WorldWideScience

Sample records for background soil characterization

  1. Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents.

  2. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. This volume contains the data from the Background Soil Characterization Project. When available, the following validation qualifiers are used in the appendixes. When validation qualifiers are not available, the corresponding contract laboratory data qualifiers appearing on the next page are used.

  3. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Results of Field Sampling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, D.R.; Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L. [and others

    1993-10-01

    This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP). It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. The objectives of the BSCP consist of the following: determine background concentrations of organics, metals, and radionuclides in natural soils that are key to environmental restoration projects; provide remediation projects with 100% validated data on background concentrations, which are technically and legally defensible; and quantify baseline risks from background constituents for comparison of risks associated with contaminated sites.

  4. Annual report on the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Results of Phase 1 investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, D.R.; Goddard, P.L.; Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Kimbrough, C.W.; Lee, S.Y.; Lietzke, D.A.; McGin, C.W.; Nourse, B.D.; Schmoyer, R.L.; Shaw, R.A.; Stinnette, S.E.; Switek, J.; Wright, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ammons, J.T.; Branson, J.L.; Burgoa, B.B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Science; Lietzke, D.A. [Lietzke (David A.), Rutledge, TN (United States)

    1993-05-01

    Many constituents of potential concern for human health occur naturally at low concentrations in undisturbed soils. The Background soil Characterization Project (BSCP) was undertaken to provide background concentration data on potential contaminants in natural soils on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The objectives of the BSCP are to provide baseline data for contaminated site assessment and estimates of potential human health risk associated with background concentrations of hazardous and other constituents in native soils. This report presents, evaluates, and documents data and results obtained in Phase I of the project. It is intended to be a stand-alone document for application and use in structuring and conducting remedial investigation and remedial action projects in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program.

  5. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples.

  6. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes. Revision 1, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site.

  7. SoilEffects - start characterization of the experimental soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne-Kristin; Johansen, Anders; Pommeresche, Reidun

    Summary This report describes the establishment, experimental plan and initial soil characteristics of the field experiment linked to the project “Effects of anaerobically digested manure on soil fertility - establishment of a long-term study under Norwegian conditions” (SoilEffects, 2010......-14). The aim of the SoilEffects project is to identify potential risks and benefits for soil fertility when animal manure is anaerobically digested for biogas production. The field experiment was established on Tingvoll research farm in 2011. A biogas plant was built at this farm in 2010, to digest the manure...... from a herd of about 25 organically managed dairy cows. This report describes the initial characterization of the soil biology, chemistry and physics, along with the background of the project, the selection process of the research field and the project design. Effects of the manure treatment...

  8. Model-based target and background characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Markus; Krueger, Wolfgang; Heinze, Norbert

    2000-07-01

    Up to now most approaches of target and background characterization (and exploitation) concentrate solely on the information given by pixels. In many cases this is a complex and unprofitable task. During the development of automatic exploitation algorithms the main goal is the optimization of certain performance parameters. These parameters are measured during test runs while applying one algorithm with one parameter set to images that constitute of image domains with very different domain characteristics (targets and various types of background clutter). Model based geocoding and registration approaches provide means for utilizing the information stored in GIS (Geographical Information Systems). The geographical information stored in the various GIS layers can define ROE (Regions of Expectations) and may allow for dedicated algorithm parametrization and development. ROI (Region of Interest) detection algorithms (in most cases MMO (Man- Made Object) detection) use implicit target and/or background models. The detection algorithms of ROIs utilize gradient direction models that have to be matched with transformed image domain data. In most cases simple threshold calculations on the match results discriminate target object signatures from the background. The geocoding approaches extract line-like structures (street signatures) from the image domain and match the graph constellation against a vector model extracted from a GIS (Geographical Information System) data base. Apart from geo-coding the algorithms can be also used for image-to-image registration (multi sensor and data fusion) and may be used for creation and validation of geographical maps.

  9. Oak Ridge background soils project provides data for remedial action evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, D.R.; Lee, S.Y.; Hatmaker, T.L.; McGinn, C.W.; Nourse, B.D.; Schmoyer, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Burgoa, B.B. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Lietzke, D.A. [Lietzke Soil Services, Rutledge, TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Many constituents of potential concern for human health occur naturally at low concentrations in soils. The primary objective of the Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) was to provide fully validated and defensible, reservation-wide background concentration data on significant potential contaminants of concern (organics, inorganics, and radionuclides) in natural soils on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The data are particularly significant for remedial action projects; the data can be used to establish technical guidance and the basis for realistic cleanup requirements at hazardous waste sites on the reservation. Other objectives included providing baseline data for conducting contaminated site assessments and quantifying estimates of human health risk associated with background levels of potentially hazardous constituents in soils.

  10. Characterizing the True Background Corona with SDO/AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Kate; Winebarger, Amy; Alexander, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the nature of the solar coronal background would enable scientists to more accurately determine plasma parameters, and may lead to a better understanding of the coronal heating problem. Because scientists study the 3D structure of the Sun in 2D, any line of sight includes both foreground and background material, and thus, the issue of background subtraction arises. By investigating the intensity values in and around an active region, using multiple wavelengths collected from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) over an eight-hour period, this project aims to characterize the background as smooth or structured. Different methods were employed to measure the true coronal background and create minimum intensity images. These were then investigated for the presence of structure. The background images created were found to contain long-lived structures, including coronal loops, that were still present in all of the wavelengths, 193 Angstroms,171 Angstroms,131 Angstroms, and 211 Angstroms. The intensity profiles across the active region indicate that the background is much more structured than previously thought.

  11. Characterizing the Background Corona with SDO/AIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Kate; Alexander, Caroline; Winebarger, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the nature of the solar coronal background would enable scientists to more accurately determine plasma parameters, and may lead to a better understanding of the coronal heating problem. Because scientists study the 3D structure of the Sun in 2D, any line-of-sight includes both foreground and background material, and thus, the issue of background subtraction arises. By investigating the intensity values in and around an active region, using multiple wavelengths collected from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) over an eight-hour period, this project aims to characterize the background as smooth or structured. Different methods were employed to measure the true coronal background and create minimum intensity images. These were then investigated for the presence of structure. The background images created were found to contain long-lived structures, including coronal loops, that were still present in all of the wavelengths, 131, 171, 193, 211, and 335 A. The intensity profiles across the active region indicate that the background is much more structured than previously thought.

  12. Current state and future prospects of remedial soil protection. Background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenstein, Joerg

    2009-08-15

    The legal basis for soil protection in the Federal Republic of Germany is: -The Act on Protection against Harmful Changes to Soil and on Rehabilitation of Contaminated Sites (Federal Soil Protection Act) (Bundes-Bodenschutzgesetz - BBodSchG) of 1998 [1] -The Federal Soil Protection and Contaminated Sites Ordinance (BBodSchV) of 1999 [2]. In Germany, the Federal Government has legislative competence in the field of soil protection. The Lander (German federal states), in turn, are responsible for enforcement of the BBodSchG and the BBodSchV; they may also issue supplementary procedural regulations. According to Article 1 BBodschG, the purpose of the Act is inter alia to protect and restore the functions of the soil on a permanent sustainable basis. These actions shall include prevention of harmful soil changes as well as rehabilitating soil, contaminated sites and waters contaminated by such sites in such a way that any contamination remains permanently below the hazard threshold. Whilst prevention aims to protect and preserve soil functions on a long-term basis, the object of remediation is mainly to avert concrete hazards in a spatial, temporal and manageable causative context. ''Remedial soil protection'' encompasses a tiered procedure in which a suspicion is verified successively and with least-possible effort and in which the circumstances of the individual case at hand are taken into account in deciding whether or not a need for remediation exists. It comprises the systematic stages of identifying, investigating and assessing suspect sites and sites suspected of being contaminated with a view to their hazard potential, determining whether remediation is necessary, remediating identified harmful soil changes and contaminated sites, and carrying out, where necessary, aftercare measures following final inspection of the remedial measure. (orig.)

  13. Spatial distribution of caesium-137 in soil cover of background terrestrial ecosystems, Central European Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonova, Tatiana A. [Radioecology and Ecotoxicology Department of Soil Science Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation); Shamshurina, Evgenia N. [Laboratory of soil erosion and fluvial processes of Geography Faculty, Moscow State Lomonosov University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    ¹³⁷Cs - the main long-living anthropogenic radionuclide - arrived in mass at Russian terrestrial ecosystems after nuclear tests in the atmosphere in 1960-yy. and after Chernobyl accident in 1986 y., but in spite of a long period since these events soil cover contamination by ¹³⁷Cs is considered as extremely resistant due to its firmly fixation by soil solid matter and a long half-life of the radionuclide. Wide-scale investigation in maximal diversity of natural, semi-natural and anthropogenic landscapes of Central European Russia (more than 400 soils samples from Vologda, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo, Tver regions which are representative for the southern taiga zone) demonstrates that modern average specific activity of ¹³⁷Cs in the upper 15-cm layer of soil is 11±3 Bq/kg (contamination density 0.05±0.01 Ci/km²), that is fully ecologically acceptable. It is important that the average concentrations of ¹³⁷Cs in the soil cover of individual regions are close to each other. The most likely these average values are approximate assessment of background radioactive contamination of soils in central European Russia outside of the immediate Chernobyl trace. At the same time approximately 3% of soils are characterized by elevated ¹³⁷Cs content - 62-98 Bq/kg (0.24-0.43 Ci/km²), that indicates the presence of low radioactive spots on the territory and may be considered as local Chernobyl fallout. All of them attribute with forest soils which are commonly characterized by considerably more high accumulation of ¹³⁷Cs (18±5 Bq/kg, 0.06±0.01 Ci/km²) due to advanced absorbing surface of trees. Agricultural lands (plagued or under meadows) and soils of industrial plots with scarce vegetation contain only 6±2 Bq/kg (0.03±0.01 Ci/km²) of ¹³⁷Cs. About 84-92% of ¹³⁷Cs are concentrated in the upper 15-cm layer of natural soils or in Ap horizon of plagued soils, thus vertical migration of radionuclide is very slow in spite of ~30 years after Chernobyl

  14. Soil moisture estimation with limited soil characterization for decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanzy, A.; Richard, G.; Boizard, H.; Défossez, P.

    2009-04-01

    Ross model [Ross, 2003, Crevoisier et al, 2009]. To meet the decision support context, we evaluated the model ability of evaluating the soil moisture level in comparison to a moisture threshold that splits soil conditions into desirable and undesirable cases. This threshold depends on soil properties, the farming operation and equipment characteristics. We evaluate the rate of making good decisions using either the TEC model with and without soil moisture measurements or an empirical algorithm that simulate the decision processes followed by farmers, currently. This later is a reference case that allows appreciating the adding value of using soil water transfer models. We found a significant improvement with a rate of success, which increases from 65% with the reference case to 90% when using the model with soil moisture assimilation. Chanzy, A., Mumen M., Richard, G.. (2008), Accuracy of top soil moisture simulation using a mechanistic model with limited soil characterization, Water Resources Research, 44(3), W03432. Crevoisier, D., Chanzy, A., Voltz M. (2009), Evaluation of the Ross Fast Solution of Richards' Equation in Unfavourable Conditions for Standard Finite Element Methods, Advances in Water Ressources, In revision. Ross, P. J. (2003). Modeling soil water and solute transport - Fast, simplified numerical solutions. Agronomy Journal 95:1352-1361.

  15. DNAPLs at DOE sites: Background and assessment of characterization technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junk, G.A.; Haas, W.J. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    The Characterization, Monitoring, and Sensor Technology Integrated Program (CMST-IP) within the Office of Technology Development (OTD) has responsibility for identification, evaluation, and delivery of technologies needed for the work of the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management. This report addresses part of that responsibility by providing summary information on DNAPL site characterization. A dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) is a source of contamination that can persist in the subsurface for decades before dissipating completely into the vapor phase and groundwater. The DNAPL chemicals of particular concern to the DOE are chlorinated volatile organic compounds (Cl VOCS) such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), trichloroethylene (TCE), and perchloroethylene (PCE). These Cl VOCs were used in multiple ton quantities at DOE sites and were often released to the subsurface. The predicted fate of released Cl VOC liquid is downward movement through the soil under the force of gravity. As it moves, some of the Cl VOC liquid becomes trapped in the soil pores as residual saturation. The liquid also moves rapidly downward if small fractures are present. This migration continues until an impermeable or semi-permeable layer is encountered. Then lateral movement or spreading occurs. The downward and lateral migration in the subsurface leads to DNAPL pools, lenses, and residual saturation that can cause long-term contamination of groundwater at levels well above drinking water standards. Although Cl VOCs have been detected as dissolved components in the groundwater and as vapor in the soil gas at several DOE sites, direct evidence of their presence as DNAPL is sparse and no measurements of the amounts of DNAPL present within a given volume of subsurface have been made. Consequently, unresolved DNAPL issues exist at DOE sites.

  16. Unravelling soil fungal communities from different Mediterranean land-use backgrounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Orgiazzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fungi strongly influence ecosystem structure and functioning, playing a key role in many ecological services as decomposers, plant mutualists and pathogens. The Mediterranean area is a biodiversity hotspot that is increasingly threatened by intense land use. Therefore, to achieve a balance between conservation and human development, a better understanding of the impact of land use on the underlying fungal communities is needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used parallel pyrosequencing of the nuclear ribosomal its regions to characterize the fungal communities in five soils subjected to different anthropogenic impact in a typical mediterranean landscape: a natural cork-oak forest, a pasture, a managed meadow, and two vineyards. Marked differences in the distribution of taxon assemblages among the different sites and communities were found. Data analyses consistently indicated a sharp distinction of the fungal community of the cork oak forest soil from those described in the other soils. Each soil showed features of the fungal assemblages retrieved which can be easily related to the above-ground settings: ectomycorrhizal phylotypes were numerous in natural sites covered by trees, but were nearly completely missing from the anthropogenic and grass-covered sites; similarly, coprophilous fungi were common in grazed sites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data suggest that investigation on the below-ground fungal community may provide useful elements on the above-ground features such as vegetation coverage and agronomic procedures, allowing to assess the cost of anthropogenic land use to hidden diversity in soil. Datasets provided in this study may contribute to future searches for fungal bio-indicators as biodiversity markers of a specific site or a land-use degree.

  17. Soil hydrologic characterization for modeling large scale soil remediation protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Nunzio; Palladino, Mario; Di Fiore, Paola; Sica, Benedetto; Speranza, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    In Campania Region (Italy), the Ministry of Environment identified a National Interest Priority Sites (NIPS) with a surface of about 200,000 ha, characterized by different levels and sources of pollution. This area, called Litorale Domitio-Agro Aversano includes some polluted agricultural land, belonging to more than 61 municipalities in the Naples and Caserta provinces. In this area, a high level spotted soil contamination is moreover due to the legal and outlaw industrial and municipal wastes dumping, with hazardous consequences also on the quality of the water table. The EU-Life+ project ECOREMED (Implementation of eco-compatible protocols for agricultural soil remediation in Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano NIPS) has the major aim of defining an operating protocol for agriculture-based bioremediation of contaminated agricultural soils, also including the use of crops extracting pollutants to be used as biomasses for renewable energy production. In the framework of this project, soil hydrologic characterization plays a key role and modeling water flow and solute transport has two main challenging points on which we focus on. A first question is related to the fate of contaminants infiltrated from stormwater runoff and the potential for groundwater contamination. Another question is the quantification of fluxes and spatial extent of root water uptake by the plant species employed to extract pollutants in the uppermost soil horizons. Given the high variability of spatial distribution of pollutants, we use soil characterization at different scales, from field scale when facing root water uptake process, to regional scale when simulating interaction between soil hydrology and groundwater fluxes.

  18. Characterizing the Environmental Availability of Trace Metals in Savannah River Site Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-03-18

    An eight step sequential extraction technique was used to characterize the environmental availability of trace metals from background and waste site soil samples collected from the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS).

  19. A geotechnical characterization of lunar soils and lunar soil simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John Carl

    Many of the essential materials needed for the construction of a lunar base can be produced from the resources found on the lunar surface. Processing natural resources on the moon into useful products will reduce the need, and the cost, to bring everything from earth. The lunar regolith has been intensely studied with respect to understanding the formation of the moon and the earth, but as a construction material, the regolith is poorly characterized and poorly understood. To better understand how to 'work' with the lunar regolith, four loosely related research projects were conducted. Two projects relate to characterizing and understanding the geotechnical properties of regolith, two projects relate to manipulating and processing granular materials in the lunar environment. The shapes of lunar soil grains are characterized using fractals - results directly and quantitatively describe the rugged reentrant nature of the large scale structure and the relatively smooth surface texture of lunar soil grains. The nature of lunar soil cohesion is considered using tensile strength measurements of lunar soil simulant. It is likely that mechanical interlocking of irregular grains is the primary cause of lunar soil cohesion. This mechanism is highly sensitive to grain shape, but relatively insensitive to particle packing density. A series of experiments are conducted to try to understand how granular particles might sort by size in a vacuum. Even in a vacuum, fine particle subjected to shear strain segregate by a mechanism called the random fluctuating sieve The random fluctuating sieve also controls particle motion that determines the structure of wind-blown sand ripples. Hybrid microwave heating was used to sinter large structural bricks from lunar soil stimulant. While heating was prone to thermal runaway, microwave heating holds great promise as a simple, direct method of making sintered structural bricks.

  20. Characterization of the radiation background at the Spallation Neutron Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiJulio, Douglas D.; Cherkashyna, Nataliia; Scherzinger, Julius; Khaplanov, Anton; Pfeiffer, Dorothea; Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Fissum, Kevin G.; Kanaki, Kalliopi; Kirstein, Oliver; Ehlers, Georg; Gallmeier, Franz X.; Hornbach, Donald E.; Iverson, Erik B.; Newby, Robert J.; Hall-Wilton, Richard J.; Bentley, Phillip M.

    2016-09-01

    We present a survey of the radiation background at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN, USA during routine daily operation. A broad range of detectors was used to characterize primarily the neutron and photon fields throughout the facility. These include a WENDI-2 extended range dosimeter, a thermoscientific NRD, an Arktis 4He detector, and a standard NaI photon detector. The information gathered from the detectors was used to map out the neutron dose rates throughout the facility and also the neutron dose rate and flux profiles of several different beamlines. The survey provides detailed information useful for developing future shielding concepts at spallation neutron sources, such as the European Spallation Source (ESS), currently under construction in Lund, Sweden.

  1. Recalcitrance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil contributes to background pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posada-Baquero, Rosa [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), C.S.I.C., Apartado 1052, E-41080 Seville (Spain); Ortega-Calvo, Jose-Julio, E-mail: jjortega@irnase.csic.es [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), C.S.I.C., Apartado 1052, E-41080 Seville (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    The microbial accessibility of native phenanthrene and pyrene was determined in soils representing background scenarios for pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The soils were selected to cover a wide range of concentrations of organic matter (1.7-10.0%) and total PAHs (85-952 {mu}g/kg). The experiments included radiorespirometry determinations of biodegradation with {sup 14}C-labeled phenanthrene and pyrene and chemical analyses to determine the residual concentrations of the native compounds. Part of the tests relied on the spontaneous biodegradation of the chemicals by native microorganisms; another part also involved inoculation with PAH-degrading bacteria. The results showed the recalcitrance of PAHs already present in the soils. Even after extensive mineralization of the added {sup 14}C-PAHs, the concentrations of native phenanthrene and pyrene did not significantly decrease. We suggest that aging processes operating at background concentrations may contribute to recalcitrance and, therefore, to ubiquitous pollution by PAHs in soils. - Highlights: > Background PAHs in soils are highly resistant to biodegradation. > Recalcitrance occurs even after inoculation with specialized microorganisms. > Recalcitrance is caused by a low bioaccessibility and aging. > Time (aging) seems a relevant factor causing recalcitrance. > Recalcitrance can explain ubiquitous PAH background pollution. - Background soil PAHs are highly resistant to biodegradation.

  2. Geochemical background values for trace elements in arable soils developed from sedimentary rocks of glacial origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnowska, K; Gworek, B

    1990-12-01

    The total content of trace elements was examined in some arable soils developed from boulder loam and silt formations of the Middle Poland and Baltic glaciations (62 profiles). Mean element concentrations calculated on the basis of chemical and statistical analyses were as follows: Mn = 322; Zn = 36; Cr = 30; Ni = 12.7; Pb = 10.3; Cu = 8.8; Co = 4.7; and Cd = 0.27 in mg kg(-1) of soil dry weight. The authors propose to accept these figures as the geochemical background values for soils derived from sedimentary rocks of glacial origin.

  3. Fingerprinting of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) and other biogenic organic compounds (BOC) in oil-contaminated and background soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhendi; Yang, C; Yang, Z; Hollebone, B; Brown, C E; Landriault, M; Sun, J; Mudge, S M; Kelly-Hooper, F; Dixon, D G

    2012-09-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) or petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) are one of the most widespread soil contaminants in Canada, the United States and many other countries worldwide. Clean-up of PHC-contaminated soils costs the Canadian economy hundreds of millions of dollars annually. In Canada, most PHC-contaminated site evaluations are based on the methods developed by the Canadian Council of the Ministers of the Environment (CCME). However, the CCME method does not differentiate PHC from BOC (the naturally occurring biogenic organic compounds), which are co-extracted with petroleum hydrocarbons in soil samples. Consequently, this could lead to overestimation of PHC levels in soil samples. In some cases, biogenic interferences can even exceed regulatory levels (300 μg g(-1) for coarse soils and 1300 μg g(-1) for fine soils for Fraction 3, C(16)-C(34) range, in the CCME Soil Quality Level). Resulting false exceedances can trigger unnecessary and costly cleanup or remediation measures. Therefore, it is critically important to develop new protocols to characterize and quantitatively differentiate PHC and BOC in contaminated soils. The ultimate objective of this PERD (Program of Energy Research and Development) project is to correct the misconception that all detectable hydrocarbons should be regulated as toxic petroleum hydrocarbons. During 2009-2010, soil and plant samples were collected from over forty oil-contaminated and paired background sites in various provinces. The silica gel column cleanup procedure was applied to effectively remove all target BOC from the oil-contaminated sample extracts. Furthermore, a reliable GC-MS method in combination with the derivatization technique, developed in this laboratory, was used for identification and characterization of various biogenic sterols and other major biogenic compounds in these oil-contaminated samples. Both PHC and BOC in these samples were quantitatively determined. This paper reports the characterization

  4. Soil Macropore Structure Characterized by X-Ray Computed Tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jie; ZHANG Jia-Bao; ZHU An-Ning; BI Jing-Wei

    2003-01-01

    Undisturbed soil core with many macropores and disturbed soil core with only one macropore (diameter is 10 mm) were probed by x-ray computed tomography (CT). The size, number, shape and continuity of macropores in the transverse and vertical sections of soil were characterized using CT scanning images. The probability densities of macropores in the transverse section of soil core exhibited a logarithmic Γ distribution.Results indicated that CT scanning was a promising nondestructive method for characterizing macropores in soils.

  5. Characterization of Soil Humin by Acid Hydrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云峰; 徐建民; 等

    1999-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize soil humin by acid hydrolysis.Two humin samples collected from two different types of soil,namely chernozem and laterite,which are widespread over a vast area from the north to south of China,were hyrolyzed under reflux with 0.5M H2SO4or 3M H2SO4for 4h.The results showed that 25%-29% of organic carbon and 46%-54%of organic nitrogen could be hydrolyzed by 0.5M H2SO4;36%-40%of organic carbon and 93%-97% of organic nitrogen hydrolyzed by 3M H2SO4.The C/N ration in hydrolyzed organic matter is lower than that in soil humin and that in organic matter hydrolyzed by 3M H2SO4 is lower than that in organic matter hydrolyzed by 0.5M H2SO4.The proportion of nitrogen hydrolyzed from humin is markedly larger than that from the original soil and also markedly larger than that from humic acid fraction.Only 3%-7% of nitrogen in humin exists in a relatively stable from,which is not easy to hydrolyze.There in little nitrogen that occurs in the form of heterocyclic rings in humin.Incubation experiments showed that the newly formed organic matter can be hydrolyzed more easily.

  6. Soil, Groundwater, Surface Water, and Sediments of Kennedy Space Center, Florida: Background Chemical and Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmalzer, Paul A.; Hensley, Melissa A.; Mota, Mario; Hall, Carlton R.; Dunlevy, Colleen A.

    2000-01-01

    This study documented background chemical composition of soils, groundwater, surface; water, and sediments of Kennedy Space Center. Two hundred soil samples were collected, 20 each in 10 soil classes. Fifty-one groundwater wells were installed in 4 subaquifers of the Surficial Aquifer and sampled; there were 24 shallow, 16 intermediate, and 11 deep wells. Forty surface water and sediment samples were collected in major watershed basins. All samples were away from sites of known contamination. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, aroclors, chlorinated herbicides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), total metals, and other parameters. All aroclors (6) were below detection in all media. Some organochlorine pesticides were detected at very low frequencies in soil, sediment, and surface water. Chlorinated herbicides were detected at very low frequencies in soil and sediments. PAH occurred in low frequencies in soiL, shallow groundwater, surface water, and sediments. Concentrations of some metals differed among soil classes, with subaquifers and depths, and among watershed basins for surface water but not sediments. Most of the variation in metal concentrations was natural, but agriculture had increased Cr, Cu, Mn, and Zn.

  7. Apollo 17 Soil Characterization for Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, L. A.; Pieters, C.; Patchen, A.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.; Wentworth, S.; McKay, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    It is the fine fractions that dominate the observed spectral signatures of bulk lunar soil, and the next to the smallest size fractions are the most similar to the overall properties of the bulk soil. Thus, our Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium has concentrated on understanding the inter-relations of compositional, mineralogical, and optical properties of the Ti02 content, allowing for direct comparisons between evolutions of chemistry between size fractions and among different maturities of soils. The bulk chemistry of these fractions was determined by EMP analyses of fused glass beads. In contrast to the systematic variations in bulk chemistry discussed below, the relatively uniform composition of agglutinitic glass with grain size and soil maturity is illustrated. The composition of the bulk fraction of each size fraction becomes more feldspathic with increasing maturity, with the effect being most pronounced for the finest fractions. The composition of the agglutinitic glass, however, is relatively invariant and more feldspathic (i.e., rich in Al2O3) than even the <10-micron fraction. This relation not only strengthens the "fusion of the finest fraction" (F(sup 3)) hypothesis, but also highlights the important role of plagioclase in the formation of agglutinitic glass. With decreasing grain size, FeO, MgO, and TiO2 contents decrease, whereas CaO, Na2O, and Al2O3 (plag components) increase for all soils. These chemical variations would appear to be coupled with the significant increase in agglutinitic glass and decrease in oxide (ilmenite),pyroxene, and volcanic glass. These changes in chemistry do not appear to be due to distinct changes in the compositions of individual phases but to their abundances. Values of Is/FeO increase with decreasing grain size, even though the bulk FeO contents decrease. That is, the percentage of the total Fe that is present as nanophase Fe(sup O) has increased substantially in the smaller size fraction. Note that the increase

  8. Background concentrations and reference values for heavy metals in soils of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Mirelys Rodríguez; Montero, Alfredo; Ugarte, Olegario Muñiz; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; de Aguiar Accioly, Adriana Maria; Biondi, Caroline Miranda; da Silva, Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    The potential threat of heavy metals to human health has led to many studies on permissible levels of these elements in soils. The objective of this study was to establish quality reference values (QRVs) for Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Fe, Mn, As, Hg, V, Ba, Sb, Ag, Co, and Mo in soils of Cuba. Geochemical associations between trace elements and Fe were also studied, aiming to provide an index for establishing background concentrations of metals in soils. Surface samples of 33 soil profiles from areas of native forest or minimal anthropic influence were collected. Samples were digested (USEPA method 3051A), and the metals were determined by ICP-OES. The natural concentrations of metals in soils of Cuba followed the order Fe > Mn > Ni > Cr > Ba > V > Zn > Cu > Pb > Co > As > Sb > Ag > Cd > Mo > Hg. The QRVs found for Cuban soils were as follows (mg kg(-1)): Ag (1), Ba (111), Cd (0.6), Co (25), Cr (153), Cu (83), Fe (54,055), Mn (1947), Ni (170), Pb (50), Sb (6), V (137), Zn (86), Mo (0.1), As (19), and Hg (0.1). The average natural levels of heavy metals are above the global average, especially for Ni and Cr. The chemical fractionation of soil samples presenting anomalous concentrations of metals showed that Cu, Ni, Cr, Sb, and As have low bioavailability. This suggests that the risk of contamination of agricultural products via plant uptake is low. However, the final decision on the establishment of soil QRVs in Cuba depends on political, economic, and social issues and in-depth risk analyses considering all routes of exposure to these elements.

  9. Th, U, REE Backgrounds and Phytoavailability in Soils of the Padanian Plain (Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Di Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we present ICP-MS analyses carried out on agricultural soils from the eastern-most part of the Padanian plain (Ferrara Province and on the related crop products. The aim is to provide, for the first time, backgrounds for some trace elements such as rare earth elements (REE, thorium (Th, uranium (U and to understand the related phytoavailability. In particular, detailed analyses have been done on Sorghum Vulgare plants, analyzing distinct plant parts in different vegetative periods. Results indicate that a REE concentration in plant tissues is always lower than in the related soils, precluding the occurrence of bioaccumulation and b no preferential elemental uptake and REE fractionation. In this light, the observed soil/plant relationships could be used in the definition of markers of territoriality (provenance fingerprint for agricultural products.

  10. Endosulfan, pentachlorobenzene and short-chain chlorinated paraffins in background soils from Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Anne Karine; Schlabach, Martin; Schuster, Jasmin K; Jones, Kevin C; Steinnes, Eiliv; Breivik, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Soils are major reservoirs for many persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In this study, "newly" regulated POPs i.e. Σendosulfans (α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulfate), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were determined in background samples from woodland (WL) and grassland (GL) surface soil, collected along an existing latitudinal UK-Norway transect. Statistical analysis, complemented with plots showing the predicted equilibrium distribution and mobility potential, was then explored to discuss factors controlling their spatial distribution. SCCPs were detected with the highest average concentrations (35 ± 100 ng/g soil organic matter (SOM)), followed by Σendosulfans (3 ± 3 ng/g SOM) and PeCB (1 ± 1 ng/g SOM). PeCB and Σendosulfans share many similarities in their distribution in these background soils as well as with several legacy POPs. A steep decline in concentrations of SCCPs with increasing latitude indicates that their occurrence is dictated by proximity to source regions, while concentrations of Σendosulfans peaked in regions experiencing elevated precipitation rates.

  11. Characterization and modeling of a low background HPGe detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dokania, N.; Singh, V.; Mathimalar, S. [India-based Neutrino Observatory, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400 094 (India); Nanal, V., E-mail: nanal@tifr.res.in [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Pal, S.; Pillay, R.G. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2014-05-01

    A high efficiency, low background counting setup has been made at TIFR consisting of a special HPGe detector (∼70%) surrounded by a low activity copper+lead shield. Detailed measurements are performed with point and extended geometry sources to obtain a complete response of the detector. An effective model of the detector has been made with GEANT4 based Monte Carlo simulations which agrees with experimental data within 5%. This setup will be used for qualification and selection of radio-pure materials to be used in a cryogenic bolometer for the study of Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay in {sup 124}Sn as well as for other rare event studies. Using this setup, radio-impurities in the rock sample from India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) site have been estimated.

  12. Characterization of Neutron Backgrounds for Direct Dark Matter Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweany, Melinda Dominique

    Direct dark matter experiments generally cannot distinguish between nuclear recoils caused by Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) and those caused by neutron backgrounds. It is therefore crucial that all sources of neutron background are well understood and accounted for when claiming a discovery or reporting limits on the WIMP-nucleon cross section. One source of neutrons that is not well understood results from cosmogenic muon interactions in the material surrounding a detector. The Neutron Multiplicity Meter in the Soudan cavern is a gadolinium-doped water Cherenkov detector capable of detecting high multiplicity neutron showers resulting from fast neutrons incident on a lead target. This measurement is the first such measurement obtained without a liquid scintillator detector medium; muon and neutron spallation is media-dependent, and because neutron shield technology for dark matter detectors is moving towards water, this is an important measurement. The integrated fast neutron flux in the Soudan cavern is reported as a linear function of the power, alpha, of the neutron angular distribution with the zenith angle: F = 4.8x10-9 +/- 3.5x10-10 + (5.4x10-10 +/- 1.5x10-10)alpha. Technological studies of neutron detection with gadolinium-doped water are also reported here. The neutron detection efficiency of a cylindrical 3.5 kL detector is measured at 70% for neutrons in the center of the detector. In addition, other improvements to water Cherenkov technology are explored, namely the addition of water-soluble wavelength-shifting chemicals. The wavelength-shifting chemical 4-Methylumbelliferone has been shown here to increase the measured light output of Cherenkov radiation resulting from neutron capture showers by a factor of 1.7.

  13. [Characteristics of Soil Respiration along Eroded Sloping Land with Different SOC Background on the Hilly Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gai; Xu, Ming-xiang; Zhang, Ya-feng; Wang, Chao-hua; Fan, Hui-min; Wang, Shan-shan

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to characterize soil respiration along eroded sloping land at erosion and deposition area under different soil organic carbon(SOC) levels, and linked the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature, soil moisture, SOC and slope position. Experiments were carried out in the plots of S type slopes include five different soil organic carbon levels in the Loess Hilly Region. The S type slopes were divided into control area at the top of the slope, erosion area at the middle of the slope and deposition area at the toe of the slope. We found that soil temperature had a greater impact on soil respiration in the deposition area, whereas soil moisture had a greater impact on soil respiration in the erosion area compared among control area, erosion area and deposition area. In addition, SOC was the most important factor affecting soil respiration, which can explain soil respiration variation 54. 72%, followed by soil moisture, slope position and soil temperature, which explain soil respiration variation 18. 86% , 16. 13% and 10. 29%, respectively. Soil respiration response to erosion showed obvious on-site and off-site effects along the eroded sloping land. Soil respiration in the erosion area was reduced by 21. 14% compared with control area, and soil respiration in the deposition area was increased by 21. 93% compared with control area. Erosion effect on source and sink of carbon emission was correlated with SOC content of the eroded sloping land. When SOC content was higher than 6. 82 g.kg-1, the slope. erosion tended to be a carbon sequestration process, and when SOC content was lower than 3.03 g.kg-1, the slope erosion tended to be a process of the carbon emission source. The model could reflect the relationship between soil respiration and independent variables of soil organic carbon content, soil temperature and moisture.

  14. Characterization of imidacloprid availability in subsurface soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degradation and sorption/desorption are the most important processes affecting the leaching of pesticides through soil because they control the amount of pesticide available for transport. Once pesticides move past the surface soil layers, variations in subsurface soil physical, chemical, and biolog...

  15. Assessment of ambient background concentrations of elements in soil using combined survey and open-source data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Hannah G; Clarke, Bradley O; Dasika, Raghava; Wallis, Christian J; Reichman, Suzie M

    2017-02-15

    Understanding ambient background concentrations in soil, at a local scale, is an essential part of environmental risk assessment. Where high resolution geochemical soil surveys have not been undertaken, soil data from alternative sources, such as environmental site assessment reports, can be used to support an understanding of ambient background conditions. Concentrations of metals/metalloids (As, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were extracted from open-source environmental site assessment reports, for soils derived from the Newer Volcanics basalt, of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. A manual screening method was applied to remove samples that were indicated to be contaminated by point sources and hence not representative of ambient background conditions. The manual screening approach was validated by comparison to data from a targeted background soil survey. Statistical methods for exclusion of contaminated samples from background soil datasets were compared to the manual screening method. The statistical methods tested included the Median plus Two Median Absolute Deviations, the upper whisker of a normal and log transformed Tukey boxplot, the point of inflection on a cumulative frequency plot and the 95th percentile. We have demonstrated that where anomalous sample results cannot be screened using site information, the Median plus Two Median Absolute Deviations is a conservative method for derivation of ambient background upper concentration limits (i.e. expected maximums). The upper whisker of a boxplot and the point of inflection on a cumulative frequency plot, were also considered adequate methods for deriving ambient background upper concentration limits, where the percentage of contaminated samples is <25%. Median ambient background concentrations of metals/metalloids in the Newer Volcanic soils of Melbourne were comparable to ambient background concentrations in Europe and the United States, except for Ni, which was naturally enriched in the basalt-derived soils of

  16. Characterization for Soil Fixation by Polyelectrolyte Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Suk; Kwon, Sang Woon; Yang, Heeman; Lee, Kune Woo; Seo, Bumkyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    According to report, the radioactivity bulk (approx. 95%) is localized within topsoil. Therefore soil surface on topsoil should be fixed to prevent the spreading of the contaminated soils with Cs-137 by wind and water erosion. Many methods have been developing for soil fixation to remove radioactive contaminants in soil and prevent to diffuse radioactive materials. Various materials have been also used as fixatives such as clays, molecular sieves, polymer, and petroleum based products. One of the methods is a soil fixation or solidification using polyelectrolyte. Polyelectrolytes have many ionic groups and make into the polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) due to electrostatic interaction of polyanion and polycation in an aqueous solution. It can be avoids using the chemical cross-linking agents, and reducing the possible toxicity and other undesirable effects of the reagents. PEC can fix soil particles by flocculation and formation of crust between soil. The method can also prevent a spread of radioactive material by floating on a soil surface. Recently, PEC used for the solidification of soil near the Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. The decontamination efficiency of the surface soils reached 90%, and dust release was effectively suppressed during the removal of surface soils. In this study, it was investigated the fixation of the soil by PEC to avoid the spread of the contamination in addition to the separation of soil and PEC. The physicochemical properties of polyelectrolyte complex solution and the stability of fixed soil by PEC were investigated. The mode of the addition is important to prepare the polyelectrolytes complex without PAA agglomerate. The concentration of salt in the polyelectrolyte complex solution is a very important parameter for the soil fixation.

  17. Cadmium background concentrations to establish reference quality values for soils of São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Vinicius Henrique; de Abreu, Cleide Aparecida; Coelho, Ricardo Marques; Melo, Leônidas Carrijo Azevedo

    2014-03-01

    Proper assessment of soil cadmium (Cd) concentrations is essential to establish legislative limits. The present study aimed to assess background Cd concentrations in soils from the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to correlate such concentrations with several soil attributes. The topsoil samples (n = 191) were assessed for total Cd contents and for other metals using the USEPA 3051A method. The background concentration was determined according to the third quartile (75th). Principal component analysis, Spearman correlation, and multiple regressions between Cd contents and other soil attributes (pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), clay content, sum of bases, organic matter, and total Fe, Al, Zn, and Pb levels) were performed. The mean Cd concentration of all 191 samples was 0.4 mg kg(-1), and the background concentration was 0.5 mg kg(-1). After the samples were grouped by parent material (rock origin) and soil type, the background Cd content varied, i.e., soils from igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks harbored 1.5, 0.4, and 0.2 mg kg(-1) of Cd, respectively. The background Cd content in Oxisols (0.8 mg kg(-1)) was higher than in Ultisols (0.3 mg kg(-1)). Multiple regression demonstrated that Fe was primarily attributed to the natural Cd contents in the soils (R (2) = 0.79). Instead of a single Cd background concentration value representing all São Paulo soils, we propose that the concentrations should be specific for at least Oxisols and Ultisols, which are the primary soil types.

  18. Regional Characterization of Soil Properties via a Combination of Methods from Remote Sensing, Geophysics and Geopedology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Uwe; Fries, Elke; Frei, Michaela

    2016-04-01

    Soil is one of the most precious resources on Earth. Preserving, using and enriching soils are most complex processes that fundamentally need a sound regional data base. Many countries lack this sort of extensive data or the existing data must be urgently updated when land use recently changed in major patterns. The project "RECHARBO" (Regional Characterization of Soil Properties) aims at the combination of methods from remote sensing, geophysics and geopedology in order to develop a new system to map soils on a regional scale in a quick and efficient manner. First tests will be performed on existing soil monitoring districts, using newly available sensing systems as well as established techniques. Especially hyperspectral and infrared data measured from satellites or airborne platforms shall be combined. Moreover, a systematic correlation between hyperspectral imagery and gamma-ray spectroscopy shall be established. These recordings will be compared and correlated to measurements upon ground and on soil samples to get hold of properties such as soil moisture, soil density, specific resistance plus analytic properties like clay content, anorganic background, organic matter etc. The goal is to generate a system that enables users to map soil patterns on a regional scale using airborne or satellite data and to fix their characteristics with only a limited number of soil samples.

  19. Characterization of soil water content variability and soil texture using GPR groundwave techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, K.; Anger, C.; Kelly, B.; Hubbard, S.; Rubin, Y.

    2010-08-15

    Accurate characterization of near-surface soil water content is vital for guiding agricultural management decisions and for reducing the potential negative environmental impacts of agriculture. Characterizing the near-surface soil water content can be difficult, as this parameter is often both spatially and temporally variable, and obtaining sufficient measurements to describe the heterogeneity can be prohibitively expensive. Understanding the spatial correlation of near-surface soil water content can help optimize data acquisition and improve understanding of the processes controlling soil water content at the field scale. In this study, ground penetrating radar (GPR) methods were used to characterize the spatial correlation of water content in a three acre field as a function of sampling depth, season, vegetation, and soil texture. GPR data were acquired with 450 MHz and 900 MHz antennas, and measurements of the GPR groundwave were used to estimate soil water content at four different times. Additional water content estimates were obtained using time domain reflectometry measurements, and soil texture measurements were also acquired. Variograms were calculated for each set of measurements, and comparison of these variograms showed that the horizontal spatial correlation was greater for deeper water content measurements than for shallower measurements. Precipitation and irrigation were both shown to increase the spatial variability of water content, while shallowly-rooted vegetation decreased the variability. Comparison of the variograms of water content and soil texture showed that soil texture generally had greater small-scale spatial correlation than water content, and that the variability of water content in deeper soil layers was more closely correlated to soil texture than were shallower water content measurements. Lastly, cross-variograms of soil texture and water content were calculated, and co-kriging of water content estimates and soil texture

  20. Application of reconstructed background in assessing heavy metal pollution of soils near Jilin Section of the Songhua River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Libo; Tian, Mi; Zhao, Xinyun; Wang, Tong

    2017-01-01

    The distinguishing and evaluation of natural and anthropogenic sources of heavy metals in soils have always been the important issues in the field of environmental science. In this research, natural sources of heavy metals in soils are calculated according to the relationships between major oxides and heavy metals. The individual sample has independent backgrounds of heavy metals, which is more reasonable. If the single environmental background is used as baseline, anomalies in regions with low background might be decreased or hided and those in regions with high background will be overstated. In this study, enrichment factor is defined as the ratio of measured concentration and reconstructed background of heavy metals, which is of specific significance in practical applications with no assumptions. The agricultural soils near Jilin section of the Songhua River are polluted by Hg seriously with more than half samples polluted greatly. And the soils are polluted by Cd moderately. A few samples are polluted by Zn moderately. The other heavy metals in soils are almost in the level of background with little human disturbance.

  1. Characterization and discrimination of soils by their reflected electromagnetic energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demattê José Alexandre M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify if reflected energy of soils can characterize and discriminate them. A spectroradiometer (Spectral reflectance between: 400-2,500 nm was utilized in laboratory. The soils evaluated are located in Bauru region, SP, Brazil, and are classified as Typic Argiudoll (TR, Typic Eutrorthox (LR, Typic Argiudoll (PE, Typic Haplortox (LE, Typic Paleudalf (PV and Typic Quartzipsamment (AQ. They were characterized by their spectral reflectance as for descriptive conventional methods (Brazilian and International according to the types of spectral curves. A method for the spectral descriptive evaluation of soils was established. It was possible to characterize and discriminate the soils by their spectral reflectance, with exception for LR and TR. The spectral differences were better identified by the general shape of spectral curves, by the intensity of band absorption and angle tendencies. These characteristics were mainly influenced by organic matter, iron, granulometry and mineralogy constituents. A reduction of iron and clay contents, which influenced higher reflectance intensity and shape variations, occurred on the soils LR/TR, PE, LE, PV and AQ, on that sequence. Soils of the same group with different clay textures could be discriminated. The conventional descriptive evaluation of spectral curves was less efficient on discriminating soils. Simulated orbital data discriminated soils mainly by bands 5 and 7.

  2. Field survey of Canadian background soils: Implications for a new mathematical gas chromatography-flame ionization detection approach for resolving false detections of petroleum hydrocarbons in clean soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hooper, Francine; Farwell, Andrea J; Pike, Glenna; Kennedy, Jocelyn; Wang, Zhendi; Grunsky, Eric C; Dixon, D George

    2014-08-01

    The reference method for the Canada-wide standard (CWS) for petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in soil provides laboratories with methods for generating accurate and reproducible soil analysis results. The CWS PHC tier 1 generic soil-quality guidelines apply to 4 carbon ranges/fractions: F1 (C6-C10), F2 (C10-C16), F3 (C16-C34), and F4 (>C34). The methods and guidelines were developed and validated for soils with approximately 5% total organic carbon (TOC). However, organic soils have much higher TOC levels because of biogenic organic compounds (BOCs) originating from sources such as plant waxes and fatty acids. Coextracted BOCs can have elevated F2-F4 concentrations, which can cause false exceedances of PHC soil guidelines. The present study evaluated false PHC detections in soil samples collected from 34 background sites. The list of analytes included soil type, TOC, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), F2, F3, F4, F3a (C16-C22), and F3b (C22-C34). Soils with 3% to 41% TOC falsely exceeded the CWS PHC 300 mg/kg F3 coarse soil guideline. It was previously demonstrated that clean peat had F2:F3b ratios of less than 0.10, while crude oil spiked peat and spiked sand had higher ratios of greater than 0.10. In the present background study, all of the clean organic soils with at least 300 mg/kg F3 had F2:F3b ratios of less than 0.10, which indicated false guideline exceedances. Clean inorganic soils had low F3 concentrations, resulting in high F2:F3b ratios of greater than 0.10. Validation field studies are required to determine if the F2:F3b 0.10 PHC presence versus absence threshold value is applicable to crude oil- and diesel-contaminated sites.

  3. Characterization of Vacuum Facility Background Gas Through Simulation and Considerations for Electric Propulsion Ground Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, John T.; Burt, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    The background gas in a vacuum facility for electric propulsion ground testing is examined in detail through a series of cold flow simulations using a direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code. The focus here is on the background gas itself, its structure and characteristics, rather than assessing its interaction and impact on thruster operation. The background gas, which is often incorrectly characterized as uniform, is found to have a notable velocity within a test facility. The gas velocity has an impact on the proper measurement of pressure and the calculation of ingestion flux to a thruster. There are also considerations for best practices for tests that involve the introduction of supplemental gas flows to artificially increase the background pressure. All of these effects need to be accounted for to properly characterize the operation of electric propulsion thrusters across different ground test vacuum facilities.

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Soil Fulvic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Munsif Ali Talpur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fulvic acid was isolated from the agriculture soil of District Naushahro Feroz, Sindh, Pakistan by International Humic Substances Society (IHSS method. The nutrient contents of the soil like N. P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn were determined by using the Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. The Spectroscopic analysis was carried out by studying the UV-Vis, FT-IR and NIR spectra of isolated compounds. The data has been compared with the literature and correlated. Moisture as well as texture shows good water holding capacity and silt- loam type of soil. pH and EC are indicators of the fertility of soil to be beneficial for plantation. The spectral data (UV-Visible, FTIR and NIR supports the characteristic functional groups (-COOH, C=O, -OH, -NH2, C=C, CH2 and Polysaccharides present in Fulvic acid. E4/E6 values depict its hydrophilic nature, having less aromatic and more aliphatic groups. The presence of metal ions indicates its chelating ability.

  5. Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP, Characterization and Microbial Activity of Soil Amended with Dairy Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Lipiec

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of organic amendment applications compared to mineral fertilization on soil microbial activity and functional diversity. The field experiment was set up on a soil classified as an Eutric Cambisol developed from loess (South-East Poland. Two doses of both dairy sewage sludge (20 Mg·ha−1 and 26 Mg·ha−1 and of mineral fertilizers containing the same amount of nutrients were applied. The same soil without any amendment was used as a control. The soil under undisturbed native vegetation was also included in the study as a representative background sample. The functional diversity (catabolic potential was assessed using such indices as Average Well Color Development (AWCD, Richness (R and Shannon–Weaver index (H. These indices were calculated, following the community level physiological profiling (CLPP using Biolog Eco Plates. Soil dehydrogenase and respiratory activity were also evaluated. The indices were sensitive enough to reveal changes in community level physiological profiles due to treatment effects. It was shown that dairy sewage amended soil was characterized by greater AWCD, R, H and dehydrogenase and respiratory activity as compared to control or mineral fertilized soil. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA were used to depict the differences of the soil bacterial functional diversity between the treatments.

  6. Bioinformatic approaches reveal metagenomic characterization of soil microbial community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuofei Xu

    Full Text Available As is well known, soil is a complex ecosystem harboring the most prokaryotic biodiversity on the Earth. In recent years, the advent of high-throughput sequencing techniques has greatly facilitated the progress of soil ecological studies. However, how to effectively understand the underlying biological features of large-scale sequencing data is a new challenge. In the present study, we used 33 publicly available metagenomes from diverse soil sites (i.e. grassland, forest soil, desert, Arctic soil, and mangrove sediment and integrated some state-of-the-art computational tools to explore the phylogenetic and functional characterizations of the microbial communities in soil. Microbial composition and metabolic potential in soils were comprehensively illustrated at the metagenomic level. A spectrum of metagenomic biomarkers containing 46 taxa and 33 metabolic modules were detected to be significantly differential that could be used as indicators to distinguish at least one of five soil communities. The co-occurrence associations between complex microbial compositions and functions were inferred by network-based approaches. Our results together with the established bioinformatic pipelines should provide a foundation for future research into the relation between soil biodiversity and ecosystem function.

  7. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in surface soil from a background area in China: occurrence, distribution, and congener profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Tong; Zhang, Yuan; Miao, Yi; Ma, Ling-Ling; Li, Yuan-Cheng; Chang, Yue-Ya; Wu, Ming-Hong

    2013-07-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are extremely complex technical mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes with carbon chain lengths from C10 to C13 and chlorine content between 49 and 70%. SCCPs are under consideration for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. SCCPs have been used extensively in industrial production, but little is known about the pollution level in soil environment in China. In this study, levels and distribution of SCCPs in soil samples from Chongming Island were analyzed. Concentrations of total SCCPs in soil samples ranged from 0.42 to 420 ng g(-1), with a median of 9.6 ng g(-1). The ubiquitous occurrence of SCCPs in Chongming Island implied that long-range atmospheric transport and soil-air exchange may be the most important pathways for SCCP contamination in the background area. The localized SCCP contamination could be derived from an unidentified source. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that C13- and C11-congeners were predominant in most soils and C10- and C12-congeners dominated in the remaining soils. Cl7- and Cl8-congeners were on the average the most dominant chlorine congeners in nearly all soils. Principal component analysis suggested that the separation of even and odd carbon chain congeners occurred during long-range atmospheric transport and aging in soil in the study area.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Impurely Irrigated Soil Adsorbent from Beaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]We aimed to study the preparation methods of impurely irrigated soil adsorbent from beaches,as well as its ability to absorb phenol.[Method]Using hydrochloric acid as activator,we compared the influences of various soil adsorbents on the adsorption of phenol through the desired orthogonal tests where the usage of saw dust,concentration of hydrochloric acid,liquid-solid ratio and carbonization temperature varied.Afterwards,we characterized this soil adsorbent.[Result]The optimal conditions for pre...

  9. Characterization of Heavy metals from banana farming soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Dian; Huang, Cheng He; Huang, Dong Yi [College of Agronomy, Hainan University, Haikou City, Hainan Province (China); Ouyang, Ying [Department of Water Resources, St. Johns River Water Management District, Palatka, FL (United States)

    2010-06-15

    There is a growing public concern about the contamination of heavy metals in agricultural soils in China due to the increasingly applications of chemical fertilizers and pesticides during the last two decades. This study characterized the variability of heavy metals, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni), from the banana farming soils in western Hainan Island, China. Five banana farms from different locations in the island were selected to collect 69 mixed-soil samples in this study. Experimental data showed that concentrations of Cu ranged from 3.38 to 54.52, Zn from 24.0 to 189.8, Pb from 15.98 to 58.42, Cd from 0.43 to 3.21, and Ni from 3.47 to 121.86 mg kg{sup -1} dry wt. In general, concentrations of the heavy metals varied with metal species and changed from location to location, which occurred presumably due to the variations of soil parent materials and to a certain extent due to the use of different types of agrochemicals. Our study further revealed that concentrations of Cu and Zn were higher in the banana farming soils than in the natural (control) soils among all of the five locations, whereas mixed results were observed for Pb, Cd, and Ni in both the banana farming and control soils, depending on the locations. Comparisons of the heavy metal concentrations with the Chinese Soil Quality Standards (CSQSs) showed that Cu, Zn, and Pb contents were lower but Cd and Ni contents were higher in the banana farming soils than the Class II standard of the CSQSs. Results suggested that accumulation of Cu, Zn, and Pb in the soils is safe for banana fruit production, whereas accumulation of Cd and Ni in the same soils could potentially pose threats to banana fruit safety. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Characterization Plan for Soils Around Drain Line PLA-100115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Shanklin

    2006-05-24

    This Characterization Plan supports the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (HWMA/RCRA) closure of soils that may have been contaminated by releases from drain line PLA-100115, located within the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The requirements to address the closure of soils contaminated by a potential release from this line in a characterization plan was identified in the "HWMA/RCRA Less Than 90-day Generator Closure Report for the VES-SFE-126."

  11. Development of an in-situ soil structure characterization methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debos, Endre; Kriston, Sandor

    2015-04-01

    The agricultural cultivation has several direct and indirect effects on the soil properties, among which the soil structure degradation is the best known and most detectable one. Soil structure degradation leads to several water and nutrient management problems, which reduce the efficiency of agricultural production. There are several innovative technological approaches aiming to reduce these negative impacts on the soil structure. The tests, validation and optimization of these methods require an adequate technology to measure the impacts on the complex soil system. This study aims to develop an in-situ soil structure and root development testing methodology, which can be used in field experiments and which allows one to follow the real time changes in the soil structure - evolution / degradation and its quantitative characterization. The method is adapted from remote sensing image processing technology. A specifically transformed A/4 size scanner is placed into the soil into a safe depth that cannot be reached by the agrotechnical treatments. Only the scanner USB cable comes to the surface to allow the image acquisition without any soil disturbance. Several images from the same place can be taken throughout the vegetation season to follow the soil consolidation and structure development after the last tillage treatment for the seedbed preparation. The scanned image of the soil profile is classified using supervised image classification, namely the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The resulting image has two principal classes, soil matrix and pore space and other complementary classes to cover the occurring thematic classes, like roots, stones. The calculated data is calibrated with filed sampled porosity data. As the scanner is buried under the soil with no changes in light conditions, the image processing can be automated for better temporal comparison. Besides the total porosity each pore size fractions and their distributions can be calculated for

  12. RADIU-226 CONTENT IN SOIL OF THE HIGH NATURAL BACKGROUND RADIATION AREA OF RAMSAR (IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Khademi

    1978-11-01

    Full Text Available The existence of a high natural radiation area in the northern part of Iran (Ramsar is proved. Ra 226 in soil is measured. The results are: minimum 23.5 pCi/g and maximum 999 pCi/g soil. Environmental radioactivity is from 0.1 to 5 mr/h.

  13. Molecular Characterization of Wetland Soil Bacterial Community in Constructed Mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    characterize the soil bacterial community, pre-PCE injection, among three wetland plant species from the sedge family ( Cyperaceae ) within constructed...community among three wetland plant species from the sedge family ( Cyperaceae ) within a constructed reductive dechlorination wetland and to identify...injection, among three wetland plant species from the sedge family ( Cyperaceae ) within constructed wetland mesocosms and to identify any bacterial dominance

  14. Influence of climate and land use change on spatially resolved volatilization of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from background soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komprda, Jiří; Komprdová, Klára; Sáňka, Milan; Možný, Martin; Nizzetto, Luca

    2013-07-01

    The subject of this study is the assessment of the influence of climate and land use change on the potential re-emission of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from background and agricultural soils. A deterministic spatially and temporally explicit model of the air-surface exchange was created, fed with distributed data of soil and atmospheric concentrations from real measurements, and run under various scenarios of temperature and land use change for a case study area representative of central European conditions. To describe land use influence, some important features were implemented including effect of plowing, influence of land cover, temperature of soil, and seasonal changes of air layer stability. Results show that volatilization of pesticides from soil largely exceeded dry gas deposition in most of the area. Agricultural soils accounted for more than 90% of the total re-emissions both because of the generally higher soil fugacities (higher loads of chemicals and relatively low organic carbon content), but also due to physical characteristics and land management practices enhancing the dynamics of the exchange. An increase of 1 °C in air temperature produced an increase of 8% in the averaged total volatilization flux, however this effect can be neutralized by a change of land use of 10% of the arable lands to grassland or forest, which is consistent with projected land use change in Europe. This suggests that future assessment of climate impact on POP fate and distribution should take into consideration land use aspects.

  15. An in-situ soil structure characterization methodology for measuring soil compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Endre; Kriston, András; Juhász, András; Sulyok, Dénes

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural cultivation has several direct and indirect effects on the soil properties, among which the soil structure degradation is the best known and most detectable one. Soil structure degradation leads to several water and nutrient management problems, which reduce the efficiency of agricultural production. There are several innovative technological approaches aiming to reduce these negative impacts on the soil structure. The tests, validation and optimization of these methods require an adequate technology to measure the impacts on the complex soil system. This study aims to develop an in-situ soil structure and root development testing methodology, which can be used in field experiments and which allows one to follow the real time changes in the soil structure - evolution / degradation and its quantitative characterization. The method is adapted from remote sensing image processing technology. A specifically transformed A/4 size scanner is placed into the soil into a safe depth that cannot be reached by the agrotechnical treatments. Only the scanner USB cable comes to the surface to allow the image acquisition without any soil disturbance. Several images from the same place can be taken throughout the vegetation season to follow the soil consolidation and structure development after the last tillage treatment for the seedbed preparation. The scanned image of the soil profile is classified using supervised image classification, namely the maximum likelihood classification algorithm. The resulting image has two principal classes, soil matrix and pore space and other complementary classes to cover the occurring thematic classes, like roots, stones. The calculated data is calibrated with filed sampled porosity data. As the scanner is buried under the soil with no changes in light conditions, the image processing can be automated for better temporal comparison. Besides the total porosity each pore size fractions and their distributions can be calculated for

  16. Soil Characterization at the Linde FUSRAP Site and the Impact on Soil Volume Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, J.; Kenna, T.; Pilon, R.

    2002-02-27

    The former Linde site in Tonawanda, New York is currently undergoing active remediation of Manhattan Engineering District's radiological contamination. This remediation is authorized under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The focus of this paper will be to describe the impact of soil characterization efforts as they relate to soil volume estimates and project cost estimates. An additional objective is to stimulate discussion about other characterization and modeling technologies, and to provide a ''Lessons Learned'' scenario to assist in future volume estimating at other FUSRAP sites. Initial soil characterization efforts at the Linde FUSRAP site in areas known to be contaminated or suspected to be contaminated were presented in the Remedial Investigation Report for the Tonawanda Site, dated February 1993. Results of those initial characterization efforts were the basis for soil volume estimates that were used to estimate and negotiate the current remediation contract. During the course of remediation, previously unidentified areas of contamination were discovered, and additional characterization was initiated. Additional test pit and geoprobe samples were obtained at over 500 locations, bringing the total to over 800 sample locations at the 135-acre site. New data continues to be collected on a routine basis during ongoing remedial actions.

  17. Nonlinear acoustic landmine detection: comparison of off-target soil background and on-target soil-mine nonlinear effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Murray S.; Sabatier, James M.; Pauls, Kathleen E.; Genis, Sean A.

    2006-05-01

    When airborne sound at two primary tones, f I, f II (closely spaced near a resonance) excites the soil surface over a buried landmine, soil wave motion interacts with the landmine generating a scattered surface profile which can be measured over the "target." Profiles at the primaries f I, f II, and nonlinearly generated combination frequencies f I-(f II-f I) and f II+(f II-f I) , 2f I-(f II-f I), f I+f II and 2f II+(f II-f I) (among others) have been measured for a VS 2.2 plastic, inert, anti-tank landmine, buried at 3.6 cm in sifted loess soil and in a gravel road bed. [M.S. Korman and J.M. Sabatier, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 3354-3369 (2004)]. It is observed that the "on target" to "off target" contrast ratio for the sum frequency component can be ~20 dB higher than for either primary. The vibration interaction between the top-plate interface of a buried plastic landmine and the soil above it appears to exhibit many characteristics of the mesoscopic/nanoscale nonlinear effects that are observed in geomaterials like sandstone. Near resonance, the bending (softening) of a family of increasing amplitude tuning curves, involving the vibration over the landmine, exhibits a linear relationship between the peak particle velocity and corresponding frequency. Tuning curve experiments are performed both on and off the mine in an effort to understand the nonlinearities in each case.

  18. Fast neutron background characterization with the Radiological Multi-sensor Analysis Platform (RadMAP)

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, John R; Vetter, Kai

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to characterize the fast neutron radiation background, 16 EJ-309 liquid scintillator cells were installed in the Radiological Multi-sensor Analysis Platform (RadMAP) to collect data in the San Francisco Bay Area. Each fast neutron event was associated with specific weather metrics (pressure, temperature, absolute humidity) and GPS coordinates. The expected exponential dependence of the fast neutron count rate on atmospheric pressure was demonstrated and event rates were subsequently adjusted given the measured pressure at the time of detection. Pressure adjusted data was also used to investigate the influence of other environmental conditions on the neutron background rate. Using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) coastal area lidar data, an algorithm was implemented to approximate sky-view factors (the total fraction of visible sky) for points along RadMAPs route. Three areas analyzed in San Francisco, Downtown Oakland, and Berkeley all demonstrated a suppression in the backg...

  19. Physicochemical and mineralogical characterization of transuranic contaminated soils for uranium soil integrated demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elless, M.P. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Lee, S.Y. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-10-01

    DOE has initiated the Uranium Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) project. The objective of the USID project is to develop a remediation strategy that can be adopted for use at other DOE sites requiring remediation. Four major task groups within the USID project were formed, namely the Characterization Task Group (CTG), the Treatability Task Group (TTG), the Secondary Waste Treatment and Disposal Task Group (SWTDTG), and the Risk and Performance Assessment Task Group (RPATG). The CTG is responsible for determining the nature of the uranium contamination in both untreated and treated soil. The TTG is responsible for the selective removal of uranium from these soils in such a manner that the leaching does not seriously degrade the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generate a secondary waste form that is difficult to manage and/or dispose. The SWTDTG is responsible for developing strategies for the removal of uranium from all wastewaters generated by the TTGs. Finally the RPATG is responsible for developing the human health and environmental risk assessment of the untreated and treated soils. Because of the enormity of the work required to successfully remediate uranium-contaminated soils, an integrated approach was designed to avoid needless repetition of activities among the various participants in the USID project. Researchers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were assigned characterization and/or treatability duties in their areas of specialization. All tasks groups are involved in the integrated approach; however, the thrust of this report concentrates on the utility of the integrated approach among the various members of the CTG. This report illustrates the use of the integrated approach for the overall CTG and to provide the results generated specifically by the CTG or ORNL from FY1993 to the present.

  20. Characterizing the peak in the cosmic microwave background angular power spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox; Page

    2000-08-14

    A peak has been unambiguously detected in the cosmic microwave background angular spectrum. Here we characterize its properties with fits to phenomenological models. We find that the TOCO and BOOM/NA data determine the peak location to be in the range 175-243 and 151-259, respectively (at 95% confidence) and determine the peak amplitude to be between approximately 70 and 90 &mgr;K. The peak shape is consistent with inflation-inspired flat, cold dark matter plus cosmological constant models of structure formation with adiabatic, nearly scale invariant initial conditions. It is inconsistent with open models and presents a great challenge to defect models.

  1. Characterization of a soil contaminated by oilfield brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mutairi, K.; Harris, T. [Univ. of Tulsa, OH (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Brine contamination of soil is a common environmental problem associated with the onshore production of oil and gas. A site of extensive contamination in Oklahoma has been characterized using conductimetry, direct potentiometry (pH- and chloride-selective electrodes), and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (for Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}) to determine the extent of the contamination and the efficacy of various remediation technologies.

  2. Local versus field scale soil heterogeneity characterization - a challenge for representative sampling in pollution studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardanpour, Z.; Jacobsen, O. S.; Esbensen, K. H.

    2015-06-01

    This study is a contribution to development of a heterogeneity characterisation facility for "next generation" sampling aimed at more realistic and controllable pesticide variability in laboratory pots in experimental environmental contaminant assessment. The role of soil heterogeneity on quantification of a set of exemplar parameters, organic matter, loss on ignition (LOI), biomass, soil microbiology, MCPA sorption and mineralization is described, including a brief background on how heterogeneity affects sampling/monitoring procedures in environmental pollutant studies. The Theory of Sampling (TOS) and variographic analysis has been applied to develop a fit-for-purpose heterogeneity characterization approach. All parameters were assessed in large-scale profile (1-100 m) vs. small-scale (0.1-1 m) replication sampling pattern. Variographic profiles of experimental analytical results concludes that it is essential to sample at locations with less than a 2.5 m distance interval to benefit from spatial auto-correlation and thereby avoid unnecessary, inflated compositional variation in experimental pots; this range is an inherent characteristic of the soil heterogeneity and will differ among soils types. This study has a significant carrying-over potential for related research areas e.g. soil science, contamination studies, and environmental monitoring and environmental chemistry.

  3. Geological background of the estimation of natural stresses in soil body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial and boundary conditions are always given for solving the problem of calculating the interaction of tunnels and other underground structures with soil and rocks. The same conditions are set for calculating the surface buildings. These initial data for calculation are divided into three groups: 1 the geometrical shape of the layers of rocks (geological structure; 2 the parameters of the strength and compressibility of rocks; 3 compressive stresses in the array. These data all over the world are set with engineering surveys. In engineering surveys there are good methods of determining the source of the data 1 and 2. But there is no available methodology for determining the natural stress state. Therefore, compressive and tensile stresses are usually determined by mathematical modeling. The calculation of the compressive stresses is done on the basis of the following hypotheses: compressive stresses are created by the weight of rocks; they go down in proportion to the density of rocks; the main normal stress is has a vertical direction; normal stress in horizontal direction is smaller. The value of the horizontal stress is was calculated using Poisson’s ratio. This hypothesis of the nineteenth century was used another 50 years ago, when it was not known exactly about the movement of the continents and when compressive stresses in the earth’s crust have not yet been measured. Today a universal application of this hypothesis is not correct. Now the application of this hypothesis in many cases is not correct. In this research paper an attempt is made to specify the area, in which the above hypothesis can be used. This is done on the basis of current scientific evidence. Abroad this way of calculating tunnels and other underground structures and bases of buildings should be done taking into account the real field of natural stresses. The geological characteristics of the location of the axes of stresses in soil body are based on the study of

  4. Characterization of unsaturated hydraulic parameters for homogeneous and heterogeneous soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wildenschild, Dorthe

    1997-09-01

    Application of numerical models for predicting future spreading of contaminants into ground water aquifers is dependent on appropriate characterization of the soil hydraulic properties controlling flow and transport in the unsaturated zone. This thesis reviews the current knowledge on two aspects of characterization of unsaturated hydraulic parameters; estimation of the basic hydraulic parameters for homogeneous soils and statistical representation of heterogeneity for spatially variable soils. The retention characteristic is traditionally measured using steady-state procedures, but new ideas based on dynamic techniques have been developed that reduce experimental efforts and that produce retention curves which compare to those measured by traditional techniques. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is difficult to establish by steady-state procedures, and extensive research efforts have been focused on alternative methods that are based on inverse estimation. The inverse methods have commonly been associated with problems of numerical instability and ill-posedness of the parameter estimates, but recent investigations have shown that the uniqueness of parameter estimates can be improved by including additional, independent information on, for instance, the retention characteristic. Also, uniqueness may be improved by careful selection of experimental conditions are parametric functions. (au) 234 refs.

  5. Use of photoacoustic mid-infrared spectroscopy to characterize soil properties and soil organic matter stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltre, Clement; Bruun, Sander; Du, Changwen; Stoumann Jensen, Lars

    2014-05-01

    The persistence of soil organic matter (SOM) is recognized as a major ecosystem property due to its key role in earth carbon cycling, soil quality and ecosystem services. SOM stability is typically studied using biological methods such as measuring CO2-C evolution from microbial decomposition of SOM during laboratory incubation or by physical or chemical fractionation methods, allowing the separation of a labile fraction of SOM. However these methods are time consuming and there is still a need for developing reliable techniques to characterize SOM stability, providing both quantitative measurements and qualitative information, in order to improve our understanding of the mechanisms controlling SOM persistence. Several spectroscopic techniques have been used to characterize and predict SOM stability, such as near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT). The latter allows a proper identification of spectral regions corresponding to vibrations of specific molecular or functional groups associated with SOM lability. However, reflectance spectroscopy for soil analyses raises some difficulties related to the low reflectance of soils, and to the high influence of particle size. In the last three decades, the progresses in microphone sensitivity dramatically increased the performance of photoacoustic Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). This technique offers benefits over reflectance spectroscopy techniques, because particle size and the level of sample reflectance have little effect of on the PAS signal, since FTIR-PAS is a direct absorption technique. Despite its high potential for soil analysis, only a limited number of studies have so far applied FTIR-PAS for soil characterization and its potential for determining SOM degradability still needs to be investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of FTIR-PAS for the characterization of SOM decomposability during

  6. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment: Flight Characterization Of The Ciber Narrow Band Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Louis R.; Battle, J.; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Mason, P.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U. W.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Suzuki, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2011-01-01

    Subtraction of the Zodiacal light foreground is the dominant source of uncertainty in absolute photometric measurements of the extra-galactic background at near-infrared to optical wavelengths. The second flight of the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) occurred on July 10th, 2010. CIBER is a NASA sounding rocket experiment carrying four co-aligned instruments including two imaging telescopes with wide passbands centered at 1 and 1.6 microns, respectively, as well as a low resolution spectrometer and a narrow-band spectrometer. THE CIBER spectrometers are absolutely calibrated in collaboration with NIST. The narrow-band spectrometer filter is centered on the Ca II solar Fraunhofer line at 854.2 nm and is designed to measure the equivalent width of the solar line reflected by the interplanetary dust in order to obtain an absolute measurement of the Zodiacal contribution to the infrared sky at that wavelength. In conjunction with measured low resolution spectrum from 700 to 1900 nm, this will provide an accurate independent check of the DIRBE Zodiacal light models. Here we describe the NBS instrument, calibration and in-flight characterization.

  7. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF SX TANK FARM AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH MAGNETICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS DA; RUCKER D; LEVIT M; CUBBAGE B; HENDERSON C

    2009-09-24

    This report presents the results of the background characterization of the cribs and trenches surrounding the SX tank farm prepared by HydroGEOPHYSICS Inc, Columbia Energy & Environmental Services Inc and Washington River Protection Solutions.

  8. Soil characterization methods for unsaturated low-level waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierenga, P.J.; Young, M.H. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil and Water Science); Gee, G.W.; Kincaid, C.T. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Hills, R.G. (New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Nicholson, T.J.; Cady, R.E. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    To support a license application for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW), applicants must characterize the unsaturated zone and demonstrate that waste will not migrate from the facility boundary. This document provides a strategy for developing this characterization plan. It describes principles of contaminant flow and transport, site characterization and monitoring strategies, and data management. It also discusses methods and practices that are currently used to monitor properties and conditions in the soil profile, how these properties influence water and waste migration, and why they are important to the license application. The methods part of the document is divided into sections on laboratory and field-based properties, then further subdivided into the description of methods for determining 18 physical, flow, and transport properties. Because of the availability of detailed procedures in many texts and journal articles, the reader is often directed for details to the available literature. References are made to experiments performed at the Las Cruces Trench site, New Mexico, that support LLW site characterization activities. A major contribution from the Las Cruces study is the experience gained in handling data sets for site characterization and the subsequent use of these data sets in modeling studies.

  9. Characterization of Apollo Bulk Soil Samples Under Simulated Lunar Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2012, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. To best understand the effects of the near surface-environment of the Moon, a consortium of four institutions with the capabilities of characterizing lunar samples was created. The goal of the Thermal Infrared Emission Studies of Lunar Surface Compositions Consortium (TIRES-LSCC) is to characterize Apollo bulk soil samples with a range of compositions and maturities in simulated lunar conditions to provide better context for the spectral effects due to varying compositions and soil maturity as well as for the interpretation of data obtained by the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer and future lunar and airless body thermal emission spectrometers. An initial set of thermal infrared emissivity measurements of the bulk lunar soil samples will be made in three of the laboratories included in the TIRES-LSCC: the Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) in RELAB at Brown University, the Simulated Lunar Environment chamber in the Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF) at the University of Oxford, and the Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  10. Geochemical characterization and biomonitoring of reclaimed soils in the Po River Delta (Northern Italy): implications for the agricultural activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuseppe, Dario; Bianchini, Gianluca; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Martucci, Annalisa; Natali, Claudio; Beccaluva, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    This geochemical study is focused on the easternmost part of the Po River alluvial plain in Northern Italy, which is interested by widespread agricultural activities, investigating a reclaimed sector of the Province of Ferrara, known as "Valle del Mezzano" (Mezzano Low Land, hereafter reported as MLL) characterized by peat-rich soils. The chemical-mineralogical characterization of these reclaimed soils is important to compare the local geochemical backgrounds with those recorded in other sectors of the River Po plain and to monitor if the observed concentration exceeds critical thresholds. The reported analyses include (a) measurement of the soil salinity, (b) nutrient evaluation, (c) major and trace element concentrations carried out on bulk soils, (d) tests of metal extraction with both aqua regia and EDTA to highlight the distinct elemental mobility and (e) phyto-toxicological measurement of heavy metal concentrations in plants (Lactuca sativa acephala) grown on the studied soils. The results indicate (1) high soil salinity, often with drastic increase of sodium and chloride along the soil profiles, (2) high nitrogen content (in part related to anthropogenic activities) on superficial horizons and nitrate decrease along the soil profiles and (3) comparative enrichments in heavy metals with respect to other soils of the province, which indicate that peat deposits are effective in trapping metals from anthropogenic sources. This, in turn, implies potential geochemical risks for the agricultural activities. In this regard, specific concerns are related to the high nickel and arsenic content of MLL soils due to the mobility of these elements and their attitude to be taken up by plants.

  11. A Review of Fishpond Soil Management Principles in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    A.T. Ekubo; J.F.N. Abowei

    2011-01-01

    The suitability of sites for culture fisheries depends on the soil. There is therefore the need to have proper background on the nature and properties of soils. The pond oils, soil functions in fish pond, soil characterization, components and soil mineral constituents, oil profile soil classification, soil fertility, nutrients, primary and secondary nutrients, soil organic matter, common soil problems, field and laboratory methods in acid sulphate soil identification, management of acid sulph...

  12. Spatial characterization of soil properties and influence in soil formation in oak-grassland of Sierra Morena, S Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Sánchez, Andrea; Cáceres, Francisco; Pédèches, Remi; Giráldez Cervera, Juan Vicente; Vanwalleghem, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean oak-grassland ecosystem is very important for the rural economy and for the biodiversity of south-western European countries like Spain and Portugal. Nevertheless these ecosystems are not well characterized especially their soils. In this report soil carbon has been evaluated and related to other properties. The principal factors controlling the structure, productivity and evolution of forest ecosystems are bedrock, climate, relief, vegetation and time. Soil carbon has an important influence in the soil and ecosystem structures. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between relief, soil properties, spatial distribution of soil carbon and their influence in soil formation and geomorphology. This work is part of another study which aims to elucidate the processes involved in the soil formation and to examine their behaviour on long-term with a modelling. In our study area, located in oak-grassland of Sierra Morena, in Cordoba, S Spain, have been studied 67 points at 6 depths in 262 hectares in order to determine carbon content varying between 0-6%, soil properties such as soil depth between 0-4 m, horizon depth and the rocks amount in surface. The relationship between the soil carbon, soil properties and the relief characteristic like slope, aspect, curvature can shed light the processes that affect the mechanisms of bedrock weathering and their interrelationship with geomorphological processes.

  13. Hydrogeochemical characterization and Natural Background Levels in urbanized areas: Milan Metropolitan area (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Although aquifers in densely populated and industrialized areas are extremely valuable and sensitive to contamination, an estimate of the groundwater quality status relative to baseline conditions is lacking for many of them. This paper provides a hydrogeochemical characterization of the groundwater in the Milan metropolitan area, one of the most densely populated areas in Europe. First, a conceptual model of the study area based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of natural chemical species and indicator contaminants is presented. The hydrochemical facies of the study area depend on the lithology of catchments drained by the main contributing rivers and on the aquifer settings. The anthropogenic influence on the groundwater quality of superficial aquifers is studied by means of probability plots, concentration versus depth plots and spatial-temporal plots for nitrate, sulfate and chloride. These allow differentiation of contaminated superficial aquifers from deep confined aquifers with baseline water quality. Natural Background Levels (NBL) of selected species (Cl, Na, NH4, SO4, NO3, As, Fe, Mn and Zn) are estimated by means of the pre-selection (PS) and the component separation (CS) statistical approaches. The NBLs depend on hydrogeological settings of the study area; sodium, chloride, sulfate and zinc NBL values never exceed the environmental water quality standards. NBL values of ammonium, iron, arsenic and manganese exceed the environmental water quality standards in the anaerobic portion of the aquifers. On the basis of observations, a set of criteria and precautions are suggested for adoption with both PS and CS methods in the aquifer characterization of highly urbanized areas.

  14. A comparison of methods used to calculate normal background concentrations of potentially toxic elements for urban soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothwell, Katherine A., E-mail: k.rothwell@ncl.ac.uk; Cooke, Martin P., E-mail: martin.cooke@ncl.ac.uk

    2015-11-01

    To meet the requirements of regulation and to provide realistic remedial targets there is a need for the background concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in soils to be considered when assessing contaminated land. In England, normal background concentrations (NBCs) have been published for several priority contaminants for a number of spatial domains however updated regulatory guidance places the responsibility on Local Authorities to set NBCs for their jurisdiction. Due to the unique geochemical nature of urban areas, Local Authorities need to define NBC values specific to their area, which the national data is unable to provide. This study aims to calculate NBC levels for Gateshead, an urban Metropolitan Borough in the North East of England, using freely available data. The ‘median + 2MAD’, boxplot upper whisker and English NBC (according to the method adopted by the British Geological Survey) methods were compared for test PTEs lead, arsenic and cadmium. Due to the lack of systematically collected data for Gateshead in the national soil chemistry database, the use of site investigation (SI) data collected during the planning process was investigated. 12,087 SI soil chemistry data points were incorporated into a database and 27 comparison samples were taken from undisturbed locations across Gateshead. The SI data gave high resolution coverage of the area and Mann–Whitney tests confirmed statistical similarity for the undisturbed comparison samples and the SI data. SI data was successfully used to calculate NBCs for Gateshead and the median + 2MAD method was selected as most appropriate by the Local Authority according to the precautionary principle as it consistently provided the most conservative NBC values. The use of this data set provides a freely available, high resolution source of data that can be used for a range of environmental applications. - Highlights: • The use of site investigation data is proposed for land contamination studies

  15. Characterizing regional soil mineral composition using spectroscopyand geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, V.L.; de Bruin, S.; Weyermann, J.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at improving the mapping of major mineral variability at regional scale using scale-dependent spatial variability observed in remote sensing data. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and statistical methods were combined with laboratory-based mineral characterization of field samples to create maps of the distributions of clay, mica and carbonate minerals and their abundances. The Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA) was used to identify the spectrally-dominant minerals in field samples; these results were combined with ASTER data using multinomial logistic regression to map mineral distributions. X-ray diffraction (XRD)was used to quantify mineral composition in field samples. XRD results were combined with ASTER data using multiple linear regression to map mineral abundances. We testedwhether smoothing of the ASTER data to match the scale of variability of the target sample would improve model correlations. Smoothing was donewith Fixed Rank Kriging (FRK) to represent the mediumand long-range spatial variability in the ASTER data. Stronger correlations resulted using the smoothed data compared to results obtained with the original data. Highest model accuracies came from using both medium and long-range scaled ASTER data as input to the statistical models. High correlation coefficients were obtained for the abundances of calcite and mica (R2 = 0.71 and 0.70, respectively). Moderately-high correlation coefficients were found for smectite and kaolinite (R2 = 0.57 and 0.45, respectively). Maps of mineral distributions, obtained by relating ASTER data to MICA analysis of field samples, were found to characterize major soil mineral variability (overall accuracies for mica, smectite and kaolinite were 76%, 89% and 86% respectively). The results of this study suggest that the distributions of minerals and their abundances derived using FRK-smoothed ASTER data more closely match the spatial

  16. Background electromagnetic noise characterization: the role of external and internal Earth sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Meloni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Earth is surrounded by the ionosphere and magnetosphere that can roughly be seen schematically as two concentric shells. These two composed and inhomogeneous structured shells around the Earth selectively affect electromagnetic (EM waves propagation. Both ionosphere and magnetosphere interact also with particles and waves coming from external sources, generating electromagnetic phenomena that in turn might become sources of EM waves. Conversely, EM waves generated inside the ionosphere remain confined at various altitudes in this region, up to a so-called critical frequency limit, depending on frequency, EM waves can escape out of the ionosphere and magnetosphere or get through. The EM waves generated inside the magnetospheric cavity mainly originate as a result of the electrical activity in the atmosphere. It is well known that also man-made sources, now widely spread on Earth, are a fundamental source of EM waves; however, excluding certain frequencies employed in power distribution and communication, man-made noise can be dominant only at local scale, near their source. According to recent studies, EM waves are also generated in the Earth’s lithosphere; these waves were sometimes associated with earthquake activity showing, on the Earth’s surface, intensities that are generally orders of magnitude below the background EM noise. In this review paper, we illustrate EM waves of natural origin and discuss their characterization in order to try discriminate those of lithospheric origin detectable at or near the Earth’s surface.

  17. The emerging source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from mining in the Tibetan Plateau: Distributions and contributions in background soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Yuan, Guo-Li; Li, Ping; Sun, Yong; Yu, Hong-Hui; Wang, Gen-Hou

    2017-04-15

    The Tibetan Plateau (TP) serves as the background for persistent organic pollutants around the world. In addition to outside sources, local sources greatly contribute to the environment of the TP in recent decades. Mining activity could serve as an emerging source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), although this issue has been neglected in the TP until now. To investigate the distributions and contributions of PAHs transported from mining activity, forty-one surface soil samples along six sampling directions were collected at a regular distance from the Jiama mining area (JMA) of the TP at altitudes between 3726 and 4863m. The total concentration of 16 PAHs was 52.34±22.58ng/g. The result of the source identification suggested that mining activity represented the primary source for heavy molecular weight (HMW) PAHs in soils, while light molecular weight (LMW) and middle molecular weight (MMW) PAHs were contributed by multiple sources. For HMW PAHs, the concentrations and proportions decreased logarithmically with transport distance from the JMA. Furthermore, the transport distance of HMW PAHs was found to be affected by the prevailing wind direction. In addition to transport from the source area, the distributions of LMW and MMW PAHs were also influenced by the altitude. In the impact area of Jiama mining activity, the soil mass inventory was estimated to be 6.4±0.8tons for HMW PAHs. In future decades, HMW PAHs emitted from Jiama mining activity are projected to exceed 5% of the annual local emission in the TP. Our study evidenced that Tibetan mining activity serves as an important emerging source of PAHs, which would be transported within the TP and threaten the fragile ecosystem of the TP.

  18. Evaluation of DNA damage in the root cells of Allium cepa seeds growing in soil of high background radiation areas of Ramsar - Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saghirzadeh, M. [Department of Basic Science, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gharaati, M.R. [Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Sh. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Radiation Applications Research School, Tehran 11365-3486 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: smohammadi@aeoi.org.ir; Ghiassi-Nejad, M. [Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Plants are unique in their ability to serve as in situ monitors for environmental genotoxins. We have used the alkaline comet assay for detecting induced DNA damage in Allium cepa to estimate the impact of high levels of natural radiation in the soils of inhabited zones of Ramsar. The average specific activity of natural radionuclides measured in the soil samples for {sup 226}Ra was 12,766 Bq kg{sup -1} whereas in the control soils was in the range of 34-60 Bq kg{sup -1}. A positive strong significant correlation of the DNA damage in nuclei of the root cells of A. cepa seeds germinated in the soil of high background radiation areas with {sup 226}Ra specific activity of the soil samples was observed. The results showed high genotoxicity of radioactively contaminated soils. Also the linear increase in the DNA damage indicates that activation of repair enzymes is not triggered by exposure to radiation in HBRA.

  19. Chemical characterization and infrared spectroscopy of soil organic matter from two southern brazilian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Dick

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter from the surface horizon of two Brazilian soils (a Latosol and a Chernosol, in bulk samples (in situ SOM and in HF-treated samples (SOM, was characterized by elemental analyses, diffuse reflectance (DRIFT and transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (T-FTIR. Humic acids (HA, fulvic acids (FA and humin (HU isolated from the SOM were characterized additionally by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS. After sample oxidation and alkaline treatment, the DRIFT technique proved to be more informative for the detection of "in situ SOM" and of residual organic matter than T-FTIR. The higher hydrophobicity index (HI and H/C ratio obtained in the Chernosol samples indicate a stronger aliphatic character of the organic matter in this soil than the Latosol. In the latter, a pronounced HI decrease was observed after the removal of humic substances (HS. The weaker aliphatic character, the higher O/C ratio, and the T-FTIR spectrum obtained for the HU fraction in the Latosol suggest the occurrence of surface coordination of carboxylate ions. The Chernosol HU fraction was also oxygenated to a relatively high extent, but presented a stronger hydrophobic character in comparison with the Latosol HU. These differences in the chemical and functional group composition suggest a higher organic matter protection in the Latosol. After the HF treatment, decreases in the FA proportion and the A350/A550 ratio were observed. A possible loss of FA and condensation of organic molecules due to the highly acid medium should not be neglected.

  20. Cosmic microwave background polarimetry with ABS and ACT: Instrumental design, characterization, and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sara Michelle

    The LCDM model of the universe is supported by an abundance of astronomical observations, but it does not confirm a period of inflation in the early universe or explain the nature of dark energy and dark matter. The polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) may hold the key to addressing these profound questions. If a period of inflation occurred in the early universe, it could have left a detectable odd-parity pattern called B-modes in the polarization of the CMB on large angular scales. Additionally, the CMB can be used to probe the structure of the universe on small angular scales through lensing and the detection of galaxy clusters and their motions via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, which can improve our understanding of neutrinos, dark matter, and dark energy. The Atacama B-mode Search (ABS) instrument was a cryogenic crossed-Dragone telescope located at an elevation of 5190m in the Atacama Desert in Chile that observed from February 2012 until October 2014. ABS searched on degree-angular scales for inflationary B-modes in the CMB and pioneered the use of a rapidly-rotating half-wave plate (HWP), which modulates the polarization of incoming light to permit the measurement of celestial polarization on large angular scales that would otherwise be obscured by 1/f noise from the atmosphere. Located next to ABS in the Atacama is the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT), which is an off-axis Gregorian telescope. Its large 6m primary mirror facilitates measurements of the CMB on small angular scales. HWPs are baselined for use with the upgraded polarization-sensitive camera for ACT, called Advanced ACTPol, to extend observations of the polarized CMB to larger angular scales while also retaining sensitivity to small angular scales. The B-mode signal is extremely faint, and measuring it poses an instrumental challenge that requires the development of new technologies and well-characterized instruments. I will discuss the use of novel instrumentation and

  1. Characterization of the wintertime particulate (PM1) pollution at an urban background site of Nicosia, Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikridas, Michael; Sciare, Jean; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Oikonomou, Konstantina; Merabet, Hamza; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Yassaa, Nouredine; Savvides, Chrysanthos

    2016-04-01

    As part of MISTRALS-ChArMEx (Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), and MISTRALS-ENVI-Med "CyAr" (Cyprus Aerosols and gas precursors) programs, a 1-month intensive field campaign has been performed in December 2014 at an urban background site of Nicosia (Cyprus) - a typical European city of the Eastern Mediterranean - with the objective to document the major (local versus imported) sources responsible for wintertime particulate (PM1) pollution. Several near real-time analyzers were deployed for that purpose (TEOM 1400, OPC Grimm 1.108, Q-ACSM, Aethalometer AE31) allowing to investigate in near-real time the major chemical components of submicron aerosols (Black Carbon, Organics, Sulphate, Nitrate, Ammonium). Quality control of Q-ACSM and Aethalometer datasets was performed through closure studies (using co-located TEOM / OPC Grimm). Comparisons were also performed with other on-line / off-line measurements performed by the local Air quality network (DLI) at other locations in Nicosia with the objective to check the consistency and representativeness of our observations. Very high levels of Black Carbon and OA were systematically observed every night (with maximum concentrations around 22:00 local time) pointing to local combustion sources most probably related to domestic heating. Source apportionment of organic aerosols (OA) was performed using the SourceFinder software (SoFi, http://www.psi.ch/acsm-stations/me-2) allowing the distinction between various primary/secondary OA sources and helped us to better characterize the combustion sources being responsible for the observed elevated nighttime PM1 levels. Acknowledgements: This campaign has been funded by MISTRALS (ChArMEx et ENVI-Med CyAr programs), CNRS-INSU, CEA, CyI, DLI, CDER and ECPL.

  2. Characterization of Pentachlorophenol in Soil by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Mi-cong; WANG Biao

    2004-01-01

    A simple, accurate and sensitive method for characterization of pentachlorophenol in soil was presented. The method included Soxhlet extraction using extracting agent of methanol/water/triethylamine (80∶20∶2), decontamination using solid-phase extraction (SPE) column and characterization by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). The developed analytical method was successfully used to the determination of pentachlorophenol in soil samples.

  3. Characterization of Environmental Nano- and Macrocolloid Particles Extracted from Selected Soils and Biosolids

    OpenAIRE

    J. L. Ghezzi; A. D. Karathanasis; C. J. Matocha; Unrine, J.; Thompson, Y. L.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental nanoparticles found in soil systems and biosolids may pose a considerable risk to groundwater quality as contaminant carriers. Little effort has been invested in the characterization of natural nanocolloids compared to corresponding macrocolloids. This study involved physicochemical, mineralogical, and morphological characterizations of nanocolloids and macrocolloids fractionated from three Kentucky soils and one biosolid. Particle size and morphology were investigated using sca...

  4. 苹果产地土壤环境与地质背景研究%A Study on Soil Environment and Geological Background

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安永龙; 黄勇; 刘清俊; 孙朝; 邓凯文; 李迪; 黄丹

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive study has been carried out in terms of landform, geology, and soil geochemistry in the apple production areas. Factors that may inlfuence the quality and productivity of apple have been analyzed, which include soil background value, elements effective state, environmental safety, and mineral elements in apple. We conclude that Changping district is located on an alluvial fan, which has advantageous temperature, humidity and rich mineral elements facilitating the growth of apple. Rich resources of mineral elements are available in this area due to excellent local geological conditions. By comparing the indexes of measured surface soil with the background values of the plain, we investigated the degrees of enrichment and depletion in relevant indexes, and revealed the relationship between several effective state elements and their total content, pH, and organic matter. It suggests that this area is characterized by low effective Mo. In addition, we compared the concentrations of mineral elements in the two apple areas to provide scientiifc basis for further improving the quality of apple and add brand values.%通过对苹果产地的地貌、地质以及土壤地球化学特征等方面的研究,分析了可能影响苹果品质和产量的因素——土壤背景值、元素有效态、环境安全性、苹果矿质元素等方面特征。认为苹果产地位于利于苹果生长的特定温度、湿度以及富含较多矿质元素的洪积扇上,优良的地质环境为其提供了丰富的矿质资源。将所测表层土壤指标与平原区背景值进行对比,明确了相关指标的贫化与富集程度,同时了解到部分有效态元素与其全量、pH、有机质的相关关系,并掌握到产地具有低有效钼的特点。此外,对比了两个产区苹果果实矿质的含量特征,为进一步提高苹果质量和品牌附加值提供了科学依据。

  5. Characterization of typical chemical background interferences in atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Xinghua; Bruins, Andries P.; Covey, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    The structures and origins of typical chemical background noise ions in positive atmospheric pressure ionization liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (API LC/MS) are investigated and summarized in this study. This was done by classifying chemical background ions using precursor and product ion sc

  6. Effects of nature management on soil functions : development of a method to characterize soil functions and assess the effect of nature management measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geissen, V.; Smit, A.; Zwart, K.B.

    2010-01-01

    Assessments on the sustainability of soil use and management are based on the conservation and improvement of soil functions. A major problem in the use of soil functions in those assessments is the fact that no or few quantitative methods exist to characterize soil functions in the field. It is the

  7. A global spectral library to characterize the world's soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Viscarra Rossel, Raphael; Behrens, T.; Ben Dor, E.

    2016-01-01

    Soil provides ecosystemservices, supports human health and habitation, stores carbon and regulatesemissions of greenhouse gases. Unprecedented pressures on soil from degradation and urbanization are threatening agroecological balances and food security. It is important that we learn more about soil...... to sustainably manage and preserve it for future generations. To this end, we developed and analyzed a global soil visible–near infrared (vis–NIR) spectral library. It is currently the largest and most diverse database of its kind. We show that the information encoded in the spectra can describe soil composition...

  8. Characterization of interactions between soil solid phase and soil solution in the initial ecosystem development phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Claudia; Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    analyzed in two weeks intervals for C and N contents (including δ13C), pH and ion concentrations. The results show that the initial phase of the experiment is characterized by intensive leaching of C and N from the litter and transformation as well as leaching from the substrate. Calcium leaching is caused mainly by carbonate dissolution from the substrates. In contrast, magnesium and especially potassium are leached in initially high amounts from the litter, but are strongly retained in the soil. The addition of litter promotes microbial CO2 production as shown by a strong increase of respiration due to easily available organic substances at the beginning of the experiment. Litter of L. corniculatus induced also a high initial peak in N2O emission as well as higher nitrification and NO3-N leaching. Leaching of DOC and TDN was clearly affected by the substrate texture, illustrated by intensive DOC leaching from the sand at the beginning of the experiment but shifting later to higher leaching rates from the loamy sand. References: Gerwin W, Schaaf W, Biemelt D, Fischer A, Winter S, Hüttl RF (2009) The artificial catchment 'Chicken Creek' (Lusatia, Germany) - a landscape laboratory for interdisciplinary studies of initial ecosystem development. Ecolological Engineering 35, 1786-1796.

  9. Comparative characterization of sewage sludge compost and soil: Heavy metal leaching characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wen; Wei, Yonghong; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-06-05

    The leaching and accumulation of heavy metals are major concerns following the land application of sewage sludge compost (SSC). We comparatively characterized SSC, the reference soil, and the SSC amended soil to investigate their similarities and differences regarding heavy metal leaching behavior and then to evaluate the effect of SSC land application on the leaching behavior of soil. Results showed that organic matter, including both of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), were critical factors influencing heavy metal leaching from both of SSC and the soil. When SSC was applied to soil at the application rate of 48t/ha, the increase of DOM content slightly enhanced heavy metal leaching from the amended soil over the applicable pH domain (6heavy metal speciation in the solid phase were similar between the reference soil and the amended soil.

  10. Regression-kriging for characterizing soils with remotesensing data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufeng GE; J.Alex THOMASSON; Ruixiu SUI; James WOOTEN

    2011-01-01

    In precision agriculture regression has been used widely to quantify the relationship between soil attributes and other environmental variables.However,spatial correlation existing in soil samples usually violates a basic assumption of regression:sample independence.In this study,a regression-kriging method was attempted in relating soil properties to the remote sensing image of a cotton field near Vance,Mississippi,USA.The regressionkriging model was developed and tested by using 273 soil samples collected from the field.The result showed that by properly incorporating the spatial correlation information of regression residuals,the regression-kriging model generally achieved higher prediction accuracy than the stepwise multiple linear regression model.Most strikingly,a 50% increase in prediction accuracy was shown in soil sodium concentration.Potential usages of regressionkriging in future precision agriculture applications include real-time soil sensor development and digital soil mapping.

  11. Gamma-ray computed tomography to characterize soil surface sealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, L.F.Luiz F. E-mail: lfpires@cena.usp.br; Macedo, Jose R. de; Souza, Manoel D. de; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Reichardt, Klaus

    2002-09-01

    The application of sewage sludge as a fertilizer on soils may cause compacted surface layers (surface sealing), which can promote changes on soil physical properties. The objective of this work was to study the use of gamma-ray computed tomography, as a diagnostic tool for the evaluation of this sealing process through the measurement of soil bulk density distribution of the soil surface layer of samples subjected to sewage sludge application. Tomographic images were taken with a first generation tomograph with a resolution of 1 mm. The image analysis opened the possibility to obtain soil bulk density profiles and average soil bulk densities of the surface layer and to detect the presence of soil surface sealing. The sealing crust thickness was estimated to be in the range of 2-4 mm.

  12. Using GIS towards the Characterization and Soil Mapping of the Caia Irrigation Perimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rato Nunes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Caia Irrigation Perimeter is an irrigation infrastructure implemented in 1968. As is often the case, the original soil map of this region (dated from 1961 does not have the detail needed to characterize a relatively small-sized zone, where intensive agricultural practices take place. Using FAO methodology and with the main goal of establishing a larger-scale soil map, adequate for the demands of a modern and intensive agriculture, we gathered the geological characterization of the study area and information about the topography, climate, and vegetation of the region. Using ArcGIS software, we overlapped this information and established a pre-map of soil resources. Based on this pre-map, we defined a set of detailed itineraries in the field, evenly distributed, in which soil samples were collected. In those distinct soil units, we opened several soil profiles, from which we selected 26 to analyze in the present study, since they characterized the existing diversity in terms of soil type and soil properties. Based on the work of verification, correction, and reinterpretation of the preliminary soil map, we reached a final soil map for the Caia Irrigation Perimeter, which is characterized by enormous heterogeneity, typical of Mediterranean soils, containing 23 distinct cartographic units, the most representative being the Distric Fluvisols with inclusions of Luvisols Distric occupying 29.9% of the total study area, and Calcisols Luvic with inclusions of Luvisols endoleptic with 11.9% of the total area. Considering the obtained information on soil properties; ArcGIS was used to develop a map in which it was possible to ascertain the impact of the continuous practice of irrigation in this area. This allows us to put forward relevant conclusions on the need to access and monitor specific Mediterranean soils in order to mitigate the environmental impact of irrigation practices.

  13. Effect of long-term compost and inorganic fertilizer application on background N2O and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions from an intensively cultivated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Weixin; Luo, Jiafa; Li, Jie; Yu, Hongyan; Fan, Jianling; Liu, Deyan

    2013-11-01

    The influence of inorganic fertilizer and compost on background nitrous oxide (N2O) and fertilizer-induced N2O emissions were examined over a maize-wheat rotation year from June 2008 to May 2009 in a fluvo-aquic soil in Henan Province of China where a field experiment had been established in 1989 to evaluate the long-term effects of manure and fertilizer on soil organic status. The study involved five treatments: compost (OM), fertilizer NPK (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium, NPK), half compost N plus half fertilizer N (HOM), fertilizer NK (NK), and control without any fertilizer (CK). The natural logarithms of the background N2O fluxes were significantly (Pcompost alone and inorganic fertilizer not only significantly (Pcompost application, then partially increasing N supply to crops instead of adding inorganic N fertilizer, may be an effective measure to mitigate N2O emissions from arable soils in the North China plain.

  14. Spectral feature characterization methods for blood stain detection in crime scene backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Mathew, Jobin J.; Dube, Roger R.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Blood stains are one of the most important types of evidence for forensic investigation. They contain valuable DNA information, and the pattern of the stains can suggest specifics about the nature of the violence that transpired at the scene. Blood spectral signatures containing unique reflectance or absorption features are important both for forensic on-site investigation and laboratory testing. They can be used for target detection and identification applied to crime scene hyperspectral imagery, and also be utilized to analyze the spectral variation of blood on various backgrounds. Non-blood stains often mislead the detection and can generate false alarms at a real crime scene, especially for dark and red backgrounds. This paper measured the reflectance of liquid blood and 9 kinds of non-blood samples in the range of 350 nm - 2500 nm in various crime scene backgrounds, such as pure samples contained in petri dish with various thicknesses, mixed samples with different colors and materials of fabrics, and mixed samples with wood, all of which are examined to provide sub-visual evidence for detecting and recognizing blood from non-blood samples in a realistic crime scene. The spectral difference between blood and non-blood samples are examined and spectral features such as "peaks" and "depths" of reflectance are selected. Two blood stain detection methods are proposed in this paper. The first method uses index to denote the ratio of "depth" minus "peak" over"depth" add"peak" within a wavelength range of the reflectance spectrum. The second method uses relative band depth of the selected wavelength ranges of the reflectance spectrum. Results show that the index method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples in most tested crime scene backgrounds, but is not able to detect it from black felt. Whereas the relative band depth method is able to discriminate blood from non-blood samples on all of the tested background material types and colors.

  15. Characterization of soil microarthropod communities in Italian beech forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, F. D.; Menta, C.; Piovesan, G.

    2009-04-01

    The contribution of soil organisms to ecosystem functions such as decomposition, nutrient recycling and the maintenance of physico-chemical properties is well recognised, as is the fact that soil fauna plays an important role in the formation and stabilisation of soil structure. The diversity of soil fauna includes a quarter of described living species, the majority of which are insects and arachnids. Soil fauna plays an essential role in forests and agro-ecosystems by maintaining their functionality and productivity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the biodiversity of soil microarthropods communities in different Italian beech forest. Particular attention is paid to the role of fossorial microarthropods in the maintenance of soil structure and in the organic matter movements. Three beech forests are studied, two located in the North and one in the Centre of Italy. Microarthropods are extracted from litter and soil with a Berlese-Tullgren funnel, identified to order level (class level for myriapods) and counted using a microscope. Relative order abundance and biodiversity are expressed using the Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H) and evenness index (J). Soil biological quality is expressed using the QBS-ar index and Acari/Collembola ratio. The results show a richness of microarthropods: several orders, till 19 different groups, are determined and identified. Acari and collembola are the main represented taxa and, especially in litter samples, pseudoscorpions, different specimens of diplopods (or millipedes) and chilopods (centipedes) are found. Thus the presence in particular of diplopods offers the possibility of studying fossorial microarthropods functions in detail. Furthermore, both in soil and in litter samples, adapted groups are recognized, such as pauropods, symphyla, proturans and diplurans, with specific morphological characteristics that these species suited to soil habitat. Therefore they attest a good level of soil quality and high natural value

  16. Background characterization in a liquid scintillation spectrometer; Caracterizacion del fondo de un espectrometro de centelleo liquido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Los Arcos, J.M.; Jimenez de Mingo, A.

    1995-07-01

    An alternate procedure for background count rate estimation in a liquid scintillation spectrometer is presented, which does not require to measure a blank with similar composition, volume and quench, to the problem sample. The procedure is based on a double linear parameterization which was obtained from a systematic study of the background observed with glass vials, in three different windows, 0 - 20 KeV, 0 - 800 KeV and 0 - 2 MeV, for volume between 2 and 20 mi of three commercial scintillators, Hisafe II, Ultima-Gold and Instagel, and quenching degree in the interval equivalent to 50% - 3% tritium efficiency. This procedure was tested with standard samples of 3H, and led to average discrepancies less than 10% for activity {>=}0,6 Bq, against conventional methods for which the discrepancies are twice on average. (Author) 10 refs.

  17. Adaptive V/UV Speech Detection Based on Characterization of Background Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Beritelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an adaptive system for Voiced/Unvoiced (V/UV speech detection in the presence of background noise. Genetic algorithms were used to select the features that offer the best V/UV detection according to the output of a background Noise Classifier (NC and a Signal-to-Noise Ratio Estimation (SNRE system. The system was implemented, and the tests performed using the TIMIT speech corpus and its phonetic classification. The results were compared with a nonadaptive classification system and the V/UV detectors adopted by two important speech coding standards: the V/UV detection system in the ETSI ES 202 212 v1.1.2 and the speech classification in the Selectable Mode Vocoder (SMV algorithm. In all cases the proposed adaptive V/UV classifier outperforms the traditional solutions giving an improvement of 25% in very noisy environments.

  18. Initial characterization of unequal-length, low-background proportional counters for absolute gas-counting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, E. K.; Aalseth, C. E.; Bonicalzi, R.; Day, A. R.; Fuller, E. S.; Hayes, J. C.; Hoppe, E. W.; LaFerriere, B. D.; Merriman, J. H.; Overman, C. T.; Seifert, A.; Williams, R. M.

    2013-08-01

    Characterization of two sets of custom unequal length proportional counters is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These detectors will be used in measurements to determine the absolute activity concentration of gaseous radionuclides (e.g., 37Ar). A set of three detectors has been fabricated based on previous PNNL ultra-low-background proportional counter designs and now operate in PNNL's shallow underground counting laboratory. A second set of four counters has also been fabricated using clean assembly of Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity copper components for use in a shielded above-ground counting laboratory. Characterization of both sets of detectors is underway with measurements of background rates, gas gain, and energy resolution. These results will be presented along with a shielding study for the above-ground cave.

  19. A global spectral library to characterize the world's soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viscarra Rossel, R.A.; Behrens, T.; Ben-Dor, E.; Bartholomeus, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil provides ecosystem services, supports human health and habitation, stores carbon and regulates emissions of greenhouse gases. Unprecedented pressures on soil from degradation and urbanization are threatening agro-ecological balances and food security. It is important that we learn more about

  20. Geochemical background/baseline values in top soils of Campania region: assessment of the toxic elements threat to ecosystem and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Albanese, S.; Bove, M.; Cicchella, D.; Civitillo, D.; Cosenza, A.; Grezzi, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the late years an intense geochemical prospecting activity on the whole territory of Campania region (Southern Italy) has been carried aiming at the definition of the geochemical backgrounds/baselines at both regional and local scale. At the end of 2003 the first edition of an atlas containing 200 maps showing the distribution patterns of 40 chemical elements on the whole regional territory was published (De Vivo et al., 2003, 2006a; Albanese et al., 2007a). The atlas provided a base knowledge of environmental status of the region and allowed to individuate some critical areas to be further investigated by topsoils sampling follow up activity; the topsoils are considered as the best media in order to examine closely the sources and the distribution patterns of harmful elements at a local scale. The topsoils sampling was mainly focused on anthropized areas (at urban and metropolitan scale), industrial settlments, brownfields and intensely cultivated zones, aimed at: • showing the distribution of concentration values and to determine baseline values (or backgrounds, depending on local conditions) of each analyzed element (38) in the top soils; • assessing harmful elements pollution levels and their geographic distribution; • providing reliable analytical data for assessment of toxic element pollution threat to ecosystem and human health; • creating a sound basis for policy makers and legislators who need to address the public concerns regarding environmental pollution. Five atlases (De Vivo et al., 2006b; Albanese et al., 2007b; Lima et al., 2007; Fedele et al., 2007 Cicchella et al., 2009) were produced reporting soil geochemical maps compiled using 1620 samples collected both in the metropolitan and provincial area of Napoli and in the cities of Avellino, Benevento, Caserta and Salerno. Further studies were also carried out taking into account Pb isotopes (Cicchella et al., 2008a), PGE's (Cicchella et al., 2003; 2008b) and bioavailability of harmful

  1. Characterization of gaseous detectors at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility: GEM performance in presence of high background radiation

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2097588

    Muon detection is an efficient tool to recognize interesting physics events over the high background rate expected at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The muon systems of the LHC experiments are based on gaseous ionization detectors. In view of the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrade program, the increasing of background radiation could affect the gaseous detector performance, especially decreasing the efficiency and shortening the lifetime through ageing processes. The effects of charge multiplication, materials and gas composition on the ageing of gaseous detectors have been studied for decades, but the future upgrade of LHC requires additional studies on this topic. At the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++), a radioactive source of cesium-137 with an activity of 14 TBq is used to reproduce reasonably well the expected background radiation at HL-LHC. A muon beam has been made available to study detector performance. The characterization of the beam trigger will be discussed in the present w...

  2. Cytological characterization of wound healing in diabetic patients on the background of the VAC-therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besedin A.M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently the vacuum therapy of wounds (Vacuum-assisted closure, VAC is traditionally used method of treatment of wound complications in patients with diabetes in the majority of surgical departments of relevant profile in Ukraine. Due to publications of Ukrainian authors including the popularization of this treatment method, its therapeutic effects and significant advantages as compared with the traditionally used method of treating wounds by dressing in a moist environment (Moist Wound Healing has led to a number of unresolved issues relating to the application VAC-therapy. One of those is the way of assessment of wound process course on a background of the VAC-therapy. One of the most accessible and easy means of diagnostics of wound healing course is the cytological smear of wounds. Despite the long-term use of cytological method of diagnosis of wounds, peculiarities of phase course of wound process in diabetic patients on the background of VAC-therapy remain poorly studied. As a result of our research it was determined that a statistically significant difference between the basic cytological indices in the vacuum group and conventional treatment are revealed by 9-10 days of treatment. A more favorable course of wound healing on the background of vacuum therapy of wounds was reflected in the reduction of neutrophils number from 186,2±10,13 in the first cytogram to 87,3±6,12 in the fourth, presence of fibroblasts on an average of 0.8 in the field of vision on 9-10 days of treatment, absence of a smear microflora print on 7-8 days of treatment. At the end of the treatment in the conventional treatment group degenerative-regenerative index was 0,65±0,37, in the vacuum group – 1,31±0,63.

  3. Why do trees die? Characterizing the drivers of background tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Adrian J; Stephenson, Nathan L; Davis, Kristin P

    2016-10-01

    The drivers of background tree mortality rates-the typical low rates of tree mortality found in forests in the absence of acute stresses like drought-are central to our understanding of forest dynamics, the effects of ongoing environmental changes on forests, and the causes and consequences of geographical gradients in the nature and strength of biotic interactions. To shed light on factors contributing to background tree mortality, we analyzed detailed pathological data from 200,668 tree-years of observation and 3,729 individual tree deaths, recorded over a 13-yr period in a network of old-growth forest plots in California's Sierra Nevada mountain range. We found that: (1) Biotic mortality factors (mostly insects and pathogens) dominated (58%), particularly in larger trees (86%). Bark beetles were the most prevalent (40%), even though there were no outbreaks during the study period; in contrast, the contribution of defoliators was negligible. (2) Relative occurrences of broad classes of mortality factors (biotic, 58%; suppression, 51%; and mechanical, 25%) are similar among tree taxa, but may vary with tree size and growth rate. (3) We found little evidence of distinct groups of mortality factors that predictably occur together on trees. Our results have at least three sets of implications. First, rather than being driven by abiotic factors such as lightning or windstorms, the "ambient" or "random" background mortality that many forest models presume to be independent of tree growth rate is instead dominated by biotic agents of tree mortality, with potentially critical implications for forecasting future mortality. Mechanistic models of background mortality, even for healthy, rapidly growing trees, must therefore include the insects and pathogens that kill trees. Second, the biotic agents of tree mortality, instead of occurring in a few predictable combinations, may generally act opportunistically and with a relatively large degree of independence from one another

  4. Why do trees die? Characterizing the drivers of background tree mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Adrian J.; Stephenson, Nathan L.; Davis, Kristin P.

    2016-01-01

    The drivers of background tree mortality rates—the typical low rates of tree mortality found in forests in the absence of acute stresses like drought—are central to our understanding of forest dynamics, the effects of ongoing environmental changes on forests, and the causes and consequences of geographical gradients in the nature and strength of biotic interactions. To shed light on factors contributing to background tree mortality, we analyzed detailed pathological data from 200,668 tree-years of observation and 3,729 individual tree deaths, recorded over a 13-yr period in a network of old-growth forest plots in California's Sierra Nevada mountain range. We found that: (1) Biotic mortality factors (mostly insects and pathogens) dominated (58%), particularly in larger trees (86%). Bark beetles were the most prevalent (40%), even though there were no outbreaks during the study period; in contrast, the contribution of defoliators was negligible. (2) Relative occurrences of broad classes of mortality factors (biotic, 58%; suppression, 51%; and mechanical, 25%) are similar among tree taxa, but may vary with tree size and growth rate. (3) We found little evidence of distinct groups of mortality factors that predictably occur together on trees. Our results have at least three sets of implications. First, rather than being driven by abiotic factors such as lightning or windstorms, the “ambient” or “random” background mortality that many forest models presume to be independent of tree growth rate is instead dominated by biotic agents of tree mortality, with potentially critical implications for forecasting future mortality. Mechanistic models of background mortality, even for healthy, rapidly growing trees, must therefore include the insects and pathogens that kill trees. Second, the biotic agents of tree mortality, instead of occurring in a few predictable combinations, may generally act opportunistically and with a relatively large degree of independence from

  5. Neutron Background Characterization for a Coherent Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering experiment at SNS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerling, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Coherent Neutrino Nucleus Scattering (CNNS) is a theoretical well-grounded, but as-yet unverified process. The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) may provide an optimal platform for detection of CNNS, possibly with existing detector technology. A proto-collaboration of groups from several institutions has come together to investigate this option and propose an experiment for the first-time observation of CNNS. Currently, the largest risk to such an experiment comes from an unknown background of beam-induced high-energy neutrons that penetrate the existing SNS concrete shielding. We have deployed a neutron scatter camera at the SNS during beam operation and performed preliminary measurements of the neutron backgrounds at a promising experimental location. In order to measure neutrons as high as 100 MeV, we needed to make modifications to the neutron scatter camera and expand its capabilities beyond its standard operating range of 1-14MeV. We have identified sources of high-energy neutrons and continue to investigate other possible locations that may allow a successful CNNS experiment to go forward. The imaging capabilities of the neutron scatter camera will allow more optimal shielding designs that take into account neutron flux anisotropies at the selected experiment locations.

  6. Characterization, 1064 nm photon signals and background events of a tungsten TES detector for the ALPS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyling-Eschweiler, J.; Doebrich, B.; Januschek, F.; Lindner, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Bastidon, N.; Horns, D. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    2015-02-15

    The high efficiency, low-background, and single-photon detection with transition-edge sensors (TES) is making this type of detector attractive in widely different types of application. In this paper, we present first characterizations of a TES to be used in the Any Light Particle Search (ALPS) experiment searching for new fundamental ultra-light particles. Firstly, we describe the setup and the main components of the ALPS TES detector (TES, millikelvin-cryostat and SQUID read-out) and their performances. Secondly, we explain a dedicated analysis method for single-photon spectroscopy and rejection of non-photon background. Finally, we report on results from extensive background measurements. Considering an event-selection, optimized for a wavelength of 1064 nm, we achieved a background suppression of ∝10{sup -3} with a ∝ 50 % efficiency for photons passing the selection. The resulting overall efficiency was 23 % with a dark count rate of 8.6.10{sup -3} s{sup -1}. We observed that pile-up events of thermal photons are the main background component.

  7. Characterization and influence of cardiac background sodium current in the atrioventricular node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hongwei; Li, Jue; James, Andrew F; Inada, Shin; Choisy, Stéphanie C M; Orchard, Clive H; Zhang, Henggui; Boyett, Mark R; Hancox, Jules C

    2016-08-01

    Background inward sodium current (IB,Na) that influences cardiac pacemaking has been comparatively under-investigated. The aim of this study was to determine for the first time the properties and role of IB,Na in cells from the heart's secondary pacemaker, the atrioventricular node (AVN). Myocytes were isolated from the AVN of adult male rabbits and mice using mechanical and enzymatic dispersion. Background current was measured using whole-cell patch clamp and monovalent ion substitution with major voltage- and time-dependent conductances inhibited. In the absence of a selective pharmacological inhibitor of IB,Na, computer modelling was used to assess the physiological contribution of IB,Na. Net background current during voltage ramps was linear, reversing close to 0mV. Switching between Tris- and Na(+)-containing extracellular solution in rabbit and mouse AVN cells revealed an inward IB,Na, with an increase in slope conductance in rabbit cells at -50mV from 0.54±0.03 to 0.91±0.05nS (mean±SEM; n=61 cells). IB,Na magnitude varied in proportion to [Na(+)]o. Other monovalent cations could substitute for Na(+) (Rb(+)>K(+)>Cs(+)>Na(+)>Li(+)). The single-channel conductance with Na(+) as charge carrier estimated from noise-analysis was 3.2±1.2pS (n=6). Ni(2+) (10mM), Gd(3+) (100μM), ruthenium red (100μM), or amiloride (1mM) produced modest reductions in IB,Na. Flufenamic acid was without significant effect, whilst La(3+) (100μM) or extracellular acidosis (pH6.3) inhibited the current by >60%. Under the conditions of our AVN cell simulations, removal of IB,Na arrested spontaneous activity and, in a simulated 1D-strand, reduced conduction velocity by ~20%. IB,Na is carried by distinct low conductance monovalent non-selective cation channels and can influence AVN spontaneous activity and conduction.

  8. Of the necessity of knowledge of the natural pedo-geochemical background content in the evaluation of the contamination of soils by trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baize, D; Sterckeman, T

    2001-01-08

    In order to evaluate the contamination of the Dornach (Switzerland) site within the framework of the CEEM-Soil project, each participating team was allowed to take a maximum of 15 samples. The French team's sampling was organized in such a way as to answer the following questions: (i) what is the natural concentration of the soils at this site (local pedo-geochemical background content)?; (ii) what are the levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn contamination of the soil?; (iii) what is the depth reached by the surface contamination that is derived from atmospheric fallout?; (iv) how is the contamination spread along the longest axis of the area under study? The relationships between total Fe and the trace metals have allowed local variations in the natural pedo-geochemical background content to be detected and thus permitted the anthropogenic contamination to be estimated. There would appear to be a low level of Pb contamination over all the site investigated (an increase of the order of 5-10 mg kg(-1) on the background level), limited to the surface humus-bearing layers. There is also a significant contamination by Cu over all of the site (an increase of the order of 30-40 mg kg(-1)). This contamination has remained in the surface horizons (0-20 cm). Very high Zn and Cd concentrations have been found in the four surface (0-4 cm) and deep horizons (15-70 cm) taken under the forest and very much lower values in the samples taken from cultivated soils. The most likely explanation is an unequal inheritance between the upper part of the site (wooded with thinner very clayey soils) and the lower cultivated part of the site (with thicker less clayey soils developed in a loamy material). For various reasons, it seems unlikely that a contamination of the wooded part should be so much higher than the cultivated part due to the interception of atmospheric dust by the trees. The local pedo-geochemical background Cd and Zn content of the upper wooded part proved to be clearly higher than

  9. Defining and modeling the soil geochemical background of heavy metals from the Hengshi River watershed (southern China): integrating EDA, stochastic simulation and magnetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Xia, Beicheng

    2010-08-15

    It is crucial to separate the soil geochemical background concentrations from anthropogenic anomalies and to provide a realistic environmental geochemical map honoring the fluctuations in original data. This study was carried out in the Hengshi River watershed, north of Guangdong, China and the method proposed combined exploratory data analysis (EDA), sequential indicator co-simulation (SIcS) and the ratio of isothermal remnant magnetization (S(100)=-IRM(-100 mT)/SIRM). The results showed that this is robust procedure for defining and mapping soil geochemical background concentrations in mineralized regions. The rock magnetic parameter helps to improve the mapping process by distinguishing anthropogenic influences. In this study, the geochemical backgrounds for four potentially toxic heavy metals (copper 200mg/kg; zinc 23 0mg/kg; lead 190 mg/kg and cadmium 1.85 mg/kg) Cu, Zn and Cd exceeded the soil Grade II limits (for pHgeochemical background level for Cd exceeds standard six times. Results suggest that local public health is at high-risk along the riparian region of the Hengshi River, although the watershed ecosystem has not been severely disturbed.

  10. Characterization of a high-temperature superconducting bearing for use in a cosmic microwave background polarimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R [Energy Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Hanany, Shaul [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Matsumura, Tomotake [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Johnson, Bradley [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Jones, Terry [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2005-02-01

    We have previously presented a design for a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter in which a cryogenically cooled half-wave plate rotates by means of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bearing. Here, a prototype bearing, consisting of a commercially available ring-shaped permanent magnet and an array of YBCO bulk HTS material, has been constructed. We measured its coefficient of friction and vibrational property as a function of several parameters, including temperature between 15 and 83 K, rotation frequency between 0.3 and 3.5 Hz, levitation distance between 6 and 10 mm and ambient pressure of {approx}10{sup -7} Torr. We concluded that the low rotational drag of the HTS bearing would allow rotations for long periods with minimal input power and negligible wear and tear, thus making this technology suitable for a future satellite mission.

  11. Characterization of a high-temperature superconducting bearing for use in a cosmic microwave background polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Hanany, Shaul; Matsumura, Tomotake; Johnson, Bradley; Jones, Terry

    2005-02-01

    We have previously presented a design for a cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarimeter in which a cryogenically cooled half-wave plate rotates by means of a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) bearing. Here, a prototype bearing, consisting of a commercially available ring-shaped permanent magnet and an array of YBCO bulk HTS material, has been constructed. We measured its coefficient of friction and vibrational property as a function of several parameters, including temperature between 15 and 83 K, rotation frequency between 0.3 and 3.5 Hz, levitation distance between 6 and 10 mm and ambient pressure of {\\sim }10^{- 7} Torr. We concluded that the low rotational drag of the HTS bearing would allow rotations for long periods with minimal input power and negligible wear and tear, thus making this technology suitable for a future satellite mission.

  12. Evaluation of background soil and air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations on a hill at the outskirts of a metropolitan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzu, S Levent; Saral, Arslan; Güneş, Gülten; Karadeniz, Aykut

    2016-07-01

    Air and soil sampling was conducted inside a forested area for 22 months. The sampling location is situated to the north of a metropolitan city. Average atmospheric gas and particle concentrations were found to be 180 and 28 pg m(-3) respectively, while that of soil phase was detected to be 3.2 ng g(-1) on dry matter, The congener pairs of PCB#4-10 had the highest contribution to each medium. TEQ concentration was 0.10 pg m(-3), 0.07 pg m(-3), 21.92 pg g(-1), for gas, particle and soil phases, respectively. PCB#126 and PCB#169 contributed to over 99% of the entire TEQ concentrations for each medium. Local sources were investigated by conditional probability function (CPF) and soil/air fugacity. Landfilling area and medical waste incinerator, located to the 8 km northeast, contributed to ambient concentrations, especially in terms of dioxin-like congeners. The industrial settlement (called Dilovasi being to the east southeast of 60 km distant) contributed from southeast direction. Further sources were identified by potential source contribution function (PSCF). Sources at close proximity had high contribution. Air mass transportation from Aliaga industrial region (being to the southwest of 300 km distant) moderately contributed to ambient concentrations. Low molecular weight congeners were released from soil body. 5-CBs and 6-CBs were close to equilibrium state between soil/air interfaces. PCB#171 was close to equilibrium and PCB#180 was likely to evaporate from soil, which constitute 7-CBs. PCB#199, representing 8-CBs deposited to soil. 9-CB (PCB#207) was in equilibrium between soil and air phases.

  13. Soil/sediment characterization for 216-A-29 ditch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1997-03-01

    This document provides a detailed description of the environmental samples collected from the 216-A-29 Ditch in 1988. Tables summarizing the laboratory data for radionuclides, metals, and soil chemistry are included.

  14. Hydro-physical characterization of soils under tropical semi-deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cooper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the hydro-physical behavior in soils using toposequences is of great importance for better understanding the soil, water and vegetation relationships. This study aims to assess the hydro-physical and morphological characterization of soil from a toposequence in Galia, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The plot covers an area of 10.24 ha (320 × 320 m, located in a semi-deciduous seasonal forest. Based on ultra-detailed soil and topographic maps of the area, a representative transect from the soil in the plot was chosen. Five profiles were opened for the morphological description of the soil horizons, and hydro-physical and micromorphological analyses were performed to characterize the soil. Arenic Haplustult, Arenic Haplustalf and Aquertic Haplustalf were the soil types observed in the plot. The superficial horizons had lower density and greater hydraulic conductivity, porosity and water retention in lower tensions than the deeper horizons. In the sub-superficial horizons, greater water retention at higher tensions and lower hydraulic conductivity were observed, due to structure type and greater clay content. The differences observed in the water retention curves between the sandy E and the clay B horizons were mainly due to the size distribution, shape and type of soil pores.

  15. From Historical Backgrounds to Recent Advances in 3D Characterization of Materials: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Paciornik, Sidnei

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional pictures and x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns have for a long time been the standard techniques most frequently used to analyze a material structure. In the past decades, owing to advances in imaging and computer technology, three-dimensional (3D) techniques have provided new insights into how phase distribution, crystallographic interfaces and defect arrangements contribute to build a material structure. Moreover, theoretical modeling is now able to disclose a more accurate structural simulation with the support of 3D characterization. In this work, a concise overview of the major 3D imaging techniques is presented to update the reader with the main related achievements in automated serial sectioning, focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) and x-ray microtomography (microCT). Examples addressed in the literature for engineering materials illustrate each technique.

  16. Characterization of Soil Quality Under Vegetable Production Along an Urban-Rural Gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG MINGKUI; WANG MEIQING; LIU XINGMEI; JIANG HONG; XU JIANMING

    2003-01-01

    Human activity and urbanization result in urban-rural environmental gradients. Understanding effect of the gradients on soil properties is necessary for management of the soils around urban areas. In this study, soil quality of some vegetable fields was characterized along an urban-rural gradient in Shaoxing County, Zhejiang Province. Fifteen soil physical and chemical properties were evaluated by using principal component analysis.Results showed that there was a great variation in the soil quality along the gradient. From rural to urban zones, soil organic matter, water-stable aggregates, cation exchangeable capacity (CEC), total N and P, and available K increased, whereas soil pH value decreased. In addition, Pb, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn and Cr in the soils tended to be accumulated toward the urban zone. Sequential chemical extraction showed that mobility of all the heavy metals in the soils tended to increase from the rural to the urban zones. The variation of soil properties accounted for by the first principal component was significantly explained by the difference in application rates of municipal wastes.

  17. Characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilescu, Maria; Pavel, Lucian Vasile; Cretescu, Igor

    2009-04-30

    Environmental contamination caused by radionuclides, in particular by uranium and its decay products is a serious problem worldwide. The development of nuclear science and technology has led to increasing nuclear waste containing uranium being released and disposed in the environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a better understanding of the techniques for the remediation of soils polluted with radionuclides (uranium in particular), considering: the chemical forms of uranium, including depleted uranium (DU) in soil and other environmental media, their characteristics and concentrations, and some of the effects on environmental and human health; research issues concerning the remediation process, the benefits and results; a better understanding of the range of uses and situations for which each is most appropriate. The paper addresses the main features of the following techniques for uranium remediation: natural attenuation, physical methods, chemical processes (chemical extraction methods from contaminated soils assisted by various suitable chelators (sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, two-stage acid leaching procedure), extraction using supercritical fluids such as solvents, permeable reactive barriers), biological processes (biomineralization and microbial reduction, phytoremediation, biosorption), and electrokinetic methods. In addition, factors affecting uranium removal from soils are furthermore reviewed including soil characteristics, pH and reagent concentration, retention time.

  18. Characterization of Microorganisms Isolated from Petroleum Hydrocarbon Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Criste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation has received a great deal of attention, and bacteria isolated from polluted soil can be usedin that process. In this study, we performed an evaluation of the physiological groups of microorganisms fromsoil contaminated with petroleum. Bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated soil using the selectiveenrichment technique. Minimal Salt Media was used for serial dilutions to determine viable cell count. Thenumber of total viable cells and different types of microorganisms in the original sample was determined by serialdilution, agar plating procedure using selective media. The plates were incubated at 300C for 24-72 hours. Distinctcolonies growing on each plate were selected, and stored at freezing temperatures. The bacterial colonies werethen identified by Gram staining and biochemical tests. Following our research, it was observed that although thetotal microbial load of soil is relatively close in value, there are differences regarding the physiological group ofmicroorganisms. In the oil contaminated soil sample the largest group of microorganisms was the nitrous nitrifyingbacteria followed by nitrate bacteria. All bacterial strains that were isolated from soil samples contaminated withhydrocarbons but also the Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtillis strains can use diesel fuel as a food source.With the increase of diesel fuel concentration from culture medium, the majority of the bacterial strains that wereused in our experiments showed an increased value of absorbance. This fact suggests that these strains can be usedin bioremediation processes.

  19. Physiological Characterization of Fungal Inoculum for Biotechnological Remediation of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Ballaminut

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the bioremediating potential of Lentinus crinitus CCIBt2611 according to the physiological condition of the inoculum. Inoculum was prepared using sugarcane ground husk (C:N 90, at several physiological ages and applied in soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol. The inoculum's potential was assessed by evaluating the mycelium's vigor at soil's colonization, determination of peroxidase and phenoloxidase activities, in vitro degradation of Remazol Brilliant Blue R and in vivo degradation of pentachlorophenol. The results showed that the assessed parameters were relevant to identify the quality of the inoculum. For L. crinitus, 10 day old inoculum showed good soil-colonization speed with significant enzymatic activities, indicating the role of Manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase in degradation, and efficient degradation of pentachlorophenol.

  20. Evolutive and regressive soil sequences for characterization of soils in laurel forest (Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Asterio Guerra-García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil degradation processes have achieved the recognition of a global environmental problem in recent years. It has been suggested by various international forums and organizations that in order to adequately establish methods to combat land degradation, it is necessary to evaluate this degradation locally and at a detailed scale. The evaluation of soil degradation of natural ecosystems at a detailed scale requires the definition of standards to which to compare this degradation. To define these standards and properly handle the processes that give rise to variations in soil quality and degradation, it is necessary to establish in some detail the pedogenic processes that have or have not taken place in a particular area and which lead to the formation of a mature soil. A mature soil should be considered as standard in these situations and, therefore, a non-degraded soil. This paper presents the possible evolutive and regressive sequences of soil, and provides some examples of using this methodology to evaluate the degradation of the same in the Monteverde of the island of Tenerife. It also presents some physical, chemical and mineralogical properties of climacic mature soils, degraded soils and low quality soils, and examines their similarities and differences in this bioclimatic environment and on different parent materials. Thus it is observed that the main processes of degradation in these areas are related to plant cover modifications that lead to the decreasing protection of the soil surface, which results in the long term, in the onset of degradation processes such as water erosion, biological degradation, loss of andic properties, compaction and sealing and crusting surface, loss of water retention capacity, illuviation, etc. Climacic soils that can be found in areas of steep lava flows are Leptosols, while gently sloping areas are Cambisols and Andosols. On pyroclastic materials there are vitric Andosols and andic Andosols according to

  1. Advances in characterization of the soil clay mineralogy using X-ray diffraction: from decomposition to profile fitting

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Structural characterization of soil clay minerals often remains limited despite their key influence on soil properties. In soils, complex clay parageneses result from the coexistence of clay species with contrasting particle sizes and crystal-chemistry and from the profusion of mixed layers with variable compositions. The present study aimed at characterizing the mineralogy and crystal chemistry of the < 2 μm fraction along a profile typical of soils from Western Europ...

  2. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Nicole; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Bachmann, Jean

    2016-01-01

    on communities of dung-breeding insects and soil fauna under field conditions, the test method meets the requirements of a higher-tier test as mandated by the European Union. The present study provides contextual information on authorization requirements for veterinary medicinal products and on the structure...... and function of dung and soil organism communities. It also provides a summary of the main findings. Subsequent studies on this issue provide detailed information on different aspects of this overall project.......The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process...

  3. Development and testing of a VisNIR penetrometer for in situ soil characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricklemyer, R.; Poggio, M.; Brown, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Heterogenous agricultural fields must be partitioned into zones with similar soil properties for effective site-specific management. However, standard soil surveys do not generally provide the necessary spatial resolution for this application, and it is expensive and time consuming to generate high-resolution soil maps using standard soil sampling and analysis techniques. Visible and Near-Infrared (VisNIR) spectroscopy is an established method for rapidly and inexpensively estimating soil properties when applied to dried and sieved samples in a laboratory setting. However, this technique still requires that samples be extracted, transported and processed using standard methods. To reduce soil analysis costs further (and allow more dense spatial sampling), it would be ideal to interrogate soils in situ with a field-portable VisNIR spectrometer and foreoptic. The goal of this study was to design and test a VisNIR penetrometer capable of simultaneously collecting soil spectra and insertion force, in situ. Our design allows the use of field-deployable spectrometers that employ signal delivery via fiber optics (e.g. ASD Agrispec) and hydraulic push-type soil coring rig (ex. Giddings). We first compared the quality of VisNIR spectra collected using the penetrometer fore-optic with the spectrometer manufacturer's contact probe foreoptic in a laboratory setting for dried and sieved (2 mm) Palouse soils (eastern WA and northern ID, USA.) Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used calibrate and validate VisNIR models predicting soil clay and organic carbon content. The VisNIR penetrometer was then deployed for in situ soil characterization at ten fields in the states of Washington, Oregon and Idaho selected to capture broad ranges of soil characteristics (ex. parent material, soil organic C, soil inorganic C, clay content, clay mineralogy). To calibrate VisNIR PLSR models, intact soil cores were collected adjacent to location probed with the VisNIR penetrometer and

  4. Characterization of degraded soils in the humid Ethiopian highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tebebu, Tigist Y.; Bayabil, Haimanote K.; Stoof, C.R.; Giri, Shree K.; Gessess, A.A.; Tilahun, Seifu A.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2016-01-01

    Hard pan is a major cause of land degradation that affects agricultural productivity in developing countries. However, relatively little is known about the interaction of land degradation and hardpans. The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate soil degradation and the formation of h

  5. Geochemical characterization of elements in Vitis vinifera cv. Negroamaro grape berries grown under different soil managements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepi, Salvatore; Coletta, Antonio; Crupi, Pasquale; Leis, Marilena; Russo, Sabrina; Sansone, Luigi; Tassinari, Renzo; Chicca, Milvia; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2016-04-01

    The present geochemical study concerns the impact of viticultural practices in the chemical composition of the grape cultivar "Negroamaro" in Apulia, a southern Italian region renowned for its quality wine. Three types of soil management (SM), two cover cropping with different mixtures, and a soil tillage were considered. For each SM, the vines were irrigated according to two irrigation levels. Chemical composition of soil and of berries of Vitis vinifera cultivar "Negroamaro" were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistics (linear discrimination analysis). In detail, we investigated major and trace elements behavior in the soil according to irrigation levels, the related index of bioaccumulation (BA) and the relationship between trace element concentration and soil management in "Negroamaro" grapes. The results indicate that soil management affects the mobility of major and trace elements. A specific assimilation of these elements in grapes from vines grown under different soil management was confirmed by BA. Multivariate statistics allowed to associate the vines to the type of soil management. This geochemical characterization of elements could be useful to develop fingerprints of vines of the cultivar "Negroamaro" according to soil management and geographical origin.

  6. Accumulation of background levels of persistent organochlorine and organobromine pollutants through the soil-earthworm-hedgehog food chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, F.; Covaci, A.; Havé, D' H.; Brink, van den N.W.; Blust, R.; Coen, De W.; Bervoets, L.

    2010-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and DDT and metabolites, was investigated in the soil–earthworm–hedgehog food chain. Concentrations of selected POPs were measured in soil and earthworms coll

  7. Evaluation of metal and radionuclide data from neutron activation and acid-digestion-based spectrometry analyses of background soils: Significance in environmental restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.; Watkins, D.R.; Jackson, B.L.; Schmoyer, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lietzke, D.A.; Burgoa, B.B.; Branson, J.T.; Ammons, J.T. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A faster, more cost-effective, and higher-quality data acquisition procedure for natural background-level metals and radionuclides in soils is needed for remedial investigations of contaminated sites. In this project, a total of 120 soil samples were collected from uncontaminated areas on and near the Oak Ridge Reservation. The samples were taken at three different depths and from three different geologic groups to establish background concentrations of metals and radionuclides. The objective of this presentation is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of neutron activation analysis (NAA) compared with those of acid-digestion-based spectrometry (ADS) methods; the advantages and disadvantages were evaluated from Al, Sb, As, Cr, Co, Fe, Mg, Mn, Hg, K, Ag, {sup 232}Th, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, V, and Zn data. The ADS methods used for this project were inductively coupled plasma (ICP), ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and alpha spectrometry. The scatter plots showed that the NAA results for As, Co, Fe, Mn, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 238}U are reasonably correlated with the results from the other analytical methods. Compared to NAA, however, the ADS methods underestimated Al, Cr, Mg, K, V, and Zn. The skew distributions were caused by incomplete dissolution of the analytes during acid digestion of the soil samples. Because of the high detection limits of the spectrometric methods, the NAA results and the ADS results for some elements, including Sb, Hg, and Ag, did not show a definite relationship. The NAA results were highly correlated with the alpha spectrometry results for {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U but poorly correlated for {sup 235}U, probably because of a larger counting error associated with the lower activity of the isotope. The NAA methods, including the delayed neutron counting method, were far superior techniques for quantifying background levels of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th, {sup 235}U, and {sup 238}U) and metals (Al, Cr, Mg, K, V, and Zn) in soils.

  8. Different effects of identical mowing pattern on plant community and soil microbe of meadow steppe in different land use backgrounds in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, D.; Xin, X.

    2015-12-01

    The appropriate mowing pattern is necessary to be investigated for ensuring the maximum extent feeding supply to livestock and avoiding grassland degradation simultaneously. Previous research about mowing pattern mostly focused on the impact of different cutting ways, such as cutting height, frequency and times, but the land use background factor was commonly ignored. For this reason, we conducted an identical mowing interval gradients experiment (mowing in every 1, 2 and 3 years) in two plots under different land use backgrounds from 2005. One plot was mowed (MP) in every year dominant by Leymus chinensis(Trin.) Tzvel. and the other plot was grazed (GP) before experiment conducted which is dominant by Stipa Baicalensis Roshev. Our results indicate that GP has significant advantages on species diversity, biomass and root-shoot ratio than that in MP under the same mowing interval pattern. Conversely, content of soil organic matter (SOM) and nutrient (total nitrogen, TN and total phosphorus, TP) in MP is significant greater than that in GP. Moreover, in terms of the amount of soil microflora, ammonifier abounded in MP, but anaerobic azotobacteria abounded in GP instead, which may confirm the higher content of TN in MP soil. In summary, the impact of identical mowing interval pattern on vegetation and soil performed diversely in MP and GP suggesting that land use background factor should be taken into account when a mowing pattern is made by government. Further work will be conducted to identify the different nutrient allocation patterns in each components on both individual and community scales which will help us to better understand the mechanisms of land use changing in semi-arid grassland ecosystem.

  9. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nicole; Bachmann, Jean; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Floate, Kevin D; Jensen, John; Römbke, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process for veterinary medicinal products in the European Union includes a requirement for higher-tier tests when adverse effects on dung organisms are observed in single-species toxicity tests. However, no guidance documents for the performance of higher-tier tests are available. Hence, an international research project was undertaken to develop and validate a proposed test method under varying field conditions of climate, soil, and endemic coprophilous fauna at Lethbridge (Canada), Montpellier (France), Zurich (Switzerland), and Wageningen (The Netherlands). The specific objectives were to determine if fecal residues of an anthelmintic with known insecticidal activity (ivermectin) showed similar effects across sites on 1) insects breeding in dung of treated animals, 2) coprophilous organisms in the soil beneath the dung, and 3) rates of dung degradation. By evaluating the effects of parasiticides on communities of dung-breeding insects and soil fauna under field conditions, the test method meets the requirements of a higher-tier test as mandated by the European Union. The present study provides contextual information on authorization requirements for veterinary medicinal products and on the structure and function of dung and soil organism communities. It also provides a summary of the main findings. Subsequent studies on this issue provide detailed information on different aspects of this overall project. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1914-1923. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. Integrated use of soil physical and water isotope methods for ecohydrological characterization of desertified areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külls, Christoph; Nunes, Alice; Köbel-Batista, Melanie; Branquinho, Cristina; Bianconi, Nadja; Costantini, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    Measures for monitoring desertification and soil degradation require a thorough understanding of soil physical properties and of the water balance in order to guide restoration efforts (Costantini et al. 2009). It is hypothesized that long term restoration success on degraded land depends on a series of interacting factors such as exposition, soil type, soil hydrology including lateral flow on hill-slope catenae. Recently, new soil water isotope measurement techniques have been developed (Garvelmann et al. 2012) that provide much faster and reliable stable water isotope profiles in soils. This technique yield information on groundwater recharge, soil water balance and on the origin of water available for plants, which in combination with conservative chemical tracers (chloride) can be validated. A multidisciplinary study including ecologists, soil physicists and hydrologists of the COST Action Desert Restoration Hub was carried out on four semi-arid sites in Portugal. A comparative characterization of soil physical parameters, soil water isotope and chloride profiles was performed in order to estimate pedoclimate, soil aridity, soil water balance and groundwater recharge. In combination with soil physical data a comprehensive and cross-validated characterization of pedoclimate and soil aridity was obtained. These indicators were then integrated and related to plant cover. The long-term rainfall of the four sites ranges from 512 to 638 mm, whereas air temperature is from 15.8 to 17.0°C. The De Martonne index of aridity spans from 19.3 to 24.6, pointing to semiarid to moderately arid climatic conditions. The long-term average number of days when the first 0.50 m of soil is dry ranges from 110 to 134, while the mean annual soil temperature at 0.50 m spans from 15.8 and 19.1°C. The studied profiles show different hydrological characteristics, in particular, the estimated hydraulic conductivity ranges from 0.1-1 to 10-100 µm/s. Three out of four profiles show a

  11. Characterization and classification of two soils derived from basic rocks in Pernambuco State Coast, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Lindomário Barros de

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphic surfaces that present soils derived from basic rocks under warm and humid climate are unique scenarios for studying tropical soils. This paper aimed to characterize and classify two pedons derived from basalt at the Atlantic Forest Zone, Pernambuco State, Northeastern coast of Brazil. Two representative pedons (P1 and P2 were selected on a hillslope at the Cabo de Santo Agostinho municipality. Field macromorphological descriptions were carried out and soil horizon were sampled for physical, chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological characterization. The soils were classified, according to the Brazilian System of Soil Classification (and US Soil Taxonomy as: "Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distroférrico argissólico" (Typic Hapludox (P1 and "Nitossolo Vermelho distroférrico típico" (Rhodic Paleudult (P2. Pedon 1 differs from Pedon 2 in some aspects. For instance, P1 presents more yellowish colors, absence of clay illuviation, more friable consistence and the prismatic structure undergoes transformation to angular and subangular blocks. Pedon 2 presents ferri-argilans and leptocutans which indicate that vertical and lateral illuviation of clay is an active process in their formation. These chemically poor and mineralogically uniform soils are a result of the high temperature and rainfall of the studied area.

  12. Three dimensional characterization of soil macroporosity by X-ray microtomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passoni, Sabrina [Centro de Ensino Superior dos Campos Gerais, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Pires, Luiz Fernando, E-mail: lfpires@uepg.br [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UFPG), Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Heck, Richard [University of Guelph, School of Environmental Sciences, Guelph, Ontario (Canada); Rosa, Jadir Aparecido [Instituto Agronomico do Parana, Polo Regional de Pesquisa de Ponta Grossa, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Analysis of the soil pore system represents an important way of characterizing soil structure. Properties such as the shape and number of pores can be determined through soil pore evaluations. This study presents a three-dimensional (3D) characterization of the shape and number of pores of a sub-tropical soil. To do so, a second generation X-ray microtomography equipped with a plain type detector was employed. A voltage of 120 kV and current of 80 mA was applied to the X-ray tube. The soil samples analyzed were collected at three different depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm). The results obtained allowed qualitative (images) and quantitative (3D) analyses of the soil structure, revealing the potential of the microtomographic technique, as well as the study of differences in soil macroporosity at different depths. Macroporosity was 5.14 % in the 0-10 cm layer, 5.10 % in the 10-20 cm layer, and 6.64 % in the 20-30 cm layer. The macroporosity of unclassified pores (UN) was 0.30 % (0-10 and 10-20 cm) and 0.40 % (20-30 cm), while equant pores (EQ) had values of 0.01 % at the three depths under analysis. (author)

  13. THREE DIMENSIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL MACROPOROSITY BY X-RAY MICROTOMOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Passoni

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the soil pore system represents an important way of characterizing soil structure. Properties such as the shape and number of pores can be determined through soil pore evaluations. This study presents a three-dimensional (3D characterization of the shape and number of pores of a sub-tropical soil. To do so, a second generation X-ray microtomograph equipped with a plain type detector was employed. A voltage of 120 kV and current of 80 mA was applied to the X-ray tube. The soil samples analyzed were collected at three different depths (0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm. The results obtained allowed qualitative (images and quantitative (3D analyses of the soil structure, revealing the potential of the microtomographic technique, as well as the study of differences in soil macroporosity at different depths. Macroporosity was 5.14 % in the 0-10 cm layer, 5.10 % in the 10-20 cm layer, and 6.64 % in the 20-30 cm layer. The macroporosity of unclassified pores (UN was 0.30 % (0-10 and 10-20 cm and 0.40 % (20-30 cm, while equant pores (EQ had values of 0.01 % at the three depths under analysis.

  14. Characterization of field compaction using shrinkage analysis and visual soil examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Alice; Keller, Thomas; Weisskopf, Peter; Schulin, Rainer; Boivin, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    ) With compaction the sigmoidal shape characterizing a well-structured soil disappeared, and (ii) the basic slope became steeper, indicating lower hydrostructural stability. VESS scores were significantly different between compacted and uncompacted soil and strongly correlated with ShA properties. Based on these relationships, we propose a model characterizing the recovery potential of compacted soil structure. The good agreement between visual examinations and ShA indicates that both methods are well suited for the assessment of soil compaction. ShA is more elaborate, but also more precise and has the advantage to provide valuable addi¬tional quantitative information on the state of physical degradation. References Ball, B.C., Batey, T., Munkholm, L.J., 2007. Field assessment of soil structural quality-a development of the Peerlkamp test. Soil Use Manag. 23, 329-337. Braudeau, E., Frangi, J.P., Mohtar, R.H., 2004. Characterizing nonrigid aggregated soil-water medium using its shrinkage curve. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 68, 359-370.

  15. Effects of ivermectin application on the diversity and function of dung and soil fauna: Regulatory and scientific background information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, Nicole; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Bachmann, Jean;

    2016-01-01

    The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process for veteri...... and function of dung and soil organism communities. It also provides a summary of the main findings. Subsequent studies on this issue provide detailed information on different aspects of this overall project.......The application of veterinary medical products to livestock can impact soil organisms in manure-amended fields or adversely affect organisms that colonize dung pats of treated animals and potentially retard the degradation of dung on pastures. For this reason, the authorization process...... for veterinary medicinal products in the European Union includes a requirement for higher-tier tests when adverse effects on dung organisms are observed in single-species toxicity tests. However, no guidance documents for the performance of higher-tier tests are available. Hence, an international research...

  16. Characterization of soils at proposed Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothschild, E.R.; Huff, D.D.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Clapp, R.B.; Lietzke, D.A.; Stansfield, R.G.; Farrow, N.D.; Farmer, C.D.; Munro, I.L.

    1984-12-01

    To supplement other waste disposal operations on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation, the soils at a potential site for shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste have been characterized. Proposed Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 7 is located in Melton Valley, east of the current burial facilities in the valley. Physical, chemical, and hydraulic properties of the soils on the site are documented. The thin veneer of soil on proposed SWSA 7 has been mapped in detail and divided into 11 mappable units. In general, the upland soils are well drained, whereas the soils in the lower parts of the site may be poorly drained. Six soil types that are most likely to be affected by waste disposal operations were studied in detail. The soils examined contain little or no carbonate and exhibit low pH. Laboratory studies were carried out to determine the moisture characteristic functions for the six soil types. The laboratory data were combined with field data to produce functions that are directly accessible by numerical models to be used for site evaluation in the future. A total of eighteen soil and sediment samples were collected for determination of their radionuclide adsorption properties. Radioisotopes of I, Cs, Sr, Co, and Am were studied, and all exhibited high Kd's (greater than 23 L/kg) with the exception of I, which had a consistently lower Kd. The cation exchange capacities of the soils averaged 169 meq/kg. Three soil profiles were examined in detail and the mineralogy of the horizons determined. Generally, the southern half of the site appears to be dominated by vermiculite-rich micaceous minerals, whereas in the northern half of the site, kaolinite and micaceous minerals dominate. A preliminary evaluation of the potential erosion on this hilly site was made. Once the site is grass covered, the erosion will be on the order of 0.4 to 4.5 metric tons ha/sup -1/ year/sup -1/.

  17. Characterization of Martian Soil Fines Fraction in SNC Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. N.; McKay, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    Some impact-melt glasses in shergottite meteorites contain large abundances of martian atmospheric noble gases with high (129)Xe/(132)Xe ratios, accompanied by varying (87)Sr/(86)Sr (initial) ratios. These glasses contain Martian Soil Fines (MSF) probably from young volcanic terrains such as Tharsis or Elysium Mons. The composition of the MSF bearing samples is different from the average bulk composition of the host rock. These samples show the following charecteristics: a) simultaeneous enrichment of the felsic component and depletion of the mafic component relative to the host phase and b) significant secondary sulfur/sulfate excesses over the host material. The degree of enrichment and associated depletion varies from one sample to another. Earlier, we found large enrichments of felsic (Al, Ca, Na and K) component and depletion of mafic (Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti) component in several impact melt glass veins and pods of samples ,77 ,78 , 18, and ,20A in EET79001 accompanied by large sulfur/sulfate excesses. Based on these results, we proposed a model where the comminution of basaltic rocks takes place by meteoroid bombardment on the martian surface, leading to the generation of fine-grained soil near the impact sites. This fine-grained soil material is subsequently mobilized by saltation and deflation processes on Mars surface due to pervasive aeolian activity. This movement results in mechanical fractionation leading to the felsic enrichment and mafic depletion in the martian dust. We report, here, new data on an impact-melt inclusion ,507 (PAPA) from EET79001, Lith B and ,506 (ALPHA) from EET79001, Lith A and compare the results with those obtained on Shergotty impact melt glass (DBS).

  18. Chemical and microbiological characterization of an aged PCB-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, T; Covino, S; Burianová, E; Filipová, A; Křesinová, Z; Voříšková, J; Větrovský, T; Baldrian, P; Cajthaml, T

    2015-11-15

    This study was aimed at complex characterization of three soil samples (bulk soil, topsoil and rhizosphere soil) from a site historically contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The bulk soil was the most highly contaminated, with a PCB concentration of 705.95 mg kg(-1), while the rhizosphere soil was the least contaminated (169.36 mg kg(-1)). PCB degradation intermediates, namely chlorobenzoic acids (CBAs), were detected in all the soil samples, suggesting the occurrence of microbial transformation processes over time. The higher content of organic carbon in the topsoil and rhizosphere soil than in the bulk soil could be linked to the reduced bioaccessibility (bioavailability) of these chlorinated pollutants. However, different proportions of the PCB congener contents and different bioaccessibility of the PCB homologues indicate microbial biotransformation of the compounds. The higher content of organic carbon probably also promoted the growth of microorganisms, as revealed by phospholipid fatty acid (PFLA) quantification. Tag-encoded pyrosequencing analysis showed that the bacterial community structure was significantly similar among the three soils and was predominated by Proteobacteria (44-48%) in all cases. Moreover, analysis at lower taxonomic levels pointed to the presence of genera (Sphingomonas, Bulkholderia, Arthrobacter, Bacillus) including members with reported PCB removal abilities. The fungal community was mostly represented by Basidiomycota and Ascomycota, which accounted for >80% of all the sequences detected in the three soils. Fungal taxa with biodegradation potential (Paxillus, Cryptococcus, Phoma, Mortierella) were also found. These results highlight the potential of the indigenous consortia present at the site as a starting point for PCB bioremediation processes.

  19. Characterization Investigation Study: Volume 3, Radiological survey of surface soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solow, A.J.; Phoenix, D.R.

    1987-12-01

    The Feed Materials Production Center was constructed to produce high purity uranium metal for use at various Department of Energy facilities. The waste products from these operations include general uncontaminated scrap and refuse, contaminated and uncontaminated metal scrap, waste oils, low-level radioactive waste, co-contaminated wastes, mixed waste, toxic waste, sludges from water treatment, and fly ash from the steam plant. This material is estimated to total more than 350,000 cubic meters. Other wastes stored in this area include laboratory chemicals and other combustible materials in the burn pit; fine waste stream sediments in the clear well; fly ash and waste oils in the two fly ash areas; lime-alum sludges and boiler plant blowdown in the lime sludge ponds; and nonradioactive sanitary waste, construction rubble, and asbestos in the sanitary landfill. A systematic survey of the surface soils throughout the Waste Storage Area, associated on-site drainages, and the fly ash piles was conducted using a Field Instrument for Detecting Low-Energy Radiation (FIDLER). Uranium is the most prevalent radioactive element in surface soil; U-238 is the principal radionuclide, ranging from 2.2 to 1790 pCi/g in the general Waste Storage Area. The maximum values for the next highest activity concentrations in the same area were 972 pCi/g for Th-230 and 298 pCi/g for U-234. Elevated activity concentrations of Th-230 were found along the K-65 slurry line, the maximum at 3010 pCi/g. U-238 had the highest value of 761 pCi/g in the drainage just south of pit no. 5. The upper fly ash area had the highest radionuclide activity concentrations in the surface soils with the maximum values for U-238 at 8600 pCi/g, U-235 at 2190 pCi/g, U-234 at 11,400 pCi/g, Tc-99 at 594 pCi/g, Ra-226 at 279 pCi/g, and Th-230 at 164 pCi/g.

  20. Field corrosion characterization of soil corrosion of X70 pipeline steel in a red clay soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengrong Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behavior of X70 pipeline steel buried in red soil environment has been studied. The surface morphology and elemental distribution were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM,energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The corrosion kinetics was evaluated by weight loss measurement. The results show that in red soil, the corrosion rate of X70 steel decreases with time, and follows the exponential decay law. General corrosion with non-uniform and localized pitting occurred on the steel surface. α-FeOOH was the dominate products during corrosion in whole buried periods, and the corrosion products exhibited well protective properties. The potentiodynamic polarization tests revealed that icorr decreased with time, indicating the improvement of corrosion resistance. The results of Electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS are consistent with potentiodynamic polarization tests.

  1. Field corrosion characterization of soil corrosion of X70 pipeline steel in a red clay soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shengrong Wang; Cuiwei Dun; Xiaogang Li; Zhiyong Liunn; Min Zhu; Dawei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of X70 pipeline steel buried in red soil environment has been studied. The surface morphology and elemental distribution were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The corrosion kinetics was evaluated by weight loss measurement. The results show that in red soil, the corrosion rate of X70 steel decreases with time, and follows the exponential decay law. General corrosion with non-uniform and localized pitting occurred on the steel surface.α-FeOOH was the dominate products during corrosion in whole buried periods, and the corrosion products exhibited well protective properties. The potentiodynamic polarization tests revealed that icorr decreased with time, indicating the improvement of corrosion resistance. The results of Electrochemical impendence spectroscopy (EIS) are consistent with potentiodynamic polarization tests.

  2. Methodological requirements on the spatial representativeness of heavy metal background values in top-soils; Methodische Anforderungen an die Flaechenrepraesentanz von Hintergrundwerten in Oberboeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utermann, J.; Duewel, O.; Fuchs, M.; Gaebler, H.E. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Gehrt, E.; Hindel, R.; Schneider, J. [Niedersaechsisches Landesamt fuer Bodenforschung, Hannover (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Country-wide application of site-specific soil data for derivation and spatial transfer of inherent background values requires that the sampled sites are adequately representative with regards to soil substrate and land use. An approach to determine the pedo-regional representativeness is pursued which bases on site-specific soil data and spatial information. Site-specific soil data have been put together from different sources (soil data from federal institutions and institutions of the federal states (Bundeslaender)) taking into account aspects of data harmonization and minimum requirements. In order to harmonize data from different sources a comparison of real total versus aqua regia soluble contents is presented based on linear regression modeling. Spatial informations are given by a developed small-scale (1:1.000.000) digital map of soil parent materials (MPM 1000) and additional informations about the dominant and concomitant soil textures. Concerning the principle land use as a second spatial information, a map of land use cover has been compiled on a scale of 1:1.000.000 (LUC 1000) based on the CORINE landcover. Based on the site-specific data that are presently country-wide available heavy metal background values in topsoils can be estimated for 67% of the area of the Federal Republic if pedo-regional and land use related representativeness is taken into account. The presented algorithm has been examplary applicated on Lower Saxony as one of the federal states. Based on similar criteria, for about 47% on the area of Lower Saxony heavy metal background values in topsoils can be estimated with profile informations given by the Lower Saxony Soil Information System (NIBIS). (orig.) [German] Die Berechnung von laenderuebergreifenden Hintergrundwerten anorganischer Spurenstoffe in Oberboeden und ihre flaechenhafte Darstellung setzt eine massstabsabhaengig hinreichende Repraesentanz unter Substrat- und Nutzungsaspekten voraus. Hierzu wird ein pragmatischer Ansatz

  3. ISRU Soil Mechanics Vacuum Facility: Soil Bin Preparation and Simulant Strength Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Wilkinson, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Testing in relevant environments is key to exploration mission hardware development. This is true on both the component level (in early development) and system level (in late development stages). During ISRU missions the hardware will interface with the soil (digging, roving, etc) in a vacuum environment. A relevant test environment will therefore involve a vacuum chamber with a controlled, conditioned simulant bed. However, in earth-based granular media, such as lunar soil simulant, gases trapped within the material pore structures and water adsorbed to all particle surfaces will release when exposed to vacuum. Early vacuum testing has shown that this gas release can occur violently, which loosens and weakens the simulant, altering the consolidation state. The Vacuum Facility #13, a mid-size chamber (3.66m tall, 1.5m inner diameter) at the NASA Glenn Research Center has been modified to create a soil mechanics test facility. A 0.64m deep by 0.914m square metric ton bed of lunar simulant was placed under vacuum using a variety of pumping techniques. Both GRC-3 and LHT-3M simulant types have been used. An electric cone penetrometer was used to measure simulant strength properties at vacuum including: cohesion, friction angle, bulk density and shear modulus. Simulant disruptions, caused by off gassing, affected the strength properties, but could be mitigated by reducing pump rate. No disruptions were observed at pressures below 2.5Torr, regardless of the pump rate. However, slow off gassing of the soil lead to long test times, a full week, to reach 10-5Torr. This work highlights the need for robotic machine-simulant hardware and operations in vacuum to expeditiously perform (sub-)systems tests.

  4. Characterization of MASDs of surface soils in north China and its influence on estimating dust emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Fanmin; ZHANG Xiaoye; LU Huayu; SHEN Zhenxing; WANG Yaqiang

    2004-01-01

    The micro-aggregated size distribution (MASD) of surface soil is an important parameter for modelling dust emission. However,there is no dataset of MASDs of all surface soil types in north China.The MASDs are here presented,measured by dry sieving,for typical surface soil samples,including sandy soil,gravelly sand soil,gravelly loam soil,loam soil and silt loam soil,collected from sandy deserts,Gobi deserts,oases,farmlands in steppe regions and steppe areas in north China.The MASDs of various surface soil types exhibit a combination of several log-normal distributions of five separated sizes with mean mass median diameters (MMDs) of 90,210,390,600 and 980 цm,respectively,and mean standard deviations (SDs) of 1.25,1.40,1.25,1.35 and 1.25 respectively. The log-normal distributions correspond to very fine sand,fine sand,medium sand,coarse sand and very coarse sand population.On the basis of characterization of the retrieved MASDs of various surface soil types in north China,dust emission fluxes are modelled by a dust production model (DPM model).It is shown that dust emission has been significantly influenced by MASDs.Fine sand and very fine sand are always associated with the highest dust emission fluxes. Emission fluxes of the medium sand, gravelly sand soil,gravelly loam soil and loam soil are lower than those of very fine sand and fine sand,but larger than those of the coarse sand.The differences in dust emission fluxes vary among the different soil types from 101 to 103 цg·m-2·s-1.Dust emission fluxes from sandy deserts and farmlands covered with sand sheets in north China rang from 101 to 104 цg·m-2·s-1 while those from Gobi deserts,farmlands and steppes with gravelly desertification range from 101 to 102 цg·m-2· s-1.The modelled results indicate that deserts and farmlands with sand are the major dust sources in north China.

  5. Characterization of Models for Time-Dependent Behavior of Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liingaard, Morten; Augustesen, Anders; Lade, Poul V.

    2004-01-01

    . Special attention is paid to elastoviscoplastic models that combine inviscid elastic and time-dependent plastic behavior. Various general elastoviscoplastic models can roughly be divided into two categories: Models based on the concept of overstress and models based on nonstationary flow surface theory......  Different classes of constitutive models have been developed to capture the time-dependent viscous phenomena ~ creep, stress relaxation, and rate effects ! observed in soils. Models based on empirical, rheological, and general stress-strain-time concepts have been studied. The first part...... is a review of the empirical relations, which apply only to problems of specific boundary conditions and frequently involve natural time alone. The second part deals with different rheological models used for describing the viscous effects in the field of solid mechanics. The rheological models are typically...

  6. Advanced Characterization of Soil Organic Matter Using Ultra High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, M. M.; Chu, R.; Tolic, N.; Roscioli, K.; Robinson, E. R.; Paša-Tolić, L.; Hess, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    The focus on ecosystem stress and climate change is currently relevant as researchers and policymakers strive to understand the feedbacks between soil C dynamics and climate change. Successful development of molecular profiles that link soil microbiology with soil carbon (C) to ascertain soil vulnerability and resilience to climate change would have great impact on assessments of soil ecosystems in response to climate change. Additionally, better understanding of the dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) plays a central role to climate modeling, and fate and transport of carbon. The use of ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHR MS) has enabled the examination of molecules, directly from mixtures, with ultrahigh mass resolution and sub-ppm mass accuracy. In this study, EMSL's extensive expertise and capabilities in UHR MS proteomics were leveraged to develop extraction protocols for the characterization of carbon compounds in SOM, thereby providing the chemical and structural detail needed to develop mechanistic descriptions of soil carbon flow processes. Our experiments have allowed us to identify thousands of individual compounds in complex soil mixtures with a wide range of C content representing diverse ecosystems within the USA. The yield of the chemical extraction was dependent on (1) the type of solvent used and its polarity, (2) sample-to-solvent ratios and (3) the chemical and physical nature of the samples including their origins. Hexane, a non-polar organic solvent, was efficient in extracting lipid-like compounds regardless of soil origin or organic carbon %. For samples with high organic carbon %, acetonitrile extracted a wide range of compounds characterized with high O/C ratios, identified as polyphenolic compounds that were not observed with methanol extraction. Soils extracted with pyridine showed a similar molecular distribution to those extracted by methanol. Solvent extraction followed by UHR MS is a promising tool to understand the

  7. Survey of Gamma Dose and Radon Exhalation Rate from Soil Surface of High Background Natural Radiation Areas in Ramsar, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouhollah Dehghani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radon is a radioactive gas and the second leading cause of death due to lung cancer after smoking. Ramsar is known for having the highest levels of natural background radiation on earth. Materials and Methods: In this research study, 50 stations of high radioactivity areas of Ramsar were selected in warm season of the year. Then gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were measured.Results: Results showed that gamma dose and radon exhalation rate were in the range of 51-7100 nSv/hr and 9-15370 mBq/m2s, respectively.Conclusion: Compare to the worldwide average 16 mBq/m2s, estimated average annual effective of Radon exhalation rate in the study area is too high.

  8. Chemical characterization of iron-mediated soil organic matter stabilization in tropical subsoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, E.; Plante, A. F.; Thompson, A.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forest soils contribute disproportionately to the poorly-characterized and persistent deep soil carbon (C) pool. Highly-weathered and often extending one to two meters deep, these soils also contain an abundance of semicrystalline, Fe- and Al-containing short-range-order (SRO) minerals, metastable derivatives of framework silicate and ferromagnesian parent materials. SRO minerals are capable of soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization through sorption or co-precipitation, a faculty enhanced by their high specific surface area (SSA). As such, SRO-mediated organomineral associations may prove a critical, yet matrix-selective, driver of SOM stabilization capacity in tropical soils, particularly at depth. Surface (0-20 cm) and subsoil (50-80 cm) samples were taken from 20 quantitative soil pits dug in the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory, located in northeast Puerto Rico. Soils were stratified across granodiorite and volcaniclastic parent materials, spanning primary mineral contents of 5 to 40%. Selective dissolution procedures were used to isolate distinct forms of Fe-C interactions: (1) sodium pyrophosphate to isolate organo-mineral complexes, (2) hydroxylamine and (3) oxalate to isolate SRO phases, and (4) inorganic dithionite to isolate crystalline Fe oxides. Extracts were analysed for dissolved organic C (DOC) and Fe and Al concentrations to estimate SOM associated with each mineral phase. Soils were also subjected to SSA analysis, 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction before and after extraction to determine the contribution of extracted mineral phases to SOM stabilization capacity. Preliminary results indicate a dominance of secondary (hydr)oxides and kaolin minerals in surface soils, strongly driven by parent material. With depth, however, we observe a marked shift towards SRO mineral phases across both parent materials, suggesting that SRO-mediated organomineral associations are significant contributors to observed C storage in tropical

  9. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF TX-TY TANK FARMS AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH GROUND PENETRATING RADAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS DA; CUBBAGE R; BRAUCHLA R; O' BRIEN G

    2008-07-24

    Ground penetrating radar surveys of the TX and TY tank farms were performed to identify existing infrastructure in the near surface environment. These surveys were designed to provide background information supporting Surface-to-Surface and Well-to-Well resistivity surveys of Waste Management Area TX-TY. The objective of the preliminary investigation was to collect background characterization information with GPR to understand the spatial distribution of metallic objects that could potentially interfere with the results from high resolution resistivity{trademark} surveys. The results of the background characterization confirm the existence of documented infrastructure, as well as highlight locations of possible additional undocumented subsurface metallic objects.

  10. Isolation and characterization of bacteria and yeasts from contaminated soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karličić Vera M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting (PGP bacteria and yeasts play an important role in bioremediation processes. Thirty bacterial and ten yeast isolates were obtained from PAH and PCB contaminated soil with an aim of determining the presence of PGP mechanisms (production of ammonia, indoleacetic acid, siderophores and solubilization of inorganic phosphate. As a result, three bacterial (Serratia liquefaciens, Micrococcus sp. and Serratia sp. and two yeast isolates (Candida utilis and Candida tropicalis were recognized as PGP strains. Among them, Serratia sp. showed the highest indole production (25.5 μg/ml. Analyses of metal tolerance (Cu+2, Cr+6 and Ni+2 revealed that Serratia liquefaciens, Micrococcus sp., Serratia sp. and Candida tropicalis were capable to tolerate significant concentration of metals. As a result of this study several bacterial and yeast strains were attributed as potential plant growth promoters which can be applied in future remediation activities and environmental quality improvements. [Projekat ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31080 i FP-7 project AREA (316004

  11. Ultrasonic and sensory characterization of dry-cured ham fat from Iberian pigs with different genetics and feeding backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niñoles, L; Sanjuan, N; Ventanas, S; Benedito, J

    2008-11-01

    The textural and ultrasonic properties of the subcutaneous fat from five batches of dry-cured hams from animals with different genetics (Iberian, Iberian×Duroc) and type of feeding ("montanera", concentrate feeds with different oleic acid content) were studied and related to the sensory traits (oiliness and brightness) of their biceps femoris muscle. The different genetics and feeding backgrounds found in the batches brought about differences in their ultrasonic velocities (average velocity from 4 to 20°C ranged from 1608 to 1650m/s) and textural parameters (maximum force at 8°C ranged from 11 to 21N). On average, batches with lower textural parameters had lower velocities and higher sensory scores. Ultrasonic measurements were used to carry out a discriminant analysis which allowed 78.3% of the samples to be correctly classified in the batches considered. Therefore, ultrasonic and sensory techniques could be useful in the characterization and differentiation of dry-cured hams from Iberian pigs.

  12. High Resolution Imaging Spectroscopy for Characterizing Soil Properties over Large Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, D.; Kumar, P.

    2014-12-01

    Quantitative mapping of high resolution surface soil texture (percentage sand, silt and clay), soil organic matter and chemical constituents are important for understanding infiltration, runoff and other surficial hydrologic processes at different scales. The Visible Near Infrared Analysis (VNIRA) method, which is a combination of imaging spectroscopy and laboratory chemical analysis with an underlying statistical model, has been established for the quantification of soil properties from imaging spectrometer data. In this study we characterize the feasibility of quantifying soil properties over large areas with the aim that these methods may be extended to space-borne sensors such as HyspIRI. Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is a space-borne NASA mission concept having 10nm contiguous bands in the VSWIR region (380nm to 2500nm) of the electromagnetic spectra. High resolution (7.6m) Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected by NASA immediately after the massive 2011 Mississippi River floods at the Birds Point New Madrid (BPNM) floodway, coupled with in situ samples obtained at the time of the flight, is used to generate HyspIRI like data at 60m resolution. The VNIRA method is applied in a data-mining framework for quantification of the different soil textural properties and chemical constituents. The empirical models are further used for creating quantitative maps of the soil properties for the entire BPNM floodway. These maps are compared with the fine resolution AVIRIS maps of the same area for the different legacy landscape features and spatial correlations with the underlying topography immediately disturbed by the flooding event. The scales of variation in the soil constituents captured by the fine resolution data are also compared to the scales of variation captured by coarser resolution data. This study further explores the issues of applicability, challenges (such as the sensitivity of NDVI from mixed neighborhood pixels

  13. Incorporation of satellite remote sensing pan-sharpened imagery into digital soil prediction and mapping models to characterize soil property variability in small agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiming; Smith, Scot E.; Grunwald, Sabine; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Wani, Suhas P.

    2017-01-01

    Soil prediction models based on spectral indices from some multispectral images are too coarse to characterize spatial pattern of soil properties in small and heterogeneous agricultural lands. Image pan-sharpening has seldom been utilized in Digital Soil Mapping research before. This research aimed to analyze the effects of pan-sharpened (PAN) remote sensing spectral indices on soil prediction models in smallholder farm settings. This research fused the panchromatic band and multispectral (MS) bands of WorldView-2, GeoEye-1, and Landsat 8 images in a village in Southern India by Brovey, Gram-Schmidt and Intensity-Hue-Saturation methods. Random Forest was utilized to develop soil total nitrogen (TN) and soil exchangeable potassium (Kex) prediction models by incorporating multiple spectral indices from the PAN and MS images. Overall, our results showed that PAN remote sensing spectral indices have similar spectral characteristics with soil TN and Kex as MS remote sensing spectral indices. There is no soil prediction model incorporating the specific type of pan-sharpened spectral indices always had the strongest prediction capability of soil TN and Kex. The incorporation of pan-sharpened remote sensing spectral data not only increased the spatial resolution of the soil prediction maps, but also enhanced the prediction accuracy of soil prediction models. Small farms with limited footprint, fragmented ownership and diverse crop cycle should benefit greatly from the pan-sharpened high spatial resolution imagery for soil property mapping. Our results show that multiple high and medium resolution images can be used to map soil properties suggesting the possibility of an improvement in the maps' update frequency. Additionally, the results should benefit the large agricultural community through the reduction of routine soil sampling cost and improved prediction accuracy.

  14. Characterization of a halotolerant-psychroloterant bacterium from dry valley Antarctic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K J; Leschine, S B; Huguenin, R L

    1983-01-01

    The saline soils of the ice free dry valleys of Victoria Land, Antarctica may provide the closest analog on Earth to Martian conditions. We have initiated a study aimed at examining microbial adaptations to the harsh environment of these dry valley soils. In this report we describe the characterization of one bacterium, strain A4a, isolated from Taylor Valley soil. Strain A4a was an obligately aerobic, orange-pigmented, Gram-positive coccus that grew over wide ranges of both temperature (0 degrees C-40 degrees C) and sodium chloride concentration (0-2.0M). The optimal temperature for growth at all NaCl concentrations was 25 degrees C. Phospholipid composition and guanine plus cytosine content of the DNA of the isolate indicate a close relation to the genus Planococcus.

  15. Characterization and nutrient release from silicate rocks and influence on chemical changes in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ramos Guelfi Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of Brazilian agriculture has led to a heavy dependence on imported fertilizers to ensure the supply of the growing food demand. This fact has contributed to a growing interest in alternative nutrient sources, such as ground silicate rocks. It is necessary, however, to know the potential of nutrient release and changes these materials can cause in soils. The purpose of this study was to characterize six silicate rocks and evaluate their effects on the chemical properties of treated soil, assessed by chemical extractants after greenhouse incubation. The experimental design consisted of completely randomized plots, in a 3 x 6 factorial scheme, with four replications. The factors were potassium levels (0-control: without silicate rock application; 200; 400; 600 kg ha-1 of K2O, supplied as six silicate rock types (breccia, biotite schist, ultramafic rock, phlogopite schist and two types of mining waste. The chemical, physical and mineralogical properties of the alternative rock fertilizers were characterized. Treatments were applied to a dystrophic Red-Yellow Oxisol (Ferralsol, which was incubated for 100 days, at 70 % (w/w moisture in 3.7 kg/pots. The soil was evaluated for pH; calcium and magnesium were extracted with KCl 1 mol L-1; potassium, phosphorus and sodium by Mehlich 1; nickel, copper and zinc with DTPA; and the saturation of the cation exchange capacity was calculated for aluminum, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium, and overall base saturation. The alternative fertilizers affected soil chemical properties. Ultramafic rock and Chapada mining byproduct (CMB were the silicate rocks that most influenced soil pH, while the mining byproduct (MB led to high K levels. Zinc availability was highest in the treatments with mining byproduct and Cu in soil fertilized with Chapada and mining byproduct.

  16. Characterization of bacterial communities and functions of two submerged soils from San Vitale park (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Chiellini, Carolina; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Ferronato, Chiara; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Vianello, Gilmo

    2015-04-01

    Subaqueous soils has been introduced in the last edition of the Keys to Soil Taxonomy (Soil surveystaff, 2014), to describe soils covered by a water column of up to 2.5 m where different pedogenetic processes can be recognized. However, the role of bacterial community structure and function in such environments and its potential use as pedogenetic indicator is still largely unknown. Two submerged soils (WAS-2 and WAS-4) were collected from San Vitale park (Italy), a site where the evolution of the landscape from subaqueous wetland to interdunal and dunal system, and the interfacing of freshwater with saltwater, made this site particularly suitable for examining the pedogenetic indicators which can characterize and predict the soil hydromorphism in trasitional ecosystems. The two soils were classified and their physicochemical and morphological features were investigated. Selective media were used to isolate both culturable aerobic and anaerobic (microaerophilic) bacteria associated with each horizon. In WAS-2 seven horizons were identified (depths 4-0, 0-6, 6-13, 13-20, 20-36, 36-59/60, and 59/60-83 cm) while in WAS-4, five horizons were identified (depths 0-14, 14-20, 20-40, 40-45, 45-100 cm) for a total of 12 horizons (samples). For each sample, aerobic bacterial plate count was performed on solid LB medium, coupled with microaerophilic bacterial plate count either on SA500 minimal medium and AYE medium (0.5% soft agar each). Molecular identification (16S rRNA gene sequencing) of ~100 strains isolated from each of the three used medium was performed, for a total of ~300 strains for each sample. To complete the characterization of the microbial communities in all horizons, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis was carried out with 454 platform on each of the 12 samples. Moreover, the N2O and CH4 emissions were determined from each pedon. All the parameters were used to highlight the similarities and the differences between and within the pedons. The results

  17. Application of DRIFTS, (13)C NMR, and py-MBMS to Characterize the Effects of Soil Science Oxidation Assays on Soil Organic Matter Composition in a Mollic Xerofluvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margenot, Andrew J; Calderón, Francisco J; Magrini, Kimberly A; Evans, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Chemical oxidations are routinely employed in soil science to study soil organic matter (SOM), and their interpretation could be improved by characterizing oxidation effects on SOM composition with spectroscopy. We investigated the effects of routinely employed oxidants on SOM composition in a Mollic Xerofluvent representative of intensively managed agricultural soils in the California Central Valley. Soil samples were subjected to oxidation by potassium permanganate (KMnO4), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Additionally, non-oxidized and oxidized soils were treated with hydrofluoric acid (HF) to evaluate reduction of the mineral component to improve spectroscopy of oxidation effects. Oxidized non-HF and HF-treated soils were characterized by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS), (13)C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS), and for particle size distribution (PSD) using laser diffractometry (LD). Across the range of soil organic carbon (OC) removed by oxidations (14-72%), aliphatic C-H stretch at 3000-2800 cm(-1) (DRIFTS) decreased with OC removal, and this trend was enhanced by HF treatment due to significant demineralization in this soil (70%). Analysis by NMR spectroscopy was feasible only after HF treatment, and did not reveal trends between OC removal and C functional groups. Pyrolysis-MBMS did not detect differences among oxidations, even after HF treatment of soils. Hydrofluoric acid entailed OC loss (13-39%), and for H2O2 oxidized soils increased C:N and substantially decreased mean particle size. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using HF to improve characterizations of SOM composition following oxidations as practiced in soil science, in particular for DRIFTS. Since OC removal by oxidants, mineral removal by HF, and the interaction of oxidants and HF observed for this soil

  18. Forty years of 90Sr in situ migration: importance of soil characterization in modeling transport phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, J M; Piault, E; Macouillard, D; Juncos, C

    2006-01-01

    In 1960 experiments were carried out on the transfer of (90)Sr between soil, grapes and wine. The experiments were conducted in situ on a piece of land limited by two control strips. The (90)Sr migration over the last 40 years was studied by performing radiological and physico-chemical characterizations of the soil on eight 70 cm deep cores. The vertical migration modeling of (90)Sr required the definition of a triple layer conceptual model integrating the rainwater infiltration at constant flux as the only external factor of influence. Afterwards the importance of a detailed soil characterization for modeling was discussed and satisfactory simulation of the (90)Sr vertical transport was obtained and showed a calculated migration rate of about 1.0 cm year(-1) in full agreement with the in situ measured values. The discussion was regarding some of the key parameters such as granulometry, organic matter content (in the Van Genuchten parameter determination), Kd and the efficient rainwater infiltration. Besides the experimental data, simplifying assumptions in modeling such as water-soil redistribution calculation and factual discontinuities in conceptual model were examined.

  19. Study of the Matrix Effect on the Plasma Characterization of Heavy Elements in Soil Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to perform a study of the matrix effect on the plasma characterization of soil sediment targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. The plasma emission spectrum was detected using a portable Echelle spectrometer (Mechelle 7500 — Multichannel Instruments, Stockholm, Sweden with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, and electron temperature. Four heavy elements V, Pb, Mn and Co were determined in the obtained spectra. The LTE and optically thin plasma conditions were verified for the produced plasma. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of the spectral lines of the heavy elements in the soil sediments. The electron temperature does not change with concentration. For environmental applications, the obtained results showed the capability of the proposed LIBS setup with the portable Mechelle 7500 spectrometer to be applied in-situ for real-time measurements of the variation of the matrix elemental composition of soil sediments by following up only a single element as a marker for the composition of the soil sediment without need of analysis of the other elements.

  20. Impact assessment of intermediate soil cover on landfill stabilization by characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Rui; Shi, Xiaochong; He, Liang; Guo, Jingting; Miao, Haomei; Nie, Yongfeng

    2013-10-15

    Waste samples at different depths of a covered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Beijing, China, were excavated and characterized to investigate the impact of intermediate soil cover on waste stabilization. A comparatively high amount of unstable organic matter with 83.3 g kg(-1) dry weight (dw) total organic carbon was detected in the 6-year-old MSW, where toxic inorganic elements containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of 10.1, 0.98, 85.49, 259.7, 530.4, 30.5, 84.0, and 981.7 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively, largely accumulated because of the barrier effect of intermediate soil cover. This accumulation resulted in decreased microbial activities. The intermediate soil cover also caused significant reduction in moisture in MSW under the soil layer, which was as low as 25.9%, and led to inefficient biodegradation of 8- and 10-year-old MSW. Therefore, intermediate soil cover with low permeability seems to act as a barrier that divides a landfill into two landfill cells with different degradation processes by restraining water flow and hazardous matter.

  1. Characterization and pedogenesis of mangrove soils from Ilhéus-BA, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Haenel Gomes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite its importance, studies of mangrove soils are scarce, especially from a pedological perspective. The objective of this work was to study the genesis of soils in a mangrove environment in northeastern Brazil (Ilhéus, Bahia through a morphological, physical, chemical and mineralogical characterization. All soils presented a sandy texture, which is related to the parent material (Quaternary sand deposits. The tidal flooding and resulting hydromorphic conditions is responsible for dominance of dark grey colors, and high organic matter contents (paludization process. As well as the high values of electrical conductivity (EC and dominance of Na+ in the saturation extract (salinization and solodization processes, respectively. Contrastingly, the M3 profile, with aninga (Montrichardia linifera vegetation, a non-exclusive mangrove plant, showed colors with high chromas due to a lesser influence of tidal flooding. The pH values and the SO4=/Cl- ratios indicated the presence of sulfidic material and, thus, the occurrence of the sulfidization process. The soil organic matter fractionation evidenced the humin as the fraction with the highest content, probably because of removal of most soluble fractions due to tidal action. Similar to mangrove soils from southeast Brazil, the XRD analysis identified kaolinite, mica and expandable 2:1 minerals in the clay fraction.

  2. Reflectance spectral characterization and mineralogy of acid sulphate soil in subsurface using hyperspectral data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Zhong SHI; Mehrooz ASPANDIAR; David OLDMEADOW

    2014-01-01

    Acid sulphate soil (ASS) is a kind of soil which is harmful to the environment. ASS is hard to efficiently assess efficiently in the subsurface, although it is detectable on the surface by remote sensing. This paper aims to explore a new way to rapidly assess ASS in the subsurface by introducing a proximal hyperspectral instrument, namely the HyloggerTM system which can rapidly scan soil cores and provide high resolution hyperspectral data. Some minerals in ASS, which usually act as indicators of the severity of ASS, such as iron oxides, hydroxides, and sulphates, as well as some clay minerals, such as kaolinite, have diagnostic spectral absorption features in the reflectance spectral range (400-2500 nm). Soil cores were collected from a study area and hyperspectral data were acquired by HyloggerTM scanning. The main minerals related to ASS were characterized spectrally, and were subsequently identified and mapped in the soil cores based on their reflectance spectral characteristics. Traditional X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were also applied to verify the results of the mineral identification. The main results of this study include the spectral characterisation of ASS and its main compositional minerals, as well as the distribution of these relevant minerals in different depth of cores.

  3. Isolation and characterization of soil Streptomyces species as potential biological control agents against fungal plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista-Martínez, Zahaed

    2014-05-01

    The use of antagonist microorganisms against fungal plant pathogens is an attractive and ecologically alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Streptomyces are beneficial soil bacteria and potential candidates for biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization and antagonist activity of soil streptomycetes from the Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve, a Natural protected area in Campeche, Mexico. The results showed morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization of six actinomycetes and their inhibitory activity against Curvularia sp., Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp. and Fusarium sp. One isolate, identified as Streptomyces sp. CACIS-1.16CA showed the potential to inhibit additional pathogens as Alternaria sp., Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum sp. and Rhizoctonia sp. with percentages ranging from 47 to 90 %. This study identified a streptomycete strain with a broad antagonist activity that could be used for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi.

  4. CHARACTERIZING THE SOIL FOR IMPROVED NUTRIENT MANAGEMENT IN SELECTED MAIZE GROWING AREAS OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad I. Fauzi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The demand for maize, the second most important food crop in Indonesia, is steadily increasing. Knowledge of soil properties is a key element in developing nutrient management system. The aims of this study were to characterize and classify the soils at the family level of Soil Taxonomy and linking the taxa with nutrient management systems. The study was conducted at the Site Specific Nutrient Management (SSNM for maize in Indonesia from June to October 2005. Eight soil profiles were taken from Karo (North Sumatra, Sidomulyo (Lampung, Wonogiri and Grobogan (Central Java, Wonokerto, Mojoayu, and Tuban (East Java, and Jeneponto (South Sulawesi. The soil samples were analyzed for their physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics. Soil profile description followed the Standard Guidelines of the Food and Agriculture Organiza-tion. Results showed that the sites for the SSNM represented a wide range of soils and climate characteristics from Entisols with 1,050 mm annual rainfall in Jeneponto to Oxisols with 2,200 mm annual rainfall in Lampung. Most soils had a fine texture class (clay and clay loam, but in places like Lampung and Wonogiri, the clay had a low activity leading to a low cation exchange capacity (CEC and low exchangeable cations, especially K. The relatively high-K status soils were found in Karo, Grobogan, and Tuban sites. Organic matter and, in consequence, total N were relatively low for all SSNM sites. Available P status ranged from low to high. The low available P in Grobogan, Wonokerto, and Mojoayu soils seemed to be related to high pH, while in Lampung it was due to low pH. Exchangeable Ca and Mg were high in Grobogan, Mojoayu, Karo, and Tuban due to the presence of weatherable minerals such as hypersthene, augite, and hornblende. In general, this study suggests that organic matter, N, and P will be needed across the sites. K addition will be necessary for Karo, Lampung and Wonogiri, while in other SSNM areas, maintenance

  5. Evaluation and characterization of thyroid-disrupting activities in soil samples along the Second Songhua River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dongdong; Wang, Yafei; Wang, Jinsheng; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Na; Li, Jian

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a recombinant thyroid receptor (TR) gene yeast assay combined with Monte Carlo simulation were used to evaluate and characterize soil samples collected from Jilin (China) along the Second Songhua River, for their ant/agonist effect on TR. No TR agonistic activity was found in soils, but many soil samples exhibited TR antagonistic activities, and the bioassay-derived amiodarone hydrochloride equivalents, which was calculated based on Monte Carlo simulation, ranged from not detected (N.D.) to 35.5μg/g. Hydrophilic substance fractions were determined to be the contributors to TR antagonistic activity in these soil samples. Our results indicate that the novel calculation method is effective for the quantification and characterization of TR antagonists in soil samples, and these data could provide useful information for future management and remediation efforts for contaminated soils.

  6. Isolation, Characterization and Identification of Thiram-degrading Microorganisms from Soil Enrichment Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    ŞAHİN, Nurettin

    2000-01-01

    Mixed microbial cultures were obtained by enrichment from soil samples collected from the Gediz basin. A number of species of bacteria and fungi were isolated and partially characterized from enrichment clutures containing the fungicide thiram. According to their responses in morphological and biochemical tests fungi were identified as Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and Penicilium steckii. Bacterial isolates were assigned to the genera: Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Moraxella-like Acinetobacter a...

  7. Spatial and Temporal Characterization of Femtosecond Pulses at High-Numerical Aperture Using Collinear, Background-Free, Third-Harmonic Autocorrelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fittinghoff, D N; der Au, J A; Squier, J A

    2004-08-09

    We show that a simple plane wave analysis can be used even under tight focusing conditions to predict the dependence of third-harmonic generation on the polarization state of the incident beam. Exploiting this fact, we then show that circularly polarized beams may be used to spatially characterize the beam focus and temporally characterize ultrashort pulses in high numerical aperture systems by experimentally demonstrating, for the first time, novel collinear, background-free, third-harmonic intensity autocorrelations in time and space in a high numerical aperture microscope. We also discuss the possibility of using third harmonic generation with circularly polarized beams for background-free collinear frequency resolved optical gating.

  8. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION OF B & BX & BY TANK FARMS AT THE HANFORD SITE RESULTS OF BACKGROUND CHARACTERIZATION WITH MAGNETICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS DA

    2007-09-28

    This report documents the results of preliminary surface geophysical exploration activities performed between October and December 2006 at the B, BX, and BY tank farms (B Complex). The B Complex is located in the 200 East Area of the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Washington State. The objective of the preliminary investigation was to collect background characterization information with magnetic gradiometry and electromagnetic induction to understand the spatial distribution of metallic objects that could potentially interfere with the results from high resolution resistivity survey. Results of the background characterization show there are several areas located around the site with large metallic subsurface debris or metallic infrastructure.

  9. The deployment of an innovative real-time radiological soil characterization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Allen; Raymond Danahy; Gregory Laird; Dale Seiller; Joan White; Robert Janke

    2000-09-29

    Fluor Fernald Inc., in conjunction with partners from Argonne National Laboratory, the Department of Energy's Environmental Measurements Laboratory, and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, has developed a program for characterizing radiological contaminants in soil in real time. The soil characterization system in use at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) for over three years combines gamma ray spectrometry equipment with other technologies to produce a system that can scan large areas of ground and produce color coded maps which display quantitative information regarding isotopic contamination patterns. Software running on a battery powered lap-top computer, is used to control acquisition of gamma spectral data to link the spectral Information with precise detector position measurements from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, and to control transmission of data to a central station or van via a wireless Ethernet link where Surfer6 mapping software is used to produce maps showing the position and amount of each target analyte. Either sodium iodide (NaI) gamma ray detectors mounted on three different vehicles for mobile measurements or stationary tripod-mounted hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detectors can be used in this system to radiologically characterize soil. The operational and performance characteristics, as well as the strengths and limitations of each of these units, will be described. The isotopic information generated by this system can be made available to remediation project mangers within an hour after the completion of a scan to aid in determination of excavation footprints, segregation of contaminated soil and verification of contamination removal. The immediate availability of radiological characterization data made possible by this real-time scanning system has allowed Fluor Fernald to accelerate remediation schedules and reduce costs by avoiding excavation delays and expensive and time consuming

  10. Guidance for characterizing explosives contaminated soils: Sampling and selecting on-site analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, A.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Craig, H.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Portland, OR (United States). Oregon Operations Office; Jenkins, T.F. [Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Lab., Hanover, NH (United States); Sisk, W.E. [Army Environmental Center, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD (United States)

    1996-09-01

    A large number of defense-related sites are contaminated with elevated levels of secondary explosives. Levels of contamination range from barely detectable to levels above 10% that need special handling due to the detonation potential. Characterization of explosives-contaminated sites is particularly difficult due to the very heterogeneous distribution of contamination in the environment and within samples. To improve site characterization, several options exist including collecting more samples, providing on-site analytical data to help direct the investigation, compositing samples, improving homogenization of samples, and extracting larger samples. On-site analytical methods are essential to more economical and improved characterization. On-site methods might suffer in terms of precision and accuracy, but this is more than offset by the increased number of samples that can be run. While verification using a standard analytical procedure should be part of any quality assurance program, reducing the number of samples analyzed by the more expensive methods can result in significantly reduced costs. Often 70 to 90% of the soil samples analyzed during an explosives site investigation do not contain detectable levels of contamination. Two basic types of on-site analytical methods are in wide use for explosives in soil, calorimetric and immunoassay. Calorimetric methods generally detect broad classes of compounds such as nitroaromatics or nitramines, while immunoassay methods are more compound specific. Since TNT or RDX is usually present in explosive-contaminated soils, the use of procedures designed to detect only these or similar compounds can be very effective.

  11. Characterization of nonlinear background components in voltammetry by use of large amplitude periodic perturbations and fourier transform analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Alan M; Duffy, Noel W; Elton, Darrell M; Fleming, Barry D

    2009-11-01

    Under most experimental conditions, a distinctly nonlinear background current is encountered in all forms of voltammetry which arises from the potential dependence of the capacitance. The nonlinear background current has been successfully modeled under large amplitude sinusoidal ac voltammetric conditions with a fourth order polynomial. The model was applied to a dummy cell containing a nonideal ceramic capacitor and commonly used electrodes. The nonlinearity in behavior of the background capacitance is particularly significant when considering the discrimination between the Faradaic and background contributions in the higher order harmonics resolved in ac voltammetry by Fourier transform-inverse Fourier transform approaches and in the simulation of the background current and hence double-layer capacitance as a function of potential. Typically, measurable background current under large amplitude conditions is detectable in the dc and fundamental to fourth harmonic components in large amplitude ac voltammetry. For analytical purposes, this background current can be corrected on a per harmonic basis without the need for any model. Background correction has been successfully applied to the first four harmonics for the oxidation of ferrocenemonocarboxylic acid over the concentration range of 5-500 microM in aqueous 0.5 M NaCl solution.

  12. Characterization of sorption properties of selected soils from Lublin region by using water vapour adsorption method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skic, Kamil; Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-04-01

    *The studies were carried out within the framework of a research project. The project was financed from funds of National Science Center on the base of decision number DEC-2013/11/D/NZ9/02545 Among many methods proposed to study sorption properties of soils an analysis of adsorption/ desorption isotherm is probably the easiest and most convenient one. It characterizes both quantity and quality of mineral and organic components and also their physical and physicochemical properties. The main aim of this study is comparison of sorption properties of selected Polish soils by using water vapour adsorption method. Samples were taken from the depth of 0-20 cm, from the Lublin region, eastern Poland. Soils were selected on the basis of their different physicochemical properties and were classified as: Haplic Fluvisol, Haplic Chernozem, Mollic Gleysol, Rendzic Phaeozem, Stagnic Luvisol, Haplic Cambisol (WG WRB 2006). Data taken from experimental adsorption isotherms were used to determine parameters of monolayer capacity, specific surface area and the total amount of vapour adsorbed at relative pressure of 0.974. Obtained adsorption and desorption isotherms reviled that adsorbate molecules interacted with the soil particles in different extent. Similar monolayer capacity was observed for Haplic Fluvisol, Haplic Chernozem and Stagnic Luvisol, while for Mollic Gleysol was more than 4 times higher. Mollic Gleysol was also characterized by highest values of specific surface area as well as quantity of adsorbed vapour at relative pressure of 0.974. Higher sorption was caused by presence of soil colloids which contains functional groups of a polar nature (mainly hydroxyls, phenolic and carboxyls). These groups similarly to silicates, oxides, hydratable cations as well as electric charge form adsorption centres for water vapour molecules.

  13. Characterization of Soil Suppressiveness to Root-Knot Nematodes in Organic Horticulture in Plastic Greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Ariadna; Carrasquilla, Marc; Martínez-Alonso, Maira; Gaju, Núria; Sorribas, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The fluctuation of Meloidogyne population density and the percentage of fungal egg parasitism were determined from July 2011 to July 2013 in two commercial organic vegetable production sites (M10.23 and M10.55) in plastic greenhouses, located in northeastern Spain, in order to know the level of soil suppressiveness. Fungal parasites were identified by molecular methods. In parallel, pot tests characterized the level of soil suppressiveness and the fungal species growing from the eggs. In addition, the egg parasitic ability of 10 fungal isolates per site was also assessed. The genetic profiles of fungal and bacterial populations from M10.23 and M10.55 soils were obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE), and compared with a non-suppressive soil (M10.33). In M10.23, Meloidogyne population in soil decreased progressively throughout the rotation zucchini, tomato, and radish or spinach. The percentage of egg parasitism was 54.7% in zucchini crop, the only one in which eggs were detected. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungal species isolated. In M10.55, nematode densities peaked at the end of the spring-summer crops (tomato, zucchini, and cucumber), but disease severity was lower than expected (0.2-6.3). The percentage of fungal egg parasitism ranged from 3 to 84.5% in these crops. The results in pot tests confirmed the suppressiveness of the M10.23 and M10.55 soils against Meloidogyne. The number of eggs per plant and the reproduction factor of the population were reduced (P < 0.05) in both non-sterilized soils compared to the sterilized ones after one nematode generation. P. chlamydosporia was the only fungus isolated from Meloidogyne eggs. In in vitro tests, P. chlamydosporia isolates were able to parasitize Meloidogyne eggs from 50 to 97% irrespective of the site. DGGE fingerprints revealed a high diversity in the microbial populations analyzed. Furthermore, both bacterial and fungal genetic patterns differentiated suppressive from non

  14. Experimental design based on field spectrometry for characterization of fire-affected soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero, Olga; Vlassova, Lidia; Montorio Llovería, Raquel; Pérez-Cabello, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires can modify physical and chemical properties of soils (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011; Badía et al., 2014). These disturbances involve changes in soil spectral properties, which can be analyzed by using field spectrometry (VIS-SWIR) (Montorio et al., 2008; Guerrero et al., 2010). The aim of this study is to present an experimental design for hyperspectral characterization of fire affected soils in laboratory conditions. We analyzed soil samples from Montes de Zuera area (Aragón, Spain) repeatedly affected by wildfires in the period of 1979-2008. Fourteen samples, seven from the burned zones and the corresponding control samples were collected in spring of 2013. Spectral analysis was performed on subsamples of around 130 g (fine fraction, particle size < 2 mm), previously dried in a stove at 105°C during 36 hours, and placed in crystal petri dishes (90 mm x 15 mm). The spectra were obtained using spectroradiometer ASD FieldSpec® 4 (spectral range from 350 nm to 2500 nm) combined with a Contact Probe ensuring homogeneity of observation and illumination conditions. Spectralon reference panel Labsphere® was used for conversion to reflectance values. The resulting reflectance is an average of the measurements corresponding to five random points of the subsample, each of them representing a mean value of 10 spectra. The averaging of spectra improves the signal to noise ratio and, at the same time, it minimizes the variations caused by the samples surface roughness. Statistically significant differences have been detected between burned and control soils. Reflectance increase of 12% (average for the whole spectrum) was observed in 70% of the samples: 16%, 15% and 10% increase in visible, NIR and SWIR respectively. Therefore regardless of the wildfire date, an increase of reflectance is observed in burned soils due to changes on soil properties. A detailed analysis of physical, chemical and biological properties of soils will be used in further research to

  15. Characterization of soil suppressiveness to root-knot nematodes in organic horticulture in plastic greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna eGiné

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The fluctuation of Meloidogyne population density and the percentage of fungal egg parasitism were determined from July 2011 to July 2013 in two commercial organic vegetable production sites (M10.23 and M10.55 in plastic greenhouses, located in northeastern Spain, in order to know the level of soil suppressiveness. Fungal parasites were identified by molecular methods. In parallel, pot tests characterized the level of soil suppressiveness and the fungal species growing from the eggs. In addition, the egg parasitic ability of ten fungal isolates per site was also assessed. The genetic profiles of fungal and bacterial populations from M10.23 and M10.55 soils were obtained by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE, and compared with a non-suppressive soil (M10.33. In M10.23, Meloidogyne population in soil decreased progressively throughout the rotation zucchini, tomato, and radish or spinach. The percentage of egg parasitism was 54.7% in zucchini crop, the only one in which eggs were detected. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungal species isolated. In M10.55, nematode densities peaked at the end of the spring-summer crops (tomato, zucchini, and cucumber, but disease severity was lower than expected (0.2 to 6.3. The percentage of fungal egg parasitism ranged from 3 to 84.5% in these crops. The results in pot tests confirmed the suppressiveness of the M10.23 and M10.55 soils against Meloidogyne. The number of eggs per plant and the reproduction factor of the population were reduced (P < 0.05 in both non-sterilized soils compared to the sterilized ones after one nematode generation. Pochonia chlamydosporia was the only fungus isolated from Meloidogyne eggs. In in vitro tests, P. chlamydosporia isolates were able to parasitize Meloidogyne eggs from 50 to 97% irrespective of the site. DGGE fingerprints revealed a high diversity in the microbial populations analyzed. Furthermore, both bacterial and fungal genetic patterns differentiated

  16. Analysis of Linear Prediction for Soil Characterization in GPR Data for Countermine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratto, Christopher R.; Morton, Kenneth D.; Collins, Leslie M.; Torrione, Peter A.

    2014-11-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a versatile technology for subsurface sensing, and has shown promise in countermine applications when a target detection algorithm is employed. Because the soil environment is naturally heterogeneous and nonstationary, many detection algorithms have taken the form of adaptive filters operating on the real-aperture radar data. In particular, linear prediction techniques have received much attention for their ability to screen for anomalous signals that differ from the background. In this work, we demonstrate that linear prediction may provide a low-dimensional feature set that is indicative of various soil properties. Experiments were performed with simulated and field-collected GPR data, and results provide greater understanding of how linear predictors might be useful in landmine detection over varying terrain.

  17. Characterization of the soil fertility and root system of restinga forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Martins Bonilha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Restinga vegetation consists of a mosaic of plant communities, which are defined by the characteristics of the substrates, resulting from the type and age of the depositional processes. This mosaic complex of vegetation types comprises restinga forest in advanced (high restinga and medium regeneration stages (low restinga, each with particular differentiating vegetation characteristics. The climate along the coast is tropical (Köppen. Of all ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest, Restinga is the most fragile and susceptible to anthropic disturbances. Plants respond to soil characteristics with physiological and morphological modifications, resulting in changes in the architecture (spatial configuration of the root system. The purpose of this study was to characterize the soil fertility of high and low restinga forests, by chemical and physical parameters, and its relation to the root system distribution in the soil profile. Four locations were studied: (1 Ilha Anchieta State Park, Ubatuba; (2 two Ecological Stations of Jureia-Itatins and of Chauás, in the municipality of Iguape; (3 Vila de Pedrinhas in the municipality of Ilha Comprida; and (4 Ilha do Cardoso State Park, Cananeia. The soil fertility (chemical and physical properties was analyzed in the layers 0-5, 0-10, 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. In addition, the distribution of the root system in the soil profile was evaluated, using digital images and the Spring program. It was concluded that the root system of all vegetation types studied is restricted to the surface layers, 0-10 and 10-20 cm, but occupies mainly the 0-10 cm layer (70 %; that soil fertility is low in all environments studied, with base saturation values below 16 %, since most exchange sites are occupied by aluminum; and that restinga vegetation is edaphic.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF BULK SOIL HUMIN AND ITS ALKALINE-SOLUBLE AND ALKALINE-INSOLUBLE FRACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilan Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humic substances are the major components of soil organic matter. Among the three humic substance components (humic acid, fulvic acid, and humin, humin is the most insoluble in aqueous solution at any pH value and, in turn, the least understood. Humin has poor solubility mainly because it is tightly bonded to inorganic soil colloids. By breaking the linkage between humin and inorganic soil colloids using inorganic or organic solvents, bulk humin can be partially soluble in alkali, enabling a better understanding of the structure and properties of humin. However, the structural relationship between bulk humin and its alkaline-soluble (AS and alkaline-insoluble (AIS fractions is still unknown. In this study, we isolated bulk humin from two soils of Northeast China by exhaustive extraction (25 to 28 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH + 0.1 mol L-1 Na4P2O7, followed by the traditional treatment with 10 % HF-HCl. The isolated bulk humin was then fractionated into AS-humin and AIS-humin by exhaustive extraction (12 to 15 times with 0.1 mol L-1 NaOH. Elemental analysis and solid-state 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize and compare the chemical structures of bulk humin and its corresponding fractions. The results showed that, regardless of soil types, bulk humin was the most aliphatic and most hydrophobic, AS-humin was the least aliphatic, and AIS-humin was the least alkylated among the three humic components. The results showed that bulk humin and its corresponding AS-humin and AIS-humin fractions are structurally differed from one another, implying that the functions of these humic components in the soil environment differed.

  19. Characterization of Lunar Soils Using a Thermal Infrared Microscopic Spectral Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crites, S. T.; Lucey, P. G.

    2010-12-01

    Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's Diviner radiometer has provided the planetary science community with a large amount of thermal infrared spectral data. This data set offers rich opportunities for lunar science, but interpretation of the data is complicated by the limited data on lunar materials. While spectra of pure terrestrial minerals have been used effectively for Mars applications, lunar minerals and glasses have been affected by space weathering processes that may alter their spectral properties in important ways. For example, mineral grains acquire vapor deposited coatings, and agglutinate glass contains abundant nanophase iron as a result of exposure to the space environment. Producing mineral separates in sufficient quantities (at least tens of mg) for spectral characterization is painstaking, time consuming and labor intensive; as an alternative we have altered an infrared hyperspectral imaging system developed for remote sensing under funding from the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development program (PIDDP) to enable resolved microscopic spectral imaging. The concept is to characterize the spectral properties of individual grains in lunar soils, enabling a wide range of spectral behaviors of components to be measured rapidly. The instrument, sensitive from 8 to 15 microns at 15 wavenumber resolution, images a field of view of 8 millimeters at 30 micron resolution and scans at a rate of about 1 mm/second enabling relatively large areas to be scanned rapidly. Our experiments thus far use a wet-sieved 90-150 um size fraction with the samples arrayed on a heated substrate in a single layer in order to prevent spectral interactions between grains. We have begun with pure mineral separates, and unsurprisingly we find that the individual mineral grain emission spectra of a wide range of silicates are very similar to spectra of coarse grained powders. We have begun to obtain preliminary data on lunar soils as well. We plan to continue imaging of lunar soils

  20. Polyphasic characterization of a PCP-to-phenol dechlorinating microbial community enriched from paddy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Naoko [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)]. E-mail: ysd75@esi.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Yoshida, Yukina [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Handa, Yuko [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kim, Hyo-Keun [Korea Ginseng and Tobacco Research Institute, Taejon 305-345 (Korea, Republic of); Ichihara, Shigeyuki [Faculty of Agriculture, Meijo University, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan); Katayama, Arata [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2007-08-01

    Dechlorination of PCP has been observed previously under anaerobic condition in paddy soil. However, there is poor information about the dechlorination pathway of PCP and the microbial community associated with the PCP dechlorination in paddy soil. In this study, an anaerobic microbial community dechlorinating PCP was enriched by serial transfers from a paddy soil using a medium containing PCP, lactate and the steam-sterilized paddy soil. The enriched microbial community dechlorinated PCP completely to phenol under the anaerobic condition by a dechlorinating pathway as follows; PCP {sup {yields}} 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol {sup {yields}} 3,4,5-trichlorophenol {sup {yields}} 3,5-dichlorophenol {sup {yields}} 3-chlorophenol {sup {yields}} phenol. Intermediate products such as 3-chlorophenol were not accumulated, which were immediately dechlorinated to phenol. The enriched microbial community was characterized physiologically by testing the effects of electron donors and electron acceptors on the dechlorinating activity. The dechlorinating activity was promoted with lactate, pyruvate, and hydrogen as electron donors but not with acetate. Electron acceptors, nitrate and sulphate, inhibited the dechlorinating activity competitively but not iron (III). The microbial group associated with the anaerobic dechlorination was characterized by the effect of specific inhibitors on the PCP dechlorination. Effects of specific metabolic inhibitors and antibiotics indicated the involvement of Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria with the PCP dechlorinating activity, which was represented as bacteria of phylum Firmicutes. The structure of the microbial community was characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization, quinone profiling, and PCR-DGGE (denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis). The combined results indicated the predominance of Clostridium species of phylum Firmicutes in the microbial community. Desulfitobacterium spp. known as anaerobic Gram-positive spore

  1. Soil Pore Characterization Using Free Software and a Portable Optical Microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.F.PIRES; F.S.BORGES; S.PASSONI; A.B.PEREIRA

    2013-01-01

    Total porosity (TP),determined by image analysis,pore type and pore size distribution were evaluated on impregnated soil blocks from an undisturbed Brazilian sandy loam soil using a digital portable optical microscope.The free software Image J (version 1.40g) was used for image analysis.Procedures for soil image collection and analysis were presented.The image analysis allowed the evaluation of pore sizes with diameters ranging from 20 to > 1000 μm.The following types of pores were also obtained:rounded,elongated and intermediate.The results allowed the characterization of the soil as moderately porous (TP =21.6%).Rounded,intermediate and elongated pores were responsible for 11.6%,31.7% and 56.7% of TP.In relation to pore size 51.1% of TP was in the 100-500 μm size class and a third of TP came from the pores larger than 500 μm.

  2. Geochemical indicators and characterization of soil water repellence in three dominant ecosystems of Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordan, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Stevens, Jason; González-Pérez, Jose Antonio

    2016-04-01

    H and electrical conductivity (EC) were determined in deionised water (1:2.5 and 1:5 w/v, respectively). The structural characterization of soil organic matter (SOM) was analysed by direct analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) performed at 500 °C (González-Vila et al., 2009). Only chromatogram peaks with an area higher than 0.2 % were identified and used to obtain the relative abundance of main chemical families in each vegetation cover. Results Our results show that soil water repellence is strongly correlated to microbial activity, pH and electrical conductivity. After Py-GC/MS analysis, soil organic matter in the Banksia woodland and the coastal dune showed a high heterogeneity. In the Banksia woodland two different patterns were observed. Samples under Banksia spp. showed a SOM with clear signs of altereation (humified) that included a high contribution of stable families like unspecific aromatic compounds and alkane/alkene pairs whereas under Eucalyptus spp. showed a less altered SOM with a high relative contribution from lignocellulose (lignin and carbohydrates), together with a low relative content of recalcitrant families. However in the soil samples from coastal dunes a very similar SOM chemical composition was found in all cases. The dominant family was unspecific aromatic compounds (>30%), followed by alkane/alkene pairs and a high relative contribution from N bearing peptide compounds. This, together with a low relative amount of carbohydrate and lignin derived (methoxyphenols) compounds points to a SOM that undergoes great alteration processes, possible because of high turn-over rates. Very low contents of SOM were found in the Pilbara system, under Py-GC/MS detection levels, and therefore it was not possible to establish its chemical composition. A principal components analysis (PCA) axes based on the relative abundances of chemical families of compounds released after SOM pyrolysis (70.9 % of total variation explained in the two first axes) indicate that

  3. Characterization and inventory of contaminants in WAG 2 floodplain soils of White Oak Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, C.J.; Nyquist, J.E.; Purucker, S.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Burgoa, B.B. [CDM Federal Programs Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Winterfield, R.F. [STEP Environmental, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A remedial investigation was conducted to determine the extent and type of contamination in the floodplain soils of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, in conjunction with environmental restoration activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). WAG 2 is located downstream from the main Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) plant area. As a result of past, present, and potential future releases of hazardous substances to the environment, the ORR was placed on the National Priorities List in December 1989. Sites on this list must be investigated to determine if remedial actions are possible. This report documents the findings of the remedial investigation of the WAG 2 floodplain soils by (1) presenting the characterization and inventory of contaminants, (2) comparing the walkover survey data to quantitative gamma-emitting radionuclide data, and (3) presenting an assessment of human health risk from exposure to these soils. Contaminant characterization results indicated that the primary contaminants in the WAG 2 floodplain are the gamma-emitting radionuclides {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co, although cobalt activity levels are 1/25th or less than those of cesium. Inorganic contaminants discussed in this report were limited to those contributing significantly to human exposure: antimony, barium, chromium(IV), manganese, mercury, and nickel.

  4. Morphophysiological characterization of bacteria native to Cerrado soils, isolated from cowpea nodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clicyane Lima de Araújo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics such as tolerance to pH, temperature, salinity and high aluminum concentration can be verified in rhizobia native to tropical soils. These particularities are relevant to biological nitrogen fixation studies, such as those about Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. (cowpea, which is of great economic importance to family farmers in different parts of Brazil, especially the North and Northeast regions. The objective of this study was to morphologically and physiologically characterize the native bacteria from Cerrado soils in eastern Maranhão, using the cowpea as plant bait. The study was conducted in Caxias (MA between 2014 and 2015. The isolates were derived from cowpea nodules sampled from three different areas of soil, especially forest composed of babassu and cultivated Manihot esculenta (cassava and Desmanthus virgatus L. (jureminha. They were morphologically characterized based on their colonies and the following physiological tests: tolerance to high temperatures, acidity, aluminum and high salinity. The isolates showed significant morphological diversity. The physiological tests showed that most of them are resistant to high temperatures, acidity and aluminum toxicity, but only a few are resistant to high salinity.

  5. Isolation and characterization of endosulfan-degrading bacteria from contaminated agriculture soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hassanshahian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To isolate and characterize endosulfan-degrading bacteria from Kerman pistachio orchards. Methods: Endosulfan-degrading bacteria were enriched in Bushnell-Hass medium. Identification and sequencing of prevalent degrading strains was performed by using PCR based on amplifying 16S rDNA. Results: The results showed that the soils of pistachio orchards have some degrading bacteria that are suitable for elimination of endosulfan from soils and the environment. Four endosulfandegrading bacteria strains belong to Achromobacter xylosoxidans (strain EN3, Pseudomonas azotoformans (strain EN4, Pseudomonas brassicacearum (strain EN7 and Pseudomonas thivervalensis (strain EN8, respectively. The best degrading strain (EN7, up to 100 mg/L, illustrated a good growth, whereas the growth was reduced in concentration higher than 100 mg/L. The results of gas chromatography confirmed the decomposition of organic pesticide by degrading-bacteria. Conclusions: By using these strains and other biological reclamation methods we can eliminate bio-environmental problems.

  6. Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahig, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

  7. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  8. Characterization and screening of antimicrobial activity of Micromonospora strains from Thai soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songsumanus, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Rare actinomycete strains were isolated from mountain soils and island soil collected in Thailand. They were screened for antimicrobial activity and characterized for their secondary metabolites.Methodology and results: The strains were isolated by the standard dilution technique using starch casein nitrate agar. They were identified and characterized based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of ten isolates coincided with those of the genus Micromonospora. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA relatedness, they were divided into 6 Groups, ASC19-2-1 (Group A was identified as Micromonospora marina; AL8-8 and AL10-3 (Group B were M. aurantiaca; AL7-5 (Group C was M. chalcea; AL3-16 and AL9-20 (Group D were identified as M. chokoriensis; AL9-13 and AL9-22 (Group E were M. tulbaghiae; and AL1-15-2 and AL1-16B (Group F were M. chersina. On the primary screening, only the isolate AL7-5 (Group C could inhibit Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341. This isolate produced rakicidin when cultivated on A3M, A11M and A16 media and produced compound BU4664L only on A16 medium.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The isolation and characterization of the rare actinomycetes from Thai soils will be useful for the taxonomic study and for the discovery of bioactive metabolites that are active against microorganisms.

  9. Enrichment and Characterization of an Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Mesophilic Crenarchaeal Group I.1a from an Agricultural Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, M.Y.; Park, S.J.; Min, D.; Kim, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kim, G.J.; Madsen, E.L.; Rhee, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    Soil nitrification is an important process for agricultural productivity and environmental pollution. Though one cultivated representative of ammonia-oxidizing Archaea from soil has been described, additional representatives warrant characterization. We describe an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon (strain

  10. Hydrologic characterization of desert soils with varying degrees of pedogenesis: 1. field experiments evaluating plant-relevant soil water behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, J.R.; Perkins, K.S.; Schmidt, K.M.; Miller, D.M.; Stock, J.D.; Singha, K.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the eff ect of pedogenesis on the soil moisture dynamics infl uencing the character and quality of ecological habitat, we conducted infi ltration and redistribution experiments on three alluvial deposits in the Mojave National Preserve: (i) recently deposited active wash sediments, (ii) a soil of early Holocene age, and (iii) a highly developed soil of late Pleistocene age. At each, we ponded water in a 1-m-diameter infi ltration ring for 2.3 h and monitored soil water content and matric pressure during and atier infi ltration, using probes and electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). Infi ltration and downward fl ow rates were greater in younger material, favoring deep-rooted species. Deep-rooted species tend to colonize the margins of washes, where they are unaff ected by sediment transport that inhibits colonization. The ERI results support important generalizations, for example that shallower than 0.5 m, infi ltrated water persists longer in highly developed soil, favoring shallow-rooted species. Soil moisture data for the two youngest soils suggested that saturation overshoot, which may have signifi cant but unexplored hydroecologic and pedogenic eff ects, occurred at the horizontally advancing weting front. Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties generally increased with pedogenic development. Evidence suggested that some early-stage developmental processes may promote uniformity; the intermediate- age soil appeared to have the least heterogeneity in terms of textural variation with depth, and also the least anisotropy. Lateral heterogeneity was pronounced in older soil, having a multitude of eff ects on the distribution and retention of soil water, and may facilitate certain water-conserving strategies of plants over what would be possible in a laterally homogeneous soil. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  11. Characterization of Electricity Generated by Soil in Microbial Fuel Cells and the Isolation of Soil Source Exoelectrogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Bin Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Soil has been used to generate electrical power in microbial fuel cells (MFCs and exhibited several potential applications. This study aimed to reveal the effect of soil properties on the generated electricity and the diversity of soil source exoelectrogenic bacteria. Seven soil samples were collected across China and packed into air-cathode MFCs to generate electricity over a 270 d period. The Fe(III-reducing bacteria in soil were enriched and sequenced by Illumina pyrosequencing. Culturable strains of Fe(III-reducing bacteria were isolated and identified phylogenetically. Their exoelectrogenic ability was evaluated by polarization measurement. The results showed that soils with higher organic carbon content but lower soil pH generated higher peak voltage and charge. The sequencing of Fe(III-reducing bacteria showed that Clostridia were dominant in all soil samples. At the family level, Clostridiales Family XI. incertae sedis were dominant in soils with lower organic carbon content but higher pH (>8, while Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Planococcaceae were dominant in soils with higher organic carbon content but lower pH. The isolated culturable strains were allied phylogenetically to fifteen different species, of which eleven were Clostridium. The others were Robinsoniella peoriensis, Hydrogenoanaerobacterium saccharovorans, Eubacterium contortum and Oscillibacter ruminantium. The maximum power density generated by the isolates in the MFCs ranged from 16.4 to 28.6 mW m-2. We concluded that soil organic carbon content had the most important effect on power generation and that the Clostridiaceae were the dominant exoelectrogenic bacterial group in soil. This study might lead to the discovery of more soil source exoelectrogenic bacteria species.

  12. Links between Plant and Rhizoplane Bacterial Communities in Grassland Soils, Characterized Using Molecular Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Naoise; Daniell, Timothy J.; Singh, Brajesh K.; Papert, Artemis; McNicol, James W.; Prosser, James I.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular analysis of grassland rhizosphere soil has demonstrated complex and diverse bacterial communities, with resultant difficulties in detecting links between plant and bacterial communities. These studies have, however, analyzed “bulk” rhizosphere soil, rather than rhizoplane communities, which interact most closely with plants through utilization of root exudates. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that plant species was a major driver for bacterial rhizoplane community composition on individual plant roots. DNA extracted from individual roots was used to determine plant identity, by analysis of the plastid tRNA leucine (trnL) UAA gene intron, and plant-related bacterial communities. Bacterial communities were characterized by analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes using two fingerprinting methods: terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Links between plant and bacterial rhizoplane communities could not be detected by visual examination of T-RFLP patterns or DGGE banding profiles. Statistical analysis of fingerprint patterns did not reveal a relationship between bacterial community composition and plant species but did demonstrate an influence of plant community composition. The data also indicated that topography and other, uncharacterized, environmental factors are important in driving bacterial community composition in grassland soils. T-RFLP had greater potential resolving power than DGGE, but findings from the two methods were not significantly different. PMID:16269710

  13. Characterization of basidiomycetous yeasts in hypersaline soils of the Urmia Lake National Park, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarnejad, Lachin; Arzanlou, Mahdi; Babai-Ahari, Asadollah; Di Mauro, Simone; Onofri, Andrea; Buzzini, Pietro; Turchetti, Benedetta

    2016-11-01

    Urmia Lake, located in northwest Iran, is an oligotrophic and extremely hypersaline habitat that supports diverse forms of life. Owing to its unique biodiversity and special environmental conditions, Urmia Lake National Park has been designated as one of the biosphere reserves by UNESCO. This study was aimed to characterize basidiomycetous yeasts in hypersaline soils surrounding the Urmia Lake National Park using a polyphasic combination of molecular and physiological data. Soil samples were collected from eight sites in Lake Basin and six islands insides the lake. Yeast strains were identified by sequencing the D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene. When D1/D2 domain sequencing did not resolve the identity of the species, strain identification was obtained by ITS 1 & 2 sequencing. Twenty-one species belonging to the genera Cystobasidium, Holtermanniella, Naganishia, Rhodotorula, Saitozyma, Solicoccozyma, Tausonia, Vanrija, and Vishniacozyma were identified. Solicoccozyma aeria represented the dominant species. The ability of isolates to grow at 10 and 15 % of NaCl was checked; about two-thirds of the strains grew at 10 %, while about 13 % of the isolates grew in medium with 15 % NaCl. this study is the first study on the culturable yeast diversity in hypersaline soils surrounding an Asian lake.

  14. Characterizing soil preferential flow using iodine--starch staining experiments and the active region model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Feng; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Renduo; Liu, Hui-Hai

    2009-03-01

    Thirteen iodine-starch staining experiments with different boundary conditions and measurement scales were conducted at two sites to study preferential flow processes in natural unsaturated soils. Digital imaging analyses were implemented to obtain the corresponding preferential flow patterns. The test results are used to evaluate a recently proposed active region model in terms of its usefulness and robustness for characterizing unsaturated flow processes at field scale. Test results provide useful insights into flow patterns in unsaturated soils. They show that flow pattern depends on the top boundary condition. As the total infiltrating-water depth increased form 20 mm to 80 mm for the 100 x 100 cm{sup 2} plots, the corresponding flow pattern changed from few preferential flow paths associated with a relatively small degree of stained coverage and a small infiltration depth, to a pattern characterized by a higher stained coverage and a larger infiltration depth, and to (finally) a relatively homogeneous flow pattern with few unstained area and a much larger infiltration depth. Test results also show that the preferential flow pattern became generally more heterogeneous and complex for a larger measurement scale (or size of infiltration plot). These observations support the general idea behind the active region model that preferential flow pattern in unsaturated soils are dynamic and depend on water flow conditions. Further analyses of the test results indicate that the active-region model is able to capture the major features of the observed flow pattern at the scale of interest, and the determined parameter values do not significantly depend on the test conditions (initial water content and total amount of infiltrating water) for a given test site. This supports the validity of the active region model that considers that parameter to be a property of the corresponding unsaturated soil. Results also show that some intrinsic relation seems to exist between active

  15. Regional scale characterization of the topographic control on soil organic carbon spatial distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, François; Bogaert, Patrick; van Wesemael, Bas

    2013-04-01

    The influence of geomorphology on the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) has been studied for a large range of scales and conditions. The larger SOC stocks found in dry valleys and concave footslopes of the Belgian loam belt have been explained jointly by the transfer of sediments along the slope and the reduced decomposition rate of buried organic matter. While erosion effect on SOC has been simulated at the hillslope scale, it is generally not considered in SOC inventories and prediction models at regional scale. However, more precise large scales inventories are demanded by the carbon modelling community. The goal of this paper is to characterize the relative importance of geomorphology on the SOC horizontal and vertical variability across whole agricultural region. The large historic dataset of soil horizons Aardewerk together with 147 recently sampled profiles was exploited for cost efficiency reasons. Mean profiles for different soil properties classes were compared. Various topographic indices were computed from a digital elevation model, and their potential to predict SOC content at different depth was quantified using multiple regression and terrain morphologic classification. Both dataset were able to show differences in mean SOC profile among soil properties classes, but only the new profiles dataset shows a clear relationship between SOC content and topographic indices. The various errors in then historic data set (e.g., positioning errors) may explain these limitations. This study thus brings in evidence the major control of topography on SOC vertical distribution in a region where observed heterogeneities for other commonly involved factors are limited. However, the large amount of unexplained variability still limits the usefulness of SOC content spatial prediction and should be addressed by alternative spatial methods.

  16. Characterization of Environmental Nano- and Macrocolloid Particles Extracted from Selected Soils and Biosolids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Ghezzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental nanoparticles found in soil systems and biosolids may pose a considerable risk to groundwater quality as contaminant carriers. Little effort has been invested in the characterization of natural nanocolloids compared to corresponding macrocolloids. This study involved physicochemical, mineralogical, and morphological characterizations of nanocolloids and macrocolloids fractionated from three Kentucky soils and one biosolid. Particle size and morphology were investigated using scanning/transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Mineralogical composition was determined by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Zeta potentials and cation exchange capacities assessed surface charge and chemical reactivity. The estimated average hydrodynamic diameter of nanoparticles was nearly twice the ideal 100 nm range, apparently due to irregular particle shapes and partial aggregation. Nanoparticles were also found attached to surfaces of macrocolloids, forming macro-nano aggregates and obscuring some of their physical and chemical characteristics. However, nanocolloids exhibited greater surface reactivity, likely due to their smaller size, poor crystallinity, and morphological shape distortions. In spite of some behavior modification due to nanoaggregation phenomena, nanocolloids appeared to be much more potent vectors of contaminant transport in subsurface environments than their macrosize fractions. Nevertheless, their heterogeneous nature brings to light important considerations in addressing pollution prevention and remediation challenges.

  17. State of the art and perspectives of a after-care soil protection. Background information; Stand und Perspektiven des nachsorgenden Bodenschutzes. Hintergrund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frauenstein, Joerg

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of the German Federal Soil Protection Act is a sustainable protection or re-establishment of the functions of the soil. Harmful changes of soils are to be avoided. Soils, contaminated sites as well as water pollutions are to be reorganized in such a way that the danger threshold permanently is remained under. The 'after-care soil protection' contains a graduated procedure. It covers the systematic work procedures acquisition, investigation and evaluation of suspected cases and surfaces suspicious to contaminated sites regarding to the potential of danger, the identification of the demand of redevelopment, the redevelopment of determined harmful changes of soil and contaminated sites as well as measures of the after-care after final acceptance of a remedial action.

  18. Phenotypic characterization of transgenic mice harboring Nf1+/- or Nf1-/- osteoclasts in otherwise Nf1+/+ background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanne, Maria H; Siljamäki, Elina; Peltonen, Sirkku; Väänänen, Kalervo; Windle, Jolene J; Parada, Luis F; Määttä, Jorma A; Peltonen, Juha

    2012-06-01

    Skeletal abnormalities in neurofibromatosis type 1 syndrome (NF1) are observed in ∼50% of patients. Here, we describe the phenotype of Nf1(Ocl) mouse model with Nf1-deficient osteoclasts. Nf1Ocl mice with Nf1+/- or Nf1-/- osteoclasts in otherwise Nf1+/+ background were successfully generated by mating parental Nf1flox/flox and TRAP-Cre mice. Contrary to our original hypothesis, osteoporotic or fragile bone phenotype was not observed. The µCT analysis revealed that tibial bone marrow cavity, trabecular tissue volume, and the perimeter of cortical bone were smaller in Nf1 Ocl-/- mice compared to Nf1 Ocl+/+ control mice. Nf1 Ocl-/- mice also a displayed narrowed growth plate in the proximal tibia. In vitro analysis showed increased bone resorption capacity and cytoskeletal changes including irregular cell shape and abnormal actin ring formation in Nf1-/- osteoclasts. Surprisingly, the size of spleen in Nf1 Ocl-/- mice was two times larger than in controls and histomorphometric analysis showed splenic megakaryocytosis. In summary, Nf1Ocl mouse model presented with a mild but specific bone phenotype. This study shows that NF1-deficiency in osteoclasts may have a role in the development of NF1-related skeletal abnormalities, but Nf1-deficiency in osteoclasts in Nf1+/+ background is not sufficient to induce skeletal abnormalities analogous to those observed in patients with NF1.

  19. Background Characterization and Discrimination in the Final Analysis of the CDMS II Phase of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritts, Matthew C. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) is designed to detectWeakly-Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) in the Milky Way halo. The phase known as CDMS II was performed in the Soudan Underground Laboratory. The final set of CDMS II data, collected in 2007-8 and referred to as Runs 125-8, represents the largest exposure to date for the experiment. We seek collisions between WIMPs and atomic nuclei in disk-shaped germanium and silicon detectors. A key design feature is to keep the rate of collisions from known particles producing WIMP-like signals very small. The largest category of such background is interactions with electrons in the detectors that occur very close to one of the faces of the detector. The next largest category is collisions between energetic neutrons that bypass the experimental shielding and nuclei in the detectors. Analytical efforts to discriminate these backgrounds and to estimate the rate at which such discrimination fails have been refined and improved throughout each phase of CDMS. Next-generation detectors for future phases of CDMS require testing at cryogenic test facilities. One such facility was developed at the University of Minnesota in 2007 and has been used continuously since then to test detectors for the next phase of the experiment, known as SuperCDMS.

  20. Hyper-temporal remote sensing for digital soil mapping: Characterizing soil-vegetation response to climatic variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indices derived from remotely-sensed imagery are commonly used to predict soil properties with digital soil mapping (DSM) techniques. The use of images from single dates or a small number of dates is most common for DSM; however, selection of the appropriate images is complicated by temporal variabi...

  1. Genetic background and phenotypic characterization over two farrowings of leg conformation defects in Landrace and Large White sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sevilla, X Fernàndez; Fàbrega, E; Tibau, J; Casellas, J

    2009-05-01

    A Bayesian threshold animal model was applied to evaluate the prevalence over 2 farrowings and genetic background of overall leg conformation score and the presence or absence of 6 specific leg defects (abnormal hoof growth, splay footed, plantigradism, straight pasterns, sickle-hocked legs, and the presence of swelling or injuries) in purebred Landrace and Large White sows. Data sets contained phenotypic records from 2,477 and 1,550 Landrace and Large White females, respectively, at the end of the growing period. Leg conformation data from first and second farrowings were available for 223 and 191 Landrace sows and 213 and 193 Large White sows, respectively. Overall leg conformation deteriorated with age, with statistically relevant differences between females at the end of the growing period, first farrowing (FF), and second farrowing (SF). In a similar way, the prevalence of the 6 specific leg defects increased between the end of the growing period and FF (with the exception of straight pasterns in the Landrace population). Differences between FF and second farrowing were statistically relevant for hoof growth (highest posterior density regions at 95% did not overlap), plantigradism, sickle-hocked legs, and overall leg conformation score in Landrace and for sickle-hocked leg and overall leg conformation score in Large White. The statistical relevance of the genetic background was tested through the Bayes factor (BF) between the model with the additive genetic component and the model with 0 heritability (nonheritable). Heritability (h(2)) was discarded (BF 100) of genetic background was obtained for overall leg conformation score in Landrace and Large White sows (h(2) = 0.27 and 0.38, respectively), hoof growth in both breeds (h(2) = 0.22 and 0.26, respectively), and plantigradism (h(2) = 0.34) and the presence of swelling or injuries in Landrace (h(2) = 0.27). Note that a BF > 100 implies that the model with infinitesimal genetic effects was more than 100 times

  2. Characterization of polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in surface soils from Surabaya, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Sudaryanto, Agus; Setiawan, Iwan Eka; Riyadi, Adi Slamet; Isobe, Tomohiko; Ogawa, Shohei; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2011-04-01

    In this study, soil contamination by PCBs, PBDEs, HBCDs and two novel BFRs such as 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromopenoxy) ethane (BTBPE) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in various locations such as industrial, urban, rural, dumping site and agricultural areas of Surabaya, Indonesia has been characterized in order to evaluate their contamination status, profiles, potential sources, fate and behavior. Range and median concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, HBCDs, BTBPE and DBDPE were ND - 9.6 (1.2), 0.069 - 24 (7.4), ND - 1.8 (0.48), ND - 1.7 (0.14) and ND - 7.6 (2.2) ng g(-1)dw, respectively. Industrial, urban and dumping areas were inventoried as the main sources of these pollutants. Decreasing gradient levels were observed for these contaminants from industrial district, urban, dumping site, rural and agricultural areas, in that order. Furthermore, organic carbon contents and proximity to the point sources were found as the major controlling factors. Contaminant profiles were characterized by the predominance of hexa-, hepta- and penta-homologues for PCBs; deca-, nona- and octa- for PBDEs and α-isomer for HBCDs. Product mixtures such as Ar1260/KC600 and Ar1254/KC500 for PCBs, deca- and octa-BDEs for PBDEs were the possible common formulations used in study area. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive study on characterization of soil contamination by PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs together with two novel BFRs in a highly industrialized city located in tropical region. This study provides baseline information for establishing national monitoring programs in Indonesia.

  3. Use of pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS) to characterize forest soil carbon: method and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, K A; Evans, R J; Hoover, C M; Elam, C C; Davis, M F

    2002-01-01

    The components of soil organic matter (SOM) and their degradation dynamics in forest soils are difficult to study and thus poorly understood, due to time-consuming sample collection, preparation, and difficulty of analyzing and identifying major components. As a result, changes in soil organic matter chemical composition as a function of age, forest type, or disturbance have not been examined. We applied pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry (py-MBMS), which provides rapid characterization of SOM of whole soil samples. to the Tionesta soil samples described by Hoover, C.M., Magrini, K.A., Evans, R.J., 2002. Soil carbon content and character in an old growth forest in northwestern Pennsylvania: a case study introducing molecular beam mass spectrometry (PY-MBMS). Environmental Pollution 116 (Supp. 1), S269-S278. Our goals in this work were to: (1) develop and demonstrate an advanced, rapid analytical method for characterizing SOM components in whole soils, and (2) provide data-based models to predict soil carbon content and residence time from py-MBMS analysis. Using py-MBMS and pattern recognition techniques we were able to statistically distinguish among four Tionesta sites and show an increase in pyrolysis products of more highly decomposed plant materials at increasing sample depth. For example, all four sites showed increasing amounts of older carbon (phenolic and aromatic species) at deeper depths and higher amounts of more recent carbon (carbohydrates and lignin products) at shallower depths. These results indicate that this type of analysis could be used to rapidly characterize SOM for the purpose of developing a model, which could be used in monitoring the effect of forest management practices on carbon uptake and storage.

  4. Evaluation of a soil incubation method to characterize nitrogen release patterns of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry B; Obreza, Thomas A; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

    2014-01-01

    Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release patterns of slow-release fertilizers (SRF) and controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers, and are product-specific, based on the regulation and analysis of each SRF and CRF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize SRF and CRF materials, no standardized, validated method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased production and distribution of these materials in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify product claims and material performance. A soil incubation column leaching procedure was evaluated to determine its suitability as a standard method to estimate nitrogen (N) release patterns of SRFs and CRFs during 180 days. The influence of three soil/sand ratios, three incubation temperatures, and four soils on method behavior was assessed using five SRFs and three CRFs. In general, the highest soil/sand ratio increased the N release rate of all materials, but this effect was more marked for the SRFs. Temperature had the greatest influence on N release rates. For CRFs, the initial N release rates and the percentage N released/day increased as temperature increased. For SRFs, raising the temperature from 25 to 35 degreesC increased initial N release rate and the total cumulative N released, and almost doubled the percentage released/day. The percentage N released/day from all products generally increased as the texture of the soil changed from sandy to loamy (lowa>California>Pennsylvania>Florida). The soil incubation technique was demonstrated to be robust and reliable for characterizing N release patterns from SRFs and CRFs. The method was reproducible, and variations in soil/sand ratio, temperature, and soil had little effect on the results.

  5. Characterization of biosurfactants from indigenous soil bacteria recovered from oil contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Govind; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Anita

    2015-09-01

    Three bacterial isolates (G1, G2 and G3) characterized as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, Lysinibacillus fusiformis and Bacillus safensis were recovered from contaminated soil of oil refinery. These bacterial isolates produced biosurfactants in MSM medium in stationary phase. Biosurfactants were characterized on the basis of their emulsifying properties with petrol, diesel, mobil oil and petrol engine oil. Reduction in surface tension (below 40 mN m(-1)) and blood hemolysis were also included in biosurfactants characterization. Emulsification indices of G1, G2 and G3 were in the range of 98.82, 23.53 and 58.82 for petrol; 29.411,1.05 and 70.588 for diesel; 35.31, 2.93 and 17.60 for mobil oil and 35.284, 58.82 and 17.647 for petrol engine oil respectively. Dry weight of the extracted biosurfactant was 4.6, 1.4 and 2.4 g I(-1) for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. Structural analysis of the biosurfactants by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed significant differences in the bonding pattern of individual biosurfactant.

  6. Characterization of Trapped Lignin-Degrading Microbes in Tropical Forest Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, Kristen; Allgaier, Martin; Chavarria, Yaucin; Fortney, Julian; Hugenholtz, Phillip; Simmons, Blake; Sublette, Kerry; Silver, Whendee; Hazen, Terry

    2011-07-14

    Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  7. Characterization of trapped lignin-degrading microbes in tropical forest soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, K.M.; Allgaier, M.; Chavarria, Y.; Fortney, J.L.; Hugenholz, P.; Simmons, B.; Sublette, K.; Silver, W.L.; Hazen, T.C.

    2011-03-01

    Lignin is often the most difficult portion of plant biomass to degrade, with fungi generally thought to dominate during late stage decomposition. Lignin in feedstock plant material represents a barrier to more efficient plant biomass conversion and can also hinder enzymatic access to cellulose, which is critical for biofuels production. Tropical rain forest soils in Puerto Rico are characterized by frequent anoxic conditions and fluctuating redox, suggesting the presence of lignin-degrading organisms and mechanisms that are different from known fungal decomposers and oxygen-dependent enzyme activities. We explored microbial lignin-degraders by burying bio-traps containing lignin-amended and unamended biosep beads in the soil for 1, 4, 13 and 30 weeks. At each time point, phenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme activity was found to be elevated in the lignin-amended versus the unamended beads, while cellulolytic enzyme activities were significantly depressed in lignin-amended beads. Quantitative PCR of bacterial communities showed more bacterial colonization in the lignin-amended compared to the unamended beads after one and four weeks, suggesting that the lignin supported increased bacterial abundance. The microbial community was analyzed by small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA genes using microarray (PhyloChip) and by high-throughput amplicon pyrosequencing based on universal primers targeting bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic communities. Community trends were significantly affected by time and the presence of lignin on the beads. Lignin-amended beads have higher relative abundances of representatives from the phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria compared to unamended beads. This study suggests that in low and fluctuating redox soils, bacteria could play a role in anaerobic lignin decomposition.

  8. Characterizing exposure to chemicals from soil vapor intrusion using a two-compartment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David A.; Corsi, Richard L.

    Though several different models have been developed for sub-surface migration, little attention has been given to the effect of subsurface transport on the indoor environment. Existing methods generally assume that a house is one well-mixed compartment. A two-compartment model was developed to better characterize this exposure pathway; the model treats the house as two well-mixed compartments, one for the basement and one for the remainder of the house. A field study was completed to quantify parameters associated with the two-compartment model, such as soil gas intrusion rates and basement to ground floor air exchange rates. Two residential test houses in Paulsboro, New Jersey were selected for this study. All experiments were completed using sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6) as a tracer gas. Soil gas intrusion rates were found to be highly dependent on the soil gas to basement pressure difference, varying from 0.001 m 3 m -2 h -1 for a pressure drop of -0.2 Pa to 0.011 m 3 m -2 h -1 for a pressure drop of -6.0 Pa. Basement ventilation rates ranged from 0.17 to 0.75 air changes per hour (ACH) for basement to ambient pressure differences ranging from -1.1 to -7.6 Pa (relative to ambient). Application of experimental results in conjunction with the two-compartment model indicate that exposures are highly dependent on gas intrusion rates, basement ventilation rate, and fraction of time spent in the basement. These results can also be significantly different when compared with the simple well-mixed house assumption.

  9. Chemical characterization and ecotoxicity of three soil foaming agents used in mechanized tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baderna, Diego, E-mail: diego.baderna@marionegri.it [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Lomazzi, Eleonora [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Passoni, Alice [Unit of Analytical Instrumentation, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Pogliaghi, Alberto; Petoumenou, Maria Ifigeneia [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Bagnati, Renzo [Unit of Analytical Instrumentation, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Lodi, Marco [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Viarengo, Aldo; Sforzini, Susanna [Department of Sciences and Technological Innovation (DiSIT), University of Piemonte Orientale “A. Avogadro”, 15121 Alessandria (Italy); Benfenati, Emilio [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Fanelli, Roberto [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, IRCCS – Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Via Giuseppe La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • An integrated approach was applied to study three foaming agents. • Several compounds not reported on the safety data sheets were identified by HRMS. • Environmental impacts were investigated with a battery of biological assays. • An ecotoxicological ranking of the products was obtained. - Abstract: The construction of tunnels and rocks with mechanized drills produces several tons of rocky debris that are today recycled as construction material or as soil replacement for covering rocky areas. The lack of accurate information about the environmental impact of these excavated rocks and foaming agents added during the excavation process has aroused increasing concern for ecosystems and human health. The present study proposes an integrated approach to the assessment of the potential environmental impact of three foaming agents containing different anionic surfactants and other polymers currently on the market and used in tunnel boring machines. The strategy includes chemical characterization with high resolution mass spectrometry techniques to identify the components of each product, the use of in silico tools to perform a similarity comparison among these compounds and some pollutants already listed in regulatory frameworks to identify possible threshold concentrations of contamination, and the application of a battery of ecotoxicological assays to investigate the impact of each foaming mixture on model organisms of soil (higher plants and Eisenia andrei) and water communities (Daphnia magna). The study identified eleven compounds not listed on the material safety data sheets for which we have identified possible concentrations of contamination based on existing regulatory references. The bioassays allowed us to determine the no effect concentrations (NOAECs) of the three mixtures, which were subsequently used as threshold concentration for the product in its entirety. The technical mixtures used in this study have a different degree of toxicity

  10. Characterization of H2S removal and microbial community in landfill cover soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Wei, Xiao-Meng; Su, Yao; He, Ruo

    2015-12-01

    H2S is a source of odors at landfills and poses a threat to the surrounding environment and public health. In this work, compared with a usual landfill cover soil (LCS), H2S removal and biotransformation were characterized in waste biocover soil (WBS), an alternative landfill cover material. With the input of landfill gas (LFG), the gas concentrations of CH4, CO2, O2, and H2S, microbial community and activity in landfill covers changed with time. Compared with LCS, lower CH4 and H2S concentrations were detected in the WBS. The potential sulfur-oxidizing rate and sulfate-reducing rate as well as the contents of acid-volatile sulfide, SO4(2-), and total sulfur in the WBS and LCS were all increased with the input of LFG. After exposure to LFG for 35 days, the sulfur-oxidizing rate of the bottom layer of the WBS reached 82.5 μmol g dry weight (d.w.)(-1) day(-1), which was 4.3-5.4 times of that of LCS. H2S-S was mainly deposited in the soil covers, while it escaped from landfills to the atmosphere. The adsorption, absorption, and biotransformation of H2S could lead to the decrease in the pH values of landfill covers; especially, in the LCS with low pH buffer capacity, the pH value of the bottom layer dropped to below 4. Pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene showed that the known sulfur-metabolizing bacteria Ochrobactrum, Paracoccus, Comamonas, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter dominated in the WBS and LCS. Among them, Comamonas and Acinetobacter might play an important role in the metabolism of H2S in the WBS. These findings are helpful to understand sulfur bioconversion process in landfill covers and to develop techniques for controlling odor pollution at landfills.

  11. Spatially Distributed Characterization of Soil Dynamics Using Travel-Time Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Falk; Zink, Matthias; Attinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    The description of storage and transport of both water and solved contaminants in catchments is very difficult due to the high heterogeneity of the subsurface properties that govern their fate. This heterogeneity, combined with a generally limited knowledge about the subsurface, results in high degrees of uncertainty. As a result, stochastic methods are increasingly applied, where the relevant processes are modeled as being random. Within these methods, quantities like the catchment travel or residence time of a water parcel are described using probability density functions (PDF). The derivation of these PDF's is typically done by using the water fluxes and states of the catchment. A successful application of such frameworks is therefore contingent on a good quantification of these fluxes and states across the different spatial scales. The objective of this study is to use travel times for the characterization of an ca. 1000 square kilometer, humid catchment in Central Germany. To determine the states and fluxes, we apply the mesoscale Hydrological Model mHM, a spatially distributed hydrological model to the catchment. Using detailed data of precipitation, land cover, morphology and soil type as inputs, mHM is able to determine fluxes like recharge and evapotranspiration and states like soil moisture as outputs. Using these data, we apply the above theoretical framework to our catchment. By virtue of the aforementioned properties of mHM, we are able to describe the storage and release of water with a high spatial resolution. This allows for a comprehensive description of the flow and transport dynamics taking place in the catchment. The spatial distribution of such dynamics is then compared with land cover and soil moisture maps as well as driving forces like precipitation and potential evapotranspiration to determine the most predictive factors. In addition, we investigate how non-local data like the age distribution of discharge flows are impacted by, and

  12. Chemical characterization and ecotoxicity of three soil foaming agents used in mechanized tunneling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baderna, Diego; Lomazzi, Eleonora; Passoni, Alice; Pogliaghi, Alberto; Petoumenou, Maria Ifigeneia; Bagnati, Renzo; Lodi, Marco; Viarengo, Aldo; Sforzini, Susanna; Benfenati, Emilio; Fanelli, Roberto

    2015-10-15

    The construction of tunnels and rocks with mechanized drills produces several tons of rocky debris that are today recycled as construction material or as soil replacement for covering rocky areas. The lack of accurate information about the environmental impact of these excavated rocks and foaming agents added during the excavation process has aroused increasing concern for ecosystems and human health. The present study proposes an integrated approach to the assessment of the potential environmental impact of three foaming agents containing different anionic surfactants and other polymers currently on the market and used in tunnel boring machines. The strategy includes chemical characterization with high resolution mass spectrometry techniques to identify the components of each product, the use of in silico tools to perform a similarity comparison among these compounds and some pollutants already listed in regulatory frameworks to identify possible threshold concentrations of contamination, and the application of a battery of ecotoxicological assays to investigate the impact of each foaming mixture on model organisms of soil (higher plants and Eisenia andrei) and water communities (Daphnia magna). The study identified eleven compounds not listed on the material safety data sheets for which we have identified possible concentrations of contamination based on existing regulatory references. The bioassays allowed us to determine the no effect concentrations (NOAECs) of the three mixtures, which were subsequently used as threshold concentration for the product in its entirety. The technical mixtures used in this study have a different degree of toxicity and the predicted environmental concentrations based on the conditions of use are lower than the NOAEC for soils but higher than the NOAEC for water, posing a potential risk to the waters due to the levels of foaming agents in the muck.

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL TRICHODERMA ISOLATES FOR POTENTIAL BIOCONTROL OF PLANT PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Various fungal strains belonging to genus Trichoderma act as biological control agents for soil born plant pathogens. Two new strains of Trichoderma harzianum (T.h. and Trichoderma viride (T.v. were isolated from forest soils in Ilfov county and their morphological aspects, enzymatic and antagonistic activity were examined. Current chemical fungicides had constantly, in time, less influence on pathogens due to their diversity, adaptability and increasing resistance.The paper present the morphological characterization of two strains of Trichoderma isolated from forest soils. Growth rate was higher in strain T.v.SP456 (0,675mm/h than in strain T.h.P8 (0,505mm/h when fungi were grown on Czapek culture medium.Morphological description is completed with photographs of colonies in Petri plates and microscopical aspects of fungal structures belonging to Trichoderma strains SP456 and P8.Comparative aspects concerning the level of main enzymes released by T.h. isolate P8 and T.v.SP456 in liquid culture media showed differences as a function of genetic structure of each fungal isolate. The optimum culture media for inducing peroxidase, polyphenol-oxidase, β-1,3-glucanase activity in T.v.SP456 isolate was Czapek and PDA for phenil-alanin-ammonium-oxidase and chitinase. T.v.SP456 was more efficient than T.h.P8 concerning enzymes activity.The interaction between Trichoderma fungal strains SP456 and P8 and strawberry plant pathogen strains, three belonging to Botrytis cinerea (S1, P1, P2 and one to Phytophtora spp. were examined, also. Both Trichoderma strains act as mycoparasites for plant pathogens. The inhibition percent of radial growth was higher for T.v.SP456 when compared with T.h.P8 for almost all pathogenic isolates.

  14. Characterization of CuO(1 1 1)/MgO(1 0 0) films grown under two different PLD backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawwam, M.; Alharbi, F. H.; Kayed, T.; Aldwayyan, A.; Alyamani, A.; Tabet, N.; Lebbou, K.

    2013-07-01

    Cupric oxide (CuO) films were deposited on MgO (1 0 0) substrates by two different pulsed laser deposition (PLD) configurations, molecular gas background and RF-plasma assisted, at temperatures over 250-450 °C range. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), reflection of high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometery, and four probe conductivity measurements. The heating temperature was found to have a limited effect on the structural properties of the films grown in RF-plasma assisted background while it has a significant effect in the case of the standard gas background. The structural observations revealed that RF-plasma background increased the possibility of Frank-van der Merwe or the initial stages of Stranski-Krastanov growth mode, leaving the CuO films highly textured in (1 1 1) direction, atomically smooth and chemically stoichiometric. Optoelectronic properties of best obtained CuO film are presented as well.

  15. Characterization of CuO(1 1 1)/MgO(1 0 0) films grown under two different PLD backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawwam, M., E-mail: Mohammad.kawwam@univ-lyon1.fr [Laboratoire de Physico Chimie des Matériaux Luminescents (LPCML) UMR 5620 CNRS Université de Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex, Lyon (France); King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, F.H. [Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Doha (Qatar); Kayed, T. [College of Engineering University of Dammam (Saudi Arabia); Aldwayyan, A. [King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Alyamani, A. [Energy Research Institute, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Tabet, N. [King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Lebbou, K. [Laboratoire de Physico Chimie des Matériaux Luminescents (LPCML) UMR 5620 CNRS Université de Lyon 1, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex, Lyon (France)

    2013-07-01

    Cupric oxide (CuO) films were deposited on MgO (1 0 0) substrates by two different pulsed laser deposition (PLD) configurations, molecular gas background and RF-plasma assisted, at temperatures over 250–450 °C range. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), reflection of high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometery, and four probe conductivity measurements. The heating temperature was found to have a limited effect on the structural properties of the films grown in RF-plasma assisted background while it has a significant effect in the case of the standard gas background. The structural observations revealed that RF-plasma background increased the possibility of Frank–van der Merwe or the initial stages of Stranski–Krastanov growth mode, leaving the CuO films highly textured in (1 1 1) direction, atomically smooth and chemically stoichiometric. Optoelectronic properties of best obtained CuO film are presented as well.

  16. Characterization of sorption sites on aggregate soil samples using synchrotron x-ray computerized microtomography.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, Randall Timothy; Reno, Marissa Devan; Altman, Susan Jeanne; McLain, Angela A.; Rivers, Mark L. (CARS, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL)

    2004-06-01

    Synchrotron-source X-ray computerized microtomography (CMT) was used to evaluate the adsorptive properties of aggregate soil samples. A linear relationship between measured mean mass attenuation coefficient (s) and mass fraction iron was generated by imaging mineral standards with known iron contents. On the basis of reported stoichiometries of the clay minerals and identifications of iron oxyhydroxides (1), we calculated the mass fraction iron and iron oxyhydroxide in the intergranular material. The mass fractions of iron were estimated to range from 0.17 to 0.22 for measurements made at 18 keV and from 0.18 to 0.21 for measurements made at 26 keV. One aggregate sample also contained regions within the intergranular material with mass fraction iron ranging from 0.29 to 0.31 and from 0.33 to 0.36 for the 18 and 26 keV measurements, respectively. The mass fraction iron oxyhydroxide ranged from 0.18 to 0.35 for the low-iron intergranular material and from 0.40 to 0.59 for the high-iron intergranular material. Using absorption edge difference imaging with CMT, we visualized cesium on the intergranular material, presumably because of adsorption and possible exchange reactions. By characterizing the mass fraction iron, the mass fraction iron oxyhydroxide, and the adsorptive capacity of these soil mineral aggregates, we provide information useful for conceptualization, development, and parameterization of transport models.

  17. Paraquat-loaded alginate/chitosan nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and soil sorption studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Silva, Mariana dos; Sgarbi Cocenza, Daniela [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Grillo, Renato; Silva de Melo, Nathalie Ferreira [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Tonello, Paulo Sergio [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Camargo de Oliveira, Luciana [Department of Chemistry, UFSCAr, Campus Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Lopes Cassimiro, Douglas [Institute of Chemistry, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Rosa, Andre Henrique [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Fernandes Fraceto, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo@sorocaba.unesp.br [Department of Environmental Engineering, Sao Paulo State University - UNESP, Avenida Tres de Marco, No. 511, CEP 18087-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    Agrochemicals are amongst the contaminants most widely encountered in surface and subterranean hydrological systems. They comprise a variety of molecules, with properties that confer differing degrees of persistence and mobility in the environment, as well as different toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic potentials, which can affect non-target organisms including man. In this work, alginate/chitosan nanoparticles were prepared as a carrier system for the herbicide paraquat. The preparation and physico-chemical characterization of the nanoparticles was followed by evaluation of zeta potential, pH, size and polydispersion. The techniques employed included transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The formulation presented a size distribution of 635 {+-} 12 nm, polydispersion of 0.518, zeta potential of -22.8 {+-} 2.3 mV and association efficiency of 74.2%. There were significant differences between the release profiles of free paraquat and the herbicide associated with the alginate/chitosan nanoparticles. Tests showed that soil sorption of paraquat, either free or associated with the nanoparticles, was dependent on the quantity of organic matter present. The results presented in this work show that association of paraquat with alginate/chitosan nanoparticles alters the release profile of the herbicide, as well as its interaction with the soil, indicating that this system could be an effective means of reducing negative impacts caused by paraquat.

  18. Isolation and characterization of endosulfan-degrading bacteria from contaminated agriculture soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Hassanshahian; Zahra Shahi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and characterize endosulfan-degrading bacteria from Kerman pistachio orchards. Methods: Endosulfan-degrading bacteria were enriched in Bushnell-Hass medium. Identification and sequencing of prevalent degrading strains was performed by usingPCR based on amplifying16S rDNA. Results: The results showed that the soils of pistachio orchards have some degrading bacteria that are suitable for elimination of endosulfan from soils and the environment. Four endosulfan-degrading bacteria strains belong toAchromobacter xylosoxidans (strain EN3),Pseudomonas azotoformans (strain EN4),Pseudomonas brassicacearum (strain EN7) andPseudomonas thivervalensis (strain EN8), respectively. The best degrading strain (EN7), up to 100 mg/L, illustrated a good growth, whereas the growth was reduced in concentration higher than 100 mg/L. The results of gas chromatography confirmed the decomposition of organic pesticide by degrading-bacteria. Conclusions: By using these strains and other biological reclamation methods we can eliminate bio-environmental problems.

  19. Isolation and characterization of indigenous Streptomyces and Lentzea strains from soils containing boron compounds in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga, Norma Beatriz; Poma, Hugo Ramiro; Amoroso, María Julia; Rajal, Verónica Beatriz

    2014-06-01

    The Salta Province - in the northwest of Argentina - is the main worldwide producer of hydroboracite and leads in exports of boron mineral and its derivatives in Latin America. In addition to the natural presence of boron compounds in the soils, there are others contaminated due to the boron mining industry. Although some bacteria are known to require boron for their growth or to be capable of storing boron, no studies have been published about Streptomyces or Lentzea genera's capacity to tolerate high boron concentrations, or about their metabolic capacities in boron contaminated environments. The results of this research show the isolation and molecular characterization of eight strains belonging to the actinobacteria phylum collected from different soils contaminated with high boron concentration in Salta state. The boron tolerance assays, which show that three of the strains were able to tolerate up 60-80 mM boron, demonstrate the potential capability of this group of bacteria to grow and maybe to remove boron from the environment. They appear to be promising, considering that these microorganisms are infrequent pathogens, are metabolically versatile and many Streptomyces can synthesize boron containing metabolites.

  20. Isolation and characterization of a diverse group of phenylacetic acid degrading microorganisms from pristine soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kevin E; O'Leary, Niall P; Marchesi, Julian R; Dobson, Alan D W; Duetz, Wouter

    2005-11-01

    A diverse range of microorganisms capable of growth on phenylacetic acid as the sole source of carbon and energy were isolated from soil. Sixty six different isolates were identified and grouped according to 16S rRNA gene RFLP analysis. Subsequent sequencing of 16S rDNA from selected strains allowed further characterization of the phenylacetic acid degrading population isolated from soil. Nearly half (30) of the isolates are Bacillus species while the rest of the isolates are strains from a variety of genera namely, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Acinetobacter, Enterobacter, Flavobacterium, and Paenibacillus. Sixty-one of the sixty-six strains reproducibly grew in defined minimal liquid culture medium (E2). All strains isolated grew when at least one hydroxylated derivative of phenylacetic acid was supplied as the carbon source, while 59 out of the 61 strains tested, accumulated ortho-hydroxyphenylacetic acid in the assay buffer; when pulsed with phenylacetic acid. Oxygen consumption experiments failed to indicate a clear link between phenylacetic acid and hydroxy-substituted phenylacetic acid in isolates from a broad range of genera.

  1. Isolation and characterization of novel atrazine-degrading microorganisms from an agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibber, Laurel L; Pressler, Michael J; Colores, Gregory M

    2007-06-01

    Six previously undescribed microorganisms capable of atrazine degradation were isolated from an agricultural soil that received repeated exposures of the commonly used herbicides atrazine and acetochlor. These isolates are all Gram-positive and group with microorganisms in the genera Nocardioides and Arthrobacter, both of which contain previously described atrazine degraders. All six isolates were capable of utilizing atrazine as a sole nitrogen source when provided with glucose as a separate carbon source. Under the culture conditions used, none of the isolates could utilize atrazine as the sole carbon and nitrogen source. We used several polymerase-chain-reaction-based assays to screen for the presence of a number of atrazine-degrading genes and verified their identity through sequencing. All six isolates contain trzN and atzC, two well-characterized genes involved in the conversion of atrazine to cyanuric acid. An additional atrazine-degrading gene, atzB, was detected in one of the isolates as well, yet none appeared to contain atzA, a commonly encountered gene in atrazine impacted soils and atrazine-degrading isolates. Interestingly, the deoxyribonucleic acid sequences of trzN and atzC were all identical, implying that their presence may be the result of horizontal gene transfer among these isolates.

  2. Production and partial characterization of extracellular proteinases from Streptomyces malaysiensis, isolated from a Brazilian cerrado soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Rodrigo P; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia M; Souza, Rodrigo F; Branquinha, Marta H; Bon, Elba P S; Pereira-Jr, Nei; Coelho, Rosalie R R

    2005-11-01

    Streptomyces malaysiensis AMT-3, isolated from a Brazilian cerrado soil, showed proteolytic activities detected by gelatin-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The optimum proteinase production was obtained when using 2.5% wheat bran and 0.1% yeast extract in the culture medium, after 5 days incubation at 30 degrees C. The enzymatic complex degraded gelatin optimally at pH 7.0, and under these conditions eight proteolytic bands (four serine-proteinases and four metaloproteinases), ranging from 20 to 212 kDa, were detected on the culture supernatant filtrates. In addition, a 35-kDa proteinase was thermostable at 60 degrees C for 120 min. These results point out to the applicability of gelatin zymograms in the characterization of crude enzymatic complexes. According to our results, this enzymatic complex could be used for biotechnological applications.

  3. Isolation and characterization of diesel degrading bacteria, Sphingomonas sp. and Acinetobacter junii from petroleum contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Wang, Duanchao; Li, Mengmeng; Xiang, Wei-Ning; Achal, Varenyam

    2014-03-01

    Two indigenous bacteria of petroleum contaminated soil were characterized to utilize diesel fuel as the sole carbon and energy sources in this work. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified these bacteria as Sphingomonas sp. and Acinetobacter junii. The ability to degrade diesel fuel has been demonstrated for the first time by these isolates. The results of IR analyses showed that Sphingomonas sp. VA1 and A. junii VA2 degraded up to 82.6% and 75.8% of applied diesel over 15 days, respectively. In addition, Sphingomonas sp. VA1 possessed the higher cellular hydrophobicities of 94% for diesel compared to 81% by A. junii VA2. The isolates Sphingomonas sp. VA1 and A. junii VA2 exhibited 24% and 18%, respectively emulsification activity. This study reports two new diesel degrading bacterial species, which can be effectively used for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated sites.

  4. An inter-comparison of PM2.5 at urban and urban background sites: Chemical characterization and source apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, D.; Donateo, A.; Conte, M.; Merico, E.; Giangreco, A.; Giangreco, F.; Contini, D.

    2016-06-01

    A measurement campaign was performed between 04/03/2013 and 17/07/2013 for simultaneous collection of PM2.5 samples in two nearby sites in southeastern Italy: an urban site and an urban background site. PM2.5 at the two sites were similar; however, the chemical composition and the contributions of the main sources were significantly different. The coefficients of divergence (CODs) showed spatial heterogeneity of EC (higher at the urban site because of traffic emissions) and of all metals. Major ions (NH4+, Na+, and SO42 -) and OC had low CODs, suggesting a homogeneous distribution of sea spray, secondary sulfate, and secondary organic matter (SOM = 1.6*OCsec, where OCsec is the secondary OC). The strong correlations between Na+ and Cl-, and the low Cl-/Na+ ratios, suggested the presence of aged sea spray with chloride depletion (about 79% of Cl-) and formation of sodium nitrate at both sites. In both sites, the non-sea-salt sulfate was about 97% of sulfate, and the strong correlation between SO42 - and NH4+ indicated that ammonium was present as ammonium sulfate. However, during advection of Saharan Dust, calcium sulfate was present rather than ammonium sulfate. The source apportionment was performed using the Positive Matrix Factorization comparing outputs of model EPA PMF 3.0 and 5.0 version. Six aerosol sources were identified at both sites: traffic, biomass burning, crustal-resuspended dust, secondary nitrate, marine aerosol, and secondary sulfate. The PMF3.0 model was not completely able, in these sites, to separate marine contribution from secondary nitrate and secondary sulfate from OC, underestimating the marine contribution and overestimating the secondary sulfate with respect to stoichiometric calculations. The application of specific constraints on PMF5.0 provided cleaner profiles, improving the comparison with stoichiometric calculations. The seasonal trends revealed larger biomass burning contributions during the cold period at both sites due to

  5. Characterization of Semi-volatility of Atmospheric Submicron Particles at a Regional Background Site in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L. Y.

    2015-12-01

    HE Lingyan1, HUANG Congni1, HUANG Xiaofeng11. Key Laboratory for Urban Habitat Environmental Science and Technology, School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, China Abstract:The coupling of a Thermal Denuder (TD) with a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was used in Xianghe, which is a regional background site in North China, during June - July, 2013 to on-line measure the mass concentrations and semi-volatilities of atmospheric submicron particles, including organic matter (OM), SO42- , NO3-, NH4+, and Cl-. The total PM1 mass concentration measured was averagely (47.9±47.3) mg/m3 during the campaign, with OM accounting for 38.2% of the total PM1 mass, followed by SO42- (33.7%), NH4+ (13.8%), NO3- (12.3%), and Cl- (2.0%). It was found that NO3- and Cl- had the highest semi-volatility, with about 60% of them evaporating into the gas phase by increasing the temperature to 50 °C, while SO42- showed the lowest semi-volatility, with almost 90% of its mass remaining in the particle phase at 50 °C. The semi-volatility of OM and NH4+ was at the middle level. The semi-volatility of NO3- was affected by the pollution level of the atmospheric submicron particles since it showed an increasing trend with the increasing of PM1 at 50 °C. The oxygen-to-carbon ration of organic aerosol was 0.47 to 0.60 by increasing the temperature from 50 ℃ to 200 °C. In addition, the semi-volatility of the PM1 species with vacuum aerodynamic diameters of 60-2000 nm was little size dependent. The calculation based on the high-resolution mass spectra of OM showed that CO2+-containing organic species had lower semi-volatility, while C4H9+-containing organic species had higher semi-volatility. The semi-volatility of OM was found to be negatively related to its oxidation state. The quantitative result of atmospheric submicron particles' semi-volatility is essential to the research of the physicochemical

  6. Genome survey sequencing and genetic background characterization of Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta based on next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    Full Text Available Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis has a high economic value and is one of the most important aquaculture species in China. Despite it is economic importance, it has remained largely unstudied at the genomic level. In this study, we conducted a genome survey of Gp. lemaneiformis using next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies. In total, 18.70 Gb of high-quality sequence data with an estimated genome size of 97 Mb were obtained by HiSeq 2000 sequencing for Gp. lemaneiformis. These reads were assembled into 160,390 contigs with a N50 length of 3.64 kb, which were further assembled into 125,685 scaffolds with a total length of 81.17 Mb. Genome analysis predicted 3490 genes and a GC% content of 48%. The identified genes have an average transcript length of 1,429 bp, an average coding sequence size of 1,369 bp, 1.36 exons per gene, exon length of 1,008 bp, and intron length of 191 bp. From the initial assembled scaffold, transposable elements constituted 54.64% (44.35 Mb of the genome, and 7737 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified. Among these SSRs, the trinucleotide repeat type was the most abundant (up to 73.20% of total SSRs, followed by the di- (17.41%, tetra- (5.49%, hexa- (2.90%, and penta- (1.00% nucleotide repeat type. These characteristics suggest that Gp. lemaneiformis is a model organism for genetic study. This is the first report of genome-wide characterization within this taxon.

  7. GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOILS FOR FOREST ROADS: THE CASE OF MONTE ALEGRE FARM, BELONGING TO DURATEX S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cardoso Machado

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This research applied geotechnical tests to roads aiming at subsidizing the decision making process for improving theconstruction and maintenance patterns of access roads. In order to achieve this, characterization experiments (particle sizedistribution, specific weight of solids, consistence limits, compactation and CBR, in 13 samples of soils were done. The resultsindicated that, according to the technical specifications of DNER (1996, 2 samples of soils were classified as material forreinforcement of sandy soil, 11 as material to be used in road pavement sub-base and no one sample was considered appropriate for beingused in highways base. Therefore, evidencing the need of applying techniques that alter local soil properties, such as, chemical stabilization.

  8. Partial characterization of biosurfactant from Lactobacillus pentosus and comparison with sodium dodecyl sulphate for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldes, A B; Paradelo, R; Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Gudiña, E; Rodrigues, L; Teixeira, J A; Domínguez, J M; Barral, M T

    2013-01-01

    The capability of a cell bound biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, to accelerate the bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was compared with a synthetic anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS-). The biosurfactant produced by the bacteria was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) that clearly indicates the presence of OH and NH groups, C=O stretching of carbonyl groups and NH nebding (peptide linkage), as well as CH2-CH3 and C-O stretching, with similar FTIR spectra than other biosurfactants obtained from lactic acid bacteria. After the characterization of biosurfactant by FTIR, soil contaminated with 7,000 mg Kg(-1) of octane was treated with biosurfactant from L. pentosus or SDS. Treatment of soil for 15 days with the biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus led to a 65.1% reduction in the hydrocarbon concentration, whereas SDS reduced the octane concentration to 37.2% compared with a 2.2% reduction in the soil contaminated with octane in absence of biosurfactant used as control. Besides, after 30 days of incubation soil with SDS or biosurfactant gave percentages of bioremediation around 90% in both cases. Thus, it can be concluded that biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus accelerates the bioremediation of octane-contaminated soil by improving the solubilisation of octane in the water phase of soil, achieving even better results than those reached with SDS after 15-day treatment.

  9. Partial Characterization of Biosurfactant from Lactobacillus pentosus and Comparison with Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate for the Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Moldes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The capability of a cell bound biosurfactant produced by Lactobacillus pentosus, to accelerate the bioremediation of a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, was compared with a synthetic anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulphate SDS-. The biosurfactant produced by the bacteria was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR that clearly indicates the presence of OH and NH groups, C=O stretching of carbonyl groups and NH nebding (peptide linkage, as well as CH2–CH3 and C–O stretching, with similar FTIR spectra than other biosurfactants obtained from lactic acid bacteria. After the characterization of biosurfactant by FTIR, soil contaminated with 7,000 mg Kg−1 of octane was treated with biosurfactant from L. pentosus or SDS. Treatment of soil for 15 days with the biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus led to a 65.1% reduction in the hydrocarbon concentration, whereas SDS reduced the octane concentration to 37.2% compared with a 2.2% reduction in the soil contaminated with octane in absence of biosurfactant used as control. Besides, after 30 days of incubation soil with SDS or biosurfactant gave percentages of bioremediation around 90% in both cases. Thus, it can be concluded that biosurfactant produced by L. pentosus accelerates the bioremediation of octane-contaminated soil by improving the solubilisation of octane in the water phase of soil, achieving even better results than those reached with SDS after 15-day treatment.

  10. Characterization of free nitrogen fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter in organic vegetable-grown Colombian soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez Avella, Diego; Montaña, José Salvador; Martínez, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    With the purpose of isolating and characterizing free nitrogen fixing bacteria (FNFB) of the genus Azotobacter, soil samples were collected randomly from different vegetable organic cultures with neutral pH in different zones of Boyacá-Colombia. Isolations were done in selective free nitrogen Ashby-

  11. Soil Organic Matter Characterization by 13C-NMR and Thermal Analysis in Deep Tropical Soil Profiles from the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, A. F.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forest soils store large quantities of carbon (C) as soil organic matter (SOM), a substantial proportion of which is stored deep (> 30 cm) in the soil profile. Characterization of tropical SOM remains difficult, in part due to the analytical challenges associated high iron and low C concentrations. In this study, we combined solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with analytical thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry, DSC; evolved CO2 gas analysis, CO2-EGA) to explore patterns in SOM composition in deep soil profiles from two contrasting soil types at the Luquillo Critical Zone Observatory (LCZO) in northeast Puerto Rico. Prior to 13C NMR, soils were repeatedly demineralized with hydrofluoric acid (HF) to remove paramagnetic compounds and concentrate organic matter. Given the scant information on tropical subsoil OM, we also sought to evaluate the effect of HF acid treatments on tropical subsoil SOM. HF treatments effectively enriched sample C and removed paramagnetic compounds, allowing us to obtain high-quality NMR spectra for low-C subsoils. C:N ratios before and after HF treatment were nearly identical (mean = 16.6 ± 0.8), suggesting that the SOM pool was not substantially fractionated, though C recoveries were low and variable. Thermal analyses confirmed the loss of a substantial fraction of the soil mineral matrix, however, retention of several endothermic regions in post-HF Inceptisol soils indicated that not all minerals were completely solubilized. In addition, important differences in the DSC and CO2-EGA thermograms were observed in comparing samples before versus after HF treatments. These results suggest that the organo-mineral associations were substantially altered, though it is not immediately clear the degree to which alterations in chemical composition versus binding association have changed. In addition to these qualitative changes, quantitative interpretations of 13C-NMR results from low-C and high

  12. Spatially distributed characterization of soil-moisture dynamics using travel-time distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heße, Falk; Zink, Matthias; Kumar, Rohini; Samaniego, Luis; Attinger, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Travel-time distributions are a comprehensive tool for the characterization of hydrological system dynamics. Unlike the streamflow hydrograph, they describe the movement and storage of water within and throughout the hydrological system. Until recently, studies using such travel-time distributions have generally either been applied to lumped models or to real-world catchments using available time series, e.g., stable isotopes. Whereas the former are limited in their realism and lack information on the spatial arrangements of the relevant quantities, the latter are limited in their use of available data sets. In our study, we employ the spatially distributed mesoscale Hydrological Model (mHM) and apply it to a catchment in central Germany. Being able to draw on multiple large data sets for calibration and verification, we generate a large array of spatially distributed states and fluxes. These hydrological outputs are then used to compute the travel-time distributions for every grid cell in the modeling domain. A statistical analysis indicates the general soundness of the upscaling scheme employed in mHM and reveals precipitation, saturated soil moisture and potential evapotranspiration as important predictors for explaining the spatial heterogeneity of mean travel times. In addition, we demonstrate and discuss the high information content of mean travel times for characterization of internal hydrological processes.

  13. Characterization of strains unlike Mesorhizobium loti that nodulate lotus spp. in saline soils of Granada, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorite, María J; Muñoz, Socorro; Olivares, José; Soto, María J; Sanjuán, Juan

    2010-06-01

    Lotus species are forage legumes with potential as pastures in low-fertility and environmentally constrained soils, owing to their high persistence and yield under those conditions. The aim of this work was the characterization of phenetic and genetic diversity of salt-tolerant bacteria able to establish efficient symbiosis with Lotus spp. A total of 180 isolates able to nodulate Lotus corniculatus and Lotus tenuis from two locations in Granada, Spain, were characterized. Molecular identification of the isolates was performed by repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR) and 16S rRNA, atpD, and recA gene sequence analyses, showing the presence of bacteria related to different species of the genus Mesorhizobium: Mesorhizobium tarimense/Mesorhizobium tianshanense, Mesorhizobium chacoense/Mesorhizobium albiziae, and the recently described species, Mesorhizobium alhagi. No Mesorhizobium loti-like bacteria were found, although most isolates carried nodC and nifH symbiotic genes closely related to those of M. loti, considered the type species of bacteria nodulating Lotus, and other Lotus rhizobia. A significant portion of the isolates showed both high salt tolerance and good symbiotic performance with L. corniculatus, and many behaved like salt-dependent bacteria, showing faster growth and better symbiotic performance when media were supplemented with Na or Ca salts.

  14. Performance and Facility Background Pressure Characterization Tests of NASAs 12.5-kW Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Shastry, Rohit; Thomas, Robert; Yim, John; Herman, Daniel; Williams, George; Myers, James; Hofer, Richard; Mikellides, Ioannis; Sekerak, Michael; Polk, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Mission (SEP/TDM) project is funding the development of a 12.5-kW Hall thruster system to support future NASA missions. The thruster designated Hall Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) is a 12.5-kW Hall thruster with magnetic shielding incorporating a centrally mounted cathode. HERMeS was designed and modeled by a NASA GRC and JPL team and was fabricated and tested in vacuum facility 5 (VF5) at NASA GRC. Tests at NASA GRC were performed with the Technology Development Unit 1 (TDU1) thruster. TDU1's magnetic shielding topology was confirmed by measurement of anode potential and low electron temperature along the discharge chamber walls. Thermal characterization tests indicated that during full power thruster operation at peak magnetic field strength, the various thruster component temperatures were below prescribed maximum allowable limits. Performance characterization tests demonstrated the thruster's wide throttling range and found that the thruster can achieve a peak thruster efficiency of 63% at 12.5 kW 500 V and can attain a specific impulse of 3,000 s at 12.5 kW and a discharge voltage of 800 V. Facility background pressure variation tests revealed that the performance, operational characteristics, and magnetic shielding effectiveness of the TDU1 design were mostly insensitive to increases in background pressure.

  15. Characterizing rates and mechanisms of soil transport using tephra as a tracer: Charwell River, South Island, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roering, J. J.; Almond, P.; Tonkin, P.; McKean, J.

    2001-12-01

    Downslope transport of soil in the absence of overland flow has been attributed to numerous mechanisms, including particle-by-particle rheologic creep and disturbances associated with biological activity. Process stochasticity and difficulties associated with field measurement have obscured the characterization of long-term soil transport rates and mechanisms. Most modeling studies represent soil transport as a slope and/or soil depth-dependent process, although field evidence is sparse. At our study site along incised fluvial terraces of the Charwell River, South Island, New Zealand, we documented vertical profiles of tephra concentration along a hillslope transect to quantify soil transport. Near the relatively undissected hilltop, we observed a 10 cm thick primary tephra layer (ca 22.6 kyr) within loess deposits approximately 80 cm below the landscape surface. In the downslope direction, the depth to the highly concentrated tephra layer decreases, coincident with an increase in hillslope convexity (which is proportional to erosion rate if soil flux varies linearly with hillslope gradient). Exhumation of the spike in tephra concentration results from landscape lowering due to soil transport processes as evidence for overland flow erosion is lacking. Approximately 20 m downslope of the hilltop, where the depth to the tephra spike declines to 40-50 cm, peak concentrations decrease by a factor of 4 and tephra is distributed uniformly within the upper 40 cm of soil. Further downslope near the valley margin, we observed low and relatively uniform tephra concentrations in the upper soil. The transition from a thin, highly concentrated tephra layer at depth to sparse, widely distributed tephra within the upper soil column may result from soil mixing and transport by tree and plant root activity. The depth of this transition is approximately 50 cm along our transect, coincident with the rooting depth of Podocarpus trees that populated the area through much of the

  16. Development of soft extraction method for structural characterization of boreal forest soil proteins with MALDI-TOF/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Sanna; Ketola, Raimo A.; Kitunen, Veikko; Smolander, Aino; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2010-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) is usually the nutrient restricting productivity in boreal forests. Forest soils contain a great amount of nitrogen, but only a small part of it is in mineral form. Most part of soil N is bound in the structures of different organic compounds such as proteins, peptides, amino acids and more stabilized, refractory compounds. Due to the fact that soil organic N has a very important role in soil nutrient cycling and in plant nutrition, there is a need for more detailed knowledge of its chemistry in soil. Conventional methods to extract and analyze soil organic N are usually very destructive for structures of higher molecular weight organic compounds, such as proteins. The aim of this study was to characterize proteins extracted from boreal forest soil by "soft" extraction methods in order to maintain their molecular structure. The organic layer (F) from birch forest floor containing 78% of organic matter was sieved, freeze dried, pulverized, and extracted with a citrate or phosphate buffer (pH 6 or 8). Sequential extraction with the citrate or phosphate buffer and an SDS buffer (pH 6.8), slightly modified from the method of Chen et al. (2009, Proteomics 9: 4970-4973), was also done. Proteins were purified from the soil extract by extraction with buffered phenol and precipitated with methanol + 0.1M ammonium acetate at -20°C. Characterization of proteins was performed with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) and the concentration of total proteins was measured using Bradford's method. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a positive control in the extractions and as a standard protein in Bradford's method. Our results showed that sequential extraction increased the amount of extracted proteins compared to the extractions without the SDS-buffer; however, it must be noted that the use of SDS-buffer very probably increased denaturization of proteins. Purification of proteins from crude soil extracts

  17. Hyperfine and radiological characterization of soils of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, M L; Taylor, M A; Mercader, R C; Sives, F R; Desimoni, J, E-mail: taylor@fisica.unlp.edu.a [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Fisica La Plata - CONICET, CC 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-03-01

    The depth profile concentration of both natural and anthropogenic gamma-ray-emitter nuclides were determined in soil samples collected in an area located at 34{sup 0} 54.452' S, 58{sup 0} 8.365' W, down to 50 cm in depth, using an hyper-pure Ge spectrometer. The soil samples were also characterized by means of Moessbauer spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The activities of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural chains remain constant in depth at 41 Bq/kg and 46 Bq/kg, respectively, while the {sup 40}K activity increases from 531 Bq/kg to 618 Bq/kg between 2.5 cm y 25.5 cm of depth. The only anthropogenic detected nuclide is {sup 137}Cs, whose activity changes form 1.4 Bq/kg to values lower than the detection limit (LD) for depths below 25 cm, exhibiting a maximum at 10 cm beneath the surface. The Moessbauer spectra show two magnetic sextets associated with {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, as well as two Fe{sup +3} Fe{sup +2} doublets, probably originated in octahedral and tetrahedral sites of paramagnetic phases. The Fe{sup 3+} paramagnetic signal relative fraction increases up to 82% at the expense of the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} one when de depth increases. No correlation between Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and the {sup 137}Cs was identificated.

  18. Application of the CIE-L*a*b* system to characterize soil color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Kirillova, N. P.

    2016-11-01

    Identification and classification of many soils are based on their color characteristics. The main soil pigments are humus providing a dark color to soil, as well as hematite αFe2O3 and other Fe(III) (hydr)oxides coloring the soil in red and yellow. The soil classification is possible only upon the quantitative color assessment, the CIE-L*a*b* system being the most convenient, as it represents a versatile color space in Cartesian coordinates. The indices of lightness L*, redness a*, and yellowness b* may serve as quantitative characteristics of soils in tundra and taiga zones. The difference in redness a* and yellowness b* may be used in identifying the type of predominating Fe-pigment in soils. The humus content may be determined according to the soil lightness, and the accuracy in its quantitative determination increases when the humus type is considered, as the humate humus is darker than the fulvate humus.

  19. Structure, Aboveground Biomass, and Soil Characterization of Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park, Abu Dhabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsumaiti, Tareefa Saad Sultan

    Mangrove forests are national treasures of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and other arid countries with limited forested areas. Mangroves form a crucial part of the coastal ecosystem and provide numerous benefits to society, economy, and especially the environment. Mangrove trees, specifically Avicennia marina, are studied in their native habitat in order to characterize their population structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties. This study focused on Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park in Abu Dhabi, which was the first mangrove protected area to be designated in UAE. In situ measurements were collected to estimate Avicennia marina status, mortality rate (%), height (m), crown spread (m), stem number, diameter at breast height (cm), basal area (m), and aboveground biomass (t ha-1 ). Small-footprint aerial light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data acquired by UAE were processed to characterize mangrove canopy height and aboveground biomass density. This included extraction of LIDAR-derived height percentile statistics, segmentation of the forest into structurally homogenous units, and development of regression relationships between in situ reference and remote sensing data using a machine learning approach. An in situ soil survey was conducted to examine the soils' physical and chemical properties, fertility status, and organic matter. The data of soil survey were used to create soil maps to evaluate key characteristics of soils, and their influence on Avicennia marina in Eastern Mangrove Lagoon National Park. The results of this study provide new insights into Avicennia marina canopy population, structure, aboveground biomass, and soil properties in Abu Dhabi, as data in such arid environments is lacking. This valuable information can help in managing and preserving this unique ecosystem.

  20. Airborne Geophysical Surveys in the North-Central Region of Goias (Brazil): Implications for Radiometric Characterization of Subtropical Soils

    CERN Document Server

    Guimarães, S N P; Justo, J S

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present progress obtained in analysis airborne geophysical survey data for the north-central region of the state of Goias (Brazil). The results obtained indicate that most of the subtropical soil types are characterized by Uranium contents of greater than one parts per million (ppm). Only ultisol and oxisol soils are found to have Uranium contents lower than one ppm. Thorium and Potassium abundances also display trends similar to those of Uranium. The K/U ratios fall in the expected range of values for common soils while the Th/U ratios are higher than normal. This latter observation may indicate a characteristic feature of subtropical soils. Alternatively it may be considered as indicative of disequilibrium conditions in radioactive series and consequent underestimation of Uranium in soil layers of the study area. In this context we point out the possibility of using results of radiometric surveys as a convenient complementary tool in identifying geochemical zoning of soils in subtropical env...

  1. Characterization of structures in biofilms formed by a Pseudomonas fluorescens isolated from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Siva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial biofilms represent an incompletely understood, but fundamental mode of bacterial growth. These sessile communities typically consist of stratified, morphologically-distinct layers of extracellular material, where numerous metabolic processes occur simultaneously in close proximity. Limited reports on environmental isolates have revealed highly ordered, three-dimensional organization of the extracellular matrix, which may hold important implications for biofilm physiology in vivo. Results A Pseudomonas spp. isolated from a natural soil environment produced flocculent, nonmucoidal biofilms in vitro with unique structural features. These mature biofilms were made up of numerous viable bacteria, even after extended culture, and contained up to 50% of proteins and accumulated 3% (by dry weight calcium, suggesting an important role for the divalent metal in biofilm formation. Ultrastructurally, the mature biofilms contained structural motifs consisting of dense, fibrillary clusters, nanofibers, and ordered, honeycomb-like chambers enveloped in thin sheets. Conclusion Mature biofilms contained living bacteria and were structurally, chemically, and physiologically heterogeneous. The principal architectural elements observed by electron microscopy may represent useful morphological clues for identifying bacterial biofilms in vivo. The complexity and reproducibility of the structural motifs observed in bacterial biofilms appear to be the result of organized assembly, suggesting that this environmental isolate may possess ecological advantages in its natural habitat.

  2. Physical characterization, spectral response and remotely sensed mapping of Mediterranean soil surface crusts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, S.M. de; Addink, E.A.; Duijsing, D.; Beek, L.P.H. van

    2011-01-01

    Soil surface crusting and sealing are frequent but unfavorable processes in Mediterranean areas. Soil crust and seals form on bare soil subject to high-intensity rainfall, resulting in a hard, impenetrable layer that impedes infiltration and hampers the germination and establishment of plants. The a

  3. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia;

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  4. Characterization of labile organic carbon in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain: relationships to carbon functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodla, Syam K; Wang, Jim J; Delaune, Ronald D

    2012-10-01

    Adequate characterization of labile organic carbon (LOC) is essential to the understanding of C cycling in soil. There has been very little evaluation about the nature of LOC characterizations in coastal wetlands, where soils are constantly influenced by different redox fluctuations and salt water intrusions. In this study, we characterized and compared LOC fractions in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain using four different methods including 1) aerobically mineralizable C (AMC), 2) cold water extractable C (CWEC), 3) hot water extractable C (HWEC), and 4) salt extractable C (SEC), as well as acid hydrolysable C (AHC) which includes both labile and slowly degradable organic C. Molecular organic C functional groups of these wetland soils were characterized by (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The LOC and AHC increased with soil organic C (SOC) regardless of wetland soil type. The LOC estimates by four different methods were positively and significantly linearly related to each other (R(2)=0.62-0.84) and with AHC (R(2)=0.47-0.71). The various LOC fractions accounted for ≤4.3% of SOC whereas AHC fraction represented 16-49% of SOC. AMC was influenced positively by O/N-alkyl and carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C, whereas CWEC and SEC fractions were influenced only positively by carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C in SOC. On the other hand, HWEC fraction was found to be only influenced positively by carbonyl C, and AHC positively by O/N-alkyl and alkyl C but negatively by aromatic C groups in SOC. Overall these relations suggested different contributions of various molecular organic C moieties to LOC in these wetlands from those often found for upland soils. The presence of more than 50% non-acid hydrolysable C suggested the dominance of relatively stable SOC pool that would be sequestered in these Mississippi River deltaic plain coastal wetland soils. The results have important implications to the understanding of the

  5. Direct and indirect nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils, 1990 - 2003. Background document on the calculation method for the Dutch National Inventory Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek KW van der; Schijndel MW van; Kuikman PJ; MNP; Alterra; LVM

    2007-01-01

    Since 2005 the Dutch method to calculate the nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural soils has fully complied with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Good Practice Guidelines. In order to meet the commitments of the Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, nitrous oxi

  6. Advanced solvent based methods for molecular characterization of soil organic matter by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tfaily, Malak M.; Chu, Rosalie K.; Tolic, Nikola; Roscioli, Kristyn M.; Anderton, Christopher R.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Robinson, Errol W.; Hess, Nancy J.

    2015-05-19

    Soil organic matter (SOM) a complex, heterogeneous mixture of above and belowground plant litter and animal and microbial residues at various degrees of decomposition, is a key reservoir for carbon (C) and nutrient biogeochemical cycling in soil based ecosystems. A limited understanding of the molecular composition of SOM limits the ability to routinely decipher chemical processes within soil and predict accurately how terrestrial carbon fluxes will response to changing climatic conditions and land use. To elucidate the molecular-level structure of SOM, we selectively extracted a broad range of intact SOM compounds by a combination of different organic solvents from soils with a wide range of C content. Our use of Electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) and a suite of solvents with varying polarity significantly expands the inventory of the types of organic molecules present in soils. Specifically, we found that hexane is selective for lipid-like compounds with very low O:C ratios; water was selective for carbohydrates with high O:C ratios; acetonitrile preferentially extracts lignin, condensed structures, and tannin poly phenolic compounds with O:C > 0.5; methanol has higher selectivity towards compounds characterized with low O:C < 0.5; and hexane, MeOH, ACN and water solvents increase the number and types of organic molecules extracted from soil for a broader range of chemically diverse soil types. Our study of SOM molecules by ESI-FTICR MS revealed new insight into the molecular-level complexity of organics contained in soils.

  7. Persistence of legacy soil P and elevated background water P concentrations in Water Conservation Area 2A, a northern Everglades wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juston, John M.; Kadlec, Robert H.; DeBusk, William F.; Jerauld, Mike J.; DeBusk, Thomas A.

    2015-12-01

    Upstream source control and Stormwater Treatment Areas (STAs) have reduced phosphorus (P) loads to Water Conservation Area 2A (WCA-2A), a northern Everglades wetland, by three quarters since year 2000. Nevertheless, large storages of P remain in enriched peat soils and it is unclear how legacy stores will impact spatial and temporal scales of recovery. We remeasured soil P enrichment along a well-studied eutrophication gradient in WCA-2A and applied a profile modeling approach with uncertainty analysis to assess changes in longitudinal soil P gradients 13 years after load reductions. We then analyzed existing internal water P data, using a novel data screening approach, for evidence of lowest possible water P concentrations independent from inflows. We interpret such water P limits as evidence of the strength of internal loading at a location. Results indicate that soil P enrichment persists in the ˜7.5 km long "impacted" zone, with no significant evidence of net advancement or recession, while a large pool of labile P in the flocculent layer consolidated and diminished. There is indeed evidence, both spatial and temporal, that this extensive zone of enriched soil P continues to elevate lowest achievable water P concentrations. The corresponding gradient of elevated water P limits is both receding and diminishing since load reductions, thus providing further evidence toward recovery. However, results also suggest that these "transitory P limits" due to internal loading are likely to persist for decades above water quality targets. These results advance our understanding of recovery in impacted wetlands and are relevant to Everglades restoration.

  8. Isolation and 16S DNA characterization of soil microorganisms from tropical soils capable of utilizing the herbicides hexazinone and tebuthiuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Fadwa I Y; Helling, Charles S

    2003-11-01

    Six non-fermentative bacteria were isolated from Colombian (South America) and Hawaiian (USA) soils after enrichment with minimal medium supplemented with two herbicides, hexazinone (Hex) and tebuthiuron (Teb). Microscopic examination and physiological tests were followed by partial 16S DNA sequence analysis, using the first 527 bp of the 16S rRNA gene for bacterial identification. The isolated microorganisms (and in brackets, the herbicide that each degraded) were identified as: from Colombia. Methylobacterium organophilum [Teb], Paenibacillus pabuli [Teb], and Micrmbacterium foliorum [Hex]; and from Hawaii, Methylobacterium radiotolerans [Teb], Paenibacillus illinoisensis [Hex], and Rhodococcus equi [Hex]. The findings further explain how these herbicides, which have potential for illicit coca (Erythroxylum sp.) control, dissipate following their application to tropical soils.

  9. Vertical characterization of soil contamination using multi-way modeling--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kunwar P; Malik, Amrita; Basant, Ankita; Ojha, Priyanka

    2008-11-01

    This study describes application of chemometric multi-way modeling approach to analyze the dataset pertaining to soils of industrial area with a view to assess the soil/sub-soil contamination, accumulation pathways and mobility of contaminants in the soil profiles. The three-way (sampling depths, chemical variables, sampling sites) dataset on heavy metals in soil samples collected from three different sites in an industrial area, up to a depth of 60 m each was analyzed using three-way Tucker3 model validated for stability and goodness of fit. A two component Tucker3 model, explaining 66.6% of data variance, allowed interpretation of the data information in all the three modes. The interpretation of core elements revealing interactions among the components of different modes (depth, variables, sites) allowed inferring more realistic information about the contamination pattern of soils both along the horizontal and vertical coordinates, contamination pathways, and mobility of contaminants through soil profiles, as compared to the traditional data analysis techniques. It concluded that soils at site-1 and site-2 are relatively more contaminated with heavy metals of both the natural as well as anthropogenic origins, as compared to the soil of site-3. Moreover, the accumulation pathways of metals for upper shallow layers and deeper layers of soils in the area were differentiated. The information generated would be helpful in developing strategies for remediation of the contaminated soils for reducing the subsequent risk of ground-water contamination in the study region.

  10. Isolation and characterization of Acanthamoeba strains from soil samples in Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Todd, Cheridah D; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Cabello-Vilchez, Alfonso Martín; González, Ana C; Córdoba-Lanús, Elizabeth; Lindo, John F; Valladares, Basilio; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-04-01

    Free-living Amoebae of Acanthamoeba genus include non-pathogenic and pathogenic strains that are currently classified in 18 different genotypes, T1-T18. In this study, a survey was carried out to evaluate the presence of Acanthamoeba strains in soil samples collected between 2012 and 2013 in Gran Canaria Island, Canary Islands, Spain. Samples were inoculated onto non-nutrient agar (NNA) plates and were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba. Identification of Acanthamoeba strains was based on the morphology of the cyst and trophozoite forms. Subsequently, positive samples were cloned for their molecular characterization at the genotype level by sequencing the DF3 region located in the 18S rDNA gene of Acanthamoeba as previously described. Sequencing results revealed the presence of T2, T5 and T4 genotypes within the studied samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of Acanthamoeba in Gran Canaria Island and the first study at the genotype level in the Canary Islands.

  11. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Cuba, with insecticidal activity against mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aileen; Díaz, Raúl; Díaz, Manuel; Borrero, Yainais; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Carreras, Bertha; Gato, René

    2011-09-01

    Chemical insecticides may be toxic and cause environmental degradation. Consequently, biological control for insects represents an alternative with low ecological impact. In this work, three soil isolates (A21, A51 and C17) from different regions of the Cuban archipelago were identified, characterized and evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The new isolates were compared with reference IPS82 strain and two strains isolated from biolarvicides Bactivec and Bactoculicida, respectively. The differentiation was done by morphological, biochemical, bioassays activity and molecular methods (SDS-PAGE, plasmid profile and random amplified polymorphic analysis). All isolates were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The A21, A51 and C17 isolates showed higher larvicide activity than Bactivec's isolated reference strain, against both A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. A21 isolate had a protein profile similar to IPS82 and Bactivec strain. A51 and C17 isolates produced a characteristic proteins pattern. A21 and A51 isolates had plasmid patterns similar to IPS82 standard strain, while C17 isolate had different both plasmid profile and protein bands. All the studied isolates showed a diverse RAPD patterns and were different from the strains previously used in biological control in Cuba.

  12. Characterization and screening of bacteria from rhizosphere of maize grown in Indonesian and Pakistani soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naureen, Zakira; Yasmin, Sumera; Hameed, Sohail; Malik, K A; Hafeez, Fauzia Y

    2005-01-01

    Thirty rhizobacteria isolated from maize grown in Pakistani and Indonesian soils were evaluated for their morphological characteristics, nitrogen fixation, P-solubilization, indole acetic acid (IAA) and siderophores production. Nitrogenase activity was detected in nineteen isolates ranging from 21.8-3624 n moles C2H4 produced/h/mg protein. Most of the isolates produced IAA, ten were capable of siderophore production while four were P-solubilizers. Ultrastructural studies of Pseudomonas sp. F14 indicated characteristic rhizospheric colonization within 48 h that was observed to change considerably with the passage of time from few bacteria to micro colonies. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of 30 bacterial strains using 30 oligonucleotide primers resulted in considerable level of genetic diversity, with genetic distance ranging from 2-16%. Indonesian isolates were found to be more diverse as compared to Pakistani isolates. The characterization and screening of rhizobacteria of maize rhizosphere has helped in selection of isolates F7, LS-1, 3.1.1.C, F2, F3 and F13 as superior strains for use as bioinoculant. Moreover isolate F14 identified, as Pseudomonas fulgida by partial 16S rRNA sequence analysis is a novel strain regarding its tremendous potentials for inoculum production to enhance the yield of maize.

  13. Characterization of contaminated soil and groundwater surrounding an illegal landfill (S. Giuliano, Venice, Italy) by principal component analysis and kriging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Critto, Andrea; Carlon, Claudio; Marcomini, Antonio

    2003-04-01

    Information on soil and groundwater contamination was used to develop a site conceptual model and to identify exposure scenarios. - The characterization of a hydrologically complex contaminated site bordering the lagoon of Venice (Italy) was undertaken by investigating soils and groundwaters affected by the chemical contaminants originated by the wastes dumped into an illegal landfill. Statistical tools such as principal components analysis and geostatistical techniques were applied to obtain the spatial distribution of chemical contaminants. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and Cl{sup -} were used to trace the migration of the contaminants from the top soil to the underlying groundwaters. The chemical and hydrogeological available information was assembled to obtain the schematic of the conceptual model of the contaminated site capable to support the formulation of major exposure scenarios, which are also provided.

  14. Characterization of radish mitochondrial atpA: influence of nuclear background on transcription of atpA-associated sequences and relationship with male sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaroff, C A; Apel, I J; Palmer, J D

    1990-11-01

    We have previously shown that the mitochondrial gene atpA, encoding the alpha subunit of F1 ATP synthase, is associated with DNA rearrangements and nuclear-specific transcript patterns in the male-sterile cytoplasm of Ogura radish. Here we present a detailed characterization of this gene from both the normal (fertile) and Ogura (male-sterile) cytoplasms of radish to determine if it is involved in Ogura cytoplasmic male sterility. The normal and Ogura radish atpA loci are virtually identical for 3.8 kb, including a 507 codon open reading frame whose product is approximately 92% identical to other plant ATPA polypeptides. Rearrangement breakpoints have been identified 613 bp 5' and 1663 bp 3' to the atpA coding region. The 5' rearrangement breakpoint is located within a repeated sequence that has been associated with other rearrangement events in radish mitochondria. The previously identified transcript difference results from transcription originating upstream of this rearrangement site. Although the presence of this transcript is affected by nuclear background, analyses in several different sterile and fertile nuclear backgrounds indicate that the presence of this transcript is not strictly correlated with male sterility. In addition, normal levels of ATPA polypeptide are present in sterile plants containing the Ogura cytoplasm.

  15. Characterization of Xe-133 global atmospheric background: Implications for the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Pascal; Generoso, Sylvia; Morin, Mireille; Gross, Philippe; Le Petit, Gilbert; Moulin, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Monitoring atmospheric concentrations of radioxenons is relevant to provide evidence of atmospheric or underground nuclear weapon tests. However, when the design of the International Monitoring Network (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was set up, the impact of industrial releases was not perceived. It is now well known that industrial radioxenon signature can interfere with that of nuclear tests. Therefore, there is a crucial need to characterize atmospheric distributions of radioxenons from industrial sources—the so-called atmospheric background—in the frame of the CTBT. Two years of Xe-133 atmospheric background have been simulated using 2013 and 2014 meteorological data together with the most comprehensive emission inventory of radiopharmaceutical facilities and nuclear power plants to date. Annual average simulated activity concentrations vary from 0.01 mBq/m3 up to above 5 mBq/m3 nearby major sources. Average measured and simulated concentrations agree on most of the IMS stations, which indicates that the main sources during the time frame are properly captured. Xe-133 atmospheric background simulated at IMS stations turn out to be a complex combination of sources. Stations most impacted are in Europe and North America and can potentially detect Xe-133 every day. Predicted occurrences of detections of atmospheric Xe-133 show seasonal variations, more accentuated in the Northern Hemisphere, where the maximum occurs in winter. To our knowledge, this study presents the first global maps of Xe-133 atmospheric background from industrial sources based on two years of simulation and is a first attempt to analyze its composition in terms of origin at IMS stations.

  16. Micromorphological Aspects of Forensic Geopedology II: Ultramicroscopic vs Microscopic Characterization of Phosphatic Impregnations on Soil Particles in Experimental Burials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, S. I. E.; Trombino, L.; Cattaneo, C.

    2012-04-01

    Grows up the importance of the role played by soil scientists in the modern forensic sciences, in particular when buried human remains strongly decomposed or skeletonized are found in different environment situations. Among the different techniques normally used in geopedology, it is usefull to apply in such forensic cases, soil micromorphology (including optical microscopy and ultramicroscopy) that has been underused up today, for various kind of reasons. An interdisciplinary Italian-team, formed by earth scientists and legal medicine, is working on several sets of experimental burial of pigs and piglets in different soil types and for different times of burial, in order to get new evidences on environmental behaviour related to the burial, focalising on geopedological and micropedological aspects. The present work is focused on: - ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of five couples of pigs, buried respectively for one month, six month, one year, two years and two years and half in two different areas; - microscopic (petrographic microscope) and ultramicroscopic (SEM-EDS) cross characterization of the phosphatic impregnation (by body fluids) on soils sampled under the dead bodies of several piglets, buried for twenty months. The first results show trends of persistency of such phosphatic features, mainly related to the grain size of the impregnated soil particles and weather conditions (or seasons) of exhumation, while apparently time since burial is only marginally effective for the investigated burial period. Further experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of phosphorus precipitation and leaching for longer times of burial and different seasons of exhumation, both from the microscopic and the pedological/chemical point of view.

  17. Soil and geomorphological parameters to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the Guadarrama Range (Central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Thomas; Inclán-Cuartas, Rosa M.; Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo; Saa, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rastrero, Manuel; Tanarro-Garcia, Luis M.; Luque, Esperanza; Pelayo, Marta; Ubeda, Jose; Tarquis, Ana; Diaz-Puente, Javier; De Marcos, Javier; Rodriguez-Alonso, Javier; Hernandez, Carlos; Palacios, David; Gallardo-Díaz, Juan; Fidel González-Rouco, J.

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean mountain ecosystems are often complex and remarkably diverse and are seen as important sources of biological diversity. They play a key role in the water and sediment cycle for lowland regions as well as preventing and mitigating natural hazards especially those related to drought such as fire risk. However, these ecosystems are fragile and vulnerable to changes due to their particular and extreme climatic and biogeographic conditions. Some of the main pressures on mountain biodiversity are caused by changes in land use practices, infrastructure and urban development, unsustainable tourism, overexploitation of natural resources, fragmentation of habitats, particularly when located close to large population centers, as well as by pressures related toclimate change. The objective of this work is to select soil and geomorphological parameters in order to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the newly created National Park of the Sierra de Guadarrama in Central Spain, where the presence of the Madrid metropolitan area is the main factor of impact. This is carried out within the framework of the Guadarrama Monitoring Network (GuMNet) of the Campus de ExcelenciaInternacionalMoncloa, where long-term monitoring of the atmosphere, soil and bedrock are priority. This network has a total of ten stations located to the NW of Madrid and in this case, three stations have been selected to represent different ecosystems that include: 1) an alluvial plain in a lowland pasture area (La Herreria at 920 m a.s.l.), 2) mid mountain pine-forested and pasture area (Raso del Pino at 1801 m a.s.l.) and 3) high mountain grassland and rock area (Dos Hermanas at 2225 m a.s.l.). At each station a site geomorphological description, soil profile description and sampling was carried out. In the high mountain area information was obtained for monitoring frost heave activity and downslope soil movement. Basic soil laboratory analyses have been carried out

  18. Forty years of {sup 9}Sr in situ migration: importance of soil characterization in modeling transport phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J.M. [CEA-Cadarache, DTN/SMTM/LMTE, BP 1, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)]. E-mail: jean-michel.fernandez@noumea.ird.nc; Piault, E. [CEA-Cadarache, DTN/SMTM/LMTE, BP 1, 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Macouillard, D. [ENSIL, 16 rue d' Atlantis, Technopole BP 6804, 87068 Limoges (France); Juncos, C. [Universite de Savoie, BP 1104, 73011 Chambery (France)

    2006-07-01

    In 1960 experiments were carried out on the transfer of {sup 9}Sr between soil, grapes and wine. The experiments were conducted in situ on a piece of land limited by two control strips. The {sup 9}Sr migration over the last 40 years was studied by performing radiological and physico-chemical characterizations of the soil on eight 70 cm deep cores. The vertical migration modeling of {sup 9}Sr required the definition of a triple layer conceptual model integrating the rainwater infiltration at constant flux as the only external factor of influence. Afterwards the importance of a detailed soil characterization for modeling was discussed and satisfactory simulation of the {sup 9}Sr vertical transport was obtained and showed a calculated migration rate of about 1.0 cm year{sup -1} in full agreement with the in situ measured values. The discussion was regarding some of the key parameters such as granulometry, organic matter content (in the Van Genuchten parameter determination), Kd and the efficient rainwater infiltration. Besides the experimental data, simplifying assumptions in modeling such as water-soil redistribution calculation and factual discontinuities in conceptual model were examined.

  19. Sensitivity of soil water content simulation to different methods of soil hydraulic parameter characterization as initial input values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Meisam; Seuntjens, Piet; Shahidi, Reihaneh; Joris, Ingeborg; Boënne, Wesley; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil hydraulic parameters, which can be derived from in situ and/or laboratory experiments, are key input parameters for modeling water flow in the vadose zone. In this study, we measured soil hydraulic properties with typical laboratory measurements and field tension infiltration experiments using Wooding's analytical solution and inverse optimization along the vertical direction within two typical podzol profiles with sand texture in a potato field. The objective was to identify proper sets of hydraulic parameters and to evaluate their relevance on hydrological model performance for irrigation management purposes. Tension disc infiltration experiments were carried out at five different depths for both profiles at consecutive negative pressure heads of 12, 6, 3 and 0.1 cm. At the same locations and depths undisturbed samples were taken to determine the water retention curve with hanging water column and pressure extractors and lab saturated hydraulic conductivity with the constant head method. Both approaches allowed to determine the Mualem-van Genuchten (MVG) hydraulic parameters (residual water content θr, saturated water content θs,, shape parameters α and n, and field or lab saturated hydraulic conductivity Kfs and Kls). Results demonstrated horizontal differences and vertical variability of hydraulic properties. Inverse optimization resulted in excellent matches between observed and fitted infiltration rates in combination with final water content at the end of the experiment, θf, using Hydrus 2D/3D. It also resulted in close correspondence of  and Kfs with those from Logsdon and Jaynes' (1993) solution of Wooding's equation. The MVG parameters Kfs and α estimated from the inverse solution (θr set to zero), were relatively similar to values from Wooding's solution which were used as initial value and the estimated θs corresponded to (effective) field saturated water content θf. We found the Gardner parameter αG to be related to the optimized van

  20. [Characterization and soil environmental safety assessment of super absorbent polymers in agricultural application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Liu, Yu-Rong; Zheng, Yuan-Ming; He, Ji-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Super absorbent polymers (SAPs) are compounds that can absorb a lot of water which can be several folds of their original size and weight. They can increase soil water content and aggregates, promote fertilizer utilization efficiency, and stimulate crop growth. Therefore, SAPs have been widely regarded as a potential agent for water-saving agriculture. In this paper, we reviewed the advances of SAPs in materials, properties and applications in agriculture and pointed out that the absence of influences of SAPs on soil microbial ecology was the main issue in current studies. In regard to the adverse effects on soil environment caused by misuse of SAPs, we should address the systematic safety assessment of SAPs application in the soil, especially the effects on the soil microorganisms, which should be an important part of chemicals risk assessment in the soil application.

  1. Soft Soil Site Characterization on the Coast of Yantai and Its Effect on Ground Motion Parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Yuejun; Tang Rongyu; Peng Yanju

    2005-01-01

    According to the Chinese GB50011-2001 code and the recommended provisions of FEMANEHRP and EUROCODE 8, by using shear wave velocity and borehole data, the site classification is evaluated for a typical soft soil site on the Yantai seacoast. The site seismic ground motion effect is analyzed and the influence of the coastal soil on design ground motion parameters is discussed. The results show that the brief site classification can not represent the real conditions of a soft soil site; the soft soil on the coast has a remarkable impact on the magnitude and spectrum of ground motion acceleration. The magnification on peak acceleration is bigger, however, due to the nonlinear deformation of the soil. The magnification is reduced nonlinearly with the increase of input ground motion; the spectrum is broadened and the characteristic period elongated on the soft soil site.

  2. Free and bound aroma compounds characterization by GC-MS of Negroamaro wine as affected by soil management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toci, Aline T; Crupi, Pasquale; Gambacorta, Giuseppe; Dipalmo, Tiziana; Antonacci, Donato; Coletta, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    Negroamaro is an autochthonous wine grape variety of Southern Italy, which is becoming very important for the Italian wine market. The wine aroma is primary affected by the chemical composition of grapes, which can be influenced also by agronomic practices such as soil management. In this study, the free and bound aroma characterization was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses, and the influence of two soil managements (cover cropping and soil tillage) was evaluated. A total of 40 volatile compounds were observed in the wine samples. Alcohols (55.7 mg/L), fatty acids (7.0 mg/L) and esters (6.6 mg/L) were found as the main classes in Negroamaro wine. The results showed that the aroma composition of Negroamaro wine was positively affected by soil tillage probably because of the higher water stress (ψ(s)) recorded in the vines from this treatment. Indeed, among the free volatile compounds, higher contents of esters, carboxylic acids, alcohols, phenolics and acetamides together with lower contents of sulfurs compounds were found in soil tillage wine. Conversely, no difference was observed in glycoside volatile compounds.

  3. Assessment of existing roadside swales with engineered filter soil: I. Characterization and lifetime expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvertsen, Simon T; Cederkvist, Karin; Régent, Yoann; Sommer, Harald; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Marina B

    2012-01-01

    Roadside infiltration swales with well-defined soil mixtures (filter soil) for the enhancement of both infiltration and treatment of stormwater runoff from roads and parking areas have been common practice in Germany for approximately two decades. Although the systems have proven hydraulically effective, their treatment efficiency and thus lifetime expectancies are not sufficiently documented. The lack of documentation restricts the implementation of new such systems in Germany as well as other countries. This study provides an assessment of eight roadside infiltration swales with filter soil from different locations in Germany that have been operational for 6 to16 yr. The swales were assessed with respect to visual appearance, infiltration rate, soil pH, and soil texture, as well as soil concentration of organic matter, heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn), and phosphorus. Visually, the swales appeared highly variable with respect to soil color and textural layering as well as composition of plants and soil-dwelling organisms. Three swales still comply with the German design criteria for infiltration rate (10 m/s), while the remaining swales have lower, yet acceptable, infiltration rates around 10 m/s. Six of the eight studied soils have heavy metal concentrations exceeding the limit value for unpolluted soil. Provided that the systems are able to continuously retain existing and incoming pollutants, our analysis indicates that the soils can remain operational for another 13 to 136 yr if the German limit values for unrestricted usage in open construction works are applied. However, no official guidelines exist for acceptable soil quality in existing infiltration facilities.

  4. Characterization of soil chemical properties of strawberry fields using principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Oliveira Islabão

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest strawberry-producing municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul (RS is Turuçu, in the South of the State. The strawberry production system adopted by farmers is similar to that used in other regions in Brazil and in the world. The main difference is related to the soil management, which can change the soil chemical properties during the strawberry cycle. This study had the objective of assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of soil fertility parameters using principal component analysis (PCA. Soil sampling was based on topography, dividing the field in three thirds: upper, middle and lower. From each of these thirds, five soil samples were randomly collected in the 0-0.20 m layer, to form a composite sample for each third. Four samples were taken during the strawberry cycle and the following properties were determined: soil organic matter (OM, soil total nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P and potassium (K, exchangeable calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg, soil pH (pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC at pH 7.0, soil base (V% and soil aluminum saturation(m%. No spatial variation was observed for any of the studied soil fertility parameters in the strawberry fields and temporal variation was only detected for available K. Phosphorus and K contents were always high or very high from the beginning of the strawberry cycle, while pH values ranged from very low to very high. Principal component analysis allowed the clustering of all strawberry fields based on variables related to soil acidity and organic matter content.

  5. Characterization of large-insert DNA libraries from soil for environmental genomic studies of Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treusch, Alexander H; Kletzin, Arnulf; Raddatz, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    covering 3 Gbp of community DNA from two different soil samples, a sandy ecosystem and a mixed forest soil. In a fosmid end sequencing approach including 5376 sequence tags of approximately 700 bp length, we show that mostly bacterial and, to a much lesser extent, archaeal and eukaryotic genome fragments......, are presented and discussed. We thereby extend the genomic information of uncultivated crenarchaeota from soil and offer hints to specific metabolic traits present in this group....

  6. In Situ Characterization of Soils for Prediction of Stress Strain Relationship of Soft Clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-10

    measurements (the electrical ones) and hence be able to perform analysis of earth structures on the basis of the calibrated bounding surface soil plasticity model...of Mechanics, 31, 5, pp. 723-739, Warszawa, 1979. 13. Dafalias, Y.F. and Herrmann, L.R., "A Bounding Surface Soil Plasticity Model," Int. Symp. on...Surface Formulation of Soil Plasticity ," Chapter 10 in Soil Mechanics-Transient and Cyclic Loads, G.N. Pande and O.C. Zienkicwicz eds, 3. Wiley and Sons

  7. Chemical and toxicological characterization of slurry reactor biotreatment of explosives-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Vass, A.A.; Ho, C.H.

    1998-08-01

    Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil in the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP) soil slurry bioreactor (SSBR) eliminated detectable TNT but left trace levels of residual monoamino and diamino metabolites under some reactor operating conditions. The reduction of solvent-extractable bacterial mutagenicity in the TNT-contaminated soil was substantial and was similar to that achieved by static pile composts at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA) field demonstration. Aquatic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia from TNT in the leachates of TNT-contaminated soil was eliminated in the leachates of JAAP SSBR product soil. The toxicity of soil product leachates to Ceriodaphnia dubia was reasonably predicted using the specific toxicities of the components detected, weighted by their leachate concentrations. In samples where TNT metabolites were observed in the soil product and its leachates, this method determined that the contribution to predicted toxicity values was dominated by trace amounts of the diamino-metabolites, which are very toxic to ceriodaphnia dubia. When the SSBR operating conditions reduced the concentrations of TNT metabolites in the product soils and their leachates to undetectable concentrations, the main contributors to predicted aquatic toxicity values appeared to be molasses residues, potassium, and bicarbonate. Potassium and bicarbonate are beneficial or benign to the environment, and molasses residues are substantially degraded in the environment. Exotoxins, pathogenic bacteria, inorganic particles, ammonia, and dissolved metals did not appear to be important to soil product toxicity.

  8. The Guadiamar soils: characterization and evolution of soils affected by the pyrite sludge; Los suelos del Guadiamar: estudios de caracterizacion y de la evolucion de los suelos contaminados por el lodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, C.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Barettino, D.; Lopez Pamo, E. [Instituto Geologico y Minero de Espana. Madrid (Spain); Cabrera, F.; Fernandez, J. E.; Giron, I. F.; Moreno, F. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (Spain); Fernandez, A. M.; Garcia-Gutierrez, M.; Pelayo, M.; Rivas, P.; Villar, M. V. [Ciemat. Madrid (Spain); Giraldez, J. V.; Vanderlinden, K. [Universidad de Cordoba (Spain); Ordonez, R. [CIFA. Cordoba (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The study of the geochemical background shows the evidence of high contents in heavy metals in the soils from the affected area of the Guadimar basin before the Aznalcollar mine spill. This means a previous contamination due to the Aznalcollar mineralizations, and above all, to the intense mining works of the last two decades. Two areas been defined, with different geochemical background: Guadiamar alluvial soils and soils over the marsh deposits in the southern area of the affected zone. These southern soils have, higher contents of iron, zinc and copper and slightly lower of lead and arsenic, compared to the contents from the alluvial. The soils of the affected area of the Guadiamar basin are quite heterogeneous and show a high spatial variability of its physical and mineralogical characteristics. Once the sludge removal operations are finished, a high spatial variability of the concentration of soils of different elements related to the contamination has been observed. This variability is observed at a very small scale, so that in a few metres this concentrations vary in some order of magnitude. This variability is also related to the remnant sludge, because the cleanup did not remove the whole of the mining waste, and this remaining part has been incorporated to the soils during the soil remediation operations. At a basin scale, an important increase of the contaminant concentrations has been observed in the upper part of the soils. This concentration mean values are from 3 to 6 times the geochemical background levels, depending on the element considered. These increase are higher for zinc, and lower for lead, arsenic and copper, in that order. The concentrations of these elements in soils decrease with the depth. The highest concentrations for arsenic and lead were observed in the zone where the pyritic sludge was deposited, whereas the highest zinc concentrations are determined in the southern part, where the acid water were retained. After the soil

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Alfalfa-Nodulating Rhizobia Present in Acidic Soils of Central Argentina and Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of alfalfa-nodulating rhizobia from acid soils of different locations in Central Argentina and Uruguay. A collection of 465 isolates was assembled, and the rhizobia were characterized for acid tolerance. Growth tests revealed the existence of 15 acid-tolerant (AT) isolates which were able to grow at pH 5.0 and formed nodules in alfalfa with a low rate of nitrogen fixation. Analysis of those isolates, including partial sequencing of the genes enco...

  10. Characterization of labile organic carbon in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain: Relationships to carbon functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodla, Syam K. [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Wang, Jim J., E-mail: jjwang@agcenter.lsu.edu [School of Plant, Environmental and Soil Sciences, Louisiana State Univ. Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); DeLaune, Ronald D. [Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, School of the Coast and Environment, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Adequate characterization of labile organic carbon (LOC) is essential to the understanding of C cycling in soil. There has been very little evaluation about the nature of LOC characterizations in coastal wetlands, where soils are constantly influenced by different redox fluctuations and salt water intrusions. In this study, we characterized and compared LOC fractions in coastal wetland soils of the Mississippi River deltaic plain using four different methods including 1) aerobically mineralizable C (AMC), 2) cold water extractable C (CWEC), 3) hot water extractable C (HWEC), and 4) salt extractable C (SEC), as well as acid hydrolysable C (AHC) which includes both labile and slowly degradable organic C. Molecular organic C functional groups of these wetland soils were characterized by {sup 13}C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The LOC and AHC increased with soil organic C (SOC) regardless of wetland soil type. The LOC estimates by four different methods were positively and significantly linearly related to each other (R{sup 2} = 0.62-0.84) and with AHC (R{sup 2} = 0.47-0.71). The various LOC fractions accounted for {<=} 4.3% of SOC whereas AHC fraction represented 16-49% of SOC. AMC was influenced positively by O/N-alkyl and carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C, whereas CWEC and SEC fractions were influenced only positively by carboxyl C but negatively by alkyl C in SOC. On the other hand, HWEC fraction was found to be only influenced positively by carbonyl C, and AHC positively by O/N-alkyl and alkyl C but negatively by aromatic C groups in SOC. Overall these relations suggested different contributions of various molecular organic C moieties to LOC in these wetlands from those often found for upland soils. The presence of more than 50% non-acid hydrolysable C suggested the dominance of relatively stable SOC pool that would be sequestered in these Mississippi River deltaic plain coastal wetland soils. The results have important implications to the

  11. A comparison of regression and regression-kriging for soil characterization using remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    In precision agriculture regression has been used widely to quality the relationship between soil attributes and other environmental variables. However, spatial correlation existing in soil samples usually makes the regression model suboptimal. In this study, a regression-kriging method was attemp...

  12. Characterization of a Wide Array of Fluorinated Organic Compounds in Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herein we report the results of analyses on the concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) in soils from a site that has been impacted by human activities. Soil samples were collected from several locations that had been impacted and one...

  13. Characterizing the Soil Ecology of Red Raspberry Produced under Different Production Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil and rhizosphere ecology play important roles in plant health and development. Using culture-independent microbial community profiling, we investigated the effects of fertilizer (composted dairy solids + mustard seed meal) on fungal communities in soil and endophytic in a raspberry production sy...

  14. Novel Experimental-Modeling Approach for Characterizing Perfluorinated Surfactants in Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtier-Murias, Denis; Michel, Eric; Rodts, Stéphane; Lafolie, François

    2017-02-16

    Soil contamination is still poorly understood and modeled in part because of the difficulties of looking inside the "black box" constituted by soils. Here, we investigated the application of a recently developed (1)H NMR technique to (19)F NMR relaxometry experiments and utilized the results as inputs for an existing model. This novel approach yields (19)F T2 NMR relaxation values of any fluorinated contaminant, which are among the most dangerous contaminants, allowing us to noninvasively and directly monitor their fate in soils. Using this protocol, we quantified the amount of a fluorinated xenobiotic (heptafluorobutyric acid, HFBA) in three different environments in soil aggregate packings and monitored contaminant exchange dynamics between these compartments. A model computing HFBA partition dynamics between different soil compartments showed that these three environments corresponded to HFBA in solution (i) between and (ii) inside the soil aggregates and (iii) to HFBA adsorbed to (or strongly interacting with) the soil constituents. In addition to providing a straightforward way of determining the sorption kinetics of any fluorinated contaminant, this work also highlights the strengths of a combined experimental-modeling approach to unambiguously understand experimental data and more generally to study contaminant fate in soils.

  15. Error characterization of microwave satellite soil moisture data sets using fourier analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Soil moisture is a key geophysical variable in hydrological and meteorological processes. Accurate and current observations of soil moisture over mesoscale to global scales as inputs to hydrological, weather and climate modelling will benefit the predictability and understanding of these p...

  16. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BIFENTHRIN CATABOLIZING BACTERIAL STRAIN BACILLUS CIBI FROM SOIL FOR PYRETHROIDS BIODEGRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrethroids are commonly used in most parts of the world and are reported to have potential health risks. Bifenthrin, a third generation pyrethroid used as insecticide has caused potential effect on aquatic life and human health. Bioremediation is a practical approach to reduce pesticide in the environment and reports of microbial degradation of bifenthrin are meagre. This study was aimed at isolating and characterizing bacterial isolates for the efficient removal of bifenthrin residues in the environment. A bacterial strain PGS-4 isolated from sewage of pesticide industry was tested for growth at higher concentration of bifenthrin (800 mg L-1 and the optimum pH and temperature were determined. The strain utilized bifenthrin as sole carbon source for growth over a wide range of pH (4.0-9.0 and temperatures (16-37°C. On the basis of growth kinetics studies, the optimal conditions were determined to be pH 7.0-8.0 and 30°C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain PGS-4 forms a distinct phylogenetic lineage within the evolutionary radiation encompassed by the genus Bacillus and showed 99% similarity to that of Bacillus cibi. This study depicts the ability of B. cibi to utilize bifenthrin at higher concentration under in vitro thereby can be used in eliminating bifenthrin from contaminated soils as a practical approach to reduce pyrethroid toxicity in the environment.

  17. Characterization and remediation of soil prior to construction of an on-site disposal facility at Fernald

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, A.; Jones, G. [Fluor Daniel Fernald, Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project; Janke, R. [Dept. of Energy (United States); Nelson, K. [Jacobs Engineering (United States)

    1998-03-01

    During the production years at the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), the soil of the site and the surrounding areas was surficially impacted by airborne contamination. The volume of impacted soil is estimated at 2.2 million cubic yards. During site remediation, this contamination will be excavated, characterized, and disposed of. In 1986 the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement (FFCA) covering environmental impacts associated with the FMPC. A site wide Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) was initiated pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA). The DOE has completed the RI/FS process and has received approval of the final Records of Decision. The name of the facility was changed to the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) to emphasize the change in mission to environmental restoration. Remedial actions which address similar scopes of work or types of contaminated media have been grouped into remedial projects for the purpose of managing the remediation of the FEMP. The Soil Characterization and Excavation Project (SCEP) will address the remediation of FEMP soils, certain waste units, at- and below-grade material, and will certify attainment of the final remedial limits (FRLs) for the FEMP. The FEMP will be using an on-site facility for low level radioactive waste disposal. The facility will be an above-ground engineered structure constructed of geological material. The area designated for construction of the base of the on-site disposal facility (OSDF) is referred to as the footprint. Contaminated soil within the footprint must be identified and remediated. Excavation of Phase 1, the first of seven remediation areas, is complete.

  18. Characterization of a soil amendment derived from co-composting of agricultural wastes and biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curaqueo, Gustavo; Ángel Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel; Meier, Sebastián; Medina, Jorge; Panichini, Marcelo; Borie, Fernando; Navia, Rodrigo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize a compost blend prepared from sheep manure and oat straw in a co-composting process enriched with oat husk biochar (BC). For this, a co-composting trial was carried out in rotatories bins of 200 L capacity. Three mixtures (piles) were assayed: BC0: sheep manure (SM) 65% w/w with 35% w/w oat straw (OS) and no biochar; BC5: SM 62.5% w/w, 32.5% of OS and 5% of BC and BC10: SM 60% w/w, 30% of OS and 10% of BC. The piles were turned 3 times per week in the first week, and then once a week until the end of the composting process (140 days). The temperature and humidity of the piles were monitored continually and the humidity was maintained in a range from 55% to 65%. The maturity of final compost was evaluated by FTIR and Solvita Test analysis. At the same time a chemical characterization including macro and micro nutrient for each compost was performed and the compost phytotoxic effect was evaluated by a germination test using aqueous extract over lettuce, radish and wheat seeds. FTIR analysis showed bands attributed to aromatic C=C, C=O stretching of amide groups, quinone C=O and/or C=O of H-bonded conjugated ketones (1640 cm-1) which are typical in biological stabilized composts and compost with high concentration of highly aromatic materials such as biochar, which seems to become relatively more intense specially in BC10 treatment. Both composts were characterized by a Solvita maturity index of 7, reflecting an adequate degree of maturation. The CO2 emission was lower in the piles enriched with BC compared to control treatment without BC. In the same way, NH3 index was 5 for all the treatments indicating a null NH3 emission. In this respect, a decrease in the N-NH4 content was related with the use of BC which indicate that BC could reduce N-losses during composting favoring nitrification process. Chemical characterization showed pH values higher than 8 for all piles and EC ranged from 8.6 to 14.7 dS cm-1. The Total N and P

  19. Soil organic degradation: bridging the gap between Rock-Eval pyrolysis and chemical characterization (CPMAS 13C NMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Remy; Sebag, David; Verrecchia, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Being a source of mineral nutrients, organic matter contributes to soil chemical fertility and acts on soil physical fertility through its role in soil structure. Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key component of soils. Despite the paramount importance of SOM, information on its chemistry and behaviour in soils is incomplete. Numerous methods are used to characterize and monitor OM dynamics in soils using different approaches (Kogel-Knabner, 2000). Two of the main approaches are evaluated and compared in this study. Rock-Eval pyrolysis (RE pyrolysis) provides a description of a SOM's general evolution using its thermal resistance. The second tool (13C CPMAS NMR) aims to give precise and accurate chemical information on OM characterization. The RE pyrolysis technique was designed for petroleum exploration (Lafargue et al., 1998) and because of its simplicity, it has been applied to a variety of other materials such as soils or Recent sediments (Disnar et al., 2000; Sebag, 2006). Recently, RE pyrolysis became a conventional tool to study OM dynamics in soils. In RE pyrolysis, a peak deconvolution is applied to the pyrolysis signal in order to get four main components related to major classes of organic constituents. These components differ in origin and resistance to pyrolysis: labile biological constituents (F1), resistant biological constituents (F2), immature non-biotic constituents (F3) and a mature refractory fraction (F4) (Sebag, 2006; Coppard, 2006). Main advantages of the technique are its repeatability, and rapidity to provide an overview of OM properties and stocks. However, do the four major classes used in the literature reflect a pertinent chemical counterpart? To answer this question, we used 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in the solid state (13C CPMAS NMR) to collect direct information on structural and conformational characteristics of OM. NMR resonances were assigned to chemical structures according to five dominant forms: alkyl C, O

  20. The impact of model and rainfall forcing errors on characterizing soil moisture uncertainty in land surface modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maggioni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of rainfall forcing errors relative to model (structural and parameter uncertainty in the prediction of soil moisture is investigated by integrating the NASA Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM, forced with hydro-meteorological data, in the Oklahoma region. Rainfall-forcing uncertainty is introduced using a stochastic error model that generates ensemble rainfall fields from satellite rainfall products. The ensemble satellite rain fields are propagated through CLSM to produce soil moisture ensembles. Errors in CLSM are modeled with two different approaches: either by perturbing model parameters (representing model parameter uncertainty or by adding randomly generated noise (representing model structure and parameter uncertainty to the model prognostic variables. Our findings highlight that the method currently used in the NASA GEOS-5 Land Data Assimilation System to perturb CLSM variables poorly describes the uncertainty in the predicted soil moisture, even when combined with rainfall model perturbations. On the other hand, by adding model parameter perturbations to rainfall forcing perturbations, a better characterization of uncertainty in soil moisture simulations is observed. Specifically, an analysis of the rank histograms shows that the most consistent ensemble of soil moisture is obtained by combining rainfall and model parameter perturbations. When rainfall forcing and model prognostic perturbations are added, the rank histogram shows a U-shape at the domain average scale, which corresponds to a lack of variability in the forecast ensemble. The more accurate estimation of the soil moisture prediction uncertainty obtained by combining rainfall and parameter perturbations is encouraging for the application of this approach in ensemble data assimilation systems.

  1. Characterization of free nitrogen fixing bacteria of the genus Azotobacter in organic vegetable-grown Colombian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Javier Jiménez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of isolating and characterizing free nitrogen fixing bacteria (FNFB of the genus Azotobacter, soil samples were collected randomly from different vegetable organic cultures with neutral pH in different zones of Boyacá-Colombia. Isolations were done in selective free nitrogen Ashby-Sucrose agar obtaining a recovery of 40%. Twenty four isolates were evaluated for colony and cellular morphology, pigment production and metabolic activities. Molecular characterization was carried out using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA. After digestion of 16S rDNA Y1-Y3 PCR products (1487pb with AluI, HpaII and RsaI endonucleases, a polymorphism of 16% was obtained. Cluster analysis showed three main groups based on DNA fingerprints. Comparison between ribotypes generated by isolates and in silico restriction of 16S rDNA partial sequences with same restriction enzymes was done with Gen Workbench v.2.2.4 software. Nevertheless, Y1-Y2 PCR products were analysed using BLASTn. Isolate C5T from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum grown soils presented the same in silico restriction patterns with A. chroococcum (AY353708 and 99% of similarity with the same sequence. Isolate C5CO from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis grown soils showed black pigmentation in Ashby-Benzoate agar and high similarity (91% with A. nigricans (AB175651 sequence. In this work we demonstrated the utility of molecular techniques and bioinformatics tools as a support to conventional techniques in characterization of the genus Azotobacter from vegetable-grown soils.

  2. Quantitative mineralogical characterization of lunar high-Ti mare basalts and soils for oxygen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J. G.; Taylor, L. A.; Patchen, A.; McKay, D. S.

    1995-07-01

    Efficient lunar resource utilization requires accurate and quantitative evaluation of mineral and glass abundances, distribution, and extraction feasibility, especially for ilmenite. With this in mind, true modal analyses were performed on high-Ti mare basalts and soils with X ray/backscattered electron signal digital-imaging techniques, and these data indicate that (1) ilmenite concentrations are similar for basalts and immature-submature soils with similar TiO2 content; (2) ilmenite liberation of crushed mare basalts and immature-submature mare soils are comparable (i.e., both contain similar amounts of free ilmenite); and (3) because of impact melting and agglutination of primary minerals, mature mare soils contain less ilmenite (both free and attached). Modal analyses of magnetic separates of high-Ti mare basalts and soils show that (1) ilmenite was concentrated by a factor of >=3.3 and (2) soil ilmenite was concentrated to factors of 1.7-2.3. The lower soil ilmenite separation efficiency is attributed to Fe°-bearing agglutinitic glass and amorphous rinds adhered to soil particles. Mass yields of magnetically generated feedstocks were generally less than 5 wt.% in most cases. Calculation of oxygen yield (as released by hydrogen gas reduction of ilmenite) show that (1) beneficiated basalt will provide the most oxygen (8-10%), because of higher ilmenite concentration; (2) reduction of raw immature-submature mare soils and basalts will produce similar amounts of lunar liquid oxygen (LLOX) (2.1-3.1%) and (3) raw Fe-rich pyroclastic soil, 74220, will provide more oxygen (5.4%) than beneficiated high-Ti mare soils and half that of beneficiated high-Ti mare basalts. High-Ti mare soils are attractive resources for lunar liquid oxygen (LLOX) production because of their unconsolidated nature, high ilmenite abundance, and widespread occurrence. Energy-intensive excavation and comminution likely prohibits the basalt mining during early lunar occupation. Orange soils are

  3. Characterization and Low-Cost Remediation of Soils Contaminated by Timbers in Community Gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiger-Bernays, W; Fraser, A; Burns, V; Diskin, K; Pierotti, D; Merchant-Borna, K; McClean, M; Brabander, D; Hynes, H P

    2009-01-01

    Urban community gardens worldwide provide significant health benefits to those gardening and consuming fresh produce from them. Urban gardens are most often placed in locations and on land in which soil contaminants reflect past practices and often contain elevated levels of metals and organic contaminants. Garden plot dividers made from either railroad ties or chromated copper arsenate (CCA) pressure treated lumber contribute to the soil contamination and provide a continuous source of contaminants. Elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from railroad ties and arsenic from CCA pressure treated lumber are present in the gardens studied. Using a representative garden, we 1) determined the nature and extent of urban community garden soil contaminated with PAHs and arsenic by garden timbers; 2) designed a remediation plan, based on our sampling results, with our community partner guided by public health criteria, local regulation, affordability, and replicability; 3) determined the safety and advisability of adding city compost to Boston community gardens as a soil amendment; and 4) made recommendations for community gardeners regarding healthful gardening practices. This is the first study of its kind that looks at contaminants other than lead in urban garden soil and that evaluates the effect on select soil contaminants of adding city compost to community garden soil.

  4. Extent, characterization, and sources of soil lead contamination in small-urban residential neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jeffrey J; Knudsen, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    We present high spatial-resolution mapping of soil lead (Pb) concentrations in a small-urban residential setting. X-ray fluorescence was used to measure soil Pb at170 properties in the City Park neighborhood of Appleton, Wisconsin. Greater than two-thirds of soil samples collected from drip lines contained more than 400 μg g of Pb, and one third exceeded 1200 μg g. Soils adjacent to homes built before 1960 contained significantly higher Pb levels than those near younger homes. Three front yard locations (drip line, mid-yard, and terrace) were sampled at 71 properties. A general decline in soil Pb with increasing distance from the house was observed. Detailed sampling of individual homes within a single residential block revealed Pb-contaminated soil radiating outward from homes in all directions, creating a "bulls-eye" pattern. Approximately 40% of yard space exceeded concentrations of 400 μg g. These patterns of contamination are consistent with Pb paint as the main contributor of Pb to soil. This has important implications because spatial distribution of Pb contamination is fundamentally different if paint, rather than automobile exhaust, is the primary source. Selective sequential extraction analyses suggest that roughly half of the soil Pb resides in chemically reactive and bioavailable phases. The extent and persistence of soil Pb, the resurgence of home gardening, and the serious health consequences of Pb ingestion argue for attention to this problem, not just in dense urban centers but also in smaller urban settings across the country.

  5. Evaluating the importance of characterizing soil structure and horizons in parameterizing a hydrologic process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating the influence of soil structure and horizons into parameterizations of distributed surface water/groundwater models remains a challenge. Often, only a single soil unit is employed, and soil-hydraulic properties are assigned based on textural classification, without evaluating the potential impact of these simplifications. This study uses a distributed physics-based model to assess the influence of soil horizons and structure on effective parameterization. This paper tests the viability of two established and widely used hydrogeologic methods for simulating runoff and variably saturated flow through layered soils: (1) accounting for vertical heterogeneity by combining hydrostratigraphic units with contrasting hydraulic properties into homogeneous, anisotropic units and (2) use of established pedotransfer functions based on soil texture alone to estimate water retention and conductivity, without accounting for the influence of pedon structures and hysteresis. The viability of this latter method for capturing the seasonal transition from runoff-dominated to evapotranspiration-dominated regimes is also tested here. For cases tested here, event-based simulations using simplified vertical heterogeneity did not capture the state-dependent anisotropy and complex combinations of runoff generation mechanisms resulting from permeability contrasts in layered hillslopes with complex topography. Continuous simulations using pedotransfer functions that do not account for the influence of soil structure and hysteresis generally over-predicted runoff, leading to propagation of substantial water balance errors. Analysis suggests that identifying a dominant hydropedological unit provides the most acceptable simplification of subsurface layering and that modified pedotransfer functions with steeper soil-water retention curves might adequately capture the influence of soil structure and hysteresis on hydrologic response in headwater catchments.

  6. Molecular and Functional Characterization of GR2-R1 Event Based Backcross Derived Lines of Golden Rice in the Genetic Background of a Mega Rice Variety Swarna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinedi, Haritha; S., Gopala Krishnan; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Singh, Nagendra Kumar; Mishra, Sushma; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Homozygous Golden Rice lines developed in the background of Swarna through marker assisted backcross breeding (MABB) using transgenic GR2-R1 event as a donor for the provitamin A trait have high levels of provitamin A (up to 20 ppm) but are dwarf with pale green leaves and drastically reduced panicle size, grain number and yield as compared to the recurrent parent, Swarna. In this study, we carried out detailed morphological, biochemical and molecular characterization of these lines in a quest to identify the probable reasons for their abnormal phenotype. Nucleotide blast analysis with the primer sequences used to amplify the transgene revealed that the integration of transgene disrupted the native OsAux1 gene, which codes for an auxin transmembrane transporter protein. Real time expression analysis of the transgenes (ZmPsy and CrtI) driven by endosperm-specific promoter revealed the leaky expression of the transgene in the vegetative tissues. We propose that the disruption of OsAux1 disturbed the fine balance of plant growth regulators viz., auxins, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid, leading to the abnormalities in the growth and development of the lines homozygous for the transgene. The study demonstrates the conserved roles of OsAux1 gene in rice and Arabidopsis. PMID:28068433

  7. [Stabilization of Cadmium Contaminated Soils by Ferric Ion Modified Attapulgite (Fe/ATP)--Characterizations and Stabilization Mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yang; Li, Rong-bo; Zhou, Yong-li; Chen, Jing; Wang, Lin-ling; Lu, Xiao-hua

    2015-08-01

    Ferric ion modified attapulgite (Fe/ATP) was prepared by impregnation and its structure and morphology were characterized. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was used to evaluate the effect of Cadmium( Cd) stabilization in soil with the addition of attapulgite (ATP) and Fe/ATP. The stabilization mechanism of Cd was further elucidated by comparing the morphologies and structure of ATP and Fe/ATP before and after Cd adsorption. Fe/ATP exhibited much better adsorption capacity than ATP, suggesting different adsorption mechanisms occurred between ATP and Fe/ATP. The leaching concentrations of Cd in soil decreased by 45% and 91% respectively, with the addition of wt. 20% ATP and Fe/ATP. The former was attributed to the interaction between Cd2 and --OH groups by chemical binding to form inner-sphere complexes in ATP and the attachment between Cd2+ and the defect sites in ATP framework. Whereas Cd stabilization with Fe/ATP was resulted from the fact that the active centers (--OH bonds or O- sites) on ATP could react with Fe3+ giving Fe--O--Cd-- bridges, which helped stabilize Cd in surface soil. What'more, the ferric oxides and metal hydroxides on the surface of ATP could interact with Cd, probably by the formation of cadmium ferrite. In conclusion, Fe/ATP, which can be easily prepared, holds promise as a potential low-cost and environmental friendly stabilizing agent for remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals.

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) concentration in soil from San Luis Potosi, Mexico: levels and ecological and human health risk characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Orta-García, Sandra T; Ochoa-Martínez, Ángeles C; Pruneda-Álvarez, Lucia G; Ruiz-Vera, Tania; Jiménez-Avalos, Jorge Armando; González-Palomo, Ana K; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soils from the city of San Luis Potosi in Mexico and perform an ecological and human health risk characterization. In order to confirm the presence of PBDEs, outdoor surface soil samples were collected and the concentrations of PBDEs in urban, industrial, agricultural, and brick kiln industry areas were determined. The mean total PBDEs levels obtained in the study sites were 25.0 ± 39.5 μg/kg (geometric mean ± standard deviation) in the brick kiln industry zone; 34.5 ± 36.0 μg/kg in the urban zone; 8.00 ± 7.10 μg/kg in the industrial zone and 16.6 ± 15.3 μg/kg in the agricultural zone. The ecological and human health risk characterization showed relatively low-hazard quotient values. However, the moderately high PBDEs levels found in soils highlight the necessity to establish a systematic monitoring process for PBDEs in environmental and biological samples.

  9. Characterization of Firing Range Soil from Camp Edwards, MA, and the Efficacy of Acid and Alkaline Hydrolysis for the Remediation of M1 105mm M67 Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    using 3/4–in. AMS butyrate plastic soil recovery liners (Forestry Supply, Jackson, MS). The subsamples were well mixed, yielding a representative...ER D C/ EL T R -1 3 -1 0 Characterization of Firing Range Soil from Camp Edwards, MA, and the Efficacy of Acid and Alkaline Hydrolysis...acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/default. ERDC/EL TR-13-10 June 2013 Characterization of Firing Range Soil from Camp Edwards, MA, and the Efficacy of Acid and

  10. X-ray microtomography in the micromorphologic characterization of soil submitted to different management; Microtomografia de raios-X na caracterizacao micromorfologica de solo submetido a diferentes manejos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passoni, Sabrina

    2013-07-01

    The X-ray computed microtomography (CT) represents a non-invasive technique that can be used with success to analyze physical properties by the soil scientists without destroying the structure of the soil. The technique has as advantage over conventional methods the characterization of the soil porous system in three dimensions, which allow morphological property analyses such as connectivity and tortuosity of the pores. However, as the soil is a non-homogeneous and complex system, the CT technique needs specific methodologies for digital image processing, mainly during the segmentation procedure. The objectives of this work were: 1) to develop a methodology for microtomographic digital image processing; 2) to characterize the soil structure by using micromorphology analysis of samples submitted to non-tillage and conventional systems collected in three distinct layers (0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm); and 3) to identify possible changes in the porous system of the soil analyzed due to the effect of different management systems. The use of the CT technique and the procedures adopted for microtomographic digital image processing show to be efficient for the micromorphologic characterization of soil porous system. Soil under non-tillage system presented the best results from the agricultural point of view regarding porosity, total number of pores, connectivity and tortuosity in comparison to the conventional tillage. (author)

  11. Isolation and characterization of medically important aerobic actinomycetes in soil of iran (2006 - 2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamirian, Mohammad Reza; Ghiasian, Seyed Amir

    2009-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are a large group of soil-inhabiting bacteria that occur worldwide. Some of them are the main cause of two important diseases, nocardiosis and actinomycetoma. To identify the prevalence and geographic distribution of aerobic actinomycetes in soil of Qazvin province, a study was carried out during 2006-2007. In this study, the incidence and diversity of medically important aerobic actinomycetes was determined in 300 soil samples of different parts of Qazvin. The suspensions of superficial soil samples were prepared by adding of normal saline, streptomycin and chloramphenicol and the supernatants were cultured on brain-heart infusion agar and Sabouraud's dextrose agar contain cycloheximide. The isolated microorganisms were examined by Gram and acid-fast stains and were identified biochemically and morphologically. Of 96 aerobic actinomycetes isolates identified, Actinomadura madurae and Streptomyces somaliensis were the most frequently isolated species each representing 19.8% of isolates, followed by Nocardia asteroides (15.6%), N. otitidiscaviarum (9.4%), N. brasiliensis (7.3%), A. peletieri, S. griseus, and Nocardia spp. (each 5.2%), and N. transvalensis, Nocardiopsis dassonvillei, Actinomadura spp. and Streptomyces spp. (each 3.1%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on epidemiological investigation of medically important aerobic actinomycetes in soil samples from Iran. In recent years, mycetoma and nocardiosis have been increasingly reported in Iran. The results showed that medically important actinomycetes occur in the environment of Iran and soil could be potential source of actinomycotic infections.

  12. In-situ characterization of soil moisture content using a monopole probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnard, F. M.; Guilbert, V.; Fauchard, C.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, a microwave non-destructive experimental tool based on a monopole antenna is used for the determination of the complex permittivity of soils. The monopole mounted on a ground plane is buried in the soil, and its reflection coefficient measured at the feed point by a vector network analyzer (VNA) depends on the dielectric properties of the surrounding medium at a given frequency. In particular, this study is focused on the evaluation of the change of dielectric properties of different soils with the moisture content. In general, the dependence of the dielectric properties of a soil with the antenna reflection coefficient is nonlinear in nature, and the solution of the inverse problem requires a sophisticated algorithm. Thus, we have used two types of modeling, analytical (Wu's approach) and numerical (FDTD), to further understand the influence of fundamental parameters (antenna geometry and soil properties) on the frequency response of the antenna reflection coefficient. These models have allowed us to develop a novel inverse algorithm for the determination of the mean real permittivity based on the position of the antenna resonant frequencies in a wide frequency range. Moreover, a high resolution algorithm based on the Prony's approach has been developed in order to fit the complex reflection coefficient and determine afterwards the complex permittivity and the volumetric moisture content of a soil. Experimental results from different types of sands have been analyzed.

  13. Characterization of Surface Runoff, Soil Erosion, Nutrient Loss and their relationship for Agricultural plots in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan La

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to explore the existence of relationship among rainfall, runoff, soil loss and nutrient losses from the agricultural plots located at Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India. The natural rainfall generated runoff and soil loss from the 12 agricultural runoff plots (with four land uses namely sugarcane, maize, black gram and fallow land and having slope 5%, 3% and 1% for each land use were recorded during monsoon period (June 2013 to September 2013. The highest grade plot was found to yield the highest magnitude of runoff (i.e. runoff coefficient for a given land use and soil type. The soil loss from the experimental plots of various characteristics shown that for given rainfall input, on average, the plots with sugarcane land use were found to produce high amount of soil loss followed by Maize, fallow land and Blackgram. The nutrients losses were very low in the sediment as compared to the dissolved losses. Nutrients concentrations in sediment and runoff water were found to be more during the critical period. The higher limit of seasonal sediment yield obtained from the present study is lower than soil loss tolerance limit of 2.5 to 12.5 t/ha /yr for Indian subcontinent.

  14. Spectral characterization of soil and coal contamination on snow reflectance using hyperspectral analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Singh; A V Kulkarni; B S Chaudhary

    2011-04-01

    Snow is a highly reflecting object found naturally on the Earth and its albedo is highly influenced by the amount and type of contamination. In the present study, two major types of contaminants (soil and coal) have been used to understand their effects on snow reflectance in the Himalayan region. These contaminants were used in two categories quantitatively – addition in large quantity and addition in small quantity. Snow reflectance data were collected between 350 and 2500 nm spectral ranges and binned at 10 nm interval by averaging. The experiment was designed to gather the field information in controlled conditions, and radiometric observations were collected. First derivative, band absorption depth, asymmetry, percentage change in reflectance and albedo in optical region were selected to identify and discriminate the type of contamination. Band absorption depth has shown a subtle increasing pattern for soil contamination, however, it was significant for small amounts of coal contamination. The absorption peak asymmetry was not significant for soil contamination but showed a nature towards left asymmetry for coal. The width of absorption feature at 1025 nm was not significant for both the contaminations. The percentage change in reflectance was quite high for small amount of coal contamination rather than soil contamination, however, a shift of peak was observed in soil-contaminated snow which was not present in coal contamination. The albedo drops exponentially for coal contamination rather than soil contamination.

  15. Physiological characterization of grapevine rootstocks grown in soil with increasing zinc doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovani Zalamena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study aimed to evaluate the performance of grapevine rootstocks under increasing levels of Zn in the soil and to identify physiological variables that can be used as indicators of excess of Zn in the soil. The rootstocks SO4, Paulsen1103, IAC572, IAC313 and 420A were grown in pots containing soil, which received Zn doses of 0, 20, 40, 80 or 160 mg kg-1 of soil. Dry matter (DM, Zn content in shoots and roots, chlorophyll index, initial fluorescence (Fo, maximum fluorescence (Fm, maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, effective quantum yield of photosystem II (Y-II and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ were evaluated. The increase of Zn levels in the soil decreased DM in all rootstocks, and IAC572 was superior to the others. The variation in the indices of chlorophyll a and b had little expression in relation the soil Zn levels, but allowed identifying that the rootstocks Paulsen 1103, 420A and SO4 are sensitive to Zn toxicity and that IAC572 and IAC313 were not sensitive to the tested levels. Fluorescence analysis showed a negative effect of Zn contents on the variables Fo, Fm, Y-II and NPQ in all rootstocks, which proved to be good indicators of Zn phytotoxicity.

  16. Characterization of mineral phases of agricultural soil samples of Colombian coffee using Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Humberto Bustos, E-mail: hbustos@ut.edu.co; Lozano, Dagoberto Oyola; Martinez, Yebrayl Antonio Rojas; Pinilla, Marlene Rivera [Universidad del Tolima, Grupo Ciencia de Materiales y Tecnologia en Plasma (Colombia); Alcazar, German Antonio Perez [Universidad del Valle, Grupo Metalurgia Fisica y Teoria de las Transiciones de Fase (Colombia)

    2012-03-15

    Soil chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectrometry (MS) of {sup 57}Fe were used to characterize mineral phases of samples taken from the productive layer (horizon A) of agricultural coffee soil from Tolima (Colombia). Chemical analysis shows the chemical and textural parameters of samples from two different regions of Tolima, i.e., Ibague and Santa Isabel. By XRD phases like illite (I), andesine (A) and quartz (Q) in both samples were identified. The quantity of these phases is different for the two samples. The MS spectra taken at room temperature were adjusted by using five doublets, three of them associated to Fe{sup + 3} type sites and the other two to Fe{sup + 2} type sites. According to their isomer shift and quadrupole splitting the presence of phases like illite (detected by DRX), nontronite and biotite (not detected by XRD) can be postulated.

  17. Initial characterization of processes of soil carbon stabilization using forest stand-level radiocarbon enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanston, C W; Torn, M S; Hanson, P J; Southon, J R; Garten, C T; Hanlon, E M; Ganio, L

    2004-01-15

    Although the rates and mechanisms of soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization are difficult to observe directly, radiocarbon has proven an effective tracer of soil C dynamics, particularly when coupled with practical fractionation schemes. To explore the rates of C cycling in temperate forest soils, we took advantage of a unique opportunity in the form of an inadvertent stand-level {sup 14}C-labeling originating from a local industrial release. A simple density fractionation scheme separated SOM into inter-aggregate particulate organic matter (free light fraction, free LF), particulate organic matter occluded within aggregates (occluded LF), and organic matter that is complexed with minerals to form a dense fraction (dense fraction, DF). Minimal agitation and density separation was used to isolate the free LF. The remaining dense sediment was subjected to physical disruption and sonication followed by density separation to separate it into occluded LF and DF. The occluded LF had higher C concentrations and C:N ratios than the free LF, and the C concentration in both light fractions was ten times that of the DF. As a result, the light fractions together accounted for less than 4% of the soil by weight, but contained 40% of the soil C in the 0-15 cm soil increment. Likewise, the light fractions were less than 1% weight of the 15-30 cm increment, but contained more than 35% of the soil C. The degree of SOM protection in the fractions, as indicated by {Delta}{sup 14}C, was different. In all cases the free LF had the shortest mean residence times. A significant depth by fraction interaction for {sup 14}C indicates that the relative importance of aggregation versus organo-mineral interactions for overall C stabilization changes with depth. The rapid incorporation of {sup 14}C label into the otherwise depleted DF shows that this organo-mineral fraction comprises highly stable material as well as more recent inputs.

  18. Characterizing Soil Organic Carbon Recalcitrance in Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris Mill) Stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butnor, J. R.; Samuelson, L. J.; Anderson, P. H.; Gonzalez-Benecke, C. A.; Boot, C. M.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Heckman, K. A.; Jackson, J. A.; Johnsen, K. H.; Stokes, T.; Swanston, C.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, longleaf pine (LLP) stands in the southeastern US experienced frequent fires. Today managed LLP stands are burned at 2-5 year intervals to reduce fuels and hardwood competition and manage for biodiversity. These are not stand replacing fires, though considerable amounts of biomass are burned and the conversion rate to biochemically stabilized black carbon (BC) is unknown. The primary mechanisms for long-term carbon sequestration in soil are mineral association, biochemical transformation (e.g. pyrogenesis) and physical protection. We quantified the recalcitrance of soil organic carbon (SOC) and its oxidation resistant fraction (SOCR; defined as residual SOC following H2O2 treatment and dilute HNO3 digestion) using radiocarbon dating (SOC and SOCR) and benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA) as molecular markers for polyaromatic C associated with BC. Mineral stabilized C is largely represented by SOCR contents and BC by total BPCA contents. Soils were collected by depth (0-10, 10-20, 20-50, 50-100 cm) at 14 managed LLP stands in Louisiana (LA), Georgia (GA) and North Carolina (NC) burned every two to five years. Across all sites, SOC and SOCR contents declined with soil depth, though SOCR:SOC increased with depth (0.13, 0.15, 0.22, 0.31). SOCR was more 14C depleted than SOC and Δ14C values became more negative with soil depth (SOCR: -195, -318, -458, -553 vs. SOC 23, -39, -156, -334), indicating that SOCR had a much longer mean residence time. The Δ14C values correspond to mean ages of SOCR ranging from 1777 to 6969 years and of SOC from 84 to 3319 years. We obtained very low BPCA yield from SOCR, and it is unclear whether BC was absent or not accessible with the BPCA method. Preliminary analysis of total BPCA (bulk soil) indicates interactions between soil series and depth. Total BPCA concentration of SOC in the upper 10 cm was 136 g kg-1 C in LA and more than six times the concentration in GA and NC. On deep sands in NC, the highest BPCA concentration

  19. Chemical characterization of submicron aerosol and particle growth events at a national background site (3295 m a.s.l. in the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Du

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols exert highly uncertain impacts on radiative forcing and also have detrimental effects on human health. While aerosol particles are widely characterized in megacities in China, aerosol composition, sources and particle growth in rural areas in the Tibetan Plateau remain less understood. Here we present the results from an autumn study that was conducted from 5 September to 15 October 2013 at a national background monitoring station (3295 m a.s.l. in the Tibetan Plateau. The submicron aerosol composition and particle number size distributions were measured in situ with an Aerodyne Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM and a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS. The average mass concentration of submicron aerosol (PM1 is 11.9 μg m−3 (range: 1.0–78.4 μg m−3 for the entire study, which is much lower than those observed at urban and rural sites in eastern China. Organics dominated PM1 on average accounting for 43%, followed by sulfate (28% and nitrate (1%. Positive matrix factorization analysis of ACSM organic aerosol (OA mass spectra identified an oxygenated OA (OOA and a biomass burning OA (BBOA. The OOA dominated OA composition accounting for 85% on average, 17% of which was inferred from aged BBOA. The BBOA contributed a considerable fraction of OA (15% due to the burning of cow dung and straws in September. New particle formation and growth events were frequently observed (80% of time throughout the study. The average particle growth rate is 2.0 nm h−1 (range: 0.8–3.2 nm h−1. By linking the evolution of particle number size distribution to aerosol composition, we found an elevated contribution of organics during particle growth periods and also a positive relationship between the growth rate and the fraction of OOA in OA, which potentially indicates an important role of organics in particle growth in the Tibetan Plateau.

  20. Characterization of frozen soil-cement mixture for berm construction in cold regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaoLin Yu; XinLei Na; ZhaoHui Joey Yang

    2015-01-01

    Lagoon berms in western Alaska are difficult to design and build due to limited resources, high cost of construction and materials, and warm permafrost conditions. This paper explores methods to treat locally available frozen materials and use them for berm construction. The goal is to find an optimized mix ratio for cement and additives that can be effective in increasing the strength and decreasing the thaw settlement of an ice-rich frozen silty soil. Soil of similar type and ice content to the permafrost found at a project site in Eek, Alaska is prepared in a cold room. The frozen soil is pulverized and cement, additives and fibers are added to the samples for enhancing shear strength and controlling thaw settlement. Thaw settlement and direct shear tests are performed to assess strength and settlement characteristics. This paper presents a sample preparation method, data from thaw settlement and direct shear tests, and analyses of the test results and prelim-inary conclusions.

  1. 0.05-3 GHz VNA characterization of soil dielectric properties based on the multiline TRL calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Arkadiusz; Szypłowska, Agnieszka; Kafarski, Marcin; Wilczek, Andrzej; Barmuta, Paweł; Skierucha, Wojciech

    2017-02-01

    We present a methodology for characterization of soil relative dielectric permittivity in the frequency range 0.05-3 GHz. Soil samples are placed in a measurement cell constructed out of a EIA 1\\text-5/8'' coaxial transmission line, and then measured with a calibrated vector-network-analyzer. From these measurements the relative dielectric permittivity is obtained by use of a modified Boughriet algorithm. In order to calibrate the vector-network-analyzer directly at the EIA 1\\text-5/8'' coaxial-transmission-line measurement planes, we use the multiline through-reflect-line method. This method, while providing superior vector-network-analyzer calibration accuracy, is also easy to implement since it uses only transmission lines with known lengths and a single unknown highly-reflective termination. The implemented calibration method was compared to a simplified approach that uses the standard SOLT calibration in Type-N reference planes, and then accounts for the Type-N/EIA 1\\text-5/8'' adapters by removing their electrical delay. Experimental results for teflon and soil samples with different moisture content and salinity confirmed the validity of our approach.

  2. Physicochemical characterization of coke-plant soil for the assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon availability and the feasibility of phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sungwoo; Werner, David; Luthy, Richard G

    2005-09-01

    Coke oven site soil was characterized to assess the particle association and availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We identified various carbonaceous materials including coal, coke, pitch, and tar decanter sludge. Most of the PAHs were associated with the polymeric matrix of tar sludge or hard pitch as discrete particles, coatings on soil mineral particles, or complex aggregates. The PAH availability from these particles was very low due to hindered diffusive release from solid tar or pitch with apparent diffusivities of 6 x 10(-15) for phenanthrene, 3 x 10(-15) for pyrene, and 1 x 10(-15) cm2/s for benzo[a]pyrene. Significant concentrations of PAHs were observed in the interior of solid tar aggregates with up to 40,000 mg/kg total PAHs. The release of PAHs from the interior of such particles requires diffusion over a substantial distance, and semipermeable membrane device tests confirmed a very limited availability of PAHs. These findings explain the results from three years of phytoremediation of the site soil, for which no significant changes in the total PAH concentrations were observed in the test plot samples. The observed low bioavailability of PAHs probably inhibited PAH phytoremediation, as diffusion-limited mass transfer would limit the release of PAHs to the aqueous phase.

  3. Characterization and assessment of contaminated soil and groundwater at an organic chemical plant site in Chongqing, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Geng; Niu, Junjie; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-04-01

    Contamination from organic chemical plants can cause serious pollution of soil and groundwater ecosystems. To characterize soil contamination and to evaluate the health risk posed by groundwater at a typical organic chemical plant site in Chongqing, China, 91 soil samples and seven groundwater samples were collected. The concentrations of different contaminants and their three-dimensional distribution were determined based on the 3D-krige method. Groundwater chemistry risk index (Chem RI) and cancer risk were calculated based on TRIAD and RBCA models. The chemistry risk indices of groundwater points SW5, SW18, SW22, SW39, SW52, SW80, and SW82 were 0.4209, 0.9972, 0.9324, 0.9990, 0.9991, 1.0000, and 1.0000, respectively, indicating that the groundwater has poor environmental status. By contrast, the reference Yangtse River water sample showed no pollution with a Chem RI of 0.1301. Benzene and 1,2-dichloroethane were the main contaminants in the groundwater and were responsible for the elevated cancer risk. The cumulative health risk of groundwater points (except SW5 and SW18) were all higher than the acceptable baselines of 10(-6), which indicates that the groundwater poses high cancer risk. Action is urgently required to control and remediate the risk for human health and groundwater ecosystems.

  4. Characterization of bacterial consortia for its use in bioremediation of gas-oil contaminated antarctic soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruberto, L.; Vazquez, S.; Mestre, C.; Nogales, B.; Christie-Oleza, J.; Bosch, R.; Mac Cormack, W. P.

    2009-07-01

    Success of bio augmentation of chronically-contaminated soils is controversial, mainly because the inocula are frequently unable to establish in the matrix under bioremediation. In Antarctica, the environmental conditions and the restriction for the introduction of non-autochthonous organisms (imposed by the Antarctic Treaty) prevent inoculation with foreign bacteria. (Author)

  5. Extent, Characterization and Causes of Soil Salinity in Central and Southern Iraq and Possible Reclamation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Sarwar Qureshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor irrigation practices and lack of drainage facilities have contributed to rising groundwater tables leading to soil salinization in the irrigated areas of central and southern Iraq. Salinity problems has robbed the production potential of the 70% of the total irrigated area of Iraq with up to 30% gone completely out of production. This situation has threatened the sustainability of irrigated agriculture which produces more than 70% of the total cereal production in Iraq. Most of the reclamation efforts in the past have focussed on the installation of surface drainage systems. Other management approaches such as excessive leaching, crop-based management and chemical amendments have also been used on a limited scale to enhance productivity of these soils. However success has been limited and the problems of salinity kept on increasing. Therefore there is an urgent need to develop a national strategy for the rehabilitation of these soils. This strategy should include establishment of an effective monitoring network to record spatial and temporal changes in the soil salinity and water quality. Rehabilitation of existing drainage systems and installation of new drainage systems in the needed areas should be given priority. Involvement of communities in the planning of such projects is necessary for sustainable and effective operation and maintenance of these projects.

  6. Molecular characterization of soil organic matter from native vegetation–pasture–sugarcane transitions in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dener Márcio da Silva, E-mail: denermsoliveira@gmail.com [University of São Paulo, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, 11 Páduas Dias Avenue, 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Colorado State University, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, 1231 East Drive, 80523-1499 Fort Collins, CO (United States); Schellekens, Judith; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino [University of São Paulo, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, 11 Páduas Dias Avenue, 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2016-04-01

    Replacing pastures (PA) with sugarcane (SG) has been deemed an agronomically feasible strategy for sugarcane expansion in Brazil. However, there are some uncertainties about the environmental impacts regarding this land use change (LUC), mainly related to soil organic matter (SOM), a key factor of environmental sustainability of Brazilian ethanol. LUC-related losses of SOM can overcome the C savings from biofuels. The molecular composition of SOM was evaluated to understand the C dynamics regarding LUC from PA to SG, using native vegetation (NV) as reference. Our study area was located in the south-central region of Brazil. Soil sampling was performed at three depths (0–0.1 m, 0.2–0.3 m and 0.9–1 m) in three representative sites with known LUC history and management practice since 1970. Pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS) was chosen to study SOM chemistry. Content and isotopic composition of soil organic C and N were also determined. The LUC caused decreases on C and N contents and on δ{sup 13}C isotopic values. Depth was the major factor that influenced SOM composition, while the influence of LUC was mainly evident in surface soils and diminished rapidly with depth. The main difference in SOM composition undergoing the conversion PA-SG was a higher contribution from compounds associated to fresh litter inputs. The high contribution from fresh litter, having a relatively low mean residence time and increasing decomposition rates, is probably a major factor that drives C losses in areas undergoing sugarcane expansion. - Graphical abstract: We chose 3 sites in Brazil (1) and collected soil samples in areas undergoing LUC pasture–sugarcane (2) to evaluate SOM composition using Py–GC/MS (3). The LUC causes shifts on SOM signature (4), highlighting the increase of fresh litter compounds in sugarcane areas (5). - Highlights: • Effect of land use change (LUC) on SOM composition in Brazilian soils • Py-GC/MS of NaOH extractable SOM

  7. Characterization of the potential mobilization of inorganic pollutants in polluted soils; Caracterisation de la mobilisation potentielle des polluants inorganiques dans les sols pollues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, C.

    2000-03-01

    This work is made of 5 parts. The first chapter presents the regulatory aspects relative to the polluted sites and soils in France and in Europe in order to allow a better understanding of the stakes of this study. Chapter 2 proposes, first, a bibliographic synthesis of the hydro-mechanical and physico-chemical mechanisms controlling the transfer of pollutants in soils, and then, and exhaustive review of the laboratory tests that allow to evaluate the mobility of pollutants in soils. Chapter 3 is devoted to the experimental study of the interaction between a natural soil and 4 metals (As, Cr, Pb, Zn). It comprises the study of the adsorption-desorption kinetics and the implementation of adsorption-desorption isotherms. This chapter also introduces the notion of speciation (sequential extractions) and shows off the role played by the various constituents of the soil. An experiment of lead-humic acid equilibrium setting-up is proposed to evaluate the phenomenon of complexation on organic matter. Chapter 4 proposes to apply the selected laboratory tests to the previous natural soil artificially polluted in order to characterize the parameters necessary to obtain a mobility scale. The procedures are performed first, on a recently polluted soil and on the same soil after several months of aging. Chapter 5 applies the previously tested procedures to an industrial polluted soil (arsenic, chromium, lead, zinc) in order to propose an elaborated methodology for the evaluation of the mobility of inorganic pollutants. (J.S.)

  8. Radiological and hyperfine characterization of soils from the Northeastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, M. L.; Mercader, R. C.; Taylor, M. A.; Runco, J. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Fisica La Plata - CONICET, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina); Imbellone, P. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Geomorfologia y Suelos (Argentina); Rivas, P. C. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Fisica La Plata - CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales (Argentina); Desimoni, J., E-mail: desimoni@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Instituto de Fisica La Plata - CONICET, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (Argentina)

    2011-11-15

    The activity concentrations of both natural ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th chains and {sup 40}K) and anthropogenic ({sup 137}Cs) radionuclides down along the soil profile have been determined in soil samples collected from inland and coastal areas of the La Plata River, located in the Northeastern region of the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. These studies were complemented with {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy characterization, pH, texture and organic carbon content measurements. From Moessbauer results, the sample compositions differ from one area to the other. Spectra from both soil samples are dominated by the Fe{sup 3+ } paramagnetic signal. For soil samples from the coastal area, the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} contribution is lower, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was not detected, and the relative areas of each spectral contribution are nearly constant with depth. For samples from the inland area, the Fe{sup 3+ } paramagnetic fraction increases up to 82%, mainly at the expense of the magnetically ordered phase. The main observed activity originates from the decay of {sup 40}K (540-750 Bq/kg), followed by {sup 238}U (60-92 Bq/kg) and {sup 232}Th (37-46 Bq/kg) chains. The activity of {sup 235}U was in all the cases lower than the detection limit (L{sub D} = 0.02 Bq/kg). The only determined anthropogenic nuclide was {sup 137}Cs, arising from the fallout of the Southern Hemisphere nuclear weapon tests. Three of the observed differences in the depth distributions can be described by the dispersion-convection model. A correlation between the natural nuclide activities and the Moessbauer relative fractions was found, whereas no correlation was found between the {sup 137}Cs profile and the relative fraction of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} or with other iron species.

  9. Characterization and selection of biochar for an efficient retention of tricyclazole in a flooded alluvial paddy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Jaramillo, Manuel, E-mail: mgarcia@irnas.csic.es [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), P.O. Box 1052, 41080 Seville (Spain); Cox, Lucía; Knicker, Heike E.; Cornejo, Juan [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), P.O. Box 1052, 41080 Seville (Spain); Spokas, Kurt A. [United States Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, Saint Paul 55108, MN (United States); Hermosín, M.Carmen [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), P.O. Box 1052, 41080 Seville (Spain)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Biochar CEC was inversely correlated with HTT. • Enhanced aromaticity was associated to an improved biochar adsorption of tricyclazole. • The SSA of the biochars was inversely correlated with DOC contents. • Adsorption of tricyclazole was related to high SSA and low DOC content of biochars. • The use of AC and biochar in conjunction provides the slow release of tricyclazole. - Abstract: Biochars, from different organic residues, are increasingly proposed as soil amendments for their agronomic and environmental benefits. A systematic detection method that correlates biochar properties to their abilities to adsorb organic compounds is still lacking. Seven biochars obtained after pyrolysis at different temperatures and from different feedstock (alperujo compost, rice hull, and woody debris), were characterized and tested to reveal potential remedial forms for pesticide capture in flooded soils. Biochar properties were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, specific surface area (SSA) assessment and scanning electron microscopy. In addition, dissolved organic matter (DOM) from these biochars was extracted and quantified in order to evaluate the effect on pesticide sorption. The biochars from alperujo compost presented very high affinity to the fungicide tricyclazole (55.9, 83.5, and 90.3% for B1, B4, and B5, respectively). This affinity was positively correlated with the pyrolysis temperature, the pH, the increased SSA of the biochars, and the enhanced aromaticity. Sorptive capacities were negatively related to DOM contents. The amendment with a mixture of compost and biochar endows the alluvial soil with high sorptive properties (from K{sub fads(soil)} = 9.26 to K{sub fads(mixture)} = 17.89) without impeding the slow release of tricyclazole.

  10. Characterization study of cesium concentrated particles in the soils near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Yukihiko; Sueki, Keisuke; Sasa, Kimikazu; Adachi, Kouji; Igarashi, Yasuhito

    2015-04-01

    Radionuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident contaminated a vast area. Two types of contamination, spread and spot types, were observed in soils with autoradiography using an imaging plate. Other samples such as dust filters, vegetation, X-ray films, and so on, also indicate the spot type contamination in the early stage of the FDNPP accident. The source of spot type contamination is well known as hot particles at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident in 1986. Hot particles were divided into two groups, fuel hot particles and fission product particles, and they were emitted directly from reactor core with phreatic explosion and fire. In contrast, the official reports of the FDNPP accident did not conforme core explosion. In addition, the emitted total amount of Uranium was very few (Yamamoto et al., 2014). Thus, the spot type contaminations were not identified as the same of hot particles yet. Therefore, the present study aimed to pick up and identify the spot contaminations in soils. Surface soil samples were collected at 20 km northwest from the FDNPP in June 2013. Soils were spread in plastic bags for autoradiography with imaging plate analysis. Then, the soil particles were collected on a sticky carbon tape and analyzed by SEM-EDS to detect radioactive particles. Finally, particles were confirmed to contain photo peaks in the γ-spectrum by a germanium semiconductor detector. Four radioactive particles were isolated from the soil samples in the present study. Detected γ-ray emission radionuclides were only Cs-134 and Cs-137. The X-ray spectra on the SEM-EDS of all particles showed a Cs peak as well as O, Fe, Zn, and Rb peaks, and these elements were distributed uniformly within the particles. In addition, uniform distribution of Si was also shown. Moreover, U was detected from one of the particles, but U concentration was very low and existed locally in the particle. These characters are very similar to previous

  11. Iron-bound organic carbon in forest soils: quantification and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Poulson, Simon R.; Obrist, Daniel; Sumaila, Samira; Dynes, James J.; McBeth, Joyce M.; Yang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Iron oxide minerals play an important role in stabilizing organic carbon (OC) and regulating the biogeochemical cycles of OC on the earth surface. To predict the fate of OC, it is essential to understand the amount, spatial variability, and characteristics of Fe-bound OC in natural soils. In this study, we investigated the concentrations and characteristics of Fe-bound OC in soils collected from 14 forests in the United States and determined the impact of ecogeographical variables and soil physicochemical properties on the association of OC and Fe minerals. On average, Fe-bound OC contributed 37.8 % of total OC (TOC) in forest soils. Atomic ratios of OC : Fe ranged from 0.56 to 17.7, with values of 1-10 for most samples, and the ratios indicate the importance of both sorptive and incorporative interactions. The fraction of Fe-bound OC in TOC (fFe-OC) was not related to the concentration of reactive Fe, which suggests that the importance of association with Fe in OC accumulation was not governed by the concentration of reactive Fe. Concentrations of Fe-bound OC and fFe-OC increased with latitude and reached peak values at a site with a mean annual temperature of 6.6 °C. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) analyses revealed that Fe-bound OC was less aliphatic than non-Fe-bound OC. Fe-bound OC also was more enriched in 13C compared to the non-Fe-bound OC, but C / N ratios did not differ substantially. In summary, 13C-enriched OC with less aliphatic carbon and more carboxylic carbon was associated with Fe minerals in the soils, with values of fFe-OC being controlled by both sorptive and incorporative associations between Fe and OC. Overall, this study demonstrates that Fe oxides play an important role in regulating the biogeochemical cycles of C in forest soils and uncovers the governing factors for the spatial variability and characteristics of Fe-bound OC.

  12. Surface Complexation Modeling in Variable Charge Soils: Charge Characterization by Potentiometric Titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Marchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Intrinsic equilibrium constants of 17 representative Brazilian Oxisols were estimated from potentiometric titration measuring the adsorption of H+ and OH− on amphoteric surfaces in suspensions of varying ionic strength. Equilibrium constants were fitted to two surface complexation models: diffuse layer and constant capacitance. The former was fitted by calculating total site concentration from curve fitting estimates and pH-extrapolation of the intrinsic equilibrium constants to the PZNPC (hand calculation, considering one and two reactive sites, and by the FITEQL software. The latter was fitted only by FITEQL, with one reactive site. Soil chemical and physical properties were correlated to the intrinsic equilibrium constants. Both surface complexation models satisfactorily fit our experimental data, but for results at low ionic strength, optimization did not converge in FITEQL. Data were incorporated in Visual MINTEQ and they provide a modeling system that can predict protonation-dissociation reactions in the soil surface under changing environmental conditions.

  13. Isolation and characterization of gasoline-degrading bacteria from gas station leaking-contaminated soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Si-jin; WANG Hong-qi; YAO Zhi-hua

    2006-01-01

    The effects of culture conditions in vitro and biosurfactant detection were studied on bacterial strains capable of degrading gasoline from contaminated soils near gas station. The main results were summarized as follows. Three bacteria (strains Q10, Q14 and Q18) that were considered as efficiently degrading strains were isolated and identified as Pseudomonas sp., Flavobacterium sp. and Rhodococcus sp., respectively. The optimal growth conditions of three bacteria including pH, temperature and the concentration of gasoline were similar. The reduction in surface tension was observed with all the three bacteria, indicating the production of toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) could easily be degraded by the three isolates. The consortium was more effective than the individual cultures in degrading added gasoline, diesel oil, and BTEX. These results indicate that these strains have great potential for in situ remediation of soils contaminated by gas station leaking.

  14. Molecular characterization of soil organic matter from native vegetation-pasture-sugarcane transitions in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dener Márcio da Silva; Schellekens, Judith; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino

    2016-04-01

    Replacing pastures (PA) with sugarcane (SG) has been deemed an agronomically feasible strategy for sugarcane expansion in Brazil. However, there are some uncertainties about the environmental impacts regarding this land use change (LUC), mainly related to soil organic matter (SOM), a key factor of environmental sustainability of Brazilian ethanol. LUC-related losses of SOM can overcome the C savings from biofuels. The molecular composition of SOM was evaluated to understand the C dynamics regarding LUC from PA to SG, using native vegetation (NV) as reference. Our study area was located in the south-central region of Brazil. Soil sampling was performed at three depths (0-0.1m, 0.2-0.3m and 0.9-1m) in three representative sites with known LUC history and management practice since 1970. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was chosen to study SOM chemistry. Content and isotopic composition of soil organic C and N were also determined. The LUC caused decreases on C and N contents and on δ(13)C isotopic values. Depth was the major factor that influenced SOM composition, while the influence of LUC was mainly evident in surface soils and diminished rapidly with depth. The main difference in SOM composition undergoing the conversion PA-SG was a higher contribution from compounds associated to fresh litter inputs. The high contribution from fresh litter, having a relatively low mean residence time and increasing decomposition rates, is probably a major factor that drives C losses in areas undergoing sugarcane expansion.

  15. Evaluation and characterization of anti-estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities in soil samples along the Second Songhua River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Wang, Yafei; Kong, Dongdong; Wang, Jinsheng; Teng, Yanguo; Li, Na

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, re-combined estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) gene yeast assays combined with a novel approach based on Monte Carlo simulation were used for evaluation and characterization of soil samples collected from Jilin along the Second Songhua River to assess their antagonist/agonist properties for ER and AR. The results showed that estrogenic activity only occurred in the soil samples collected in the agriculture area, but most soil samples showed anti-estrogenic activities, and the bioassay-derived 4-hydroxytamoxifen equivalents ranged from N.D. to 23.51 μg/g. Hydrophilic substance fractions were determined as potential contributors associated with anti-estrogenic activity in these soil samples. Moreover, none of the soil samples exhibited AR agonistic potency, whereas 54% of the soil samples exhibited AR antagonistic potency. The flutamide equivalents varied between N.D. and 178.05 μg/g. Based on Monte Carlo simulation-related mass balance analysis, the AR antagonistic activities were significantly correlated with the media polar and polar fractions. All of these results support that this novel calculation method can be adopted effectively to quantify and characterize the ER/AR agonists and antagonists of the soil samples, and these data could help provide useful information for future management and remediation efforts.

  16. Identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways using high frequency sampling, REE aqueous sampling and soil characterization at Koiliaris Critical Zone Observatory, Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraetis, Daniel, E-mail: moraetis@mred.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece); Stamati, Fotini; Kotronakis, Manolis; Fragia, Tasoula; Paranychnianakis, Nikolaos; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Identification of hydrological and geochemical pathways within a complex watershed. > Water increased N-NO{sub 3} concentration and E.C. values during flash flood events. > Soil degradation and impact on water infiltration within the Koiliaris watershed. > Analysis of Rare Earth Elements in water bodies for identification of karstic water. - Abstract: Koiliaris River watershed is a Critical Zone Observatory that represents severely degraded soils due to intensive agricultural activities and biophysical factors. It has typical Mediterranean soils under the imminent threat of desertification which is expected to intensify due to projected climate change. High frequency hydro-chemical monitoring with targeted sampling for Rare Earth Elements (REE) analysis of different water bodies and geochemical characterization of soils were used for the identification of hydrologic and geochemical pathways. The high frequency monitoring of water chemical data highlighted the chemical alterations of water in Koiliaris River during flash flood events. Soil physical and chemical characterization surveys were used to identify erodibility patterns within the watershed and the influence of soils on surface and ground water chemistry. The methodology presented can be used to identify the impacts of degraded soils to surface and ground water quality as well as in the design of methods to minimize the impacts of land use practices.

  17. Diversity and Characterization of Potential H2-Dependent Fe(Ⅲ)-Reducing Bacteria in Paddy Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui-Juan; PENG Jing-Jing; LI Hong-Bo

    2012-01-01

    Microbial ferric iron reduction,with organic carbon or hydrogen as the electron donor,is one of the most important biogeochemical processes in anoxic paddy soils; however,the diversity and community structure of hydrogen-dependent dissimilatory iron-reducers remain unknown.Potential H2-dependent Fe(Ⅲ)-reducing bacteria in paddy soils were explored using enrichment cultures with ferrihydrite or goethite as the electron acceptor and hydrogen as the electron donor.Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and cloning/sequencing were conducted to reveal bacterial comnunity structure.Results showed that Geobacter and Clostridium were the dominant bacteria in the enrichment cultures.Fe(Ⅲ) oxide mineral phases showed a strong effect on the community structure; Geobacter and Clostridium were dominant in the ferrihydrite treatment,while Clostridium spp were dominant in the goethite treatment.These suggested that H2-dependent Fe(Ⅲ)-reducing bacteria might be widely distributed in paddy soils and that besides Geobacter,Clostridium spp.might also be an important group of H2-dependent Fe(Ⅲ)-reducing microorganisms.

  18. Characterization of a Soil Metagenome-Derived Gene Encoding Wax Ester Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Hee; Park, Ji-Hye; Chung, Eunsook; So, Hyun-Ah; Lee, Myung Hwan; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Hwang, Eul Chul; Lee, Seon-Woo

    2016-02-01

    A soil metagenome contains the genomes of all microbes included in a soil sample, including those that cannot be cultured. In this study, soil metagenome libraries were searched for microbial genes exhibiting lipolytic activity and those involved in potential lipid metabolism that could yield valuable products in microorganisms. One of the subclones derived from the original fosmid clone, pELP120, was selected for further analysis. A subclone spanning a 3.3 kb DNA fragment was found to encode for lipase/esterase and contained an additional partial open reading frame encoding a wax ester synthase (WES) motif. Consequently, both pELP120 and the full length of the gene potentially encoding WES were sequenced. To determine if the wes gene encoded a functioning WES protein that produced wax esters, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was conducted using ethyl acetate extract from an Escherichia coli strain that expressed the wes gene and was grown with hexadecanol. The ethyl acetate extract from this E. coli strain did indeed produce wax ester compounds of various carbon-chain lengths. DNA sequence analysis of the full-length gene revealed that the gene cluster may be derived from a member of Proteobacteria, whereas the clone does not contain any clear phylogenetic markers. These results suggest that the wes gene discovered in this study encodes a functional protein in E. coli and produces wax esters through a heterologous expression system.

  19. Microbial Diversity of Chromium-Contaminated Soils and Characterization of Six Chromium-Removing Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhiguo; Hu, Yuting; Yin, Zhen; Hu, Yuehua; Zhong, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Three soil samples obtained from different sites adjacent to a chromium slag heap in a steel alloy factory were taken to examine the effect of chromium contamination on soil bacterial diversity as determined by construction of 16S rDNA clone libraries and sequencing of selected clones based on restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results revealed that Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Alphaproteobacteria occurred in all three soil samples, although the three samples differed in their total diversity. Sample 1 had the highest microbial diversity covering 12 different classes, while Sample 3 had the lowest microbial diversity. Strains of six different species were successfully isolated, one of which was identified as Zobellella denitrificans. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a strain belonging to the genus Zobellella able to resist and reduce chromium. Among all isolates studied, Bacillus odysseyi YH2 exhibited the highest Cr(VI)-reducing capability, with a total removal of 23.5 % of an initial Cr(VI) concentration of 350 mg L-1.

  20. Characterization on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil as affected by different influencing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, J.; Wang, R.; Niu, X.; Wang, M.; Zhou, Q.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, pilot experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of different environmental factors on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. Different plant species (cotton, ryegrass, tall fescue, and alfalfa), addition of fertilizer, different concentration of TPH in soil, bioaugmentation with effective microbial agent (EMA) and PGPR, and remediation time were tested as influencing factors during bioremediation process of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH). The result shows that the remediation process can be enhanced by different plants species with the following order: tall fescue > ryegrass > alfalfa > cotton. The degradation rate of TPH increased with increased fertilizer addition and moderate level of 20 g/m2 urea is best for both plant growth and TPH remediation. High TPH content is toxic to plant growth and inhibits the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon with 5% TPH content showing the best degradation result in soil planted with ryegrass. Bioaugmentation with different bacteria and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) showed the following results for TPH degradation: cotton + EMA + PGPR > cotton + EMA > cotton + PGPR > cotton > control. Rapid degradation of TPH was found at the initial period of remediation caused by the activity of microorganisms, continuous increase was found from 30-90 d period and slow increase was found from 90 to 150 d. The result suggests that rhizoremediation can be enhanced with the proper control of different influencing factors that affect both plant growth and microbial activity in the rhizosphere environment.

  1. Characterizing the dynamics of soil organic carbon in grasslands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG YongQiang; TANG YanHong; JIANG Jie; YANG YongHui

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dynamics of grasslands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau may play an important role in regional and global carbon cycles. The CENTURY model (Version 4.5) is used to examine temporal and spatial variations of soil organic carbon (SOC) in grasslands on the Plateau for the period from 1960 to 2002. The model successfully simulates the dynamics of aboveground carbon and soil surface SOC at the soil depth of 0-20 cm and the simulated results agree well to the measurements. Examination of SOC for eight typical grasslands shows different patterns of temporal variation in different ecosystems in 1960-2002. The extent of temporal variation increases with the increase of SOC of ecosystem. SOC increases first and decreases quickly then during the period from 1990 to 2000. Spatially, SOC density obtained for the equilibrium condition declines gradually from the southeast to the northwest on the plateau and showed a high heterogeneity in the eastern plateau. The results suggest that (i) SOC density in the alpine grasslands shows remarkable response to climate change during the 42 years, and (ii) the net carbon exchange rate between the alpine grassland ecosystems and the atmosphere increases from 1990 to 2000 as compared with that before 1990.

  2. Physical-Chemical Characterization of Soils Treated with Sewage Sludge Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milda Radžiūtė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Sewage dump is the main organic waste component accumulating in water treatment companies, and therefore the utilization of dump remains a burning issue. Fertilization is the most popular and cheapest way of using sewage dump a part of which is intended for agriculture in most European countries for composting purposes. Sewage dump or its compost are suitable for fertilizing the upper layers of the soil in cases the concentration of heavy metals is not greater than sanitarian standards can tolerate. The examinations were carried out using different waste dump rates from Vilnius water treatment facility in willow (Salix viminalis grown cultivated fields. The analysis of the soil was executed after one and two years following the fertilization process. The obtained results indicate that waste dump is a valuable organic fertilizer which contains small amounts of heavy metals. Separate heavy metals migrate from sewage sludge compost to plants differently. It was noted that the concentration of heavy metals in willows was greater (except for Pb and Cd than that in the soil.Article in Lithuanian

  3. Characterizing the dynamics of soil organic carbon in grasslands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Carbon dynamics of grasslands on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau may play an important role in regional and global carbon cycles. The CENTURY model (Version 4.5) is used to examine temporal and spatial variations of soil organic carbon (SOC) in grasslands on the Plateau for the period from 1960 to 2002. The model successfully simulates the dynamics of aboveground carbon and soil surface SOC at the soil depth of 0-20 cm and the simulated results agree well to the measurements. Examination of SOC for eight typical grasslands shows different patterns of temporal variation in different ecosystems in 1960-2002. The extent of temporal variation increases with the increase of SOC of ecosystem. SOC increases first and decreases quickly then during the period from 1990 to 2000. Spatially, SOC density obtained for the equilibrium condition declines gradually from the southeast to the northwest on the plateau and showed a high heterogeneity in the eastern plateau. The results suggest that (i) SOC den-sity in the alpine grasslands shows remarkable response to climate change during the 42 years, and (ii) the net carbon exchange rate between the alpine grassland ecosystems and the atmosphere increases from 1990 to 2000 as compared with that before 1990.

  4. Characterization of mineral phosphate solubilization traits from a barley rhizosphere soil functional metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Sagar; Brazil, Dina; Morrissey, John; Burke, James I; O'Gara, Fergal; N Dowling, David

    2013-10-01

    Mineral phosphate solubilization (MPS) microorganisms are important for their provision of orthophosphate anions for plant growth promotion activity in soil. In this study, we applied a functional metagenomic approach to identify this trait directly from the microbiome in barley rhizosphere soil that had not received P fertilizer over a 15-year period. A fosmid system was used to clone the metagenome of which 18,000 clones (~666 Mb of DNA) was screened for MPS. Functional assays and High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis recognized gluconic acid production and MPS activity in the range 24.8-77.1 mmol/L and 27.6-38.16 μg/mL, respectively, when screened in an Escherichia coli host (at frequency of one MPS-positive clone hit per 114 Mb DNA tested). The MPS clones (with average insert size of ~37 kb) were analysed by 454 Roche sequencing and annotated. A number of genes/operons with homology to Phosphorous (P) uptake, regulatory and solubilization mechanisms were identified, linking the MPS function to the uncultivated microbiome present in barley rhizosphere soil.

  5. Characterization on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil as affected by different influencing factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, pilot experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of different environmental factors on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. Different plant species (cotton, ryegrass, tall fescue, and alfalfa, addition of fertilizer, different concentration of TPH in soil, bioaugmentation with effective microbial agent (EMA and PGPR, and remediation time were tested as influencing factors during bioremediation process of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH. The result shows that the remediation process can be enhanced by different plants species with the following order: tall fescue > ryegrass > alfalfa > cotton. The degradation rate of TPH increased with increased fertilizer addition and moderate level of 20 g/m2 urea is best for both plant growth and TPH remediation. High TPH content is toxic to plant growth and inhibits the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon with 5% TPH content showing the best degradation result in soil planted with ryegrass. Bioaugmentation with different bacteria and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR showed the following results for TPH degradation: cotton + EMA + PGPR > cotton + EMA > cotton + PGPR > cotton > control. Rapid degradation of TPH was found at the initial period of remediation caused by the activity of microorganisms, continuous increase was found from 30–90 d period and slow increase was found from 90 to 150 d. The result suggests that rhizoremediation can be enhanced with the proper control of different influencing factors that affect both plant growth and microbial activity in the rhizosphere environment.

  6. Soil and phytosociological characterization of an area with predominance of arnica (Lychnophora pohlii sch. bip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues da Cunha Gianotti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lychnophora pohlii Sch. Bip. (Asteraceae, known as "Arnica mineira", is widely used in folk medicine and very abundant in the altitude vegetation of rocky grassland. The aim of this work was to study the density of this species and its relationship with soil parameters in rocky grassland in Diamantina, in the Upper Jequitinhonha region, Minas Gerais. Ten contiguous 20 x 50 m plots were marked (total sampled area 10,000 m² on the campus Juscelino Kubitschek of the Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM. The plants in these plots were evaluated for frequency, dominance and density. The relationship between the density of this species with nine soil physical and chemical properties was analyzed by means of canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. The highest plant abundance (I of the species Lychnophora pohlii Sch. Bip. was found in the vegetation sampling areas: plot 6 with 255 plants, plot 7 with 173, plot 8 with 189, plot 9 with 159, and plot 1 with 151 plants. In these areas, the floristic soil characteristics were similar, resulting in spatial proximity in the ACC diagrams. The density of Lychnophora pohlii was higher in plots with higher pH, P-rem and base saturation, the variables most strongly correlated with the first axis of canonical correspondence analysis.

  7. Characterization of a Polyacrylamide Solution Used for Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongwon Jung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers are viewed as effective and eco-friendly agents in soil modification. This study focuses on the wettability analysis of polyacrylamide (PAM solutions for soil remediation. The contact angle, surface tension, and viscosity of PAM solutions were experimentally evaluated in air- and decane-biopolymer solution systems. Furthermore, a micromodel was used to investigate the pore-scale displacement phenomena during the injection of the PAM solution in decane and or air saturated pores. The contact angle of the PAM solution linearly increases with increasing concentration in air but not in decane. The surface tension between the PAM solution and air decreases at increasing concentration. The viscosity of the PAM solution is highly dependent on the concentration of the solution, shear rate, and temperature. Low flow rate and low concentration result in a low displacement ratio level, which is defined as the volume ratio between the injected and the defended fluids in the pores. The displacement ratio is higher for PAM solutions than distilled water; however, a higher concentration does not necessarily guarantees a higher displacement ratio. Soil remediation could be conducted cost-efficiently at high flow rates but with moderate concentration levels.

  8. Characterization of trichloroethylene adsorption onto waste biocover soil in the presence of landfill gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruo; Su, Yao; Kong, Jiaoyan

    2015-09-15

    Waste biocover soils (WBS) have been demonstrated to have great potential in mitigating trichloroethylene (TCE) emission from landfills, due to the relatively high TCE-degrading capacity. In this study, the characteristics of TCE adsorption on WBS in the presence of the major landfill gas components (i.e., CH4 and CO2) were investigated in soil microcosms. The adsorption isotherm of TCE onto WBS was fitted well with linear model within the TCE concentrations of 7000 ppmv. The adsorption capacity of TCE onto WBS was affected by temperature, soil moisture content and particle size, of which, temperature was the dominant factor. The adsorption capacity of TCE onto the experimental materials increased with the increasing organic matter content. A significantly positive correlation was observed between the adsorption capacity of TCE and the organic matter content of experimental materials that had relatively higher organic content (r = 0.988, P = 0.044). To better understand WBS application in practice, response surface methodology was developed to predict TCE adsorption capacity and emissions through WBS in different landfills in China. These results indicated that WBS had high adsorption capacity of TCE in LFG and temperature should be paid more attention to manipulate WBS to reduce TCE emissions from landfills.

  9. The integration of 3D electrical resistivity tomography and ET flux measurements to characterize water mass balance in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanella, Daniela; Boaga, Jacopo; Perri, Maria Teresa; Consoli, Simona; Cassiani, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    The system of soil, vegetation, and the adjacent atmosphere is characterized by complex patterns, structures, and processes that act on a wide range of time and space scales. While the exchange of energy and water is continuous between compartments, the pertinent fluxes are strongly heterogeneous and variable in space and time. Therefore, quantitatively predicting the systems' behaviour constitutes a major challenge. Traditionally, soil moisture beneath irrigated crops has been determined using point measurement methods such as neutron probes or capacitance systems. These approaches cannot measure soil moisture at depths beyond the root-zone of plants and have limited lateral coverage. Literature results show that electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be used to reliable map the spatial heterogeneity in soil moisture. Here we present the application of the time-lapse non-invasive 3D micro - electrical tomography (ERT) to monitor soil-plant interactions in the root zone of an orange tree located in the Mediterranean semi-arid Sicilian (South Italy) context. The subsoil dynamics, particularly influenced by irrigation and root uptake, has been characterized a 3D ERT apparatus consisting of 48 buried electrodes on 4 instrumented micro boreholes plus 24 mini-electrodes on the surface spaced 0.1 m on a square grid. During the monitoring, repeated ERT soil moisture measurements were collected, as well as laboratory characterization of the soil electrical properties as a function of moisture content and pore water electrical conductivity. Plant transpiration was continuously monitored during the ERT experiment by the sap flow heat pulse (HP) method for a quantitative analysis of the mass balance in the soil-plant-atmosphere system under observation. In addition, evapo-transpiration has been continuously monitored at the same site using an eddy-correlation tower. The integration of measurements regarding soil,plant and atmosphere allows a better understanding of

  10. Characterization and remediation of Soil Contaminated with Explosives: Development of Practical Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-06

    and TK6 human lymphoblastic cells (Lachance eta!. 1999). No mutagenicity to Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test) was observed with or without a rat...limit (42.3 mg/L at 20°C [1]), RDX is neither mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TAlOO with or without S9 [9,10] nor cytotoxic to...organisms. Simini et al. [13] reported that RDX concentrations (~100 mg/kg in soil) caused significant biomass reduction in cucumber seedlings

  11. Mining-related sediment and soil contamination in a large Superfund site: Characterization, habitat implications, and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Drake, K. D.

    2016-01-01

    Historical mining activity (1850–1970) in the now inactive Tri-State Mining District provided an ongoing source of lead and zinc to the environment including the US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site located in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas, USA. The resultant contamination adversely affected biota and caused human health problems and risks. Remediation in the Superfund site requires an understanding of the magnitude and extent of contamination. To provide some of the required information, a series of sediment and soil investigations were conducted in and near the Superfund site to characterize lead and zinc contamination in the aquatic and floodplain environments along the main-stem Spring River and its major tributaries. In the Superfund site, the most pronounced lead and zinc contamination, with concentrations that far exceed sediment quality guidelines associated with potential adverse biological effects, was measured for streambed sediments and floodplain soils located within or downstream from the most intensive mining-affected areas. Tributary streambeds and floodplains in affected areas are heavily contaminated with some sites having lead and zinc concentrations that are an order of magnitude (or more) greater than the sediment quality guidelines. For the main-stem Spring River, the streambed is contaminated but the floodplain is mostly uncontaminated. Measured lead and zinc concentrations in streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and floodplain soils documented a persistence of the post-mining contamination on a decadal timescale. These results provide a basis for the prioritization, development, and implementation of plans to remediate contamination in the affected aquatic and floodplain environments within the Superfund site.

  12. Mining-Related Sediment and Soil Contamination in a Large Superfund Site: Characterization, Habitat Implications, and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, K. E.; Drake, K. D.

    2016-10-01

    Historical mining activity (1850-1970) in the now inactive Tri-State Mining District provided an ongoing source of lead and zinc to the environment including the US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site located in Cherokee County, southeast Kansas, USA. The resultant contamination adversely affected biota and caused human health problems and risks. Remediation in the Superfund site requires an understanding of the magnitude and extent of contamination. To provide some of the required information, a series of sediment and soil investigations were conducted in and near the Superfund site to characterize lead and zinc contamination in the aquatic and floodplain environments along the main-stem Spring River and its major tributaries. In the Superfund site, the most pronounced lead and zinc contamination, with concentrations that far exceed sediment quality guidelines associated with potential adverse biological effects, was measured for streambed sediments and floodplain soils located within or downstream from the most intensive mining-affected areas. Tributary streambeds and floodplains in affected areas are heavily contaminated with some sites having lead and zinc concentrations that are an order of magnitude (or more) greater than the sediment quality guidelines. For the main-stem Spring River, the streambed is contaminated but the floodplain is mostly uncontaminated. Measured lead and zinc concentrations in streambed sediments, lakebed sediments, and floodplain soils documented a persistence of the post-mining contamination on a decadal timescale. These results provide a basis for the prioritization, development, and implementation of plans to remediate contamination in the affected aquatic and floodplain environments within the Superfund site.

  13. Hydrodispersive characterization of a sandy porous medium by tracer tests carried out in laboratory on undisturbed soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Aldo Pedro; Fallico, Carmine; Rios, Ana C.; Fernanda Rivera, Maria; Santillan, Patricio; Salazar, Mario

    2013-04-01

    The contamination of large areas and correspondent aquifers often imposes to implement some recovery operations which are generally complex and very expensive. Anyway, these interventions necessarily require the preventive characterization of the aquifers to be reclaimed and in particular the knowledge of the relevant hydrodispersive parameters. The determination of these parameters requires the implementation tracer tests for the specific site (Sauty JP, 1978). To reduce cost and time that such test requires tracer tests on undisturbed soil samples, representative of the whole aquifer, can be performed. These laboratory tests are much less expensive and require less time, but the results are certainly less reliable than those obtained by field tests for several reasons, including the particular scale of investigation. In any case the hydrodispersive parameters values, obtained by tests carried out in laboratory, can provide useful information on the considered aquifer, allowing to carry out initial verifications on the transmission and propagation of the pollutants in the aquifer considered. For this purpose, tracer tests with inlet of short time were carried out in the Soil Physics Laboratory of the Department of Soil Protection (University of Calabria), on a series of sandy soil samples with six different lengths, repeating each test with three different water flow velocities (5 m/d; 10 m/s and 15 m/d) (J. Feyen et al., 1998). The lengths of the samples taken into account are respectively 15 cm, 24 cm, 30 cm, 45 cm, 60 cm and 75 cm, while the solution used for each test was made of 100 ml of water and NaCl with a concentration of this substance corresponding to 10 g/L. For the porous medium taken into consideration a particle size analysis was carried out, resulting primarily made of sand, with total porosity equal to 0.33. Each soil sample was placed in a flow cell in which was inlet the tracer from the bottom upwards, measuring by a conductivimeter the

  14. Supergravity backgrounds and symmetry superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Ertem, Ümit

    2016-01-01

    We consider the bosonic sectors of supergravity theories in ten and eleven dimensions which correspond to the low energy limits of string theories and M-theory. The solutions of supergravity field equations are known as supergravity backgrounds and the number of preserved supersymmetries in those backgrounds are determined by Killing spinors. We provide some examples of supergravity backgrounds which preserve different fractions of supersymmetry. An important invariant for the characterization of supergravity backgrounds is their Killing superalgebras which are constructed out of Killing vectors and Killing spinors of the background. After constructing Killing superalgebras of some special supergravity backgrounds, we discuss about the possibilities of the extensions of these superalgebras to include the higher degree hidden symmetries of the background.

  15. TECHNICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ECO-COMPATIBLE PLASTIC FILMS FOR SOIL SOLARIZATION: FOUR YEARS OF EXPERIMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Margiotta

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil solarization relies on solar radiation being converted to heat for the killing of soilborne pathogens. On one hand, this technique can be considered as an environmentally-friendly way to manage soilborne pests, as an alternative of methyl bromide phased-out in 2005, than using chemicals. On the other hand, high employment of traditional plastic sheets in agriculture causes the production of enormous quantities of waste, whose inappropriate management might have negative effects on the environment. In order to determine a reduction of the charge of plastic waste and to facilitate the waste disposal, one of the most interesting approaches, from an environmental point of view, lies in the location of innovatory plastic films such as co-extruded ultrathin films, which are able to reduce the plastic quantity to be managed, and biodegradable laminates, which after a first usage, will spontaneously start up a degradation process that avoids their collection and their consequent disposal. Beside the ecological proprieties of these innovative films, it is necessary to study their technical and agronomical behavior in order to determine their efficiency and the possibility to be used in place of the traditional plastic films. This paper represents a review of the researches carrier out by the Technical Economics Department of the University of Basilicata (Italy in the last years (1999, 2000, 2002 and 2003 on the technical performances of some innovative plastic films used for soil solarization.

  16. Extraction and Characterization of Humic Acids and Humin Fractions from a Black Soil of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Bao-Shan; LIU Ju-Dong; LIU Xiao-Bing; HAN Xiao-Zeng

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three progressive extractions were performed to study individual humic acids (Has) and humin fractions from a typical black soil (Mollisol) in Heilongjiang Province, China using elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques. After 23 HA extractions the residue was separated into high and low organic carbon humin fractions. HA yield was the highest for the first extraction and then gradually decreased with further extractions. Organic carbon (OC) of the humin fractions accounted for 58% of total OC even after 23 successive HA extractions. In addition, the atomic C/H ratio decreased during the course of extraction while C/O increased; the E4/E6 ratio from the UV analysis decreased with further extraction while E2/Ea increased; the band assigned to aliphatic carbon (2 930 cm-1) in the diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) spectra gradually increased with progressive extraction; the calculated ratio of the sum of aromatic carbon peak heights to that of aliphatic carbon peak heights from DRIFTS spectra declined with extractions; and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data suggested that HA aliphatic carbons increased with extractions while aromatic carbons decreased. Thus, hydrophobicity and aliphaticity of Has increased with extractions while polarity and aromaticity decreased. These data showed substantial chemical, structural, and molecular differences among the 23 Has and two humin fractions. Therefore, these results may help explain why soil and sediment humin fractions have high sorption capacity for organic contaminants.

  17. Identification and characterization of tebuconazole transformation products in soil by combining suspect screening and molecular typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Veronika; Lucini, Luigi; Mamy, Laure; Ferrari, Federico; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Nikolaki, Sofia; Karas, Panagiotis A; Servien, Remi; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Trevisan, Marco; Benoit, Pierre; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides generate transformation products (TPs) when they are released into the environment. These TPs may be of ecotoxicological importance. Past studies have demonstrated how difficult it is to predict the occurrence of pesticide TPs and their environmental risk. The monitoring approaches mostly used in current regulatory frameworks target only known ecotoxicologically relevant TPs. Here, we present a novel combined approach which identifies and categorizes known and unknown pesticide TPs in soil by combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with in silico molecular typology. We used an empirical and theoretical pesticide TP library for compound identification by both non-target and target time-of-flight (tandem) mass spectrometry, followed by structural proposition through a molecular structure correlation program. In silico molecular typology was then used to group TPs according to common molecular descriptors and to indirectly elucidate their environmental parameters by analogy to known pesticide compounds with similar molecular descriptors. This approach was evaluated via the identification of TPs of the triazole fungicide tebuconazole occurring in soil during a field dissipation study. Overall, 22 empirical and 12 yet unknown TPs were detected, and categorized into three groups with defined environmental properties. This approach combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with molecular typology could be extended to other organic pollutants and used to rationalize the choice of TPs to be investigated towards a more comprehensive environmental risk assessment scheme.

  18. Isolation, evaluation and characterization of Bacillus subtilis from cotton rhizospheric soil with biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajbhiye, Archana; Rai, Alok R; Meshram, Sudhir U; Dongre, A B

    2010-07-01

    Present investigation is based on the isolation of Bacillus subtilis from cotton rhizosphere and their evaluation as biocontrol agent against Fusarium oxysporum. The production of extracellular hydrolytic enzyme was studied for determining the antagonism. 43% of 21 isolates were identified under the B. subtilis group on the basis of biochemical characterization. 38% isolates showed competitive activity against Fusarium oxysporum and exhibit more than 50% mycelial inhibition in dual culture bioassay. The pot assay of cotton by seed treatment and soil amendment technique under green house condition showed the competent activity of the isolates in preventing the wilting of cotton seedlings due to F. oxysporum infection. SVI values of 30 day old seedlings indicated that the soil inoculation with B. subtilis BP-2 and seed treatment with B. subtilis BP-9 significantly promoted the growth of cotton seedlings. RAPD profiling revealed the diversity in the Bacillus subtilis group, ranging from 10 to 32%. The discriminative pattern among the isolates belonging to the same species was validated by 16S rDNA partial sequencing which identified them into four different strains of B. subtilis.

  19. As transport characterization in the vadose zone of the soil : a combined study between field and laboratory experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Julien; Rollin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metals are major soil pollutants since a lot of former industrial soils are polluted by these contaminants. In the context of risk assessment of contaminated sites, they are of particular concerns because of their toxicity toward human beings. Nevertheless, the vadose zone of the soil is not taken into consideration in this kind of studies though this is where the pollution enters the soil. That is why mechanisms responsible for trace element release in the unsaturated zone of the soil ...

  20. Characterization of Vegetation and Soil Scattering Mechanisms across Different Biomes using P-band SAR Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Alemohammad, Seyed Hamed; Jagdhuber, Thomas; Moghaddam, Mahta; Entekhabi, Dara

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of vegetation and soil scattering mechanisms retrieved from the observations of an airborne P-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) instrument across nine different biomes in North America is presented. The understanding of scattering mechanisms from the surface in the presence of different vegetation densities is necessary for the interpretation of P-band SAR observations and for the design of retrieval algorithms. Observations used here are part of the NASA Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) mission, and data have been collected between 2013 and 2015. A data-driven phase calibration technique is used to correct the phase information in the polarimetric observations. A hybrid (model- and eigen- based) three component decomposition algorithm is developed to separate the contributions of surface, double-bounce and vegetation scattering. The decomposition makes no prior assumptions about vegetation structure and is analytically tractable. Applying the retr...

  1. Bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil on Kwajalein Island: Microbiological characterization and biotreatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, H.I. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)); Jolley, R.L.; Donaldson, T.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)) (comps.)

    1992-05-01

    Bioremediation technology is being evaluated for use on the Kwajalein Atoll, which is located in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The study was undertaken by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on behalf of the US Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA). During February of 1991, a team from ORNL and The University of Tennessee (UT) visited the USAKA. In addition to making on-site observations regarding microbial abundance and distribution of petroleum contaminants, they brought back to Oak Ridge various soil and water samples for detailed analyses. This report documents the biological studies of these samples and presents observations made during the period from February to April of 1991 by investigators at ORNL, UT, and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities.

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Phosphate-Solubilizing Bacteria from Seagrass Rhizosphere Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Upasana Ghosh; Ponnambalam Subhashini; Elangovan Dilipan; Subramanian Raja; Thirunavukarassu Thangaradjou; Lakshmanan Kannan

    2012-01-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strains (6 Nos.) were isolated from the rhizosphere soils of two seagrasses (Halophila ovalis (R.Br.) Hook and Halodule pinifolia (Miki) Hartog) in the Vellar estuary.Experimental studies found that the strain PSSG6was effective in phosphate solubilization with Phosphate Solubilization efficiency index E=375 ± 8.54,followed by the strain PSSG5with Phosphate Solubilization efficiency index E=275 ± 27.3.Of the 6 strains isolated,the strains PSSG4 and PSSG5 belonged to the genus Bacillus,and PSSG1,PSSG2 and PSSG3 were identified as Citrobacter sp.,Shigella sp.,and Klebsiella sp.,respectively,by conventional method,and PSSG6 was identified as Bacillus circulans using conventional and molecular methods.

  3. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of a phenanthrene-degrading strain isolated from oil-contaminated soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Ying; MIN Hang; LU Zhen-mei; YE Yang-fang

    2004-01-01

    Bacterium strain EVA17 was isolated from an oil-contaminated soil, and identified as Sphingononas sp.based on analysis of 16S rDNA sequence, cellular fatty acid composition and physiological-chemical tests. The salicylate hydroxylase and catechol 2, 3-dioxygenase (C23O) were detected in cell-free lysates, suggesting a pathway for phenanthrene catabolism via salicylate and catechol. Alignment showed that both of the C23O and GST genes of the strain EVA17 had high similarity with homologues of strains from genus Sphingomonas. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA and C23O gene sequence indicated that EVA17 should be classified into genus Sphingomonas, although the two phylogenetic trees were slightly different from each other. The results of coamplification and sequence determination indicated that GST gene should be located upstream of the C23O gene.

  4. Geostatistical characterization of the soil of Aguascalientes, México, by using spatial estimation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaleno-Márquez, Ricardo; de la Luz Pérez-Rea, María; Castaño, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    Four spatial estimation techniques available in commercial computational packages are evaluated and compared, namely: regularized splines interpolation, tension splines interpolation, inverse distance weighted interpolation, and ordinary Kriging estimation, in order to establish the best representation for the shallow stratigraphic configuration in the city of Aguascalientes, in Central Mexico. Data from 478 sample points along with the software ArcGIS (Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI), ArcGIS, ver. 9.3, Redlands, California 2008) to calculate the spatial estimates. Each technique was evaluated based on the root mean square error, calculated from a validation between the generated estimates and measured data from 64 sample points which were not used in the spatial estimation process. The present study shows that, for the estimation of the hard-soil layer, ordinary Kriging offered the best performance among the evaluated techniques.

  5. Isolation and characterization of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria from seagrass rhizosphere soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Upasana; Subhashini, Ponnambalam; Dilipan, Elangovan; Raja, Subramanian; Thangaradjou, Thirunavukarassu; Kannan, Lakshmanan

    2012-03-01

    Phosphate-solubilizing bacterial strains (6 Nos.) were isolated from the rhizosphere soils of two seagrasses ( Halophila ovalis (R. Br.) Hook and Halodule pinifolia (Miki) Hartog) in the Vellar estuary. Experimental studies found that the strain PSSG6 was effective in phosphate solubilization with Phosphate Solubilization efficiency index E = 375 ± 8.54, followed by the strain PSSG5 with Phosphate Solubilization efficiency index E = 275 ± 27.3. Of the 6 strains isolated, the strains PSSG4 and PSSG5 belonged to the genus Bacillus, and PSSG1, PSSG2 and PSSG3 were identified as Citrobacter sp., Shigella sp., and Klebsiella sp., respectively, by conventional method, and PSSG6 was identified as Bacillus circulans using conventional and molecular methods.

  6. Soil moisture characterization of the Valencia anchor station. Ground, aircraft measurements and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Baeza, E; Antolin, M C; Balling, Jan E.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of ESA SMOS Mission, the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) has been selected as a core validation site. Its reasonable homogeneous characteristics make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products before attempting other more complex areas. Close to SMOS....... For the rehearsal activity which successfully took place in April - May 2008, a control area of 10 × 10 km2 was chosen at the VAS study area where a network of ground soil moisture (SM) measuring stations is being set up based on an original definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units attending to climatic...... of the following instruments: (i) L-band EMIRAD radiometer (Technical University of Denmark, TUD), (ii) L-band HUT-2D imaging interferometric radiometer (TKK), (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system (Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia, IEEC), (iv) IR sensor (Finnish Institute of Maritime Research, FIMR...

  7. Direct determination of contact angles of model soils in comparison with wettability characterization by capillary rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Flores, Juan Carlos; Bachmann, Jörg; Marmur, Abraham

    2010-03-01

    SummaryAn accurate method to determine contact angles (CA) of soils as a measure of water repellency is still missing. In the present research, we evaluated and compared different methods to determine the CA of dry soil samples. Experiments were made by using a set of porous materials (silt, sand and glass beads) with different levels of water repellency. The CAs were measured with the Capillary Rise Method ( θCRM; liquid penetration into a 3-d system), the Wilhelmy plate method ( θWPM; measurement of capillary forces acting on a plane sample) and the Sessile Drop Method ( θSDM; optical CA analysis of drop contour on a plane sample). Results were compared with the CAs calculated from capillary rise in long vertical columns ( θECR), where liquid profiles of the final capillary rise of water and ethanol, respectively, were used to derive the contact angle under the assumed equilibrium conditions. The results showed the overestimation of the CA by using the well established bi-liquid CRM technique for porous materials, in particular for material with a low degree of water repellency (CA < 40°) and for the finer textured materials. In contrast, a variant of the Wilhelmy plate method, i.e. the cosine-averaged advancing CA and receding CA ( θEWPM), as well as the Sessile Drop CA, θSDM, were close to the ones of θECR. We concluded that θEWPM and θSDM are apparent CA, but nevertheless able to predict the impact of wettability on the final capillary rise which is affected by pore topology as well as by wettability.

  8. Characterization of high temperature-tolerant rhizobia isolated from Prosopis juliflora grown in alkaline soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Suneeta; Nautiyal, Chandra Shekhar

    1999-10-01

    A method was developed for the fast screening and selection of high-temperature tolerant rhizobial strains from root nodules of Prosopis juliflora growing in alkaline soils. The high-temperature tolerant rhizobia were selected from 2,500 Rhizobium isolates with similar growth patterns on yeast mannitol agar plates after 72 h incubation at 30 and 45 degrees C, followed by a second screening at 47.5 degrees C. Seventeen high-temperature tolerant rhizobial strains having distinguishable protein band patterns were finally selected for further screening by subjecting them to temperature stress up to 60 degrees C in yeast mannitol broth for 6 h. The high-temperature tolerant strains were NBRI12, NBRI329, NBRI330, NBRI332, and NBRI133. Using this procedure, a large number of rhizobia from root nodules of P. juliflora were screened for high-temperature tolerance. The assimilation of several carbon sources, tolerance to high pH and salt stress, and ability to nodulate P. juliflora growing in a glasshouse and nursery of the strains were studied. All five isolates had higher plant dry weight in the range of 29.9 to 88.6% in comparison with uninoculated nursery-grown plants. It was demonstrated that it is possible to screen in nature for superior rhizobia exemplified by the isolation of temperature-tolerant strains, which established effective symbiosis with nursery-grown P. juliflora. These findings indicate a correlation between strain performance under in vitro stress in pure culture and strain behavior under symbiotic conditions. Pure culture evaluation may be a useful tool in search for Rhizobium strains better suited for soil environments where high temperature, pH, and salt stress constitutes a limitation for symbiotic biological nitrogen fixation.

  9. Spatial variability of soil CO2 emission in a sugarcane area characterized by secondary information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel De Bortoli Teixeira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil CO2 emission (FCO2 is governed by the inherent properties of the soil, such as bulk density (BD. Mapping of FCO2 allows the evaluation and identification of areas with different accumulation potential of carbon. However, FCO2 mapping over larger areas is not feasible due to the period required for evaluation. This study aimed to assess the quality of FCO2 spatial estimates using values of BD as secondary information. FCO2 and BD were evaluated on a regular sampling grid of 60 m × 60 m comprising 141 points, which was established on a sugarcane area. Four scenarios were defined according to the proportion of the number of sampling points of FCO2 to those of BD. For these scenarios, 67 (F67, 87 (F87, 107 (F107 and 127 (F127 FCO2 sampling points were used in addition to 127 BD sampling points used as supplementary information. The use of additional information from the BD provided an increase in the accuracy of the estimates only in the F107, F67 and F87 scenarios, respectively. The F87 scenario, with the approximate ratio between the FCO2 and BD of 1.00:1.50, presented the best relative improvement in the quality of estimates, thereby indicating that the BD should be sampled at a density 1.5 time greater than that applied for the FCO2. This procedure avoided problems related to the high temporal variability associated with FCO2, which enabled the mapping of this variable to be elaborated in large areas.

  10. Characterization of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hydroxylated and methoxylated PBDEs in soils and plants from an e-waste area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sen; Zhang, Shuzhen; Huang, Honglin; Niu, Zhenchuan; Han, Wei

    2014-01-01

    In order to characterize polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hydroxylated and methoxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs) in the soil-plant system, soil and plant samples were collected from an e-waste recycling area in China. Forty one PBDEs, twelve OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs were detected in the soil and plant samples. Concentrations of PBDEs in roots were significantly correlated to their concentrations in the soils, but the percentages of lower brominated congeners in the plants were higher than those in the soils. Significant positive linear relationships exist between concentrations of ∑OH-PBDEs and ∑MeO-PBDEs with higher levels of ∑MeO-PBDEs than those of ∑OH-PBDEs in the soils, plant roots and leaves. A majority of the OH-/MeO-PBDEs had the hydroxyl or methoxy group at the ortho-positions to the biphenyl bond for most of the plant species. However the occurrence of meta- and para- substituted OH-/MeO-PBDEs in soils and plants were also confirmed.

  11. Soil and Litter Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, George

    1991-01-01

    A lesson plan for soil study utilizes the Tullgren extraction method to illustrate biological concepts. It includes background information, equipment, collection techniques, activities, and references for identification guides about soil fauna. (MCO)

  12. Thermo-optical characterization of a low-background infrared chamber and wideband infrared scene projector (WISP) array for hardware-in-the-loop testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, Jack R.; Flynn, David S.; Jones, Lawrence E.; Kircher, James R.

    1999-07-01

    The KHILS Vacuum Cold Chamber (KVACC) provides the capability of testing IR seekers with scenes involving a `cold' background, more closely simulating a high altitude/exoatmospheric engagement. During the past year, a gaseous helium refrigeration system has been installed to simplify the logistics of cooling the chamber. An antechamber has also been installed to serve as a chamber for the sensor under test. A WISP array was installed in the Source Chamber. A thermal control system was developed by connecting the array to a cold surface by way of a thermal choke, then actively controlling the temperature with heating elements. This made it possible to operate the array at user selected, stable substrate temperatures ranging from ambient temperature to below 150 K. This capability makes it possible to select the infrared background level that the array operates at, and to operate with background levels that are adequate for testing the high altitude/exoatmospheric engagements. WISP arrays were designed for room temperature operation, but predicted performance at reduced temperatures appears acceptable. Tests were performed with a Phase I prototype WISP array inside the KVACC Source Chamber. Data on this array's radiometric response at various substrate temperatures are presented. It is demonstrated that the arrays can be operated at substrate temperatures as low as 145 K. Currently two Phase 3 WISP arrays and a dichroic beam combiner are being installed in the Source Chamber for 2- color testing.

  13. SXDF-ALMA 2 Arcmin^2 Deep Survey: Resolving and Characterizing the Infrared Extragalactic Background Light Down to 0.5 mJy

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Yuki; Kohno, Kotaro; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David; Ikarashi, Soh; Ishii, Shun; Ivison, Rob J; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of five submillimeter sources (S_1.1mm = 0.54-2.02 mJy) that were detected during our 1.1-mm-deep continuum survey in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS field (2 arcmin^2, 1sigma = 0.055 mJy beam^-1) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The two brightest sources correspond to a known single-dish (AzTEC) selected bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG), whereas the remaining three are faint SMGs newly uncovered by ALMA. If we exclude the two brightest sources, the contribution of the ALMA-detected faint SMGs to the infrared extragalactic background light is estimated to be ~ 4.1^{+5.4}_{-3.0} Jy deg^{-2}, which corresponds to ~ 16^{+22}_{-12}% of the infrared extragalactic background light. This suggests that their contribution to the infrared extragalactic background light is as large as that of bright SMGs. We identified multi-wavelength counterparts of the five ALMA sources. One of the sources (SXDF-ALMA3) is extremely faint in the optical to near-infrared region...

  14. Characterization of Leached Phosphorus from Soil, Manure, and Manure-Amended Soil by Physical and Chemical Fractionation and Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Donner, Erica; Magid, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    with manure. Manure particles themselves were also largely retained by the soil. Combined physical (centrifugation) and chemical (molybdate reactiveness) fractionation of leached P showed that leachates in the manure treated soils were dominated by dissolved unreactive P (DUP), mainly originating from manure...

  15. SXDF-ALMA 2 arcmin2 deep survey: Resolving and characterizing the infrared extragalactic background light down to 0.5 mJy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yuki; Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro; Aretxaga, Itziar; Dunlop, James S.; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Hughes, David; Ikarashi, Soh; Ishii, Shun; Ivison, Rob J.; Izumi, Takuma; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lee, Minju; Makiya, Ryu; Matsuda, Yuichi; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Ohta, Kouji; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Umehata, Hideki; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wilson, Grant W.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yun, Min S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of five submillimeter sources (S1.1mm = 0.54-2.02 mJy) that were detected during our 1.1 mm deep continuum survey in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey Field (SXDF)-UDS-CANDELS field (2 arcmin2, 1σ = 0.055 mJy beam-1) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The two brightest sources correspond to a known single-dish (AzTEC) selected bright submillimeter galaxy (SMG), whereas the remaining three are faint SMGs newly uncovered by ALMA. If we exclude the two brightest sources, the contribution of the ALMA-detected faint SMGs to the infrared extragalactic background light is estimated to be ˜ 4.1^{+5.4}_{-3.0}Jy deg-2, which corresponds to ˜ 16^{+22}_{-12}% of the infrared extragalactic background light. This suggests that their contribution to the infrared extragalactic background light is as large as that of bright SMGs. We identified multiwavelength counterparts of the five ALMA sources. One of the sources (SXDF-ALMA3) is extremely faint in the optical to near-infrared region despite its infrared luminosity (L_IR˜eq 1× 10^{12} L_{⊙} or SFR ≃ 100 M⊙ yr-1). By fitting the spectral energy distributions at the optical-to-near-infrared wavelengths of the remaining four ALMA sources, we obtained the photometric redshifts (zphoto) and stellar masses (M*): zphoto ≃ 1.3-2.5, M* ≃ (3.5-9.5) × 1010 M⊙. We also derived their star formation rates (SFRs) and specific SFRs as ≃30-200 M⊙ yr-1 and ≃0.8-2 Gyr-1, respectively. These values imply that they are main sequence star-forming galaxies.

  16. Size-Resolved Characterization of Particles and Fibers Released during Abrasion of Fiber-Reinforced Composite in a Workplace Influenced by Ambient Background Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kling, Kirsten I.; Levin, Marcus; Jensen, Alexander C. O.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of high-to low-resolution microscopy and particle chemical analysis during normal vacuum and cryo-conditions to identify the nature and relative abundances of process-generated particles and fibers from sanding of a glass and carbon fiber epoxy layer-composite in a workplace...... of ambient particles to the background in the production facility was observed in the sub-micron size range. Fibers are posing a dominant exposure risk in the micron size range, with carbon fibers dominating in count....

  17. Soil friability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2011-01-01

    This review gathers and synthesizes literature on soil friability produced during the last three decades. Soil friability is of vital importance for crop production and the impact of crop production on the environment. A friable soil is characterized by an ease of fragmentation of undesirably large...... aggregates/clods and a difficulty in fragmentation of minor aggregates into undesirable small elements. Soil friability has been assessed using qualitative field methods as well as quantitative field and laboratory methods at different scales of observation. The qualitative field methods are broadly used...... by scientists, advisors and farmers, whereas the quantitative laboratory methods demand specialized skills and more or less sophisticated equipment. Most methods address only one aspect of soil friability, i.e. either the strength of unconfined soil or the fragment size distribution after applying a stress. All...

  18. Physicochemical characterization of biosurfactant and its potential to remove oil from soil and cotton cloth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakeshkumar M; Mody, Kalpana; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2012-08-01

    An alkaliphilic bacterium, Klebsiella sp. strain RJ-03, produced a biosurfactant, which showed low viscosity with pseudoplastic rheological behavior and exhibited emulsification activity with oils and hydrocarbons. The biosurfactant has excellent oil removing efficiency as compared to chemical surfactants. The isolated biosurfactant has compatibility with detergents and enhanced oil removing efficiency from soil and cotton cloths. It comprised of sugar, uronic acid, protein and sulfate. GC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of six monosaccharides (w/w), glucose (6.65%), galactose (23.98%), rhamnose (14.94%), mannose (17.54%), fucose (9.47%) and 6-O-Me-galactose (1.4%). It is a high molecular weight, thermostable biopolymer showing degradation above 300 °C. Positive ion reflector mode of MALDI TOF-TOF MS analysis revealed series of low and mid range mass peaks (m/z) corresponding to mono-, di-, tri- and oligo-saccharides content. The NMR, FT-IR, EDX-SEM, AFM and PSD analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups, bonds, elements and particle size respectively.

  19. Characterization of aliphatic hydrocarbons in deep subsurface soils near the outskirts of Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU You-feng; LIU Hui; XI Zhi-qun; CHENG Hang-xin; XU Xiao-bai

    2005-01-01

    Thirty-nine deep subsurface soils( 150-180 Gm depth) near the outskirts of Beijing were investagated. The concentrations including n-alkanes from C13 to C36, pristane and phytane were in the range of 0.60 to 170.10 μg/g, with a median value of 4.26. Carbon preference index values for n-alkanes ranged from 1.08 to 2.98, with a median value of 1.48. The percentage contribution of "wax" nalkanes was in the range of 6.03%-46.22%. A predominance of odd/even carbon n-alkanes and unresolved complex mixtures with different shapes and ranges were frequently observed. Factor analysis reduced the data set into three principal components and confirming contributions from Iow ( 19.58%), medium (20.49%) molecular weight species and long-chain n-alkanes (43.41%), respectively.Molecular biomarkers such as pristane, phytane, hopanes and steranes were detected. Based on the principal component analysis, the concentration profiles and molecular markers, it was found that the aliphatic hydrocarbons were from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources.

  20. Characterization of a sodium dodecyl sulphate-degrading Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY15 from Antarctic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmi, M I E; Hussin, W S W; Aqlima, A; Syed, M A; Ruberto, L; MacCormack, W P; Shukor, M Y

    2013-11-01

    A bacterium capable of biodegrading surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was isolated from Antarctic soil. The isolate was tentatively identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain DRY15 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and partial 16S rDNA molecular phylogeny. Growth characteristic studies showed that the bacterium grew optimally at 10 degrees C, 7.25 pH, 1 g l(-1) SDS as a sole carbon source and 2 g l(-1) ammonium sulphate as nitrogen source. Growth was completely inhibited at 5 g l(-1) SDS. At a tolerable initial concentration of 2 g l(-1), approximately 90% of SDS was degraded after an incubation period of eight days. The best growth kinetic model to fit experimental data was the Haldane model of substrate inhibition with a correlation coefficient value of 0.97. The maximum growth rate was 0.372 hr(-1) while the saturation constant or half velocity constant (Ks) and inhibition constant (Ki), were 0.094% and 11.212 % SDS, respectively. Other detergent tested as carbon sources at 1 g l(-1) was Tergitol NP9, Tergitol 15S9, Witconol 2301 (methyl oleate), sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), benzethonium chloride, and benzalkonium chloride showed Tergitol NP9, Tergitol 15S9, Witconol 2301 and the anionic SDBS supported growth with the highest growth exhibited by SDBS.

  1. A novel D-amino acid oxidase from a contaminated agricultural soil metagenome and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Qian; Liu, Yao; Deng, Jie; Chen, Gao; Yang, Ying; Shen, Peihong; Wu, Bo; Jiang, Chengjian

    2015-06-01

    A novel D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) gene designated as daoE was cloned by the sequence-based screening of a plasmid metagenomic library of uncultured microorganisms from contaminated agricultural soil. The deduced amino acid sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis indicated that daoE and other putative DAAOs are closely related. The putative DAAO gene was subcloned into a pETBlue-2 vector and overexpressed in Escherichia coli Tunner(DE3)pLacI. The recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity. The maximum activity of DaoE protein occurred at pH 8.0 and 37 °C. DaoE recombinant protein had an apparent K m of 2.96 mM, V max of 0.018 mM/min, k cat of 10.9/min, and k cat/K m of 1.16 × 10(4)/mol/min. The identification of this novel DAAO gene demonstrated the importance of metagenomic libraries in exploring new D-amino acid oxidases from environmental microorganisms to optimize their applications.

  2. Purification and characterization of an extracellular lipase from Mucor hiemalis f. corticola isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulker, Serdar; Karaoğlu, Sengül Alpay

    2012-10-01

    We have screened 39 microfungi isolates originated from soil in terms of lipolytic activity. Out of all screened, a novel strain of Mucor hiemalis f. corticola was determined to have the highest lipase activity. The extracellular lipase was produced in response to 2% glucose and 2.1% peptone. The lipase was purified 12.63-folds with a final yield of 27.7% through following purification steps; ammonium sulfate precipitation, dialysis, gel filtration column chromatography and ion exchange chromatography, respectively. MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed 31% amino-acid identity to a known lipase from Rhizomucor miehei species. The molecular weight of the lipase was determined as 46 kDa using SDS-PAGE and analytical gel filtration. Optimal pH and temperature of the lipase were determined as 7.0 and 40°C, respectively. The enzyme activity was observed to be stable at the pH range of 7.0-9.0. Thermostability assays demonstrated that the lipase was stable up to 50°C for 60 min. The lipase was more stable in ethanol and methanol than other organic solvents tested. Furthermore, the activity of the lipase was slightly enhanced by SDS and PMSF. In the presence of p-NPP as substrate, K(m) and V(max) values of the lipase were calculated by Hanes-Woolf plot as 1.327 mM and 91.11 μmol/min, respectively.

  3. Molecular characterization of a Xylanase-producing fungus isolated from fouled soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthiselvan, Punniavan; Naveena, Balakrishnan; Partha, Nagarajan

    2014-01-01

    Xylanase (EC 3. 2. 1. 8), hydrolyzes xylo-oligosaccharides into D-xylose and required for complete hydrolysis of native cellulose and biomass conversion. It has broad range of applications in the pulp and paper, pharmaceutical and Agri-food industries. Fifty fungal species were isolated from the fouled soil around an oil refinery and screened for the production of xylanase enzyme by enrichment culture techniques. The isolated fungal strain was identified as Hypocrea lixii SS1 based on the results of biochemical tests and 18s rRNA sequencing. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using the MEGA 5 software. Further, Hypocrea lixii SS1 was tested for the ability to utilize the sunflower oil sludge (waste from the oil industry) as the sole carbon source for xylanase production. The growth characteristics of Hypocrea lixii SS1 were also studied and maximum growth was found on the 7(th) day of incubation. The fungus showed a remarkable xylanase production of 38.9 U/mL. Xylanase was purified using a combination of 0-50% NH₄SO₂ precipitation, DEAE-sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 chromatography. Single peak obtained in RP-HPLC confirms the purity of xylanase. Further the enzyme produced was affirmed as xylanase with its molecular weight (29 kDa) using SDS-PAGE.

  4. Molecular characterization of a Xylanase-producing fungus isolated from fouled soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punniavan Sakthiselvan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylanase (EC 3. 2. 1. 8, hydrolyzes xylo-oligosaccharides into D-xylose and required for complete hydrolysis of native cellulose and biomass conversion. It has broad range of applications in the pulp and paper, pharmaceutical and Agri-food industries. Fifty fungal species were isolated from the fouled soil around an oil refinery and screened for the production of xylanase enzyme by enrichment culture techniques. The isolated fungal strain was identified as Hypocrea lixii SS1 based on the results of biochemical tests and 18s rRNA sequencing. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using the MEGA 5 software. Further, Hypocrea lixii SS1 was tested for the ability to utilize the sunflower oil sludge (waste from the oil industry as the sole carbon source for xylanase production. The growth characteristics of Hypocrea lixii SS1 were also studied and maximum growth was found on the 7th day of incubation. The fungus showed a remarkable xylanase production of 38.9 U/mL. Xylanase was purified using a combination of 0-50% NH4SO2 precipitation, DEAE-sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 chromatography. Single peak obtained in RP-HPLC confirms the purity of xylanase. Further the enzyme produced was affirmed as xylanase with its molecular weight (29 kDa using SDS-PAGE.

  5. Identification and characterization of a symbiotic alga from soil bryophyte for lipid profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jia; Guo, Yuning; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wang, Guihua; Lv, Junping; Liu, Qi; Xie, Shulian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A symbiotic alga was successfully isolated from the soil moss Entodon obtusatus found in the Guandi Mountains, Shanxi Province, China, and cultivated under axenic conditions. Morphological observations showed that the symbiotic alga was similar to Chlorococcum. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and rbcL genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, Chlorococcum sp. GD was identified as Chlorococcum sphacosum. The three data sets were congruent for those aspects of the topologies that were relatively robust, and differed for those parts of the topologies that were not. This strain was cultured in BG11 medium to test its growth and biodiesel properties. It produced a lipid content of nearly 40%, and achieved biomass concentration of 410 mg l−1 and lipid productivity of 6.76 mg l−1 day−1, with favorable C16:0 (23.10%) and C18:1 (21.62%) fatty acid content. This alga appears to have potential for use in biodiesel production. PMID:27543061

  6. Identification and characterization of a symbiotic alga from soil bryophyte for lipid profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Feng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A symbiotic alga was successfully isolated from the soil moss Entodon obtusatus found in the Guandi Mountains, Shanxi Province, China, and cultivated under axenic conditions. Morphological observations showed that the symbiotic alga was similar to Chlorococcum. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and rbcL genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions, Chlorococcum sp. GD was identified as Chlorococcum sphacosum. The three data sets were congruent for those aspects of the topologies that were relatively robust, and differed for those parts of the topologies that were not. This strain was cultured in BG11 medium to test its growth and biodiesel properties. It produced a lipid content of nearly 40%, and achieved biomass concentration of 410 mg l−1 and lipid productivity of 6.76 mg l−1 day−1, with favorable C16:0 (23.10% and C18:1 (21.62% fatty acid content. This alga appears to have potential for use in biodiesel production.

  7. Isolation, characterization and application of a chitosan-degrading fungus from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinlin; Chen, Wei; Xiao, Ming; Xiao, Jianbo; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2010-07-01

    A chitosan-degrading fungus, BSF114, was isolated from soil. The culture preparation showed strong chitosanolytic enzyme activity at optimum pH 4.0 and optimum temperature of 60 degrees C after 36-40 h fermentation. The rapid decreased viscosity of chitosan solutions at early stage of reaction suggested an endo-type cleavage of the polymeric chitosan chains. To identify the isolated fungus, molecular biological and morphological methods were used. The fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region 1 was amplified, sequenced, and then compared with related sequences in the GenBank database using BLAST. The phylogenetic relationships were then analyzed, and the results showed that the fungus belongs to Aspergillus fumigatus. Morphological observations were also used to confirm the above conclusion. The chitooligosaccharides (COS) obtained through hydrolyzing the colloidal chitosan showed A. fumigatus BSF114 is suitable for degrading chitosan and producing chitooligosaccharides on a large scale. High concentrations of the COS (1000 and 500 microg/mL) significantly proliferated mice marrow cells.

  8. Characterization of root-nodulating bacteria on Retama raetam in arid Tunisian soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the diversity of Retama raetam root-nodule bacteria isolated from arid regions of Tunisia.Twelve isolates, chosen as representative for different 16S rRNA gene patterns, were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic analysis. Isolates were assigned to Sinorhizobium, Rhizobium and Agrobacterium. Symbiotic properties of Sinorhizobium and Rhizobium isolates showed a large diversity in their capacity to infect their host plant and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Strain RK 22 identified as Rhizobium was the most effective isolate.

  9. Isolation and characterization of two soil derived yeasts for bioethanol production on Cassava starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gi-Wook; Kim, Yule; Kang, Hyun-Woo [Changhae Institute of Cassava and Ethanol Research, Changhae Ethanol Co., Ltd, Palbok-Dong 829, Dukjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-203 (Korea); Um, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mina; Kim, Yang-Hoon [Department of Microbiology, Chungbuk National University, 410 Sungbong-Ro, Heungduk-Gu, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea); Chung, Bong-Woo [Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 664-14, 1-Ga, Duckjin-Dong, Duckjin-Gu, Jeonju 561-156 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    Two ethanol-producing yeast strains, CHY1011 and CHFY0901 were isolated from soil in South Korea using an enrichment technique in a yeast peptone dextrose medium supplemented with 5% (w v{sup -1}) ethanol at 30 C. The phenotypic and physiological characteristics, as well as molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene and the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 + 2 regions suggested that they were novel strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During shaking flask cultivation, the highest ethanol productivity and theoretical yield of S. cerevisiae CHY1011 in YPD media containing 9.5% total sugars was 1.06 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 95.5 {+-} 1.2%, respectively, while those for S. cerevisiae CHFY0901 were 0.97 {+-} 0.03 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 91.81 {+-} 2.2%, respectively. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation for ethanol production was carried out using liquefied cassava (Manihot esculenta) starch in a 5 l lab-scale jar fermenter at 32 C for 66 h with an agitation speed of 2 Hz. Under these conditions, S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 yielded a final ethanol concentration of 89.1 {+-} 0.87 g l{sup -1} and 83.8 {+-} 1.11 g l{sup -1}, a maximum ethanol productivity of 2.10 {+-} 0.02 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1} and 1.88 {+-} 0.01 g l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, and a theoretical yield of 93.5 {+-} 1.4% and 91.3 {+-} 1.1%, respectively. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae CHY1011 and CHFY0901 have potential use in industrial bioethanol fermentation processes. (author)

  10. Characterization of a biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas cepacia CCT6659 in the presence of industrial wastes and its application in the biodegradation of hydrophobic compounds in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Elias J; Rocha e Silva, Nathália Maria P; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Silva, Ricardo O; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2014-05-01

    The bacterium Pseudomonas cepacia CCT6659 cultivated with 2% soybean waste frying oil and 2% corn steep liquor as substrates produced a biosurfactant with potential application in the bioremediation of soils. The biosurfactant was classified as an anionic biomolecule composed of 75% lipids and 25% carbohydrates. Characterization by proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H and (13)C NMR) revealed the presence of carbonyl, olefinic and aliphatic groups, with typical spectra of lipids. Four sets of biodegradation experiments were carried out with soil contaminated by hydrophobic organic compounds amended with molasses in the presence of an indigenous consortium, as follows: Set 1-soil+bacterial cells; Set 2-soil+biosurfactant; Set 3-soil+bacterial cells+biosurfactant; and Set 4-soil without bacterial cells or biosurfactant (control). Significant oil biodegradation activity (83%) occurred in the first 10 days of the experiments when the biosurfactant and bacterial cells were used together (Set 3), while maximum degradation of the organic compounds (above 95%) was found in Sets 1-3 between 35 and 60 days. It is evident from the results that the biosurfactant alone and its producer species are both capable of promoting biodegradation to a large extent.

  11. Comparison of Michigan and Dutch podzolized soils: Organic matter characterization by micromorphology and pyrolysis-GC/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.; Jongmans, A.G.; Nierop, K.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Soil organic matter in a chronosequence of Michigan soils (Spodic Udipsamments and precursors) was studied in thin section and by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The Michigan soils were compared with a well-drained Dutch Typic Haplorthod that was studied with the same methods

  12. Site characterization of foundation soil for Offshore Wind Farms - an example from the German North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiter, Stefan; Mörz, Tobias; Metzen, Jan F.; Hepp, Daniel A.; Ossig, Benjamin; Otto, Daniel; Socko, Lukasz; Keil, Hanno; Spieß, Volkhard; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2010-05-01

    The promising possibility to reduce CO2 emissions from energy production by the erection of offshore wind farms caused a boom of wind farm projects in the German North Sea. The projected wind turbines have overall heights of up to 200 m above sea level and require considerable foundation depths of up to 50 m pile length in the subsoil. Little experience exists concerning the optimal geotechnical site characterisation for such projects. As approximately 80 considerable sized foundations are needed per wind farm, costs have to be minimized to help making renewable energies competitive. The cost effective and save design of the foundation depends on a reliable knowledge of the upper 50 to 100 m of the subsoil. The marine subsoil of the German North Sea is in general a favourable foundation soil, but Quaternary buried glacial and fluvial valleys introduce heterogeneities, which have to be accurately mapped and considered for the installation planning. Necessary site investigations combine geophysical exploration, core drilling and cone penetration testing. At the same time they have to be in accordance with the national approval procedure which is organised in Germany in several steps. Here, an industry-financed and scientifically-accompanied geotechnical site characterisation of one exemplary offshore wind farm project is presented (partners: RWE-Innogy, ENOVA and MARUM; Initiative "germanwind"). In order to image the lateral highly heterogeneous sedimentation environment in the North Sea a dense net of high resolution multichannel seismic lines was acquired using the University of Bremen shallow water seismic equipment. This provided seismic images of 1.5 m lateral resolution and 2-3 m vertical resolution therefore overcoming the low signal penetration of conventional boomer seimics and the low resolution of conventional multichannel seismics. The seismic survey was complemented with push cores and cone penetration tests at 14 sites, each reaching down to about 50 m

  13. Characterization of near-isogenic lines carrying QTL for high spikelet number with the genetic background of an indica rice variety IR64 (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Daisuke; Tagle, Analiza G; Ebron, Leodegario A; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Kobayashi, Nobuya

    2012-03-01

    Total spikelet number per panicle (TSN) is one of the most important traits associated with rice yield potential. This trait was assessed in a set of 334 chromosomal segment introgression lines (ILs: BC(3)-derived lines), developed from new plant type (NPT) varieties as donor parents and having the genetic background of an indica-type rice variety IR64. Among the 334 ILs, five lines which had different donor parents and showed significantly higher TSN than IR64 were used for genetic analysis. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was conducted using F(2) populations derived from crosses between IR64 and these ILs. As a result, a QTL for high TSN (one from each NPT donor variety) was detected on common region of the long arm of chromosome 4. The effect of the QTL was confirmed by an increase in TSN of five near-isogenic lines (NILs) developed in the present study. The variation in TSN was found among these NILs, attributing to the panicle architecture in the numbers of primary, secondary and tertiary branches. The NILs for TSN and the SSR markers linked to the TSN QTLs are expected to be useful materials for research and breeding to enhance the yield potential of rice varieties.

  14. Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Composition of Plant Wax n-Alkanes: A Tool for Characterizing Soil Provenance in Forensic Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedentchouk, N.; Wagner, T.; Jones, M.

    2009-04-01

    patterns result from physiological differences among the plants. The relative differences in deltaD and delta13C values of various plant types could be explained by differences in stomatal diffusive conductance to H2O vapour and CO2 gas, so that species with higher stomatal conductance would have D-enriched and 13C-depleted values. We are currently investigating the stomatal conductance of leaves and needles taken from the same plants that were sampled for deltaD and delta13C measurements. Comparison of the isotopic data from the deciduous angiosperm plants growing in Newcastle and Norwich shows that 6 species from Newcastle are more 13C-depleted (delta13C: c. -39 to -35 per mil) than 11 deciduous angiosperm species from Norwich (delta13C: c. -36 to -31 per mil). However, there is no significant difference in the deltaD values between the two locations since the Newcastle data (deltaD: c. -155 to -130 per mil) is within the range of the Norwich data (deltaD: c. -115 to -170 per mil). Our n-alkane isotope data from Newcastle indicate that deciduous angiosperm species have a very different delta13C/dD signature in comparison with that of the evergreen angiosperm species. On the other hand, gymnosperms have deltaD values similar to those of deciduous angiosperms and delta13C values similar to those of evergreen angiosperms. Further results from our compound-specific work, will reveal whether these patterns also characterize the same plant groups in Norwich and whether different weather patterns in Newcastle and Norwich lead to isotopic differences in the same species/plant types. The results of this study will provide a valuable dataset that could be used for higher plant and soil characterization by forensics experts in the UK and elsewhere.

  15. Cloning, expression and biochemical characterization of a β-carbonic anhydrase from the soil bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminoğlu, Ayşenur; Vullo, Daniela; Aşık, Aycan; Çolak, Dilşat Nigar; Supuran, Claudiu T; Çanakçı, Sabriye; Osman Beldüz, Ali

    2016-12-01

    A recombinant carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) from the soil-dwelling bacterium Enterobacter sp. B13 was cloned and purified by Co(2+) affinity chromatography. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the new enzyme (denominated here B13-CA) belongs to the β-class CAs and to possess 95% homology with the ortholog enzyme from Escherichia coli encoded by the can gene, whereas its sequence homology with the other such enzyme from E. coli (encoded by the cynT gene) was of 33%. B13-CA was characterized kinetically as a catalyst for carbon dioxide hydration to bicarbonate and protons. The enzyme shows a significant catalytic activity, with the following kinetic parameters at 20 °C and pH of 8.3: kcat of 4.8 × 10(5) s(-1) and kcat/Km of 5.6 × 10(7) M(-1) × s(-1). This activity was potently inhibited by acetazolamide which showed a KI of 78.9 nM. Although only this compound was investigated for the moment as B13-CA inhibitor, further studies may reveal new classes of inhibitors/activators of this enzyme which may show biomedical or environmental applications, considering the posssible role of this enzyme in CaCO3 biomineralization processes.

  16. Production and characterization of PHB from two novel strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from soil and activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, M; Reddy, Sultanpuram Vishnuvardhan; Mahmood, S K

    2010-03-01

    The present study reports two bacteria, designated 87I and 112A, which were isolated from soil and activated sludge samples from Hyderabad, India, and that are capable of producing poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB). Based on phenotypical features and genotypic investigations, these microorganisms were identified as Bacillus spp. Their optimal growth occurred between 28 degrees C and 30 degrees C and pH 7. Bacillus sp. 87I yielded a maximum of 70.04% dry cell weight (DCW) PHB in medium containing glucose as carbon source, followed by 55.5% DCW PHB in lactose-containing medium, whereas Bacillus sp. 112A produced a maximum of 67.73% PHB from glucose, 58.5% PHB from sucrose, followed by 50.5% PHB from starch as carbon substrates. The viscosity average molecular mass (M (v)) of the polymers from Bacillus sp. 87I was 513 kDa and from Bacillus sp. 112A was 521 kDa. All the properties of the biopolymers produced by the two strains 87I and 112A were characterized.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a Sphingomonas sp. strain F-7 degrading fenvalerate and its use in bioremediation of contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang B; Shan, Sheng D; Luo, Lin P; Guan, Li B; Qin, Hua

    2013-01-01

    A fenvalerate-degrading bacterial strain F-7 was isolated from long-term contaminated sludge. Based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain F-7 was identified as Sphingomonas sp. The bacterium could utilize fenvalerate as the sole source of carbon. An amount measuring 100 mg L(-1) fenvalerate was completely degraded within 72 h and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) was detected as a major metabolite. The result indicates that S. sp. F-7 might metabolize fenvalerate by hydrolysis of carboxylester linkage. It was capable of degrading permethrin, fenpropathrin, beta-cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, bifenthrin and 3-PBA. Further studies demonstrated that the strain was multi-resistant to heavy metals and antibiotics. In addition, degradative enzymes involved were confirmed as intracellular distributed and constitutively expressed. Furthermore, application of the strain was found to accelerate the removal of fenvalerate in soil. This is the first report of fenvalerate degrading strain isolated from S. sp. These results might help with future research in better understanding of pyrethroid biodegradation and highlight S. sp. F-7 might have potential for practical application in bioremediation of fenvalerate-contaminated sites.

  18. Characterization of a Novel Mesophilic Bacterial Amylase Secreted by ZW2531-1,a Strain Newly Isolated from Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang; LI Fan; GAO Chao-hui; ZHANG Ying-Jiu

    2009-01-01

    A novel mesophilic bacterial amylase,named oligosaccharide-producing multifunctional amylase(OPMA),was discovered and characterized.OPMA is an extracellular enzyme secreted by ZW2531-1,a strain newly isolated from Chinese soil.It could be purified to homogeneity from the culture supematant of ZW2531-1 by 30%-60% saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation,followed by twice Sephadex gel filtration chromatography.OPMA is a 66 kDa protein based on SDS-PAGE and has an isoelectric point(p/) at pH=5.3 by Isoelectric focusing electrophoresis(IFE),it only catalyzes the degradation of starch,rather than other alpha-1,4-and/or 1,6-glucan polysaccharides such as β-cyclomaltodextrin and pullulan.OPMA degraded starch to produce several oligosccharides including maltose,maltotriose,and isomaltotriose as the major end-products,and perhaps other oligosaccharides such as isomaltotetraose,rather than glucose.OPMA exhibited optimal catalytic activity at a reaction temperature of 50 ℃ and pH=6.0,as determined by orthogonal test.Under the optimal reaction conditions,purified OPMA had a specific activity of 13.75 U/mg.These findings suggest that OPMA could be used for the production of some oligosaccharides beneficial to the food industry and medicine.

  19. Characterization of Growing Soil Bacterial Communities across a pH gradient Using H218O DNA-Stable Isotope Probing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty-Bernard, A. T.; Schwartz, E.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have established consistent relationships between pH and bacterial diversity and community structure in soils from site-specific to landscape scales. However, these studies rely on DNA or PLFA extraction techniques from bulk soils that encompass metabolically active and inactive, or dormant, communities, and loose DNA. Dormant cells may comprise up to 80% of total live cells. If dormant cells dominate a particular environment, it is possible that previous interpretations of the soil variables assumed to drive communities could be profoundly affected. We used H218O stable isotope probing and bar-coded illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes to monitor the response of actively growing communities to changes in soil pH in a soil microcosm over 14 days. This substrate-independent approach has several advantages over 13C or 15N-labelled molecules in that all growing bacteria should be able to make use of water, allowing characterization of whole communities. We hypothesized that Acidobacteria would increasingly dominate the growing community and that Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes would decline, given previously established responses by these taxa to soil pH. Instead, we observed the reverse. Actinobacteria abundance increased three-fold from 26 to 76% of the overall community as soil pH fell from pH 5.6 to pH 4.6. Shifts in community structure and decreases in diversity with declining soil pH were essentially driven by two families, Streptomyceaca and Microbacteracea, which collectively increased from 2 to 40% of the entire community. In contrast, Acidobacteria as a whole declined although numbers of subdivision 1 remained stable across all soil pH levels. We suggest that the brief incubation period in this SIP study selected for growth of acid-tolerant Actinobacteria over Acidobacteria. Taxa within Actinomycetales have been readily cultured over short time frames, suggesting rapid growth patterns. Conversely, taxa within Acidobacteria have been

  20. Characterization of successional changes in bacterial community composition during bioremediation of used motor oil-contaminated soil in a boreal climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lijuan; Sinkko, Hanna; Penttinen, Petri; Lindström, Kristina

    2016-01-15

    The widespread use of motor oil makes it a notable risk factor to cause scattered contamination in soil. The monitoring of microbial community dynamics can serve as a comprehensive tool to assess the ecological impact of contaminants and their disappearance in the ecosystem. Hence, a field study was conducted to monitor the ecological impact of used motor oil under different perennial cropping systems (fodder galega, brome grass, galega-brome grass mixture and bare fallow) in a boreal climate zone. Length heterogeneity PCR characterized a successional pattern in bacterial community following oil contamination over a four-year bioremediation period. Soil pH and electrical conductivity were associated with the shifts in bacterial community composition. Crops had no detectable effect on bacterial community composition or complexity. However, the legume fodder galega increased soil microbial biomass, expressed as soil total DNA. Oil contamination induced an abrupt change in bacterial community composition at the early stage, yet the effect did not last as long as the oil in soil. The successional variation in bacterial community composition can serve as a sensitive ecological indicator of oil contamination and remediation in situ.

  1. Physical chemistry characterization of soils of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes; Caracterizacion fisico-quimica de suelos del Centro de Almacenamiento de Desechos Radioactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez T, U. O.; Fernandez R, E. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Av. Tecnologico s/n, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Monroy G, F.; Anguiano A, J., E-mail: uohtrejo@gmail.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (MX)

    2011-11-15

    Any type of waste should be confined so that it does not causes damage to the human health neither the environment and for the storage of the radioactive wastes these actions are the main priority. In the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes the radioactive wastes generated in Mexico by non energy applications are storage of temporary way. The present study is focused in determining the physical chemistry properties of the lands of the Storage Center of Radioactive Wastes like they are: real density, ph, conductivity percentage of organic matter and percentage of humidity. With what is sought to make a characterization to verify the reaction capacity of the soils in case of a possible flight of radioactive material. The results show that there are different density variations, ph and conductivity in all the soil samples; the ph and conductivity vary with regard to the contact time between the soil and their saturation point in water, for the case of the density due to the characteristics of the same soil; for what is not possible to establish a general profile, but is necessary to know the properties of each soil type more amply. Contrary case is the content of organic matter and humidity since both are in minor proportions. (Author)

  2. Biochemical Characterization of CPS-1, a Subclass B3 Metallo-β-Lactamase from a Chryseobacterium piscium Soil Isolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Pollini, Simona; Docquier, Jean-Denis;

    2016-01-01

    CPS-1 is a subclass B3 metallo-β-lactamase from a Chryseobacterium piscium isolated from soil, showing 68 % amino acid identity to GOB-1 enzyme. CPS-1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3), purified by chromatography and biochemically characterized. This enzyme exhibits a broad spect...... spectrum substrate profile including penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, which overall resembles those of L1, GOB-1 and acquired subclass B3 enzymes AIM-1 and SMB-1.......CPS-1 is a subclass B3 metallo-β-lactamase from a Chryseobacterium piscium isolated from soil, showing 68 % amino acid identity to GOB-1 enzyme. CPS-1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3), purified by chromatography and biochemically characterized. This enzyme exhibits a broad...

  3. Soil microbiota of the prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prairie ecosystem is often used as a benchmark ecosystem to provide a reference soil quality or soil health assessment. Current soil health assessments include measurements of soil chemical and physical indicators and of selected microbiological activities but no characterization of soil microbi...

  4. New strategies for submicron characterization the carbon binding of reactive minerals in long-term contrasting fertilized soils: implications for soil carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian; He, Xinhua; Hao, Jialong; Zhou, Ying; Zheng, Lirong; Ran, Wei; Shen, Qirong; Yu, Guanghui

    2016-06-01

    Mineral binding is a major mechanism for soil carbon (C) stabilization. However, the submicron information about the in situ mechanisms of different fertilization practices affecting organo-mineral complexes and associated C preservation remains unclear. Here, we applied nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) to examine differentiating effects of inorganic versus organic fertilization on interactions between highly reactive minerals and soil C preservation. To examine such interactions, soils and their extracted colloids were collected during a 24-year long-term fertilization period (1990-2014) (no fertilization, control; chemical nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilization, NPK; and NPK plus swine manure fertilization, NPKM). The results for different fertilization conditions showed a ranked soil organic matter concentration with NPKM > NPK > control. Meanwhile, oxalate-extracted Al (Alo), Fe (Feo), short-range ordered Al (Alxps), Fe (Fexps), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranked with NPKM > control > NPK, but the ratios of DOC / Alxps and DOC / Fexps ranked with NPKM > NPK > control. Compared with the NPK treatment, the NPKM treatment enhanced the C-binding loadings of Al and Fe minerals in soil colloids at the submicron scale. Furthermore, a greater concentration of highly reactive Al and Fe minerals was presented under NPKM than under NPK. Together, these submicron-scale findings suggest that both the reactive mineral species and their associations with C are differentially affected by 24-year long-term inorganic and organic fertilization.

  5. Cosmic microwave background theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, J R

    1998-01-01

    A long-standing goal of theorists has been to constrain cosmological parameters that define the structure formation theory from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy experiments and large-scale structure (LSS) observations. The status and future promise of this enterprise is described. Current band-powers in -space are consistent with a DeltaT flat in frequency and broadly follow inflation-based expectations. That the levels are approximately (10(-5))2 provides strong support for the gravitational instability theory, while the Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) constraints on energy injection rule out cosmic explosions as a dominant source of LSS. Band-powers at 100 suggest that the universe could not have re-ionized too early. To get the LSS of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE)-normalized fluctuations right provides encouraging support that the initial fluctuation spectrum was not far off the scale invariant form that inflation models prefer: e.g., for tilted Lambda cold dark matter sequences of fixed 13-Gyr age (with the Hubble constant H0 marginalized), ns = 1.17 +/- 0.3 for Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) only; 1.15 +/- 0.08 for DMR plus the SK95 experiment; 1.00 +/- 0.04 for DMR plus all smaller angle experiments; 1.00 +/- 0.05 when LSS constraints are included as well. The CMB alone currently gives weak constraints on Lambda and moderate constraints on Omegatot, but theoretical forecasts of future long duration balloon and satellite experiments are shown which predict percent-level accuracy among a large fraction of the 10+ parameters characterizing the cosmic structure formation theory, at least if it is an inflation variant.

  6. A combined approach of physicochemical and biological methods for the characterization of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masakorala, Kanaji; Yao, Jun; Chandankere, Radhika; Liu, Haijun; Liu, Wenjuan; Cai, Minmin; Choi, Martin M F

    2014-01-01

    Main physicochemical and microbiological parameters of collected petroleum-contaminated soils with different degrees of contamination from DaGang oil field (southeast of Tianjin, northeast China) were comparatively analyzed in order to assess the influence of petroleum contaminants on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of soil. An integration of microcalorimetric technique with urease enzyme analysis was used with the aim to assess a general status of soil metabolism and the potential availability of nitrogen nutrient in soils stressed by petroleum-derived contaminants. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of contaminated soils varied from 752.3 to 29,114 mg kg(−1). Although the studied physicochemical and biological parameters showed variations dependent on TPH content, the correlation matrix showed also highly significant correlation coefficients among parameters, suggesting their utility in describing a complex matrix such as soil even in the presence of a high level of contaminants. The microcalorimetric measures gave evidence of microbial adaptation under highest TPH concentration; this would help in assessing the potential of a polluted soil to promote self-degradation of oil-derived hydrocarbon under natural or assisted remediation. The results highlighted the importance of the application of combined approach in the study of those parameters driving the soil amelioration and bioremediation.

  7. Silver nanoparticles in soil: Aqueous extraction combined with single-particle ICP-MS for detection and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahdi, Karrar N.M.; Peters, Ruud J.B.; Klumpp, Erwin; Bohme, Steffi; Ploeg, Van der Martine; Ritsema, Coen; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in a growing number of applications and products. Previous studies showed AgNPs can leach from these products to the environment. As a result of AgNPs leaching, sediment, soil and sludge-treated soils may be contaminated with AgNPs. Methods to detect, quantify a

  8. Diffuse-reflectance fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy as a method of characterizing changes in soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse-Reflectance Fourier-Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (MidIR) can identify the presence of important organic functional groups in soil organic matter (SOM). Soils contain myriad organic and inorganic components that absorb in the MidIR so spectral interpretation needs to be validated in or...

  9. Characterizing the release of different composition of dissolved organic matter in soil under acid rain leaching using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Song, Cunyi; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng

    2009-09-01

    Although excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM), there has no report that EEMS has been used to study the effects of acid rain on DOM and its composition in soil. In this work, we employed three-dimensional EEMS to characterize the compositions of DOM leached by simulated acid rain from red soil. The red soil was subjected to leaching of simulated acid rain of different acidity, and the leached DOM presented five main peaks in its EEMS: peak-A, related to humic acid-like (HA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 310-330/395-420nm; peak-B, related to UV fulvic acid-like (FA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 230-280/400-435nm; peak-C and peak-D, both related to microbial byproduct-like material, at Ex/Em of 250-280/335-355nm and 260-280/290-320nm, respectively; and peak-E, related to simple aromatic proteins, at Ex/Em of 210-240/290-340nm. EEMS analysis results indicated that most DOM could be lost from red soil in the early phase of acid rain leaching. In addition to the effects of the pH of acid rain, the loss of DOM also depended on the properties of its compositions and the solubility of their complexes with aluminum. HA-like and microbial byproduct-like materials could be more easily released from red soil by acid rain at both higher pH (4.5 and 5.6) and lower pH (2.5 and 3) than that at middle pH (3.5). On the contrary, FA-like material lost in a similar manner under the action of different acid rains with pH ranging from 2.5 to 5.6.

  10. The use of volcanic soil as mineral landfill liner--I. Physicochemical characterization and comparison with zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Rodrigo; Hafner, Georg; Raber, Georg; Lorber, Karl E; Schöffmann, Elke; Vortisch, Walter

    2005-06-01

    The main physicochemical characteristics of the volcanic soil of Southern Chile, with allophane as the main pedogenic mineral phase were analysed and compared with common zeolites (clinoptilolite) of the European market. The ultimate goal of this study was to test volcanic soil for the use as mineral landfill liner. The main results indicated that the clay and silt fractions together of the volcanic soil were between 38 and 54%. The buffering capacity of the volcanic soil was higher compared with the studied zeolites, whereas the cationic exchange capacity of the volcanic soil (between 5.2 and 6.5 cmol + kg(-1)) is of the same order of magnitude of the studied zeolites (between 9.7 and 11.4 cmol + kg(-1)). Moreover, the anionic exchange capacity of the volcanic soil was higher compared to the zeolites analysed. The hydraulic conductivity of the volcanic soil, measured in the laboratory at maximum proctor density, ranges between 5.16 x 10(-9) and 6.48 x 10(-9) m s(-1), a range that is comparable to the value of 4.51 x 10(-9) m s(-1) of the studied zeolite. The Proctor densities of the volcanic soil are in a lower range (between 1.11 and 1.15 g ml(-1)) compared with zeolites (between 1.19 and 1.34 g ml(-1)). The volcanic soil physicochemical characteristics are comparable to all the requirements established in the Austrian landfill directive (DVO, 2000). Therefore, the use as mineral landfill basal sealing of the analysed volcanic soil appears reasonable, having a pollutant adsorption capacity comparable to zeolites. It is of special interest for Southern Chile, because there are no alternative mineral raw materials for basal liners of landfills.

  11. Hydrologic characterization of desert soils with varying degrees of pedogenesis: 2. Inverse modeling for eff ective properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, B.B.; Perkins, K.S.; Nimmo, J.R.; Singha, K.

    2009-01-01

    To understand their relation to pedogenic development, soil hydraulic properties in the Mojave Desert were investi- gated for three deposit types: (i) recently deposited sediments in an active wash, (ii) a soil of early Holocene age, and (iii) a highly developed soil of late Pleistocene age. Eff ective parameter values were estimated for a simplifi ed model based on Richards' equation using a fl ow simulator (VS2D), an inverse algorithm (UCODE-2005), and matric pressure and water content data from three ponded infi ltration experiments. The inverse problem framework was designed to account for the eff ects of subsurface lateral spreading of infi ltrated water. Although none of the inverse problems converged on a unique, best-fi t parameter set, a minimum standard error of regression was reached for each deposit type. Parameter sets from the numerous inversions that reached the minimum error were used to develop probability distribu tions for each parameter and deposit type. Electrical resistance imaging obtained for two of the three infi ltration experiments was used to independently test fl ow model performance. Simulations for the active wash and Holocene soil successfully depicted the lateral and vertical fl uxes. Simulations of the more pedogenically developed Pleistocene soil did not adequately replicate the observed fl ow processes, which would require a more complex conceptual model to include smaller scale heterogeneities. The inverse-modeling results, however, indicate that with increasing age, the steep slope of the soil water retention curve shitis toward more negative matric pressures. Assigning eff ective soil hydraulic properties based on soil age provides a promising framework for future development of regional-scale models of soil moisture dynamics in arid environments for land-management applications. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  12. Non-stationary temporal characterization of the temperature profile of a soil exposed to frost in south-eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Anctil

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare time and frequency fluctuations of air and soil temperatures (2-, 5-, 10-, 20- and 50-cm below the soil surface using the continuous wavelet transform, with a particular emphasis on the daily cycle. The analysis of wavelet power spectra and cross power spectra provided detailed non-stationary accounts with respect to frequencies (or periods and to time of the structure of the data and also of the relationships that exist between time series. For this particular application to the temperature profile of a soil exposed to frost, both the air temperature and the 2-cm depth soil temperature time series exhibited a dominant power peak at 1-d periodicity, prominent from spring to autumn. This feature was gradually damped as it propagated deeper into the soil and was weak for the 20-cm depth. Influence of the incoming solar radiation was also revealed in the wavelet power spectra analysis by a weaker intensity of the 1-d peak. The principal divergence between air and soil temperatures, besides damping, occurred in winter from the latent heat release associated to the freezing of the soil water and the insulation effect of snowpack that cease the dependence of the soil temperature to the air temperature. Attenuation and phase-shifting of the 1-d periodicity could be quantified through scale-averaged power spectra and time-lag estimations. Air temperature variance was only partly transferred to the 2-cm soil temperature time series and much less so to the 20-cm soil depth.

  13. Organic Matter Fractions and Quality of the Surface Layer of a Constructed and Vegetated Soil After Coal Mining. I - Humic Substances and Chemical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio dos Anjos Leal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available After open coal mining, soils are “constructed”, which usually contain low levels and quality of organic matter (OM. Therefore, the use of plant species for revegetation and reclamation of degraded areas is essential. This study evaluated the distribution of carbon (C in the chemical fractions as well as the chemical characteristics and humification degree of OM in a soil constructed after coal mining under cultivation of perennial grasses. The experiment was established in 2003 with the following treatments: Hemarthria altissima (T1, Paspalum notatum (T2, Cynodon dactilon (T3, Urochloa brizantha (T4, bare constructed soil (T5, and natural soil (T6. In 2009, soil samples were collected from the 0.00-0.03 m layer and the total organic carbon stock (TOC and C stock in the chemical fractions: acid extract (CHCl, fulvic acid (CFA, humic acid (CHA, and humin (CHU were determined. The humic acid (HA fraction was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and the laser-induced fluorescence index (ILIF of OM was also calculated. After six years, differences were only observed in the CHA stocks, which were highest in T1 (0.89 Mg ha-1 and T4 (1.06 Mg ha-1. The infrared spectra of HA in T1, T2 and T4 were similar to T6, with greater contribution of aliphatic organic compounds than in the other treatments. In this way, ILIF decreased in the sequence T5>T3>T4>T1>T2>T6, indicating higher OM humification in T3 and T5 and more labile OM in the other treatments. Consequently, the potential of OM quality recovery in the constructed soil was greatest in treatments T1 and T4.

  14. Acoustic Characterization of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Dept. of Electrical & Computer Enginnering Dept Natural Resources...same transduction device is used for transmit and receive, and the broad-band mechanical matching between the transduction device and the acoustic...has a direct influence over the imaging depth for a given dynamic range. Figure 10 demonstrated the influence of the roundtrip propagation loss as a

  15. Characterization of the soil solution of brazilian Cerrado soils under pasture/ Caracterização da solução de solos do bioma cerrado sob pastagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Becquer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to characterize the soils solution and to examine Al’s speciation in soils under pasture in Brazilian Cerrado region. The soils used in this study were collected in the space between the towns of Goiânia, GO and Barra do Garças, MT, to the margins of GO – 060 and BR – 154 highways. For the collection of soil solutions it was used a special equipment built with a PVC tube whose inferior extremity was coupled to a porous tip of special ceramic. To quantify the aluminum ionic species, two methods were used: chemical method of “ aluminon “ and the method WHAM (geochemical speciation model. The results allowed to conclude that the predominant aluminum ionic species varied in function of soil type, pH and concentration of NO3- in the soil solution. More abundant Al’s species in the soils were Al-M.O., Al3+ and Al(OH4- , in this order.O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar a solução de solos e avaliar a especiação do Al em solos sob pastagens no Bioma Cerrado. Para a coleta das soluções dos solos utilizou-se tubo de PVC com a extremidade inferior acoplada a uma ponta porosa de cerâmica especial. Para quantificar as formas iônicas do alumínio, foram comparadas duas metodologias: método químico do “aluminon” e o método WHAM (modelo geoquímico de especiação. Os solos utilizados no presente estudo foram coletados às margens das rodovias GO – 060 e BR – 154, no trecho entre os municípios de Goiânia, GO e Barra do Garças, MT. Os resultados permitiram concluir que as espécies iônicas de alumínio predominantes variaram em função do tipo de solo, pH e concentração de NO3- na solução do solo. Verificou-se também que as espécies iônicas mais abundantes foram: Al-M.O., Al3+ e Al(OH4-

  16. Potential for plant growth promotion by a consortium of stress-tolerant 2,4-dinitrotoluene-degrading bacteria: isolation and characterization of a military soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Sofie; Weyens, Nele; Sillen, Wouter; Gkorezis, Panagiotis; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2014-07-01

    The presence of explosives in soils and the interaction with drought stress and nutrient limitation are among the environmental factors that severely affect plant growth on military soils. In this study, we seek to isolate and identify the cultivable bacteria of a 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) contaminated soil (DS) and an adjacent grassland soil (GS) of a military training area aiming to isolate new plant growth-promoting (PGP) and 2,4-DNT-degrading strains. Metabolic profiling revealed disturbances in Ecocarbon use in the bare DS; isolation of cultivable strains revealed a lower colony-forming-unit count and a less diverse community associated with DS in comparison with GS. New 2,4-DNT-tolerant strains were identified by selective enrichments, which were further characterized by auxanography for 2,4-DNT use, resistance to drought stress, cold, nutrient starvation and PGP features. By selecting multiple beneficial PGP and abiotic stress-resistant strains, efficient 2,4-DNT-degrading consortia were composed. After inoculation, consortium UHasselt Sofie 3 with seven members belonging to Burkholderia, Variovorax, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Ralstonia species was capable to successfully enhance root length of Arabidopsis under 2,4-DNT stress. After 9 days, doubling of main root length was observed. Our results indicate that beneficial bacteria inhabiting a disturbed environment have the potential to improve plant growth and alleviate 2,4-DNT stress.

  17. Background sources at PEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, ..gamma..-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  19. Characterization of climate- and human-induced slope, soil and grassland dynamics in Bavarian landscapes under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltl, Peter; Schwindt, Daniel; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    Since the Neolithic Revolution the intensification of agriculture has been causing increased erosion in Bavarian landscapes. The correlated sediments often induce the formation of new colluvial and alluvial soils (WRB: Regic Anthrosol and Fluvisol i.a.). The soils themselves are able to absorb, bind, and store considerable amounts of C- and N-compounds. Therefore, they are important reactors regarding climate-relevant greenhouse-gas balances in the atmosphere. Learning about the exact spatial extent and thickness of these soils in representative landscapes, but also about their geneses and processes is essential. It allows for a detailed quantification and understanding of the current and potential properties and characteristics of these soils in their role of greenhouse-gas reactors. Two research locations were elected as representative Bavarian landscapes composed of different lithology and pedo-chemical environments (limestone versus crystalline setting): Rottenbuch is situated at the Ammer River in the Upper Bavarian pre-alpine forelands (Lkr. Weilheim-Schongau). The Otterbach Creek lies at the southwestern foothills of the Bavarian Forest at the Donaurandbruch tectonic line next to Donaustauf (Lkr. Regensburg). Detailed information on the soil horizons and layers within these research areas are accumulated by sounding or burrowing soil profiles and subsequently analyzing the soil samples in the lab. Geophysical methods, such as electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), seismic refraction tomography (SRT), and ground penetrating radar (GPR), allow for the extension of this point-source information into three dimensions. By repeatedly and regularly applying these methods, also temporal changes such as soil hydrology or freeze and thaw cycles can be monitored and their influence on fluxes and exchanges can be taken into account.

  20. Characterization of a Novel Amylolytic Enzyme Encoded by a Gene from a Soil-Derived Metagenomic Library

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    It has been estimated that less than 1% of the microorganisms in nature can be cultivated by conventional techniques. Thus, the classical approach of isolating enzymes from pure cultures allows the analysis of only a subset of the total naturally occurring microbiota in environmental samples enriched in microorganisms. To isolate useful microbial enzymes from uncultured soil microorganisms, a metagenome was isolated from soil samples, and a metagenomic library was constructed by using the pUC...

  1. Characterizing and Quantifying Soil Resilience for Ecosystem Services%土壤生态系统服务功能表征与计量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程琨; 岳骞; 徐向瑞; 闫明; 潘根兴

    2015-01-01

    2015 is the International Year of Soil, which indicates soils are the central consideration of what constitutes sustainable development. However, due to direct or indirect human disturbance such as land use change, soil management and land degradation, soil becomes fragile under the global change pressures. Soils play a critical role in delivering ecosystem services. The co-benefits or trade-offs between various ecosystem services provided by soils are main issues focused by the researchers. Soil carbon, nutrient and water cycles, and soil biodiversity could be related to the provisioning, regulating, supporting and cultural ecosystem services which they underpin. Characterizing and quantifying soil resilience for ecosystem services are main challenges to seek the sustainable soil management for improving soil resilience. Developing the ecosystem service indicators system and assessing the co-benefits or trade-offs between various ecosystem services using multiscale, multi-objectives, multi-factors approaches are both focused on the process of research. Furthermore, model simulation is one of the key approaches for the quantification of soil resilience for ecosystem services.%2015年是世界土壤年,健康的土壤是地球可持续发展的基石。然而,由于人类直接或间接的干扰,如土地利用变化、土壤管理和土地退化,使得土壤在全球变化压力下变得愈加脆弱。土壤在生态系统服务供应中发挥着至关重要的作用,土壤所提供的各种生态系统服务之间的相互协同或抵消作用是土壤生态系统服务功能研究的主要内容。土壤的碳、氮、水三大生物地球化学循环以及土壤的生物多样性与供给、调节、支持和文化四个生态系统服务紧密相关。为探索土壤可持续管理途径,提升土壤的生态系统服务能力,从碳、氮、水循环与生物多样性出发进行土壤生态系统服务功能表征与计量方法学研究亟待

  2. Characterization of biochar obtained from weeds and its effect on soil properties of North Eastern Region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S; Verma, B C; Ramkrushna, G I; Singh, R K; Rajkhowa, D J

    2015-03-01

    In the global climate change scenario, application of biochar in soil has become one of the important management practices for carbon sequestration, soil health improvement and climate change mitigation. In this study, an attempt was made to see the effect of biochar prepared from weed biomass on soil properties in subtropical northeast India. Biochar were prepared from seven locally available weed biomass viz. Ageratum conyzoides, Lantana camera, Gynura sp., Setaria sp., Avena fatua, Maize stalk, Pine needles and were characterised. Apot experiment was conducted with maize, where biochar was applied alone and in combination with fertilizers. Results revealed that biochar had significant impact on soil pH, SOC, and available nutrients like N, P and K. It also had significant impact on maize biomass yield. All biochar contained more than 50% stable carbon. Increase in soil pH was in the range of 0.26 to 0.3 and that of SOC from 1.62% in control to 1.74% in biochar added treatments. Biochars alone improved the available nitrogen ranging from 4.5 to 21.3 mg kg(-1), available P from 3.32 to 3.68 mg kg(-1) and increased K content by 20% above control. Weed biomass can be potential alternative to enhance soil and crop productivity through conversion into biochar.

  3. Understanding and Enhancing Soil Biological Health: The Solution for Reversing Soil Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    R Michael Lehman; Cynthia A. Cambardella; Diane E. Stott; Veronica Acosta-Martinez; Manter, Daniel K.; Jeffrey S. Buyer; Jude E. Maul; Smith, Jeffrey L.; Harold P. Collins; Jonathan J. Halvorson; Kremer, Robert J.; Jonathan G. Lundgren; Tom F. Ducey; Jin, Virginia L.; Douglas L. Karlen

    2015-01-01

    Our objective is to provide an optimistic strategy for reversing soil degradation by increasing public and private research efforts to understand the role of soil biology, particularly microbiology, on the health of our world’s soils. We begin by defining soil quality/soil health (which we consider to be interchangeable terms), characterizing healthy soil resources, and relating the significance of soil health to agroecosystems and their functions. We examine how soil biology influences soil ...

  4. {sup 222}Rn and CO{sub 2} soil-gas geochemical characterization of thermally altered clays at Orciatico (Tuscany, Central Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voltattorni, N., E-mail: nunzia.voltattorni@ingv.it [Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Via di Vigna Murata 605, 00143 Rome (Italy); Lombardi, S. [Earth Science Department, University ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Rizzo, S. [Via Tito, 1/A, 00061 Anguillara Sabazia, Rome (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Soil-gas technique is applied to study gas permeability of Orciatico clay units. {yields} Clay permeability depends on thermal and mechanical alteration degree. {yields} Soil-gas distributions are due to shallow fracturing of clays. {yields} Rn and CO{sub 2} soil-gas anomalies highlight secondary permeability in clay sequence. {yields} Soil-gas results are supported by detailed geoelectrical surveys. - Abstract: The physical properties of clay allow argillaceous formations to be considered geological barriers to radionuclide migration in high-level radioactive-waste isolation systems. As laboratory simulations are short term and numerical models always involve assumptions and simplifications of the natural system, natural analogues are extremely attractive surrogates for the study of long-term isolation. The clays of the Orciatico area (Tuscany, Central Italy), which were thermally altered via the intrusion of an alkali-trachyte laccolith, represent an interesting natural model of a heat source which acted on argillaceous materials. The study of this natural analogue was performed through detailed geoelectrical and soil-gas surveys to define both the geometry of the intrusive body and the gas permeability of a clay unit characterized by different degrees of thermal alteration. The results of this study show that gas permeability is increased in the clay sequences subjected to greater heat input from the emplacement of the Orciatico intrusion, despite the lack of apparent mineral and geotechnical variations. These results, which take into consideration long time periods in a natural, large-scale geological system, may have important implications for the long-term safety of underground storage of nuclear waste in clay formations.

  5. Characterizing Wheel-Soil Interaction Loads Using Meshfree Finite Element Methods: A Sensitivity Analysis for Design Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Michael T.; Trease, Brian P.; Bojanowski, Cezary; Kulakx, Ronald F.

    2013-01-01

    A wheel experiencing sinkage and slippage events poses a high risk to planetary rover missions as evidenced by the mobility challenges endured by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project. Current wheel design practice utilizes loads derived from a series of events in the life cycle of the rover which do not include (1) failure metrics related to wheel sinkage and slippage and (2) performance trade-offs based on grouser placement/orientation. Wheel designs are rigorously tested experimentally through a variety of drive scenarios and simulated soil environments; however, a robust simulation capability is still in development due to myriad of complex interaction phenomena that contribute to wheel sinkage and slippage conditions such as soil composition, large deformation soil behavior, wheel geometry, nonlinear contact forces, terrain irregularity, etc. For the purposes of modeling wheel sinkage and slippage at an engineering scale, meshfree nite element approaches enable simulations that capture su cient detail of wheel-soil interaction while remaining computationally feasible. This study implements the JPL wheel-soil benchmark problem in the commercial code environment utilizing the large deformation modeling capability of Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) meshfree methods. The nominal, benchmark wheel-soil interaction model that produces numerically stable and physically realistic results is presented and simulations are shown for both wheel traverse and wheel sinkage cases. A sensitivity analysis developing the capability and framework for future ight applications is conducted to illustrate the importance of perturbations to critical material properties and parameters. Implementation of the proposed soil-wheel interaction simulation capability and associated sensitivity framework has the potential to reduce experimentation cost and improve the early stage wheel design proce

  6. Characterization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus communities of Aquilaria crassna and Tectona grandis roots and soils in Thailand plantations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornrat Chaiyasen

    Full Text Available Aquilaria crassna Pierre ex Lec. and Tectona grandis Linn.f. are sources of resin-suffused agarwood and teak timber, respectively. This study investigated arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus community structure in roots and rhizosphere soils of A. crassna and T. grandis from plantations in Thailand to understand whether AM fungal communities present in roots and rhizosphere soils vary with host plant species and study sites. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism complemented with clone libraries revealed that AM fungal community composition in A. crassna and T. grandis were similar. A total of 38 distinct terminal restriction fragments (TRFs were found, 31 of which were shared between A. crassna and T. grandis. AM fungal communities in T. grandis samples from different sites were similar, as were those in A. crassna. The estimated average minimum numbers of AM fungal taxa per sample in roots and soils of T. grandis were at least 1.89 vs. 2.55, respectively, and those of A. crassna were 2.85 vs. 2.33 respectively. The TRFs were attributed to Claroideoglomeraceae, Diversisporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae. The Glomeraceae were found to be common in all study sites. Specific AM taxa in roots and soils of T. grandis and A. crassna were not affected by host plant species and sample source (root vs. soil but affected by collecting site. Future inoculum production and utilization efforts can be directed toward the identified symbiotic associates of these valuable tree species to enhance reforestation efforts.

  7. Characterization of epiphytic bacterial communities from grapes, leaves, bark and soil of grapevine plants grown, and their relations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Martins

    Full Text Available Despite its importance in plant health and crop quality, the diversity of epiphytic bacteria on grape berries and other plant parts, like leaves and bark, remains poorly described, as does the role of telluric bacteria in plant colonization. In this study, we compare the bacterial community size and structure in vineyard soils, as well as on grapevine bark, leaves and berries. Analyses of culturable bacteria revealed differences in the size and structure of the populations in each ecosystem. The highest bacteria population counts and the greatest diversity of genera were found in soil samples, followed by bark, grapes and leaves. The identification of isolates revealed that some genera - Pseudomonas, Curtobacterium, and Bacillus - were present in all ecosystems, but in different amounts, while others were ecosystem-specific. About 50% of the genera were common to soil and bark, but absent from leaves and grapes. The opposite was also observed: grape and leaf samples presented 50% of genera in common that were absent from trunk and soil. The bacterial community structure analyzed by T-RFLP indicated similarities between the profiles of leaves and grapes, on the one hand, and bark and soil, on the other, reflecting the number of shared T-RFs. The results suggest an interaction between telluric bacterial communities and the epiphytic bacteria present on the different grapevine parts.

  8. Characterization of epiphytic bacterial communities from grapes, leaves, bark and soil of grapevine plants grown, and their relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Guilherme; Lauga, Béatrice; Miot-Sertier, Cécile; Mercier, Anne; Lonvaud, Aline; Soulas, Marie-Louise; Soulas, Guy; Masneuf-Pomarède, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance in plant health and crop quality, the diversity of epiphytic bacteria on grape berries and other plant parts, like leaves and bark, remains poorly described, as does the role of telluric bacteria in plant colonization. In this study, we compare the bacterial community size and structure in vineyard soils, as well as on grapevine bark, leaves and berries. Analyses of culturable bacteria revealed differences in the size and structure of the populations in each ecosystem. The highest bacteria population counts and the greatest diversity of genera were found in soil samples, followed by bark, grapes and leaves. The identification of isolates revealed that some genera - Pseudomonas, Curtobacterium, and Bacillus - were present in all ecosystems, but in different amounts, while others were ecosystem-specific. About 50% of the genera were common to soil and bark, but absent from leaves and grapes. The opposite was also observed: grape and leaf samples presented 50% of genera in common that were absent from trunk and soil. The bacterial community structure analyzed by T-RFLP indicated similarities between the profiles of leaves and grapes, on the one hand, and bark and soil, on the other, reflecting the number of shared T-RFs. The results suggest an interaction between telluric bacterial communities and the epiphytic bacteria present on the different grapevine parts.

  9. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of bacterial community structure in mine soils affected by mining subsidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yuanyuan a; Chen Longqian a; ⇑; Wen Hongyu b; Zhou Tianjian a; Zhang Ting a

    2014-01-01

    Based on the 454 pyrosequencing approach, this research evaluated the influence of coal mining subsi-dence on soil bacterial diversity and community structure in Chinese mining area. In order to characterize the bacterial community comparatively, this study selected a field experiment site with coal-excavated subsidence soils and an adjacent site with non-disturbed agricultural soils, respectively. The dataset com-prises 24512 sequences that are affiliated to the 7 phylogenetic groups: proteobacteria, actinobacteria, bacteroidetes, gemmatimonadetes, chloroflexi, nitrospirae and unclassified phylum. Proteobacteria is the largest bacterial phylum in all samples, with a marked shift of the proportions of alpha-, beta-, and gammaproteobacteria. The results show that undisturbed soils are relatively more diverse and rich than subsided soils, and differences in abundances of dominant taxonomic groups between the two soil groups are visible. Compared with the control, soil nutrient contents decline achieves significant level in subsided soils. Correlational analysis showed bacterial diversity indices have significantly positive corre-lation with soil organic matter, total N, total P, and available K, but in negative relation with soil salinity. Ground subsidence noticeably affects the diversity and composition of soil microbial community. Degen-eration of soil fertility and soil salinization inhibits the sole-carbon-source metabolic ability of microbial community, leading to the simplification of advantage species and uneven distribution of microbial spe-cies. This work demonstrates the great potential of pyrosequencing technique in revealing microbial diversity and presents background information of microbial communities of mine subsidence land.

  10. Quick survey for detection, identification and characterization of Acanthamoeba genotypes from some selected soil and water samples across Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Tania; Hameed, Abdul; Gul, Asma; Matin, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan pathogen which is widely distributed in nature and plays a pivotal role in ecosystem. Acanthamoeba species may cause blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis involving central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the presence of Acanthamoeba in soil and water resources of Pakistan. Here, Acanthamoeba were recovered on non-nutrient agar plate lawn with E. coli and identified by morphological characteristics of the cyst. Furthermore PCR was performed with genus-specific primers followed by direct sequencing of the PCR product for molecular identification. Overall our PCR and sequencing results confirmed pathogenic genotypes including T4 and T15 from both soil and water samples. This is our first report of Acanthamoeba isolation from both soil and water resources of Pakistan which may serve as a potential treat to human health across the country.

  11. Molecular characterization of conjugative plasmids in pesticide tolerant and multi-resistant bacterial isolates from contaminated alluvial soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Reshma; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Malik, Abdul

    2011-06-01

    A total of 35 bacteria from contaminated soil (cultivated fields) near pesticide industry from Chinhat, Lucknow, (India) were isolated and tested for their tolerance/resistance to pesticides, heavy metals and antibiotics. Bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. Gas Chromatography analysis of the soil samples revealed the presence of lindane at a concentration of 547 ng g(-1) and α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan of 422 ng g(-1) and 421 ng g(-1) respectively. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry analysis of the test sample was done and Cr, Zn, Ni, Fe, Cu and Cd were detected at concentrations of 36.2, 42.5, 43.2, 241, 13.3 and 11.20 mg kg(-1) respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of all the isolates were determined for pesticides and heavy metals. All the multi-resistant/tolerant bacterial isolates were also tested for the presence of incompatibility (Inc) group IncP, IncN, IncW, IncQ plasmids and for rolling circle plasmids of the pMV158-family by PCR. Total community DNA was extracted from pesticide contaminated soil. PCR amplification of the bacterial isolates and soil DNA revealed the presence of IncP-specific sequences (trfA2 and oriT) which was confirmed by dot blot hybridization with RP4-derived DIG-labelled probes. Plasmids belonging to IncN, IncW and IncQ group were neither detected in the bacterial isolates nor in total soil DNA. The presence of conjugative or mobilizable IncP plasmids in the isolates indicate that these bacteria have gene transfer capacity with implications for dissemination of heavy metal and antibiotic resistance genes. We propose that IncP plasmids are mainly responsible for the spread of multi-resistant bacteria in the contaminated soils.

  12. Characterization of sorbent properties of soil organic matter and carbonaceous geosorbents using n-alkanes and cycloalkanes as molecular probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoshi Endo; Peter Grathwohl; Stefan B. Haderlein; Torsten C. Schmidt [Eberhard-Karls-University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany). Center for Applied Geoscience (ZAG)

    2009-01-15

    Nonspecific interactions and modes (i.e., adsorption vs absorption) of sorption by noncondensed, amorphous organic phases (here termed organic matter; OM) in soils and by rigid, aromatic, and condensed phases (termed carbonaceous geosorbents; CGs) were investigated using n-alkanes and cycloalkanes as molecular probes. Sorption isotherms of and cyclooctane from water for seven CGs (charcoal, lignite coke, activated carbon, graphite, partially oxidized graphite, diesel soot, bituminous coal), four sorbents with a predominance of OM (lignite, peat, two sapric soils), and two soils containing OM and high amounts of CGs were measured in batch systems. The peat and the sapric soils showed extensively linear sorption, while the CGs exhibited highly nonlinear and strong (K{sub oc} values being up to 105 times those for the OM-rich materials at low concentrations) sorption for the alkanes studied, showing that enhanced sorption by CGs can occur to completely apolar sorbates that do not undergo any specific interaction. The n-octane-to-cyclooctane sorption coefficient ratios for adsorption to CGs were {ge}1, being distinctly different from those for absorption to the OM-rich materials. The measured sorption isotherms and the CG compositions in the soils determined by quantitative petrography analysis suggest, however, that CGs occurring in soils may be far less effective sorbents than the reference CGs used in the sorption experiments at least for nonspecifically interacting sorbates, probably because of competitive sorption and/or pore blocking by natural OM. The presented approaches and results offer a basis for interpreting sorption data for other organic compounds, as nonspecific interactions and sorption modes are relevant for any compound. 47 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Application of time-lapse ERT to Characterize Soil-Water-Disease Interactions of Citrus Orchard - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddinti, S. R.; Kbvn, D. P.; Ranjan, S.; Suradhaniwar, S.; J, P. A.; R M, G.

    2015-12-01

    Vidarbha region in Maharashtra, India (home for mandarin Orange) experience severe climatic uncertainties resulting in crop failure. Phytopthora are the soil-borne fungal species that accumulate in the presence of moisture, and attack the root / trunk system of Orange trees at any stage. A scientific understanding of soil-moisture-disease relations within the active root zone under different climatic, irrigation, and crop cycle conditions can help in practicing management activities for improved crop yield. In this study, we developed a protocol for performing 3-D time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) at micro scale resolution to monitor the changes in resistivity distribution within the root zone of Orange trees. A total of 40 electrodes, forming a grid of 3.5 m x 2 m around each Orange tree were used in ERT survey with gradient and Wenner configurations. A laboratory test on un-disturbed soil samples of the region was performed to plot the variation of electrical conductivity with saturation. Curve fitting techniques were applied to get the modified Archie's model parameters. The calibrated model was further applied to generate the 3-D soil moisture profiles of the study area. The point estimates of soil moisture were validated using TDR probe measurements at 3 different depths (10, 20, and 40 cm) near to the root zone. In order to understand the effect of soil-water relations on plant-disease relations, we performed ERT analysis at two locations, one at healthy and other at Phytopthora affected Orange tree during the crop cycle, under dry and irrigated conditions. The degree to which an Orange tree is affected by Phytopthora under each condition is evaluated using 'grading scale' approach following visual inspection of the canopy features. Spatial-temporal distribution of moisture profiles is co-related with grading scales to comment on the effect of climatic and irrigation scenarios on the degree and intensity of crop disease caused by Phytopthora.

  14. Relating Pyrolysis GC-MS to Traditional Soil Organic Matter Characterization: a Comparative Study Across a Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, J. A.; Carrasco, J. J.; Neff, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Ecosystem scale soil organic matter studies commonly involve measurements such as physical or chemical separations to bulk soil elemental estimates, however, these measurements provide limited information about SOM structure and how it varies across landscapes. To bridge the gap between molecular-scale and pool-based understanding of SOM dynamics, we compared soil density fractionation and chemical digestion techniques to more detailed pyrolysis GC-MS measurements. Composite soil samples from 0-10 cm were collected from four sites with observably different soil characteristics along the Front Range in Colorado: aspen grove, spruce-fir forest, and alpine dry and wet meadows. Samples were separated into heavy, light, and water fractions (slow, intermediate, and fast SOM turnover pools, respectively) using a 1.8 g/mL density fractionation. Non-polar extractives, polar extractives, cellulose, and lignin abundances were determined using a standard method for organic matter digestion. Significant differences were absent between sites for all density derived components as well as the non-polar and polar extractives. The spruce-fir SOM, however, showed higher % lignin and lower % cellulose compared to all other sites. We measured lignin, polysaccharide, and long-chain aliphatic derivatives using pyrolysis GC-MS and then compared relative abundances using principal component analysis. Spruce-fir SOM was distinguished by the high relative abundance of lignin derivatives that parallels observed higher % lignin by digestion. The dry and wet meadow SOM was distinguished by the relative abundance of long-chain aliphatic compounds. While the density and chemical fractionations were unable to fully distinguish these soils apart, pyrolysis GC-MS provided more detailed information about the chemical composition of SOM across different ecosystems.

  15. Characterization and evolution of dissolved organic matter in acidic forest soil and its impact on the mobility of major and trace elements (case of the Strengbach watershed)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Sophie; Stille, Peter; Pierret, Marie-Claire; Weber, Tiphaine; Chabaux, François

    2014-04-01

    Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) plays an important role in the behavior of major and trace elements in the soil and influences their transfer from soil to soil solution. The first objective of this study is to characterize different organic functional groups for the Water Extractable Organic Carbon (WEOC) fractions of a forest soil as well as their evolution with depth. The second objective is to clarify the influence of these organic functional groups on the migration of the trace elements in WEOC fractions compared to those in the soil solution obtained by lysimeter plates. All experiments have been performed on an acidic forest soil profile (five depths in the first meter) of the experimental spruce parcel in the Stengbach catchment. The Infra-red spectra of the freeze-dried WEOC fractions show a modification of the molecular structure with depth, i.e. a decrease of the polar compounds such as polysaccharides and an increase of the less polar hydro-carbon functional groups with a maximum value of the aromaticity at 30 cm depth. A Hierarchical Ascending Classification (HAC) of the evolution of Water Extractable Chemical Elements (WECE) with the evolution of the organic functional groups in the organic matter (OM) enriched soil compartments permits recognition of relationships between trace element behavior and the organic functional group variations. More specifically, Pb is preferentially bound to the carboxylic acid function of DOC mainly present in the upper soil compartment and rare earth elements (REE) show similar behavior to Fe, V and Cr with a good affinity to carboxy-phenolic and phenolic groups of DOC. The experimental results show that heavy REE compared to light REE are preferentially bound to the aromatic functional group. This different behavior fractionates the REE pattern of soil solutions at 30 cm depth due to the here observed aromaticity enrichment of DOC. These different affinities for the organic functional groups of the DOC explain some

  16. Supersymmetric heterotic string backgrounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gran, U.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.; Cvetič, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present the main features of the solution of the gravitino and dilatino Killing spinor equations derived in hep-th/0510176 and hep-th/0703143 which have led to the classification of geometric types of all type I backgrounds. We then apply these results to the supersymmetric backgrounds of the het

  17. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    This set of lectures provides an overview of the basic theory and phenomenology of the cosmic microwave background. Topics include a brief historical review; the physics of temperature and polarization fluctuations; acoustic oscillations of the primordial plasma; the space of inflationary cosmological models; current and potential constraints on these models from the microwave background; and constraints on inflation.

  18. The Athena Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, Luigi; Lotti, Simone; Macculi, Claudio; Molendi, Silvano; Eraerds, Tanja; Laurent, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Estimating, reducing and controlling the residual particle background is fundamental for achieving the objectives of several science topics of Athena, in particular those connected with background dominated observations of faint and/or diffuse sources. This requires assessing the particle environment in L2, propagating the various particle components throughout the mirror, spacecraft, and instruments via proper modelling and simulations of various physical processes, implementing design and h/w measures at instrument and mission level to reduce the un-rejected background and identifying proper calibration methods to control the background variations. Likewise, an adequate knowledge of the XRB, made of components that may vary spatially or temporally, is required as well. Here we will review the present status of the background knowledge, and summarize the activities on-going within Athena at various levels.

  19. Characterization and fingerprinting of soil and groundwater contamination sources around a fuel distribution station in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Macías, Felipe; Monterroso, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination around a fuel distribution station in Tomiño (NW Spain) was evaluated. For this purpose, top and subsoil (up to 6.4 m) and groundwater were sampled around the station, approximately in a 60-m radius. Samples were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS to identify and quantify volatile fuel organic compounds (VFOC) (MTBE, ETBE and BTEX) and diesel range organics (DRO). Analysis and fingerprinting data suggested that the contamination of soil and groundwater was provoked by a fuel leak from underground storage tanks. This was reflected by hydrocarbon indices and principal component analysis, which discriminated a direct source of contamination of the subsoil samples around the station. The contaminants probably migrated from tank nearby soils to surrounding soils and leached to groundwater, following a SW direction. Irrigation with contaminated groundwater provoked a severe contamination of topsoils, which were enriched with the lightest components of gasoline and diesel. Fingerprinting also revealed the continuity of the leak, reflected by the presence of volatiles in some samples, which principally appeared in fresh leaks. MTBE was detected in a very high concentration in groundwater samples (up to 690 μg L(-1)), but it was not detected in fresh gasoline. This also evidenced an old source of contamination, probably starting in the mid-1990s, when the use of MTBE in gasoline was regulated.

  20. Characterization of Soil Particle Size Distribution with a Fractal Model in the Desertified Regions of Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Guang-Lei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We constructed an aeolian soil database across arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid regions, China. Soil particle size distribution was measured with a laser diffraction technique, and fractal dimensions were calculated. The results showed that: (i the predominant soil particle size distributed in fine and medium sand classifications, and fractal dimensions covered a wide range from 2.0810 to 2.6351; (ii through logarithmic transformations, fractal dimensions were significantly positive correlated with clay and silt contents (R2 = 0.81 and 0.59, P < 0.01, and significantly negative correlated with sand content (R2 = 0.50, P < 0.01; (3 hierarchical cluster analysis divided the plots into three types which were similar to sand dune types indicating desertification degree. In a large spatial scale, fractal dimensions are still sensitive to wind-induced desertification. Therefore, we highly recommend that fractal dimension be used as a reliable and quantitative parameter to monitor soil environment changes in desertified regions. This improved information provides a firm basis for better understanding of desertification processes.

  1. Isolation and molecular characterization of Acanthamoeba genotypes isolated from soil sources of public and recreational areas in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamati, Seyed Ahmad; Niyyati, Maryam; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Lasjerdi, Zohreh

    2016-12-01

    Pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a sight threating infection of the cornea known as Acanthamoeba keratitis. AK cases have been reported in Iran recently due to inappropriate usage of contact lens maintenance and most patients report a contact with contaminated sources such as dust, water or soil. Sixty soil samples were collected from public and recreational areas in the province of East Azerbaijan, Iran and checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. Samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar plates seeded with heat killed Escherichia coli. PCR and sequencing of the DF3 region were carried out in order to genotype the isolated strains of Acanthamoeba. Thermotolerance and osmotolerance assays were performed in order to investigate the pathogenic potential of isolated Acanthamoeba strains. Acanthamoeba spp. was isolated from 41.6% of soil samples and genotyping of the strains resulted in the identification of genotypes T3, T4, T5 and T11. Most of the isolates belonging to genotypes T3 and T4 showed high pathogenic potential, indicating that they might present a potential health hazard for humans and other animals in this region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of genotypes T3 and T11 from soil sources in the country.

  2. Isolation and Partial Characterization of Bacterial Strains on Low Organic Carbon Medium from Soils Fertilized with Different Organic Amendments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senechkin, I.V.; Speksnijder, A.G.C.L.; Semenov, A.M.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2010-01-01

    A total of 720 bacterial strains were isolated from soils with four different organic amendment regimes on a low organic carbon (low-C) agar medium (10 mu g C ml(-1)) traditionally used for isolation of oligotrophs. Organic amendments in combination with field history resulted in differences in diss

  3. Characterization of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase CYP154H1 from the thermophilic soil bacterium Thermobifida fusca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallmey, Anett; den Besten, Gijs; Teune, Ite G. P.; Kembaren, Roga F.; Janssen, Dick B.

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are valuable biocatalysts due to their ability to hydroxylate unactivated carbon atoms using molecular oxygen. We have cloned the gene for a new cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, named CYP154H1, from the moderately thermophilic soil bacterium Thermobifida fusca. The enzym

  4. Characterization of a fungistatic substance produced by Aspergillus flavus isolated from soil and its significance in nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Lin, Mei-Ju; Yang, Ching-Hui; Ko, Wen-Hsiung

    2011-10-01

    A fungus capable of using vegetable tissues for multiplication in soil was isolated and identified as Aspergillus flavus based on morphological characteristics and sequence similarity of ITS and 28S. When grown in liquid medium prepared from the same vegetable tissues used in soil amendment, the isolate of A. flavus produced a substance capable of preventing disease development of black leaf spot of mustard cabbage caused by Alternaria brassicicola and inhibiting the germination of A. brassicicola conidia. The inhibitory substance was fungistatic, and was very stable under high temperature and high or low pH value. It was soluble in ethanol or methanol, moderately soluble in water, and insoluble in acetone, ethyl acetate or ether. The inhibitor is not a protein and has no charges on its molecule. This is the first discovery of the production of a fungistatic substance by this deleterious fungus. Results from this study suggest the possession of a strong competitive saprophytic ability by A. flavus, which in turn may explain the widespread occurrence of this fungus in soils. Production of a fungistatic substance when A. flavus was grown in medium prepared from vegetable tissues suggests the importance of antibiotic production in its competitive saprophytic colonization of organic matters in soils.

  5. THE BNL ASTD FIELD LAB - NEAR - REAL - TIME CHARACTERIZATION OF BNL STOCKPILED SOILS TO ACCELERATE COMPLETION OF THE EM CHEMICAL HOLES PROJECT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWERMAN,B.S.; ADAMS,J.W.; HEISER,J.; KALB,P.D.; LOCKWOOD,A.

    2003-04-01

    As of October 2001, approximately 7,000 yd{sup 3} of stockpiled soil remained at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) after the remediation of the BNL Chemical/Animal/Glass Pits disposal area. The soils were originally contaminated with radioactive materials and heavy metals, depending on what materials had been interred in the pits, and how the pits were excavated. During the 1997 removal action, the more hazardous/radioactive materials were segregated, along with, chemical liquids and solids, animal carcasses, intact gas cylinders, and a large quantity of metal and glass debris. Nearly all of these materials have been disposed of. In order to ensure that all debris was removed and to characterize the large quantity of heterogeneous soil, BNL initiated an extended sorting, segregation, and characterization project directed at the remaining soil stockpiles. The project was co-funded by the Department of Energy Environmental Management Office (DOE EM) through the BNL Environmental Restoration program and through the DOE EM Office of Science and Technology Accelerated Site Technology Deployment (ASTD) program. The focus was to remove any non-conforming items, and to assure that mercury and radioactive contaminant levels were within acceptable limits for disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Soils with mercury concentrations above allowable levels would be separated for disposal as mixed waste. Sorting and segregation were conducted simultaneously. Large stockpiles (ranging from 150 to 1,200 yd{sup 3}) were subdivided into manageable 20 yd{sup 3} units after powered vibratory screening. The 1/2-inch screen removed almost all non-conforming items (plus some gravel). Non-conforming items were separated for further characterization. Soil that passed through the screen was also visually inspected before being moved to a 20 yd{sup 3} ''subpile.'' Eight samples from each subpile were collected after establishing a grid of four quadrants: north, east

  6. Use of a mesoplot rainfall simulator to characterize the hydrological behaviour of runoff plots under two different soil management techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Roberto; Giráldez, Juan V.; Gómez, Jose A.

    2010-05-01

    This communication describes a mobile rainfall simulator for mesoplot studies, the calibration tests required for its development, and its performance for evaluating runoff and sediment losses in an experiment on an olive grove under two different soil management methods. The rainfall simulator is based on commercial sprinkles overlapping an effective area for rainfall simulation experiments of 8 x 18 m. It uses a portable power generator, water pumps and five water tanks (of 3000 l each). It is inspired in the design of Sumner et al. 1996. The whole equipment fits into a 700 kg trailer and can be served by a team of three people. In areas without water supply water can be transported in trucks or tractors and stored into the tanks. The calibration tests indicated that the rainfall simulator can provide rainfall intensities from 15 to 35 mm h-1, depending on the number of nozzles used and the water pressure. Calibration tests indicated that it provided acceptable uniformity, an average value of the Christiansen Coefficient of Uniformity (Christiansen, 1942) of 85%, when used under wind velocities below 1 m second-1. Above this wind velocity the rainfall simulator should be used in combination with wind screens. This is not always a feasible option, as in the experiments performed in rainfall orchards where the sprinklers had to be located 3 m high to be above the olive tree canopies. In an olive orchards located in Pedrera, Southern Spain, two runoff plots under different soil management methods were selected for testing the rainfall simulator in the field. The two soil management methods evaluated were conventional tillage and a cover crop of ray grass sown in fall and chemically killed with herbicides in late March. These plots had been established five years before the rainfall simulation experiment. Three rainfall simulations were made on each of the two runoff plots. The rainfall intensity used was always 33 m h-1, and lasted 60, 60 and 45 minutes for the

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Impurely Irrigated Soil Adsorbent from Beaches%滩涂污灌土壤吸附剂的制备及表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董毛毛; 唐帆; 费正浩; 钱晓荣

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] We aimed to study the preparation methods of impurely irrigated soil adsorbent from beaches, as well as its ability to absorb phenol. [ Method] Using hydrochloric acid as activator, we compared the influences of various soil adsorbents on the adsorption of phenol through the desired orthogonal tests where the addition of saw dust, concentration of hydrochloric acid, liquid-solid ratio and carbonization temperature varied. Afterwards, we characterized this soil adsorbent. [ Result] For the soil adsorbent made under the optimal conditions, that is, addition of saw dust was 20% , concentration of HC1 was 1 mol/L, the ratio of liquid to solid was 2:1, carbonization temperature was 500 ℃ , and activation time was one hour, the absorption efficiency of phenol in water by the prepared soil adsorbent reached above 90% . Characterization showed that the prepared soil adsorbent changed greatly in the structure, that is, soil pore and carbon content increased obviously, as well as its adsorption efficiency. [Conclusion] The prepared soil adsorbent by this method greatly improved the absorption efficiency of phenol in water, which provided a novel method for the reasonable utilization of saw dust, with good prospects.%[目的]研究滩涂污灌土壤吸附剂的制备方法及对苯酚的吸附效果.[方法]采用盐酸作为活化剂,通过正交试验比较在不同木屑加入量、盐酸浓度、液固比、碳化温度下制备的吸附剂,对水中苯酚吸附效果的影响,并对其进行表征.[结果]在木屑加入量为20%,经1mol/L的盐酸按液固比2∶1浸泡处理滩涂污灌土壤后,在500℃下碳化1h后,制备的土壤吸附剂对水溶液中苯酚的吸附效率可达90%以上.表征结果显示,制备的污灌土壤吸附剂结构发生了明显变化,土壤孔隙和碳含量明显增大,吸附效率显著提高.[结论]制备的土壤吸附剂大大提高了水溶液中苯酚的吸附效率,为木屑的资源化利用探索了新

  8. Off-line TMAH-GC/MS and NMR characterization of humic substances extracted from river sediments of northwestern São Paulo under different soil uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadini, Amanda Maria, E-mail: amandatadini@hotmail.com [Departamento de Química e Ciências Ambientais, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, R. Cristóvão Colombo 2265, 15054-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Pantano, Glaucia; Toffoli, Ana Lúcia de [Departamento de Química e Ciências Ambientais, Instituto de Biociências, Letras e Ciências Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, R. Cristóvão Colombo 2265, 15054-000 São José do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Fontaine, Barbara; Spaccini, Riccardo; Piccolo, Alessandro [Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca sulla Risonanza Magnetica Nucleare (NMR) per L' ambiente, l' Agro-Alimentare ed i Nuovi Materiali, CERMANU, Università di Napoli Federico II, Via Università 100, 80055 Portici (Italy); and others

    2015-02-15

    Humic substances (HS) vary according to the physical and chemical factors present in the environment. Thus, the characterization of HS is very important because it improves the understanding of the groups that comprise the chemical structure. Sediment HS were extracted from four locations representative of sugar cane cultivation, pasture, urban area and the impoundment of the Água Vermelha Hydroelectric Power Plant. Characterization using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) allowed us to infer that the HS from an area predominantly characterized by sugar cane cultivation (41.9%) and a typical rural area (35.0%) showed the highest aromaticity percentage. Using the off-line TMAH-thermochemolysis-GC-MS, we inferred that the HS of a typical rural area had a structure rich in plant waxes, plant biopolyester and a large amount of fatty acid methyl ester, which are related to the large amount of humic acid in the structure. The HS samples from the sugar cane cultivation area and the impoundment receiving all of the pollution load from the Turvo/Grande Hydrographic Basin (Bacia Hidrográfica do Turvo/Grande—BHTG) contained contributions from compounds rich in lipids and fatty acid methyl esters, highlighting the presence of the breakdown of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons in the area receiving the entire pollution load. We conclude that the HS extracted from the sediments of the Preto, Turvo and Grande rivers showed well-defined characteristics that varied depending on soil use and occupation, especially the HS extracted from sediments sampled in areas typically planted with sugar cane and rural areas, whose structures contained more aromatic groups. - Highlights: • The characterization of HS allows the understanding of the chemical structure. • HS of sediment in areas planted with sugar cane and rural areas contained more aromatic groups. • Influence of soil use and occupation on the chemical structure of the HS.

  9. Soil characterization and differential patterns of heavy metal accumulation in woody plants grown in coal gangue wastelands in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakun, Shi; Xingmin, Mu; Kairong, Li; Hongbo, Shao

    2016-07-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metals in coal mine wastelands is a significant environmental issue in most developing countries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate contamination characteristics in the coal mine wastelands of Sanlidong coal mine, Tongchuan, China. To achieve this goal, we conducted field sampling work, followed by further analysis of the properties of soil contamination and accumulation characteristics in woody plants. At this site, the pH value ranged from 4.41 to 7.88, and the nutrient content of the soil rose gradually with the time after deposition due to the weathering effect improving the soil quality. Meanwhile, the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn gradually decreased with the passage time. Generally, heavy metal contamination was found to be more serious in the discharge refuse area, with Cd contamination at moderate or heavy levels; Ni, Zn, and Cu contamination at light levels; and with no Cr contamination. The geoaccumulation index (I geo) was highest for Cd (2.38-3.14), followed by Ni, Zn, Cu, and Cr. Heavy metals accumulated on the lower slopes and spread to the surrounding areas via hydrodynamic effects and wind. According to transfer and enrichment coefficient analyses, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila, and Hippophae rhamnoides with considerable biomass could be used as pollution-resistant tree species for vegetation restoration. This study provided a theoretical basis for the restoration of the ecological environment in the mining area. This report described a link between heavy metal contamination of soils and growth dynamics of woody plants in China.

  10. Monitoring and Characterizing Seasonal Drought, Water Supply Pattern and Their Impact on Vegetation Growth Using Satellite Soil Moisture Data, GRACE Water Storage and In-situ Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, G.; Velicogna, I.; Kimball, J. S.; Kim, Y.; Colliander, A.; Njoku, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    We combine soil moisture (SM) data from AMSR-E, AMSR-2 and SMAP, terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes from GRACE, in-situ groundwater measurements and atmospheric moisture data to delineate and characterize the evolution of drought and its impact on vegetation growth. GRACE TWS provides spatially continuous observations of total terrestrial water storage changes and regional drought extent, persistence and severity, while satellite derived soil moisture estimates provide enhanced delineation of plant-available soil moisture. Together these data provide complementary metrics quantifying available plant water supply. We use these data to investigate the supply changes from water components at different depth in relation to satellite based vegetation metrics, including vegetation greenness (NDVI) measures from MODIS and related higher order productivity (GPP) before, during and following the major drought events observed in the continental US for the past 14 years. We observe consistent trends and significant correlations between monthly time series of TWS, SM, NDVI and GPP. We study how changes in atmosphere moisture stress and coupling of water storage components at different depth impact on the spatial and temporal correlation between TWS, SM and vegetation metrics. In Texas, we find that surface SM and GRACE TWS agree with each other in general, and both capture the underlying water supply constraints to vegetation growth. Triggered by a transit increase in precipitation following the 2011 hydrological drought, vegetation productivity in Texas shows more sensitivity to surface SM than TWS. In the Great Plains, the correspondence between TWS and vegetation productivity is modulated by temperature-induced atmosphere moisture stress and by the coupling between surface soil moisture and groundwater through irrigation.

  11. Genotypic Characterization of Azotobacteria Isolated from Argentinean Soils and Plant-Growth-Promoting Traits of Selected Strains with Prospects for Biofertilizer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Julián Rubio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity among 31 putative Azotobacter isolates obtained from agricultural and non-agricultural soils was assessed using rep-PCR genomic fingerprinting and identified to species level by ARDRA and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. High diversity was found among the isolates, identified as A. chroococcum, A. salinestris, and A. armeniacus. Selected isolates were characterized on the basis of phytohormone biosynthesis, nitrogenase activity, siderophore production, and phosphate solubilization. Indole-3 acetic-acid (IAA, gibberellin (GA3 and zeatin (Z biosynthesis, nitrogenase activity, and siderophore production were found in all evaluated strains, with variation among them, but no phosphate solubilization was detected. Phytohormones excreted to the culture medium ranged in the following concentrations: 2.2–18.2 μg IAA mL−1, 0.3–0.7 μg GA3 mL−1, and 0.5–1.2 μg Z mL−1. Seed inoculations with further selected Azotobacter strains and treatments with their cell-free cultures increased the number of seminal roots and root hairs in wheat seedlings. This latter effect was mimicked by treatments with IAA-pure solutions, but it was not related to bacterial root colonization. Our survey constitutes a first approach to the knowledge of Azotobacter species inhabiting Argentinean soils in three contrasting geographical regions. Moreover, this phenotypic characterization constitutes an important contribution to the selection of Azotobacter strains for biofertilizer formulations.

  12. Soil characterization in urban areas of the Bajo Segura Basin (Southeast Spain) using H/V, F-K and ESAC methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa-Cintas, S.; Galiana-Merino, J. J.; Molina-Palacios, S.; Rosa-Herranz, J.; García-Fernández, M.; Jiménez, M. J.

    2011-11-01

    Bajo Segura Basin, placed in the south of Alicante province (southeast Spain), is a region of moderate seismicity, which presents frequent seismic episodes. This region, as the rest of south-eastern part of Spain, is growing both economically and demographically. Hence, the presence of soft soils in a seismic region where many towns and villages are placed shows the importance of an adequate characterization of the site effects study in this area. The present work investigates the use of noise measurements for soil characterization by the application of H/V method and array techniques: extended spatial autocorrelation (ESAC) and frequency-wave number (F-K) in three urban areas of the Bajo Segura Basin. The application of these methods will help us to estimate the resonance frequencies, as well as shear-wave velocity profiles, having a better understanding of the sediment depth and site effects phenomena at the studied places. The estimated velocity profiles are used to model the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave ellipticity curves and the S-wave site transfer functions. Finally, the correlation between this curves and the experimental H/V analysis has allowed us a better assessment of the site response in the studied areas.

  13. Cosmogenic Backgrounds to 0{\

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Feyzbakhsh, S; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Njoya, O; Nelson, R; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Retière, F; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya

    2015-01-01

    As neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments become more sensitive and intrinsic radioactivity in detector materials is reduced, previously minor contributions to the background must be understood and eliminated. With this in mind, cosmogenic backgrounds have been studied with the EXO-200 experiment. Using the EXO-200 TPC, the muon flux (through a flat horizontal surface) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been measured to be {\\Phi} = 4.07 $\\pm$ 0.14 (sys) $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, with a vertical intensity of $I_{v}$ = 2.97$^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$ (sys) $\\pm$ 0.02 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. Simulations of muon-induced backgrounds identified several potential cosmogenic radionuclides, though only 137Xe is a significant background for the 136Xe 0{\

  14. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  15. DRIFT and HR MAS NMR characterization of humic substances from a soil treated with different organic and mineral fertilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Erika; Francioso, Ornella; Nardi, Serenella; Saladini, Monica; Ferro, Nicola Dal; Morari, Francesco

    2011-07-01

    In this study, using DRIFT and HR MAS NMR, we analyzed the humic substances isolated from a soil treated, over 40 years, with different organic, mineral and organic plus mineral treatments and cultivated with maize as the main crop. As expected, the structure of humic substances was very complex but by combining both techniques (DRIFT and HR MAS NMR) additional information was obtained on aromatic and aliphatic components, the most recalcitrant parts of these macromolecules. In so doing we wanted to investigate the relationship between HS structure and long-term management practices. An elevated content of lignin, aminoacids, peptides and proteins was observed mainly for farmyard manure treatments with respect to mineral or liquid manure amendments; this supports how the different management practices have greatly influenced the humification process of cultivated soils.

  16. Method development for the characterization of transport processes of engineered nanoparticles in saturated soils with focus on silver nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Anika

    2015-01-01

    With the growing amount of production and application of engineered nanoparticles, concerns are raising regarding the fate of the potentially toxic materials in the environment. In order to assess the potential of engineered nanoparticles for migration in soils and aquifers, an experimental study and subsequent mathematical modeling were carried out with the objective of the qualitative and quantitative description of the transport and deposition processes of engineered nanoparticles in water...

  17. Applicability of Electrical and Electroanalytical Techniques to Detect Water and Characterize the Geochemistry of Undisturbed Planetary Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshadri, S.; Buehler, M. G.; Anderson, R. C.; Kuhlman, G. M.; Keymeulen, D.; Cheung, I. W.; Schaap, M. G.

    2005-01-01

    The search for life is a primary goal of NASA s planetary exploration program. The search is, of necessity, tiered in both the detection approach (looking for evidence of microbial fossils or the presence of water in the geological history of a planetary body and/or looking for evidence of water, energy sources, precursors to life, signatures of life and/or life itself in the present day planetary environment) and in the survey method (scale, range, specificity) employed. Terrestrial investigations suggests that life as we know it requires water. Thus, the search for extant microbial life and habitats requires identifying water-bearing soils. Determining Reduction-Oxidation (REDOX) couples present in water, once it is found, provides information on soil geochemistry and identifies potential chemical energy sources for life. Mars offers a near-term target for conducting this search. The identification of gully formation [1], layered deposits [2] and elemental ratios of bromine and chlorine [3] present indirect evidence that water was abundant locally in the Martian past. Additionally, Viking images of polar ice and frost formation on the surface of Mars demonstrate that water can exist in at least some near-surface regions of present-day Mars. Atmospheric pressure data further suggest that liquid water may be stable for short periods of time in the mid-latitudes of the Martian surface. [4] Measurements of the global distribution of hydrogen in the Martian regolith offer tantalizing indirect evidence that water may at least exist in near-surface soils. [5] Evidently, any water to be found is likely to exist as soil mixtures at levels ranging between approx.0.5% and approx.5 %.

  18. Two-Dimensional Porosity of Crusted Silty Soils: Indicators of Soil Quality in Semiarid Rangelands?

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the morphological characteristics of pores in soil crusts. The objective was to characterize the 2D-porosity (amount, shape, size and area of pores) of soil crusts to ascertain their potential as indicators of soil quality for natural crusted soils. 2D-porosity was described in thin sections and measured by image analysis of polished resin-impregnated soil blocks. Physical soil crust and incipient biological soil crusts appear to be the lowest-quality soil...

  19. Quick survey for detection, identification and characterization of Acanthamoeba genotypes from some selected soil and water samples across Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Tanveer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available [i]Acanthamoeba[/i] is an opportunistic protozoan pathogen which is widely distributed in nature and plays a pivotal role in ecosystem. [i]Acanthamoeba[/i] species may cause blinding keratitis and fatal granulomatous encephalitis involving central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the presence of [i]Acanthamoeba[/i] in soil and water resources of Pakistan. Here, [i]Acanthamoeba[/i] were recovered on non-nutrient agar plate lawn with [i]E.[/i] [i]coli[/i] and identified by morphological characteristics of the cyst. Furthermore PCR was performed with genus-specific primers followed by direct sequencing of the PCR product for molecular identification. Overall our PCR and sequencing results confirmed pathogenic genotypes including T4 and T15 from both soil and water samples. This is our first report of [i]Acanthamoeba[/i] isolation from both soil and water resources of Pakistan which may serve as a potential treat to human health across the country.

  20. Characterization of PBDEs in soils and vegetations near an e-waste recycling site in South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kehua Street No. 511, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kehua Street No. 511, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li Jun [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kehua Street No. 511, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yin Hua [Department of Environmental Sciences, Jinan University, Guangzhou (China); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Zhang Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kehua Street No. 511, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The concentration and composition of PBDEs in the soils and plants near a typical e-waste recycling site in South China were investigated. The total concentration of PBDEs ({Sigma}PBDEs) in soil ranged from 4.8 to 533 ng/g dry wt. The {Sigma}PBDEs in vegetation were from 2.1 to 217 ng/g dry wt. For the vegetable, the highest concentration of 19.9 ng/g dry wt. was observed in the shoot of Brassica alboglabra L. BDE 209 was the predominant congener in all samples. In comaprison with other e-waste contaminated sites in China, lower concentrations of PBDEs and higher concentrations of PCBs were observed in both soils and plants suggesting different e-waste types involved in the present study. The PBDEs contaminated vegetables around the e-waste dismantling site may pose a potential health risk to the local inhabitants. - Highlights: > PBDE levels of vegetable from e-waste site were quantified. > High concentration of PBDEs in vegetable may pose a potential risk to the consumer. > Inconsistencies of PBDEs and PCBs may suggest different e-waste types processed. > Using the single BDE 209 percentage to evaluate e-waste source is inappropriate. - E-waste recycling sites are heavily contaminated with PBDEs, which may pose a potential health risk to the local ecosystem and inhabitants.

  1. The use of sensory perception indicators for improving the characterization and modelling of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) grade in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxo, Sónia; de Almeida, José António; Matias, Filipa Vieira; Mata-Lima, Herlander; Barbosa, Sofia

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a multistep approach for creating a 3D stochastic model of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) grade in potentially polluted soils of a deactivated oil storage site by using chemical analysis results as primary or hard data and classes of sensory perception variables as secondary or soft data. First, the statistical relationship between the sensory perception variables (e.g. colour, odour and oil-water reaction) and TPH grade is analysed, after which the sensory perception variable exhibiting the highest correlation is selected (oil-water reaction in this case study). The probabilities of cells belonging to classes of oil-water reaction are then estimated for the entire soil volume using indicator kriging. Next, local histograms of TPH grade for each grid cell are computed, combining the probabilities of belonging to a specific sensory perception indicator class and conditional to the simulated values of TPH grade. Finally, simulated images of TPH grade are generated by using the P-field simulation algorithm, utilising the local histograms of TPH grade for each grid cell. The set of simulated TPH values allows several calculations to be performed, such as average values, local uncertainties and the probability of the TPH grade of the soil exceeding a specific threshold value.

  2. Family Background and Educational Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    We examine the participation in secondary and tertiary education of five cohorts of Danish males and females who were aged twenty starting in 1982 and ending in 2002. We find that the large expansion of secondary education in this period was characterized by a phenomenal increase in gymnasium...... enrollments, especially for females. Not only did the educational opportunities for individuals with disadvantaged backgrounds improve absolutely, but their relative position also improved. A similarly dramatic increase in attendance at university for the period 1985-2005 was found for these cohorts when...

  3. Biological soil crusts: a microenvironment characterized by complex microbial interrelations affected by the presence of the exopolysaccharidic matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Philippis, Roberto

    2015-04-01

    Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) are complex microbial communities, commonly found in arid and semiarid areas of the world. The capability of the microorganisms residing in BSCs to withstand the harsh environmental conditions typical of these habitats, namely drought and high solar irradiation, is related with the presence of a matrix constituted by microbial-produced extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs), which also accomplish for a wide array of key ecological roles. EPSs represent a huge carbon source directly available to heterotrophic organisms, affect soil characteristics, water regimes, and establish complex interactions with plants. The induction of BSCs on degraded soils is considered a feasible approach to amend and maintain land fertility, as it was reported in a number of recent studies. It was recently shown that BSC induction is beneficial in enhancing SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) and in increasing the abundance of phototrophic organisms and vegetation cover. This lecture will describe the results of a study showing that cyanobacterial-EPS resulted advantageous to the growth and metabolism of seedlings of Caragana korshinskii, a desert sub-shrub widely diffused in the area under study, also contributing a defensive effect against the damaging effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated under UV-irradiation, salt stress and desiccation. A study aimed at investigating the possible correlation between the chemical composition and the macromolecular features of the EPS matrix of induced BSCs of different age, collected in the hyper-arid plateau of Hobq desert, Inner Mongolia, China, will be also presented. The results of this study showed that the characteristics of the EPS of the matrix of the investigated IBSCs cannot be put only in relation with the age of the crusts and the activity of phototrophic microorganisms but, more properly, it has to be taken into account the biotic interactions ongoing between EPS producers (cyanobacteria, green microalgae

  4. Background levels of some trace elements in weathered soils from the Brazilian Northern region Valores de referência de alguns elementos-traço em solos intemperizados da região Norte brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Souza Fadigas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Soils formed from the Barreiras Group sediments, located mainly along the coast of Brazil Northern and Northeastern regions, generally present low concentrations of iron oxides and total organic carbon, high quantities of quartz in the sand fraction, and kaolinitic clay mineralogy. The objective of the present study was to quantify the pseudo total concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn and Fe in Xhantic Udox and Xhantic Udult soils derived from these sediments. The reference sites were covered by native vegetation and located in the States of Pará and Amapá, Brazil. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine correlations between soil parameters and the levels of these metals. The best correlation was obtained between Fe, Mn, clay, and silt contents, and Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni. A correlation between pH and these metal levels was not found. Clay and sand contents showed a negative inverse correlation with the metal levels,of same magnitude but with a different sign; this was the reason for excluding one of the parameters in the regression model. In general, the contents of the elements were lower than those found in soils formed from other parent materials. The Mn content was included in the model of multiple linear regression for Cd and Co, due to its association with these last metals. Silt level showed to have a significant influence in the equations for Cr and Co, which is attributed to the presence of clay minerals and Fe and Mn oxides in ferruginous and clay aggregates of silt size. The equations obtained in this paper, are useful to predict, in general terms, the amounts of those heavy metals in an unknown soil sample, if the soil material were not contaminated or affected by land usage. Thus, they may be applied to evaluate soil contamination by the studied heavy metals.Solos formados a partir de sedimentos do Grupo Barreiras apresentam, em geral, baixos teores de ferro, mineralogia caulinítica, elevadas

  5. Exploring String Theory Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, B P

    2004-01-01

    This thesis examines phenomenological and theoretical questions by exploring string theoretic backgrounds. Part I focuses on cosmology. First we propose that the induced metric along a brane moving through a curved bulk may be interpreted as the cosmology of the brane universe, providing a resolution to the apparent cosmological singularity on the brane. We then look at various decay channels of the certain meta-stable de Sitter vacua and show that there exist NS5-brane meditated decays which are much faster than decays to decompactification. Part II discusses a new class of nongeometric vacua in string theory. These backgrounds may be described locally as T2 fibrations. By enlarging the monodromy group of the fiber to include perturbative stringy duality symmetries we are able to explicitly construct nongeometric backgrounds.

  6. Cosmic Tachyon Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a background radiation of superluminal particles is investigated, based on a vectorial wave equation for tachyons of the Proca type. The partition function, the spectral energy density, and the various thermodynamic variables of an ideal Bose gas of tachyons in an open Robertson-Walker cosmology are derived. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the low temperature regime as compared to the microwave background, in particular in the caloric and thermal equations of state.

  7. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    -cultural construction of identity, and, as a matter of fact, that their role might be quite important. I argue that the DDAs are backgrounded but not peripheral, i.e. marginal or insignificant. And I introduce the notion of “contextualization cue” in this argument (Levinson, 2003a, Gumperz, 1992)....

  8. China: Background Notes Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reams, Joanne Reppert

    Concise background information on the People's Republic of China is provided. The publication begins with a profile of the country, outlining the people, geography, economy, and membership in international organizations. The bulk of the document then discusses in more detail China's people, geography, history, government, education, economy, and…

  9. Characterization and mobility of arsenic and heavy metals in soils polluted by the destruction of arsenic-containing shells from the Great War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouin, Hugues; Le Forestier, Lydie; Gautret, Pascale; Hube, Daniel; Laperche, Valérie; Dupraz, Sebastien; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne

    2016-04-15

    Destruction of chemical munitions from World War I has caused extensive local top soil contamination by arsenic and heavy metals. The biogeochemical behavior of toxic elements is poorly documented in this type of environment. Four soils were sampled presenting different levels of contamination. The range of As concentrations in the samples was 1937-72,820mg/kg. Concentrations of Zn, Cu and Pb reached 90,190mg/kg, 9113mg/kg and 5777mg/kg, respectively. The high clay content of the subsoil and large amounts of charcoal from the use of firewood during the burning process constitute an ample reservoir of metals and As-binding materials. However, SEM-EDS observations showed different forms of association for metals and As. In metal-rich grains, several phases were identified: crystalline phases, where arsenate secondary minerals were detected, and an amorphous phase rich in Fe, Zn, Cu, and As. The secondary arsenate minerals, identified by XRD, were adamite and olivenite (zinc and copper arsenates, respectively) and two pharmacosiderites. The amorphous material was the principal carrier of As and metals in the central part of the site. This singular mineral assemblage probably resulted from the heat treatment of arsenic-containing shells. Microbial characterization included total cell counts, respiration, and determination of As(III)-oxidizing activities. Results showed the presence of microorganisms actively contributing to metabolism of carbon and arsenic, even in the most polluted soil, thereby influencing the fate of bioavailable As on the site. However, the mobility of As correlated mainly with the availability of iron sinks.

  10. Diversity and characterization of culturable bacterial endophytes from Zea mays and their potential as plant growth-promoting agents in metal-degraded soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S I A; Castro, P M L

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the phylogenetic diversity of culturable bacterial endophytes of Zea mays plants growing in an agricultural soil contaminated with Zn and Cd. Endophy