammonium- and nitrate-nitrogen below their permissible limits. The model was calibrated and validated using the real time data obtained from the experimental run. The high values of coefficient of determination and low values of root mean square error show the effectiveness of the model.

  1. Anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-lipidperoxidant effects of Cassia occidentalis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, G; Latha, P G; Shine, V J; Anuja, G I; Suja, S R; Sini, S; Shyama, S; Pradeep, S; Shikha, P; Rajasekharan, S

    2010-05-01

    Cassia occidentalis Linn. mast cell degranulation at a dose of 250 mg/kg, showed dose dependent stabilizing activity towards human RBC, with is widely used in traditional medicine of India to treat a number of clinical conditions including allergy and inflammatory manifestations. In the present study anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of C. occidentalis whole plant ethanolic extract (CO) was investigated. Effects of CO on rat mast cell degranulation inhibition and human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization were studied in vitro following standard methods. The anti lipidperoxidant effects of CO were also studied in vitro. Effect of CO on carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema inhibition was also assessed. CO significantly decreased maximum protection of 80.8% at 15 microg/ml. The extract also caused significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of murine hepatic microsomes at 100 microg/ml (56%) and significantly reduced carrageenan induced inflammation in mice at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Results of the present study indicated that CO inhibited mast cell degranulation, stabilized HRBC membrane thereby alleviating immediate hypersensitivity besides showing anti oxidant activity.

  2. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaves of Catharanthus roseus Linn. G. Don and their antiplasmodial activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ponarulselvam S; Panneerselvam C; Murugan K; Aarthi N; Kalimuthu K; Thangamani S

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop a novel approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extracts of Catharanthus roseus (C. roseus) Linn. G. Don which has been proven active against malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). Methods:Characterizations were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. Results:SEM showed the formation of silver nanoparticles with an average size of 35-55 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face centred cubic structure of the bulk silver with the broad peaks at 32.4, 46.4 and 28.0. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the leaves of C. roseus can be good source for synthesis of silver nanoparticle which shows antiplasmodial activity against P. falciparum. The important outcome of the study will be the development of value added products from medicinal plants C. roseus for biomedical and nanotechnology based industries.

  3. A COMPARATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ROOT AND STEM OF PIPER LONGUM LINN.

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    P. Vivek

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Piper longum Linn. is a well known plant being used in home remedies as well as in Ayurveda since long. Nowadays Pippalī mūla (root of P. longum is not easily available in the market. Stem cutting of P. longum is being marketed as substitute. Manufacturing companies have started using stem cuttings instead of root. This alteration may affect quality of Ayurvedic preparations. The demand of Ayurvedic medicine has increased globally as well as the concern regarding quality and authenticity of product. The standard parameters of root of Piper longum have not been prepared yet. This work was an attempt to establish preliminary physicochemical and phytochemical standards of root as well as comparison with stem cuttings according to the parameters of Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India (API. Thin Layer Chromatography profile was prepared to compare their chemical constituents. The profile suggested similarity between root and stem cuttings but the percentage of chemical constituents was found more in stem. Additional researches will substantiate stem cuttings efficiency as a good quality alternative for root.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. leaves

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    Manjit Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of Mirabilis jalapa Linn. (MJL (Nyctaginaceae leaves for scientific validation of the folklore claim of the plant. The leaves are used as traditional folk medicine in the south of Brazil to treat inflammatory and painful diseases. Cosmetic or dermo-pharmaceutical compositions containing MJL are claimed to be useful against inflammation and dry skin. Methods: Aqueous extract of the leaves was prepared by cold maceration. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan and formalin-induced paw edema models in Wistar albino rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carrageenan-induced paw edema model. The aqueous extract has shown significant (P < 0.05 inhibition of paw oedema, 37.5% and 54.0% on 4 th hour at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Similar pattern of paw edema inhibition was seen in formalin-induced paw edema model. The maximum percentage inhibition in paw edema was 32.9% and 43.0% on 4 th day at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusion: The results of present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of the leaves possess significant (P < 0.05 anti-inflammatory potential.

  5. Antibacterial activity of leaves extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum Linn. against pathogenic bacteria causing tropical diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Viqar Khan; Qamar Uddin Ahmed; Indu Shukla; Athar Ali Khan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate antibacterial potential of Trifolium alexandrinum (T. alexandrinum) Linn. against seven gram positive and eleven gram negative hospital isolated human pathogenic bacterial strains responsible for many tropical diseases. Methods: Non-polar and polar extracts of the leaves of T. alexandrinum i.e., hexane, dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MeOH) and aqueous (AQ) extracts at five different concentrations (1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 mg/mL) were prepared to evaluate their antibacterial value. NCCL standards were strictly followed to perform antimicrobial disc susceptibility test using disc diffusion method. Results: Polar extracts demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against tested pathogens. EtOAc and MeOH extracts showed maximum antibacterial activity with higher inhibition zone and were found effective against seventeen of the tested pathogens. While AQ plant extract inhibited the growth of sixteen of the test strains. EtOAc and MeOH plant extracts inhibited the growth of all seven gram positive and ten of the gram negative bacterial strains. Conclusions: The present study strongly confirms the effectiveness of crude leaves extracts against tested human pathogenic bacterial strains causing several tropical diseases. Since Egyptian clover is used as a fodder plant, it could be helpful in controlling various infectious diseases associated with cattle as well.

  6. Nephroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata (linn. whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats

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    Saumya R Pani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn. whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. Acute nephrotoxicity was induced by i.p. injection of cisplatin (7 mg/kg of body weight (b.w.. Administration of ethanol extract at dose levels of 400 and 200 mg/kg (b.w. to cisplatin-intoxicated rats for 14 days attenuated the biochemical and histological signs of nephrotoxicity of cisplatin in a dose-dependent fashion. Ethanol extract at 400 mg/kg decreased the serum level of creatinine (0.65 ± 0.09; P<0.001 and urea (32.86 ± 5.88; P<0.001 associated with a significant increase in body weight (7.16 ± 1.10; P<0.001 and urine volume output (11.95 ± 0.79; P<0.05 as compared to the toxic control group. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/kg (b.w. exhibited significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. The statistically (one-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison processed results suggested the protective action of B. variegate whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy.

  7. In Vitro Anti-arthritic activity of Tecoma stans (Linn. Leaves

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    Dharmeshkumar Prajapati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO estimates 80% of the world population presently use herbal medicine for some aspects of primary health care. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks synovial joints. There are many herbs which are described in Ayurveda for arthritis. The medicinal plant contains flavonoids, terpenes, quinones, catechins, alkaloids, anthocyanins and anthoxanthins phytoconstituents, having anti-inflammatory effects. Tecoma stans (Linn. belongs to the family of Bignoniaceae. The root of Tecoma stans as diuretic, vermifuge and tonic. Pharmacological reports revealed that it is having antidiabetic, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity, antimicrobial, and antifungal properties, and extensively used in the treatment of diabetes. Alcohol, Water, successive extracts of Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Methanol and Water extracts of T. stans leaves were tested for Antiarthritic activity using Diclofenac sodium as standard by In-vitro models like, Inhibition of protein denaturation and effect on membrane stabilization. Alcohol, Water and succesive Methanol extracts of T. stans leaves exhibited significant Antiarthritic activity. The results of the investigations justify us the folklore use of T. stans leaves in the treatment of inflammation during arthritis and the plant is worth for further chemical isolation and pharmacological investigations.

  8. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC AND ULCEROGENIC ACTIVITY OF VIGNA MUNGO LINN. LEAVES

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    Md.Rageeb Md.Usman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activity of extract of leaves of Vigna Mungo linn. (Leguminosae were investigated as well as the mechanisms of action. The extract significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the formation of paw edema induced by    carrageenan in rat and increased reaction latency to thermal pain in rat in a dose-dependent manner. The extract caused a significant (P<0.05 dose-dependent ulceration of rat gastric mucosa and concentration-dependent inhibition of hypotonicity-induced haemolysis of red blood cell. Also the extract significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the activates of the phospholipase A2 and prostaglandine synthesis in a concentration related manner. These suggest that the leaves posses anti-inflammatory, analgesic and ulcerogenic activities mediated through sequential inhibition of the enzymes responsible for prostaglandine synthesis from arachidonic acid. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of glycoside, tannins, alkaloid, flavonoids and Saponins. Acute toxicity studies established an oral LD50 greater than 3000 mg/kg.

  9. Toxicological Study of Ocimum sanctum Linn Leaves: Hematological, Biochemical, and Histopathological Studies

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    M. K. Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to study the acute and subacute toxicity studies with orally administered 50% ethanolic leaves extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn (OSE. In acute toxicity tests, four groups of mice (n=6/group/sex were orally treated with doses of 200, 600, and 2000 mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, rats received OSE by gavage at the doses of 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg/day (n=6/group/sex for 28 days, and biochemical, hematological, and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and testis/ovary were determined. OSE did not produce any hazardous symptoms or death and CNS and ANS toxicities in the acute toxicity test. Subacute treatment with OSE did not show any change in body weight, food and water consumption, and hematological and biochemical profiles. In addition, no change was observed both in macroscopic and microscopic aspects of vital organs in rats. Our result showed that Ocimum sanctum extract could be safe for human use.

  10. Pedalium murex Linn (Pedaliaceae) fruits:a comparative antioxidant activity of its different fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DK Patel; R Kumar; SK Prasad; S Hemalatha

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of different solvent fractions of Pedalium murex (P. murex) Linn fruits (Family: Pedaliaceae) as well as the correlation between the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. Methods: In the present study, the antioxidant activities of P. murex were evaluated using six in-vitro assays, namely total antioxidant assay, DPPH assay, reducing power, nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and deoxyribose scavenging assays, and total phenol contents were also investigated.Results:The ethyl acetate (EA) fraction was found to have high levels of phenolic content (298.72±2.09 mg GAE/g). The EA fraction exhibit higher total antioxidant capacity, higher percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity (135.11±2.95μg/mL), nitric oxide (200.57±4.51μg/mL), hydrogen peroxide (217.91±6.12 μg/mL), deoxyribose (250.01±4.68μg/mL) and higher reducing power. Correlation coefficient (r 2=0.914) was found to be significant between total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity. Conclusions: In general, the results indicate that the EA fractions are rich in phenolic antioxidants with potent free radical scavenging activity implying their importance to human health.

  11. Tore Linné Eriksen og de store utviklingsspørsmålene

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    Kristen Nordhaug

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of Tore Linné Eriksen’s works within development studies/development research. In a recent introduction to development studies from 2013, he presented development research as a cross-disciplinary social science approach that addresses the grand problems of mankind. Eriksen’s own research into these grand problems has concentrated on the causes of national and international inequality and poverty. In 1974 he supported the view of the “underdevelopment school”: “Underdevelopment” in Africa and Latin America was the outcome of the inclusion of those continents in a capitalist world economy dominated by Europe. Recent works by Eriksen on the origins of the “great divergence” between Western Europe and economically advanced non-European countries (2010 and on inequality and poverty in the current world (2012 are far more complex and empirically nuanced. Still, in a recent discussion of globalization and global capitalism (2013 he reverts to some of the earlier ”underdevelopment arguments” from 1974. The article concludes that there is a tension within Eriksen’s works on the role of capitalism in development and underdevelopment. In his programmatic writings, global capitalism is seen as the main cause of inequality and poverty. In his more empirically grounded works, global capitalism is viewed rather as an important part of the bigger picture of inequality and poverty. 

  12. The Aqueous Seed Extract Of Carica papaya Linn. Prevents Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats

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    A A Adeneye

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Carica papaya Linn. is known to have a versatile application in African folkloric medicine. In the current study, the dose-dependent (100 – 400 mg/kg/day/oral route and time-course protective effects of the 400 mg/kg/oral route of the aqueous seed extract of unripe and mature Carica papaya fruit (CPE were investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 hepatotoxic rats for 72 hours. Results showed the extract to cause significant (p<0.05, p<0.001, dose related attenuation in the elevation of serum liver enzyme markers of acute hepatocellular injury (ALT, AST, serum lipids (TG, TC, HDL-c, LDL-c and VLDL-c and serum proteins (TP and ALB. Maximum hepatoprotection was offered at an oral dose of 400 mg/kg/day of the extract. The biochemical results obtained were corroborated by improvements in the CCl4-induced hepatic histological changes. In addition, maximum hepatoprotection was offered at the 400 mg/kg of CPE for up to 3 hours post-CCl4 induction. In conclusion, the results obtained in the current study justify the folkloric application of CPE in the treatment of drug-related hepatic injury. Industrial relevance: Results of the current study provide some scientific information to develop safe and effective products such as food supplements, dietary supplements, etc. that could be useful in the clinical management of patients with drug related hepatic disorders.

  13. Clonal propagation of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) by stem cutting from mature stockplants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.T.M. Abdullah; M.A. Hossain; M.K. Bhuiyan

    2006-01-01

    The study describes the scope of clonal propagation of guava (Psidium guajava Linn.) by stem cutting collected from mature stockplants. Cuttings were treated with 0, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% IBA solution and rooted in the non-mist propagator. Rooted cuttings were allowed to grow in the polybags filled with soil and cow-dung mixed in the ratio of 3:1 (by volume) for three months to assess the steckling capacity and initial growth performance. The study reveals that the species is amenable for clonal propagation by mature stem cutting. The highest rooting percentage (60%) was observed in the cuttings treated with 0.4% IBA solution followed by 0.2% IBA and the lowest was in controlled cuttings. The maximum number of primary root (32.7) was developed in the cuttings treated with 0.8% IBA solution followed by 0.4% IBA and the lowest was in the cuttings without IBA treatment. The highest survival percentage (70.9) was observed in the cuttings rooted with 0.4% IBA treatment and the lowest (58.3) was in the cuttings without any treatment. However, there was no significant variation in height growth of cutlings due to IBA treatments in rooting.

  14. ANTILITHIATIC ACTIVITY OF Saccharum spontaneum Linn. ON ETHYLENE GLYCOL – INDUCED LITHIASIS IN RATS.

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    M.Sathya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ethanolic extract of roots of Saccharum spontaneum Linn. was evaluated for its antilithiatic activity in rats. Lithiasis was induced by oral administration of ethylene glycolated water (0.75% in adult male wistar albino rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol (EG, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions, viz. calcium, phosphorus and protein thereby contributing to renal stone formation. However treatment with ethanolic root extract of S.spontaneum (200 and 300 mg / kg bodyweight in group III and IV significantly (p<0.05 reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. The levels of serum urea, uric acid and creatinine were significantly increased (p < 0.05 in urolithiatic rats. Treatment with plant extract restored the levels and it brought back the values to near normal range in urolithiatic rats. All these observations revealed that ethanolic root extract of S.spontaneum has curative effect on stone formation induced by ethylene glycol.

  15. Trema orientalis Linn. Blume: A potential for prospecting for drugs for various uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinortey, Michael Buenor; Galyuon, Isaac K; Asamoah, Nicholas Oteng

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by traditional practitioners to treat several ailments. Ethnomedicinal studies on Trema orientalis Linn. Blume (Ulmaceae) have shown that it is used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, respiratory diseases, oliguria, and malaria. This article is aimed at providing comprehensive information on the medicinal uses, biology, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological data available on T. orientalis. This has been done to explore its therapeutic potential for future research opportunities. This review was compiled with information obtained from databases such as Medline, Elsevier, Springer, Science Direct, Pubmed, Google Scholar, and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Compounds present in the plant include tannins, saponins, flavanoids, triterpenes, phytosterols, and several constituents of xanthones. Some pharmacological research done on the plant has focused on, hypoglycemic activity, analgesic, anti-inflammatory activities, anti-plasmodial activity, diuretic activity, laxativity effect, anti-convulsant activity, anti-helmintic activity, anti-sickling effect, anti-oxidant, and anti-bacterial activity. This compilation strongly supports the view that T. orientalis has beneficial therapeutic properties, and indicates its potential as an effective herbal remedy for several diseases. The promising results from several research works could be further substantiated by clinical trials.

  16. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

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    Himanshu Bhusan Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae, commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods : The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001 inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim.

  17. Experimental evidences of methanolic extraction of Cressa cretica Linn. on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats

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    B. Lalitha Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the physico-metabolic parameters measured were: serum insulin, serum lipid profile, serum biomarker enzymes and anti-oxidant enzymes, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, total proteins, alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, creatinine, insulin assay (RIA, for in vivo anti-oxidant activity of MECC was measured in liver tissue homogenate (LTH by malondialdehyde (MDA, glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes and histopathological examination of pancreas were also observed. Previously, the methonolic extract of Cressa cretica Linn. effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemic Wistar rats was proved by taking the parameters like body weight, blood glucose, glycogen content in liver and muscle. Oral administration of MECC (200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg for 28 days exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose, serum ALT, AST, CR, lipid profile and hepatic MDA levels. The improvement of hepatic enzymes such as GSH, serum TP, HDL, insulin levels were also observed. The results of this work also suggest that MECC may possess anti-hyperglycemic and anti-oxidant property.

  18. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF CARICA PAPAYA LINN. UNRIPE FRUITS

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    Anjum Varisha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Present study was performed for the development of quality standards of Carica papaya Linn. commonly known as Papita belonging to family Caricaceae is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties. The study comprises of physico-chemical and phytochemical evaluation to confirm purity and authenticity of Carica papaya L. unripe fruit using WHO guidelines. Microscopy of the fruit showed presence thick cuticle, parenchyma, epicarp, mesocarp endocarp, calcium oxalate crystals, laticifers, etc. Successive extractive value and hot extractive value was found highest in alcoholic extract 48.34 % and 44.90 % respectively (on dry weight basis. Mean ash values (% are 8.63 (total, 0.79 (acid insoluble ash, and 5.30 (water soluble ash and moisture content was found to be 9.41 % and the phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds in different extracts of Carica papaya L. fruit. TLC fingerprinting profile of different extracts were also developed and quantification of β-carotene was also done by using nhexane:acetone (8.5:1.5 as a mobile phase at 415 nm and found to be higher in pet ether Carica papaya L. fruit extract 1.55 % w/w.

  19. InSAR detection of permafrost landform dynamics at Kapp Linné central Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rune Lauknes, Tom; Christiansen, Hanne; Eckerstorfer, Markus; Larsen, Yngvar

    2013-04-01

    Permafrost is one of six cryospheric indicators of global climate change. As permafrost contains various forms of ground ice, thawing, degradation and speed up of particularly ice-rich periglacial landforms can lead to substantial landscape change and development. This has geomorphological, biological and socio-economical impacts, with changes in the water balance, increase in greenhouse gas emissivity, changes in flora and fauna and impacts on infrastructure. The present scientific challenge is to combine detailed site/point scale geomorphological field process observations with remote sensing data covering at landscape scale. We apply a multi-temporal satellite radar interferometric (InSAR) method to data obtained using the TerraSAR-X satellite. TerraSAR-X has a high spatial resolution and with 11 days repeat cycle, it is well suited to detect seasonal permafrost deformation. To test the usability of X-band InSAR data, we compare hourly field measurements between 2008-2011 of solifluction ground deformation at Kapp Linné, central Svalbard, with InSAR deformation time-series. We show that InSAR is able to pick up the seasonal deformation patterns of frost heave, ground settlement and associated solifluction as well as the interannual downslope movement. These results are a promising first step towards successful upscaling periglacial field point measurements to landscape scale, enabling observations of periglacial processes in larger parts of the permafrost landscapes.

  20. Effects of Tamarind (Tamarindus indicus Linn) seed extract on Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maung, K M; Lynn, Z

    2012-12-01

    Snake bite has been regarded as an important health problem in Myanmar since early 1960's. In the recent years, there has been growing interest in alternative therapies and therapeutic use of natural products, especially those derive from plants. In Myanmar and Indian traditional medicine, various plants have used as a remedy for treating snake bite. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of alcohol extract of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica Linn.) seed on some biologic properties of Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis) venom (RVV). The Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme, coagulase enzyme and caseinolytic enzyme activities of Russell's viper venom (RVV) were reduced when mixed and incubated with the extract. When the RVV and the different amount of extracts were preincubated and injected intramuscularly into mice, all of them survived, but all the mice in the control group died. On the other hand, when RVV were injected first followed by the extract into mice, all of them died. If the extract was injected near the site where Russell's viper venom was injected, all the mice survived for more than 24 hours and the survival time prolonged but they all died within 96 hours. In conclusion, according to the results obtained, the extract neutralizes some biologic properties of the Russell's viper venom and prolonged the survival time if the extract was injected near the site where the Russell's viper venom was injected.

  1. Evaluation of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic potential of Tridax procumbens (Linn.

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    Jain Kusum

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Tridax procumbens Linn. (Family-Asteraceae; common name-Dhaman grass is common herb found in India. Traditionally, the tribal inhabitants of Udaipur district in Rajasthan (India uses the leaf powder (along with other herb orally to treat diabetes. There is a need to evaluate extracts of this plant in order to provide scientific proof for it's application in traditional medicine system. Methods Extraction of whole plant of T. procumbens using 50%methanol. The extract was tested for acute and sub-chronic anti-hyperglycemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats and for acute toxicity test among normal rats. Observations on body weight as well as on the oral glucose tolerance levels were also recorded. Results Oral administration of acute and sub chronic doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b.wt. of T. procumbens extract showed a significant (p T. procumbens were compared with the reference standard drug Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg b.wt.. Conclusion These test results support traditional medicinal use of, T. procumbens for the treatment of diabetes mellitus with corrections in body weight and oral glucose tolerance and no visible signs or symptoms of toxicity in normal rats indicating a high margin of safety. These results warrant follow-up through bioassay-directed isolation of the active principles.

  2. Quantitative determination of vitexin in Passiflora foetida Linn. leaves using HPTLC

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    Aussavashai Shuayprom; Donruedee Sanguansermsri; Phanchana Sanguansermsri; Ian Hamilton Fraser; Nalin Wongkattiya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To establish a simple, rapid, precise and accurate high performance thin layer chromatography(HPTLC) method with densitometric detection for the determination of vitexin in Passiflora foetida Linn.(P. foetida).Methods: Ethanolic extract of the plant leaf powder was used for the experimental work.Separation was performed on silica gel 60 F254 HPTLC plates with ethyl acetate:methanol: distilled water: formic acid in the proportion of 50:2:3:6(v/v), as the mobile phase. The determination was carried out using the densitometric absorbance mode at340 nm.Results: Vitexin response was linear over the range of 2.5–17.5 mg/m L with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. Intraday and interday precision studies showed the relative SD was< 3%. Accuracy of the method was determined and the average recovery was 100.3%.The limit of quantitation and limit of detection were 0.879 and 0.290 mg/m L, respectively.The contents of vitexin in P. foetida leaf extracts were within the range of 0.030%–0.310%.Conclusions: The method was evaluated for sensitivity, accuracy, precision and reproducibility. Each analysis by HPTLC is less expensive than current methods. This method is suitable for routine quality control of raw material of the leaves of P. foetida extract and its products.

  3. Antihypertensive and Diuretic Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Colocasia esculenta Linn. Leaves in Experimental Paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasant, Otari Kishor; Vijay, Bhalsing Gaurav; Virbhadrappa, Shete Rajkumar; Dilip, Nandgude Tanaji; Ramahari, Mali Vishal; Laxamanrao, Bodhankar Subhash

    2012-01-01

    Colocasia esculenta Linn (CE) is traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments such as high blood pressure, rheumatic pain, pulmonary congestion, etc. Hence in present study, the effect of aqueous extract of CE leaves (AECE) was evaluated for antihypertensive and acute diuretic activity in rats. Preliminary phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of carbohydrate, saponins, tannins, and flavonoids in AECE. The animals did not show any sign of toxicity and mortality after the administration of AECE 2000 mg/Kg in acute oral toxicity study. The administration of AECE (100, 200, and 400 mg/Kg/day, p.o.) for six weeks and AECE (10, 20, and 40 mg/Kg, IV) on the day of experiment in renal artery-occluded hypertensive rats and AECE (20 and 40 mg/Kg, IV) in noradrenalin-induced hypertension in rats produced significant (p < 0.05) anti-hypertensive effects. AECE (400 mg/Kg, p.o.) showed positive diuretic activity at 5 h. AECE (200 and 400 mg/Kg, p.o.) significantly increased sodium and chloride content of urine in 5 h and 24 h and additionally potassium in 24 h urine. Hence, the results of the present study revealed the antihypertensive and weak diuretic activity of AECE. These effects may be attributed due to the ACE inhibitory, vasodilatory, β-blocking, and/ or Ca(2+) channel blocking activities, which were reported for the phytoconstitunts, specifically flavonoids such as vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, and isoorientin present in the leaves of CE.

  4. Pedalium murex Linn.:An overview of its phytopharmacological aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar Patel; Damiki Laloo; Rajesh Kumar; Siva Hemalatha

    2011-01-01

    Pedalium murex Linn (family: Pedaliaceae) (P. murex) commonly known as Large Caltrops and Gokhru (India) is a shrub found in the Southern part, Deccan region of India and in some parts of Ceylon. Different parts of the plant are used to treat various ailments like, cough, cold and as an antiseptic. Interestingly,P. murex is reported traditionally to have an excellent cure in patients with reproductive disorders which are mainly impotency in men, nocturnal emissions, gonorrhoea as well as leucorrhoea in women. The plant has also benifited in complications like urinary track disorder as well as gastro intestinal tract disorders. Phytochemically the plant is popular for the presence of a considerable amount of diosgenin and vanillin which are regarded as an important source and useful starting materials for synthesizing steroidal contraceptive drugs and isatin alkaloids. Other phytochemicals reported in the plant includes quercetin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, amino acids (glycine, histidine, tyrosine, threonine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid) and various classes of fatty acids (triacontanoic acid, nonacosane, tritriacontane, tetratriacontanyl and heptatriacontan-4-one). Pharmacologically, the plant have been investigated for antiulcerogenic, nephroprotective, hypolipidemic, aphrodisiac, antioxidant, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. From all these reports it can be concluded that the plant were found to have a better profile with potential natural source for the treatment of various range of either acute or chronic disease. The overall database of our review article was collected from the scientific sources in regards with all the information of the research article forP. murex published so far.

  5. Leaves extract of Murraya Koenigii linn for anti--inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models

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    Shailly Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has been done for the investigation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii Linn by oral administration at dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, to healthy animals. Extract was studied for its anti-inflammatory activity by using carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in albino rats and the mean increase in paw volume and % inhibition in paw volume were measured plethysmometrically at different time intervals after carrageenan (1% w/v injection. Extract was also evaluated for analgesic activity using Eddy′s hot plate method and formalin induced paw licking method in albino rats. The methanol extract showed significant (P < 0.001 reduction in the carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity evidenced by increase in the reaction time by eddy′s hot plate method and percentage increase in pain in formalin test. The methanol extract showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect in dose dependent manner when compared with the control and standard drug, diclofenac sodium (10mg/kg, p.o. These inhibitions were statistically significant (P < 0.05. Thus our investigation suggests a potential benefit of Murraya koenigii in treating conditions associated with inflammatory pain.

  6. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY STUDY OF MUCUNA PRURIENS LINN. IN ALBINO MICE

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    Deka Manalisha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucuna Pruriens Linn. is an annual, climbing shrub which has an important place among aphrodisiac herbs in India since the ancient times. The plant has been using traditionally for many medicinal purposes such as Infertility, Parkinson’s disease, Loss of libido, Antioxidant, Anti venom, Anti microbial etc. The present study was carried out to investigate the preliminary phytochemical analysis and acute oral toxicity of the seeds of M.pruriens on albino mice. Matured seeds of M.pruriens were dried in shed and grinded in a mechanical grinder. The preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by following standard protocols. For acute oral toxicity study, methanolic extract of the seeds were used. The extract was prepared in a Soxlet apparatus. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of protein, carbohydrates, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, phenols and tannins. The acute oral toxicity study showed no mortality up to a dose of 4000 mg per kg body weight. The presence of plant chemicals revealed the medicinal values and the non toxic property of the plant indicated the value of the plant as medicine. Thus, we can conclude that, the seed of the plant can be used as a safe drug against many diseases.

  7. In vitro antibacterial properties of essential oil and organic extracts of Premna integrifolia Linn

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    Atiqur Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil of Premna integrifolia Linn (Lamiaceae, and to test the efficacy of the oil and various organic extracts as an antibacterial potential. The chemical compositions of the essential oil were analyzed by GC–MS. Twenty-nine compounds representing 94.81% of the total leaves oil were identified, of which phytol (27.25%, α-humulene (14.21%, spathulenol (12.12%, 1-octen-3-ol (8.21%, eugenol (6.69% and phenylethyl alcohol (5.81% were the major compounds. The oil (15 μL disk−1 and extracts (300 μg disk−1 of P. integrifolia displayed a great potential of antibacterial activity against Sarcina lutea IFO 3232, Bacillus subtilis IFO 3026, Escherichia coli IFO 3007, Pseudomonas sp. ATCC 13867, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 10031 and Xanthomonas campestries IAM 1671 with their respective zones of inhibition of 12.0 ± 1.2 to 22.1 ± 1.2 mm and MIC values of 62.5–250 μg mL−1. The results of this study suggest that the natural products derived from P. integrifolia may have potential use in food, pharmaceutical and/or agro industries for preservatives or antimicrobial agents.

  8. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms

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    Farnaz Hajifattahi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX, and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries.

  9. Determination of Proximate, Minerals, Vitamin and Anti-Nutrients Composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam, S. M.; Udosen, I. R.; Mensah, S. I.

    2012-07-01

    The proximate, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients composition of Solanum verbascifolium Linn were determined. The proximate composition showed that moisture content was (85.5%), protein was (32.55%), lipid was (2.90%), ash was (7.20%), fibre was (4.80%), carbohydrate was (52.55%) and caloric value was (366.50%) respectively. This was found to be rich in protein and considerably high amount of carbohydrate. The anti-nutrient composition analysis revealed the presence of hydrocyanide (1.39mg/100g), Oxalate (114.40mg/100g), all of which are below toxic level except for oxalic acid. For mineral and vitamin compositions, potassium was significantly (P>0.05) higher than iron, sodium, calcium and phosphorus while vitamin A retinol was (371.72mg/100g) and vitamin C ascorbic acid (39.99mg/100g). Based on these findings the plant is recommended for consumption and for further investigation as a potential raw material for pharmaceutical industry.

  10. ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF THREE VIBURNUM LINN. SPECIES – A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION

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    K Prabhu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus, Viburnum Linn., belonging to the family, Adoxaceae (formerly positioned under the family - Caprifoliaceae, has been surveyed to cover about 200 species, in the world, and about 17 of them in India, especially, at an altitude from 800 – 2500 ft, habitat such as Himalaya and Nilgiri hills. The stem parts of these species claim to contain an appreciable quantity of therapeutically valuable phenolic compounds like anthocyanins, phenolic acids, flavones, flavonols and biflavone, and their glycosides. Based on the above facts on records, the present study has been under taken. With an objective of screening the antiulcer potentials 75% v/v aqueous ethanolic stem extracts of some three species of this genus, namely: V.punctatum, V.coriaceum and V.erubescens by aspirin plus pylorus ligation model in rats, using Ranitidine 50 mg/ kg b.w (p.o as the positive reference drug. From the findings of ulcer score, histo-pathological features and the status of biochemical parameters of gastric contents, it is concluded that extract of V.coriaceum at a dose level of 500 mg/kg.b.w possessed a significant antiulcer activity (p<0.01, p<0.001. However, the magnitude of antiulcer potential among the species was not far different. This study can be a referential tool for isolation of active constituents which are responsible for the above biological activity and to conduct an advanced scientific investigation on these species in that regard.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of whole plant of Pergularia daemia linn.

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    Sudip A. Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Short lived and self limiting disorders are not normally treated with phytomedicines, but recently the use of some botanical preparations for chronic inflammatory conditions has become increasingly wide spread. Pergularia daemia Linn. belonging to family Asclepiadaeceae. Widely distributed in the old World tropics and sub-tropics from southern and tropical Africa through Arabia to Afghanistan, India and Shri-lanka. It consists of Coroglaucigenin, calactin, oleanolic acid, putranjivadione, calacin, calotropin and β-sitosterol etc. The plant is pungent, cooling, anthelmintic, laxative, antipyretic, cures biliousness, “kapha”, asthma, “tridosha” ulcers,useful in eye troubles. The present studied has shown that ethanol extract is good significant (p<0.001reduction in paw oedema to the extent of 44.18% and reduced the granuloma formation to the extent of 19.87% at 200mg/kg concentration, when compared to control group by Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method and cotton pellet granuloma method in rats respectively.

  12. Identification of bacterial endophytes associated with traditional medicinal plant Tridax procumbens Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preveena, Jagadesan; Bhore, Subhash J

    2013-01-01

    In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens. The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens. Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification. Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens. Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study.

  13. Antifertility potential of the ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn. leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunil Kumar; Jitender Singh; Anupama Baghotia; Vineet Mehta; Vikas Thakur; Manjusha Choudhary; Surender Verma; Dinesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the antifertility activity of ethanolic extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima Linn (C. pulcherrima) leaves in albino female mice. Methods: Acute toxicity study of the extract was carried out in adult albino mice. The antifertility activity of the extract at dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally) was evaluated in two experimental animal models i.e. antiimplantation and esterogenic/antiestrogenic activity in female mice by observing no. of implants, estrus cycle, vaginal cornification, uertus weight and cholesterol content. Results: The extract was found to be safe up to a dose of 4 000 mg/kg body weight when administered orally. A good antiimplantation (66.66 %) activity in female mice was observed at the tested dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg, orally). The extract further showed more significant (P<0.05) increase in uterine weight and cholesterol content in immature mice. Simultaneous administration of extract alongwith ethinyl estradiol showed significant estrogenic activity. Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanolic extract of C. pulcherrima leaves possess significant antifertility activity, therefore, justifying the traditional use of this plant in fertility regulation.

  14. Effect of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. on candida adhesion to oral epithelium and denture acrylic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) Linn. ethanolic extract on the adhesion of Candida albicans (C. albicans) to human buccal epithelial cells (BECs) and denture acrylic surfaces. Methods: Human BECs and transparent acrylic strips were pretreated with ethanolic extract solution of P. emblica fruits at concentration ranged from 18.7 to 300 mg/mL. After washing BECs and the strips were inoculated with three strains of C. albicans (ATCC 10281 and two clinical isolates) (107 cells/mL). Normal saline solution (NSS) and 0.2%chlorhexidine gluconate were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. BECs were harvested on 12 μm-polycarbonate filters (Millipore, USA). The membrane filters and the strips were stained with Gram stain. Adherent yeast cells on 100 randomly selected epithelial cells and 20 randomly selected fields on each strip were counted under microscope. The statistical significance was calculated by Kruskal-Wallis and Tukey tests at a significant level of P< 0.05.Results:Significant lower numbers of all strains of yeasts adhering to BECs and acrylic strips were observed after exposure to 75-300 mg/mL of plant extract compared with NSS. Conclusions:The present study demonstrates that P. emblica ethanolic extract interferes with the adhesion of C.albicans to BECs and denture acrylic surfaces in vitro.

  15. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn. Fortified Milk

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    Subha Rastogi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods.

  16. Physical Stability and HPLC Analysis of Indian Kudzu (Pueraria tuberosa Linn.) Fortified Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Subha; Katara, Antariksha; Pandey, Madan M; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B; Rawat, A K S

    2013-01-01

    Functional foods provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition. Functional foods fortified with plant ingredients are well known. Ayurveda (Indian System of Medicine) has found several ways in which the medicinal benefits of herbs can be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one such carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals for targeted health benefits. Indian Kudzu or Pueraria tuberosa Linn. (Fabaceae) is an important medicinal plant of Ayurveda, and experiments suggest that it enhances the health benefits of milk when taken with milk as a carrier. Different milk combinations with P. tuberosa were prepared by homogenizing pasteurized toned milk with its ethanolic and hot water extracts and their stability with reference to pH and coagulation was studied over a period of 15 days. The combinations were also analyzed for puerarin, the major isoflavone C-glucoside present in P. tuberosa, through high-performance liquid chromatography using photo diode array detector. It was observed that there was no precipitate formation and the pH also did not change during the study period indicating their physical stability under the experimental conditions. Also there was no significant change in the content of puerarin during the study period, thereby indicating the chemical stability of the samples. These studies will be useful for developing milk nutraceuticals fortified with Indian Kudzu which has the potential to be included as an ingredient in health and functional foods.

  17. KARAKTERISTIK FISIK PENELURAN CHELONIA MYDAS, LINN. 1758 DI KAIMANA-PAPUA BARAT

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    Zeth Parinding

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Venu Island Wildlife areas, Kaimana-West Papua is one of the places for nesting of Chelonia mydas, Linn. 1758/Green Turtles/Jelepi. Thus, This study was conducted to identify the physical characteristics of Jelepi nesting in the Venu Island Wildlife areas, Kaimana-West Papua. Based on the analysis of the main components bi-plot of the physical characteristics of the main factors were found nesting and landing Jelepi, among others: Temperature sand at depth ≤30 cm (X ̅=27.42 C ± stdev 0,47 C, lighting at 11.0013.00 (X ̅=229.25lux ± stdev 326.50lux, building areas (X ̅=3.18 m2 ± stdev 16,74 m2, medium sand fraction in depth ≤30 cm (X ̅=39.86 ± stdev 16.11, and the number of holes nesting Jelepi (X ̅=1.52 nest ± stdev 1.12 nest.

  18. Gender determination of the Linne's two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) using SRY amplified from hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, K; Masuda, R

    1996-12-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a partial fragment of the sex determining region Y (SRY) gene was used for sexing a young Linne's two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus), a species in which gender determination from the external genitalia is difficult. DNA was extracted from hairs of a 5-month-old sloth as well as the dam and sire as external controls. A SRY fragment (216 bases) was PCR-amplified both from the offspring and the sire, but not amplified from the dam. The DNA sequence (166 bases without primers) of the sloth PCR product was determined and compared with SRY sequences of other mammals previously reported. High homology of their nucleotide (74.1-86.8%) and deduced amino acid (63.6-85.5%) sequences indicates that the PCR product of the sloth was amplified from a region of the SRY gene, and that SRY sequences are conserved throughout mammalian orders. From the result the sex of the young sloth was determined as a male. The PCR method using hairs for sexing the sloth provides an advantageous tool for captive propagation plan in zoos. To the authors' knowledge, no report regarding SRY sequences in the order Xenarthra (Edentata) has been published.

  19. Cadmium accumulation characteristics of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lijin; Shi, Jun; Liu, Qihua; Liao, Ming'an; Mei, Luoyin

    2014-07-01

    In a preliminary study, we found that the cadmium (Cd) concentrations in shoots of the winter farmland weeds Cardamine hirsuta Linn. and Gnaphalium affine D. Don exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)), indicating that these two farmland weeds might be Cd-hyperaccumulators. In this study, we grew these species in soil containing various concentrations of Cd to further evaluate their Cd accumulation characteristics. The biomasses of C. hirsuta and G. affine decreased with increasing Cd concentrations in the soil, while the root/shoot ratio and the Cd concentrations in shoot tissues increased. The Cd concentrations in shoots of C. hirsuta and G. affine reached 121.96 and 143.91 mg kg(-1), respectively, at the soil Cd concentration of 50 mg kg(-1). Both of these concentrations exceeded the critical value of a Cd-hyperaccumulator (100 mg kg(-1)). The shoot bioconcentration factors of C. hirsuta and G. affine were greater than 1. The translocation factor of C. hirsuta was less than 1 and that of G. affine was greater than 1. These findings indicated that C. hirsuta is a Cd-accumulator and G. affine is Cd-hyperaccumulator. Both plants are distributed widely in the field, and they could be used to remediate Cd-contaminated farmland soil in winter.

  20. Sifat Anatomi dan Sifat Fisika Kayu Mindi (Melia azedarach Linn dari Hutan Rakyat di Yogyakarta

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    Harry Praptoyo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical  and Physical Properties of Mindi Wood (Melia azedarach Linn from Community Forest in Yogyakarta Information about mindi wood characteristics is very limited while utilisation of this wood on our society is very extensive. Better knowledge on anatomical and physical wood properties of mindi wood optimizes its utilization. Therefore, this study aims to identify anatomical (macroscopic and microscopic and physical (moisture content, specific gravity and dimensional changes wood properties of mindi taken from community forests around Yogyakarta. The macroscopic structural characteristics results showed that annual ring appeared clearly at transversal surface, having single vessel, vasicentric and diffuse parenchyma, rough texture, straight fiber direction, and no resin canal. Cell proportion of wood showed that fibers occupy more than 44%, followed by vessel (20%, parenchyma (19% and rays (15%. Wood fiber dimension showed fiber length of 0.83 mm, fiber diameter of 14.57µ, and cell wall thickness of 2.50µ. Physical wood properties showed that mindi has 31% moisture content and 0.416 of basic specific gravity. Wood shrinkage from green to kilndry on longitudinal was 3.94 %, tangensial 5.74 %, and radial 2.60 %, with T/R ratio 2.38. Based on T/R ratio value, mindi wood is not recommended for wood construction due to its low dimensional stability. Furthermore, mindi wood also has high longitudinal wood shrinkage and low specific gravity indicating juvenility.

  1. Efficacy of Fertilizer from Tubang-Bakod (JatrophaCurcas Linn Compost

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    Erma B. Quinay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the efficacy of fertilizer from Tubang-Bakod (Jatophacurcas Linn compost, an experiment was carried out in complete randomized block design based on 3 replications. Varied ratios of commercial organic fertilizer (COF and Jatropha compost (JC are 100:0, 50:50 and 0:100 and commercial inorganic fertilizers (CIF were used in planting. Parameters such as number of leaves, length of stems, size and color of leaves were determined after harvesting. The maximum number of leaves was noted in 100:0ratios of JC and COF; the lengthiest stem was noted in vegetables grown with 100:0 JC; while the largest size of leaf was noted in CIF. The color of leaves was the same for the varied ratios with a reading of 4 while the CIF has a reading of 5 in the leaf color chart. The macronutrients of JC have 2.09% N, 1.98%P and 17. 49%K.However the micronutrients of the compost were 203.66 ppm Zn, 326.27 ppmMnand 3997.30 ppmFe. These nutrients are essential for the plant growth. It was observed that potassium (K exceeded the standard for the COF which is 3.66 wt. %. K hastens maturity and increase the size and quality of vegetables.

  2. ANTIPYRETIC POTENTIAL OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF CASSIA FISTULA LINN (FABACEAE BARK

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    Jana Goutam Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotany is a multidisciplinary science defined as the interaction between plants and people. On the basis of ethnomedicinal use, antipyretic activity of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, methanol extract of Cassia fistula Linn (Fabaceae bark has been investigated in albino rats. Normal body temperature is regulated by a centre in the hypothalamus that ensures a balance between heat loss and production. Fever occurs when there is a disturbance of this hypothalamic ‘thermostat’, which leads to the set-point of body temperature being raised. Once there has been a return to the normal set-point, temperature regulating mechanism (dilatation of superficial blood vessels, sweating etc. operates to reduce temperature. The study was carried out by using dose of 300 mg/kg orally. Experimental results exhibited that petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, methanol extract of Cassia fistula bark, possess a significant antipyretic effect. After inducing 15% w/v suspension of yeast (1ml /100gm Body weight, temperature of experimental animal was increased. Then different extracts of the drug was induced into albino rats, which shows significant results. It was observed that methanol extract at a dose of 300 mg / kg body weight showed maximum antipyretic activity amongst other extracts which is statistically significant as the value of p<0.05.

  3. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Various Extracts of Whole Plant of Borreria hispida (Linn

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    A.Kottai Muthu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of various extracts of whole plant of Borreria hispida (Linn. The extract was prepared from the whole plant of Borreria hispida by hot continuous percolation method in Soxhlet apparatus with various solvents (Pet. Ether, ethyl acetate, Methanol. All the extracts of Borreria hispida were tested for antibacterial efficacy against Bacillus subtilis NCIM 2063, Bacillus pumilus NCIM 2327, Staphylococcus aureus NCIM 2079, Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCIM 2036,Escheria coli NCIM 2065, Klebsiella pneumonia NCIM 2957. All the three extracts were comparable with standard drug (Ciprofloxacin. The methanolic extract was found to be the most effective anti bacterial activity against the entire organism tested. The minimum Inhibitory concentration of methanolic extract of Borreria hispida was found to the range 250 mcg/ml to 50 mg/ml on tested all the test organisms. This study scientifically supports the usage of whole plant as a remedy for various superficial bacterial and fungal infections in traditional medicine.

  4. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro antibacterial activity of Anamirta cocculus (Linn. seeds

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    Umer Qadir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work is aimed at primary screening of the phytochemical contents of seven solvents (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone, methanol, ethanol and a mixture of methanol and ethyl acetate (1:3 extracts of the seeds of Anamirta cocculus (Linn. and to evaluate the antibacterial activity of these extracts against five species of pathogenic bacteria. The powdered seeds of A. cocculus were extracted with seven solvents (polar and non-polar with Soxhlet apparatus and the extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening by standard biochemical tests. The antibacterial activity of various extracts was evaluated against five bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The zone of inhibitions and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the various extracts were determined by running the experiments in triplicates. The extracts of the seeds of A. cocculus contained various pharmaceutically active substances viz., aldehydes, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, glycosides, phytosterols, volatile oils, gums and mucilage and other minor phytochemicals. All the extracts showed significant levels of antibacterial activity. Methanol extract was the most active one with remarkable antibacterial activity on the various species tested. MICs of the extracts revealed methanol extract as the most potent one with the lowest inhibitory concentration of 3 μg/mL on E. coli. The findings of the present study indicated that the seeds of A. cocculus possess various secondary metabolites having the potential for developing pharmaceutical drugs, especially antimicrobial ones.

  5. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães = Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Arquimedes Fernandes Monteiro de Melo; Miracy Muniz Albuquerque; Maria Almerice Lopes da Silva; Gracielle Carvalho Gomes; Isabely de Souza Vera Cruz; Vanessa Ribeiro Leite; Jane Sheila Higino

    2006-01-01

    A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novosfármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA) regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resoluçãoda Diretoria Colegiada (RDC) 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às...

  6. To study the effect of solvent, viscosity, and temperature on the mouth-dissolving film of Withania somnifera Linn

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    Anwar Daud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An oral-dissolving drug delivery system offers a solution for those patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets/capsules, and so on. Withania somnifera has been used to promote health and longevity by augmenting defenses against disease, arresting the aging process, revitalizing the body in debilitated conditions, and thus creating a sense of well-being. Commercially, it is available either in powder or liquid dosage forms that do not offer patient compliance. In the present study, an attempt has been made to formulate W. somnifera into thin oral films. An attempt was also made to study factors like the effect of the type of solvent used for casting of the film, effect of drying temperature, and viscosity of the solution on the mouth-dissolving film of W. somnifera Linn. The mouth-dissolving films were prepared by the solvent-casting method. Prepared films were evaluated for film-forming capacity, appearance of film, tack test, thickness, in vitro disintegration time, folding endurance, tensile strength, and percentage elongation. This study illustrated that selected process variables have an influence on the physicomechanical properties of the mouth-dissolving film of W. somnifera Linn. Water was found to be an excellent solvent for casting when hydroxypropylmethylcellulose was used as a film former. When mouth-dissolving film of W. somnifera Linn was dried at lower temperatures, it showed optimum physicomechanical performances. Viscosity of the solution plays an important role in physicomechanical properties of the film; as the viscosity of solution increases, there is an increase in folding endurance, tensile strength, and percentage elongation.

  7. Euphorbia helioscopia Linn as a green source for synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their optical and catalytic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Babaei, Ferydon; Maham, Mehdi

    2015-07-15

    During this study, we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Euphorbia helioscopia Linn leaf extract for the synthesis of propargylamines. Also, the structural and optical properties are studied. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized by TEM, XRD, FT-IR and UV-visible techniques. UV-visible studies show an absorption band at 440 nm due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, the catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity, superior cycling stability and excellent substrate applicability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF VIGNA RADIATA LINN ON SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED WORKING AND MEMORY DEFICITS IN MICE BY USING DIFFERENT MODELS

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    Bhandurge Aruna P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Memory is the ability of an individual to record the information and recall it whenever needed. Dementia is a mental disorder characterized by loss of intellectual ability (judgment or abstract thinking which invariably involves impairment of memory. The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease which is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder associated with loss of neurons in distinct brain areas and cord. Stressful conditions are often associated with loss of memory and cognitive functions which may lead to threats of schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. Traditionally herbal drugs have been used to enhance cognitive functions and to alleviate other functions associate with the Alzheimer’s disease. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of Vigna radiata Linn extract on learning and memory in mice. Vigna radiata Linn extract (Aqueous 700, 900 mg/kg and Ethanol 700, 900mg/kg ameliorated the amnesic effect of scopolamine (0.4mg/kg which induced memory defiect in mice. Elevated plus-maze and passive-avoidance paradigm served as an exteroceptive bevarioural model. Vigna radiata Linn extract decreases transverse latencies and increases step down latencies, when it is compared with the scopolamine induced group. Vigna radiata Linn preparation could be beneficial in the treatment of cognitive disorders like Dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.

  9. Beobachtungen über die Fortpflanzung und Verdauung des Unaus (Zweizehen-Faultier = Choloepus didactylus Linné) nebst einigen Bemerkungen über sein Verhalten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Karl Max

    1939-01-01

    Die folgenden Beobachtungen habe ich im Leipziger Zoologischen Garten gemacht. Im Mai 1912 kaufte dieser von der Königlichen Zoologischen Gesellschaft „Natura Artis Magistra” zu Amsterdam eine Faultier-Familie (Choloepus didactylus Linné), wovon das Männchen — sich am längsten haltend — über 8 Jahre

  10. Antimicrobial activity of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis Linn. against human pathogens

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    oorthy kannaiyan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate antimicrobial effects of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Salacia chinensis (S. chinensis Linn. against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods: The Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus (MTCC 96, Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis (MTCC 435, Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis (MTCC 121, Escherichia coli (E. coli (MTCC 443, Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae (MTCC 432, Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis (MTCC 1429, Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A (MTCC 735, Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium (MTCC 98, Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri (MTCC 1457 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa (MTCC 424, Candida albicans (C. albicans (MTCC 183 and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans (clinical isolate were originally obtained from Microbial Type Culture Collection Centre, Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India. Antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods against pathogens by using crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts. Results: Ethanolic extract of S. chinensis L. leaves showed significant antimicrobial activity against S. epidermidis (33.20 mm, C. albicans (30.40 mm and C. neoformans (18.20 mm mean values were documented. Aqueous extract of leaves showed significant inhibitory activity against C. neoformans (19.8 mm and S. epidermidis (17.80 mm were observed. Based on broth dilution method, the ethanolic extract of crude plant material showed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values against S. epidermidis, C. neoformans (256 毺 g/mL and C. albicans (512 毺 g/mL, whereas the aqueous extract of S. chinensis L. leaves showed significant inhibitory activity against S. epidermidis (512 毺 g/mL and C. neoformans (1024 毺 g/mL were observed. Conclusions: The present result revealed that ethanolic extract of S. chinensis L. possesses significant antifungal activity when compared as the antibacterial activities.

  11. Evaluation of Tribulus terrestris Linn (Zygophyllaceae) acetone extract for larvicidal and repellence activity against mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S P; Raghavendra, K; Singh, R K; Mohanty, S S; Dash, A P

    2008-12-01

    Acetone extracts of leaves and seeds from the Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) were tested against mature and immature different mosquito vectors under laboratory condition. The extract showed strong larvicidal, properties 100 per cent mortality in the 3rd-instar larvae was observed in the bioassays with An. culicifacies Giles species A, An. stephensi Liston, Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti Linn, against 200 ppm of the leaf acetone extract and 100 ppm seed acetone extract. The LC50 values of leaf acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 117, 124, 168 and 185 ppm respectively. The LC50 values of seed acetone extract estimated for 3rd-instars An. culicifacies species A, An. stephensi, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. aegypti after 24 hour of exposure were 100, 72, 91 and 91 ppm respectively. It is confirmed from the LC50 values that the seed acetone extract of T. terrestris is more effective compared to leaf extracts. A significant (P<0.004) higher concentration of acetone extract leaf was required to kill equal number of larvae i.e. against acetone extract of seed. The seed acetone extract showed strong repellent activity against adults mosquitoes. Per cent protection obtained against Anopheles culicifacies species A 100% repellency in 1 h, 6 h; Anopheles stephensi 100% repellency in 0 h, 4 h, 6 h; and Culex quinquefasciatus 100% repellency in 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, at 10% concentration respectively. Against Deet- 2.5% An. culicifacies Giles species A has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h, 6 h, An. stephensi Liston 99% repellency in 4 h, and Culex quinquefasciatus Say has shown 100% repellency in 1 h, 2 h.

  12. Gastroprotective effect of Piper betle Linn. leaves grown in Sri Lanka

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    L. D. A. M. Arawwawala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Piper betle Linn. (Piperaceae is used as a remedy for gastric ulcers in traditional medicinal systems in Sri Lanka. However, the gastroprotective activity has never been proven scientifically using betel leaves grown in Sri Lanka. Objective: To evaluate the gastroprotective activity of hot aqueous extract (HAE and cold ethanolic extract (CEE of P. betle in rats as the experimental model. Materials and Methods: Three doses (200, 300, and 500 mg/kg/bw of both extracts were evaluated for the gastroprotective activity against ethanol induced gastric ulcers in rats. The parameters evaluated were (a effects of HAE on mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa, (b acidity (total and free, (c volume and (d pH of the gastric juice. Results: Oral administration of HAE and CEE provided marked dose dependent (HAE: r2 = 0.97; CEE: r2 = 0.96 and significant (P ≤ 0.05 protection against gastric damage caused by absolute ethanol. The gastroprotective effect of CEE was comparable with that of HAE. Further, gastroprotective activity of the highest dose of both extracts were significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05 than that of misoprostol, the reference drug. The HAE significantly (P ≤ 0.05 increased the mucus content adhering to the wall of the gastric mucosa and inhibited the volume of gastric acid. However, acidity (total and free and pH of the gastric juice remained unaltered. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HAE and CEE of P. betle leaves have a strong gastroprotective activity.

  13. Fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryanto, Ditia Allindira; Landuma, Suarni; Purwanto, Agus [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Surakarta 632112 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24

    The Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using Annato seeds has been conducted in this study. Annato seeds (Bixa orellana Linn) used as a sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell. The experimental parameter was concentration of natural dye. Annato seeds was extracted using etanol solution and the concentration was controlled by varying mass of Annato seeds. A semiconductor TiO{sub 2} was prepared by a screen printing method for coating glass use paste of TiO{sub 2}. Construction DSSC used layered systems (sandwich) consists of working electrode (TiO{sub 2} semiconductor-dye) and counter electrode (platina). Both are placed on conductive glass and electrolytes that occur electrons cycle. The characterization of thin layer of TiO{sub 2} was conducted using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscpy) analysis showed the surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} thin layer and the cross section of a thin layer of TiO{sub 2} with a thickness of 15–19 μm. Characterization of natural dye extract was determined using UV-Vis spectrometry analysis shows the wavelength range annato seeds is 328–515 nm, and the voltage (V{sub oc}) and electric current (I{sub sc}) resulted in keithley test for 30 gram, 40 gram, and 50 gram were 0,4000 V; 0,4251 V; 0,4502 V and 0,000074 A; 0,000458 A; 0,000857 A, respectively. The efficiencies of the fabricated solar cells using annato seeds as senstizer for each varying mass are 0,00799%, 0,01237%, and 0,05696%.

  14. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.

  15. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of flower extract of Millingtonia hortensis Linn. on carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity

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    S Babitha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Millingtonia hortensis Linn is an abundant resource of flavonoids, which might be beneficial in protecting liver tissue from injury. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of M. hortensis on carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicity and the possible mechanism involved therein were investigated in rats. Materials and Methods: Preliminary phytochemical studies were carried out to determine the total phenol and flavonoid contents. 30 adult Wistar rats were allocated into 5 groups. Control group received vehicle, group-2 received CCl 4 alone (1 ml/kg body weight, intraperitonially, groups 3 - 5 received the ethanolic flower extract in 2 dose levels (200 and 400 mg/kg and Curcumin (100 mg/kg as a standard for 8 days orally, followed by CCl 4 as a single dose on the 8 th day. 48 hours later, blood was withdrawn, serum was subjected to biochemical assessments, and liver homogenate was examined for lipid peroxides, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase and total protein levels. Furthermore, hepatic tissues were subjected to histopatological studies. Results: CCl 4 treatment produced a profound increase in the levels of malondialdehyde, hepatic marker enzymes and bilirubin content compared with the control (P < 0.05. Pre-treatment with the flower extract of M. hortensis significantly enhanced the levels of endogenous antioxidants and reduced the levels of hepatic marker enzymes in relation to the CCl 4 treated group (P < 0.05. Balloning degeneration and fatty changes in hepatocytes was prevented by pre-treatment with the flower extract. Conclusion: The antioxidant nature of the flower extract of M. hortensis could be responsible for averting damage to the liver.

  16. Comparative and quantitative analysis of antioxidant and scavenging potential of Indigofera tinctoria Linn. extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rashmi Singh; Shatruhan Sharma; Veena Sharma

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare and elucidate the antioxidant efifcacy of ethanolic and hydroethanolic extracts ofIndigofera tinctoriaLinn. (Fabaceae family). METHODS: Variousin-vitro antioxidant assays and free radical-scavenging assays were done. Quantitative measurements of various phytoconstituents, reductive abilities and chelating potential were carried out along with standard compounds. Half inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for ethanol and hydroethanol extracts were analyzed and compared with respective standards. RESULTS: Hydroethanolic extracts showed considerably more potent antioxidant activity in comparison to ethanol extracts. Hydroethanolic extracts had lower IC50 values than ethanol extracts in the case of DPPH, metal chelation and hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity (829, 659 and 26.7 μg/mL) but had slightly higher values than ethanol in case of SO2- and NO2-scavenging activity (P< 0.001vs standard). Quantitative measurements also showed that the abundance of phenolic and lfavonoid bioactive phytoconstituents were signiifcantly (P< 0.001) greater in hydroethanol extracts (212.920 and 149.770 mg GAE and rutin/g of plant extract respectively) than in ethanol extracts (211.691 and 132.603 mg GAE and rutin/g of plant extract respectively). Karl Pearson’s correlation analysis (r2) between various antioxidant parameters and bioactive components also associated the antioxidant potential ofI. tinctoria with various phytoconstituents, especialy phenolics, lfavonoids, saponins and tannins. CONCLUSION: This study may be helpful to draw the attention of researchers towards the hydroethanol extracts ofI. tinctoria, which has a high yield, and great prospects in herbal industries to produce inexpensive and powerful herbal products.

  17. Variasi Cendana (Santalum album Linn. Berdasarkan Morfologi Daun dan Bunga di Desa Petir, Rongkop, Gunungkidul

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    Ridla Arifriana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandalwood (Santalum album Linn. is one of the flora that are commonly used as rehabilitation species, known as a plant that can grow in a lack of nutrient soil, and has a high economic value of santalol oil. This plant is indigenous in East Nusa Tenggara but it has a natural regenaration in some areas of Gunungkidul Yogyakarta, including in Petir Village, Rongkop, Gunungkidul. Morphological variation of Sandalwood in this area was relatively high. This research aimed to describe and classify sandalwood variations that exist in the research site based on the morphological characters. The materials used in this study were (1 sandalwood as the target species (including generative and vegetative organs with purposive sampling and (2 Ximenia americana as the outgroup species. Data were analyzed using description and phylogeny analysis using maximum parsimony method with morphological markers. Morphological characters of Sandalwoods were varied in size and leave shapes, flowers perigonium, lobes shapes, appendices shapes, stem color, shapes and fruit size. There were two characters that have not been described in the previous sources in Indonesia, form of leaves (oblong and oval and orange color of perigonium. Phylogeny results showed that a small leaf sandalwood character was closer to the outgroup character. Diagnostic characters explicitly classified small leaf size and leaf size large. Size of small leaf was from 2.8 -7.7 cm to 1.1-2.2 cm and from 7.9-10 cm to 3.1-4 cm for large leaf. Leaf form and colour of flower variation was found in each group of leaf size.

  18. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn.: A review of its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology

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    Alhassan Muhammad Alhassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. is principally cultivated for medicinal purposes in many tropical and subtropical countries of the world. Literature survey about this plant shows that A. bilimbi is mainly used as a folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and as an antimicrobial agent. The prime objective of this review is to accumulate and organize literature based on traditional claims and correlate those with current findings on the use of A. bilimbi in the management of different ailments. Through interpreting already published scientific manuscripts (1995 through 2015 retrieved from the different scientific search engines, namely Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and Science Direct databases, published articles and reports covering traditional and scientific literature related to A. bilimbi's potential role against various ailments have been thoroughly evaluated, interpreted, and discussed. Several pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of this plant to act as antidiabetic, antihypertensive, thrombolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic agent. A. bilimbi holds great value in the complementary and alternative medicine as evidenced by the substantial amount of research on it. Therefore, we aimed to compile an up-to-date and comprehensive review of A. bilimbi that covers its traditional and folk medicine uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Hence, this paper presents an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the ethnomedicinal uses, different chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of A. bilimbi. So far, the biologically active agents have not been isolated from this plant and this can be a good scientific study for the future antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial implications. Hence, this review targets at emphasizing the diverse traditional claims and pharmacological activities of A. bilimbi with respect to carrying out more scientific studies to isolate

  19. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn.: A review of its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, Alhassan Muhammad; Ahmed, Qamar Uddin

    2016-01-01

    Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. is principally cultivated for medicinal purposes in many tropical and subtropical countries of the world. Literature survey about this plant shows that A. bilimbi is mainly used as a folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and as an antimicrobial agent. The prime objective of this review is to accumulate and organize literature based on traditional claims and correlate those with current findings on the use of A. bilimbi in the management of different ailments. Through interpreting already published scientific manuscripts (1995 through 2015) retrieved from the different scientific search engines, namely Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and Science Direct databases, published articles and reports covering traditional and scientific literature related to A. bilimbi's potential role against various ailments have been thoroughly evaluated, interpreted, and discussed. Several pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of this plant to act as antidiabetic, antihypertensive, thrombolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic agent. A. bilimbi holds great value in the complementary and alternative medicine as evidenced by the substantial amount of research on it. Therefore, we aimed to compile an up-to-date and comprehensive review of A. bilimbi that covers its traditional and folk medicine uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Hence, this paper presents an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the ethnomedicinal uses, different chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of A. bilimbi. So far, the biologically active agents have not been isolated from this plant and this can be a good scientific study for the future antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial implications. Hence, this review targets at emphasizing the diverse traditional claims and pharmacological activities of A. bilimbi with respect to carrying out more scientific studies to isolate active principles

  20. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Urtica dioica Linn. leaves and their synergistic effects with antibiotics

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    Kumari Jyoti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In continuation of the efforts for synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs by green chemistry route, here we report a facile bottom-up ‘green’ route for the synthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaves extract of Urtica dioica (Linn.. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, Zeta-sizer and Zeta-potential, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Selected area electron diffraction (SAED. The results obtained from various characterizations revealed that AgNPs were in the size range of 20–30 nm and crystallized in face-centered-cubic structure. The antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Salmonella typhimurium bacterial pathogens was demonstrated by synthesized nanoparticles. Further, synergistic effects of AgNPs with various antibiotics were evaluated against above mentioned bacterial pathogens. The results showed that AgNPs in combination with antibiotics have better antibacterial effect as compared with AgNPs alone and hence can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacteria. The maximum effect, with a 17.8 fold increase in inhibition zone, was observed for amoxicillin with AgNPs against S. marcescens proving the synergistic role of AgNPs. Therefore, it may be used to augment the activities of antibiotics.

  1. Antioxidative activity of different parts of the plant Lepidium sativum Linn

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    Jency Malar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lepidium sativum Linn. has been used in traditional and folklore medicine for the treatment of bronchial asthma, diabetes, local and rheumatic pain. An ethanolic extract of cress (L. sativum L. shoot, leaf, stem and seed has been studied for antioxidative active against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, total glutathione S-transferase assay, reduced glutathione activity, reducing power (Fe3+–Fe2+ Transformation Ability, and ascorbic acid is also estimated. The percentage yields of free radical scavenging activity (DPPH obtained for different ethanolic extracts of L. sativum. Supreme scavenging activity was detected in shoot (12.19 ± 02% and least in stem (2.69 ± 05%. The activity of total glutathione S-transferase enzyme was found to be more in seed (9600 ± 56.3 μg/ml than other plant parts. The reduced glutathione content of the ethanolic extracts of L. sativum was found to be more in leaf (9 ± 0.2 μg/ml. In the reducing power assay, ethanolic extracts gives the optical density in increasing concentration in all plant parts it shows that it has the reducing ability of Fe3+–Fe2+. Presence of vitamin C was tested. It was found that the shoot extract has highest amount of vitamin C. The results of present data were shown that the ethanolic extract of L. sativum L. plant parts have contributed high potential in vitro antioxidant activity.

  2. Electrospun Cellulose Acetate Fiber Mats as Carriers for Crude Extracts From Phyllanthus Emblica Linn. Fruits

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    Thitiwongsawet Patcharaporn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn (PE was extracted with methanol and then partitioned into diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water fractions. The diethyl ether fraction showed the highest antibacterial activity against two pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923. The PE extract from diethyl ether fraction was then loaded into 17%w/v cellulose acetate (CA solution prepared in 2:1 v/v acetone/N, N-dimethylacetamide at concentrations of 1, 3, and 5% w/w (based on the weight of CA. The PE extract-loaded electrospun CA fiber mats were fabricated by electrospinning. The morphological appearance of both the neat and the PE extract-loaded electrospun CA fibers were smooth with the average diameters in a range of 335-694 nm. The amounts of water retention and release characteristics of PE extract from fiber mats in an acetate buffer (pH 5.5 were studied and compared with the corresponding cast-films fabricated by the solvent casting method. The amount of water retention of the PE extract-loaded fiber mats was about 112-205% which was higher than that of the cast films (i.e. 25-35%. The study of release characteristics of PE extract from fiber mats and films was carried out by total immersion method in an acetate buffer at 32°C for 72 h. The PE extract-loaded fiber mats exhibited greater amount of extract released than those of the cast films. The maximum amounts of PE extract released from fiber mats and films were about 40-80% and 18-23%, respectively.

  3. Cissampelos pareira Linn: Natural Source of Potent Antiviral Activity against All Four Dengue Virus Serotypes.

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    Ruchi Sood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral disease, poses a significant global public health risk. In tropical countries such as India where periodic dengue outbreaks can be correlated to the high prevalence of the mosquito vector, circulation of all four dengue viruses (DENVs and the high population density, a drug for dengue is being increasingly recognized as an unmet public health need.Using the knowledge of traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda, we developed a systematic bioassay-guided screening approach to explore the indigenous herbal bio-resource to identify plants with pan-DENV inhibitory activity. Our results show that the alcoholic extract of Cissampelos pariera Linn (Cipa extract was a potent inhibitor of all four DENVs in cell-based assays, assessed in terms of viral NS1 antigen secretion using ELISA, as well as viral replication, based on plaque assays. Virus yield reduction assays showed that Cipa extract could decrease viral titers by an order of magnitude. The extract conferred statistically significant protection against DENV infection using the AG129 mouse model. A preliminary evaluation of the clinical relevance of Cipa extract showed that it had no adverse effects on platelet counts and RBC viability. In addition to inherent antipyretic activity in Wistar rats, it possessed the ability to down-regulate the production of TNF-α, a cytokine implicated in severe dengue disease. Importantly, it showed no evidence of toxicity in Wistar rats, when administered at doses as high as 2g/Kg body weight for up to 1 week.Our findings above, taken in the context of the human safety of Cipa, based on its use in Indian traditional medicine, warrant further work to explore Cipa as a source for the development of an inexpensive herbal formulation for dengue therapy. This may be of practical relevance to a dengue-endemic resource-poor country such as India.

  4. Toxicological evaluation of the lyophilized fruit juice extract of Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) in rodents.

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    Awodele, Olufunsho; Ishola, Ismail O; Ikumawoyi, Victor O; Akindele, Abidemi J; Akintonwa, Alade

    2013-12-18

    Abstract Background: Annona muricata Linn. (Annonaceae) (AM) fruit juice is widely consumed either raw or after processing in tropical countries because of its very juicy, creamy and sweet character including its medicinal importance. The safety of AM fruit was investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats for acute and 60-day subchronic toxicity effects. Methods: Rats were administered distilled water (DW) and AM daily at doses of 80, 400 and 2000 mg/kg orally for 60 days. At the end of the study, blood samples were assayed for biochemical and hematological parameters. Vital organs were harvested and assessed for antioxidants and histopathology. Results: There was no mortality recorded up to 2000 mg/kg following acute administration. There were no significant changes in vital organ weights and hematological and biochemical parameters. However, significant (p<0.05) reduction in platelet count and packed cell volume was observed at 2000 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, which was reversed after cessation of treatment. Interestingly, subchronic oral administration of AM (80, 400 or 2000 mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) increased sperm count and motility in comparison to vehicle-treated control. AM long-term treatment induced significant (p<0.05, <0.01 and <0.001) increases in the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, respectively, in the liver and kidney. Conversely, AM (2000 mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.001) increase in malondialdehyde level with decreased (p<0.05) SOD activity in the brain. Conclusions: The study established that AM did not induce any significant toxic effect, indicating that it is safe in rats following oral administration for 60 consecutive days.

  5. Evaluation of Phytochemical and Antimicrobial study of Extracts of Vitex negundo Linn

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    Gautam Keerti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The persistent increase in the number of antibiotic resistant strains of microorganisms has led to the development of more potent but more expensive antibiotics. In most developing countries of the world these antibiotics are not readily affordable, thus making compliance difficult. This calls for research into alternative source of antimicrobials. Present work was carried out to assess the antimicrobial activity of V.negundo against some multidrug resistant pathogenic bacteria. V.negundo flower buds were collected, air dried and soxhlet extracted by using standard method for flavonoid extraction. These extracts were then tested for antimicrobial activity using disc diffusion method. MIC, MBC & TA was also calculated. flower buds bound flavonoid extract of Vitex showed highest antibacterial activity (IZ=25mm, AI=1.38±0.026 against Bacillus subtilis and (IZ=25mm, AI=1.04±0.010 against Raoultella planticola. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of Vitex was 0.039 mg/ml against Bacillus subtilis, raoultella planticola and Agrobacterium tumifaciens. The most active extract of bound flavonoid of flower buds was analyzed by GCMS study, which revealed eighty compounds in it. Two flavonoids were found in the flowers buds of Vitex negundo, as Kampferol-3-O-rutinoside (RT=30.342 and 5-hydroxy- 3,6,7,3’,4’-pentamethoxy flavones(RT=49.408, that are not has been reported earlier in flower buds of Vitex negundo. Flavonoids of flower buds extract of V.negundo Linn has the potential to be developed into an antimicrobial agent.

  6. Cytotoxicity and anti-Sporothrix brasiliensis activity of the Origanum majorana Linn. oil

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    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of the essential oil of Origanum majorana Linn. (marjoram, its chemical analysis, and its cytotoxic activity. A total of 18 fungal isolates of Sporothrix brasiliensis (n: 17 from humans, dogs and cats, and a standard strain of Sporothrix schenckii (n: 1 were tested using the broth microdilution technique (Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute - CLSI M27-A3 and the results were expressed in minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC. The MIC50 and MIC90 of itraconazole against S. brasiliensis were 2 µg/mL and 8 µg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50 and MFC90 were 2 µg/mL and >16 µg/mL, respectively, with three S. brasiliensis isolates resistant to antifungal. S. schenckii was sensitive at MIC of 1 µg/mL and MFC of 8 µg/mL. For the oil of O. majorana L., all isolates were susceptible to MIC of ≤2.25-9 mg/mL and MFC of ≤2.25-18 mg/mL. The MIC50 and MIC90 were ≤2.25 mg/mL and 4.5 mg/mL, respectively, and the MFC50/90 values were twice more than the MIC. Twenty-two compounds were identified by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector (CG-FID and 1,8-cineole and 4-terpineol were the majority. Through the colorimetric (MTT assay, the toxicity was observed in 70-80% of VERO cells between 0.078 and 5 mg/mL. For the first time, the study demonstrated the satisfactory in vitro anti-Sporothrix sp. activity of marjoram oil and further studies are needed to ensure its safe and effective use.

  7. EVALUATION OF ANTIPYRETIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PARUSAKA (GREWIA ASIATICA LINN.: AN INDIGENOUS INDIAN PLANT

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    Das Debajyoti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the modern medical system, pyrexia is not only considered as a disease, but Jwara or pyrexia has been depicted as a cardinal disease from the period of Brihatrayee (2000B.C – 7th Century A.D. due to its severeity and worsening prognosis. The vivic classification of the disease, Jwara has been acertained in different traditional Ayurvedic texts and the treatment are being elaborately described in these texts, but most are the compond formulation pertaining to endangered species. Considering this, Parusaka (Grewia asiatica Linn. has been selected as a drug having the Jwaraghna (antipyretic action and Vedananasaka (analgesic. The basis for the pharmacological action is based on panachabhautika composition. This study was carried out to evaluate its analgesic and antipyretic activities in experimental animal model. The aqueous extract of Parusaka was administered in different doses to swiss albino mice / rats and compared for analgesic – antipyretic activity by administering aspirin. The extract (doses of 200-300mg / kg body weight showed good analgesic effect due to its inhibitory effects on pain induced by acetic acid in writhing test (Chemical stimulation and tail immersion test (Thermal stimulation. The trial drug (300mg /kg body weight also produced significant increase in the hot plate reaction time (when compared to aspirin 400mg/kg body weight in mice indicating its analgesic effects. The extract containing 400mg /kg body weight dose had significant effect than aspirin (100mg / kg body weight on reducing pyrexia, induced by administering lipopolysaccharide extract from E. Coli. This study therefore support the use of Parusaka as indigenous analgesic and antipyretic agent in India and further investigations is required to elucidate its pharmacodynamic action.

  8. Evaluation of antioxidant effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut extract on the components of immune system in adjuvant arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Shanthi, Palanivelu; Sachdanandam, Panchanatham

    2005-03-01

    The effect of Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut extract (SA) on the level of Lipid peroxides (LPO) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in the lymphocytes and lymphoid organs, namely spleen and thymus of adjuvant induced arthritic rats, were investigated. The results were compared with normal and untreated arthritic rats. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), namely Hydroxy radical, Superoxide radical, and H2O2 were also measured in spleen, thymus, and lymphocytes of control and experimental animals. Biochemical markers of inflammation namely C-reactive protein (CRP) level and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were determined. Anti-arthritic profile was evaluated from the changes in the paw edema and arthritic scores of arthritic and drug-treated rats. A significant increase in the level of LPO, ROS and decreased levels of antioxidant enzymes in arthritic rats were observed. On treatment with the drug, the above changes were reverted back to near normal levels. The increment in CRP level and ESR observed in arthritic animals were found to be significantly restored in SA treated rats. There were no significant changes in sole drug-administered normal rats. Semecarpus anacardium Linn. nut extract significantly decreased the paw edema and arthritic score in arthritic rats on administration, whereas in untreated arthritic rats, there was a significant edema in the hind paw.

  9. In vitro effect of hydro alcoholic extract of Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. on calcium oxalate crystallization

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    Ajij Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. is widely used in the management of urolithiasis in Unani system of medicine. Aim: To evaluate the effect of the hydro alcoholic extract of A. capillus-veneris Linn. on calcium oxalate crystallisation by in vitro study. Materials and Methods: The study includes crystallization, nucleation and aggregation assay. Crystallization was induced by addition of 50 μl of 0.1 M sodium oxalate in whole urine in the absence and the presence of extract at different concentrations (0.50 mg, 0.75 mg and 1 mg. The nucleation and aggregation rates were followed at 620 nm after mixing calcium chloride and sodium oxalate solution and in a buffered solution containing calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals, respectively. The rate was evaluated by comparing the slope of turbidity in the presence of extract with that of control using the spectrophotometer. Crystals in the urine were also analysed by light microscopy. Results and Conclusion: Extract of the test drug inhibited the crystallization in solution; less and smaller particles were observed in the presence of extract. These results were further confirmed in the nucleation assay, though the rate of nucleation was not inhibited but number of crystals was found to be decreased. The test drug also inhibited crystal aggregation. It can be concluded therefore, that the test drug possesses significant antilithiasic activity.

  10. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Potential Anti-Dengue Metabolites from Tawa-tawa (Euphorbia hirta Linn.

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    Wilanfranco Caballero TAYONE

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many natural products found in plants exhibit a variety of biological activities including antibiotic, antitumor, and antiviral activities that have been utilized in the medicinal field to cure millions of people from serious diseases. Euphorbia hirta Linn. herb, a folkloric medicinal plant in the Philippines against dengue is reportedly effective against the dengue virus. This deadly and painful mosquito-born disease continuously affects millions of people worldwide for there are no commercially developed drugs or vaccines available. From the viewpoint of overcoming the dengue disease, the authors investigated the chemical components of Euphorbia hirta Linn. Preliminary anti-dengue assay by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT revealed that the ethyl acetate layer was the most active fraction and significantly reduced the plaque forming capacity of the dengue virus serotypes 1 and 2 relative to the control. Further purification of the active ethyl acetate fraction afforded 6 known triterpene and 3 flavonoid compounds. The planar structures of these molecules were established by ESIMS and NMR spectroscopic analyses.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.65

  11. Bioassay-guided fractionation of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf solid phase extraction fraction and its anticoagulant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Li Teng; Abdullah, Janna Ong; Abas, Faridah; Tohit, Eusni Rahayu Mohd; Hamid, Muhajir

    2015-02-24

    The aims of this study were to examine the bioactive component(s) responsible for the anticoagulant activity of M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract via bioassay-guided fractionation and to evaluate the effect of bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway. The active anticoagulant fraction of F3 was subjected to a series of chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analyses. Furthermore, the effect of the bioactive component(s) on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway was studied through immediate and time incubation mixing studies. Through Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) assay-guided fractionation, Subfraction B was considered the most potent anticoagulant fraction. Characterisation of Subfraction B indicated that anticoagulant activity could partly be due to the presence of cinnamic acid and a cinnamic acid derivative. APTT assays for both the immediate and time incubation mixing were corrected back into normal clotting time range (35.4-56.3 s). In conclusion, cinnamic acid and cinnamic acid derivative from Subfraction B were the first such compounds to be discovered from M. malabathricum Linn. leaf hot water crude extract that possess anticoagulant activity. This active anticoagulant Subfraction B prolonged blood clotting time by causing factor(s) deficiency in the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway.

  12. Potential use of durian fruit (Durio zibenthinus Linn) as an adjunct to treat infertility in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Reshma M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility due to polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a worldwide problem that is increasing at alarming rates. Insulin resistance, the prime factor of PCOS, induces comorbid metabolic syndrome as well. Durian (Durio zibenthinus Linn), a fruit of Southeast Asia, is used as a natural supplement in healthy diets. This paper is a short literature review that examines the fruit's effects against various components of metabolic syndrome and its fertility-enhancing properties in PCOS. Various published literature was reviewed to learn of the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-obesity, anticholesterol, and antihypoglycaemic nature of the fruit. The literature search was done using PubMed, Google Scholar and library databases. The keywords used were polycystic ovarian syndrome, infertility, metabolic syndrome and Durian zibenthinus Linn. Reviewed studies showed that the fruit is effective against various components of metabolic syndrome, but the mechanisms of action against anovulation and menstrual disturbances in PCOS have yet to be studied. The traditional use of durian as a fertility-enhancing agent needs to be validated scientifically by isolating its various components and ascertaining its fertility enhancing properties.

  13. ISOLATION OF PRELIMINARY PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA LINN. LEAVES EXTRACTS

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    Mohammed Rageeb Mohammed Usman et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present studies that Isolation of preliminary phytoconstituents and anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Calotropis gigantea linn. Leaves Extracts. Therapeutic use of plants for the treatment of human illnesses dates back over man millennia. Evidence of their effectiveness in the diagnosis, cure and prevention of disease states exists in every culture throughout the world. Today “traditional medicine,” characterized by the use of herbs and other natural products still remains a regular component of health care in countries such as China, Japan, India, South America and Egypt. The search for anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent in modern was marked by the introduction of salicin for the treatment of inflammatory swellings due to rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis. The ethanol extract and distilled water extract showed good significant reduction in paw oedema as compared to control group, where as Petroleum ether (60-800C extract, Chloroform extract, Ethyl acetate, n-Butanol has showed comparatively less significant reduction in paw oedema volume. The chloroform and n-butanol extract showed good significant reduction in rectal temperature as compare to control group, where as pet. ether, ethyl acetate, ethanol and distilled water extracts showed less significant reduction in rectal temperature. Hence, to put into the active principle of Calotropis gigantea linn like glycoside, sterols, carbohydrate, flavonoids, terpenoide may be responsible for anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity.

  14. Identity of Ṭaṅkārī (Physalis Minima Linn. in Ayurvedic Classics: A Literature Review

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    Supriya S Kallianpur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper identification of drugs and their use in proper doses are important for successful treatment. Physalis minima Linn commonly known as country gooseberry has anti-cancerous, anti-diabetic, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory potentials. The present paper is aimed to ascertain the proper identity of Ṭaṅkārī (Physalis minima Linn. in Ayurvedic classics by a meticulous search and hence a review of the drug Ṭaṅkārī (Physalis minima Linn was carried out in the texts of Ayurveda, modern literature, journals and online publications. The result of the search showed that the name “Ṭaṅkārī” is not found in Vedic lore. In Saṃhitās, it is mentioned in Bhāvaprakāśa. Reference of the drug “Śārṅgeṣṭhā” is found in Bṛhattrayī, Bhela, Kāśyapa, Cakradatta and Vaṅgasena. It is variously named as Cirapoṭikā, Kākatikta, and Vāyasī by ḍalhaṇa and he describes it as gaura (pale, vartula (round, and as having avaguṇṭhita/veṣṭhita (covered fruit which matches the description of Ṭaṅkārī (P. minima Linn. A search for terms Kākatikta and Vāyasī showed Kākatikta to be synonymous to Śārṅgeṣṭhā and Vāyasī to be synonymous to both Kākatikta and Kākamācī (Solanum nigrum. Madanapāla and Śāligrāma Nighaṇṭus have mentioned the name Cirapoṭikā to be synonymous with Ṭaṅkārī. Śodhala has used the term Parpoṭī as a synonym of Ṭaṅkārī, which is the Gujarati name of P. minima Linn. Recent authors have considered Śārṅgeṣṭhā as either P. minima or Cardiospermum helicabum. The regional names of P. minima are Cirpoṭi (Hindi, Cirboli (Marathi, also the folklore uses and pharmacological activities of P. minima are in accordance with the indications of Śārṅgeṣṭhā in classics. Thus with a complete review of both Ayurveda and modern literatures, it can be concluded that the drug mentioned as Ṭaṅkārī in Bhāvaprakāśa is the same as

  15. Identity of Ṭaṅkārī (Physalis Minima Linn.) in Ayurvedic Classics: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallianpur, Supriya S; Gokarn, Rohit A; Rajashekhar, N

    2016-01-01

    Proper identification of drugs and their use in proper doses are important for successful treatment. Physalis minima Linn commonly known as country gooseberry has anti-cancerous, anti-diabetic, analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory potentials. The present paper is aimed to ascertain the proper identity of Ṭaṅkārī (Physalis minima Linn.) in Ayurvedic classics by a meticulous search and hence a review of the drug Ṭaṅkārī (Physalis minima Linn) was carried out in the texts of Ayurveda, modern literature, journals and online publications. The result of the search showed that the name “Ṭaṅkārī” is not found in Vedic lore. In Saṃhitās, it is mentioned in Bhāvaprakāśa. Reference of the drug “Śārṅgeṣṭhā” is found in Bṛhattrayī, Bhela, Kāśyapa, Cakradatta and Vaṅgasena. It is variously named as Cirapoṭikā, Kākatikta, and Vāyasī by ḍalhaṇa and he describes it as gaura (pale), vartula (round), and as having avaguṇṭhita/veṣṭhita (covered) fruit which matches the description of Ṭaṅkārī (P. minima Linn). A search for terms Kākatikta and Vāyasī showed Kākatikta to be synonymous to Śārṅgeṣṭhā and Vāyasī to be synonymous to both Kākatikta and Kākamācī (Solanum nigrum). Madanapāla and Śāligrāma Nighaṇṭus have mentioned the name Cirapoṭikā to be synonymous with Ṭaṅkārī. Śodhala has used the term Parpoṭī as a synonym of Ṭaṅkārī, which is the Gujarati name of P. minima Linn. Recent authors have considered Śārṅgeṣṭhā as either P. minima or Cardiospermum helicabum. The regional names of P. minima are Cirpoṭi (Hindi), Cirboli (Marathi), also the folklore uses and pharmacological activities of P. minima are in accordance with the indications of Śārṅgeṣṭhā in classics. Thus with a complete review of both Ayurveda and modern literatures, it can be concluded that the drug mentioned as Ṭaṅkārī in Bhāvaprakāśa is the same as

  16. Cultivation Present Situations and Development Countermeasures of Vigna radiata(Linn.)Wilczek. in Datong Basin%大同盆地绿豆栽培现状及发展对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduced the cultivation present situations of V igna radiata (Linn.)Wilczek.in Huairen County,analyzed the existing problems,and puts forward the countermeasures for the development of V igna radiata(Linn.)Wilczek.in Datong Basin.%介绍怀仁县绿豆栽培现状,分析存在的问题,并提出了大同盆地绿豆栽培发展对策。

  17. A randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of Pycnogenol and Bacopa CDRI08 herbal medicines on cognitive, cardiovascular, and biochemical functioning in cognitively healthy elderly people: the Australian Research Council Longevity Intervention (ARCLI study protocol (ANZCTR12611000487910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stough Con K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major challenges associated with our ageing population is the increasing incidence of age-associated cognitive decline, which has significant implications for an individual's ability to lead a productive and fulfilling life. In pure economic terms the costs of ageing reflects decreased productivity and engagement with the workforce. The maintenance of brain health underpinning intact cognition is a key factor to maintaining a positive, engaged, and productive lifestyle. In light of this, the role of diet, including supplementation with nutritional and even pharmacological interventions capable of ameliorating the neurocognitive changes that occur with age constitute vital areas of research. Methods In order to reduce cognitive ageing, the ARC longevity intervention (ARCLI was developed to examine the effects of two promising natural pharmacologically active supplements on cognitive performance. ARCLI is a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, 3-arm clinical trial in which 465 participants will be randomized to receive an extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI08 300 mg/day, Pycnogenol (150 mg/day, or placebo daily for 12 months. Participants will be tested at baseline and then at 3, 6 and 12 months post-randomization on a wide battery of cognitive, neuropsychological and mood measures, cardiovascular (brachial and aortic systolic and diastolic blood pressures as well as arterial stiffness, biochemical (assays to measure inflammation, oxidative stress and safety as well as genetic assessments (telomere length and several Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms. The primary aim is to investigate the effects of these supplements on cognitive performance. The secondary aims are to explore the time-course of cognitive enhancement as well as potential cardiovascular and biochemical mechanisms underpinning cognitive enhancement over the 12 months of administration. ARCLI will represent one of the largest and most comprehensive

  18. Avaliação da toxicidade subcrônica do extrato bruto seco de Anacardium occidentale Linn em cães = Evaluation of the subchronic toxicity of the crude dry extract of Anacardium occidentale Linn in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arquimedes Fernandes Monteiro de Melo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A busca de novos medicamentos tem levado ao desenvolvimento de novosfármacos que sejam eficientes e destituídos de toxicidade. Uma das fronteiras nessas pesquisas são os medicamentos fitoterápicos. No Brasil, a Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA regulariza essas pesquisas e padroniza os procedimentos. A Resoluçãoda Diretoria Colegiada (RDC 48/2004, por exemplo, regulariza o registro de fitoterápicos. O Anacardium occidentale Linn está entre as plantas mais estudadas, devido às ações antibiótica e antiinflamatória de seus metabólitos secundários, principalmente taninos. Esta planta também possui a capacidade de impedir a formação da placa bacteriana bucal. Diante dessas ações, formas farmacêuticas acabadas (cremes e géis foram desenvolvidas a partir do extrato bruto seco (EBS das cascas do caule do A. occidentale Linn para registro de um novo fitomedicamento. Entretanto, testes pré-clínicos e clínicos devem ser feitos de acordo com a lei vigente. O presente trabalho avaliou a toxicidade subcrônica do EBS em cães sem raçadefinida (SRD. Os testes revelaram apenas hepatotoxicidade transitória demonstrada pela elevação dos níveis da alanina transaminase (ALT e aspartato transaminase (AST. Research on new medicaments has led to the development of efficient and non-toxic drugs. In Brazil, the Agência Nacional de VigilânciaSanitária (National Department of Sanitary Supervision – ANVISA regularizes and standardizes the procedure. Anacardium occidentale is amongst the most researched plants, due to the antibiotics and antinflammatory properties of its secondary metabolites, mainlytannins and flavonoids. Furthermore, it prevents the dental plaque formation. On account of these actions, finished pharmaceutical forms (creams and gels were developed from the crude dry extract (CDE of A. occidentale Linn stem rinds, in order to register a new form.However, pre-clinical and clinical assays can be made in

  19. Anti-microbial Activity of Tulsi {Ocimum Sanctum (Linn.)} Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, C.G.; Agarwal, Payal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tulsi is a popular healing herb in Ayurvedic medicine. It is widely used in the treatment of several systemic diseases because of its anti-microbial property. However, studies documenting the effect of Tulsi on oral disease causing organisms are rare. Hence, an attempt was made to determine the effect of Tulsi on a periodontal microorganism in human dental plaque. Aim To determine if Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) has an anti-microbial activity (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and zone of inhibition) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in human dental plaque and to compare the antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum(Linn.) extract with 0.2% chlorhexidine as the positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as the negative control. Materials and Methods A lab based invitro experimental study design was adopted. Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) was prepared by the cold extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide, to obtain ten different concentrations (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, 9%, 10%) of extract. Plaque sample was collected from 05 subjects diagnosed with periodontal disease. Isolation of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans from plaque samples was done using Tryptic Soy Serum Bacitracin Vancomycin agar (TSBV) medium. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was done based on cultural, microscopic, biochemical characterization and multiple drug resistance patterns. Anti-microbial activity of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract was tested by agar well-diffusion method against 0.2% chlorhexidine as a positive control and dimethyl sulfoxide as a negative control. The zone of inhibition was measured in millimeters using Vernier callipers. Results At the 6% w/v concentration of Ocimum sanctum (Linn.) extract, a zone of inhibition of 22 mm was obtained. This was the widest zone of inhibition observed among all the 10 different concentrations tested. The zone of inhibition for positive control

  20. Atividade antioxidante da polpa, casca e sementes do noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Barbosa Costa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Na busca pela identificação de novas fontes de antioxidantes naturais e de esclarecer lacunas acerca das reais propriedades benéficas atribuídas ao Noni (Morinda citrifolia Linn, este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar a caracterização química e avaliar a atividade antioxidante da polpa, casca e sementes do noni. Foram determinadas a composição centesimal (umidade, cinzas, proteínas, carboidratos e lipídios; os compostos bioativos (fenólicos totais, carotenoides totais e vitamina C e a atividade in vitro em extratos aquoso, etanólico e acetônico. Os resultados demonstraram que o Noni possui quantidades significativas de carboidratos (27,21%; 9,70% e 8,37% e de proteínas (2,64%; 2,23%; e 2,24% nas sementes, casca e polpa, respectivamente. A polpa apresentou maior teor de vitamina C (23,1 mg/100g e de carotenoides totais (3,90 mg/100g. No extrato acetônico da polpa, foram quantificados 109,81 mg/100g de fenólicos totais, seguidos pelos extratos acetônicos da casca (76,01 mg/100g, das sementes (28,75 mg/100g e do extrato etanólico da polpa (20,33 mg/100g. Todos os extratos avaliados apresentaram atividade antioxidante in vitro; os extratos acetônico e etanólico da casca e das sementes do Noni apresentaram maior atividade pelo método β-caroteno/ ácido linoleico, enquanto o extrato etanólico da polpa teve maior atividade antioxidante pelo ensaio DPPH e ABTS, e o extrato acetônico da polpa, pelo método ABTS. O noni é um fruto com significativo teor de compostos fenólicos totais que apresentam atividade antioxidante in vitro.