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Sample records for background dust obscured

  1. Obscuration by Gas and Dust in Luminous Quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Usman, Shawn M.; Murray, Stephen S.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Brodwin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We explore the connection between absorption by neutral gas and extinction by dust in mid-infrared (IR) selected luminous quasars. We use a sample of 33 quasars at redshifts 0.7 150 counts) in Chandra observations. We divide the quasars into dust-obscured and unobscured samples based on their optical to...

  2. The Pedigrees of DOGs (Dust-Obscured Galaxies)

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Arjun

    2009-01-01

    A simple mid-infrared-to-optical color criterion of R-[24]>14 Vega mag results in a robust selection of approximately half of the redshift 2 ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) population. These `Dust-Obscured Galaxies', or DOGs, have many properties that suggest that they are good candidates for systems in a transition phase between gas-rich mergers and QSOs.

  3. The Pedigrees of DOGs (Dust-Obscured Galaxies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, A.; Ndwfs/MIPS Collaboration

    2009-10-01

    A simple mid-infrared to optical color criterion of R-[24]≥ 14 results in a robust selection of approximately half of the z˜ 2 ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) population. These `Dust-Obscured Galaxies', or DOGs, have various properties that suggest that they are good candidates for systems in a transition phase between gas-rich mergers and QSOs.

  4. OBSCURATION BY GAS AND DUST IN LUMINOUS QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the connection between absorption by neutral gas and extinction by dust in mid-infrared (IR) selected luminous quasars. We use a sample of 33 quasars at redshifts 0.7 < z ≲ 3 in the 9 deg2 Boötes multiwavelength survey field that are selected using Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera colors and are well-detected as luminous X-ray sources (with >150 counts) in Chandra observations. We divide the quasars into dust-obscured and unobscured samples based on their optical to mid-IR color, and measure the neutral hydrogen column density N H through fitting of the X-ray spectra. We find that all subsets of quasars have consistent power law photon indices Γ ≈ 1.9 that are uncorrelated with N H. We classify the quasars as gas-absorbed or gas-unabsorbed if N H > 1022 cm–2 or N H < 1022 cm–2, respectively. Of 24 dust-unobscured quasars in the sample, only one shows clear evidence for significant intrinsic N H, while 22 have column densities consistent with N H < 1022 cm–2. In contrast, of the nine dust-obscured quasars, six show evidence for intrinsic gas absorption, and three are consistent with N H < 1022 cm–2. We conclude that dust extinction in IR-selected quasars is strongly correlated with significant gas absorption as determined through X-ray spectral fitting. These results suggest that obscuring gas and dust in quasars are generally co-spatial, and confirm the reliability of simple mid-IR and optical photometric techniques for separating quasars based on obscuration

  5. A Physical Model for z~2 Dust Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, Desika; Hayward, Christopher; Cox, Thomas J; Bussmann, R Shane; Brodwin, Mark; Jonsson, Patrik; Hopkins, Philip; Groves, Brent; Younger, Joshua D; Hernquist, Lars

    2009-01-01

    We present a physical model for the origin of z~2 Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs), a class of high-redshift ULIRGs selected at 24 micron which are particularly optically faint (F24/FR>1000). By combining N-body/SPH simulations of high redshift galaxy evolution with 3D polychromatic dust radiative transfer models, we find that luminous DOGs (with F24 > 0.3 mJy at z~2) are well-modeled as extreme gas-rich mergers in massive (~5x10^12-10^13 Msun) halos, with elevated star formation rates (~500-1000 Msun/yr) and/or significant AGN growth (Mdot(BH) > 0.5 Msun/yr), whereas less luminous DOGs are more diverse in nature. Merger-driven DOGs are caught in a stage transitioning from being starburst dominated to AGN dominated, evolving from a "bump" to a power-law shaped mid-IR (IRAC) spectral energy distribution (SED). While canonically power-law galaxies are associated with being AGN-dominated, we find that the power-law mid-IR SED can owe both to direct AGN contribution, as well as to a heavily dust obscured stellar bum...

  6. Far-IR Emission From Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Calanog, J A; Fu, Hai; Cooray, A; Assef, R J; Bock, J; Casey, C M; Conley, A; Farrah, D; Ibar, E; Kartaltepe, J; Magdis, G; Marchetti, L; Oliver, S J; Perez-Fournon, I; Riechers, D; Rigopoulou, D; Roseboom, I G; Schulz, B; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, M; Vaccari, M; Viero, M; Zemcov, M

    2013-01-01

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are a UV-faint, IR-bright galaxy population that reside at z~2 and are believed to be in a phase of dusty star-forming and AGN activity. We present far-IR observations of a complete sample of DOGs in the 2 deg^2 of COSMOS. The 3077 DOGs have =1.9+/-0.3 and are selected from 24 um and r+ observations using a color cut of r+ - [24] >= 7.5 (AB mag) and S24 >= 100 uJy. Based on the mid-IR SEDs, 47% are star-formation dominated and 10% are AGN-dominated. We use SPIRE far-IR photometry from HerMES to calculate the IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature for the 1572 (51%) DOGs that are detected at 250 um (>=3sigma). For the remaining 1505 (49%) that are undetected, we perform a median stacking analysis to probe fainter luminosities. Detected and undetected DOGs have average IR luminosities of (2.8+/-0.4) x 10^12 L_Sun and (0.77+/-0.08) x 10^12L_Sun, and dust temperatures of 34+/-7 K and 31+/-3 K, respectively. Using far-IR observations, DOGs contribute 30% to the 24 um-select...

  7. DUST PROPERTIES OF LOCAL DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES WITH THE SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Andrews, Sean M.; Geller, Margaret J., E-mail: hhwang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: sandrews@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We report Submillimeter Array observations of the 880 μm dust continuum emission for four dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the local universe. Two DOGs are clearly detected with S{sub ν}(880 μm) =10-13 mJy and S/N > 5, but the other two are not detected with 3σ upper limits of S{sub ν}(880 μm) =5-9 mJy. Including an additional two local DOGs with submillimeter data from the literature, we determine the dust masses and temperatures for six local DOGs. The infrared luminosities and dust masses for these DOGs are in the ranges of 1.2-4.9 × 10{sup 11}(L{sub ☉}) and 4-14 × 10{sup 7}(M{sub ☉}), respectively. The dust temperatures derived from a two-component modified blackbody function are 23-26 K and 60-124 K for the cold and warm dust components, respectively. Comparison of local DOGs with other infrared luminous galaxies with submillimeter detections shows that the dust temperatures and masses do not differ significantly among these objects. Thus, as argued previously, local DOGs are not a distinctive population among dusty galaxies, but simply represent the high-end tail of the dust obscuration distribution.

  8. Infrared Luminosities and Dust Properties of z ~ 2 Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bussmann, R S; Borys, C; Desai, V; Jannuzi, B T; Le Floc'h, E; Melbourne, J; Sheth, K; Soifer, B T

    2009-01-01

    We present SHARC-II 350um imaging of twelve 24um-bright (F_24um > 0.8 mJy) Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) and CARMA 1mm imaging of a subset of 2 DOGs, all selected from the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Detections of 4 DOGs at 350um imply IR luminosities which are consistent within a factor of 2 of expectations based on a warm dust spectral energy distribution (SED) scaled to the observed 24um flux density. The 350um upper limits for the 8 non-detected DOGs are consistent with both Mrk231 and M82 (warm dust SEDs), but exclude cold dust (Arp220) SEDs. The two DOGs targeted at 1mm were not detected in our CARMA observations, placing strong constraints on the dust temperature: T_dust > 35-60 K. Assuming these dust properties apply to the entire sample, we find dust masses of ~3x10^8 M_sun. In comparison to other dusty z ~ 2 galaxy populations such as sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs) and other Spitzer-selected high-redshift sources, this sample of DOGs has higher IR luminosities (2x10^13 L_sun vs....

  9. Dust-Obscured Galaxies in the Local Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Ho Seong

    2013-01-01

    We use Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), AKARI, and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) data to select local analogs of high-redshift (z~2) dust obscured galaxies (DOGs). We identify 47 local DOGs with S_{12\\mu m}/S_{0.22 \\mu m}>892 and S_{12\\mu m}>20 mJy at 0.05

  10. Search for high-energy neutrinos from dust obscured Blazars

    CERN Document Server

    Maggi, G; Correa, P; Vries, K D; Gentile, G; Scholten, O; van Eijndhoven, N

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of high-energy cosmic neutrinos by the IceCube neutrino observatory opens up a new field in physics, the field of neutrino astronomy. Using the IceCube neutrino detector we plan to search for high-energy neutrinos emitted from Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), since AGN are believed to be one of the most promising sources of the most energetic cosmic rays and hence of high-energy neutrinos. We discuss a specific type of AGN which we plan to investigate in more detail with data obtained by the IceCube observatory. The main properties of the AGN category in which we are interested are given by a high-energy jet which is pointing in our line of sight defining a class of AGN, called Blazars, and in particular the ones that are obscured by surrounding dust. The jet-matter interaction is expected to give an increased high-energy neutrino production. The properties of this specific type of AGN are expected to give very distinct features in the electromagnetic spectrum, which are discussed in detail.

  11. Mildly obscured active galaxies and the cosmic X-ray background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, V.; Walter, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The diffuse cosmic X-ray background (CXB) is the sum of the emission of discrete sources, mostly massive black-holes accreting matter in active galactic nuclei (AGN). The CXB spectrum differs from the integration of the spectra of individual sources, calling for a large population, undetected so far, of strongly obscured Compton-thick AGN. Such objects are predicted by unified models, which attribute most of the AGN diversity to their inclination on the line of sight, and play an important role for the understanding of the growth of black holes in the early Universe. Aims: The percentage of strongly obscured Compton-thick AGN at low redshift can be derived from the observed CXB spectrum, if we assume AGN spectral templates and luminosity functions. Methods: We show that high signal-to-noise stacked hard X-ray spectra, derived from more than a billion seconds of effective exposure time with the Swift/BAT instrument, imply that mildly obscured Compton-thin AGN feature a strong reflection and contribute massively to the CXB. Results: A population of Compton-thick AGN larger than that which is effectively detected is not required to reproduce the CXB spectrum, since no more than 6% of the CXB flux can be attributed to them. The stronger reflection observed in mildly obscured AGN suggests that the covering factor of the gas and dust surrounding their central engines is a key factor in shaping their appearance. These mildly obscured AGN are easier to study at high redshift than Compton-thick sources are.

  12. Hot Dust Obscured Galaxies with Excess Blue Light: Dual AGN or Single AGN Under Extreme Conditions?

    CERN Document Server

    Assef, R J; Brightman, M; Stern, D; Alexander, D; Bauer, F; Blain, A W; Diaz-Santos, T; Eisenhardt, P R M; Finkelstein, S L; Hickox, R C; Tsai, C -W; Wu, J W

    2015-01-01

    Hot Dust-Obscured Galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the WISE mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures ($T>60~\\rm K$). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured AGN that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of 8 Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot D...

  13. Infrared Spectral Energy Distribution Decomposition of WISE-selected, Hyperluminous Hot Dust-obscured Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lulu; Han, Yunkun; Nikutta, Robert; Drouart, Guillaume; Knudsen, Kirsten K.

    2016-06-01

    We utilize a Bayesian approach to fit the observed mid-IR-to-submillimeter/millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 22 WISE-selected and submillimeter-detected, hyperluminous hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs), with spectroscopic redshift ranging from 1.7 to 4.6. We compare the Bayesian evidence of a torus plusgraybody (Torus+GB) model with that of a torus-only (Torus) model and find that the Torus+GB model has higher Bayesian evidence for all 22 Hot DOGs than the torus-only model, which presents strong evidence in favor of the Torus+GB model. By adopting the Torus+GB model, we decompose the observed IR SEDs of Hot DOGs into torus and cold dust components. The main results are as follows. (1) Hot DOGs in our submillimeter-detected sample are hyperluminous ({L}{IR}≥slant {10}13{L}ȯ ), with torus emission dominating the IR energy output. However, cold dust emission is non-negligible, contributing on average ˜ 24% of total IR luminosity. (2) Compared to QSO and starburst SED templates, the median SED of Hot DOGs shows the highest luminosity ratio between mid-IR and submillimeter at rest frame, while it is very similar to that of QSOs at ˜ 10{--}50 μ {{m}}, suggesting that the heating sources of Hot DOGs should be buried AGNs. (3) Hot DOGs have high dust temperatures ({T}{dust}˜ 72 K) and high IR luminosity of cold dust. The {T}{dust}{--}{L}{IR} relation of Hot DOGs suggests that the increase in IR luminosity for Hot DOGs is mostly due to the increase of the dust temperature, rather than dust mass. Hot DOGs have lower dust masses than submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) and QSOs within a similar redshift range. Both high IR luminosity of cold dust and relatively low dust mass in Hot DOGs can be expected by their relatively high dust temperatures. (4) Hot DOGs have high dust-covering factors (CFs), which deviate from the previously proposed trend of the dust CF decreasing with increasing bolometric luminosity. Finally, we can reproduce the observed

  14. Infrared spectral energy distribution decomposition of WISE-selected, hyperluminous hot dust-obscured galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Lulu; Nikutta, Robert; Drouart, Guillaume; Knudsen, Kirsten K

    2016-01-01

    We utilize a Bayesian approach to fit the observed mid-IR-to-submm/mm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 22 WISE-selected and submm-detected, hyperluminous hot dust-obscured galaxies. By adopting the Torus+GB model, we decompose the observed IR SEDs of Hot DOGs into torus and cold dust components. The main results are: 1) Hot DOGs in our submm-detected sample are hyperluminous, with torus emission dominating the IR energy output. However, cold dust emission is non-negligible, averagely contributing ~24% of total IR luminosity. 2) Compared to QSO and starburst SED templates, the median SED of Hot DOGs shows the highest luminosity ratio between mid-IR and submm at rest-frame, while it is very similar to that of QSOs at 10-50um suggesting that the heating sources of Hot DOGs should be buried AGNs. 3) Hot DOGs have both high dust temperatures ~73K and IR luminosity of cold dust. The T-L relation of Hot DOGs suggests that the increase in IR luminosity for Hot DOGs is mostly due to the increase of the dust tem...

  15. A Submillimeter Survey of Dust Continuum Emission in Local Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Chul; Hwang, Ho Seong; Lee, Gwang-Ho

    2015-08-01

    Dusty star-forming galaxies are responsible for the bulk of cosmic star formation at 1DOGs) with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory and the Submillimeter Array to study their dust properties. We determine the dust masses and temperatures for 16 local DOGs from the SED fit, and compare them with other dusty galaxies to understand a possible evolutionary link among them.

  16. Probing dust-obscured star formation in the most massive Gamma-Ray Burst host galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, Jochen; Klose, Sylvio; Hunt, Leslie K; Gentile, Gianfranco; Kamphuis, Peter; Herrero-Illana, Ruben; Wieringa, Mark; Krühler, Thomas; Schady, Patricia; Elliott, Jonathan; Graham, John F; Ibar, Eduardo; Knust, Fabian; Guelbenzu, Ana Nicuesa; Palazzi, Eliana; Rossi, Andrea; Savaglio, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Due to their relation to massive stars, long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) allow pinpointing star formation in galaxies independently of redshift, dust obscuration, or galaxy mass/size, thus providing a unique tool to investigate the star-formation history over cosmic time. About half of the optical afterglows of long-duration GRBs are missed due to dust extinction, and are primarily located in the most massive GRB hosts. In order to understand this bias it is important to investigate the amount of obscured star-formation in these GRB host galaxies. Radio emission of galaxies correlates with star-formation, but does not suffer extinction as do the optical star-formation estimators. We selected 11 GRB host galaxies with either large stellar mass or large UV-/optical-based star-formation rates (SFRs) and obtained radio observations of these with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array. Despite intentionally selecting GRB hosts with expected high SFRs, we do not find any sta...

  17. Dust to Dust: Monitoring the Evolution of a New Class of Self-Obscured Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, Christopher; Adams, Scott

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this proposal is to understand a new class of explosive transients associated with the most massive AGB stars. Today these sources are true creatures of the mid-IR, being optically invisible and very faint in the near-IR. By coarsely monitoring them with Spitzer and HST we can examine the evolution of the luminosity, dust optical depth and dust radius/temperature at a key time when their observed fluxes are approaching those of the two known progenitors. At its very simplest, if they do not stop fading in the mid-IR or start to brighten in the near-IR, then they are almost certainly examples of the theoretically expected but observationally missing electron capture supernovae (ecSNe). The exciting result from Cycle 11 is that the sources continued to fade and two are clearly substantially fainter than their progenitors. If this continues in Cycle 13, the ecSNe interpretation becomes far stronger.

  18. Interferometric Follow-Up of WISE Hyper-Luminous Hot, Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jingwen; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Petric, Andreea; Blain, Andrew; Eisenhardt, Peter R M; Bridge, Carrie R; Benford, Dominic J; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J; Gelino, Christopher R; Moustakas, Leonidas; Wright, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    WISE has discovered an extraordinary population of hyper-luminous dusty galaxies which are faint in the two bluer passbands ($3.4\\, \\mu$m and $4.6\\, \\mu$m) but are bright in the two redder passbands of WISE ($12\\, \\mu$m and $22\\, \\mu$m). We report on initial follow-up observations of three of these hot, dust-obscured galaxies, or Hot DOGs, using the CARMA and SMA interferometer arrays at submm/mm wavelengths. We report continuum detections at $\\sim$ 1.3 mm of two sources (WISE J014946.17+235014.5 and WISE J223810.20+265319.7, hereafter W0149+2350 and W2238+2653, respectively), and upper limits to CO line emission at 3 mm in the observed frame for two sources (W0149+2350 and WISE J181417.29+341224.8, hereafter W1814+3412). The 1.3 mm continuum images have a resolution of 1-2 arcsec and are consistent with single point sources. We estimate the masses of cold dust are 2.0$\\times 10^{8} M_{\\odot}$ for W0149+2350 and 3.9$\\times 10^{8} M_{\\odot}$ for W2238+2653, comparable to cold dust masses of luminous quasars. W...

  19. The most-luminous heavily-obscured quasars have a high merger fraction: morphological study of WISE-selected hot dust-obscured galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Lulu; Fang, Guanwen; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qiaoqian; Yang, Jun; Li, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that WISE-selected hyperluminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are powered by highly dust-obscured, possibly Compton-thick AGNs. High obscuration provides us a good chance to study the host morphology of the most luminous AGNs directly. We analyze the host morphology of 18 Hot DOGs at $z\\sim3$ using Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging. We find that Hot DOGs have a high merger fraction ($62\\pm 14 \\%$). By fitting the surface brightness profiles, we find that the distribution of S\\'ersic indices in our Hot DOG sample peaks around 2, which suggests that most of Hot DOGs have transforming morphologies. We also derive the AGN bolometric luminosity ($\\sim10^{14}L_\\odot$) of our Hot DOG sample by using IR SEDs decomposition. The derived merger fraction and AGN bolometric luminosity relation is well consistent with the variability-based model prediction (Hickox et al. 2014). Both the high merger fraction in IR-luminous AGN sample and relatively low merger fraction in UV/optical-se...

  20. The Most Luminous Heavily Obscured Quasars Have a High Merger Fraction: Morphological Study of WISE-selected Hot Dust-obscured Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lulu; Han, Yunkun; Fang, Guanwen; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qiaoqian; Yang, Jun; Li, Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer-selected hyperluminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are powered by highly dust-obscured, possibly Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs). High obscuration provides us a good chance to study the host morphology of the most luminous AGNs directly. We analyze the host morphology of 18 Hot DOGs at z ∼ 3 using Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging. We find that Hot DOGs have a high merger fraction (62 ± 14%). By fitting the surface brightness profiles, we find that the distribution of Sérsic indices in our Hot DOG sample peaks around 2, which suggests that most Hot DOGs have transforming morphologies. We also derive the AGN bolometric luminosity (∼1014 L ⊙) of our Hot DOG sample by using IR spectral energy distributions decomposition. The derived merger fraction and AGN bolometric luminosity relation is well consistent with the variability-based model prediction. Both the high merger fraction in an IR-luminous AGN sample and relatively low merger fraction in a UV/optical-selected, unobscured AGN sample can be expected in the merger-driven evolutionary model. Finally, we conclude that Hot DOGs are merger-driven and may represent a transit phase during the evolution of massive galaxies, transforming from the dusty starburst-dominated phase to the unobscured QSO phase.

  1. Mildly obscured active galaxies and the cosmic X-ray background

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Valentino

    2016-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic X-ray background (CXB) is the sum of the emission of discrete sources, mostly massive black-holes accreting matter in active galactic nuclei (AGN). The CXB spectrum differs from the integration of the spectra of individual sources, calling for a large population, undetected so far, of strongly obscured Compton thick AGN. Such objects are predicted by unified models, which attribute most of the AGN diversity to their inclination on the line of sight, and play an important role for the understanding of the growth of black holes in the early Universe. The fraction of obscured AGN at low redshift can be derived from the observed CXB spectrum assuming AGN spectral templates and luminosity functions. We show that high signal-to-noise average hard X-ray spectra, derived from more than a billion seconds of effective exposure time with the Swift/BAT instrument, imply that mildly obscured Compton thin AGN feature a strong reflection and contribute massively to the CXB. A population of Compton thick A...

  2. Gigamasers the key to the dust-obscured star-formation history of the Universe?

    CERN Document Server

    Townsend, R; Smail, I; Blain, A W; Frayer, D T; Townsend, Richard; Ivison, Rob; Smail, Ian; Blain, Andrew; Frayer, David

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of using OH and H2O gigamasers to trace the redshift distribution of luminous, dust-obscured, star-forming galaxies. It has long been thought that ultraluminous, interacting galaxies should host gigamasers due to their vast pumping infrared luminosity, the large column density of molecules available to populate the maser states and the turbulent motion of the gas in these dynamically complex systems which allows unsaturated maser emission. OH masers may thus be well-suited to the redshift-blind detection of ultraluminous and hyperluminous infrared galaxies (L_FIR > 10^12 L_sun) such as those uncovered by the SCUBA submillimetre camera. The bandwidth requirement is low, <1 GHz for z=1-10 (lower still if additional redshift constraints are available) and the dual-line 1665-/1667-MHz OH spectral signature can act as a check on the reality of detections.

  3. Star formation at high redshift and the importance of dust obscuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalowski, Michal

    dust obscuration. My analysis is based on two samples of galaxies,which have been confirmed to be associated with recent star formation, namely gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies and submillimeterselected galaxies (SMGs). For GRB hosts the long-wavelength data are scarce, so I have started a large......One of the aspects of the understanding of the Universe evolution is its star formation history. In order to gain a complete picture of the Universe evolution it is important to know when the stars we see today were formed. One of the method to study this problem is to use far-infrared and radio...... observing program targeting these galaxies at the radio wavelengths. The obtained data are analysed simultaneously together with the literature data by means of spectral energy distribution (SED) modelling. I use the radiative transfer code called GRASIL, which calculates the entire UV-to-radio SED of a...

  4. STAR FORMATION AND DUST OBSCURATION AT z ∼ 2: GALAXIES AT THE DAWN OF DOWNSIZING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present first results of a study aimed to constrain the star formation rate (SFR) and dust content of galaxies at z ∼ 2. We use a sample of BzK-selected star-forming galaxies, drawn from the Cosmic Evolution Survey, to perform a stacking analysis of their 1.4 GHz radio continuum as a function of different stellar population properties, after cleaning the sample from contamination by active galactic nuclei. Dust unbiased SFRs are derived from radio fluxes assuming the local radio-IR correlation. The main results of this work are: (1) specific star formation rate (SSFR)s are constant over about 1 dex in stellar mass and up to the highest stellar mass probed, (2) the dust attenuation is a strong function of galaxy stellar mass with more massive galaxies being more obscured than lower mass objects, (3) a single value of the UV extinction applied to all galaxies would lead to a gross underestimate of the SFR in massive galaxies, (4) correcting the observed UV luminosities for dust attenuation based on the Calzetti recipe provides results in very good agreement with the radio derived ones, (5) the mean SSFR of our sample steadily decreases by a factor of ∼4 with decreasing redshift from z = 2.3 to 1.4 and a factor of ∼40 down the local universe. These empirical SFRs would cause galaxies to dramatically overgrow in mass if maintained all the way to low redshifts; we suggest that this does not happen because star formation is progressively quenched, likely starting from the most massive galaxies.

  5. Implications of an Obscured AGN Model for the X-ray Background at Sub-mm and Far Infra-Red Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Gunn, K F

    1999-01-01

    Models invoking large populations of obscured AGN are known to provide good fits to the spectrum of the X-ray background and the observed soft and hard X-ray number counts. An important consequence of these models is that significant quantities of dust are required in order to provide the obscuring medium, which will be heated by the nuclear radiation from the AGN, and will radiate in the thermal infra-red. We therefore model the properties of the dust, and predict the contribution of obscured AGN to the intensity of the far infra-red background and the sub-mm source counts and redshift distribution, in order to ascertain whether our models are constrained further by the data available at these wavelengths. Our conservative models predict a contribution of between 5 and 15 per cent of the far infra-red background intensity, whereas if we use more extreme values for several parameters, this value may reach 33 per cent. This suggests that AGN may only form a significant minority of sub-mm sources, in agreement ...

  6. Gas and dust in a z=2.8 obscured quasar

    CERN Document Server

    Schumacher, Hana; Lacy, Mark; Rawlings, Steve; Schinnerer, Eva

    2012-01-01

    We present new detections of the CO(5-4), CO(7-6), [CI](1-0) and [CI](2-1) molecular and atomic line transitions towards the unlensed, obscured quasar AMS12 (z=2.7672), observed with the IRAM PdBI. This is the first unlensed, high redshift source to have both [CI] transitions detected. Continuum measurements between 70 $\\mu$m and 3 mm are used to constrain the FIR SED, and we find a best fit FIR luminosity of log[Lfir/Lsol] = 13.5+/-0.1, dust temperature T_d = 88+/-8 K and emissivity index {\\beta} = 0.6+/-0.1. The highly-excited molecular gas probed by CO(3-2), (5-4) and (7-6), is modelled with large velocity gradient (LVG) models. The gas kinetic temperature T_g, density n(H2), and the characteristic size r0, are determined using the dust temperature from the FIR SED as a prior for the gas temperature. The best fitting parameters are T_g = 90+/-8 K, n(H2) = 10^(3.9+/-0.1) cm^(-3) and r0 = 0.8+/-0.04 kpc. The ratio of the [CI] lines gives a [CI] excitation temperature of 43+/-10 K, indicating the [CI] and the...

  7. Half of the Most Luminous Quasars May Be Obscured: Investigating the Nature of WISE-Selected Hot, Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Assef, Roberto J; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Wu, Jingwen; Wylezalek, Dominika; Blain, Andrew W; Bridge, Carrie R; Donoso, Emilio; Gonzales, Alexandria; Griffith, Roger L; Jarrett, Thomas H

    2014-01-01

    The WISE mission has unveiled a rare population of high-redshift ($z=1-4.6$), dusty, hyper-luminous galaxies, with infrared luminosities $L_{\\rm IR} > 10^{13}~L_{\\odot}$, and sometimes exceeding $10^{14}~L_{\\odot}$. Previous work has shown that their dust temperatures and overall far-IR SEDs are significantly hotter than expected for star-formation. We present here an analysis of the rest-frame optical through mid-IR SEDs for a large sample of these so-called "Hot, Dust-Obscured Galaxies" (Hot DOGs). We find that the SEDs of Hot DOGs are generally well modeled by the combination of a luminous, yet obscured AGN that dominates the rest-frame emission at $\\lambda > 1\\mu\\rm m$ and the bolometric luminosity output, and a less luminous host galaxy that is responsible for the bulk of the rest optical/UV emission. Even though the stellar mass of the host galaxies may be as large as $10^{11}-10^{12}~M_{\\odot}$, the AGN emission, with luminosities comparable to those of the most luminous QSOs known, require that either...

  8. Half of the Most Luminous Quasars May Be Obscured: Investigating the Nature of WISE-Selected Hot Dust-Obscured Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assef, R. J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Stern, D.; Tsai, C.-W.; Wu, J.; Wylezalek, D.; Blain, A. W.; Bridge, C. R.; Donoso, E.; Gonzales, A.; Griffith, R. L.; Jarrett, T. H.

    2015-05-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission has unveiled a rare population of high-redshift (z = 1-4.6), dusty, hyper-luminous galaxies, with infrared luminosities {{L}IR}\\gt {{10}13} {{L}⊙ }, and sometimes exceeding {{10}14} {{L}⊙ }. Previous work has shown that their dust temperatures and overall far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) are significantly hotter than expected to be powered by star formation. We present here an analysis of the rest-frame optical through mid-infrared SEDs for a large sample of these so-called “hot, dust-obscured galaxies” (Hot DOGs). We find that the SEDs of Hot DOGs are generally well modeled by the combination of a luminous, yet obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that dominates the rest-frame emission at λ \\gt 1 μ m and the bolometric luminosity output, and a less luminous host galaxy that is responsible for the bulk of the rest optical/UV emission. Even though the stellar mass of the host galaxies may be as large as 1011-1012 M⊙, the AGN emission, with a range of luminosities comparable to those of the most luminous QSOs known, require that either Hot DOGs have black hole masses significantly in excess of the local relations, or that they radiate significantly above the Eddington limit, at a level at least 10 times more efficiently than z ˜ 2 QSOs. We show that, while rare, the number density of Hot DOGs is comparable to that of equally luminous but unobscured (i.e., Type 1) QSOs. This may be at odds with the trend suggested at lower luminosities for the fraction of obscured AGNs to decrease with increasing luminosity. That trend may, instead, reverse at higher luminosities. Alternatively, Hot DOGs may not be the torus-obscured counterparts of the known optically selected, largely unobscured, hyper-luminous QSOs, and may represent a new component of the galaxy evolution paradigm. Finally, we discuss the environments of Hot DOGs and statistically show that these objects are in regions as dense as

  9. Search for Hyper Infrared-Luminous Dust Obscured Galaxies selected with WISE and SDSS

    CERN Document Server

    Toba, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    We aim to search for hyperliminous infrared (IR) galaxies (HyLIRGs) with IR luminosity $L_{{\\rm IR}}$ $>$ 10$^{13}$ $L_{\\odot}$ by applying the selection method of Dust Obscured Galaxies (DOGs). They are spatially rare but could correspond to a maximum phase of cosmic star formation and/or active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity, hence they are a crucial population for understanding the star formation and mass assembly history of galaxies. Combining the optical and IR catalogs obtained from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we performed the extensive HyLIRGs survey; we selected 5,311 IR-bright DOGs with $i$ -- [22] $>$ 7.0 and flux at 22 $\\mu$m $>$ 3.8 mJy in 14,555 deg$^2$, where $i$ and [22] are $i$-band and 22 $\\mu$m AB magnitudes, respectively. Among them, 67 DOGs have reliable spectroscopic redshifts that enable us to estimate their total IR luminosity based on the SED fitting. Consequently, we successfully discovered 24 HyLIRGs among the 67 spectroscopically-...

  10. X-ray observations of dust obscured galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South

    CERN Document Server

    Corral, A; Comastri, A; Ranalli, P; Akylas, A; Salvato, M; Lanzuisi, G; Vignali, C; Koutoulidis, L

    2016-01-01

    We present the properties of X-ray detected dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Chandra Deep Field South. In recent years, it has been proposed that a significant percentage of the elusive Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) could be hidden among DOGs. In a previous work, we presented the properties of X-ray detected DOGs by making use of the deepest X-ray observations available at that time, the 2Ms observations of the Chandra deep fields. In that work, we only found a moderate percentage ($<$ 50%) of CT AGN among the DOGs sample, but we were limited by poor photon statistics. In this paper, we use not only a deeper 6 Ms Chandra survey of the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), but combine these data with the 3 Ms XMM-Newton survey of the CDF-S. We also take advantage of the great coverage of the CDF-S region from the UV to the far-IR to fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our sources. Out of the 14 AGN composing our sample, 9 are highly absorbed (but only 3 could be CT AGN), wherea...

  11. Morphologies of High Redshift, Dust Obscured Galaxies from Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Melbourne, J; Armus, Lee; Dey, Arjun; Brand, K; Thompson, D; Soifer, B T; Matthews, K; Jannuzi, B T; Houck, J R

    2008-01-01

    Spitzer MIPS images in the Bootes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey have revealed a class of extremely dust obscured galaxy (DOG) at z~2. The DOGs are defined by very red optical to mid-IR (observed-frame) colors, R - [24 um] > 14 mag, i.e. f_v (24 um) / f_v (R) > 1000. They are Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxies with L_8-1000 um > 10^12 -10^14 L_sun, but typically have very faint optical (rest-frame UV) fluxes. We imaged three DOGs with the Keck Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics (LGSAO) system, obtaining ~0.06'' resolution in the K'-band. One system was dominated by a point source, while the other two were clearly resolved. Of the resolved sources, one can be modeled as a exponential disk system. The other is consistent with a de Vaucouleurs profile typical of elliptical galaxies. The non-parametric measures of their concentration and asymmetry, show the DOGs to be both compact and smooth. The AO images rule out double nuclei with separations of greater than 0.1'' (< 1 kpc at z=2), making it unlikely ...

  12. HST Morphologies of z~2 Dust Obscured Galaxies I: Power-law Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bussmann, R S; Lotz, J; Armus, L; Brand, K; Brown, M J I; Desai, V; Eisenhardt, P; Higdon, J; Higdon, S; Jannuzi, B T; Le Floc'h, E; Melbourne, J; Soifer, B T; Weedman, D

    2008-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution optical and near-infrared imaging obtained using the ACS, WFPC2 and NICMOS cameras aboard the Hubble Space Telescope of 31 24um--bright z~2 Dust Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) identified in the Bootes Field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Although this subset of DOGs have mid-IR spectral energy distributions dominated by a power-law component suggestive of an AGN, all but one of the galaxies are spatially extended and not dominated by an unresolved component at rest-frame UV or optical wavelengths. The observed V-H and I-H colors of the extended components are 0.2-3 magnitudes redder than normal star-forming galaxies. All but 1 have axial ratios >0.3, making it unlikely that DOGs are composed of an edge-on star-forming disk. We model the spatially extended component of the surface brightness distributions of the DOGs with a Sersic profile and find effective radii of 1-6 kpc. This sample of DOGs is smaller than most sub-millimeter galaxies (SMGs), but larger than quiescent high...

  13. High Redshift Dust Obscured Galaxies, A Morphology-SED Connection Revealed by Keck Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Melbourne, J; Brand, K; Desai, V; Armus, L; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, B T; Houck, J R; Matthews, K; Soifer, B T

    2009-01-01

    A simple optical to mid-IR color selection, R-[24] > 14, i.e. f_nu(24) / f_nu(R) > 1000, identifies highly dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) with typical redshifts of z~2 +/- 0.5. Extreme mid-IR luminosities (L_{IR} > 10^{12-14}) suggest that DOGs are powered by a combination of AGN and star formation, possibly driven by mergers. In an effort to compare their photometric properties with their rest frame optical morphologies, we obtained high spatial resolution (0.05 -0.1") Keck Adaptive Optics (AO) K'-band images of 15 DOGs. The images reveal a wide range of morphologies, including: small exponential disks (8 of 15), small ellipticals (4 of 15), and unresolved sources (2 of 15). One particularly diffuse source could not be classified because of low signal to noise ratio. We find a statistically significant correlation between galaxy concentration and mid-IR luminosity, with the most luminous DOGs exhibiting higher concentration and smaller physical size. DOGs with high concentration also tend to have spectral ene...

  14. HerMES: The Far-infrared Emission from Dust-obscured Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calanog, J. A.; Wardlow, J.; Fu, Hai; Cooray, A.; Assef, R. J.; Bock, J.; Casey, C. M.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Ibar, E.; Kartaltepe, J.; Magdis, G.; Marchetti, L.; Oliver, S. J.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Riechers, D.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Schulz, B.; Scott, Douglas; Symeonidis, M.; Vaccari, M.; Viero, M.; Zemcov, M.

    2013-09-01

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are an ultraviolet-faint, infrared-bright galaxy population that reside at z ~ 2 and are believed to be in a phase of dusty star-forming and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. We present far-infrared (far-IR) observations of a complete sample of DOGs in the 2 deg2 of the Cosmic Evolution Survey. The 3077 DOGs have langzrang = 1.9 ± 0.3 and are selected from 24 μm and r + observations using a color cut of r + - [24] >= 7.5 (AB mag) and S 24 >= 100 μJy. Based on the near-IR spectral energy distributions, 47% are bump DOGs (star formation dominated) and 10% are power-law DOGs (AGN-dominated). We use SPIRE far-IR photometry from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey to calculate the IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature for the 1572 (51%) DOGs that are detected at 250 μm (>=3σ). For the remaining 1505 (49%) that are undetected, we perform a median stacking analysis to probe fainter luminosities. Herschel-detected and undetected DOGs have average luminosities of (2.8 ± 0.4) × 1012 L ⊙ and (0.77 ± 0.08) × 1012 L ⊙, and dust temperatures of (33 ± 7) K and (37 ± 5) K, respectively. The IR luminosity function for DOGs with S 24 >= 100 μJy is calculated, using far-IR observations and stacking. DOGs contribute 10%-30% to the total star formation rate (SFR) density of the universe at z = 1.5-2.5, dominated by 250 μm detected and bump DOGs. For comparison, DOGs contribute 30% to the SFR density for all z = 1.5-2.5 galaxies with S 24 >= 100 μJy. DOGs have a large scatter about the star formation main sequence and their specific SFRs show that the observed phase of star formation could be responsible for their total observed stellar mass at z ~ 2.

  15. HerMES: THE FAR-INFRARED EMISSION FROM DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are an ultraviolet-faint, infrared-bright galaxy population that reside at z ∼ 2 and are believed to be in a phase of dusty star-forming and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. We present far-infrared (far-IR) observations of a complete sample of DOGs in the 2 deg2 of the Cosmic Evolution Survey. The 3077 DOGs have (z) = 1.9 ± 0.3 and are selected from 24 μm and r + observations using a color cut of r + – [24] ≥ 7.5 (AB mag) and S24 ≥ 100 μJy. Based on the near-IR spectral energy distributions, 47% are bump DOGs (star formation dominated) and 10% are power-law DOGs (AGN-dominated). We use SPIRE far-IR photometry from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey to calculate the IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature for the 1572 (51%) DOGs that are detected at 250 μm (≥3σ). For the remaining 1505 (49%) that are undetected, we perform a median stacking analysis to probe fainter luminosities. Herschel-detected and undetected DOGs have average luminosities of (2.8 ± 0.4) × 1012 L☉ and (0.77 ± 0.08) × 1012 L☉, and dust temperatures of (33 ± 7) K and (37 ± 5) K, respectively. The IR luminosity function for DOGs with S24 ≥ 100 μJy is calculated, using far-IR observations and stacking. DOGs contribute 10%-30% to the total star formation rate (SFR) density of the universe at z = 1.5-2.5, dominated by 250 μm detected and bump DOGs. For comparison, DOGs contribute 30% to the SFR density for all z = 1.5-2.5 galaxies with S24 ≥ 100 μJy. DOGs have a large scatter about the star formation main sequence and their specific SFRs show that the observed phase of star formation could be responsible for their total observed stellar mass at z ∼ 2

  16. HerMES: THE FAR-INFRARED EMISSION FROM DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calanog, J. A.; Wardlow, J.; Fu, Hai; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Assef, R. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bock, J.; Riechers, D.; Schulz, B. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Casey, C. M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Farrah, D.; Oliver, S. J.; Roseboom, I. G. [Astronomy Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Ibar, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Magdis, G.; Rigopoulou, D. [Department of Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Marchetti, L. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Pérez-Fournon, I. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); and others

    2013-09-20

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are an ultraviolet-faint, infrared-bright galaxy population that reside at z ∼ 2 and are believed to be in a phase of dusty star-forming and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. We present far-infrared (far-IR) observations of a complete sample of DOGs in the 2 deg{sup 2} of the Cosmic Evolution Survey. The 3077 DOGs have (z) = 1.9 ± 0.3 and are selected from 24 μm and r {sup +} observations using a color cut of r {sup +} – [24] ≥ 7.5 (AB mag) and S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy. Based on the near-IR spectral energy distributions, 47% are bump DOGs (star formation dominated) and 10% are power-law DOGs (AGN-dominated). We use SPIRE far-IR photometry from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey to calculate the IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature for the 1572 (51%) DOGs that are detected at 250 μm (≥3σ). For the remaining 1505 (49%) that are undetected, we perform a median stacking analysis to probe fainter luminosities. Herschel-detected and undetected DOGs have average luminosities of (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 12} L{sub ☉} and (0.77 ± 0.08) × 10{sup 12} L{sub ☉}, and dust temperatures of (33 ± 7) K and (37 ± 5) K, respectively. The IR luminosity function for DOGs with S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy is calculated, using far-IR observations and stacking. DOGs contribute 10%-30% to the total star formation rate (SFR) density of the universe at z = 1.5-2.5, dominated by 250 μm detected and bump DOGs. For comparison, DOGs contribute 30% to the SFR density for all z = 1.5-2.5 galaxies with S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy. DOGs have a large scatter about the star formation main sequence and their specific SFRs show that the observed phase of star formation could be responsible for their total observed stellar mass at z ∼ 2.

  17. Interferometric follow-up of WISE hyper-luminous hot, dust-obscured galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bussmann, R. Shane [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Petric, Andreea [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Blain, Andrew [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Bridge, Carrie R. [Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Benford, Dominic J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av., Santiago, Ejército Libertador 441 (Chile); Gelino, Christopher R., E-mail: jingwen@astro.ucla.edu [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-20

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has discovered an extraordinary population of hyper-luminous dusty galaxies that are faint in the two bluer passbands (3.4 μm and 4.6 μm) but are bright in the two redder passbands of WISE (12 μm and 22 μm). We report on initial follow-up observations of three of these hot, dust-obscured galaxies, or Hot DOGs, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy and the Submillimeter Array interferometer arrays at submillimeter/millimeter wavelengths. We report continuum detections at ∼1.3 mm of two sources (WISE J014946.17+235014.5 and WISE J223810.20+265319.7, hereafter W0149+2350 and W2238+2653, respectively), and upper limits to CO line emission at 3 mm in the observed frame for two sources (W0149+2350 and WISE J181417.29+341224.8, hereafter W1814+3412). The 1.3 mm continuum images have a resolution of 1''-2'' and are consistent with single point sources. We estimate the masses of cold dust are 2.0 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} for W0149+2350 and 3.9 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} for W2238+2653, comparable to cold dust masses of luminous quasars. We obtain 2σ upper limits to the molecular gas masses traced by CO, which are 3.3 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and 2.3 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} for W0149+2350 and W1814+3412, respectively. We also present high-resolution, near-IR imaging with the WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope for W0149+2653 and with NIRC2 on Keck for W2238+2653. The near-IR images show morphological structure dominated by a single, centrally condensed source with effective radius less than 4 kpc. No signs of gravitational lensing are evident.

  18. Dust and gas obscuration in ELAIS Deep X-ray Survey reddened quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Willott, Chris J.; Simpson, Chris; Almaini, Omar; Johnson, Olivia; Lawrence, Andrew; Dunlop, James S.; Roche, Nathan D.; Mann, Robert G.; Manners, James C.; González-Solares, Eduardo; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Ivison, Rob J; Serjeant, Stephen; Oliver, Seb J.; McMahon, Richard G.

    2004-01-01

    Hard X-ray surveys have uncovered a large population of heavily obscured AGN. They also reveal a population of quasars with moderate obscuration at both visible and X-ray wavelengths. We use Chandra selected samples of quasars from the ELAIS Deep X-ray Survey (EDXS) and CDF-N to investigate the obscuration towards the nuclei of moderately obscured AGN. We find an inverse correlation between the optical to X-ray flux ratio and the X-ray hardness ratio which can be interpreted as due to obscura...

  19. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE MORPHOLOGIES OF z ∼ 2 DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES. I. POWER-LAW SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high-spatial resolution optical and near-infrared imaging obtained using the ACS, WFPC2, and NICMOS cameras aboard the Hubble Space Telescope of 31 24 μm bright z ∼ 2 Dust Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) identified in the Booetes Field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Although this subset of DOGs have mid-IR spectral energy distributions dominated by a power-law component suggestive of an AGN, all but one of the galaxies are spatially extended and not dominated by an unresolved component at rest-frame UV or optical wavelengths. The observed V - H and I-H colors of the extended components are 0.2-3 magnitudes redder than normal star-forming galaxies. All but one have axial ratios >0.3, making it unlikely that DOGs are composed of an edge-on star-forming disk. We model the spatially extended component of the surface brightness distributions of the DOGs with a Sersic profile and find effective radii of 1-6 kpc. This sample of DOGs is smaller than most submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), but larger than quiescent high-redshift galaxies. Nonparametric measures (Gini and M20) of DOG morphologies suggest that these galaxies are more dynamically relaxed than local ULIRGs. We estimate lower limits to the stellar masses of DOGs based on the rest-frame optical photometry and find that these range from ∼109-1011 M sun. If major mergers are the progenitors of DOGs, then these observations suggest that DOGs may represent a postmerger evolutionary stage.

  20. Search for Hyperluminous Infrared Dust-obscured Galaxies Selected with WISE and SDSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Y.; Nagao, T.

    2016-03-01

    We aim to search for hyperluminous infrared (IR) galaxies (HyLIRGs) with IR luminosity {L}{{IR}} > 1013 L⊙ by applying the selection method of dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs). They are spatially rare but could correspond to a maximum phase of cosmic star formation (SF) and/or active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity hence, they are a crucial population for understanding the SF and mass assembly history of galaxies. Combining the optical and IR catalogs obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we performed the extensive HyLIRGs survey; we selected 5311 IR-bright DOGs with i - [22] > 7.0 and flux at 22 μm > 3.8 mJy in 14,555 deg2, where i and [22] are i-band and 22 μm AB magnitudes, respectively. Among them, 67 DOGs have reliable spectroscopic redshifts that enable us to estimate their total IR luminosity based on the spectral energy distribution fitting. Consequently, we successfully discovered 24 HyLIRGs among the 67 spectroscopically confirmed DOGs. We found that (i) i - [22] color of IR-bright DOGs correlates with the total IR luminosity and (ii) the surface number density of HyLIRGs is >0.17 deg-2. A large fraction (˜73%) of IR-bright DOGs with i - [22] > 7.5 show {L}{{IR}} > 1013 L⊙, and the DOG criterion we adopted could be independently effective against the “W1W2-dropout method,” based on four WISE bands, for searching hyperluminous IR populations of galaxies.

  1. Dust and gas obscuration in ELAIS Deep X-ray Survey reddened quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Willott, C J; Almaini, O; Johnson, O; Lawrence, A; Dunlop, J S; Roche, N D; Mann, R G; Manners, J C; González-Solares, E A; Pérez-Fournon, I; Ivison, R J; Serjeant, S; Oliver, S J; McMahon, R G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Willott, Chris J.; Simpson, Chris; Almaini, Omar; Johnson, Olivia; Lawrence, Andrew; Dunlop, James S.; Roche, Nathan D.; Mann, Robert G.; Manners, James C.; Gonzalez-Solares, Eduardo; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Ivison, Rob J.; Serjeant, Stephen; Oliver, Seb J.; Mahon, Richard G. Mc; Rowan-Robinson, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Hard X-ray surveys have uncovered a large population of heavily obscured AGN. They also reveal a population of quasars with moderate obscuration at both visible and X-ray wavelengths. We use Chandra selected samples of quasars from the ELAIS Deep X-ray Survey (EDXS) and CDF-N to investigate the obscuration towards the nuclei of moderately obscured AGN. We find an inverse correlation between the optical to X-ray flux ratio and the X-ray hardness ratio which can be interpreted as due to obscuration at visible and X-ray wavelengths. We present detailed optical and near-infrared data for a sample of optically-faint (R>23) quasars from the EDXS. These are used to constrain the amount of rest-frame UV/optical reddening towards these quasars. It is found that optically-faint quasars are mostly faint due to obscuration, not because they are intrinsically weak. After correcting for reddening, the optical magnitudes of most of these quasars are similar to the brighter quasars at these X-ray fluxes. Combining with gas c...

  2. Dust Formation, Evolution, and Obscuration Effects in the Very High-Redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes; Arendt, Richard G.; Kovacs, Attila; Su, Ting; Benford, Dominic J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z > or approx. 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally-condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production comported to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This "silicate-UV break" may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxies' photometric redshift. In this paper we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution (SED) of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high redshift universe. Subject headings: galaxies: high-redshift - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: individual (MACS1149- JD) - Interstellar medium (ISM), nebulae: dust, extinction - physical data and processes: nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances.

  3. DUST FORMATION, EVOLUTION, AND OBSCURATION EFFECTS IN THE VERY HIGH-REDSHIFT UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of dust at redshifts z ≳ 9, and consequently the dust properties, differs greatly from that in the local universe. In contrast to the local universe, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are the only source of thermally condensed dust. Because of the low initial dust-to-gas mass ratio, grain destruction rates are low, so that CCSNe are net producers of interstellar dust. Galaxies with large initial gas mass or high mass infall rate will therefore have a more rapid net rate of dust production compared to galaxies with lower gas mass, even at the same star formation rate. The dust composition is dominated by silicates, which exhibit a strong rise in the UV opacity near the Lyman break. This ''silicate-UV break'' may be confused with the Lyman break, resulting in a misidentification of a galaxy's photometric redshift. In this Letter we demonstrate these effects by analyzing the spectral energy distribution of MACS1149-JD, a lensed galaxy at z = 9.6. A potential 2 mm counterpart of MACS1149-JD has been identified with GISMO. While additional observations are required to corroborate this identification, we use this possible association to illustrate the physical processes and the observational effects of dust in the very high-redshift universe

  4. The hidden quasar nucleus of a WISE-selected, hyperluminous, dust-obscured galaxy at z ~ 2.3

    CERN Document Server

    Piconcelli, E; Bianchi, S; Zappacosta, L; Fritz, J; Lanzuisi, G; Miniutti, G; Bongiorno, A; Feruglio, C; Fiore, F; Maiolino, R

    2014-01-01

    We present the first X-ray spectrum of a Hot dust-obscured galaxy (DOG), namely W1835+4355 at z ~ 2.3. Hot DOGs represent a very rare population of hyperluminous (>= 10^47 erg/s), dust-enshrouded objects at z > 2 recently discovered in the WISE All Sky Survey. The 40 ks XMM-Newton spectrum reveals a continuum as flat (Gamma ~ 0.8) as typically seen in heavily obscured AGN. This, along with the presence of strong Fe Kalpha emission, clearly suggests a reflection-dominated spectrum due to Compton-thick absorption. In this scenario, the observed luminosity of L(2-10 keV) ~ 2 x 10^44 erg/s is a fraction (~ 5 x 10^45 erg/s by using several proxies. The Herschel data allow us to constrain the SED up to the sub-mm band, providing a reliable estimate of the quasar contribution (~ 75%) to the IR luminosity as well as the amount of star formation (~ 2100 Msun/yr). Our results thus provide additional pieces of evidence that associate Hot DOGs with an exceptionally dusty phase during which luminous quasars and massive ga...

  5. A Population of Massive, Luminous Galaxies Hosting Heavily Dust-Obscured Gamma-Ray Bursts: Implications for the Use of GRBs as Tracers of Cosmic Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Perley, D A; Tanvir, N R; Cenko, S B; Bloom, J S; Hjorth, J; Kruehler, T; Filippenko, A V; Fruchter, A; Fynbo, J P U; Jakobsson, P; Kalirai, J; Milvang-Jensen, B; Morgan, A N; Prochaska, J X; Silverman, J M

    2013-01-01

    We present observations and analysis of the host galaxies of 23 heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Swift satellite between the years 2005-2009, a sample representing all GRBs during this period with an unambiguous host-frame extinction of at least A_V>1 mag. Deep observations with Keck, Gemini, VLT, HST, and Spitzer successfully detect the host galaxies and establish redshifts for all 23 events, enabling us to provide measurements of the host stellar masses, star-formation rates (SFRs), and mean extinctions. Compared to the hosts of unobscured GRBs at similar redshifts, we find that the hosts of dust-obscured GRBs are (on average) more massive by about an order of magnitude and are also significantly more rapidly star-forming and more dust-obscured. However, while the inclusion of this population of dust-obscured hosts shows that GRBs populate all types of star-forming galaxies including the most massive, luminous systems at z~2, at redshifts below z<1.5 the overall GRB populatio...

  6. UV background radiation, dust, and gas at high galactic latitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new analysis of the UV background radiation measurements obtained with the ELZ instrument on board the D2B-Aura satellite is performed at high galactic latitudes (mod(b)>=300) in two bandpasses centered at 1690 A and 2200 A. Correlations of the UV brightnesses with dust tracers are found; the scattering phase function of dust can be derived. Among regions exhibiting a UV flux in excess over the average correlation, an insight is given on the Eridanus region known as a hot spot in soft X-rays. (Auth.)

  7. Obscuration in AGNs: near-infrared luminosity relations and dust colors

    CERN Document Server

    Burtscher, L; Davies, R I; Janssen, A; Lutz, D; Rosario, D; Contursi, A; Genzel, R; Gracia-Carpio, J; Lin, M -Y; Schnorr-Mueller, A; Sternberg, A; Sturm, E; Tacconi, L

    2015-01-01

    We combine two approaches to isolate the AGN luminosity at near-infrared wavelengths and relate the near-IR pure AGN luminosity to other tracers of the AGN. Using integral-field spectroscopic data of an archival sample of 51 local AGNs, we estimate the fraction of non-stellar light by comparing the nuclear equivalent width of the stellar 2.3 micron CO absorption feature with the intrinsic value for each galaxy. We compare this fraction to that derived from a spectral decomposition of the integrated light in the central arc second and find them to be consistent with each other. Using our estimates of the near-IR AGN light, we find a strong correlation with presumably isotropic AGN tracers. We show that a significant offset exists between type 1 and type 2 sources in the sense that type 1 sources are 7 (10) times brighter in the near-IR at log L_MIR = 42.5 (log L_X = 42.5). These offsets only becomes clear when treating infrared type 1 sources as type 1 AGNs. All AGNs have very red near-to-mid-IR dust colors. T...

  8. Far infrared constraints on the contamination by dust obscured galaxies of high-z dropout searches

    CERN Document Server

    Boone, F; Pello, R; Lutz, D; Weiss, A; Egami, E; Smail, I; Rex, M; Rawle, T; Ivison, R; Laporte, N; Beelen, A; Combes, F; Blain, A W; Richard, J; Kneib, J -P; Zamojski, M; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M; Altieri, B; van der Werf, P; Swinbank, M; Perez-Gonzalez, P G; Clement, B; Nordon, R; Magnelli, B; Menten, K M

    2011-01-01

    The spectral energy distributions (SED) of dusty galaxies at intermediate redshift may look similar to very high redshift galaxies in the optical/near infrared (NIR) domain. This can lead to the contamination of high redshift galaxy searches based on broad band optical/NIR photometry by lower redshift dusty galaxies as both kind of galaxies cannot be distinguished. The contamination rate could be as high as 50%. {This work shows how the far infrared (FIR) domain can help to recognize likely low-z interlopers in an optical/NIR search for high-z galaxies.} We analyse the FIR SEDs of two galaxies proposed as very high redshift ($z>7$) dropout candidates based on deep Hawk-I/VLT observations. The FIR SEDs are sampled with PACS/Herschel at 100 and 160\\,$\\mu$m, with SPIRE/Herschel at 250, 350 and 500\\,$\\mu$m and with LABOCA/APEX at 870\\,$\\mu$m. We find that redshifts $>7$ would imply extreme FIR SEDs (with dust temperatures $>100$\\,K and FIR luminosities $>10^{13}$\\,$L_{\\odot}$). At z$\\sim$2, instead, the SEDs of b...

  9. Collapsing Inhomogeneous Dust Fluid in the Background of Dark Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Bandyopadhyay, Tanwi; Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, gravitational collapse of an inhomogeneous spherical star model, consisting of inhomogeneous dust fluid (dark matter) in the background of dark energy is considered. The collapsing process is examined first separately for both dark matter and dark energy and then under the combined effect of dark matter and dark energy with or without interaction. The dark energy is considered in the form of perfect fluid and both marginally and non-marginally bound cases are considered f...

  10. Hyper-luminous Dust Obscured Galaxies discovered by the Hyper Suprime-Cam on Subaru and WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Toba, Yoshiki; Strauss, Michael A; Aoki, Kentaro; Goto, Tomotsugu; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Bosch, James; Bundy, Kevin; Doi, Yoshiyuki; Inami, Hanae; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lupton, Robert H; Matsuhara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Nakata, Fumiaki; Oi, Nagisa; Onoue, Masafusa; Oyabu, Shinki; Price, Paul; Tait, Philip J; Takata, Tadafumi; Tanaka, Manobu M; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Turner, Edwin L; Uchida, Tomohisa; Usuda, Tomonori; Utsumi, Yousuke; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Yamada, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    We present the photometric properties of a sample of infrared (IR) bright dust obscured galaxies (DOGs). Combining wide and deep optical images obtained with the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) on the Subaru Telescope and all-sky mid-IR (MIR) images taken with Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we discovered 48 DOGs with $i - K_\\mathrm{s} > 1.2$ and $i - [22] > 7.0$, where $i$, $K_\\mathrm{s}$, and [22] represent AB magnitude in the $i$-band, $K_\\mathrm{s}$-band, and 22 $\\mu$m, respectively, in the GAMA 14hr field ($\\sim$ 9 deg$^2$). Among these objects, 31 ($\\sim$ 65 %) show power-law spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in the near-IR (NIR) and MIR regime, while the remainder show a NIR bump in their SEDs. Assuming that the redshift distribution for our DOGs sample is Gaussian, with mean and sigma $z$ = 1.99 $\\pm$ 0.45, we calculated their total IR luminosity using an empirical relation between 22 $\\mu$m luminosity and total IR luminosity. The average value of the total IR luminosity is (3.5 $\\pm$ 1.1) $\\ti...

  11. A population of massive, luminous galaxies hosting heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts: Implications for the use of GRBs as tracers of cosmic star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Cenko, S. B.; Bloom, J. S.; Filippenko, A. V.; Morgan, A. N. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, B. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Fruchter, A.; Kalirai, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Prochaska, J. X. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Silverman, J. M., E-mail: dperley@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We present observations and analysis of the host galaxies of 23 heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Swift satellite during the years 2005-2009, representing all GRBs with an unambiguous host-frame extinction of A{sub V} > 1 mag from this period. Deep observations with Keck, Gemini, Very Large Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer successfully detect the host galaxies and establish spectroscopic or photometric redshifts for all 23 events, enabling us to provide measurements of the intrinsic host star formation rates, stellar masses, and mean extinctions. Compared to the hosts of unobscured GRBs at similar redshifts, we find that the hosts of dust-obscured GRBs are (on average) more massive by about an order of magnitude and also more rapidly star forming and dust obscured. While this demonstrates that GRBs populate all types of star-forming galaxies, including the most massive, luminous systems at z ≈ 2, at redshifts below 1.5 the overall GRB population continues to show a highly significant aversion to massive galaxies and a preference for low-mass systems relative to what would be expected given a purely star-formation-rate-selected galaxy sample. This supports the notion that the GRB rate is strongly dependent on metallicity, and may suggest that the most massive galaxies in the universe underwent a transition in their chemical properties ∼9 Gyr ago. We also conclude that, based on the absence of unobscured GRBs in massive galaxies and the absence of obscured GRBs in low-mass galaxies, the dust distributions of the lowest-mass and the highest-mass galaxies are relatively homogeneous, while intermediate-mass galaxies (∼10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}) have diverse internal properties.

  12. A population of massive, luminous galaxies hosting heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts: Implications for the use of GRBs as tracers of cosmic star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present observations and analysis of the host galaxies of 23 heavily dust-obscured gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Swift satellite during the years 2005-2009, representing all GRBs with an unambiguous host-frame extinction of AV > 1 mag from this period. Deep observations with Keck, Gemini, Very Large Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer successfully detect the host galaxies and establish spectroscopic or photometric redshifts for all 23 events, enabling us to provide measurements of the intrinsic host star formation rates, stellar masses, and mean extinctions. Compared to the hosts of unobscured GRBs at similar redshifts, we find that the hosts of dust-obscured GRBs are (on average) more massive by about an order of magnitude and also more rapidly star forming and dust obscured. While this demonstrates that GRBs populate all types of star-forming galaxies, including the most massive, luminous systems at z ≈ 2, at redshifts below 1.5 the overall GRB population continues to show a highly significant aversion to massive galaxies and a preference for low-mass systems relative to what would be expected given a purely star-formation-rate-selected galaxy sample. This supports the notion that the GRB rate is strongly dependent on metallicity, and may suggest that the most massive galaxies in the universe underwent a transition in their chemical properties ∼9 Gyr ago. We also conclude that, based on the absence of unobscured GRBs in massive galaxies and the absence of obscured GRBs in low-mass galaxies, the dust distributions of the lowest-mass and the highest-mass galaxies are relatively homogeneous, while intermediate-mass galaxies (∼109 M ☉) have diverse internal properties.

  13. The composite nature of Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) at z~2-3 in the COSMOS field: I. A Far-Infrared View

    CERN Document Server

    Riguccini, L; Mullaney, J R; Menendez-Delmestre, K; Aussel, H; Berta, S; Calanog, J; Capak, P; Cooray, A; Ilbert, O; Kartaltepe, J; Koekemoer, A; Lutz, D; Magnelli, B; McCracken, H; Oliver, S; Roseboom, I; Salvato, M; Sanders, D; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Treister, E

    2015-01-01

    Dust-Obscured galaxies (DOGs) are bright 24 um-selected sources with extreme obscuration at optical wavelengths. They are typically characterized by a rising power-law continuum of hot dust (T_D ~ 200-1000K) in the near-IR indicating that their mid-IR luminosity is dominated by an an active galactic nucleus (AGN). DOGs with a fainter 24 um flux display a stellar bump in the near-IR and their mid-IR luminosity appears to be mainly powered by dusty star formation. Alternatively, it may be that the mid-IR emission arising from AGN activity is dominant but the torus is sufficiently opaque to make the near-IR emission from the AGN negligible with respect to the emission from the host component. In an effort to characterize the astrophysical nature of the processes responsible for the IR emission in DOGs, this paper exploits Herschel data (PACS + SPIRE) on a sample of 95 DOGs within the COSMOS field. We derive a wealth of far-IR properties (e.g., total IR luminosities; mid-to-far IR colors; dust temperatures and ma...

  14. The kiloparsec-scale star formation law at redshift 4: wide-spread, highly efficient star formation in the dust-obscured starburst galaxy GN20

    CERN Document Server

    Hodge, J A; Decarli, R; Walter, F; Carilli, C L; Daddi, E; Dannerbauer, H

    2014-01-01

    We present high-resolution observations of the 880 $\\mu$m (rest-frame FIR) continuum emission in the z$=$4.05 submillimeter galaxy GN20 from the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). These data resolve the obscured star formation in this unlensed galaxy on scales of 0.3$^{\\prime\\prime}$$\\times$0.2$^{\\prime\\prime}$ ($\\sim$2.1$\\times$1.3 kpc). The observations reveal a bright (16$\\pm$1 mJy) dusty starburst centered on the cold molecular gas reservoir and showing a bar-like extension along the major axis. The striking anti-correlation with the HST/WFC3 imaging suggests that the copious dust surrounding the starburst heavily obscures the rest-frame UV/optical emission. A comparison with 1.2 mm PdBI continuum data reveals no evidence for variations in the dust properties across the source within the uncertainties, consistent with extended star formation, and the peak star formation rate surface density (119$\\pm$8 M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ kpc$^{-2}$) implies that the star formation in GN20 remains sub-Eddington ...

  15. Sungrazing dust particles against the sporadic meteor background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubaev, A. V.

    2015-07-01

    From the results of the statistical study, the genetic relation between some meteors (from -5 m to +5 m ) of the sporadic background and the comets of the Kreutz, Marsden, and Kracht families has been revealed. The radiants of sporadic meteors are concentrated at the geocentric ecliptic latitudes 7°-10° northward and southward of the ecliptic. The radiants of the sungrazing meteoroids, that were detected on their heliocentric orbits "before" and "after" the perihelion passage, are concentrated in the elongation intervals of approximately 120°-165° and 20°-60° from the Sun, respectively. Each of the specified radiant regions, in its turn, breaks up into two groups. The group of radiants with elongations of about 30° and 155° from the Sun belongs to the Marsden and Kracht cometary families, while the group with 50° and 135°, to the Kreutz cometary family. In the distribution by perihelion distance, a sharp decrease of the number of observed dust particles with q approaching the Sun, terminates. The number of sporadic sungrazing meteoroids detected after their passage in the vicinity of the Sun is approximately 20 times smaller than the number of similar particles in the preperihelion part of the trajectory. This result is of special importance for studying the thermodesorption effect of meteoroids (i.e., the change in the content of chemical elements in meteoroids as a function of the perihelion distance).

  16. The composite nature of Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) at z ˜ 2-3 in the COSMOS field - I. A far-infrared view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riguccini, L.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mullaney, J. R.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Aussel, H.; Berta, S.; Calanog, J.; Capak, P.; Cooray, A.; Ilbert, O.; Kartaltepe, J.; Koekemoer, A.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B.; McCracken, H.; Oliver, S.; Roseboom, I.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Treister, E.

    2015-09-01

    Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) are bright 24 μm-selected sources with extreme obscuration at optical wavelengths. They are typically characterized by a rising power-law continuum of hot dust (TD ˜ 200-1000 K) in the near-IR indicating that their mid-IR luminosity is dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). DOGs with a fainter 24 μm flux display a stellar bump in the near-IR and their mid-IR luminosity appears to be mainly powered by dusty star formation. Alternatively, it may be that the mid-IR emission arising from AGN activity is dominant but the torus is sufficiently opaque to make the near-IR emission from the AGN negligible with respect to the emission from the host component. In an effort to characterize the astrophysical nature of the processes responsible for the IR emission in DOGs, this paper exploits Herschel data (PACS + SPIRE) on a sample of 95 DOGs within the COSMOS field. We derive a wealth of far-IR properties (e.g. total IR luminosities; mid-to-far-IR colours; dust temperatures and masses) based on spectral energy distribution fitting. Of particular interest are the 24 μm-bright DOGs (F24 μm > 1 mJy). They present bluer far-IR/mid-IR colours than the rest of the sample, unveiling the potential presence of an AGN. The AGN contribution to the total 8-1000 μm flux increases as a function of the rest-frame 8 μm-luminosity irrespective of the redshift. This confirms that faint DOGs (L8 μm DOGs show a larger contribution from an AGN.

  17. THE KILOPARSEC-SCALE STAR FORMATION LAW AT REDSHIFT 4: WIDESPREAD, HIGHLY EFFICIENT STAR FORMATION IN THE DUST-OBSCURED STARBURST GALAXY GN20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high-resolution observations of the 880 μm (rest-frame FIR) continuum emission in the z = 4.05 submillimeter galaxy GN20 from the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). These data resolve the obscured star formation (SF) in this unlensed galaxy on scales of 0.''3 × 0.''2 (∼2.1 × 1.3 kpc). The observations reveal a bright (16 ± 1 mJy) dusty starburst centered on the cold molecular gas reservoir and showing a bar-like extension along the major axis. The striking anti-correlation with the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging suggests that the copious dust surrounding the starburst heavily obscures the rest-frame UV/optical emission. A comparison with 1.2 mm PdBI continuum data reveals no evidence for variations in the dust properties across the source within the uncertainties, consistent with extended SF, and the peak star formation rate surface density (119 ± 8 M ☉ yr–1 kpc–2) implies that the SF in GN20 remains sub-Eddington on scales down to 3 kpc2. We find that the SF efficiency (SFE) is highest in the central regions of GN20, leading to a resolved SF law with a power-law slope of ΣSFR ∼ ΣH22.1±1.0, and that GN20 lies above the sequence of normal star-forming disks, implying that the dispersion in the SF law is not due solely to morphology or choice of conversion factor. These data extend previous evidence for a fixed SFE per free-fall time to include the star-forming medium on ∼kiloparsec scales in a galaxy 12 Gyr ago

  18. Black hole formation from collapsing dust fluid in a background of dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gravitational collapse of a spherically symmetric star, made of a dust fluid, ρDM, in a background of dark energy, p=wρ (w<-1/3) is studied. It is found that when only dark energy is present, black holes are never formed. When both of them are present, black holes can be formed, due to the condensation of the dust fluid. Initially the dust fluid may not play an important role, but, as time increases, it will dominate the collapse and finally lead to formation of black holes. This result remains true even when the interaction between the dust fluid and dark energy does not vanish. When w<-1 (phantoms), some models also can be interpreted as representing the death of a white hole that ejects both dust and phantoms. The ejected matter recollapses to form a black hole

  19. NuSTAR observations of WISE J1036+0449, a Galaxy at z$\\sim1$ obscured by hot dust

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, C; Stern, D; Nikutta, R; Alexander, D M; Asmus, D; Ballantyne, D R; Bauer, F E; Blain, A W; Boggs, S; Boorman, P G; Brandt, W N; Brightman, M; Chen, C -T J; Christensen, F E; Comastri, A; Craig, W W; Díaz-Santos, T; Eisenhardt, P R; Farrah, D; Gandhi, P; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Jun, H D; Koss, M J; LaMassa, S; Lansbury, G B; Markwardt, C B; Stalevski, M; Stanley, F; Treister, E; Tsai, C -W; Walton, D J; Wu, J W; Zappacosta, L; Zhang, W W

    2016-01-01

    Hot, Dust-Obscured Galaxies (Hot DOGs), selected from the WISE all sky infrared survey, host some of the most powerful Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) known, and might represent an important stage in the evolution of galaxies. Most known Hot DOGs are at $z> 1.5$, due in part to a strong bias against identifying them at lower redshift related to the selection criteria. We present a new selection method that identifies 153 Hot DOG candidates at $z\\sim 1$, where they are significantly brighter and easier to study. We validate this approach by measuring a redshift $z=1.009$, and an SED similar to higher redshift Hot DOGs for one of these objects, WISE J1036+0449 ($L_{\\rm\\,Bol}\\simeq 8\\times 10^{46}\\rm\\,erg\\,s^{-1}$), using data from Keck/LRIS and NIRSPEC, SDSS, and CSO. We find evidence of a broadened component in MgII, which, if due to the gravitational potential of the supermassive black hole, would imply a black hole mass of $M_{\\rm\\,BH}\\simeq 2 \\times 10^8 M_{\\odot}$, and an Eddington ratio of $\\lambda_{\\rm\\,Edd...

  20. Planck intermediate results. XLVIII. Disentangling Galactic dust emission and cosmic infrared background anisotropies

    CERN Document Server

    Aghanim, N; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Ballardini, M; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Basak, S; Benabed, K; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Burigana, C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Carron, J; Chiang, H C; Colombo, L P L; Comis, B; Couchot, F; Coulais, A; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; de Bernardis, P; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Di Valentino, E; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Doré, O; Douspis, M; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Dusini, S; Elsner, F; Enßlin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Fantaye, Y; Finelli, F; Forastieri, F; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frolov, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Génova-Santos, R T; Gerbino, M; Ghosh, T; Giraud-Héraud, Y; González-Nuevo, J; Górski, K M; Gruppuso, A; Gudmundsson, J E; Hansen, F K; Helou, G; Henrot-Versillé, S; Herranz, D; Hivon, E; Huang, Z; Jaffe, A H; Jones, W C; Keihänen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kiiveri, K; Kisner, T S; Krachmalnicoff, N; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lamarre, J -M; Langer, M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Jeune, M Le; Levrier, F; Lilje, P B; Lilley, M; Lindholm, V; López-Caniego, M; Ma, Y -Z; Macías-Pérez, J F; Maggio, G; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Mangilli, A; Maris, M; Martin, P G; Martínez-González, E; Matarrese, S; Mauri, N; McEwen, J D; Melchiorri, A; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschênes, M -A; Molinari, D; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Moss, A; Natoli, P; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Paoletti, D; Patanchon, G; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Plaszczynski, S; Polastri, L; Polenta, G; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Racine, B; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renzi, A; Rocha, G; Rosset, C; Rossetti, M; Roudier, G; Rubiño-Martín, J A; Ruiz-Granados, B; Salvati, L; Sandri, M; Savelainen, M; Scott, D; Sirignano, C; Sirri, G; Soler, J D; Spencer, L D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Tauber, J A; Tavagnacco, D; Tenti, M; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Trombetti, T; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, F; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Vittorio, N; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

    2016-01-01

    Using the Planck 2015 data release (PR2) temperature observations, we perform the separation of Galactic thermal dust emission and cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies. For this purpose, we implement a specifically tailored component-separation method, the so-called generalized needlet internal linear combination (GNILC) method. This makes use of the spatial information (angular power spectrum) to disentangle the Galactic dust emission and CIB anisotropies. A significantly improved all-sky map of the Planck thermal dust, with reduced CIB contamination, is produced at 353, 545, and 857 GHz. From the reduction of the CIB contamination in the thermal dust maps, we are able to provide a more accurate estimate of the local dust temperature and dust spectral index over the sky with reduced dispersion at high latitudes. We find that $T = (19.4 \\pm 1.3)$ K and $\\beta = 1.6 \\pm 0.1$ on the whole sky, while $T = (19.4 \\pm 1.5)$ K and $\\beta = 1.6 \\pm 0.2$ on 21 % of the sky at high latitudes, where the error b...

  1. H-ATLAS: THE COSMIC ABUNDANCE OF DUST FROM THE FAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thacker, Cameron; Cooray, Asantha; Smidt, Joseph; De Bernardis, Francesco; Mitchell-Wynne, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Amblard, A. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Auld, R.; Eales, S.; Pascale, E. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M.; Michalowski, M. J. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, KrijgslAAn 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Clements, D. L.; Dariush, A.; Hopwood, R. [Physics Department, Imperial College London, South Kensington campus, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); De Zotti, G. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Maddox, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Hoyos, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Ibar, E. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, The Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Jarvis, M. [Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-05-01

    We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic far-infrared background (CFIRB) anisotropies in one of the extragalactic fields of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m bands. Consistent with recent measurements of the CFIRB power spectrum in Herschel-SPIRE maps, we confirm the existence of a clear one-halo term of galaxy clustering on arcminute angular scales with large-scale two-halo term of clustering at 30 arcmin to angular scales of a few degrees. The power spectrum at the largest angular scales, especially at 250 {mu}m, is contaminated by the Galactic cirrus. The angular power spectrum is modeled using a conditional luminosity function approach to describe the spatial distribution of unresolved galaxies that make up the bulk of the CFIRB. Integrating over the dusty galaxy population responsible for the background anisotropies, we find that the cosmic abundance of dust, relative to the critical density, to be between {Omega}{sub dust} = 10{sup -6} and 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} in the redshift range z {approx} 0-3. This dust abundance is consistent with estimates of the dust content in the universe using quasar reddening and magnification measurements in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  2. H-ATLAS: THE COSMIC ABUNDANCE OF DUST FROM THE FAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND POWER SPECTRUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic far-infrared background (CFIRB) anisotropies in one of the extragalactic fields of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey at 250, 350, and 500 μm bands. Consistent with recent measurements of the CFIRB power spectrum in Herschel-SPIRE maps, we confirm the existence of a clear one-halo term of galaxy clustering on arcminute angular scales with large-scale two-halo term of clustering at 30 arcmin to angular scales of a few degrees. The power spectrum at the largest angular scales, especially at 250 μm, is contaminated by the Galactic cirrus. The angular power spectrum is modeled using a conditional luminosity function approach to describe the spatial distribution of unresolved galaxies that make up the bulk of the CFIRB. Integrating over the dusty galaxy population responsible for the background anisotropies, we find that the cosmic abundance of dust, relative to the critical density, to be between Ωdust = 10–6 and 8 × 10–6 in the redshift range z ∼ 0-3. This dust abundance is consistent with estimates of the dust content in the universe using quasar reddening and magnification measurements in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.

  3. The Environments of Obscured Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristen M.; Lacy, Mark; Nielsen, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH) feedback is prescribed for driving the high-end shape of the galaxy luminosity function, clearing the circumnuclear environment during the end stages of mergers, and eventually turning off its own accretion. Yet the dominant processes and characteristics of active galactic nuclei are indistinct. Chief among this confusion is how significant the role of dust is in each galaxy. Orientation of the dusty torus is attributed to causing the differences between Sy1 and Sy2, but whether obscured quasars are found in particularly dusty host galaxies, if they exist at a different stage in the merger process (early on, before the dust is blown out), or if they are merely oriented differently than optical quasars is not yet so well distinguished. With obscured quasars now observed to make up 50% or greater of the population of quasars, the question of what causes obscuration becomes vital to address. With this in mind, I study matched samples of obscured and unobscured quasars to characterize their environments, with the intent of addressing what contribution environment has to obscuration levels. I investigate the megaparsec-scale environments of SIRTF Wide-field Infra-Red Extragalactic Survey (SWIRE) quasars at z ˜ 1-3 by cross-correlating the sample with 3.8 million galaxies from the Spitzer Extragalactic Representative Volume Survey (SERVS). Optically obscured quasars are compared to a control sample of optically-bright quasars via selection in the mid-infrared. Environments were observed at 3.6 and 4.5 μm to a depth of ≈ 2 μJy (AB = 23.1). Recent work has found diverse results in such studies, with dependence of environmental richness on both redshift and level of obscuration. I find that, within reasonable error, on average there is no distinct difference between the level of clustering for obscured and normal quasars, and that there is no dependence on redshift of this result within the range of 1.3 < z < 2.5. I compare our results

  4. Slicing the Torus: Obscuring Structures in Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, Martin

    2012-07-01

    Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are often obscured by dust and gas. It is normally assumed that the obscuration occurs in an oblate "obscuring torus", that begins at the radius at which the most refractive dust can remain solid. The most famous form of this torus is a donut-shaped region of molecular gas with a large scale-height. While this model is elegant and accounts for many phenomena at once, it does not hold up to detailed tests. Instead the obscuration in AGNs must occur on a wide range of scales and be due to a minimum of three physically distinct absorbers. Slicing the "torus" into these three regions will allow interesting physics of the AGN to be extracted.

  5. Slicing the Torus: Obscuring Structures in Quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are often obscured by dust and gas. It is normally assumed that the obscuration occurs in an oblate 'obscuring torus', that begins at the radius at which the most refractive dust can remain solid. The most famous form of this torus is a donut-shaped region of molecular gas with a large scale-height. While this model is elegant and accounts for many phenomena at once, it does not hold up to detailed tests. Instead the obscuration in AGNs must occur on a wide range of scales and be due to a minimum of three physically distinct absorbers. Slicing the 'torus' into these three regions will allow interesting physics of the AGN to be extracted.

  6. Slicing the Torus: Obscuring Structures in Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are often obscured by dust and gas. It is normally assumed that the obscuration occurs in an oblate "obscuring torus", that begins at the radius at which the most refractive dust can remain solid. The most famous form of this torus is a donut-shaped region of molecular gas with a large scale-height. While this model is elegant and accounts for many phenomena at once, it does not hold up to detailed tests. Instead the obscuration in AGNs must occur on a wide range of scales and be due to a minimum of three physically distinct absorbers. Slicing the "torus" into these three regions will allow interesting physics of the AGN to be extracted.

  7. Relativistic cosmological perturbation scheme on a general background: scalar perturbations for irrotational dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In standard perturbation approaches and N-body simulations, inhomogeneities are described to evolve on a predefined background cosmology, commonly taken as the homogeneous-isotropic solutions of Einstein's field equations (Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmologies). In order to make physical sense, this background cosmology must provide a reasonable description of the effective, i.e. spatially averaged, evolution of structure inhomogeneities also in the nonlinear regime. Guided by the insights that (i) the average over an inhomogeneous distribution of matter and geometry is in general not given by a homogeneous solution of general relativity, and that (ii) the class of FLRW cosmologies is not only locally but also globally gravitationally unstable in relevant cases, we here develop a perturbation approach that describes the evolution of inhomogeneities on a general background being defined by the spatially averaged evolution equations. This physical background interacts with the formation of structures. We derive and discuss the resulting perturbation scheme for the matter model 'irrotational dust' in the Lagrangian picture, restricting our attention to scalar perturbations. (paper)

  8. Smoking Quasars a New Source for Cosmic Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Elvis, M; Karovska, M; Elvis, Martin; Marengo, Massimo; Karovska, Margarita

    2002-01-01

    Although dust is widely found in astrophysics, forming dust is surprisingly difficult. The proper combination of low temperature (<2000 K) and high density is mainly found in the winds of late-type giant and supergiant stars which, as a result, are the most efficient sources of dust known. Dust ejected from these stars into the interstellar medium has multiple important effects, including obscuring background objects and enhancing star formation. We show here that quasars are also naturally copious producers of dust, if the gas clouds producing their characteristic broad lines are part of an outflowing wind. This offers an explanation for the strong link between quasars and dust, for the heavy nuclear obscuration around many quasars and introduces a new means of forming dust at early cosmological times.

  9. Modulational instability of dust acoustic waves in dusty plasmas: Modulation obliqueness, background ion nonthermality, and dust charging effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oblique modulational instability of dust acoustic (DA) waves in an unmagnetized warm dusty plasma with nonthermal ions, taking into account dust grain charge variation (charging), is investigated. A nonlinear Schroedinger-type equation governing the slow modulation of the wave amplitude is derived. The effects of dust temperature, dust charge variation, ion deviation from Maxwellian equilibrium (nonthermality) and constituent species' concentration on the modulational instability of DA waves are examined. It is found that these parameters modify significantly the oblique modulational instability domain in the k-θ plane. Explicit expressions for the instability rate and threshold have been obtained in terms of the dispersion laws of the system. The possibility and conditions for the existence of different types of localized excitations are also discussed. The findings of this investigation may be useful in understanding the stable electrostatic wave packet acceleration mechanisms close to the Moon, and also enhances our knowledge on the occurrence of instability associated to pickup ions around unmagnetized bodies, such as comets, Mars, and Venus

  10. H-ATLAS: The cosmic abundance of dust from the far-infrared background power spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Thacker, Cameron; Smidt, Joseph; de Bernardis, Francesco; Mitchell-Wynne, K; Amblard, A; Auld, R; Baes, M; Clements, D L; Dariush, A; De Zotti, G; Dunne, L; Eales, S; Hopwood, R; Hoyos, C; Ibar, E; Jarvis, M; Maddox, S; Michalowski, M J; Pascale, E; Scott, D; Serjeant, S; Smith, M W L; Valiante, E; Van der Werf, P

    2012-01-01

    We present a measurement of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic far-infrared background (CFIRB) anisotropies in one of the extragalactic fields of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) at 250, 350 and 500 \\mu m bands. Consistent with recent measurements of the CFIRB power spectrum in Herschel-SPIRE maps, we confirm the existence of a clear one-halo term of galaxy clustering on arcminute angular scales with large-scale two-halo term of clustering at 30 arcminutes to angular scales of a few degrees. The power spectrum at the largest angular scales, especially at 250 \\mu m, is contaminated by the Galactic cirrus. The angular power spectrum is modeled using a conditional luminosity function approach to describe the spatial distribution of unresolved galaxies that make up the bulk of the CFIRB. Integrating over the dusty galaxy population responsible for the background anisotropies, we find that the cosmic abundance of dust, relative to the critical density, to be between \\Omega_dus...

  11. PM10 Concentration levels at an urban and background site in Cyprus: The impact of urban sources and dust storms

    OpenAIRE

    Achilleos, Souzana; Evans, John S.; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.; Kleanthous, Savvas; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in Cyprus is influenced by both local and transported pollution including desert dust storms. We examined PM10 concentration data collected in Nicosia (urban representative) from April 1, 1993 through December 11, 2008, and Ayia Marina (rural background representative) from January 1, 1999 through December 31, 2008. Measurements were conducted using a Tapered Element Oscillating Micro-balance (TEOM). PM10 concentrations, meteorological records and satellite data were used to ident...

  12. PM10 concentration levels at an urban and background site in Cyprus: the impact of urban sources and dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilleos, Souzana; Evans, John S; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K; Kleanthous, Savvas; Schwartz, Joel; Koutrakis, Petros

    2014-12-01

    Air quality in Cyprus is influenced by both local and transported pollution, including desert dust storms. We examined PM10 concentration data collected in Nicosia (urban representative) from April 1, 1993, through December 11, 2008, and in Ayia Marina (rural background representative) from January 1, 1999, through December 31, 2008. Measurements were conducted using a Tapered Element Oscillating Micro-balance (TEOM). PM10 concentrations, meteorological records, and satellite data were used to identify dust storm days. We investigated long-term trends using a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) after controlling for day of week, month, temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity. In Nicosia, annual PM10 concentrations ranged from 50.4 to 63.8 μg/m3 and exceeded the EU annual standard limit enacted in 2005 of 40 μg/m3 every year A large, statistically significant impact of urban sources (defined as the difference between urban and background levels) was seen in Nicosia over the period 2000-2008, and was highest during traffic hours, weekdays, cold months, and low wind conditions. Our estimate of the mean (standard error) contribution of urban sources to the daily ambient PM10 was 24.0 (0.4) μg/m3. The study of yearly trends showed that PM10 levels in Nicosia decreased from 59.4 μg/m3 in 1993 to 49.0 μg/m3 in 2008, probably in part as a result of traffic emission control policies in Cyprus. In Ayia Marina, annual concentrations ranged from 27.3 to 35.6 μg/m3, and no obvious time trends were observed. The levels measured at the Cyprus background site are comparable to background concentrations reported in other Eastern Mediterranean countries. Average daily PM10 concentrations during desert dust storms were around 100 μg/m3 since 2000 and much higher in earlier years. Despite the large impact ofdust storms and their increasing frequency over time, dust storms were responsible for a small fraction of the exceedances of the daily PM10 limit. Implications: This

  13. Gaming security by obscurity

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    2011-01-01

    Shannon sought security against the attacker with unlimited computational powers: *if an information source conveys some information, then Shannon's attacker will surely extract that information*. Diffie and Hellman refined Shannon's attacker model by taking into account the fact that the real attackers are computationally limited. This idea became one of the greatest new paradigms in computer science, and led to modern cryptography. Shannon also sought security against the attacker with unlimited logical and observational powers, expressed through the maxim that "the enemy knows the system". This view is still endorsed in cryptography. The popular formulation, going back to Kerckhoffs, is that "there is no security by obscurity", meaning that the algorithms cannot be kept obscured from the attacker, and that security should only rely upon the secret keys. In fact, modern cryptography goes even further than Shannon or Kerckhoffs in tacitly assuming that *if there is an algorithm that can break the system, the...

  14. Background dust emission following grassland fire: a snapshot across the particle-size spectrum highlights how high-resolution measurements enhance detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, Luis M [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Field, Jason P [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Villegas, Juan C [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Brehsears, David D [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Law, Darin J [UNIV OF ARIZONA; Urgeghe, Anna M [UNIV OF ARIZONA

    2009-01-01

    Dust emission rates vary temporally and with particle size. Many studies of dust emission focus on a particular temporal scale and the portion of the particle-size spectrum associated with a single instrument; fewer studies have assessed dust emission across the particle-size spectrum and associated temporal scales using multiple instruments. Particularly lacking are measurements following disturbances such as fire that are high-resolution and focused on finer particles - those with direct implications for human health and potential for long-distance biogeochemical transport - during less windy but more commonly occurring background conditions. We measured dust emissions in unburned and burned semiarid grassland using four different instruments spanning different combinations of temporal resolution and particle-size spectrum: Big Springs Number Eight (BSNE) and Sensit instruments for larger saltating particles, DustTrak instruments for smaller suspended particles, and Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) samplers for measuring the entire range of particle sizes. Unburned and burned sites differed in vegetation cover and aerodynamic roughness, yet surprisingly differences in dust emission rates were only detectable for saltation using BSNE and for smaller aerosols using DustTrak. Our results, surprising in the lack of consistently detected differences, indicate that high-resolution DustTrak measurements offered the greatest promise for detecting differences in background emission rates and that BSNE samplers, which integrate across height, were effective for longer intervals. More generally, our results suggest that interplay between particle size, temporal resolution, and integration across time and height can be complex and may need to be considered more explicitly for effective sampling for background dust emissions.

  15. Low-background neutron activation analysis. A powerful tool for atmospheric mineral dust analysis in ice cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for multi-elemental analysis of samples of extremely reduced mass such as dust samples extracted from ice cores requires specific efforts towards the development of a 'low level counting' analytical technique. An analytical protocol specifically designed for this kind of samples, based on low-background INAA (LBNAA) is here presented. A first application of the method was successfully performed on samples from the new alpine firn core NextData-LYS12. Sub-ng detection limits were reached for many elements. According to this point the technique is also potentially suitable to be applied to polar ice core samples. (author)

  16. Exact dynamical evolution of spherical inhomogeneous perturbations to a Friedmann background of dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, R.N.; De Robertis, M.

    1980-10-01

    We give an exact, simple, and self-contained method for dealing with the dynamical evolution of spherically symmetric inhomogeneities in a Friedmann background. We apply these techniques to the development of an initially acoustic perturbation. The behavior is shown to be homologous on all mass scales. We find that the formation of the core of the perturbation is followed by the growth of mass shells proceeding sequentially outward behind a rarefaction front. We demonstrate also how limits may be set on the formation redshift of a galaxy from evidence concerning its maximum linear extent.

  17. Exact dynamical evolution of spherical inhomogeneous perturbations to a Friedmann background of dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give an exact, simple, and self-contained method for dealing with the dynamical evolution of spherically symmetric inhomogeneities in a Friedmann background. We apply these techniques to the development of an initially acoustic perturbation. The behavior is shown to be homologous on all mass scales. We find that the formation of the core of the perturbation is followed by the growth of mass shells proceeding sequentially outward behind a rarefaction front. We demonstrate also how limits may be set on the formation redshift of a galaxy from evidence concerning its maximum linear extent

  18. High-redshift obscured quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Sansigre, Alejo; Rawlings, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Using mid-infrared and radio criteria, we select a sample of candidate z~2 obscured quasars. Optical spectroscopy confirms about half of these as type-2 quasars, and modelling the population suggests 50-80% of the quasars are obscured. We find some flat radio spectrum type-2 quasars, and tentative evidence for obscuration unrelated to the torus. Using a similar sample, we also find evidence for a significant fraction of Compton-thick quasars.

  19. Photometric and Obscurational Completeness

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, R A

    2005-01-01

    We report a method that uses "completeness" to estimate the number of exrasolar planets discovered by an observing program with a direct-imaging instrument. We develop a completeness function for Earth-like planets on "habitable" orbits for an instrument with a central field obscuration, uniform sensitivity in an annular detection zone, and limiting sensitivity that is expressed as a "delta magnitude" with respect to the star, determined by systematic effects (given adequate exposure time). We demonstrate our method of estimation by applying it to our understanding of the coronagraphic version of the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF-C) mission as of October 2004. We establish an initial relationship between the size, quality, and stability of the instrument's optics and its ability to meet mission science requirements. We provide options for increasing the fidelity and versatility of the models on which our method is based, and we discuss how the method could be extended to model the TPF-C mission as a whole, t...

  20. Spitzer Observations of Deeply Obscured Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Spoon, H W W; Cami, J; Lahuis, F; Tielens, A G G M; Armus, L; Charmandaris, V

    2005-01-01

    We report on our first results from a mid-infrared spectroscopic study of ISM features in a sample of deeply obscured ULIRG nuclei using the InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra are extremely rich and complex, revealing absorption features of both amorphous and crystalline silicates, aliphatic hydrocarbons, water ice and gas phase bands of hot CO and warm C_2H_2, HCN and CO_2. PAH emission bands were found to be generally weak and in some cases absent. The features are probing a dense and warm environment in which crystalline silicates and water ice are able to survive but volatile ices, commonly detected in Galactic dense molecular clouds, cannot. If powered largely by star formation, the stellar density and conditions of the gas and dust have to be extreme not to give rise to the commonly detected emission features associated with starburst.

  1. Dark Matter remains obscure

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabio Capello

    2011-01-01

    It is one of the hidden secrets that literally surround the Universe. Experiments have shown no result so far because trying to capture particles that do not seem to interact with ordinary matter is no trivial exercise. The OSQAR experiment at CERN is dedicated to the search for axions, one of the candidates for Dark Matter. For its difficult challenge, OSQAR counts on one of the world’s most powerful magnets borrowed from the LHC. In a recent publication, the OSQAR collaboration was able to confirm that no axion signal appears out of the background. In other words: the quest is still on.   The OSQAR experiment installed in the SM18 hall. (Photo by F. Capello) The OSQAR “Light Shining Through a Wall” experiment was officially launched in 2007 with the aim of detecting axions, that is, particles that might be the main components of Dark Matter. OSQAR uses the powerful LHC dipole magnet to intensify the predicted photon-axion conversions in the presence of strong m...

  2. Media Language, Clear or Obscure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bjarne le Fevre; Ejstrup, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract— Be clear, not obscure. One of the four maxims for optimal communication is that it is essential to develop proficiency in being concise and clear. The question is whether this is really a good idea in all contexts. There is some evidence to the contrary. Undoubtedly, we have many contex...

  3. Churches in Jude the Obscure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing-jing

    2008-01-01

    In Hardy's novel,Jude the Obscure,many images and scenes relating to churches function to reveal the hero's,or the author's views towards Christian religion.This essay makes an analysis of the church architecture,church scenes and clerical characters in the novel.

  4. Robust forecasts on fundamental physics from the foreground-obscured, gravitationally-lensed CMB polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Errard, Josquin; Peiris, Hiranya V; Jaffe, Andrew H

    2015-01-01

    [Abridged] Recent results from the BICEP, Keck Array and Planck collaborations demonstrate that Galactic foregrounds are an unavoidable obstacle in the search for evidence of inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. Beyond the foregrounds, the effect of lensing by intervening large-scale structure further obscures all but the strongest inflationary signals permitted by current data. With a plethora of ongoing and upcoming experiments aiming to measure these signatures, careful and self-consistent consideration of experiments' foreground- and lensing-removal capabilities is critical in obtaining credible forecasts of their performance. We investigate the capabilities of instruments such as Advanced ACTPol, BICEP3 and Keck Array, CLASS, EBEX10K, PIPER, Simons Array, SPT-3G and SPIDER, and projects as COrE+, LiteBIRD-ext, PIXIE and Stage IV, to clean contamination due to polarized synchrotron and dust from raw multi-frequency data, and remove lensing from the result...

  5. A new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis for major, trace and ultra-trace element determination in atmospheric mineral dust from polar ice cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccolo, Giovanni; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Delmonte, Barbara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Nastasi, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio; Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea; Maggi, Valter

    2016-05-30

    Dust found in polar ice core samples present extremely low concentrations, in addition the availability of such samples is usually strictly limited. For these reasons the chemical and physical analysis of polar ice cores is an analytical challenge. In this work a new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis (LB-INAA) for the multi-elemental characterization of the insoluble fraction of dust from polar ice cores is presented. Thanks to an accurate selection of the most proper materials and procedures it was possible to reach unprecedented analytical performances, suitable for ice core analyses. The method was applied to Antarctic ice core samples. Five samples of atmospheric dust (μg size) from ice sections of the Antarctic Talos Dome ice core were prepared and analyzed. A set of 37 elements was quantified, spanning from all the major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe) to trace ones, including 10 (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb and Lu) of the 14 natural occurring lanthanides. The detection limits are in the range of 10(-13)-10(-6) g, improving previous results of 1-3 orders of magnitude depending on the element; uncertainties lies between 4% and 60%. PMID:27154827

  6. A large population of mid-infrared selected, obscured active galaxies in the Bootes field

    CERN Document Server

    Hickox, R C; Forman, W R; Murray, S S; Brodwin, M; Brown, M J I; Eisenhardt, P R; Stern, D; Kochanek, C S; Eisenstein, D; Cool, R J; Jannuzi, B T; Dey, A; Brand, K; Gorjian, V; Caldwell, N

    2007-01-01

    We identify a population of 640 obscured and 839 unobscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts 0.7~80%. The observed numbers of IRAGNs are comparable to predictions from previous X-ray, optical, and IR luminosity functions, for the given redshifts and IRAC flux limits. We observe a bimodal distribution in R-[4.5] color, suggesting that luminous IR-selected AGNs have either low or significant dust extinction, which may have implications for models of AGN obscuration.

  7. Galaxies Detected by the Dwingeloo Obscured Galaxies Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rivers, A J; Kraan-Korteweg, R C

    1999-01-01

    The Dwingeloo Obscured Galaxies Survey (DOGS) is a 21-cm blind survey for galaxies hidden in the northern "Zone of Avoidance" (ZOA): the portion of the optical extragalactic sky which is obscured by dust in the Milky Way. Like the Parkes southern hemisphere ZOA survey, the DOGS project is designed to reveal hidden dynamically important nearby galaxies and to help "fill in the blanks" in the local large scale structure. To date, 36 galaxies have been detected by the Dwingeloo survey; 23 of these were previously unknown (no corresponding sources recorded in the NASA Extragalactic Database (NED)). Among the interesting detections are 3 nearby galaxies in the vicinity of NGC 6946 and 11 detections in the Supergalactic plane crossing region. VLA follow-up observations have been conducted for several of the DOGS detections.

  8. Media Language, Clear or Obscure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejstrup, Michael; le Fevre Jakobsen, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    Be clear, not obscure. One of the four maxims for optimal communication is that it is essential to develop proficiency in being concise and clear. The question is whether this is really a good idea in all contexts. There is some evidence to the contrary. Undoubtedly, we have many contexts where it...... is important for mutual understanding that we be clear and concise. This is true of instructions for electronic equipment and for household appliances. Here, linguistic brevity and clarity may be preferable, but not in other cases. Culture, globalization, and the recognition of ever faster growth in...

  9. Radio constraints on heavily obscured star formation within dark gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highly dust-obscured starbursting galaxies (submillimeter galaxies and their ilk) represent the most extreme sites of star formation in the distant universe and contribute significantly to overall cosmic star formation beyond z > 1.5. Some stars formed in these environments may also explode as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and contribute to the population of 'dark' bursts. Here we present Very Large Array wideband radio-continuum observations of 15 heavily dust-obscured Swift GRBs to search for radio synchrotron emission associated with intense star formation in their host galaxies. Most of these targets (11) are not detected. Of the remaining four objects, one detection is marginal, and for two others we cannot yet rule out the contribution of a long-lived radio afterglow. The final detection is secure, but indicates a star formation rate (SFR) roughly consistent with the dust-corrected UV-inferred value. Most galaxies hosting obscured GRBs are therefore not forming stars at extreme rates, and the amount of optical extinction seen along a GRB afterglow sightline does not clearly correlate with the likelihood that the host has a sufficiently high SFR to be radio-detectable. While some submillimeter galaxies do readily produce GRBs, these GRBs are often not heavily obscured—suggesting that the outer (modestly obscured) parts of these galaxies overproduce GRBs and the inner (heavily obscured) parts underproduce GRBs relative to their respective contributions to star formation, hinting at strong chemical or initial mass function gradients within these systems.

  10. Impact of galactic and intergalactic dust on the stellar EBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavryčuk, V.

    2016-06-01

    Current theories assume that the low intensity of the stellar extragalactic background light (stellar EBL) is caused by finite age of the Universe because the finite-age factor limits the number of photons that have been pumped into the space by galaxies and thus the sky is dark in the night. We oppose this opinion and show that two main factors are responsible for the extremely low intensity of the observed stellar EBL. The first factor is a low mean surface brightness of galaxies, which causes a low luminosity density in the local Universe. The second factor is light extinction due to absorption by galactic and intergalactic dust. Dust produces a partial opacity of galaxies and of the Universe. The galactic opacity reduces the intensity of light from more distant background galaxies obscured by foreground galaxies. The inclination-averaged values of the effective extinction AV for light passing through a galaxy is about 0.2 mag. This causes that distant background galaxies become apparently faint and do not contribute to the EBL significantly. In addition, light of distant galaxies is dimmed due to absorption by intergalactic dust. Even a minute intergalactic opacity of 1 × 10^{-2} mag per Gpc is high enough to produce significant effects on the EBL. As a consequence, the EBL is comparable with or lower than the mean surface brightness of galaxies. Comparing both extinction effects, the impact of the intergalactic opacity on the EBL is more significant than the obscuration of distant galaxies by partially opaque foreground galaxies by factor of 10 or more. The absorbed starlight heats up the galactic and intergalactic dust and is further re-radiated at IR, FIR and micro-wave spectrum. Assuming static infinite universe with no galactic or intergalactic dust, the stellar EBL should be as high as the surface brightness of stars. However, if dust is considered, the predicted stellar EBL is about 290 nW m^{-2} sr^{-1}, which is only 5 times higher than the observed

  11. Feedback in Luminous Obscured Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Jenny E; Ho, Luis C; Barth, Aaron J

    2011-01-01

    We use spatially resolved long-slit spectroscopy from Magellan to investigate the extent, kinematics, and ionization structure in the narrow-line regions of 15 luminous, obscured quasars with z<0.5. Increasing the dynamic range in luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as improving the depth of existing observations by a similar factor, we revisit relations between narrow-line region size and the luminosity and linewidth of the narrow emission lines. We find a slope of 0.22 +/- 0.04 for the power-law relationship between size and luminosity, suggesting that the nebulae are limited by availability of gas to ionize at these luminosities. In fact, we find that the active galactic nucleus is effectively ionizing the interstellar medium over the full extent of the host galaxy. Broad (~300-1000 km/s) linewidths across the galaxies reveal that the gas is kinematically disturbed. Furthermore, the rotation curves and velocity dispersions of the ionized gas remain constant out to large distances, in striking c...

  12. The damping of gravitational waves in dust

    CERN Document Server

    Svitek, Otakar

    2008-01-01

    We examine a simple model of interaction of gravitational waves with matter (primarily represented by dust). The aim is to investigate a possible damping effect on the intensity of gravitational wave when passing through media. This might be important for gravitational wave astronomy when the sources are obscured by dust or molecular clouds.

  13. Evidence for a Wide Range of Ultraviolet Obscuration in z ~ 2 Dusty Galaxies from the GOODS-Herschel Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Kyle; Dickinson, Mark; Pope, Alexandra; Dey, Arjun; Magnelli, Benjamin; Pannella, Maurilio; Altieri, Bruno; Aussel, Herve; Buat, Veronique; Bussmann, Shane; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Coia, Daniela; Daddi, Emanuele; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Elbaz, David; Hwang, Ho Seong; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Lin, Lihwai; Magdis, Georgios; Morrison, Glenn; Popesso, Paola; Scott, Douglas; Valtchanov, Ivan

    2012-11-01

    Dusty galaxies at z ~ 2 span a wide range of relative brightness between rest-frame mid-infrared (8 μm) and ultraviolet wavelengths. We attempt to determine the physical mechanism responsible for this diversity. Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), which have rest-frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratios >~ 1000, might be abnormally bright in the mid-IR, perhaps due to prominent emission from active galactic nuclei and/or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or abnormally faint in the UV. We use far-infrared data from the GOODS-Herschel survey to show that most DOGs with 1012 L ⊙ DOGs and dust obscuration. We conclude that the range in rest-frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratios spanned by dusty galaxies at z ~ 2 is due to differing amounts of UV obscuration. Of galaxies with these IR luminosities, DOGs are the most obscured. We attribute differences in UV obscuration to either (1) differences in the degree of alignment between the spatial distributions of dust and massive stars or (2) differences in the total dust content. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  14. Sensitive Radio Survey of Obscured Quasar Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandroff, Rachael M; van Velzen, Sjoert; Greene, Jenny E; Strauss, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    We study the radio properties of moderately obscured quasars over a range of redshifts to understand the role of radio activity in accretion using the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) at 6.0GHz and 1.4GHz. Our z~2.5 sample consists of optically-selected obscured quasar candidates, all of which are radio-quiet, with typical radio luminosities of $\

  15. Weighing obscured and unobscured quasar hosts with the CMB

    CERN Document Server

    DiPompeo, M A; Hickox, R C; Geach, J E; Holder, G; Hainline, K N; Hall, S W

    2014-01-01

    We cross-correlate a cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing map with the projected space densities of quasars to measure the bias and halo masses of a quasar sample split into obscured and unobscured populations, the first application of this method to distinct quasar subclasses. Several recent studies of the angular clustering of obscured quasars have shown that these objects likely reside in higher-mass halos compared to their unobscured counterparts. This has important implications for models of the structure and geometry of quasars, their role in growing supermassive black holes, and mutual quasar/host galaxy evolution. However, the magnitude and significance of this difference has varied from study to study. Using data from \\planck, \\wise, and SDSS, we follow up on these results using the independent method of CMB lensing cross-correlations. The region and sample are identical to that used for recent angular clustering measurements, allowing for a direct comparison of the CMB-lensing and angular clust...

  16. Similarity of ionized gas nebulae around unobscured and obscured quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guilin; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2014-08-01

    Quasar feedback is suspected to play a key role in the evolution of massive galaxies, by removing or reheating gas in quasar host galaxies and thus limiting the amount of star formation. In this paper, we continue our investigation of quasar-driven winds on galaxy-wide scales. We conduct Gemini Integral Field Unit spectroscopy of a sample of luminous unobscured (type 1) quasars, to determine the morphology and kinematics of ionized gas around these objects, predominantly via observations of the [O III] λ5007 Å emission line. We find that ionized gas nebulae extend out to ˜13 kpc from the quasar, that they are smooth and round, and that their kinematics are inconsistent with gas in dynamical equilibrium with the host galaxy. The observed morphological and kinematic properties are strikingly similar to those of ionized gas around obscured (type 2) quasars with matched [O III] luminosity, with marginal evidence that nebulae around unobscured quasars are slightly more compact. Therefore, in samples of obscured and unobscured quasars carefully matched in [O III] luminosity, we find support for the standard geometry-based unification model of active galactic nuclei, in that the intrinsic properties of the quasars, of their hosts and of their ionized gas appear to be very similar. Given the apparent ubiquity of extended ionized regions, we are forced to conclude that either the quasar is at least partially illuminating pre-existing gas or that both samples of quasars are seen during advanced stages of quasar feedback. In the latter case, we may be biased by our [O III]-based selection against quasars in the early `blow-out' phase, for example due to dust obscuration.

  17. THE OBSCURED FRACTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE XMM-COSMOS SURVEY: A SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION PERSPECTIVE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fraction of active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity obscured by dust and re-emitted in the mid-IR is critical for understanding AGN evolution, unification, and parsec-scale AGN physics. For unobscured (Type 1) AGNs, where we have a direct view of the accretion disk, the dust covering factor can be measured by computing the ratio of re-processed mid-IR emission to intrinsic nuclear bolometric luminosity. We use this technique to estimate the obscured AGN fraction as a function of luminosity and redshift for 513 Type 1 AGNs from the XMM-COSMOS survey. The re-processed and intrinsic luminosities are computed by fitting the 18 band COSMOS photometry with a custom spectral energy distribution fitting code, which jointly models emission from hot dust in the AGN torus, from the accretion disk, and from the host galaxy. We find a relatively shallow decrease of the luminosity ratio as a function of Lbol, which we interpret as a corresponding decrease in the obscured fraction. In the context of the receding torus model, where dust sublimation reduces the covering factor of more luminous AGNs, our measurements require a torus height that increases with luminosity as h ∝ Lbol0.3-0.4. Our obscured-fraction-luminosity relation agrees with determinations from Sloan Digital Sky Survey censuses of Type 1 and Type 2 quasars and favors a torus optically thin to mid-IR radiation. We find a much weaker dependence of the obscured fraction on 2-10 keV luminosity than previous determinations from X-ray surveys and argue that X-ray surveys miss a significant population of highly obscured Compton-thick AGNs. Our analysis shows no clear evidence for evolution of the obscured fraction with redshift

  18. Water ice and warm CO in extremely obscured ULIRGs at z~2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajina, Anna; Dasyra, Kalliopi; Elitzur, Moshe; Spoon, Henrik; Yan, Lin

    2007-05-01

    Spitzer spectra have enabled detailed studies of the physical properties of the dense, obscuring medium surrounding local deeply embedded nuclei. We propose to extend these studies to z~2 with observations of a sample of 10 z~2 highly obscured ULIRGs, selected from our existing large sample. By obtaining high S/N ratio spectra covering the rest-frame 3-8 microns for this sample we can derive a quantitative description of: (1) the hot inner obscuring shell as given by the 3-5micron hot dust continuum, and the 4.67micron CO gas absorption feature; (2) the cold outer obscuring shell as given by the silicate feature and 3.0 and 6.0micron water ice absorption; and (3) the star-formation activity outside the buried nucleus as probed by the PAH 6.2 micron feature. The proposed spectra will allow a direct comparison with ongoing studies of highly obscured sources locally. Given the upcoming end of the Spitzer mission, and hence lack of opportunity in the near future for mid-IR spectroscopy of high-z ULIRGs, the proposed data will be invaluable in current and future efforts to understand these enigmatic sites of black hole growth and nuclear star formation.

  19. Obscurities in the Formulation of Legal Argumentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Plug

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Supreme Court hears grievances against motivations of judicial decisions that are based on the ground that formulations in a motivation of a decision are obscure. It is, however, difficult to determine if such an appeal against the decision will be successful. From a pragma-dialectical per

  20. Dust Particle Size Distributions during Spring in Yinchuan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiangfeng Shao; Jiandong Mao

    2016-01-01

    Dust particle size distributions in Yinchuan, China, were measured during March and April 2014, using APS-3321 sampler. The distributions were measured under different dust conditions (background, floating dust, blowing dust, and dust storm) and statistical analyses were performed. The results showed that, under different dust conditions, the instantaneous number concentrations of dust particles differed widely. For example, during blowing sand and dust storm conditions, instantaneous dust pa...

  1. The Martian Dust Cycle: Observations and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    The dust cycle is critically important for Mars' current climate system. Suspended atmospheric dust affects the radiative balance of the atmosphere, and thus greatly influences the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere. Evidence for the presence of dust in the Martian atmosphere can be traced back to yellow clouds telescopically observed as early as the early 19th century. The Mariner 9 orbiter arrived at Mars in November of 1971 to find a planet completely enshrouded in airborne dust. Since that time, the exchange of dust between the planet's surface and atmosphere and the role of airborne dust on Mars' weather and climate has been studied using observations and numerical models. The goal of this talk is to give an overview of the observations and to discuss the successes and challenges associated with modeling the dust cycle. Dust raising events on Mars range in size from meters to hundreds of kilometers. During some years, regional storms merge to produce hemispheric or planet encircling dust clouds that obscure the surface and raise atmospheric temperatures by tens of kelvin. The interannual variability of planet encircling dust storms is poorly understood. Although the occurrence and season of large regional and global dust storms are highly variable from one year to the next, there are many features of the dust cycle that occur year after year. A low-level dust haze is maintained during northern spring and summer, while elevated levels of atmospheric dust occur during northern autumn and winter. During years without global-scale dust storms, two peaks in total dust loading are generally observed: one peak occurs before northern winter solstice and one peak occurs after northern winter solstice. Numerical modeling studies attempting to interactively simulate the Martian dust cycle with general circulation models (GCMs) include the lifting, transport, and sedimentation of radiatively active dust. Two dust lifting processes are commonly represented in

  2. Sue's Oppressed Sex in Jude the Obscure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟

    2010-01-01

    Using ecofeminist literary criticism.the paper analyzes women's unjustified and dominated sex in Jude the Obscure.Sue,as a"New Woman"in the male-dominated society,is dominated and oppressed in sex.Sue's subordinated position illustrates Hardy's sympathy for Victorian women and his opposition to the unjustified domination of women.He advocates a harmonious relationship among people in the society.

  3. Obscurance-based Volume Rendering Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Marc; Boada, Imma; Viola, Ivan; Bruckner, Stefan; Feixas, Miquel; Sbert, Mateu

    2008-01-01

    lighting effects in a faster way than global illumination. Its application in volume visualization is of special interest since it permits us to generate a high quality rendering at a low cost. In this paper, we propose an obscurancebased framework that allows us to obtain realistic and illustrative volume visualizations in an interactive manner. Obscurances can include color bleeding effects without additional cost. Moreover, we obtain a saliency map from the gradient of obscuran...

  4. Giant scattering cones in obscured quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Obied, Georges; Wylezalek, Dominika; Liu, Guilin

    2015-01-01

    We analyze Hubble Space Telescope observations of scattering regions in 20 luminous obscured quasars at $0.24obscuration -- inclinations and covering factors. Small derived opening angles (median half-angle and standard deviation 27\\dg$\\pm$9\\dg) are inconsistent with a 1:1 type 1 / type 2 ratio. We suggest that quasar obscuration is patchy and that the observer has a $\\sim 40\\%$ chan...

  5. A Chandra Observation of the Obscured Star-Forming Complex W40

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhn, Michael A; Feigelson, Eric D; Reipurth, Bo; Rodney, Steven A; Garmire, Gordon P

    2010-01-01

    The young stellar cluster illuminating the W40 H II region, one of the nearest massive star forming regions, has been observed with the ACIS detector on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Due to its high obscuration, this is a poorly-studied stellar cluster with only a handful of bright stars visible in the optical band, including three OB stars identified as primary excitation sources. We detect 225 X-ray sources, of which 85% are confidently identified as young stellar members of the region. Two potential distances of the cluster, 260 pc and 600 pc, are used in the paper. Supposing the X-ray luminosity function to be universal, it supports a 600 pc distance as a lower limit for W40 and a total population of at least 600 stars down to 0.1 Mo under the assumption of a coeval population with a uniform obscuration. In fact, there is strong spatial variation in Ks-band-excess disk fraction and non-uniform obscuration due to a dust lane that is identified in absorption in optical, infrared and X-ray. The dust l...

  6. Immunologic responses to inhaled cotton dust.

    OpenAIRE

    Salvaggio, J E; O'Neil, C E; Butcher, B T

    1986-01-01

    Byssinosis, a respiratory disease of workers on cotton, flax, and soft hemp, is classically characterized as shortness of breath, cough, and chest tightness on Mondays or the first day of return to work after a time off. Exposure to these vegetable dusts can also result in other respiratory diseases, and the term cotton dust-induced respiratory disease (CDIRD) is introduced. Although clinically characterized for more than a century, the underlying pathogenesis of CDIRD remains obscure. An all...

  7. Clostridium difficile: from obscurity to superbug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, J S

    2008-01-01

    According to the UK media and popular press, Clostridium difficile is now a fully fledged member of that notorious but ill-defined group of microorganisms portrayed to the general public as superbugs. Following the trail blazed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), C. difficile has made the transition from being an obscure anaerobic bacterium, mainly of interest to specialist anaerobic microbiologists, to that of an infamous superbug responsible for outbreaks of hospital-acquired infection that commonly result in serious disease and death. This review tracks the rise in scientific knowledge and public awareness of this organism. PMID:18476496

  8. [Jejunal GIST with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelly Manrique, María; Frisancho, Oscar; Rivas Wong, Luz; Palomino, Américo

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a woman of 84 years with a history of cardiac arrhythmia and hemorrhoids. She had multiple hospitalizations and transfusions for symptomatic iron deficiency anemia, endoscopic studies showed only small diverticula and colon polyps. He was later hospitalized with bloody stools red wines, upper endoscopy and colonoscopy showed gastritis, small colonic ulcers, colonic polyp and multiple diverticula. Readmitted with bleeding of obscure origin, on that occasion showed gastritis, antral erosions, small ulcers, colon polyps and colon ulcers in the process of healing, capsule endoscopy showed angiodysplasia in jejunum, anterograde enteroscopy detected some erythematous lesions in proximal jejunum without evidence of bleeding. Again hospitalized for melena and abdominal. PMID:22086325

  9. [Obscure digestive bleeding by ileal carcinoid tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelly Manrique, María; Frisancho, Oscar; Zumaeta, Eduardo; Palomino, Américo; Rodriguez, César

    2011-01-01

    The patient is an 82 year-old female with a history of osteoarthritis, hypothyroidism and anemia for 14 years (receiving blood transfusions). She was admited to our hospital with a nine months history of malaise, anorexia, fatigue and weakness, associated with intermitten episodes of abdominal pain. She was diagnosed anemia and occult blood positive stools. Physical examination revealed a patient in generally fair condition, obese, with mild edema of lower limbs, no changes in the evaluation of chest, cardiovascular, abdomen, etc. Laboratory data was unremarkable, except for iron deficiency anemia. The upper endoscopy showed duodenal ulcer scar, fundic polyposis and chronic gastritis. Colonoscopy revealed some diverticula, a small sessile polyp and internal hemorrhoids. The diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding was made. The CT scan of the abdomen showed gallstones and fatty liver; a radiograph of intestinal transit detected a lesion apparently protruded intestinal loop for distal jejunum; enteroscopy was performed (with one team ball) anterograde and retrograde achieving assess distal jejunum and distal ileum without observing any injuries. The study of capsule endoscopy showed a polypoid tumor intestinal with evidence of having bleeding. Surgery detected the tumor in proximal ileum. The surgical specimen findings showed three tumors 0.7 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm on the proximal ileum. The microscopic examination revealed that these lesions were neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoid). The Ileal carcinoid tumor may rarely presented with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:21544161

  10. Delayed X-Ray Afterglows from Obscured Gamma-Ray Bursts in Star-Forming Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Meszaros, P.; Gruzinov, A.

    2000-01-01

    For Gamma-Ray Bursts occurring in dense star-forming regions, the X-ray afterglow behavior minutes to days after the trigger may be dominated by the small-angle scattering of the prompt X-ray emission off dust grains. We give a simple illustrative model for the X-ray light curves at different X-ray energies, and discuss possible implications. A bump followed by a steeper decay in soft X-rays is predicted for bursts which are heavily obscured in the optical.

  11. Impact of galactic and intergalactic dust on the stellar EBL

    CERN Document Server

    Vavrycuk, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Current theories assume that the low intensity of the stellar extragalactic background light (stellar EBL) is caused primarily by finite age of the Universe because the finite age limits the number of photons pumped into the space by galaxies and thus the sky is dark in the night. We oppose this opinion and show that two main factors are responsible for the extremely low intensity of the observed stellar EBL: (1) a low mean surface brightness of galaxies, which causes a low luminosity density in the local Universe, and (2) light extinction due to absorption by galactic and intergalactic dust. Dust produces a partial opacity of galaxies and of the Universe. The galactic opacity reduces the intensity of light from more distant background galaxies obscured by foreground galaxies. The effective extinction AV for light passing through a galaxy is 0.2 mag. This causes that distant background galaxies do not contribute to the EBL significantly. In addition, light of distant galaxies is dimmed due to absorption by in...

  12. The silicate absorption profile in the ISM towards the heavily obscured nucleus of NGC 4418

    CERN Document Server

    Roche, P F; Gonzalez-Martin, O

    2015-01-01

    The 9.7-micron silicate absorption profile in the interstellar medium provides important information on the physical and chemical composition of interstellar dust grains. Measurements in the Milky Way have shown that the profile in the diffuse interstellar medium is very similar to the amorphous silicate profiles found in circumstellar dust shells around late M stars, and narrower than the silicate profile in denser star-forming regions. Here, we investigate the silicate absorption profile towards the very heavily obscured nucleus of NGC 4418, the galaxy with the deepest known silicate absorption feature, and compare it to the profiles seen in the Milky Way. Comparison between the 8-13 micron spectrum obtained with TReCS on Gemini and the larger aperture spectrum obtained from the Spitzer archive indicates that the former isolates the nuclear emission, while Spitzer detects low surface brightness circumnuclear diffuse emission in addition. The silicate absorption profile towards the nucleus is very similar to...

  13. On the nature of the most obscured C-rich AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Ventura, P; Dell'Agli, F; García-Hernández, D A; Boyer, M L; Di Criscienzo, M

    2016-01-01

    The stars in the Magellanic Clouds with the largest degree of obscuration are used to probe the highly uncertain physics of stars in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of evolution. Carbon stars in particular, provide key information on the amount of third dredge-up (TDU) and mass loss. We use two independent stellar evolution codes to test how a different treatment of the physics affects the evolution on the AGB. The output from the two codes are used to determine the rates of dust formation in the circumstellar envelope, where the method used to determine the dust is the same for each case. The stars with the largest degree of obscuration in the LMC and SMC are identified as the progeny of objects of initial mass $2.5-3~M_{\\odot}$ and $\\sim 1.5~M_{\\odot}$, respectively. This difference in mass is motivated by the difference in the star formation histories of the two galaxies, and offers a simple explanation of the redder infrared colours of C-stars in the LMC compared to their counterparts in the SMC. ...

  14. Environment and properties of obscured and unobscured active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, M.; Bornancini, C.

    We analyze the properties of obscured and unobscured active galactic nuclei selected using mid-infrared colors in the redshift range 1 < z < 3. We find that obscured objects are located in a denser local galaxy environment compared to the unobscured sample.

  15. Obscuring Supersoft X-ray Sources in Stellar Winds

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, M.B.T.; Dominik, C.; Nelemans, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of obscuring supersoft X-ray sources in the winds of companion stars. We derive limits on the amount of circumstellar material needed to fully obscure a ‘canonical’ supersoft X-ray source in the Large Magellanic Cloud, as observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  16. Behind every innovative solution lies an obscure feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Spector (Fellow ISGEC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Obscure Features Hypothesis (OFH for innovation states that a two-step process undergirds almost all innovative solutions: (1 notice an infrequently observed or new (i.e., obscure feature of the problem and (2 construct an interaction involving the obscure feature that produces the desired effects to solve the problem. The OFH leads to a systematic derivation of innovation-enhancing techniques by engaging in two tasks. First, we developed a 32-category system of the types of features possessable by a physical object or material. This Feature Type Taxonomy (FTT provides a panoramic view of the space of features and assists in searches for the obscure ones. Second, we are articulating the many cognitive reasons that obscure features are overlooked and are developing countering techniques for each known reason. We present the implications and techniques of the OFH, as well as indicate how software can assist innovators in the effective use of these innovation-enhancing techniques.

  17. On the nature of the most obscured C-rich AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, P.; Karakas, A. I.; Dell'Agli, F.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Boyer, M. L.; Di Criscienzo, M.

    2016-04-01

    The stars in the Magellanic Clouds with the largest degree of obscuration are used to probe the highly uncertain physics of stars in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of evolution. Carbon stars in particular provide key information on the amount of third dredge-up and mass-loss. We use two independent stellar evolution codes to test how a different treatment of the physics affects the evolution on the AGB. The output from the two codes is used to determine the rates of dust formation in the circumstellar envelope, where the method used to determine the dust is the same for each case. The stars with the largest degree of obscuration in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) are identified as the progeny of objects of initial mass 2.5-3 M⊙ and ˜1.5 M⊙, respectively. This difference in mass is motivated by the difference in the star formation histories of the two galaxies, and offers a simple explanation of the redder infrared colours of C-stars in the LMC compared to their counterparts in the SMC. The comparison with the Spitzer colours of C-rich AGB stars in the SMC shows that a minimum surface carbon mass fraction X(C) ˜ 5 × 10-3 must have been reached by stars of initial mass around 1.5 M⊙. Our results confirm the necessity of adopting low-temperature opacities in stellar evolutionary models of AGB stars. These opacities allow the stars to obtain mass-loss rates high enough (≳10-4 M⊙ yr-1) to produce the amount of dust needed to reproduce the Spitzer colours.

  18. Technical Note: High-resolution mineralogical database of dust-productive soils for atmospheric dust modeling

    OpenAIRE

    S. Nickovic; Vukovic, A.; M. Vujadinovic; V. Djurdjevic; G. Pejanovic

    2012-01-01

    Dust storms and associated mineral aerosol transport are driven primarily by meso- and synoptic-scale atmospheric processes. It is therefore essential that the dust aerosol process and background atmospheric conditions that drive dust emissions and atmospheric transport are represented with sufficiently well-resolved spatial and temporal features. The effects of airborne dust interactions with the environment determine the mineral composition of dust particles. The fractions of various minera...

  19. Remote Optical Imagery of Obscured Objects in Low-Visibility Environments Using Parametric Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asher, R.B.; Bliss, D.E.; Cameron, S.M.; Hamil, R.A.

    1998-10-14

    The development of unconventional active optical sensors to remotely detect and spatially resolve suspected threats obscured by low-visibility observation conditions (adverse weather, clouds, dust, smoke, precipitation, etc.) is fundamental to maintaining tactical supremacy in the battlespace. In this report, the authors describe an innovative frequency-agile image intensifier technology based on time-gated optical parametic amplification (OPA) for enhanced light-based remote sensing through pervasive scattering and/or turbulent environments. Improved dynamic range characteristics derived from the amplified passband of the OPA receiver combined with temporal discrimination in the image capture process will offset radiant power extinction losses, while defeating the deugradative effects & multipath dispersion and ,diffuse backscatter noise along the line-of-sight on resultant image contrast and range resolution. Our approach extends the operational utility of the detection channel in existing laser radar systems by increasing sensitivity to low-level target reffectivities, adding ballistic rejection of scatter and clutter in the range coordinate, and introducing multispectral and polarization discrimination capability in a wavelen~h-tunable, high gain nonlinear optical component with strong potential for source miniaturization. A key advantage of integrating amplification and tlequency up-conversion functions within a phasematched three-wave mixing parametric device is the ability to petiorm background-free imaging with eye-safe or longer inilared illumination wavelengths (idler) less susceptible to scatter without sacrificing quantum efficiency in the detection process at the corresponding signal wavelength. We report benchmark laboratory experiments in which the OPA gating process has been successfidly demonstrated in both transillumination and reflection test geometries with extended pathlengths representative of realistic coastal sea water and cumulus cloud

  20. Robust forecasts on fundamental physics from the foreground-obscured, gravitationally-lensed CMB polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen M.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Jaffe, Andrew H.

    2016-03-01

    Recent results from the BICEP, Keck Array and Planck Collaborations demonstrate that Galactic foregrounds are an unavoidable obstacle in the search for evidence of inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. Beyond the foregrounds, the effect of lensing by intervening large-scale structure further obscures all but the strongest inflationary signals permitted by current data. With a plethora of ongoing and upcoming experiments aiming to measure these signatures, careful and self-consistent consideration of experiments' foreground- and lensing-removal capabilities is critical in obtaining credible forecasts of their performance. We investigate the capabilities of instruments such as Advanced ACTPol, BICEP3 and Keck Array, CLASS, EBEX10K, PIPER, Simons Array, SPT-3G and SPIDER, and projects as COrE+, LiteBIRD-ext, PIXIE and Stage IV, to clean contamination due to polarized synchrotron and dust from raw multi-frequency data, and remove lensing from the resulting co-added CMB maps (either using iterative CMB-only techniques or through cross-correlation with external data). Incorporating these effects, we present forecasts for the constraining power of these experiments in terms of inflationary physics, the neutrino sector, and dark energy parameters. Made publicly available through an online interface, this tool enables the next generation of CMB experiments to foreground-proof their designs, optimize their frequency coverage to maximize scientific output, and determine where cross-experimental collaboration would be most beneficial. We find that analyzing data from ground, balloon and space instruments in complementary combinations can significantly improve component separation performance, delensing, and cosmological constraints over individual datasets. In particular, we find that a combination of post-2020 ground- and space-based experiments could achieve constraints such as σ(r)~1.3×10-4, σ(nt)~0.03, σ( ns )~1.8×10

  1. Radio Jet Feedback and Star Formation in Heavily Obscured Quasars at Redshifts ~0.3-3, I: ALMA Obseravtions

    CERN Document Server

    Lonsdale, Carol J; Kimball, Amy E; Blain, Andrew; Whittle, Mark; Wilkes, Belinda; Stern, Dan; Condon, Jim; Kim, Minjin; Assef, Roberto J; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Efstathiou, Andreas; Jones, Suzy; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Wu, Jinwen; Lonsdale, Colin J; Jones, Kristen; Jarrett, Tom; Smith, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    We present ALMA 870 micron (345 GHz) data for 49 high redshift (0.47dust emission from starbursts concurrent with highly obscured radiative-mode black hole (BH) accretion in massive galaxies which possess a small radio jet. The sample was selected from WISE with extremely steep (red) mid-infrared (MIR) colors and with compact radio emission from NVSS/FIRST. Twenty-six sources are detected at 870 microns, and we find that the sample has large mid- to far-infrared luminosity ratios consistent with a dominant and highly obscured quasar. The rest-frame 3 GHz radio powers are 24.7 < log P3.0 GHz (W/Hz) < 27.3, and all sources are radio-intermediate or radio-loud. BH mass estimates are 7.7 < log M(BH) (Msun) < 10.2. The rest frame 1-5 um SEDs are very similar to the "Hot DOGs" (Hot Dust Obscured Galaxies), and steeper (redder) than almost any other known extragalactic sources. ISM masses estim...

  2. A REDSHIFT SURVEY OF HERSCHEL FAR-INFRARED SELECTED STARBURSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OBSCURED STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Keck spectroscopic observations and redshifts for a sample of 767 Herschel-SPIRE selected galaxies (HSGs) at 250, 350, and 500 μm, taken with the Keck I Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and the Keck II DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph. The redshift distribution of these SPIRE sources from the Herschel Multitiered Extragalactic Survey peaks at z = 0.85, with 731 sources at z spec)) = 0.29) than is seen in non-infrared selected samples, likely due to enhanced star formation rates and dust obscuration in infrared-selected galaxies. The infrared data are used to directly measure integrated infrared luminosities and dust temperatures independent of radio or 24 μm flux densities. By probing the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) at its peak, we estimate that the vast majority (72%-83%) of z IR∝(1 + z)–0.30±0.02 at z > 0 and demonstrates the growing importance of dusty starbursts for galaxy evolution studies and the build-up of stellar mass throughout cosmic time.

  3. Central obscuration effects on optical synthetic aperture imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-wen; Luo, Xiao; Zheng, Li-gong; Zhang, Xue-jun

    2014-02-01

    Due to the central obscuration problem exists in most optical synthetic aperture systems, it is necessary to analyze its effects on their image performance. Based on the incoherent diffraction limited imaging theory, a Golay-3 type synthetic aperture system was used to study the central obscuration effects on the point spread function (PSF) and the modulation transfer function (MTF). It was found that the central obscuration does not affect the width of the central peak of the PSF and the cutoff spatial frequency of the MTF, but attenuate the first sidelobe of the PSF and the midfrequency of the MTF. The imaging simulation of a Golay-3 type synthetic aperture system with central obscuration proved this conclusion. At last, a Wiener Filter restoration algorithm was used to restore the image of this system, the images were obviously better.

  4. The orientation of the nuclear obscurer of the AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Shiyin; Gu, Minfeng

    2010-01-01

    We examine the distribution of axis ratios of a large sample of disk galaxies hosting type 2 AGNs selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and compare it with a well-defined control sample of non-active galaxies. We find them significantly different, where the type 2 AGNs show both an excess of edge-on objects and deficit of round objects. This systematical bias can not be explained by a nuclear obscurer oriented randomly with respect to the stellar disk. However, a nuclear obscurer coplanar with the stellar disk also does not fit the data very well. By assuming that the nuclear obscurer having an opening angle of ~60 degree, we find the observed axis ratio distribution can be nicely reproduced by a mean tilt angle of ~30 degree between the nuclear obscurer and the stellar disk.

  5. Image-space Ambient Obscurance in WebGL

    OpenAIRE

    Gravås, Lorents Odin

    2013-01-01

    Image-space approaches to ambient obscurance have become the de-facto standard for realistic ambient lighting in real-time applications. This thesis investigates the potential applicability of such approaches for a WebGL-based implementation. As image-space ambient obscurance has been an active field of research in computer graphics the last few years, a lot of different techniques and enhancements have emerged. This thesis presents a systematic survey of the current state of the art techniqu...

  6. The nuclear dust lane of Circinus: collimation without a torus

    CERN Document Server

    Mezcua, M; Fernández-Ontiveros, J A; Tristram, K R W

    2016-01-01

    In some AGN, nuclear dust lanes connected to kpc-scale dust structures provide all the extinction required to obscure the nucleus, challenging the role of the dusty torus proposed by the Unified Model. In this letter we show the pc-scale dust and ionized gas maps of Circinus constructed using sub-arcsec-accuracy registration of infrared VLT AO images with optical \\textit{Hubble Space Telescope} images. We find that the collimation of the ionized gas does not require a torus but is caused by the distribution of dust lanes of the host galaxy on $\\sim$10 pc scales. This finding questions the presumed torus morphology and its role at parsec scales, as one of its main attributes is to collimate the nuclear radiation, and is in line with interferometric observations which show that most of the pc-scale dust is in the polar direction. We estimate that the nuclear dust lane in Circinus provides $1/3$ of the extinction required to obscure the nucleus. This constitutes a conservative lower limit to the obscuration at t...

  7. A spectroscopic survey of WISE-selected obscured quasars with the southern african large telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic survey of a sample of 40 candidate obscured quasars identified on the basis of their mid-infrared emission detected by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Optical spectra for this survey were obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph on the Southern African Large Telescope. Our sample was selected with WISE colors characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), as well as red optical to mid-IR colors indicating that the optical/UV AGN continuum is obscured by dust. We obtain secure redshifts for the majority of the objects that comprise our sample (35/40), and find that sources that are bright in the WISE W4 (22 μm) band are typically at moderate redshift ((z) = 0.35) while sources fainter in W4 are at higher redshifts ((z) = 0.73). The majority of the sources have narrow emission lines with optical colors and emission line ratios of our WISE-selected sources that are consistent with the locus of AGN on the rest-frame g – z color versus [Ne III] λ3869/[O II] λλ3726+3729 line ratio diagnostic diagram. We also use empirical AGN and galaxy templates to model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for the objects in our sample, and find that while there is significant variation in the observed SEDs for these objects, the majority require a strong AGN component. Finally, we use the results from our analysis of the optical spectra and the SEDs to compare our selection criteria to alternate criteria presented in the literature. These results verify the efficacy of selecting luminous obscured AGNs based on their WISE colors.

  8. A spectroscopic survey of WISE-selected obscured quasars with the southern african large telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hainline, Kevin N.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Carroll, Christopher M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Myers, Adam D.; DiPompeo, Michael A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Trouille, Laura [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, The Adler Planetarium, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic survey of a sample of 40 candidate obscured quasars identified on the basis of their mid-infrared emission detected by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Optical spectra for this survey were obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph on the Southern African Large Telescope. Our sample was selected with WISE colors characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), as well as red optical to mid-IR colors indicating that the optical/UV AGN continuum is obscured by dust. We obtain secure redshifts for the majority of the objects that comprise our sample (35/40), and find that sources that are bright in the WISE W4 (22 μm) band are typically at moderate redshift ((z) = 0.35) while sources fainter in W4 are at higher redshifts ((z) = 0.73). The majority of the sources have narrow emission lines with optical colors and emission line ratios of our WISE-selected sources that are consistent with the locus of AGN on the rest-frame g – z color versus [Ne III] λ3869/[O II] λλ3726+3729 line ratio diagnostic diagram. We also use empirical AGN and galaxy templates to model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for the objects in our sample, and find that while there is significant variation in the observed SEDs for these objects, the majority require a strong AGN component. Finally, we use the results from our analysis of the optical spectra and the SEDs to compare our selection criteria to alternate criteria presented in the literature. These results verify the efficacy of selecting luminous obscured AGNs based on their WISE colors.

  9. ALMA Observation of 158 micron [CII] Line and Dust Continuum of a z=7 Normally Star-forming Galaxy in the Epoch of Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Ota, Kazuaki; Ohta, Kouji; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Carilli, Chris L; da Cunha, Elisabete; González-López, Jorge; Decarli, Roberto; Hodge, Jacqueline A; Nagai, Hiroshi; Egami, Eiichi; Jiang, Linhua; Iye, Masanori; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Riechers, Dominik A; Bertoldi, Frank; Cox, Pierre; Neri, Roberto; Weiss, Axel

    2014-01-01

    We present ALMA observations of the [CII] line and far-infrared (FIR) continuum of a normally star-forming galaxy in the reionization epoch, the z=6.96 Ly-alpha emitter (LAE) IOK-1. Probing to sensitivities of sigma_line = 240 micro-Jy/beam (40 km/s channel) and sigma_cont = 21 micro-Jy/beam, we found the galaxy undetected in both [CII] and continuum. Comparison of UV - FIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of IOK-1, including our ALMA limit, with those of several types of local galaxies (including the effects of the cosmic microwave background, CMB, on the FIR continuum) suggests that IOK-1 is similar to local dwarf/irregular galaxies in SED shape rather than highly dusty/obscured galaxies. Moreover, our 3 sigma FIR continuum limit, corrected for CMB effects, implies intrinsic dust mass M_dust < 6.4 x 10^7 M_sun, FIR luminosity L_FIR < 3.7 x 10^{10} L_sun (42.5 - 122.5 micron), total IR luminosity L_IR < 5.7 x 10^{10} L_sun (8 - 1000 micron) and dust-obscured star formation rate (SFR) < 10 M_sun...

  10. Estimation of high altitude Martian dust parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Jayesh; Bhalodi, Pinali

    2016-07-01

    Dust devils are known to occur near the Martian surface mostly during the mid of Southern hemisphere summer and they play vital role in deciding background dust opacity in the atmosphere. The second source of high altitude Martian dust could be due to the secondary ejecta caused by impacts on Martian Moons, Phobos and Deimos. Also, the surfaces of the Moons are charged positively due to ultraviolet rays from the Sun and negatively due to space plasma currents. Such surface charging may cause fine grains to be levitated, which can easily escape the Moons. It is expected that the escaping dust form dust rings within the orbits of the Moons and therefore also around the Mars. One more possible source of high altitude Martian dust is interplanetary in nature. Due to continuous supply of the dust from various sources and also due to a kind of feedback mechanism existing between the ring or tori and the sources, the dust rings or tori can sustain over a period of time. Recently, very high altitude dust at about 1000 km has been found by MAVEN mission and it is expected that the dust may be concentrated at about 150 to 500 km. However, it is mystery how dust has reached to such high altitudes. Estimation of dust parameters before-hand is necessary to design an instrument for the detection of high altitude Martian dust from a future orbiter. In this work, we have studied the dust supply rate responsible primarily for the formation of dust ring or tori, the life time of dust particles around the Mars, the dust number density as well as the effect of solar radiation pressure and Martian oblateness on dust dynamics. The results presented in this paper may be useful to space scientists for understanding the scenario and designing an orbiter based instrument to measure the dust surrounding the Mars for solving the mystery. The further work is underway.

  11. Obscured flat spectrum radio AGN as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Maggi, G; Correa, P; de Vries, K D; Gentile, G; Tavares, J Leon; Scholten, O; van Eijndhoven, N; Vereecken, M; Winchen, T

    2016-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are believed to be one of the main source candidates for the high-energy (TeV-PeV) cosmic neutrino flux recently discovered by the IceCube neutrino observatory. Nevertheless, several correlation studies between AGN and the cosmic neutrinos detected by IceCube show no significance. Therefore, in this article we consider a specific sub-class of AGN for which an increased neutrino production is expected. This sub-class contains AGN for which their high-energy jet is pointing toward Earth. Furthermore, we impose the condition that the jet is obscured by gas or dust surrounding the AGN. A method is presented to determine the total column density of the obscuring medium, which is probed by determining the relative X-ray attenuation with respect to the radio flux as obtained from the AGN spectrum. The total column density allows us to probe the interaction of the jet with the surrounding matter which leads to additional neutrino production. Finally, starting from two different source cat...

  12. A Spectroscopic Survey of WISE-selected Obscured Quasars with the Southern African Large Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Hainline, Kevin N; Carroll, Christopher M; Myers, Adam D; DiPompeo, Michael A; Trouille, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic survey of a sample of 40 candidate obscured quasars identified on the basis of their mid-infrared emission detected by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Optical spectra for this survey were obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). Our sample was selected with WISE colors characteristic of AGNs, as well as red optical to mid-IR colors indicating that the optical/UV AGN continuum is obscured by dust. We obtain secure redshifts for the majority of the objects that comprise our sample (35/40), and find that sources that are bright in the WISE W4 (22$\\mu$m) band are typically at moderate redshift ( = 0.35$) while sources fainter in W4 are at higher redshifts ( = 0.73$). The majority of the sources have narrow emission lines, with optical colors and emission line ratios of our WISE-selected sources that are consistent with the locus of AGN on the rest-frame $g-z$ color vs. [NeIII]$\\lambda$3869...

  13. Evidence for Fluorescent Fe II Emission from Extended Low Ionization Outflows in Obscured Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that outflows in at least some broad absorption line (BAL) quasars are extended well beyond the putative dusty torus. Such outflows should be detectable in obscured quasars. We present four WISE selected infrared red quasars with very strong and peculiar ultraviolet Fe ii emission lines: strong UV Fe II UV arising from transitions to ground/low excitation levels, and very weak Fe II at wavelengths longer than 2800 {\\AA}. The spectra of these quasars display strong resonant emission lines, such as C IV, Al III and Mg II but sometimes, a lack of non-resonant lines such as C III], S III and He II. We interpret the Fe II lines as resonantly scattered light from the extended outflows that are viewed nearly edge-on, so that the accretion disk and broad line region are obscured by the dusty torus, while the extended outflows are not. We show that dust free gas exposed to strong radiation longward of 912 {\\AA} produces Fe II emission very similar to that observed. The gas is too cool to coll...

  14. On the relation of optical obscuration and X-ray absorption in Seyfert galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Burtscher, L; Gracia-Carpio, J; Koss, M J; Lin, M -Y; Lutz, D; Nandra, P; Netzer, H; de Xivry, G Orban; Ricci, C; Rosario, D J; Veilleux, S; Contursi, A; Genzel, R; Schnorr-Mueller, A; Sternberg, A; Sturm, E; Tacconi, L J

    2016-01-01

    The optical classification of a Seyfert galaxy and whether it is considered X-ray absorbed are often used interchangeably. But there are many borderline cases and also numerous examples where the optical and X-ray classifications appear to be in conflict. In this article we re-visit the relation between optical obscuration and X-ray absorption in AGNs. We make use of our "dust color" method (Burtscher et al. 2015) to derive the optical obscuration A_V and consistently estimated X-ray absorbing columns using 0.3--150 keV spectral energy distributions. We also take into account the variable nature of the neutral gas column N_H and derive the Seyfert sub-classes of all our objects in a consistent way. We show in a sample of 25 local, hard-X-ray detected Seyfert galaxies (log L_X / (erg/s) ~ 41.5 - 43.5) that there can actually be a good agreement between optical and X-ray classification. If Seyfert types 1.8 and 1.9 are considered unobscured, the threshold between X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed should be chosen a...

  15. An obscure disease of rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, R.R.; Yasutake, W.T.; Wedemeyer, G.

    1970-01-01

    An annul mortality among Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri) has plagued the Shelton Hatchery of the Washington State Department of Game for the last several years. No infectious agent could be isolated from the moribund fish, but histopathologica1 changes in the liver of 1-month-old fish suggested the presence of a toxic substance. Scoliosis in 3-month-old fish suggested a possible deficiency in vitamin C. With this background in mind, we designed studies to determine the nature and source of possible toxicants and the role of vitamin C deficiency in the etiology of this disease.

  16. Updated measurements of the dark matter halo masses of obscured quasars with improved WISE and Planck data

    CERN Document Server

    DiPompeo, M A; Myers, A D

    2015-01-01

    Using the most recent releases of WISE and Planck data, we perform updated measurements of the bias and typical dark matter halo mass of infrared-selected obscured and unobscured quasars, using the angular autocorrelation function and cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing cross-correlations. Since our recent work of this kind, the WISE Allwise catalogue was released with improved photometry, and the Planck mission was completed and released improved products. These new data provide a more reliable measurement of the quasar bias and provide an opportunity to explore the role of changing survey pipelines in results downstream. We present a comparison of IR color-selected quasars, split into obscured and unobscured populations based on optical-IR colors, selected from two versions of the WISE data. Which combination of data is used impacts the final results, particularly for obscured quasars, both because of mitigation of some systematics and because the newer catalogue provides a slightly different sample. ...

  17. RING-APODIZED VORTEX CORONAGRAPHS FOR OBSCURED TELESCOPES. I. TRANSMISSIVE RING APODIZERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vortex coronagraph (VC) is a new generation small inner working angle (IWA) coronagraph currently offered on various 8 m class ground-based telescopes. On these observing platforms, the current level of performance is not limited by the intrinsic properties of actual vortex devices, but by wavefront control residuals and incoherent background (e.g., thermal emission of the sky), or the light diffracted by the imprint of the secondary mirror and support structures on the telescope pupil. In the particular case of unfriendly apertures (mainly large central obscuration) when very high contrast is needed (e.g., direct imaging of older exoplanets with extremely large telescopes or space-based coronagraphs), a simple VC, like most coronagraphs, cannot deliver its nominal performance because of the contamination due to the diffraction from the obscured part of the pupil. Here, we propose a novel yet simple concept that circumvents this problem. We combine a vortex phase mask in the image plane of a high-contrast instrument with a single pupil-based amplitude ring apodizer, tailor-made to exploit the unique convolution properties of the VC at the Lyot-stop plane. We show that such a ring-apodized vortex coronagraph (RAVC) restores the perfect attenuation property of the VC regardless of the size of the central obscuration, and for any (even) topological charge of the vortex. More importantly, the RAVC maintains the IWA and conserves a fairly high throughput, which are signature properties of the VC

  18. Diffuse Galactic Emission from Spinning Dust Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Draine, B. T.; Lazarian, A.

    1997-01-01

    Spinning interstellar dust grains produce detectable rotational emission in the 10-100 GHz frequency range. We calculate the emission spectrum, and show that this emission can account for the ``anomalous'' Galactic background component which correlates with 100um thermal emission from dust. Implications for cosmic background studies are discussed.

  19. San Pedro Martir observations of microvariability in obscured quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Polednikova, Jana; Cepa, Jordi; de Diego, José Antonio; González-Serrano, José Ignacio; Bongiovanni, Angél; Oteo, Iván; García, Ana M Pérez; Pérez-Martínez, Ricardo; Pintos-Castro, Irene; Ramón-Pérez, Marina; Sánchez-Portal, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Fast brightness variations are a unique tool to probe the innermost regions of active galactic nuclei (AGN). These variations are called microvariability or intra-night variability, and this phenomenon has been monitored in samples of blazars and unobscured AGNs. Detecting optical microvariations in targets hidden by the obscuring torus is a challenging task because the region responsible for the variations is hidden from our sight. However, there have been reports of fast variations in obscured Seyfert galaxies in X-rays, which rises the question whether microvariations can also be detected in obscured AGNs in the optical regime. Because the expected variations are very small and can easily be lost within the noise, the analysis requires a statistical approach. We report the use of a one-way analysis of variance, ANOVA, with which we searched for microvariability. ANOVA was successfully employed in previous studies of unobscured AGNs. As a result, we found microvariable events during three observing blocks: ...

  20. Dust emission and the evidence for star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dust obscures our view of the Galactic center, and complicates enormously the search for a ''central engine.'' One straightforward but indirect method is to study the thermal emission from dust in the nucleus. A very simplistic assumption, that the nucleus is choked with dust, leads to the prediction that a central engine, if present, will produce a single bright infrared source. Observations made more than a decade ago excluded this naive possibility. Instead, 10 μm images of the Galactic center are complicated, with multiple peaks in the emission

  1. Precipitation and Obscuration Processing of Aerosol Particles at Rural Background Station

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zíková, Naděžda; Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír

    - : -, 2014, OP38-6. ISBN N. [International Aerosol Conference 2014. Busan (KR), 28.08.2014-02.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/11/1342 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : atmospheric aerosol * SMPS * precipitation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  2. Radiometric Screening of Red Phosphorus Smoke for its Obscuration Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Gautam

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Red phosphorus and potassium nitrate-based compositions exhibit favorable smoke screenformation with high obscuration characteristics at low oxidiser content. The rapid vaporisationof excess red phosphorus at higher flame temperature leads to quick aerodispersion. Theobscuration characteristics are due to formation of P2O5 and subsequent reaction with moisture/humidity in the atmosphere. Obscuration increases with increasing humidity. Extinction coefficient,the shadow cast per unit mass of the composition, is higher in visible and comparatively lowerin far infrared.

  3. Decoding spectral energy distributions of dust-obscured starburst-AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Yunkun

    2012-01-01

    We present BayeSED, a general purpose tool for doing Bayesian analysis of SEDs by using whatever pre-existing model SED libraries or their linear combinations. The artificial neural networks (ANNs), principal component analysis (PCA) and multimodal nested sampling (MultiNest) techniques are employed to allow a highly efficient sampling of posterior distribution and the calculation of Bayesian evidence. As a demonstration, we apply this tool to a sample of hyperluminous infrared galaxies (HLIRGs). The Bayesian evidences obtained for a pure Starburst, a pure AGN, and a linear combination of Starburst+AGN models show that the Starburst+AGN model have the highest evidence for all galaxies in this sample. The Bayesian evidences for the three models and the estimated contributions of starburst and AGN to infrared luminosity show that HLIRGs can be classified into two groups: one dominated by starburst and the other dominated by AGN. Other parameters and corresponding uncertainties about starburst and AGN are also e...

  4. Herschel spectroscopic observations of the compact obscured nucleus in Zw 049.057

    CERN Document Server

    Falstad, N; Aalto, S; van der Werf, P P; Fischer, J; Veilleux, S; Meléndez, M; Farrah, D; Smith, H A

    2015-01-01

    Context. The LIRG Zw 049.057 contains a compact obscured nucleus where a considerable amount of the galaxy's luminosity is generated. This nucleus contains a dusty environment that is rich in molecular gas. One approach to probing this kind of environment and to revealing what is hidden behind the dust is to study the rotational lines of molecules that couple well with the IR radiation emitted by the dust. Methods. We observed Zw 049.057 with PACS and SPIRE onboard the Herschel Space Observatory in rotational lines of H2O, H218O, OH, 18OH, and [O I]. We modeled the unresolved core of the galaxy using a spherically symmetric radiative transfer code. Results. We present the full SPIRE FTS spectrum of Zw 049.057, along with relevant spectral scans in the PACS range. We find that a minimum of two different components (nuclear and extended) are required in order to account for the rich molecular line spectrum. The nuclear component has a radius of 10-30 pc, a very high infrared surface brightness (1e14 Lsun/kpc2),...

  5. The silicate absorption profile in the interstellar medium towards the heavily obscured nucleus of NGC 4418

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, P. F.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Gonzalez-Martin, O.

    2015-05-01

    The 9.7-μm silicate absorption profile in the interstellar medium (ISM) provides important information on the physical and chemical composition of interstellar dust grains. Measurements in the Milky Way have shown that the profile in the diffuse ISM is very similar to the amorphous silicate profiles found in circumstellar dust shells around late M stars, and narrower than the silicate profile in denser star-forming regions. Here, we investigate the silicate absorption profile towards the very heavily obscured nucleus of NGC 4418, the galaxy with the deepest known silicate absorption feature, and compare it to the profiles seen in the Milky Way. Comparison between the 8-13 μm spectrum obtained with Thermal-Region Camera Spectrograph on Gemini and the larger aperture spectrum obtained from the Spitzer archive indicates that the former isolates the nuclear emission, while Spitzer detects low surface brightness circumnuclear diffuse emission in addition. The silicate absorption profile towards the nucleus is very similar to that in the diffuse ISM in the Milky Way with no evidence of spectral structure from crystalline silicates or silicon carbide grains.

  6. Fatalism in Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Gengmei; Zhou Juntao

    2014-01-01

    Hardy is distinguished for his deep understanding of human nature and his insight of human life and experience. This paper will make an exploration about the theme of Jude the Obscure, which conveys the strong sense of fatalism, to show Hardy’s life outlook and reveal his pessimistic views towards society and human nature.

  7. Fatalism in Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Gengmei; Zhou; Juntao

    2014-01-01

    Hardy is distinguished for his deep understanding of human nature and his insight of human life and experience.This paper will make an exploration about the theme of Jude the Obscure,which conveys the strong sense of fatalism,to show Hardy’s life outlook and reveal his pessimistic views towards society and human nature.

  8. Evaluation and outcomes of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Santhakumar, Cositha; Liu, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is defined as recurrent or persistent bleeding or presence of iron deficiency anaemia after evaluation with a negative bidirectional endoscopy. OGIB accounts for 5% of gastrointestinal bleeding and presents a diagnostic challenge. Current modalities available for the investigation of OGIB include capsule endoscopy, balloon assisted enteroscopy, spiral enteroscopy and computed tomography enterography. These modalities overcome the limitations of previou...

  9. ALMA observation of 158 μm [C II] line and dust continuum of a z = 7 normally star-forming galaxy in the epoch of reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ota, Kazuaki [Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Walter, Fabian; Da Cunha, Elisabete; González-López, Jorge; Decarli, Roberto; Hodge, Jacqueline A. [Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ohta, Kouji [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Hatsukade, Bunyo; Nagai, Hiroshi; Iye, Masanori; Kashikawa, Nobunari [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Carilli, Chris L. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Egami, Eiichi [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Jiang, Linhua [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1504 (United States); Riechers, Dominik A. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bertoldi, Frank [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Cox, Pierre; Neri, Roberto [Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique (IRAM), 300 rue de la piscine, F-38406 Saint-Martin d' Hères (France); Weiss, Axel, E-mail: kota@ast.cam.ac.uk [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-09-01

    We present ALMA observations of the [C II] line and far-infrared (FIR) continuum of a normally star-forming galaxy in the reionization epoch, the z = 6.96 Lyα emitter (LAE) IOK-1. Probing to sensitivities of σ{sub line} = 240 μJy beam{sup –1} (40 km s{sup –1} channel) and σ{sub cont} = 21 μJy beam{sup –1}, we found the galaxy undetected in both [C II] and continuum. Comparison of ultraviolet (UV)-FIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of IOK-1, including our ALMA limit, with those of several types of local galaxies (including the effects of the cosmic microwave background, CMB, on the FIR continuum) suggests that IOK-1 is similar to local dwarf/irregular galaxies in SED shape rather than highly dusty/obscured galaxies. Moreover, our 3σ FIR continuum limit, corrected for CMB effects, implies intrinsic dust mass M {sub dust} < 6.4 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, FIR luminosity L {sub FIR} < 3.7 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} (42.5-122.5 μm), total IR luminosity L {sub IR} < 5.7 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} (8-1000 μm), and dust-obscured star formation rate (SFR) < 10 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, if we assume that IOK-1 has a dust temperature and emissivity index typical of local dwarf galaxies. This SFR is 2.4 times lower than one estimated from the UV continuum, suggesting that <29% of the star formation is obscured by dust. Meanwhile, our 3σ [C II] flux limit translates into [C II] luminosity, L {sub [C} {sub II]} < 3.4 × 10{sup 7} L {sub ☉}. Locations of IOK-1 and previously observed LAEs on the L {sub [C} {sub II]} versus SFR and L {sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub FIR} versus L {sub FIR} diagrams imply that LAEs in the reionization epoch have significantly lower gas and dust enrichment than AGN-powered systems and starbursts at similar/lower redshifts, as well as local star-forming galaxies.

  10. ALMA observation of 158 μm [C II] line and dust continuum of a z = 7 normally star-forming galaxy in the epoch of reionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present ALMA observations of the [C II] line and far-infrared (FIR) continuum of a normally star-forming galaxy in the reionization epoch, the z = 6.96 Lyα emitter (LAE) IOK-1. Probing to sensitivities of σline = 240 μJy beam–1 (40 km s–1 channel) and σcont = 21 μJy beam–1, we found the galaxy undetected in both [C II] and continuum. Comparison of ultraviolet (UV)-FIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of IOK-1, including our ALMA limit, with those of several types of local galaxies (including the effects of the cosmic microwave background, CMB, on the FIR continuum) suggests that IOK-1 is similar to local dwarf/irregular galaxies in SED shape rather than highly dusty/obscured galaxies. Moreover, our 3σ FIR continuum limit, corrected for CMB effects, implies intrinsic dust mass M dust < 6.4 × 107 M ☉, FIR luminosity L FIR < 3.7 × 1010 L ☉ (42.5-122.5 μm), total IR luminosity L IR < 5.7 × 1010 L ☉ (8-1000 μm), and dust-obscured star formation rate (SFR) < 10 M ☉ yr–1, if we assume that IOK-1 has a dust temperature and emissivity index typical of local dwarf galaxies. This SFR is 2.4 times lower than one estimated from the UV continuum, suggesting that <29% of the star formation is obscured by dust. Meanwhile, our 3σ [C II] flux limit translates into [C II] luminosity, L [C II] < 3.4 × 107 L ☉. Locations of IOK-1 and previously observed LAEs on the L [C II] versus SFR and L [C II]/L FIR versus L FIR diagrams imply that LAEs in the reionization epoch have significantly lower gas and dust enrichment than AGN-powered systems and starbursts at similar/lower redshifts, as well as local star-forming galaxies.

  11. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allergic rhinitis - dust ... make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are said to have a dust allergy. ...

  12. Updated measurements of the dark matter halo masses of obscured quasars with improved WISE and Planck data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Myers, A. D.

    2016-02-01

    Using the most recent releases of WISE and Planck data, we perform updated measurements of the bias and typical dark matter halo mass of infrared (IR)-selected obscured and unobscured quasars, using the angular autocorrelation function and cosmic microwave background lensing cross-correlations. Since our recent work of this kind, the WISE ALLWISE catalogue was released with improved photometry, and the Planck mission was completed and released improved products. These new data provide a more reliable measurement of the quasar bias and provide an opportunity to explore the role of changing survey pipelines in results downstream. We present a comparison of IR colour-selected quasars, split into obscured and unobscured populations based on optical-IR colours, selected from two versions of the WISE data. Which combination of data is used impacts the final results, particularly for obscured quasars, both because of mitigation of some systematics and because the newer catalogue provides a slightly different sample. We show that ALLWISE data is superior in several ways, though there may be some systematic trends with Moon contamination that were not present in the previous catalogue. We opt currently for the most conservative sample that meet our selection criteria in both the previous and new WISE catalogues. We measure a higher bias and halo mass for obscured quasars (bobsc ˜ 2.1, bunob ˜ 1.8) - at odds with simple orientation models - but at a reduced significance (˜1.5σ) as compared to our work with previous survey data.

  13. CRADE OF SAND AND DUST STORM WEATHER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Ruoyun; Tian Cuiying; Bi Baogui; Yang Keming; Wang Youheng; Tuo Ya; Ding Haifang; Zhang Tairen

    2011-01-01

    Background Sand and dust storm,as one of the main disastrous weathers that affect northern China,not only affect the people health and normal life,but cause the short-term climatic changes due to the direct and indirect radiation of the earth-atmosphere system through the dust floating in the sky.The sand end dust weather and its potential harm on the national economy,ecological environment,social activities and other aspects have aroused worldwide concern.

  14. Announcment: Conference on Obscured AGN Across Cosmic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Current deep surveys, notably in X-rays and the mid-IR, are making it possible to carry out a census of essentially all the luminous AGN in the Universe. By pene-trating the obscuration that, in Type 2 sources, hides the nuclear regions in the UV to the near-IR spectrum, these new surveys are finding the radio quiet coun-terparts of the powerful radio galaxies.

  15. Security without obscurity a guide to confidentiality, authentication, and integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Stapleton, JJ

    2014-01-01

    The traditional view of information security includes the three cornerstones: confidentiality, integrity, and availability; however the author asserts authentication is the third keystone. As the field continues to grow in complexity, novices and professionals need a reliable reference that clearly outlines the essentials. Security without Obscurity: A Guide to Confidentiality, Authentication, and Integrity fills this need. Rather than focusing on compliance or policies and procedures, this book takes a top-down approach. It shares the author's knowledge, insights, and observations about infor

  16. The most obscured AGN in the COSMOS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Perna, M.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Gruppioni, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pozzi, F.; Vietri, G.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.

    2015-06-01

    Highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) are common in nearby galaxies, but are difficult to observe beyond the local Universe, where they are expected to significantly contribute to the black hole accretion rate density. Furthermore, Compton-thick (CT) absorbers (NH ≳ 1024 cm-2) suppress even the hard X-ray (2-10 keV) AGN nuclear emission, and therefore the column density distribution above 1024 cm-2 is largely unknown. We present the identification and multi-wavelength properties of a heavily obscured (NH ≳ 1025 cm-2), intrinsically luminous (L2-10 > 1044 erg s-1) AGN at z = 0.353 in the COSMOS field. Several independent indicators, such as the shape of the X-ray spectrum, the decomposition of the spectral energy distribution and X-ray/[NeV] and X-ray/6 μm luminosity ratios, agree on the fact that the nuclear emission must be suppressed by a ≳1025 cm-2 column density. The host galaxy properties show that this highly obscured AGN is hosted in a massive star-forming galaxy, showing a barred morphology, which is known to correlate with the presence of CT absorbers. Finally, asymmetric and blueshifted components in several optical high-ionization emission lines indicate the presence of a galactic outflow, possibly driven by the intense AGN activity (LBol/LEdd = 0.3-0.5). Such highly obscured, highly accreting AGN are intrinsically very rare at low redshift, whereas they are expected to be much more common at the peak of the star formation and BH accretion history, at z ~ 2-3. We demonstrate that a fully multi-wavelength approach can recover a sizable sample of such peculiar sources in large and deep surveys such as COSMOS.

  17. The most obscured AGN in the COSMOS field

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzuisi, G; Delvecchio, I; Berta, S; Brusa, M; Cappelluti, N; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Gruppioni, C; Mignoli, M; Pozzi, F; Vietri, G; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G

    2015-01-01

    Highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) are common in nearby galaxies, but are difficult to observe beyond the local Universe, where they are expected to significantly contribute to the black hole accretion rate density. Furthermore, Compton-thick (CT) absorbers (NH>10^24 cm^-2) suppress even the hard X-ray (2-10 keV) AGN nuclear emission, and therefore the column density distribution above 10^24 cm^-2 is largely unknown. We present the identification and multi-wavelength properties of a heavily obscured (NH>~10^25 cm^-2), intrinsically luminous (L(2-10keV)>10^44 erg s^-1) AGN at z=0.353 in the COSMOS field. Several independent indicators, such as the shape of the X-ray spectrum, the decomposition of the spectral energy distribution and X-ray/[NeV] and X-ray/6{\\mu}m luminosity ratios, agree on the fact that the nuclear emission must be suppressed by a 10^25 cm^-2 column density. The host galaxy properties show that this highly obscured AGN is hosted in a massive star-forming galaxy, showing a barred morp...

  18. NO EVIDENCE OF OBSCURED, ACCRETING BLACK HOLES IN MOST z = 6 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been claimed that there is a large population of obscured, accreting black holes at high redshift and that the integrated black hole density at z = 6 as inferred from X-ray observations is ∼100 times greater than that inferred from optical quasars. I have performed a stacking analysis of very deep Chandra X-ray data at the positions of photometrically selected z = 6 galaxy candidates. It is found that there is no evidence for a stacked X-ray signal in either the soft (0.5-2 keV) or hard (2-8 keV) X-ray bands. Previous work which reported a significant signal is affected by an incorrect method of background subtraction which underestimates the true background within the target aperture. The puzzle remains as to why the z = 6 black hole mass function has such a flat slope and a low normalization compared to the stellar mass function.

  19. Dust pollution solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-09-15

    Cimbria Moduflex is a leading manufacturer of dust-free loading chutes and accessories to the bulk handling industry. The Moduflex chute of modular construction can precisely match customer needs. Dust Control Technology recently launched its DustBoss DB-45 which controls airborne particles and surface dust with low water usage. DustScan Ltd., provides a range of equipment for nuisance and PM10 dust monitoring. Donaldson Torit supplies the Torit PowerCore dust collector. 1 photo.

  20. Is there still a role for intraoperative enteroscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Monsanto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: in 21st century, endoscopic study of the small intestine has undergone a revolution with capsule endoscopy and balloon-assisted enteroscopy. The difficulties and morbidity associated with intraoperative enteroscopy, the gold-standard in the 20th century, made this technique to be relegated to a second level. Aims: evaluate the actual role and assess the diagnostic and therapeutic value of intraoperative enteroscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Patients and methods: we conducted a retrospective study of 19 patients (11 males; mean age: 66.5 ± 15.3 years submitted to 21 IOE procedures for obscure GI bleeding. Capsule endoscopy and double balloon enteroscopy had been performed in 10 and 5 patients, respectively. Results: with intraoperative enteroscopy a small bowel bleeding lesion was identified in 79% of patients and a gastrointestinal bleed-ing lesion in 94%. Small bowel findings included: angiodysplasia (n = 6, ulcers (n = 4, small bowel Dieulafoy's lesion (n = 2, bleed-ing from anastomotic vessels (n = 1, multiple cavernous hemangiomas (n = 1 and bleeding ectopic jejunal varices (n = 1. Agreement between capsule endoscopy and intraoperative enteroscopy was 70%. Endoscopic and/or surgical treatment was used in 77.8% of the patients with a positive finding on intraoperative enteroscopy, with a rebleeding rate of 21.4% in a mean 21-month follow-up period. Procedure-related mortality and postoperative complications have been 5 and 21%, respectively. Conclusions: intraoperative enteroscopy remains a valuable tool in selected patients with obscure GI bleeding, achieving a high diagnostic yield and allowing an endoscopic and/or surgical treatment in most of them. However, as an invasive procedure with relevant mortality and morbidity, a precise indication for its use is indispensable.

  1. Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Solar Panels on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, C. I.; Buhler, C. R.; Mantovani, J. G.; Clements S.; Chen, A.; Mazumder, M. K.; Biris, A. S.; Nowicki, A. W.

    2004-01-01

    The Materials Adherence Experiment on the Mars Pathfinder mission measured an obscuration of the solar arrays due to dust deposition at a rate of about 0.2 8% per day. It was estimated that settling dust may cause degradation in performance of a solar panel of between 22% and 89% over the course of two years [1, 2]. These results were obtained without the presence of a global dust storm. Several types of adherence forces keep dust particles attached to surfaces. The most widely discussed adherence force is the electrostatic force. Laboratory experiments [3] as well as indirect evidence from the Wheel Abrasion Experiment on Pathfinder [4] indicate that it is very likely that the particles suspended in the Martian atmosphere are electrostatically charged.

  2. Environmental and health effects review for obscurant graphite flakes. Final report, 1991 July--1993 May

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.; Ligotke, M.W.; Landis, W.G.; Downs, J.L.; Tiller, B.L.; Moore, E.B. Jr.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    The health and environmental effects of obscurant graphite flakes were reviewed and compared to predicted levels of graphite flake material in the field during typical testing and training scenarios. Graphite flake dispersion and deposition for simulated mechanical and pyrotechnic releases were determined using a modified Gaussian atmospheric plume-dispersion model. The potential for wind resuspension of graphite flakes is controlled by weathering processes and incorporation rates in soil. Chemically, graphite flakes pose little risk to aquatic or terrestrial systems. Mechanical damage to plants and invertebrate and vertebrate organisms from the flakes is also minimal. In humans, the pathological and physiological response to inhaled graphite flake is similar to that induced by nuisance dusts and cause only transient pulmonary changes. Repeated exposure to very high concentrations (such as those near the source generator) may overwhelm the clearance mechanisms of the lung and result in pulmonary damage from the retained particles in unprotected individuals. However, these lesions either resolve with time or are of limited severity. Health effects of mixed aerosols of mixed aerosols of graphite and fog oil are similar to those produced by graphite flakes alone. Environmental impacts of fog oil-coated graphite flakes are not well known.

  3. Large scale obscuration and related climate effects open literature bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.A.; Geitgey, J.; Behl, Y.K.; Zak, B.D.

    1994-05-01

    Large scale obscuration and related climate effects of nuclear detonations first became a matter of concern in connection with the so-called ``Nuclear Winter Controversy`` in the early 1980`s. Since then, the world has changed. Nevertheless, concern remains about the atmospheric effects of nuclear detonations, but the source of concern has shifted. Now it focuses less on global, and more on regional effects and their resulting impacts on the performance of electro-optical and other defense-related systems. This bibliography reflects the modified interest.

  4. Large scale obscuration and related climate effects open literature bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large scale obscuration and related climate effects of nuclear detonations first became a matter of concern in connection with the so-called ''Nuclear Winter Controversy'' in the early 1980's. Since then, the world has changed. Nevertheless, concern remains about the atmospheric effects of nuclear detonations, but the source of concern has shifted. Now it focuses less on global, and more on regional effects and their resulting impacts on the performance of electro-optical and other defense-related systems. This bibliography reflects the modified interest

  5. Passive dust collectors for assessing airborne microbial material

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Rachel I.; Tian, Yilin; Taylor, John W; Bruns, Thomas D.; Hyvärinen, Anne; Täubel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Settled airborne dust is used as a surrogate for airborne exposure in studies that explore indoor microbes. In order to determine whether detecting differences in dust environments would depend on the sampler type, we compared different passive, settled dust sampling approaches with respect to displaying qualitative and quantitative aspects of the bacterial and fungal indoor microbiota. Results Settled dust sampling approaches—utilizing plastic petri dishes, TefTex material, and el...

  6. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia;

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  7. Obscure bleeding colonic duplication responds to proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Jérémie; Projetti, Fabrice; Legros, Romain; Valgueblasse, Virginie; Sarabi, Matthieu; Carrier, Paul; Fredon, Fabien; Bouvier, Stéphane; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique; Sautereau, Denis

    2013-09-21

    We report the case of a 17-year-old male admitted to our academic hospital with massive rectal bleeding. Since childhood he had reported recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding and had two exploratory laparotomies 5 and 2 years previously. An emergency abdominal computed tomography scan, gastroscopy and colonoscopy, performed after hemodynamic stabilization, were considered normal. High-dose intravenous proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy was initiated and bleeding stopped spontaneously. Two other massive rectal bleeds occurred 8 h after each cessation of PPI which led to a hemostatic laparotomy after negative gastroscopy and small bowel capsule endoscopy. This showed long tubular duplication of the right colon, with fresh blood in the duplicated colon. Obscure lower gastrointestinal bleeding is a difficult medical situation and potentially life-threatening. The presence of ulcerated ectopic gastric mucosa in the colonic duplication explains the partial efficacy of PPI therapy. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding responding to empiric anti-acid therapy should probably evoke the diagnosis of bleeding ectopic gastric mucosa such as Meckel's diverticulum or gastrointestinal duplication, and gastroenterologists should be aware of this potential medical situation. PMID:24124344

  8. Similarity of ionized gas nebulae around unobscured and obscured quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guilin; Greene, Jenny E

    2014-01-01

    Quasar feedback is suspected to play a key role in the evolution of massive galaxies, by removing or reheating gas in quasar host galaxies and thus limiting the amount of star formation. In this paper we continue our investigation of quasar-driven winds on galaxy-wide scales. We conduct Gemini Integral Field Unit spectroscopy of a sample of luminous unobscured (type 1) quasars, to determine the morphology and kinematics of ionized gas around these objects, predominantly via observations of the [O III]5007 emission line. We find that ionized gas nebulae extend out to ~13 kpc from the quasar, that they are smooth and round, and that their kinematics are inconsistent with gas in dynamical equilibrium with the host galaxy. The observed morphological and kinematic properties are strikingly similar to those of ionized gas around obscured (type 2) quasars with matched [O III] luminosity, with marginal evidence that nebulae around unobscured quasars are slightly more compact. Therefore in samples of obscured and unob...

  9. Large Scale Obscuration and Related Climate Effects Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zak, B.D.; Russell, N.A.; Church, H.W.; Einfeld, W.; Yoon, D.; Behl, Y.K. [eds.

    1994-05-01

    A Workshop on Large Scale Obsurcation and Related Climate Effects was held 29--31 January, 1992, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The objectives of the workshop were: to determine through the use of expert judgement the current state of understanding of regional and global obscuration and related climate effects associated with nuclear weapons detonations; to estimate how large the uncertainties are in the parameters associated with these phenomena (given specific scenarios); to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on obscuration predictions; and to develop an approach for the prioritization of further work on newly-available data sets to reduce the uncertainties. The workshop consisted of formal presentations by the 35 participants, and subsequent topical working sessions on: the source term; aerosol optical properties; atmospheric processes; and electro-optical systems performance and climatic impacts. Summaries of the conclusions reached in the working sessions are presented in the body of the report. Copies of the transparencies shown as part of each formal presentation are contained in the appendices (microfiche).

  10. Obscured Starburst Activity in High Redshift Clusters and Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Kocevski, Dale D; Lubin, Lori M; Gal, Roy R; McGrath, Elizabeth J; Fassnacht, Christopher D; Squires, Gordon K; Surace, Jason A; Lacy, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Using Spitzer-MIPS 24um imaging and Keck spectroscopy we examine the nature of the obscured star forming population in three clusters and three groups at z~0.9. These six systems are components of the Cl1604 supercluster, the largest structure imaged by Spitzer at redshifts near unity. We find that the average density of 24um-detected galaxies within the Cl1604 clusters is nearly twice that of the surrounding field and that this overdensity scales with the cluster's dynamical state. The 24um-bright members often appear optically unremarkable and exhibit only moderate [OII] line emission due to severe obscuration. Their spatial distribution suggests they are an infalling population, but an examination of their spectral properties, morphologies and optical colors indicate they are not simply analogs of the field population that have yet to be quenched. Using stacked composite spectra, we find the 24um-detected cluster and group galaxies exhibit elevated levels of Balmer absorption compared to galaxies undergoin...

  11. Hierarchical human action recognition around sleeping using obscured posture information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yuta; Sashida, Takehiko; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach for human action recognition around sleeping with the human body parts locations and the positional relationship between human and sleeping environment. Body parts are estimated from the depth image obtained by a time-of-flight (TOF) sensor using oriented 3D normal vector. Issues in action recognition of sleeping situation are the demand of availability in darkness, and hiding of the human body by duvets. Therefore, the extraction of image features is difficult since color and edge features are obscured by covers. Thus, first in our method, positions of four parts of the body (head, torso, thigh, and lower leg) are estimated by using the shape model of bodily surface constructed by oriented 3D normal vector. This shape model can represent the surface shape of rough body, and is effective in robust posture estimation of the body hidden with duvets. Then, action descriptor is extracted from the position of each body part. The descriptor includes temporal variation of each part of the body and spatial vector of position of the parts and the bed. Furthermore, this paper proposes hierarchical action classes and classifiers to improve the indistinct action classification. Classifiers are composed of two layers, and recognize human action by using the action descriptor. First layer focuses on spatial descriptor and classifies action roughly. Second layer focuses on temporal descriptor and classifies action finely. This approach achieves a robust recognition of obscured human by using the posture information and the hierarchical action recognition.

  12. Aerosol optical absorption by dust and black carbon in Taklimakan Desert, during no-dust and dust-storm conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Lu; Wenshou Wei; Mingzhe Liu; Weidong Gao; Xi Han

    2012-01-01

    Aerosol absorption coefficient σap involves the additive contribution of both black carbon aerosol (BC) and dust aerosol.The linear statistical regression analysis approach introduced by Fialho et al.(2005) is used to estimate the absorption exponents of BC and dust aerosol absorption coefficients,and further to separate the contributions of these two types of aerosols from the total light absorption coefficient measured in the hinterland of Taklimakan Desert in the spring of 2006.Absorption coefficients are measured by means of a 7-wavelength Aethalometer from 1 March to 31 May and from 1 November to 28 December,2006.The absorption exponent of BC absorption coefficient α is estimated as (-0.95 ±0.002) under background weather (supposing the observed absorption coefficient is due only to BC); the estimated absorption exponent of dust aerosol absorption coefficient β during the 6 dust storm periods (strong dust storm) is (-2.55 ± 0.009).Decoupling analysis of the measured light absorption coefficients demonstrates that,on average,the light absorptions caused by dust aerosol and BC make up about 50.5% and 49.5% respectively of the total light absorption at 520 nm; during dust weather process periods (dust storm,floating dust,blowing dust),the contribution of dust aerosol to absorption extinction is 60.6% on average; in the hinterland of desert in spring,dust aerosol is also the major contributor to the total aerosol light absorption,more than that of black carbon aerosol.

  13. The dust covering factor in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalevski, Marko; Ricci, Claudio; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Lira, Paulina; Fritz, Jacopo; Baes, Maarten

    2016-05-01

    The primary source of emission of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), the accretion disc, is surrounded by an optically and geometrically thick dusty structure (`the so-called dusty torus'). The infrared radiation emitted by the dust is nothing but a reprocessed fraction of the accretion disc emission, so the ratio of the torus to the AGN luminosity (Ltorus/LAGN) should corresponds to the fraction of the sky obscured by dust, i.e. the covering factor. We undertook a critical investigation of the Ltorus/LAGN as the dust covering factor proxy. Using state-of-the-art 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, we calculated a grid of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) emitted by the clumpy two-phase dusty structure. With this grid of SEDs, we studied the relation between Ltorus/LAGN and the dust covering factor for different parameters of the torus. We found that in the case of type 1 AGNs the torus anisotropy makes Ltorus/LAGN underestimate low covering factors and overestimate high covering factors. In type 2 AGNs Ltorus/LAGN always underestimates covering factors. Our results provide a novel easy-to-use method to account for anisotropy and obtain correct covering factors. Using two samples from the literature, we demonstrated the importance of our result for inferring the obscured AGN fraction. We found that after the anisotropy is properly accounted for, the dust covering factors show very weak dependence on LAGN, with values in the range of ≈0.6-0.7. Our results also suggest a higher fraction of obscured AGNs at high luminosities than those found by X-ray surveys, in part owing to the presence of a Compton-thick AGN population predicted by population synthesis models.

  14. Dust levitation about Itokawa's equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzell, C.; Zimmerman, M.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: Electrostatic dust motion has been hypothesized to occur on the asteroids, due to the observations of the Eros dust ponds [1] and the potential presence of such a phenomenon on the Moon [2]. There are two phases of electrostatic dust motion: lofting and the subsequent trajectories. The feasibility of electrostatic dust lofting can be assessed by comparing the strength of the electrostatic force to the gravity and cohesion which hold the grain on to the surface [3--5]. The motion of the dust grains after they detach from the surface can be described as either ballistic, escaping, or levitating. We are interested in dust levitation because it could potentially redistribute grains on the surface of an asteroid (for instance, producing the Eros dust ponds) and it could also be hazardous to spacecraft. Specifically, levitating dust could obscure the observations of surface-based spacecraft or possibly trigger obstacle avoidance routines during landing. Dust Levitation: Dust levitation is defined as the altitude oscillation of grains prior to their redeposition on the surface of an asteroid. Levitation occurs about equilibria where the electrostatic and gravity forces on the grain are equal and opposite. An equilibrium state is defined as a position and charge for a specific grain size. We have previously identified equilibria using a 1D plasma model and a simple gravity model for Itokawa [6]. In this simple model, the largest grain that was capable of stable levitation above Itokawa was 3 microns (in radius) [6]. Additionally, we have shown that levitating dust grains follow the variation in the equilibria for a rotating asteroid (i.e., the grain continues to oscillate about an equilibrium state that approaches the surface) [7]. Due to the nonspherical shape of Itokawa, both the gravity and plasma environments are much more complicated than the 1D approximations made in our previous work. Thus, in order to accurately assess the feasibility of dust

  15. A black hole nova obscured by an inner disk torus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Santana, J M; Casares, J; Muñoz-Darias, T; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Shahbaz, T; Torres, M A P; Zurita, C; Tyndall, A A

    2013-03-01

    Stellar-mass black holes (BHs) are mostly found in x-ray transients, a subclass of x-ray binaries that exhibit violent outbursts. None of the 50 galactic BHs known show eclipses, which is surprising for a random distribution of inclinations. Swift J1357.2-093313 is a very faint x-ray transient detected in 2011. On the basis of spectroscopic evidence, we show that it contains a BH in a 2.8-hour orbital period. Further, high-time-resolution optical light curves display profound dips without x-ray counterparts. The observed properties are best explained by the presence of an obscuring toroidal structure moving outward in the inner disk, seen at very high inclination. This observational feature should play a key role in models of inner accretion flows and jet collimation mechanisms in stellar-mass BHs. PMID:23449588

  16. A Study on the Characterization of Jude the Obscure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏焕

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a brief study on the characterization of Jude the Obscure,and will be focus on the chief character Jude Fawley.This novel,first published in 1895,wasThomas Hardy's last and best literary success.There are six main characters in this novel:Jude Fawley,Susanna Bridehead,Arabella Donn,Richard Phillotson,Aunt Drusilla,Little Father Time(Little Jude).This analysis of the distinct depictions of the typical characters will be helpful to the understanding of the gap between the ideal life a man wishes to lead and the squalid existence he is fated to live in such social environment as Jude is confronted with.

  17. A Lip Extraction Algorithm by Using Color Information Considering Obscurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Yoichi; Nishida, Makoto

    This paper proposes a method for extracting lip shape and its location from sequential facial images by using color information. The proposed method has no need of extra information on a position nor a form in advance. It is also carried out without special conditions such as lipstick or lighting. Psychometric quantities of a metric hue angle, a metric hue difference and a rectangular coordinates, which are defined in CIE 1976 L*a*b* color space, are used for the extraction. The method employs fuzzy reasoning in order to consider obscurity in image data such as shade on the face. The experimental result indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method; 100 percent of facial images data was estimated a lip’s position, and about 94 percent of facial images data was extracted its shape.

  18. In the Dusty Recesses: Characterizing the Dark Matter Halos of Obscured Quasars via Clustering and CMB Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Adam D.; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Runnoe, Jessie C.

    2016-06-01

    The spatial clustering of obscured and unobscured quasars provides an interesting constraint on the connection between the growth of supermassive black holes and the evolution of galaxies and large-scale structure. In pursuit of these constraints, we update our recent measurements of quasar clustering using WISE and Planck data. We carefully assess how alterations in these missions' data reduction pipelines result in different systematics on a range of angular scales, and define samples of WISE-selected quasars that appear to be least-influenced by differences in data calibration. With these samples we analyze quasar clustering via two complementary methods; the angular autocorrelation function and cosmic microwave background lensing cross-correlations. We measure a higher bias and halo mass for obscured quasars (b ~ 2.1) as compared to unobscured quasars (b ~ 1.8). This is at odds with simple orientation models but at a reduced significance (1.5σ) as compared to our work with previous survey data. Assuming that some fraction (as high as 75%) of obscured quasars are intrinsically similar to unobscured quasars but viewed through a "dusty torus," we infer that the remaining non-torus obscured quasar population must have a large clustering bias of ~3, and inhabit typical halo masses of ~3 × 1013 h-1M⊙ at a redshift of z ~ 1. These massive halos are likely the descendants of high-mass unobscured quasars at high redshift, and will evolve into members of galaxy groups by z ~ 0. This work was supported in part by NSF grants 1211112, 1515404 and 1515364.

  19. The power output of local obscured and unobscured AGN: crossing the absorption barrier with Swift/BAT and IRAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, R. V.; Fabian, A. C.; Gandhi, P.; Winter, L. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2010-02-01

    The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) 9-month catalogue of active galactic nuclei (AGN) provides an unbiased census of local supermassive black hole accretion, and probes to all but the highest levels of absorption in AGN. We explore a method for characterizing the bolometric output of both obscured and unobscured AGN by combining the hard X-ray data from the Swift/BAT instrument (14-195keV) with the reprocessed infrared (IR) emission as seen with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) all-sky surveys. This approach bypasses the complex modifications to the spectral energy distribution introduced by absorption in the optical, UV and 0.1-10 keV regimes and provides a long-term, average picture of the bolometric output of these sources. We broadly follow the approach of Pozzi et al. for calculating the bolometric luminosities by adding nuclear IR and hard X-ray luminosities, and consider different approaches for removing non-nuclear contamination in the large-aperture IRAS fluxes. Using mass estimates from the black hole mass-host galaxy bulge luminosity relation, we present the Eddington ratios λEdd and 2-10 keV bolometric corrections for a subsample of 63 AGN (35 obscured and 28 unobscured) from the Swift/BAT catalogue, and confirm previous indications of a low Eddington ratio distribution for both samples. Importantly, we find a tendency for low bolometric corrections (typically 10-30) for the obscured AGN in the sample (with a possible rise from ~15 for λEdd X-ray background since it is composed of emission from a significant population of such obscured AGN. Analogous studies with high-resolution IR data and a range of alternative models for the torus emission will form useful future extensions to this work.

  20. Obscuring ecosystem function with application of the ecosystem services concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Markus J; Hall, Damon M; Feldpausch-Parker, Andrea M; Peterson, Tarla Rai

    2010-02-01

    Conservationists commonly have framed ecological concerns in economic terms to garner political support for conservation and to increase public interest in preserving global biodiversity. Beginning in the early 1980s, conservation biologists adapted neoliberal economics to reframe ecosystem functions and related biodiversity as ecosystem services to humanity. Despite the economic success of programs such as the Catskill/Delaware watershed management plan in the United States and the creation of global carbon exchanges, today's marketplace often fails to adequately protect biodiversity. We used a Marxist critique to explain one reason for this failure and to suggest a possible, if partial, response. Reframing ecosystem functions as economic services does not address the political problem of commodification. Just as it obscures the labor of human workers, commodification obscures the importance of the biota (ecosystem workers) and related abiotic factors that contribute to ecosystem functions. This erasure of work done by ecosystems impedes public understanding of biodiversity. Odum and Odum's radical suggestion to use the language of ecosystems (i.e., emergy or energy memory) to describe economies, rather than using the language of economics (i.e., services) to describe ecosystems, reverses this erasure of the ecosystem worker. Considering the current dominance of economic forces, however, implementing such solutions would require social changes similar in magnitude to those that occurred during the 1960s. Niklas Luhmann argues that such substantive, yet rapid, social change requires synergy among multiple societal function systems (i.e., economy, education, law, politics, religion, science), rather than reliance on a single social sphere, such as the economy. Explicitly presenting ecosystem services as discreet and incomplete aspects of ecosystem functions not only allows potential economic and environmental benefits associated with ecosystem services, but also

  1. Toxicity of lunar dust

    OpenAIRE

    Linnarsson, Dag; Carpenter, James; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L.; Loftus, David J.; Prisk, G. Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M.; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowle...

  2. Dust particle dynamics in atmospheric dust devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izvekova, Yulia; Popel, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Dust particle dynamics is modeled in the Dust Devils (DDs). DD is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a meter wide and a few meters tall) to large (more than 100 meters wide and more than 1000 meters tall) in Earth's atmosphere. We develop methods for the description of dust particle charging in DDs, discuss the ionization processes in DDs, and model charged dust particle motion. Our conclusions are consistent with the fact that DD can lift a big amount of dust from the surface of a planet into its atmosphere. On the basis of the model we perform calculations and show that DDs are important mechanism for dust uplift in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. Influence of DD electric field on dynamics of dust particles is investigated. It is shown that influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is significant near the ground. At some altitude (more then a quarter of the height of DD) influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is negligible. For the calculation of the dynamics of dust electric field can be approximated by effective dipole located at a half of the height of DD. This work was supported by the Russian Federation Presidential Program for State Support of Young Scientists (project no. MK-6935.2015.2).

  3. Coupling the Mars Dust and Water Cycles: Investigating the Role of Clouds in Controlling the Vertical Distribution of Dust During N. H. Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahre, M. A.; Haberle, R. M.; Hollingsworth, J. L.; Wilson, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The dust cycle is critically important for the current climate of Mars. The radiative effects of dust impact the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere (Gierasch and Goody, 1968; Haberle et al., 1982; Zurek et al., 1992). Although dust is present in the Martian atmosphere throughout the year, the level of dustiness varies with season. The atmosphere is generally the dustiest during northern fall and winter and the least dusty during northern spring and summer (Smith, 2004). Dust particles are lifted into the atmosphere by dust storms that range in size from meters to thousands of kilometers across (Cantor et al., 2001). During some years, regional storms combine to produce hemispheric or planet encircling dust clouds that obscure the surface and raise atmospheric temperatures by as much as 40 K (Smith et al., 2002). Key recent observations of the vertical distribution of dust indicate that elevated layers of dust exist in the tropics and sub-tropics throughout much of the year (Heavens et al., 2011). These observations have brought particular focus on the processes that control the vertical distribution of dust in the Martian atmosphere. The goal of this work is to further our understanding of how clouds in particular control the vertical distribution of dust, particularly during N. H. spring and summer

  4. Microwave Emission from Galactic Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, B T

    1999-01-01

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background have revealed a component of 10-60 GHz emission from the Galaxy which correlates with 100-140um emission from interstellar dust but has an intensity much greater than expected for the low-frequency tail of the "electric dipole vibrational" emission peaking at dust-correlated free-free emission. The anomalous emission could be due in part to magnetic dipole emission from thermal fluctuations of the magnetization within interstellar dust grains, but only if a substantial fraction of the Fe in interstellar dust resides in magnetic materials such as metallic iron or magnetite. The observed anomalous emission is probably due primarily to electric dipole radiation from spinning ultrasmall interstellar dust grains. This rotational emission is expected to be partially polarized. From the standpoint of minimizing confusion with non-CBR foregrounds, 60-120 GHz appears to be the optimal frequency window.

  5. Protein C deficiency related obscure gastrointestinal bleeding treated by enteroscopy and anticoagulant therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Wei-Fan; Tsang, Yuk-Ming; Teng, Chung-Jen; Chung, Chen-Shuan

    2015-01-01

    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is an uncommonly encountered and difficult-to-treat clinical problem in gastroenterology, but advancements in endoscopic and radiologic imaging modalities allow for greater accuracy in diagnosing obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Ectopic varices account for less than 5% of all variceal bleeding cases, and jejunal variceal bleeding due to extrahepatic portal hypertension is rare. We present a 47-year-old man suffering from obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. C...

  6. Evidence for an extragalactic component of the far-ultraviolet background and constraints on galaxy evolution for z between 0.1 and 0.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher; Bowyer, Stuart

    1989-01-01

    A sounding rocket experiment that measured the power spectrum of small-scale fluctuations in the far-UV background is described. Evidence is presented that these fluctuations are the integrated light from distant galaxies. If this result is used as an upper limit to the integrated light from galaxies, it provides a constraint on the mean UV luminosity density in the redshift range between 0.1 and 0.6 of L(gal) less than 7 x 10 to the 7th solar luminosities/Mpc. When compared to estimates of the present UV luminosity density, this places a strong constraint on the far-UV evolution of galaxies in the last one-third of a Hubble time. This constraint can be interpreted as a limit on the average past star formation rate relative to the present if dust obscuration was not significantly greater in the past. An upper limit to the average star formation rate is derived.

  7. 'Nuisance Dust' - a Case for Recalibration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datson, Hugh; Marker, Brian

    2013-04-01

    This paper considers the case for a review and recalibration of limit values and acceptability criteria for 'nuisance dust', a widely encountered but poorly defined and regulated aspect of particulate matter pollution. Specific dust fractions such as PM10 and asbestiforms are well characterised and have limit values enshrined in legislation. National, and international, limit values for acceptable concentrations of PM10 and other fractions of particulate matter have been defined and agreed. In the United Kingdom (UK), these apply to both public and workplace exposures. By contrast, there is no standard definition or universal criteria against which acceptable levels for 'nuisance dust' can be assessed. This has implications for land-use planning and resource utilisation. Without meaningful limit values, inappropriate development might take place too near to residential dwellings or land containing economically important mineral resources may be effectively sterilised. Furthermore, the expression 'nuisance dust' is unhelpful in that 'nuisance' has a specific meaning in environmental law whilst 'nuisance dust' is often taken to mean 'generally visible particulate matter'. As such, it is associated with the social and broader environmental impacts of particulate matter. PM10 concentrations are usually expressed as a mass concentration over time. These can be determined using a range of techniques. While results from different instruments are generally comparable, data obtained from alternative methods for measuring 'nuisance dust' are rarely interchangeable. In the UK, many of the methods typically used are derived from approaches developed under the HMIP (Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution) regime in the 1960s onwards. Typical methods for 'nuisance dust' sampling focus on measurement of dust mass (from the weight of dust collected in an open container over time) or dust soiling (from loss of reflectance and or obscuration of a surface discoloured by dust over

  8. Physical properties of luminous dust-poor quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We identify and characterize a population of luminous, dust-poor quasars at 0 < z < 5 that is photometrically similar to objects previously found at z > 6. This class of active galactic nuclei is known to show little IR emission from dusty structure, but it is poorly understood in terms of number evolution and dependence on physical quantities. To better understand the properties of these quasars, we compile a rest-frame UV to IR library of 41,000 optically selected type 1 quasars with L bol > 1045.7 erg s–1. After fitting the broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with accretion disk and dust components, we find 0.6% of our sample to be hot dust-poor, with rest-frame 2.3 μm to 0.51 μm flux density ratios of –0.5 dex or less. The dust-poor SEDs are blue in the UV-optical and weak in the mid-IR, such that their accretion disks are less obscured and the hot dust emission traces that of warm dust down to the dust-poor regime. At a given bolometric luminosity, dust-poor quasars are lower in black hole mass and higher in Eddington ratio than general luminous quasars, suggesting that they are in a rapidly growing evolutionary state in which the dust-poor phase appears as a short or rare phenomenon. The dust-poor fraction increases with redshift, and possible implications for their evolution are discussed.

  9. Imaging through obscurations for sluicing operations in the waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste remediators have identified that surveillance of waste remediation operations and periodic inspections of stored waste are required under very demanding and difficult viewing environments. In many cases, obscurants such as dust or water vapor are generated as part of the remediation activity. Methods are required for viewing or imaging beyond the normal visual spectrum. Work space images guide the movement of remediation equipment, creating a need for rapidly updated, near real-time imaging capability. In addition, there is a need for three-dimensional topographical data to determine the contours of the wastes, to plan retrieval campaigns, and to provide a three-dimensional map of a robot's work space as basis for collision avoidance. Three basic imaging techniques were evaluated: optical, acoustic and radar. The optical imaging methods that were examined used cameras which operated in the visible region and near-infrared region and infrared cameras which operated in the 3--5 micron and 8--12 micron wavelength regions. Various passive and active lighting schemes were tested, as well as the use of filters to eliminate reflection in the visible region. Image enhancement software was used to extend the range where visual techniques could be used. In addition, the operation of a laser range finder, which operated at 0.835 microns, was tested when fog/water droplets were suspended in the air. The acoustic technique involved using commercial acoustic sensors, operating at approximately 50 kHz and 215 kHz, to determine the attenuation of the acoustic beam in a high-humidity environment. The radar imaging methods involved performing millimeter wave (94 GHz) attenuation measurement sin the various simulated sluicing environments and performing preliminary experimental imaging studies using a W-Band (75--110 GHz) linearly scanned transceiver in a laboratory environment. The results of the tests are discussed

  10. Imaging through obscurations for sluicing operations in the waste storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.J.; McMakin, D.L.; Sheen, D.M.; Chieda, M.A.

    1994-08-01

    Waste remediators have identified that surveillance of waste remediation operations and periodic inspections of stored waste are required under very demanding and difficult viewing environments. In many cases, obscurants such as dust or water vapor are generated as part of the remediation activity. Methods are required for viewing or imaging beyond the normal visual spectrum. Work space images guide the movement of remediation equipment, creating a need for rapidly updated, near real-time imaging capability. In addition, there is a need for three-dimensional topographical data to determine the contours of the wastes, to plan retrieval campaigns, and to provide a three-dimensional map of a robot`s work space as basis for collision avoidance. Three basic imaging techniques were evaluated: optical, acoustic and radar. The optical imaging methods that were examined used cameras which operated in the visible region and near-infrared region and infrared cameras which operated in the 3--5 micron and 8--12 micron wavelength regions. Various passive and active lighting schemes were tested, as well as the use of filters to eliminate reflection in the visible region. Image enhancement software was used to extend the range where visual techniques could be used. In addition, the operation of a laser range finder, which operated at 0.835 microns, was tested when fog/water droplets were suspended in the air. The acoustic technique involved using commercial acoustic sensors, operating at approximately 50 kHz and 215 kHz, to determine the attenuation of the acoustic beam in a high-humidity environment. The radar imaging methods involved performing millimeter wave (94 GHz) attenuation measurement sin the various simulated sluicing environments and performing preliminary experimental imaging studies using a W-Band (75--110 GHz) linearly scanned transceiver in a laboratory environment. The results of the tests are discussed.

  11. The COSPIX mission: focusing on the energetic and obscured Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrando, P; Laurent, P; Limousin, O; Beckmann, V; Arnaud, M; Barcons, X; Bomans, D; Caballero, I; Carrera, F; Chaty, S; Chenevez, J; Chipaux, R; Christensen, F; Claret, A; Corbel, S; Croston, J; Daddi, E; De Becker, M; Decourchelle, A; Elbaz, D; Falanga, M; Ferrari, C; Feruglio, C; Götz, D; Gouiffès, C; Hailey, C; Hernanz, M; Kreykenbohm, I; Malzac, J; Martignac, J; Mattana, F; Meuris, A; Miniutti, G; Nalewajko, K; Negueruela, I; O'Dell, S; Paltani, S; Petre, R; Petrucci, P -O; Pierre, M; Pinsard, F; Ponti, G; Rauw, G; Rea, N; Renaud, M; Robert, J -L; Rodriguez, J; Rozanska, A; Santangelo, A; Sauvageot, J -L; Soldi, S; Tagger, M; Tenzer, C; Terrier, R; Trap, G; Varnière, P; Wilms, J; Zhang, W; Heras, J Zurita

    2011-01-01

    Tracing the formation and evolution of all supermassive black holes, including the obscured ones, understanding how black holes influence their surroundings and how matter behaves under extreme conditions, are recognized as key science objectives to be addressed by the next generation of instruments. These are the main goals of the COSPIX proposal, made to ESA in December 2010 in the context of its call for selection of the M3 mission. In addition, COSPIX, will also provide key measurements on the non thermal Universe, particularly in relation to the question of the acceleration of particles, as well as on many other fundamental questions as for example the energetic particle content of clusters of galaxies. COSPIX is proposed as an observatory operating from 0.3 to more than 100 keV. The payload features a single long focal length focusing telescope offering an effective area close to ten times larger than any scheduled focusing mission at 30 keV, an angular resolution better than 20 arcseconds in hard X-ray...

  12. Origins of the extragalactic background at 1mm from a combined analysis of the AzTEC and MAMBO data in GOODS-N

    CERN Document Server

    Penner, Kyle; Chapin, Edward L; Greve, Thomas R; Bertoldi, Frank; Brodwin, Mark; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Conselice, Christopher J; Coppin, Kristen; Giavalisco, Mauro; Hughes, David H; Ivison, Rob J; Perera, Thushara; Scott, Douglas; Scott, Kimberly; Wilson, Grant

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of the cosmic infrared background, which is a measure of the dust obscured activity in all galaxies in the Universe. We venture to isolate the galaxies responsible for the background at 1mm; with spectroscopic and photometric redshifts we constrain the redshift distribution of these galaxies. We create a deep 1.16mm map (sigma ~ 0.5mJy) by combining the AzTEC 1.1mm and MAMBO 1.2mm datasets in GOODS-N. This combined map contains 41 secure detections, 13 of which are new. By averaging the 1.16mm flux densities of individually undetected galaxies with 24um flux densities > 25uJy, we resolve 31--45 per cent of the 1.16mm background. Repeating our analysis on the SCUBA 850um map, we resolve a higher percentage (40--64 per cent) of the 850um background. A majority of the background resolved (attributed to individual galaxies) at both wavelengths comes from galaxies at z > 1.3. If the ratio of the resolved submillimeter to millimeter background is applied to a reasonable scenario for the origins o...

  13. On Dust Charging Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N.

    2008-01-01

    A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed.

  14. Dust-Particle Transport in Tokamak Edge Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigarov, A Y; Krasheninnikov, S I; Soboleva, T K; Rognlien, T D

    2005-09-12

    Dust particulates in the size range of 10nm-100{micro}m are found in all fusion devices. Such dust can be generated during tokamak operation due to strong plasma/material-surface interactions. Some recent experiments and theoretical estimates indicate that dust particles can provide an important source of impurities in the tokamak plasma. Moreover, dust can be a serious threat to the safety of next-step fusion devices. In this paper, recent experimental observations on dust in fusion devices are reviewed. A physical model for dust transport simulation, and a newly developed code DUSTT, are discussed. The DUSTT code incorporates both dust dynamics due to comprehensive dust-plasma interactions as well as the effects of dust heating, charging, and evaporation. The code tracks test dust particles in realistic plasma backgrounds as provided by edge-plasma transport codes. Results are presented for dust transport in current and next-step tokamaks. The effect of dust on divertor plasma profiles and core plasma contamination is examined.

  15. Dust-off

    OpenAIRE

    Maycroft, Neil; Cheang, Shu Lea

    2015-01-01

    The fan of a motherboard switches on and off intermittently. It blows household dust, removed from the inside of a computer carcass, into the air. The dust then settles onto the motherboard, to be blown off again. This continual movement of dust is contained in the piece. However, it should remind us that the ceaseless creation and motion of unconfined dust accompanies all stages of the e-waste journey.

  16. Physics of interstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Krugel, Endrik

    2002-01-01

    The dielectric permeability; How to evaluate grain cross sections; Very small and very big particles; Case studies of Mie calculus; Particle statistics; The radiative transition probability; Structure and composition of dust; Dust radiation; Dust and its environment; Polarization; Grain alignment; PAHs and spectral features of dust; Radiative transport; Diffuse matter in the Milky Way; Stars and their formation; Emission from young stars. Appendices Mathematical formulae; List of symbols.

  17. Dusts and Molds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ABOUT DUSTS AND MOLDS? Tiny dust particles and mold spores can be inhaled into the lungs. Dusts that come from a living source (“organic dusts”) such as hair, bedding, hay, grain, silage, and dried urine and feces are most dangerous. ...

  18. Ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyers Valerie E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dust exposure is a well-known occupational hazard for terrestrial workers and astronauts alike and will continue to be a concern as humankind pursues exploration and habitation of objects beyond Earth. Humankind’s limited exploration experience with the Apollo Program indicates that exposure to dust will be unavoidable. Therefore, NASA must assess potential toxicity and recommend appropriate mitigation measures to ensure that explorers are adequately protected. Visual acuity is critical during exploration activities and operations aboard spacecraft. Therefore, the present research was performed to ascertain the ocular toxicity of authentic lunar dust. Methods Small (mean particle diameter = 2.9 ± 1.0 μm, reactive lunar dust particles were produced by grinding bulk dust under ultrapure nitrogen conditions. Chemical reactivity and cytotoxicity testing were performed using the commercially available EpiOcularTM assay. Subsequent in vivo Draize testing utilized a larger size fraction of unground lunar dust that is more relevant to ocular exposures (particles Results In vitro testing indicated minimal irritancy potential based on the time required to reduce cell viability by 50% (ET50. Follow-up testing using the Draize standard protocol confirmed that the lunar dust was minimally irritating. Minor irritation of the upper eyelids was noted at the 1-hour observation point, but these effects resolved within 24 hours. In addition, no corneal scratching was observed using fluorescein stain. Conclusions Low-titanium mare lunar dust is minimally irritating to the eyes and is considered a nuisance dust for ocular exposure. No special precautions are recommended to protect against ocular exposures, but fully shielded goggles may be used if dust becomes a nuisance.

  19. The Impact of the Dusty Torus on Obscured Quasar Halo Mass Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Runnoe, J. C.; Hickox, R. C.; Myers, A. D.; Geach, J. E.

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have found that obscured quasars cluster more strongly and are thus hosted by dark matter haloes of larger mass than their unobscured counterparts. These results pose a challenge for the simplest unification models, in which obscured objects are intrinsically the same as unobscured sources but seen through a dusty line of sight. There is general consensus that a structure like a "dusty torus" exists, meaning that this intrinsic similarity is likely the case for at least some subset of obscured quasars. However, the larger host halo masses of obscured quasars implies that there is a second obscured population that has an even higher clustering amplitude and typical halo mass. Here, we use simple assumptions about the host halo mass distributions of quasars, along with analytical methods and cosmological N-body simulations to isolate the signal from this population. We provide values for the bias and halo mass as a function of the fraction of the "non-torus obscured" population. Adopting a reasonable value for this fraction of ˜25% implies a non-torus obscured quasar bias that is much higher than the observed obscured quasar bias, because a large fraction of the obscured population shares the same clustering strength as the unobscured objects. For this non-torus obscured population, we derive a bias of ˜3, and typical halo masses of ˜3 × 1013 M⊙/h at z = 1. These massive haloes are likely the descendants of high-mass unobscured quasars at high redshift, and will evolve into members of galaxy groups at z = 0.

  20. The impact of the dusty torus on obscured quasar halo mass measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Runnoe, J. C.; Hickox, R. C.; Myers, A. D.; Geach, J. E.

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have found that obscured quasars cluster more strongly and are thus hosted by dark matter haloes of larger mass than their unobscured counterparts. These results pose a challenge for the simplest unification models, in which obscured objects are intrinsically the same as unobscured sources but seen through a dusty line of sight. There is general consensus that a structure like a `dusty torus' exists, meaning that this intrinsic similarity is likely the case for at least some subset of obscured quasars. However, the larger host halo masses of obscured quasars imply that there is a second obscured population that has an even higher clustering amplitude and typical halo mass. Here, we use simple assumptions about the host halo mass distributions of quasars, along with analytical methods and cosmological N-body simulations to isolate the signal from this population. We provide values for the bias and halo mass as a function of the fraction of the `non-torus-obscured' population. Adopting a reasonable value for this fraction of ˜25 per cent implies a non-torus-obscured-quasar bias that is much higher than the observed obscured quasar bias, because a large fraction of the obscured population shares the same clustering strength as the unobscured objects. For this non-torus-obscured population, we derive a bias of ˜3, and typical halo masses of ˜3 × 1013 M⊙ h-1 at z = 1. These massive haloes are likely the descendants of high-mass unobscured quasars at high redshift, and will evolve into members of galaxy groups at z = 0.

  1. Is Occult Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding a Definite Indication for Capsule Endoscopy? A Retrospective Analysis of Diagnostic Yield in Patients with Occult versus Overt Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ikue Watari; Shiro Oka; Shinji Tanaka; Makoto Nakano; Taiki Aoyama; Shigeto Yoshida; Kazuaki Chayama

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Usefulness of capsule endoscopy (CE) for diagnosing small-bowel lesions in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) has been reported. Most reports have addressed the clinical features of overt OGIB, with few addressing occult OGIB. We aimed to clarify whether occult OGIB is a definite indication for CE. Methods. We retrospectively compared the cases of 102 patients with occult OGIB and 325 patients with overt OGIB, all having undergone CE. The diagnostic yield o...

  2. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  3. Assessing the Performance of the Photovoltaic Cells on the Effects of Yellow Dust Events and Haze in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyeon; Kim, Yong Pyo; Wee, DaeHyun

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the potential effects of the Asian yellow dust Events and haze on the performance of Korean photovoltaic systems. Particulate matters from the Asian yellow dust outbreaks in the deserts of Mongolia and northern China are typically transported to Korea. Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other dry particles obscure the clarity of the sky. Hence, we conjecture that the effects of the Asian yellow dust and haze block the incident solar irradiance. The potential reduction of the solar spectral irradiance due to Asian yellow dust events and haze in Korea is investigated using a clear-sky spectral radiation model, and the performance of photovoltaic systems under reduced irradiance is estimated by using a simple analytic model representing typical photovoltaic cells. Comparison of photovoltaic performance under Asian dust events, haze and that under a clear condition is made to evaluate overall influence of the particulate air pollution, respectively.

  4. House dust mite control measures for asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The major allergen in house dust comes from mites. Chemical, physical and combined methods of reducing mite allergen levels are intended to reduce asthma symptoms in people who are sensitive to house dust mites. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of reducing exposure to house dust mite...... antigens in the homes of people with mite-sensitive asthma. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed and The Cochrane Library (last searches Nov 2007), reference lists. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials of mite control measures vs placebo or no treatment in people with asthma known to be sensitive to house dust mites......), the standardised mean difference was 0.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10 to 0.10). There were no statistically significant differences either in number of patients improved (relative risk 1.01, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.27), asthma symptom scores (standardised mean difference -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0...

  5. Disk evolution: dust and gas*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Disks are a natural by-product of start formation. Just like the formation if a star is a lengthy process that goes through many stages, disks around young stars evolve my processing matter through the disk and dumping it onto the star. The solid and gaseous components of disks do not always evolve together - dust-gas separation can take place, dust grains may grow. In this chapter we attempt a brief overview of processes that shape this evolution, in a way that is useful as a background to the other chapters in this lecture series. As such, the chapter does not aim for completeness or being up to date with some of the most recent developments.

  6. Application of wavelet analysis in optical coherence tomography for obscured pattern recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays the optical coherent tomography (OCT) is one of the most perspective optical diagnostic modalities widely used for non-invasive imaging of the internal structure of various complex turbid media from a range of composite materials to biological tissues. OCT has been attracting a great amount of attention due to its effective capability rejecting multiple scattering. However, for highly scattered composite structures the multiple scattering still remains a factor limiting OCT to the quasi-ballistic regime. In order to enhance the OCT imaging capabilities and reduce the statistical noise associated with the multiple scattering the wavelet analysis has been applied. The wavelet analysis has been used to decompose the OCT images of printed stripes covered by a highly scattered and not transparent layer of white correction tape. The obtained results demonstrate a significant reduction of speckle noise background and enhancement of OCT images of the obscured patterns. This likely to be enabled extending the applicability of the combined OCT-wavelet decomposition analysis to investigate sensitive documents, historical artworks and valuable security papers

  7. Application of wavelet analysis in optical coherence tomography for obscured pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranachai, C.; Thavarungkul, P.; Kanatharanaa, P.; Meglinski, I. V.

    2009-12-01

    Nowadays the optical coherent tomography (OCT) is one of the most perspective optical diagnostic modalities widely used for non-invasive imaging of the internal structure of various complex turbid media from a range of composite materials to biological tissues. OCT has been attracting a great amount of attention due to its effective capability rejecting multiple scattering. However, for highly scattered composite structures the multiple scattering still remains a factor limiting OCT to the quasi-ballistic regime. In order to enhance the OCT imaging capabilities and reduce the statistical noise associated with the multiple scattering the wavelet analysis has been applied. The wavelet analysis has been used to decompose the OCT images of printed stripes covered by a highly scattered and not transparent layer of white correction tape. The obtained results demonstrate a significant reduction of speckle noise background and enhancement of OCT images of the obscured patterns. This likely to be enabled extending the applicability of the combined OCT-wavelet decomposition analysis to investigate sensitive documents, historical artworks and valuable security papers.

  8. Neutron star masses from hydrodynamical effects in obscured sgHMXBs

    OpenAIRE

    Manousakis, A.; Walter, R.; Blondin, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    A population of obscured supergiant High Mass X-ray Binaries (sgHMXBs) has been discovered by INTEGRAL. X-ray wind tomography of IGR J17252-3616 inferred a slow wind velocity to account for the enhanced obscuration. The main goal of this study is to understand under which conditions high obscuration could occur. We have used an hydrodynamical code to simulate the flow of the stellar wind around the neutron star. A grid of simulations was used to study the dependency of the absorbing column de...

  9. CLUSTERING OF OBSCURED AND UNOBSCURED QUASARS IN THE BOOeTES FIELD: PLACING RAPIDLY GROWING BLACK HOLES IN THE COSMIC WEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first measurement of the spatial clustering of mid-infrared-selected obscured and unobscured quasars, using a sample in the redshift range 0.7 2 Booetes multiwavelength survey. Recently, the Spitzer Space Telescope and X-ray observations have revealed large populations of obscured quasars that have been inferred from models of the X-ray background and supermassive black hole evolution. To date, little is known about obscured quasar clustering, which allows us to measure the masses of their host dark matter halos and explore their role in the cosmic evolution of black holes and galaxies. In this study, we use a sample of 806 mid-infrared-selected quasars and ∼250,000 galaxies to calculate the projected quasar-galaxy cross-correlation function wp (R). The observed clustering yields characteristic dark matter halo masses of log(Mhalo [h -1 Msun]) = 12.7+0.4-0.6 and 13.3+0.3-0.4 for unobscured quasars (QSO-1s) and obscured quasars (Obs-QSOs), respectively. The results for QSO-1s are in excellent agreement with previous measurements for optically selected quasars, while we conclude that the Obs-QSOs are at least as strongly clustered as the QSO-1s. We test for the effects of photometric redshift errors on the optically faint Obs-QSOs, and find that our method yields a robust lower limit on the clustering; photo-z errors may cause us to underestimate the clustering amplitude of the Obs-QSOs by at most ∼20%. We compare our results to previous studies, and speculate on physical implications of stronger clustering for obscured quasars.

  10. Exploring the early dust-obscured phase of galaxy formation with blind mid-/far-IR spectroscopic surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Bonato, M; Cai, Z -Y; De Zotti, G; Bressan, A; Lapi, A; Gruppioni, C; Spinoglio, L; Danese, L

    2013-01-01

    While continuum imaging data at far-infrared to sub-millimeter wavelengths have provided tight constraints on the population properties of dusty star forming galaxies up to high redshifts, future space missions like the Space Infra-Red Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) and ground based facilities like the Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope (CCAT) will allow detailed investigations of their physical properties via their mid-/far-infrared line emission. We present updated predictions for the number counts and the redshift distributions of star forming galaxies spectroscopically detectable by these future missions. These predictions exploit a recent upgrade of evolutionary models, that include the effect of strong gravitational lensing, in the light of the most recent Herschel and South Pole Telescope data. Moreover the relations between line and continuum infrared luminosity are re-assessed, considering also differences among source populations, with the support of extensive simulations that take...

  11. THE ANGULAR POWER SPECTRUM OF DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES AND ITS IMPACT ON SUNYAEV ZEL'DOVICH STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Montaña

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo medimos el espectro angular de potencias de la población de galaxias milimétricas (SMGs a partir de observaciones a 1.1 mm realizadas con la cámara AzTEC en el Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE y el James Clerk Maxwell Telecope (JCMT. La muestra de campos observados nos permite comparar el espectro angular de potencias de las SMGs medido en la dirección de regiones del Universo sin sesgo y otras sobre densas. Nuestras mediciones permiten acotar el impacto que tiene la población de SMGs en mediciones del espectro de potencias de las fluctuaciones primarias y secundarias del fondo cósmico de radiación de microndas (CMB, que actualmente están siendo medidas por una nueva generación de experimentos con resoluciones espaciales del orden de minutos de arco y que operan a longitudes de onda milimétricas.

  12. AN ACCOUNTING OF THE DUST-OBSCURED STAR FORMATION AND ACCRETION HISTORIES OVER THE LAST ∼11 BILLION YEARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on an accounting of the star-formation- and accretion-driven energetics of 24 μm-detected sources in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North field. For sources having infrared (IR; 8-1000 μm) luminosities ∼>3 x 1012 Lsun when derived by fitting local spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to 24 μm photometry alone, we find these IR luminosity estimates to be a factor of ∼4 times larger than those estimated when the SED fitting includes additional 16 and 70 μm data (and in some cases mid-IR spectroscopy and 850 μm data). This discrepancy arises from the fact that high-luminosity sources at z >> 0 appear to have far- to mid-IR ratios, as well as aromatic feature equivalent widths, typical of lower luminosity galaxies in the local universe. Using our improved estimates for IR luminosity and active galactic nucleus (AGN) contributions, we investigate the evolution of the IR luminosity density versus redshift arising from star formation and AGN processes alone. We find that, within the uncertainties, the total star-formation-driven IR luminosity density is constant between 1.15 ∼ 2. AGNs appear to account for ∼11 Lsun ≤ LIR 12 Lsun) appear to dominate the star formation rate density along with normal star-forming galaxies (LIR 11 Lsun) between 0.6 ∼ 2, the contribution from ultraluminous infrared galaxies (LIR ≥ 1012 Lsun) becomes comparable with that of LIRGs. Using our improved IR luminosity estimates, we find existing calibrations for UV extinction corrections based on measurements of the UV spectral slope typically overcorrect UV luminosities by a factor of ∼2, on average, for our sample of 24 μm-selected sources; accordingly we have derived a new UV extinction correction more appropriate for our sample.

  13. An ultra-bright, dust-obscured, millimeter-galaxy beyond the Bullet Cluster (1E0657-56)

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, G W; Hughes, D; Ezawa, H; Austermann, J E; Doyle, S; Hernandez-Curiel, I; Kawabe, R; Kitayama, T; Kohno, K; Kuboi, A; Matsuo, H; Mauskopf, P D; Murakoshi, Y; Montana, A; Natarajan, P; Oshima, T; Ota, N; Perera, T; Rand, J; Scott, K S; Tanaka, K; Tsuboi, M; Williams, C C; Yun, M S

    2008-01-01

    Deep 1.1 mm continuum observations of the interacting galaxy-clusters 1E0657-56 (the Bullet Cluster) taken with the millimeter-wavelength camera AzTEC on the 10-m Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE), have revealed an extremely bright (S_1.1mm=15.9mJy) unresolved source. This source, MMJ065837-5557.0, lies close to a maximum in the density of underlying mass-distribution as traced by the weak-lensing analysis of Clowe et al. 2006, towards the larger of the two interacting clusters. A lensing-derived mass model for the Bullet Cluster shows a critical-line (caustic) of magnification very near the AzTEC source, likely providing a high boost (> 20) to its millimeter flux. We explore various scenarios to explain the colors, morphologies and positional offsets between the potential optical and IR counterparts, and their relationship with MMJ065837-5557.0. One interpretation is that MMJ065837-5557.0 is an individual distant LIRG, with multiple HST and Spitzer images due to the strong lensing by the Bull...

  14. DUST FORMATION IN MACRONOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine dust formation in macronovae (as known as kilonovae), which are the bright ejecta of neutron star binary mergers and one of the leading sites of r-process nucleosynthesis. In light of information about the first macronova candidate associated with GRB 130603B, we find that dust grains of r-process elements have difficulty forming because of the low number density of the r-process atoms, while carbon or elements lighter than iron can condense into dust if they are abundant. Dust grains absorb emission from ejecta with an opacity even greater than that of the r-process elements, and re-emit photons at infrared wavelengths. Such dust emission can potentially account for macronovae without r-process nucleosynthesis as an alternative model. This dust scenario predicts a spectrum with fewer features than the r-process model and day-scale optical-to-ultraviolet emission

  15. An Analysis Of Idealism In Thomas Hardy’s Jude The Obscure

    OpenAIRE

    Saragih, Anna Clova

    2011-01-01

    Skripsi ini berjudul An Analysis of Idealism in Thomas Hardy’s Jude the Obscure. Skripsi ini merupakan sebuah studi analisa Idealisme dalam sebuah novel berjudul Jude the Obscure karya Thomas Hardy. Idealisme pada dasarnya adalah sebuah paham yang mengagungkan ide-ide dalam pikiran manusia yang coba diterapkan dalam realitas kehidupan yang senantiasa mengharapkan kesempurnaan dlam hidup. Idealism memiliki banyak ide, cirri khas, konsep atau pemikiran, dan unsure-unsur yang beragam. Dalam skri...

  16. Operational Dust Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Angela; Baldasano, Jose M.; Basart, Sara; Benincasa, Francesco; Boucher, Olivier; Brooks, Malcolm E.; Chen, Jen-Ping; Colarco, Peter R.; Gong, Sunlin; Huneeus, Nicolas; Jones, Luke; Lu, Sarah; Menut, Laurent; Morcrette, Jean-Jacques; Mulcahy, Jane; Nickovic, Slobodan; Garcia-Pando, Carlos P.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Sekiyama, Thomas T.; Tanaka, Taichu Y.; Terradellas, Enric; Westphal, Douglas L.; Zhang, Xiao-Ye; Zhou, Chun-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, numerical prediction of dust aerosol concentration has become prominent at several research and operational weather centres due to growing interest from diverse stakeholders, such as solar energy plant managers, health professionals, aviation and military authorities and policymakers. Dust prediction in numerical weather prediction-type models faces a number of challenges owing to the complexity of the system. At the centre of the problem is the vast range of scales required to fully account for all of the physical processes related to dust. Another limiting factor is the paucity of suitable dust observations available for model, evaluation and assimilation. This chapter discusses in detail numerical prediction of dust with examples from systems that are currently providing dust forecasts in near real-time or are part of international efforts to establish daily provision of dust forecasts based on multi-model ensembles. The various models are introduced and described along with an overview on the importance of dust prediction activities and a historical perspective. Assimilation and evaluation aspects in dust prediction are also discussed.

  17. Dust Devil Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  18. The Impact of the Dusty Torus on Obscured Quasar Halo Mass Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    DiPompeo, Michael A; Hickox, Ryan C; Myers, Adam D; Geach, James E

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have found that obscured quasars cluster more strongly and are thus hosted by dark matter haloes of larger mass than their unobscured counterparts. These results pose a challenge for the simplest unification models, in which obscured objects are intrinsically the same as unobscured sources but seen through a dusty line of sight. There is general consensus that a structure like a "dusty torus" exists, meaning that this intrinsic similarity is likely the case for at least some subset of obscured quasars. However, the larger host halo masses of obscured quasars implies that there is a second obscured population that has an even higher clustering amplitude and typical halo mass. Here, we use simple assumptions about the host halo mass distributions of quasars, along with analytical methods and cosmological $N$-body simulations to isolate the signal from this population. We provide values for the bias and halo mass as a function of the fraction of the "non-torus obscured" population. Adopting a reas...

  19. Evidence for a wide range of UV obscuration in z ~ 2 dusty galaxies from the GOODS-Herschel survey

    CERN Document Server

    Penner, Kyle; Pope, Alexandra; Dey, Arjun; Magnelli, Benjamin; Pannella, Maurilio; Altieri, Bruno; Aussel, Herve; Buat, Veronique; Bussmann, Shane; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Coia, Daniela; Daddi, Emanuele; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Elbaz, David; Hwang, Ho Seong; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Lin, Lihwai; Magdis, Georgios; Morrison, Glenn; Popesso, Paola; Scott, Douglas; Valtchanov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Dusty galaxies at z ~ 2 span a wide range of relative brightness between rest-frame mid-infrared (8um) and ultraviolet wavelengths. We attempt to determine the physical mechanism responsible for this diversity. Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), which have rest-frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratios > 1000, might be abnormally bright in the mid-IR, perhaps due to prominent AGN and/or PAH emission, or abnormally faint in the UV. We use far-infrared data from the GOODS-Herschel survey to show that most DOGs with 10^12 L_Sun < L_IR < 10^13 L_Sun are not abnormally bright in the mid-IR when compared to other dusty galaxies with similar IR (8--1000um) luminosities. We observe a relation between the median IR to UV luminosity ratios and the median UV continuum power-law indices for these galaxies, and we find that only 24% have specific star formation rates which indicate the dominance of compact star-forming regions. This circumstantial evidence supports the idea that the UV- and IR-emitting regions in these gal...

  20. Exploring the Effects of Dust Coatings and Shock Pressures on Thermal Infrared Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Christensen, P. R.; Hoerz, F.

    1999-01-01

    Dust coatings on rocks obscured the underlying rock surfaces at the Mars Pathfinder landing site and made it difficult to obtain pristine visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra and chemical measurements. Such dust coatings also affect the ability of thermal infrared (TIR) spectra (such as that provided by TES and future lander (mini-TES) and orbiter multispectral imaging systems (THEMIS) to reveal accurately the mineralogy of rocks and soils. Similarly, high shock pressures from impact events cause crystalline disorder in important minerals such as pyroxene and feldspar that also affects their TIR spectra and complicates spectral interpretation of shocked impact materials. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  2. CT enteroclysis in the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, T.P. [Department ofRadiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Gulati, M.S. [Department of Imaging, Queen Elizabeth Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Makharia, G.K. [Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)]. E-mail: govindmakharia@aiims.ac.in; Bandhu, S. [Department ofRadiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India); Garg, P.K. [Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    2007-07-15

    Aim: To evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography (CT) enteroclysis in patients with obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Materials and methods: In a prospective study, CT enteroclysis was performed in 21 patients (median age 50 years; range 13-71 years) with obscure GI bleeding in which the source of the bleeding could not be detected despite the patient having undergone both upper GI endoscopic and colonoscopic examinations. The entire abdomen and pelvis was examined in the arterial and venous phases using multisection CT after distending the small intestine with 2 l of 0.5% methylcellulose as a neutral enteral contrast medium and the administration of 150 ml intravenous contrast medium. Results: Adequate distension of the small intestine was achieved in 20 of the 21 (95.2%) patients. Potential causes of GI bleeding were identified in 10 of the 21 (47.6%) patients using CT enteroclysis. The cause of the bleeding could be detected nine of 14 (64.3%) patients with overt, obscure GI bleeding. However, for patients with occult, obscure GI bleeding, the cause of the bleeding was identified in only one of the seven (14.3%) patients. The lesions identified by CT enteroclysis included small bowel tumours (n = 2), small bowel intussusceptions (n = 2), intestinal tuberculosis (n = 2), and vascular lesions (n = 3). All vascular lesions were seen equally well in both the arterial and venous phases. Conclusions: The success rate in detection of the cause of bleeding using CT enteroclysis was 47.6% in patients with obscure GI bleeding. The diagnostic yield was higher in patients with overt, obscure GI bleeding than in those with occult obscure GI bleeding.

  3. Obscuring Torus Geometry from the NuSTAR Survey of Swift/BAT AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balokovic, Mislav; Harrison, Fiona; NuSTAR

    2016-06-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) has enabled studies of the local active galactic nuclei (AGN) to extend into the spectral window above 10 keV with unprecedented spatial resolution and two orders of magnitude better sensitivity than any other instrument operating in that energy range. As a part of its long-term extragalactic program NuSTAR is surveying the nearby population of AGN detected at hard X-ray energies by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift/BAT). I will present spectroscopic results based on NuSTAR and Swift observations of ~150 Swift/BAT AGN surveyed in the first three years of NuSTAR operation. This sample forms an atlas of the highest quality hard X-ray spectra available to date for a large number of AGN, providing unprecedented insight into the variety AGN spectra in the hard X-ray band. In addition to phenomenology, which is an essential ingredient of Cosmic X-ray Background studies, it is possible to use new fitting models to directly probe the geometry of the toroidal obscurer (torus). Its main spectral features lie within the NuSTAR bandpass, making it possible to test the common assumption that a similar Compton-thick torus exists around essentially every Seyfert-type AGN. I will discuss torus geometry constraints based on the X-ray spectra in relation to those from other wavelengths, the effects on interpretation of high-redshift AGN observations, and the limitations of the current results.

  4. Linearized 3D gravity with dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Viqar; Rahmati, Shohreh; Ziprick, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional gravity coupled to pressureless dust is a field theory with 1 local degree of freedom. In the canonical framework, the dust-time gauge encodes this field in the metric. We find that its dynamics, up to diffeomorphism flow, is independent of spatial derivatives and is therefore ultralocal. We study this feature further by analyzing the linearized equations of motion about flat and (anti-)de Sitter backgrounds, and show that this field may be viewed as either a traceless or a transverse mode.

  5. The Contribution of Compton-Thick AGN/ULIRGs to the X-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Emanuele

    Accretion onto the supermassive black holes located at the centre of Active Galactic Nuclei(AGN) is one of the most efficient power sources in the Universe, and provides a significant contribution to the energy radiated over cosmic times. The spectral shape of the X-ray background and its progressive resolution strongly suggests that most AGN are heavily obscured by large amounts of dust and gas. Their primary radiation field is reprocessed and re-emitted at longer wavelengths, driving a huge IR luminosity. Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are the local counterparts of the high-redshift (z sport the typical features of buried AGN in the mid-IR. IRAS 12127 1412 was observed for the first time in the X-rays by our group. Its Chandra spectrum clearly shows the signatures of AGN reflection at 2 10 keV. Similar properties were previously found in IRAS 00182 7112. Our Suzaku observations will allow to pinpont the AGN emission above 10 keV, and will provide fundamental information on the physical and geometrical structure of Compton-thick AGN embedded in a nuclear starburst. These sources are believed to experience the very initial phase of the AGN feedback on the surrounding environment, eventually leading to the formation of powerful optically- bright quasars. Besides this, we stress another remarkable opportunity related to the study of these two ULIRGs. Due to their really unique mid-IR and hard X-ray spectral properties, IRAS 00182 7112 and IRAS 12127 1412 can be considered as representative templates for a significant fraction of the obscured AGN population. Their broadband spectral energy distribution can then be used to calibrate new photometric diagnostics based on mid-IR colors and bolometric corrections, capable of selecting their faint counterparts within the IR deep fields. The wealth of data in the WISE and Spitzer archives will allow a complete census of this AGN subclass. The reflection efficiency inferred from our new Suzaku observations will make

  6. Dust Storms: Why Are Dust Storms a Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Environmental Health, Chemistry, and Toxicology More Resources Dust Storms en español Why are dust storms a concern? A dust storm is a moving ... on Human Health (US Geological Survey) Chemicals in Dust Storms Are these chemicals in MY community? Particulate Matter ...

  7. Radioactive dust sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical report is the second of a five part series on the technical evaluation of a number of dust monitoring instruments and the characterization of Long-Lived Radioactive Dust (LLRD). The data reported here pertain to an experimental study conducted under laboratory controlled conditions in a Long-Lived Radioactive Dust Test Facility (LLRDTF) designed for this purpose. This study was carried out with a twofold purpose in mind, namely, for the characterization of dust and LLRD, and for the evaluation of a variety of monitoring instruments, including cascade impactors, optical particle counters, nylon cyclones, open face filter samplers, and α-particle personal dosimeters, the latter normally used for α-particle radiation exposure purposes. Several non-radioactive and radioactive dusts were characterized. The non-radioactive dusts were SiC, Al2O3, talcum powder, corn starch and flour, while uranium tailings were used as a radioactive dust. Clear differences in instrument performance were observed for the various measurements made

  8. The dust covering factor in active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Stalevski, Marko; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Lira, Paulina; Fritz, Jacopo; Baes, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    The primary source of emission of active galactic nuclei (AGN), the accretion disk, is surrounded by an optically and geometrically thick dusty structure ("the so-called dusty torus"). The infrared radiation emitted by the dust is nothing but a reprocessed fraction of the accretion disk emission, so the ratio of the torus to the AGN luminosity ($L_{\\text{torus}}/L_{\\text{AGN}}$) should correspond to the fraction of the sky obscured by dust, i.e. the covering factor. We undertook a critical investigation of the $L_{\\text{torus}}/L_{\\text{AGN}}$ as the dust covering factor proxy. Using state-of-the-art 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code, we calculated a grid of SEDs emitted by the clumpy two-phase dusty structure. With this grid of SEDs, we studied the relation between $L_{\\text{torus}}/L_{\\text{AGN}}$ and the dust covering factor for different parameters of the torus. We found that in case of type 1 AGNs the torus anisotropy makes $L_{\\text{torus}}/L_{\\text{AGN}}$ underestimate low covering factors and ove...

  9. Dust torus around Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Antal; Horanyi, Mihaly

    1995-01-01

    We investigate the orbital dynamics of small dust particles generated via the continuous micrometeoroid bombardment of the Martian moons. In addition to Mar's oblateness, we also consider the radiation pressure perturbation that is complicated by the planet's eccentric orbit and tilted rotational axis. Considering the production rates and the lifetimes of dust grains, we show that particles from Deimos with radii of about 15 micrometers are expected to dominate the population of a permanently present and tilted dust torus. This torus has an estimated peak number density of approximately equals 5 x 10(exp -12)/cu cm and an optical depth of approximately equals 4 x 10(exp -8).

  10. Long wavelength observations of high galactic latitude dust

    CERN Document Server

    Smoot, G F

    1995-01-01

    The properties of high latitude dust are of great interest to extragalactic astronomers and cosmologists. It is proposed here that essentially all high Galactic latitude interstellar dust is at a typical temperature of about 20~K (i.e. it is warm dust) and that if any cold high latitude interstellar dust exists, its emission at mm-wavelengths is less than 5\\%\\ of that from the primary component of warm dust observed by IRAS. Thus the IRAS maps reveal the high latitude dust of import. The crucial issue is how the emissivity of the dust scales with wavelength. The mm-wavelength emission in this warm dust only model is consistent with roughly a wavelength%, \\lambda, dependent emissivity \\epsilon(\\lambda) \\propto \\lambda^{-1.5}. Such a dependence has been observed in the infrared previously. What is new here is the proposal that this extends to the mm-wavelength region. Proceedings of Workshop on Molecules, Dust, & Backgrounds to be published in Planetary & Space Sciences

  11. Factors influencing dust exposure: finishing activities in drywall construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Catherine E; Jones, Rachael M; Boelter, Fred W

    2011-05-01

    Sanding drywall joint compound is a dusty construction activity. We studied potential factors influencing exposure to respirable and total dust for sanders and bystanders in the area of drywall joint compound finishing in 17 test events within a room-scale isolation chamber. We found the air change rate to be negatively correlated with dust C(twa) both in the sander's personal breathing zone and surrounding area. We could not conclude that sanding tool type systematically influences dust C(twa), but the use of 80-grit abrasive was associated with the highest dust C(twa). We found respirable dusts were uniformly dispersed 1-8.2 m from sanding activities at a fixed location. As anticipated, both respirable and total dust C(twa) in the sander's personal breathing zone are higher than in the surrounding area. The respirable fraction of the total dust mass C(twa) was greater in the surrounding area than in the sander's personal breathing zone. Respirable dust concentrations measured in real time increased over the duration of sanding, exhibiting a temporal trend that is similar to that predicted by the well-mixed box model with contaminant removal by mechanical ventilation only, and continuous emission. Dust concentrations returned to pre-activity (background) levels 2-4 hr after cessation of the sanding activity. PMID:21491324

  12. FIR-detected Lyman break galaxies at z ~ 3: Dust attenuation and dust correction factors at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Oteo, I; Bongiovanni, Á; Pérez-García, A M; Cedrés, B; Sánchez, H Domínguez; Ederoclite, A; Sánchez-Portal, M; Pintos-Castro, I; Pérez-Martínez, R

    2013-01-01

    Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) represent one of the kinds of star-forming galaxies that are found in the high-redshift universe. The detection of LBGs in the FIR domain can provide very important clues on their dust attenuation and total SFR, allowing a more detailed study than those performed so far. In this work we explore the FIR emission of a sample of 16 LBGs at z ~ 3 in the GOODS-North and GOODS-South fields that are individually detected in PACS-100um or PACS-160um. These detections demonstrate the possibility of measuring the dust emission of LBGs at high redshift. We find that PACS-detected LBGs at z ~ 3 are highly obscured galaxies which belong to the Ultra luminous IR galaxies or Hyper luminous IR galaxies class. Their total SFR cannot be recovered with the dust attenuation factors obtained from their UV continuum slope or their SED-derived dust attenuation employing Bruzual & Charlot (2003) templates. Both methods underestimate the results for most of the galaxies. Comparing with a sample of PACS...

  13. The value of multidetector-row computed tomography for localization of obscure acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: There are no simple guidelines on when to perform multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) for diagnosis of obscure acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGIB). We used a risk scoring system to evaluate the diagnostic power of MDCT for patients with obscure AGIB. Materials and methods: Ninety-two patients with obscure AGIB who were referred for an MDCT scan after unsuccessful endoscopic treatment at presentation were studied. We recorded clinical data and calculated Blatchford score for each patient. Patients who required transfusion more than 500 mL of blood to maintain the vital signs were classified as high-risk patients. Two radiologists independently reviewed and categorized MDCT signs of obscure AGIB. Discordant findings were resolved by consensus. One-way ANOVA was used to compare clinical data between two groups; kappa statistics were used to estimate agreement on MDCT findings between radiologists. Results: Of the 92 patients, 62 (67.4%) were classified as high-risk patients. Blatchford scores of high-risk patients were significantly greater than those of low-risk patients. Sensitivity for MDCT diagnosing obscure AGIB was 81% in high-risk patients, as compared with 50% in the low-risk. When used in conjunction with selection of the cut-off value of 13 in Blatchford scoring system, the sensitivity and specificity of MDCT were 70.9% and 73.7%, respectively. Contrast extravasation was the most specific sign of AGIB (k = .87), recognition of which would have improved diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions: With the aid of Blatchford scoring system for evaluating the disease severity, MDCT can localize the bleeders of obscure AGIB more efficiently.

  14. Extragalactic Background Light: Measurements and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-01-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light (EBL) intensity from gamma-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in the wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centered at 1 microns, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar system. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving Gamma-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 microns established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the path for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimeter observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy for...

  15. Dust mite (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a magnified photograph of a dust mite. Mites are carriers (vectors) of many important diseases including typhus (scrub and murine) and rickettsialpox. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease ...

  16. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-04-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  17. Nano Dust Analyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a new highly sensitive instrument to confirm the existence of the so-called nano-dust particles, characterize their impact parameters, and...

  18. Composite Circumstellar Dust Grains

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Ranjan; Dutta, Rajeshwari

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the absorption efficiencies of composite silicate grains with inclusions of graphite and silicon carbide in the spectral range 5--25$\\rm \\mu m$. We study the variation in absorption profiles with volume fractions of inclusions. In particular we study the variation in the wavelength of peak absorption at 10 and 18$\\rm \\mu m$. We also study the variation of the absorption of porous silicate grains. We use the absorption efficiencies to calculate the infrared flux at various dust temperatures and compare with the observed infrared emission flux from the circumstellar dust around some M-Type \\& AGB stars obtained from IRAS and a few stars from Spitzer satellite. We interpret the observed data in terms of the circumstellar dust grain sizes; shape; composition and dust temperature.

  19. The linear and non-linear characterization of dust ion acoustic mode in complex plasma in presence of dynamical charging of dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic theoretical investigation has been carried out on the role of dust charging dynamics on the nature and stability of DIA (Dust Ion Acoustic) mode in complex plasma. The study has been made for both linear and non-linear scale regime of DIA mode. The observed results have been characterized in terms of background plasma responses towards dust surface responsible for dust charge fluctuation, invoking important dusty plasma parameters, especially the ion flow speed and dust size. The linear analyses confirm the nature of instability in DIA mode in presence of dust charge fluctuation. The instability shows a damping of DIA mode in subsonic flow regime followed by a gradual growth in instability in supersonic limit of ion flow. The strength of non-linearity and their existence domain is found to be driven by different dusty plasma parameters. As dust is ubiquitous in interstellar medium with plasma background, the study also addresses the possible effect of dust charging dynamics in gravito-electrostatic characterization and the stability of dust molecular clouds especially in proto-planetary disc. The observations are influential and interesting towards the understanding of dust settling mechanism and formation of dust environments in different regions in space

  20. The Vertical Structure of Nuclear Starburst Disks: Testing a Model of AGN Obscuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, David R.; Gohil, Raj

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear starburst disks are Eddington-limited, radiation pressure supported disks that may be active in the nuclear environment of active galaxies (ULIRGS and AGNs). Earlier analytical models suggested that, under certain conditions, these disks may be geometrically thick on pc-scales, and thus could be a viable source for AGN obscuration, partcularly at z≤1, when gas factions in galaxies are still significant. Here, we present early results from numerical 2D models of nuclear starburst disks where the vertical structure is calculated explicitly from solving the hydrostatic balance and radiative transfer equations. We quantitatively assess under which conditions the starburst disk may present substantial obscuring columns for AGN observations.

  1. Migration of Interplanetary Dust

    OpenAIRE

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.; Taylor, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    We numerically investigate the migration of dust particles with initial orbits close to those of the numbered asteroids, observed trans-Neptunian objects, and Comet Encke. The fraction of silicate asteroidal particles that collided with the Earth during their lifetime varied from 1.1% for 100 micron particles to 0.008% for 1 micron particles. Almost all asteroidal particles with diameter d>4 microns collided with the Sun. The peaks in the migrating asteroidal dust particles' semi-major axis d...

  2. Longevidad de Orgilus obscurator Ness: (Hymenoptera: Braconidae en presencia de diferentes fuentes de alimento Longevity of Orgilus obscurator Ness: (Hymenoptera: Braconidae under the influence of different food sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA IDE

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Una de las tácticas implementadas en el control de Rhyacionia buoliana Schiff. en Chile fue la introducción en 1987 de Orgilus obscurator Ness., un parasitoide específico. Evaluaciones realizadas entre la VII y X regiones de Chile, entre 1995 y 1997, mostraron diferencias significativas en el establecimiento y porcentaje de parasitismo alcanzados por O. obscurator. Aún cuando son múltiples los factores que inciden en el éxito de un biocontrolador, es importante considerar la disponibilidad y accesibilidad de fuentes de alimento, tales como el néctar de algunas flores y su efecto en la longevidad de los adultos. Este estudio fue realizado en la temporada 1996-1997 y 1997-1998 en la Provincia de Valdivia, décima región de Chile. Se utilizaron 295 individuos adultos, entre machos y hembras, manteniéndolos con agua, sin agua, agua-miel y con flores de cuatro especies de plantas, tres pertenecientes a la familia Apiaceae y otra a la familia Asteraceae. La mayor longevidad promedio se obtuvo usando agua miel (23 días en machos y 33 días en hembras y flores de Conium maculatum y Daucus carota (14,1 días, las cuales permitieron aumentar dos veces la longevidad respecto al uso sólo de agua. Los resultados encontrados permiten sugerir la incorporación de algunas especies como C. maculatum y D. carota a las plantaciones de Pinus radiata D. Don, especialmente en la séptima y octava regiones del país, como una forma de aumentar la eficiencia de parasitación de O. obscuratorOne of the tactics that improved the control of Rhyacionia buoliana in Chile was the introduction in 1987 of Orgilus obscurator, a specific parasitoid. Evaluations between the regions VII and X of Chile during 1995 to 1997 have shown significant differences in the establishment and parasitism obtained by O. obscurator. Several factors are involved in the success of control strategies, including the availability and access to food sources such as water, flower nectar and

  3. Prototype detector development for measurement of high altitude Martian dust using a future orbiter platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Jayesh; Patel, Darshil; Chokhawala, Vimmi; Bogavelly, Anvesh

    2016-07-01

    Dust devils mostly occur during the mid of Southern hemisphere summer on Mars and play a key role in the background dust opacity. Due to continuous bombardment of micrometeorites, secondary ejecta come out from the Moons of the Mars and can easily escape. This phenomenon can contribute dust around the Moons and therefore, also around the Mars. Similar to the Moons of the Earth, the surfaces of the Martian Moons get charged and cause the dust levitation to occur, adding to the possible dust source. Also, interplanetary dust particles may be able to reach the Mars and contribute further. It is hypothesized that the high altitude Martian dust could be in the form of a ring or tori around the Mars. However, no such rings have been detected to the present day. Typically, width and height of the dust torus is ~5 Mars radii wide (~16950 km) in both the planes as reported in the literature. Recently, very high altitude dust at about 1000 km has been found by MAVEN mission and it is expected that the dust may be concentrated at about 150 to 500 km. However, a langmuir probe cannot explain the source of such dust particles. It is a puzzling question to the space scientist how dust has reached to such high altitudes. A dedicated dust instrument on future Mars orbiter may be helpful to address such issues. To study origin, abundance, distribution and seasonal variation of Martian dust, a Mars Orbit Dust Experiment (MODEX) is proposed. In order to measure the Martian dust from a future orbiter, design of a prototype of an impact ionization dust detector has been initiated at PRL. This paper presents developmental aspects of the prototype dust detector and initial results. The further work is underway.

  4. Newton to Einstein — dust to dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the relation between the standard Newtonian equations for a pressureless fluid (dust) and the Einstein equations in a double expansion in small scales and small metric perturbations. We find that parts of the Einstein equations can be rewritten as a closed system of two coupled differential equations for the scalar and transverse vector metric perturbations in Poisson gauge. It is then shown that this system is equivalent to the Newtonian system of continuity and Euler equations. Brustein and Riotto (2011) conjectured the equivalence of these systems in the special case where vector perturbations were neglected. We show that this approach does not lead to the Euler equation but to a physically different one with large deviations already in the 1-loop power spectrum. We show that it is also possible to consistently set to zero the vector perturbations which strongly constrains the allowed initial conditions, in particular excluding Gaussian ones such that inclusion of vector perturbations is inevitable in the cosmological context. In addition we derive nonlinear equations for the gravitational slip and tensor perturbations, thereby extending Newtonian gravity of a dust fluid to account for nonlinear light propagation effects and dust-induced gravitational waves

  5. Detection of the Intermediate-width Emission Line Region in Quasar OI 287 with the Broad Emission Line Region Obscured by the Dusty Torus

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhenzhen; Hao, Lei; Wang, Huiyuan; Ji, Tuo; Shi, Xiheng; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Shaohua; Liu, Wen-Juan; Pan, Xiang; Jiang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The existence of intermediate-width emission line regions (IELRs) in active galactic nuclei has been discussed for over two decades. A consensus, however, is yet to be arrived at due to the lack of convincing evidence for their detection. We present a detailed analysis of the broadband spectrophotometry of the partially obscured quasar OI 287. The ultraviolet intermediate-width emission lines (IELs) are very prominent, in high contrast to the corresponding broad emission lines (BELs) which are heavily suppressed by dust reddening. Assuming that the IELR is virialized, we estimated its distance to the central black hole of $\\sim 2.9$ pc, similar to the dust sublimation radius of $\\sim 1.3$ pc. Photo-ionization calculations suggest that the IELR has a hydrogen density of $\\sim 10^{8.8}-10^{9.4} ~ \\rm cm^{-3}$, within the range of values quoted for the dusty torus near the sublimation radius. Both its inferred location and physical conditions suggest that the IELR originates from the inner surface of the dusty t...

  6. Discovery of "Warm Dust" Galaxies in Clusters at z~0.3: Evidence for Stripping of Cool Dust in the Dense Environment?

    CERN Document Server

    Rawle, T D; Egami, E; Chung, S M; Pérez-González, P G; Smail, I; Walth, G; Altieri, B; Appleton, P; Alba, A Berciano; Blain, A W; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M; Fadda, D; Gonzalez, A H; Pereira, M J; Valtchanov, I; van der Werf, P P; Zemcov, M

    2012-01-01

    Using far-infrared imaging from the "Herschel Lensing Survey", we derive dust properties of spectroscopically-confirmed cluster member galaxies within two massive systems at z~0.3: the merging Bullet Cluster and the more relaxed MS2137.3-2353. Most star-forming cluster sources (~90%) have characteristic dust temperatures similar to local field galaxies of comparable infrared (IR) luminosity (T_dust ~ 30K). Several sub-LIRG (L_IR 37K) with far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) shapes resembling LIRG-type local templates. X-ray and mid-infrared data suggest that obscured active galactic nuclei do not contribute significantly to the infrared flux of these "warm dust" galaxies. Sources of comparable IR-luminosity and dust temperature are not observed in the relaxed cluster MS2137, although the significance is too low to speculate on an origin involving recent cluster merging. "Warm dust" galaxies are, however, statistically rarer in field samples (> 3sigma), indicating that the responsible mechanism ma...

  7. Galaxies at redshifts 5 to 6 with systematically low dust content and high [C II] emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capak, P L; Carilli, C; Jones, G; Casey, C M; Riechers, D; Sheth, K; Carollo, C M; Ilbert, O; Karim, A; LeFevre, O; Lilly, S; Scoville, N; Smolcic, V; Yan, L

    2015-06-25

    The rest-frame ultraviolet properties of galaxies during the first three billion years of cosmic time (redshift z > 4) indicate a rapid evolution in the dust obscuration of such galaxies. This evolution implies a change in the average properties of the interstellar medium, but the measurements are systematically uncertain owing to untested assumptions and the inability to detect heavily obscured regions of the galaxies. Previous attempts to measure the interstellar medium directly in normal galaxies at these redshifts have failed for a number of reasons, with two notable exceptions. Here we report measurements of the forbidden C ii emission (that is, [C II]) from gas, and the far-infrared emission from dust, in nine typical star-forming galaxies about one billion years after the Big Bang (z ≈ 5-6). We find that these galaxies have thermal emission that is less than 1/12 that of similar systems about two billion years later, and enhanced [C II] emission relative to the far-infrared continuum, confirming a strong evolution in the properties of the interstellar medium in the early Universe. The gas is distributed over scales of one to eight kiloparsecs, and shows diverse dynamics within the sample. These results are consistent with early galaxies having significantly less dust than typical galaxies seen at z < 3 and being comparable in dust content to local low-metallicity systems. PMID:26108853

  8. Are Seyfert 2 Galaxies without Polarized Broad Emission Lines More Obscured?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Wen Shu; Jun-Xian Wang; Peng Jiang

    2008-01-01

    New XMM-Newton data of seven Seyfert 2 galaxies with optical spectropolarimet- ric observations are presented. An analysis of the 0.5 - 10 keV spectra shows that four Seyfert 2 galaxies with polarized broad lines (PBLs) are absorbed by NH < 1024 cm-2, while two of three Seyfert 2 galaxies without PBLs show evidence of Compton-thick obscuration, support- ing the conclusion that Seyfert 2 galaxies without PBLs are more obscured than those with PBLs. Adding the measured obscuration indicators (NH, T ratio, and Fe Kα line EW) of six luminous AGNs to our previous sample improves the significance level of the difference in absorption from 92.3% to 96.3% for NH, 99.1% to 99.4% for T ratio, and 95.3% to 97.4% for Fe Kα line EW. The present results support and enhance the suggestions that the absence of PBLs in Seyfert 2 galaxies can be explained by larger viewing angles of the line of sight to the putative dusty torus, which leads to the obscuration of the broad-line scattering screen, as expected in the unification model.

  9. NuSTAR observations of heavily obscured quasars at z ~ 0.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.;

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z ≈ 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength...

  10. Case history of a painful, obscure defect of a child's patella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case history reported is that of a 12-year-old boy who suffered from an obscure, painful, unilateral defect at the patella. The X-ray and MRI morphologies of the lesion are described, and the aspects of possible differential diagnoses are discussed. (orig./CB)

  11. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: preoperative CT-guided percutaneous needle localization of the bleeding small bowel segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Peter; Feuerbach, Stefan; Iesalnieks, Igors; Rockmann, Felix; Wrede, Christian E; Zorger, Niels; Schlitt, Hans J; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Hamer, Okka W

    2009-04-01

    A 57-year-old woman presented with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Double balloon enteroscopy, angiography, and surgery including intraoperative enteroscopy failed to identify the bleeding site. Multidetector computed tomography (CT) depicted active bleeding of a small bowel segment. The bleeding segment was localized by CT-guided percutaneous needle insertion and subsequently removed surgically. PMID:19328430

  12. Fractal dust grains in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F. [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Peng, R. D. [State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Y. H. [Institute of Complexity Science, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Chen, Z. Y. [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Ye, M. F.; Wang, L. [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Fractal dust grains of different shapes are observed in a radially confined magnetized radio frequency plasma. The fractal dimensions of the dust structures in two-dimensional (2D) horizontal dust layers are calculated, and their evolution in the dust growth process is investigated. It is found that as the dust grains grow the fractal dimension of the dust structure decreases. In addition, the fractal dimension of the center region is larger than that of the entire region in the 2D dust layer. In the initial growth stage, the small dust particulates at a high number density in a 2D layer tend to fill space as a normal surface with fractal dimension D = 2. The mechanism of the formation of fractal dust grains is discussed.

  13. Hanford Site background: Part 3, Groundwater background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and interprets groundwater background data collected from the unconfined aquifer beneath the Hanford Site, a U.S. Department of Energy complex located near Richland, Washington. Characterization of background composition is an important component of environmental characterization activities and serves as a basis for distinguishing the presence and significance of contamination. Background data can also be used to assess the levels of baseline risk to which humans or other receptors are typically exposed and to establish remediation goals. Evaluating background on a sitewide basis provides a consistent, technically defensible definition of background as opposed to determining area-specific background compositions for each waste management unit being considered for remediation across the Hanford Site

  14. A Spitzer Study of Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars. III. Dust Production and Gas Return in Local Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Martha L; van Loon, Jacco Th; Gehrz, Robert D; Woodward, Charles E

    2009-01-01

    We present the third and final part of a census of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars in Local Group dwarf irregular galaxies. Papers I and II presented the results for WLM and IC 1613. Included here are Phoenix, LGS 3, DDO 210, Leo A, Pegasus dIrr, and Sextans A. Spitzer photometry at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 are presented, along with a more thorough treatment of background galaxy contamination than was presented in papers I and II. We find that at least a small population of completely optically obscured AGB stars exists in each galaxy, regardless of the galaxy's metallicity, but that higher-metallicity galaxies tend to harbor more stars with slight IR excesses. The optical incompleteness increases for the redder AGB stars, in line with the expectation that some AGB stars are not detected in the optical due to large amounts of extinction associated with in situ dust production. Overall, there is an underrepresentation of 30% - 40% in the optical AGB within the 1 sigma errors for all of the galaxies in our samp...

  15. Blanchot’s Anagrams (a reading of Thomas l’Obscur) / Los anagramas de Blanchot (una lectura de Thomas l’Obscur)

    OpenAIRE

    Évelyne Grossman

    2012-01-01

    Reading Maurice Blanchot, philosopher and writer, is anexperience of the extreme. His novel Thomas l’Obscur requires everyreader to go across a quasi crazy experience that disrupts every reference.Indeed, the issue is not to resist the actual transferential effects thatreading exerts on each one, but rather to go through the test of a certainfaculty of dissociation –quality that every analyst and analysand need:dynamics of affection, pulsional forces path that are at work in whatBlanchot call...

  16. Planck 2013 results. XXX. Cosmic infrared background measurements and implications for star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planck Collaboration; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Blagrave, K.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J. J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chen, X.; Chiang, H. C.; Chiang, L.-Y.; Christensen, P. R.; Church, S.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.-M.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Hansen, F. K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Langer, M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R. J.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; León-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C. B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H. U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paladini, R.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G. W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J. A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M. D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E. P. S.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Türler, M.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Welikala, N.; White, M.; White, S. D. M.; Winkel, B.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-11-01

    We present new measurements of cosmic infrared background (CIB) anisotropies using Planck. Combining HFI data with IRAS, the angular auto- and cross-frequency power spectrum is measured from 143 to 3000 GHz, and the auto-bispectrum from 217 to 545 GHz. The total areas used to compute the CIB power spectrum and bispectrum are about 2240 and 4400 deg2, respectively. After careful removal of the contaminants (cosmic microwave background anisotropies, Galactic dust, and Sunyaev-Zeldovich emission), and a complete study of systematics, the CIB power spectrum is measured with unprecedented signal to noise ratio from angular multipoles ℓ ~ 150 to 2500. The bispectrum due to the clustering of dusty, star-forming galaxies is measured from ℓ ~ 130 to 1100, with a total signal to noise ratio of around 6, 19, and 29 at 217, 353, and 545 GHz, respectively. Two approaches are developed for modelling CIB power spectrum anisotropies. The first approach takes advantage of the unique measurements by Planck at large angular scales, and models only the linear part of the power spectrum, with a mean bias of dark matter haloes hosting dusty galaxies at a given redshift weighted by their contribution to the emissivities. The second approach is based on a model that associates star-forming galaxies with dark matter haloes and their subhaloes, using a parametrized relation between the dust-processed infrared luminosity and (sub-)halo mass. The two approaches simultaneously fit all auto- and cross-power spectra very well. We find that the star formation history is well constrained up to redshifts around 2, and agrees with recent estimates of the obscured star-formation density using Spitzer and Herschel. However, at higher redshift, the accuracy of the star formation history measurement is strongly degraded by the uncertainty in the spectral energy distribution of CIB galaxies. We also find that the mean halo mass which is most efficient at hosting star formation is log (Meff/M⊙) = 12

  17. Sources and Evolution of Dust in the High Redshift Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the sources and evolution of dust in the very high redshift universe (z > 8-9) poses unique challenges to observers and theorists alike.The peak of the infrared emission from the dust falls in the ~ 80-120 micron region in the rest frame of the galaxy, or about 850 micron to 2 mm in the observers' frame. Sensitivity and background confusion are the main obstacles for the detection of these high-z galaxies and their association with optical and near-IR counterparts. Observations with instruments such as the SCUBA-2, AzTEC, Mambo, Laboca, and GISMO2 offer the best hope for detecting such sources.On the theoretical side, the sources of dust in these galaxies are confined to massive stars with main sequence lifetimes that are shorter than the age of the universe. This leaves core collapse supernovae (CCSNe) as the main source of thermally-condensed dust in these objects. Dust is not only produced by CCSNe, but also destroyed by them in the remnant phase of their evolution. Accounting for the mass of dust inferred from the far-IR/millimeter observations requires therefore an understanding of the various physical processes affecting the evolution of dust in the very high-z universe, and a carefull evaluation of the balance between their different dust formation and destruction mechanisms.

  18. Determinants of Agricultural Pesticide Concentrations in Carpet Dust

    OpenAIRE

    Gunier, Robert B.; Ward, Mary H.; Airola, Matthew; Bell, Erin M.; Colt, Joanne; Nishioka, Marcia; Buffler, Patricia A.; Reynolds, Peggy; Rull, Rudolph P.; Hertz, Andrew; Metayer, Catherine; Nuckols, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications has been used as a surrogate for exposure in epidemiologic studies, although little is known about the relationship with levels of pesticides in homes. Objective: We identified determinants of concentrations of agricultural pesticides in dust. Methods: We collected samples of carpet dust and mapped crops within 1,250 m of 89 residences in California. We measured concentrations of seven pesticides used extensively in agri...

  19. Pneumoconiosis from Agricultural Dust Exposure among Young California Farmworkers

    OpenAIRE

    Schenker, Marc B.; Pinkerton, Kent E; Mitchell, Diane; Vallyathan, Val; Elvine-Kreis, Brenda; Green, Francis H. Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background Agricultural workers are exposed to airborne pollutants, including organic and inorganic (mineral) dusts. Objectives Lung autopsy specimens from consecutive coroner’s cases of Hispanic males in Fresno County, California, (n = 112) were obtained to determine whether mineral dust exposure in agricultural work leads to pneumoconiosis. Methods The left lung was fixed by inflation. We evaluated airway and parenchymal pathology using standardized diagnostic criteria and semiquantitative ...

  20. Dust exposure in Finnish foundries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltanen, E; Koponen, M; Kokko, A; Engström, B; Reponen, J

    1976-01-01

    Dust measurements were made in 51 iron, 9 steel, and 8 nonferrous foundries, at which 4,316 foundrymen were working. The sampling lasted at least two entire shifts or work days continuously during various operations in each foundry. The dust samples were collected at fixed sites or in the breathing zones of the workers. The mass concentration was determined by weighing and the respirable dust fraction was separated by liquid sedimentation. The free silica content was determined by X-ray diffraction. In the study a total of 3,188 samples were collected in the foundries and 6,505 determinations were made in the laboratory. The results indicated a definite difference in the dust exposure during various operations. The highest dust exposures were found during furnace, cupola, and pouring ladle repair. During cleaning work, sand mixing, and shake-out operations excessive silica dust concentrations were also measured. The lowest dust concentrations were measured during melting and pouring operations. Moderate dust concentrations were measured during coremaking and molding operations. The results obtained during the same operations of iron and steel foundries were similar. The distribution of the workers into various exposure categories, the content of respirable dust and quartz, the correlation between respirable dust and total dust, and the correlation between respirable silica and total dust concentrations are discussed. Observations concerning dust suppression and control methods are briefly considered. PMID:184524

  1. Analytical Study of Nonlinear Dust Acoustic Waves in Two-Dimensional Dust Plasma with Dust Charge Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Chang; ZHANG Xiu-Lian

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation is analytically investigated by using the formally variable separation approach. New analytical solutions for the governing equation of this system have been obtained for dust acoustic waves in a dust plasma for the first time. We derive exact analytical expressions for the general case of the nonlinear dust acoustic waves in two-dimensional dust plasma with dust charge variation.

  2. AGB stars in the SMC: evolution and dust properties based on Spitzer observations

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Agli, F; Ventura, P; Schneider, R; Di Criscienzo, M; Rossi, C

    2015-01-01

    We study the population of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) by means of full evolutionary models of stars of mass 1Msun < M < 8Msun, evolved through the thermally pulsing phase. The models also account for dust production in the circumstellar envelope. We compare Spitzer infrared colours with results from theoretical modelling. We show that ~75% of the AGB population of the SMC is composed by scarcely obscured objects, mainly stars of mass M < 2.5Msun at various metallicity, formed between 700 Myr and 5 Gyr ago; ~ 70% of these sources are oxygen--rich stars, while ~ 30% are C-stars. The sample of the most obscured AGB stars, accounting for ~ 25% of the total sample, is composed almost entirely by carbon stars. The distribution in the colour-colour ([3.6]-[4.5], [5.8]-[8.0]) and colour-magnitude ([3.6]-[8.0], [8.0]) diagrams of these C-rich objects, with a large infrared emission, traces an obscuration sequence, according to the amount of carbonaceous dust in the...

  3. Dust-Dust Collisional Charging and Lightning in Protoplanetary Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Muranushi, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    We study the role of dust-dust collisional charging in protoplanetary discs. We show that dust-dust collisional charging becomes an important process in determining the charge state of dust and gas, if there is dust enhancement and/or dust is fluffy, so that dust surface area per disc volume is locally increased. We solve the charge equilibrium equations for various disc environments and dust condensation $\\eta$ (dust number density of the considered region divided by the fiducial value), using general purpose graphic processors (GPGPU) and {\\sc cuda} programming language. We found that as dust condensation $\\eta$ increases, the charge distribution experience four phases. In one of these phases the electrostatic field $E$ caused by dust migration increases as $E \\propto \\eta^4$. As a result, macroscopic electric discharge takes place typically at $\\eta = 30 \\sim 300$. We present a model that describes the charge exchange processes in the discs as an electric circuit. We estimate the total energy, intensity an...

  4. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of our theoretical research under this grant over the past 3 years was to develop new understanding in a range of topics in the physics of dust-plasma interactions, with application to space and the laboratory. We conducted studies related to the physical properties of dust, waves and instabilities in both weakly coupled and strongly coupled dusty plasmas, and innovative possible applications. A major consideration in our choice of topics was to compare theory with experiments or observations, and to motivate new experiments, which we believe is important for developing this relatively new field. Our research is summarized, with reference to our list of journal publications.

  5. Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To ensure the safety and success of future lunar exploration missions, it is important to measure the toxicity of the lunar dust and its electrostatic properties. The electrostatic properties of lunar dust govern its behavior, from how the dust is deposited in an astronaut s lungs to how it contaminates equipment surfaces. NASA has identified the threat caused by lunar dust as one of the top two problems that need to be solved before returning to the Moon. To understand the electrostatic nature of lunar dust, NASA must answer the following questions: (1) how much charge can accumulate on the dust? (2) how long will the charge remain? and (3) can the dust be removed? These questions can be answered by measuring the electrostatic properties of the dust: its volume resistivity, charge decay, charge-to-mass ratio or chargeability, and dielectric properties.

  6. Anatomy of the AGN in NGC 5548. VII. Swift study of obscuration and broadband continuum variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdipour, M.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kriss, G. A.; Cappi, M.; Petrucci, P.-O.; De Marco, B.; Ponti, G.; Steenbrugge, K. C.; Behar, E.; Bianchi, S.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Costantini, E.; Ebrero, J.; Di Gesu, L.; Matt, G.; Paltani, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Ursini, F.; Whewell, M.

    2016-04-01

    We present our investigation into the long-term variability of the X-ray obscuration and optical-UV-X-ray continuum in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. In 2013 and 2014, the Swift observatory monitored NGC 5548 on average every day or two, with archival observations reaching back to 2005, totalling about 670 ks of observing time. Both broadband spectral modelling and temporal rms variability analysis are applied to the Swift data. We disentangle the variability caused by absorption, due to an obscuring weakly-ionised outflow near the disk, from variability of the intrinsic continuum components (the soft X-ray excess and the power law) originating in the disk and its associated coronae. The spectral model that we apply to this extensive Swift data is the global model that we derived for NGC 5548 from analysis of the stacked spectra from our multi-satellite campaign of 2013 (including XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and HST). The results of our Swift study show that changes in the covering fraction of the obscurer is the primary and dominant cause of variability in the soft X-ray band on timescales of 10 days to ~5 months. The obscuring covering fraction of the X-ray source is found to range between 0.7 and nearly 1.0. The contribution of the soft excess component to the X-ray variability is often much less than that of the obscurer, but it becomes comparable when the optical-UV continuum flares up. We find that the soft excess is consistent with being the high-energy tail of the optical-UV continuum and can be explained by warm Comptonisation: up-scattering of the disk seed photons in a warm, optically thick corona as part of the inner disk. To this date, the Swift monitoring of NGC 5548 shows that the obscurer has been continuously present in our line of sight for at least 4 years (since at least February 2012).

  7. AKARI Detections of Hot Dust in Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Oyabu, S; Malkan, M; Matsuhara, H; Wada, T; Nakagawa, T; Ohyama, Y; Toba, Y; Onaka, T; Takita, S; Kataza, H; Yamamura, I; Shirahata, M

    2011-01-01

    We have made a new sample of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), using the catalog of the AKARI Mid-infrared(MIR) All-Sky Survey. Our MIR search has an advantage in detecting AGNs that are obscured at optical wavelengths due to extinction. First, we selected AKARI 9micron excess sources with F(9micron)/F(K_S)>2 where K_S magnitudes were taken from the Two Micron All Sky Survey. Then, we obtained follow-up near-infrared spectroscopy with the AKARI/IRC, to confirm that the excess is caused by hot dust. We also obtained optical spectroscopy with the Kast Double Spectrograph on the Shane 3-m telescope at Lick Observatory. Based on these observations, we detected hot dust with a characteristic temperature of ~500K in two luminous infrared galaxies. The hot dust is suspected to be associated with AGNs, which show their nonstellar activity not in the optical, but in the near- and mid-infrared bands--i.e., they harbor buried AGNs. The host galaxy stellar masses of 4-6 x 10^9 M_sun are small compared with the hosts in opti...

  8. Seismometer Detection of Dust Devil Vortices by Ground Tilt

    CERN Document Server

    Lorenz, Ralph D; Murdoch, Naomi; Lognonné, Philippe; Kawamura, Taichi; Mimoun, David; Banerdt, W Bruce

    2015-01-01

    We report seismic signals on a desert playa caused by convective vortices and dust devils. The long-period (10-100s) signatures, with tilts of ~10$^{-7}$ radians, are correlated with the presence of vortices, detected with nearby sensors as sharp temporary pressure drops (0.2-1 mbar) and solar obscuration by dust. We show that the shape and amplitude of the signals, manifesting primarily as horizontal accelerations, can be modeled approximately with a simple quasi-static point-load model of the negative pressure field associated with the vortices acting on the ground as an elastic half space. We suggest the load imposed by a dust devil of diameter D and core pressure {\\Delta}Po is ~({\\pi}/2){\\Delta}PoD$^2$, or for a typical terrestrial devil of 5 m diameter and 2 mbar, about the weight of a small car. The tilt depends on the inverse square of distance, and on the elastic properties of the ground, and the large signals we observe are in part due to the relatively soft playa sediment and the shallow installatio...

  9. Dust and Super Star Clusters in NGC 5253

    CERN Document Server

    Vanzi, L; Vanzi, Leonardo; Sauvage, Marc

    2004-01-01

    We present new observations of the famous starburst galaxy NGC 5253 which owes its celebrity to possibly being the youngest and closest starburst galaxy known. Our observations in the infrared and millimeter contribute to shed light on the properties of this interesting object. We have used our new data along with data from the literature to study the properties of the young stellar clusters present in NGC 5253. We find that the brightest optical clusters are all characterized by a near-infrared excess that is explained by the combined effect of extinction and emission by dust. For the brightest infrared cluster we model the spectral energy distribution from the optical to the radio. We find that this cluster dominates the galaxy emission longward of 3 \\mic, that it has a bolometric luminosity of $1.2~10^9 L_{\\odot}$ and a mass of $1.2~10^6 M_{\\odot}$, giving $L/M\\approx10^3$. The cluster is obscured by 7 mag of optical extinction produced by about 1.5 10$^{5}$ $M_{\\odot}$ of dust. The dust properties are pec...

  10. Technical Note: Minerals in dust productive soils – impacts and global distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nickovic

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dust storms and associated mineral aerosol transport are mainly driven by meso and synoptic scale atmospheric processes. It is therefore essential that the dust aerosol process and background atmospheric conditions that drive the dust emission and atmospheric transport be represented with sufficiently well resolved spatial and temporal features. Effects of airborne dust interactions with the environment are determent by the mineral composition of dust particles. Fractions of various minerals in the aerosol are determined by the mineral composition of arid soils, therefore high-resolution specification of mineral and physical properties of dust sources is needed as well.

    Most current dust atmospheric models simulate/predict the evolution of dust concentration but in most cases they do not consider fractions of minerals in dust. Accumulated knowledge on impacts of mineral composition in dust on weather and climate processes emphasizes the importance of considering minerals in modelling systems. Following such needs, in this study we developed a global dataset on mineral composition of potentially dust productive soils. In our study (a we mapped mineral data into a high-resolution 30-s grid, (b we included mineral carrying soil types in dust productive regions that were not considered in previous studies, and (c included phosphorus having in mind their importance for terrestrial and marine nutrition processes.

  11. Onset of frequent dust storms in northern China at ~AD 1100

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuxin; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Mu; Liu, Weiguo; Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dian; Liu, Zhonghui

    2015-11-01

    Dust storms in northern China strongly affect the living and health of people there and the dusts could travel a full circle of the globe in a short time. Historically, more frequent dust storms occurred during cool periods, particularly the Little Ice Age (LIA), generally attributed to the strengthened Siberian High. However, limited by chronological uncertainties in proxy records, this mechanism may not fully reveal the causes of dust storm frequency changes. Here we present a late Holocene dust record from the Qaidam Basin, where hydrological changes were previously reconstructed, and examine dust records from northern China, including the ones from historical documents. The records, being broadly consistent, indicate the onset of frequent dust storms at ~AD 1100. Further, peaked dust storm events occurred at episodes of high total solar irradiance or warm-dry conditions in source regions, superimposed on the high background of frequent dust storms within the cool LIA period. We thus suggest that besides strong wind activities, the centennial-scale dust storm events over the last 1000 years appear to be linked to the increased availability of dust source. With the anticipated global warming and deteriorating vegetation coverage, frequent occurrence of dust storms in northern China would be expected to persist.

  12. Onset of frequent dust storms in northern China at ~AD 1100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuxin; Zhao, Cheng; Song, Mu; Liu, Weiguo; Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Dian; Liu, Zhonghui

    2015-01-01

    Dust storms in northern China strongly affect the living and health of people there and the dusts could travel a full circle of the globe in a short time. Historically, more frequent dust storms occurred during cool periods, particularly the Little Ice Age (LIA), generally attributed to the strengthened Siberian High. However, limited by chronological uncertainties in proxy records, this mechanism may not fully reveal the causes of dust storm frequency changes. Here we present a late Holocene dust record from the Qaidam Basin, where hydrological changes were previously reconstructed, and examine dust records from northern China, including the ones from historical documents. The records, being broadly consistent, indicate the onset of frequent dust storms at ~AD 1100. Further, peaked dust storm events occurred at episodes of high total solar irradiance or warm-dry conditions in source regions, superimposed on the high background of frequent dust storms within the cool LIA period. We thus suggest that besides strong wind activities, the centennial-scale dust storm events over the last 1000 years appear to be linked to the increased availability of dust source. With the anticipated global warming and deteriorating vegetation coverage, frequent occurrence of dust storms in northern China would be expected to persist. PMID:26607033

  13. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTINGS). I. OVERVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Martha L.; Sonneborn, George [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Gehrz, Robert D.; Skillman, Evan [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Barmby, Pauline [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Bonanos, Alceste Z. [IAASARS, National Observatory of Athens, GR-15236 Penteli (Greece); Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Groenewegen, M. A. T. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Lagadec, Eric [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Univ. Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, F-06300 Nice (France); Lennon, Daniel [ESA—European Space Astronomy Centre, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Marengo, Massimo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Sloan, G. C. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Van Loon, Jacco Th. [Astrophysics Group, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Zijlstra, Albert, E-mail: martha.boyer@nasa.gov [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, Alan Turing Building, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-01

    Nearby resolved dwarf galaxies provide excellent opportunities for studying the dust-producing late stages of stellar evolution over a wide range of metallicity (–2.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –1.0). Here, we describe DUSTiNGS (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer): a 3.6 and 4.5 μm post-cryogen Spitzer Space Telescope imaging survey of 50 dwarf galaxies within 1.5 Mpc that is designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. The survey includes 37 dwarf spheroidal, 8 dwarf irregular, and 5 transition-type galaxies. This near-complete sample allows for the building of statistics on these rare phases of stellar evolution over the full metallicity range. The photometry is >75% complete at the tip of the red giant branch for all targeted galaxies, with the exception of the crowded inner regions of IC 10, NGC 185, and NGC 147. This photometric depth ensures that the majority of the dust-producing stars, including the thermally pulsing AGB stars, are detected in each galaxy. The images map each galaxy to at least twice the half-light radius to ensure that the entire evolved star population is included and to facilitate the statistical subtraction of background and foreground contamination, which is severe at these wavelengths. In this overview, we describe the survey, the data products, and preliminary results. We show evidence for the presence of dust-producing AGB stars in eight of the targeted galaxies, with metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = –1.9, suggesting that dust production occurs even at low metallicity.

  14. AN INFRARED CENSUS OF DUST IN NEARBY GALAXIES WITH SPITZER (DUSTINGS). I. OVERVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearby resolved dwarf galaxies provide excellent opportunities for studying the dust-producing late stages of stellar evolution over a wide range of metallicity (–2.7 ≲ [Fe/H] ≲ –1.0). Here, we describe DUSTiNGS (DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer): a 3.6 and 4.5 μm post-cryogen Spitzer Space Telescope imaging survey of 50 dwarf galaxies within 1.5 Mpc that is designed to identify dust-producing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and massive stars. The survey includes 37 dwarf spheroidal, 8 dwarf irregular, and 5 transition-type galaxies. This near-complete sample allows for the building of statistics on these rare phases of stellar evolution over the full metallicity range. The photometry is >75% complete at the tip of the red giant branch for all targeted galaxies, with the exception of the crowded inner regions of IC 10, NGC 185, and NGC 147. This photometric depth ensures that the majority of the dust-producing stars, including the thermally pulsing AGB stars, are detected in each galaxy. The images map each galaxy to at least twice the half-light radius to ensure that the entire evolved star population is included and to facilitate the statistical subtraction of background and foreground contamination, which is severe at these wavelengths. In this overview, we describe the survey, the data products, and preliminary results. We show evidence for the presence of dust-producing AGB stars in eight of the targeted galaxies, with metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = –1.9, suggesting that dust production occurs even at low metallicity

  15. Navy Exploitation of SeaWiFS and MODIS Satellite Imagery for Detection of Desert Dust Storms Over Land and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. D.

    2002-12-01

    The United States Navy gives serious consideration to the subject of dust detection. In a recent study of Naval aviation mishaps over the period 1990-1998 (Cantu, 2001), it was found that 70% were associated with visibility problems and accounted for annual equipment losses of nearly 50 million dollars. This figure does not include the tax dollars lost in jettisoned or off-target ordnance owing to obscured targets or failure of laser-guided systems in the presence of significant dust. Nor can it account for the loss of life during a subset of these mishaps. As such, a strong research emphasis has been placed on detecting and quantifying dust over data-sparse/denied parts of the world. The prolific and complex dust climatology of Southwest Asia has posed considerable challenges to Navy operations over the course of Operation Enduring Freedom. In an effort to support the ongoing needs of the Meteorology/Oceanography (METOC) officers afloat, the Satellite Applications Section of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Marine Meteorology Division has developed a novel approach to enhancing significant dust events that appeals to high spatial and spectral resolution satellite data currently available from state of the art ocean/atmospheric radiometers. This paper summarizes progress made on daytime enhancements of desert dust storms over both land and ocean using multispectral imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; aboard Earth Observing System Terra and Aqua platforms) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; aboard the NASA/Orbimage SeaStar platform). The approach leverages the multi-spectral visible capability of these sensors to distinguish dust from clouds over water bodies, and the high spatial resolution required to refine the fine-scale structures that often accompany these events. The MODIS algorithm combines this information with that of several near-to-far infrared channels, taking advantage of unique spectral

  16. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our theoretical research on dust-plasma interactions has concentrated on three main areas: (a)studies of grain charging and applications; (b) waves and instabilities in weakly correlated dusty plasma with applications to space and laboratory plasmas; (c) waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

  17. Dust devil dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, W.; Miura, H.; Onishchenko, O.; Couedel, L.; Arnas, C.; Escarguel, A.; Benkadda, S.; Fedun, V.

    2016-06-01

    A self-consistent hydrodynamic model for the solar heating-driven onset of a dust devil vortex is derived and analyzed. The toroidal flows and vertical velocity fields are driven by an instability that arises from the inversion of the mass density stratification produced by solar heating of the sandy surface soil. The nonlinear dynamics in the primary temperature gradient-driven vertical airflows drives a secondary toroidal vortex flow through a parametric interaction in the nonlinear structures. While an external tangential shear flow may initiate energy transfer to the toroidal vortex flow, the nonlinear interactions dominate the transfer of vertical-radial flows into a fast toroidal flow. This secondary flow has a vertical vorticity, while the primary thermal gradient-driven flow produces the toroidal vorticity. Simulations for the complex nonlinear structure are carried out with the passive convection of sand as test particles. Triboelectric charging modeling of the dust is used to estimate the charging of the sand particles. Parameters for a Dust Devil laboratory experiment are proposed considering various working gases and dust particle parameters. The nonlinear dynamics of the toroidal flow driven by the temperature gradient is of generic interest for both neutral gases and plasmas.

  18. Left in the Dust

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft ended its seven-year voyage January 15 after a safe landing on earth, bringing back a capsule of comet particles and samples of interstellar dust that exceeded the loftiest of expectations of mission scientists. The ensuing studies of the cosmic treasure are expected to shed light on the origins of the solar system and earth itself.

  19. Dust Devil Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, C. E.; Escarguel, A.; Horton, W.; Arnas, C.; Couedel, L.; Benkadda, S.

    2013-12-01

    A self-consistent hydrodynamic model for the onset of a dust devil vortex is derived and analyzed. The horizontal toroidal flow and vertical velocity field are driven by the vertical temperature gradient instability of gravity waves. The critical temperature gradient is derived and the associated eigenmodes for simple models are given. The nonlinear dynamics in the vertical/horizontal flows drive the toroidal flow through a parametric decay process. Methods developed for triboelectric charging of dust are used to compute the electric polarization vector from the charging of the sand particles. Elementary comparisons are made with the data from dust devil observations and research and simulations by Farrell et al. 2004, 2006. The parameters for a proposed Dust Devil laboratory experiment at Aix-Marseille University are presented. Following R. L. Miller et al. JGR 2006 estimates are made of the overall contribution to the mid-latitude aerosol layer in the atmosphere that acts to moderate global climate temperature increases through a negative feedback loop. The problem has an analog in terms of the heating of the boron or beryllium coated steel vacuum vessel walls in tokamaks where the core plasma plays the role of the sun and has a temperature (~ 10keV ) that exceeds that of the core of the sun.

  20. Synoptic sky surveys and the diffuse supernova neutrino background: Removing astrophysical uncertainties and revealing invisible supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cumulative (anti)neutrino production from all core-collapse supernovae within our cosmic horizon gives rise to the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB), which is on the verge of detectability. The observed flux depends on supernova physics, but also on the cosmic history of supernova explosions; currently, the cosmic supernova rate introduces a substantial (±40%) uncertainty, largely through its absolute normalization. However, a new class of wide-field, repeated-scan (synoptic) optical sky surveys is coming online, and will map the sky in the time domain with unprecedented depth, completeness, and dynamic range. We show that these surveys will obtain the cosmic supernova rate by direct counting, in an unbiased way and with high statistics, and thus will allow for precise predictions of the DSNB. Upcoming sky surveys will substantially reduce the uncertainties in the DSNB source history to an anticipated ±5% that is dominated by systematics, so that the observed high-energy flux thus will test supernova neutrino physics. The portion of the universe (z < or approx. 1) accessible to upcoming sky surveys includes the progenitors of a large fraction (≅87%) of the expected 10-26 MeV DSNB event rate. We show that precision determination of the (optically detected) cosmic supernova history will also make the DSNB into a strong probe of an extra flux of neutrinos from optically invisible supernovae, which may be unseen either due to unexpected large dust obscuration in host galaxies, or because some core-collapse events proceed directly to black hole formation and fail to give an optical outburst.

  1. Polarimeter Arrays with Comprehensive Frequency Coverage for the Next Generation of Precision Microwave Background Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austermann, Jason Edward; Beall, James; Becker, Dan; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Duff, Shannon; gao, jiansong; Hilton, Gene; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent; li, dale; McKenney, Christopher; Ullom, Joel; van lanen, jeffrey; Vissers, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Spectral resolution at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths is now understood to be crucially important in precision measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Recent results from the Planck and BICEP/KECK experiments have established that measurements of the CMB polarization signal is limited, in part, by polarized foreground emission. In particular, polarized emission from galactic dust has been found to dominate and obscure potential signals of cosmic inflation, even in regions of the sky specifically identified as having relatively low galactic emission. Current and future experiments aim to address foreground contamination by conducting high-sensitivity observations with broad spectral coverage that will allow for differentiation within the measured signal between foreground sources of polarization and that of the CMB, which each have distinct spectral characteristics. To efficiently achieve these goals within a limited focal plane area, NIST-Boulder has developed multi-band TES-based polarimeters that simultaneously measure multiple spectral bands in each of two orthogonal polarizations. This acts to both increase pixel sensitivity through an increased total bandwidth, as well as providing broad spectral information for differentiation of emission sources. Here, we describe recent achievements and ongoing efforts at NIST-Boulder in the development of millimeter and sub-millimeter detector and focal plane technologies for future experiments, including the stage-IV CMB experiment, CMB-S4. NIST-Boulder provides critical cryogenic components to a large number of current and in-development CMB experiments. Recent milestones include the fielding of the first broadband multi-chroic mm-wave polarimeters in the ACTPol experiment, multi-band array fabrication on large-format 150 mm wafers, and development of matching 150 mm silicon platelet feedhorn arrays. We also review several related development efforts in detector, optical coupling, and readout technologies

  2. Transport and trapping of dust particles in a potential well created by inductively coupled diffused plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Mangilal; Bandyopadhyay, P

    2016-01-01

    A versatile linear dusty (complex) plasma device is designed to study the transport and dynamical behavior of dust particles in a large volume. Diffused inductively coupled plasma is generated in the background of argon gas. A novel technique is used to introduce the dust particles in the main plasma by striking a secondary direct current (DC) glow discharge. These dust particles are found to get trapped in an electrostatic potential well which is formed due to the combination of the ambipolar electric field caused by diffusive plasma and the field produced by the charged glass wall of the vacuum chamber. According to the requirements, the volume of the dust cloud can be controlled very precisely by tuning the plasma and discharge parameters. The present device can be used to address the underlying physics behind the transport of dust particles, self excited dust acoustic waves and instabilities. The detailed design of this device, plasma production and characterization, trapping and transport of the dust par...

  3. The Origins of AGN Obscuration: The 'Torus' as a Dynamical, Unstable Driver of Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Philip F; Narayanan, Desika; Hernquist, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Multi-scale simulations have made it possible to follow gas inflows onto massive black holes (BHs) from galactic scales to the accretion disk. When sufficient gas is driven towards the BH, gravitational instabilities generically form lopsided, eccentric disks that propagate inwards. The lopsided stellar disk exerts a strong torque on the gas disk, driving inflows that fuel rapid BH growth. Here, we investigate whether the same gas disk is the 'torus' invoked to explain obscured AGN. The disk is generically thick and has characteristic ~1-10 pc sizes and masses resembling those required of the torus. The scale heights and obscured fractions of the predicted torii are substantial even in the absence of strong stellar feedback providing the vertical support. Rather, they can be maintained by strong bending modes and warps excited by the inflow-generating instabilities. Other properties commonly attributed to feedback processes may be explained by dynamical effects: misalignment between torus and host galaxy, cor...

  4. Detection of foliage-obscured vehicle using a multiwavelength polarimetric lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, S.; Stoker, J.; Greenlee, S.

    2008-01-01

    Foliage obscured man-made targets detection and identification is of great interest to many applications. In this paper, the backscattered laser signals from a multiwavelength polarimetric lidar were used to detect a vehicle hidden inside a vegetated area. The Polarimetric reflectance data from the lidar at two separate laser wavelengths at 1064 nm and 532 nm revealed distinct target characteristics from both the vehicle and the vegetation. The results from this case study demonstrated the validity of the proposed lidar detection technique. Furthermore, the results could potentially lead to a lidar detection and identification technique for a wide variety of foliage-obscured man-made targets under various application scenarios. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  5. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: difficulties in comparing CT enterography and video capsule endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A paper reports the results of a retrospective study that was designed to evaluate the potential role of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) in elucidating the cause of bleeding in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) for whom CT enterography was negative. The authors highlight the limitations of dual-phase CT enterography for the detection of flat lesions of the small bowel such as ulcers, angiodysplasias or arteriovenous malformations, and confirm the superiority of VCE for the detection of this category of lesions. This commentary discusses some of the issues raised. Key Points circle Video capsule endoscopy surpasses CT enterography in detecting flat small bowel lesions. circle Retrospective VCE and CT enterography findings in obscure bleeding need further evaluation. circle A fair and unbiased comparison of the two investigations is still needed. (orig.)

  6. Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: difficulties in comparing CT enterography and video capsule endoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soyer, Philippe [Hopital Lariboisiere-APHP 2, Department of Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Paris (France); UMR INSERM 965-Paris 7 ' ' Angiogenese et recherche translationnelle' ' , Paris (France); Universite Diderot-Paris 7, Paris (France)

    2012-06-15

    A paper reports the results of a retrospective study that was designed to evaluate the potential role of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) in elucidating the cause of bleeding in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) for whom CT enterography was negative. The authors highlight the limitations of dual-phase CT enterography for the detection of flat lesions of the small bowel such as ulcers, angiodysplasias or arteriovenous malformations, and confirm the superiority of VCE for the detection of this category of lesions. This commentary discusses some of the issues raised. Key Points circle Video capsule endoscopy surpasses CT enterography in detecting flat small bowel lesions. circle Retrospective VCE and CT enterography findings in obscure bleeding need further evaluation. circle A fair and unbiased comparison of the two investigations is still needed. (orig.)

  7. Continuing challenges in the diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Veronica; Baptista; Neil; Marya; Anupam; Singh; Abbas; Rupawala; Bilal; Gondal; David; Cave

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding(OGIB) have changed dramatically since the introduction of video capsule endoscopy(VCE) followed by deep enteroscopy and other imaging technologies in the last decade. Significant advances have been made, yet there remains room for improvement in our diagnostic yield and treatment capabilities for recurrent OGIB. In this review, we will summarize the latest technologies for the diagnosis of OGIB, limitations of VCE, technological enhancement in VCE, and different management options for OGIB.

  8. Continuing challenges in the diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Veronica; Marya, Neil; Singh, Anupam; Rupawala, Abbas; Gondal, Bilal; Cave, David

    2014-11-15

    The diagnosis and management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) have changed dramatically since the introduction of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) followed by deep enteroscopy and other imaging technologies in the last decade. Significant advances have been made, yet there remains room for improvement in our diagnostic yield and treatment capabilities for recurrent OGIB. In this review, we will summarize the latest technologies for the diagnosis of OGIB, limitations of VCE, technological enhancement in VCE, and different management options for OGIB. PMID:25400996

  9. The Stellar Content of Obscured Galactic Giant HII Regions. VII. W3

    OpenAIRE

    Navarete, F.; E. Figueredo; Damineli, A.; Moisés, A. P.; Blum, R. D.; Conti, P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Spectrophotometric distances in the K band have been reported by different authors for a number of obscured Galactic HII regions. Almost 50% of them show large discrepancies compared to the classical method using radial velocities measured in the radio spectral region. In order to provide a crucial test of both methods, we selected a target which does not present particular difficulty for any method and which has been measured by as many techniques as possible. The W3 star forming complex, lo...

  10. Deconstructing the narrow-line region of the nearest obscured quasar

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, M Villar; Stern, J; Almeida, C Ramos; Tadhunter, C; Delgado, R Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    We study the physical and kinematic properties of the narrow line region (NLR) of the nearest obscured quasar MRK 477 (z=0.037), using optical and near-infrared spectroscopy. We explore a diversity of aspects that provide a more complete understanding of the nature of this object, example of a type 2 quasar in the nearby Universe, as well as a starburst-AGN hybrid system [abridged].

  11. Diagnostic Evaluation and Management of Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Changing Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Pasha, Shabana F.; Hara, Amy K.; Leighton, Jonathan A.

    2009-01-01

    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) is defined as bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract that persists or recurs after a negative initial evaluation using bidirectional endoscopy and radiologic imaging with small-bowel radiograph. The main challenges related to evaluation of OGIB include the high miss rate for lesions on initial evaluation with standard endoscopy and the limited capacity of older diagnostic modalities to effectively examine the small bowel. The introduction of capsule ...

  12. The distant red galaxy neighbour population of 1 < z < 2 QSOs and optically obscured sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bornancini, C G; Bornancini, Carlos G.; Lambas, Diego Garcia

    2007-01-01

    We study the Distant Red Galaxy (DRG, J-K_s > 2.3) neighbour population of Quasi Stellar Objects (QSOs) selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) in the redshift range 1 24) detected in the mid-infrared (24 $\\mu$m) with the Spitzer Space Telescope and a mean redshift $z\\sim 2.2$ in the Flamingos Extragalactic Survey (FLAMEX). Both QSOs and obscured AGN target samples cover 4.7 deg$^2$ in the same region of the sky. We find a significant difference in the environment of these two target samples. Neighbouring galaxies close to QSOs tend to be bluer than galaxies in optically obscured source environments. We also present results on the cross-correlation function of DRGs around QSOs and optically faint mid-infrared sources. The corresponding correlation length obtained for the QSO sample targets is $r_0$=$5.4\\pm1.6$ Mpc h$^{-1}$ and a slope of $\\gamma$=$1.94\\pm0.10$ . For the optically obscured galaxy sample we find $r_0$=$8.9\\pm1.4$ Mpc h$^{-1}$ and a slope of $\\gamma$=$2.27\\pm0.20$. These results indic...

  13. Anatomy of the AGN in NGC 5548: VII. Swift study of obscuration and broadband continuum variability

    CERN Document Server

    Mehdipour, M; Kriss, G A; Cappi, M; Petrucci, P -O; De Marco, B; Ponti, G; Steenbrugge, K C; Behar, E; Bianchi, S; Branduardi-Raymont, G; Costantini, E; Ebrero, J; Di Gesu, L; Matt, G; Paltani, S; Peterson, B M; Ursini, F; Whewell, M

    2016-01-01

    We present our investigation into the long-term variability of the X-ray obscuration and optical-UV-X-ray continuum in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. In 2013 and 2014, the Swift observatory monitored NGC 5548 on average every day or two, with archival observations reaching back to 2005, totalling about 670 ks of observing time. Both broadband spectral modelling and temporal rms variability analysis are applied to the Swift data. We disentangle the variability caused by absorption, due to an obscuring weakly-ionised outflow near the disk, from variability of the intrinsic continuum components (the soft X-ray excess and the power-law) originating from the disk and its associated coronae. The spectral model that we apply to this extensive Swift data is the global model that we derived for NGC 5548 from analysis of the stacked spectra from our multi-satellite campaign of summer 2013 (including XMM-Newton, NuSTAR and HST). The results of our Swift study show that changes in the covering fraction of the obscurer is...

  14. Neutron star masses from hydrodynamical effects in obscured sgHMXBs

    CERN Document Server

    Manousakis, A; Blondin, J M

    2012-01-01

    A population of obscured supergiant High Mass X-ray Binaries (sgHMXBs) has been discovered by INTEGRAL. X-ray wind tomography of IGR J17252-3616 inferred a slow wind velocity to account for the enhanced obscuration. The main goal of this study is to understand under which conditions high obscuration could occur. We have used an hydrodynamical code to simulate the flow of the stellar wind around the neutron star. A grid of simulations was used to study the dependency of the absorbing column density and of the X-ray light-curves on the model parameters. A comparison between the simulation results and the observations of IGR J17252-3616 provides an estimate on these parameters. We have constrained the wind terminal velocity to 500-600 km/s and the neutron star mass to 1.75-2.15 solar masses. We have confirmed that the initial hypothesis of a slow wind velocity with a moderate mass loss rate is valid. The mass of the neutron star can be constrained by studying its impact on the accretion flow.

  15. Dust processing in elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Villaume, Alexa; Srinivasan, Sundar

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the origin and processing of dust in elliptical galaxies. We theoretically formulate the evolution of grain size distribution, taking into account dust supply from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and dust destruction by sputtering in the hot interstellar medium (ISM), whose temperature evolution is treated by including two cooling paths: gas emission and dust emission (i.e. gas cooling and dust cooling). With our new full treatment of grain size distribution, we confirm that dust destruction by sputtering is too efficient to explain the observed dust abundance even if AGB stars continue to supply dust grains, and that, except for the case where the initial dust-to-gas ratio in the hot gas is as high as $\\sim 0.01$, dust cooling is negligible compared with gas cooling. However, we show that, contrary to previous expectations, cooling does not help to protect the dust; rather, the sputtering efficiency is raised by the gas compression as a result of cooling. We additionally consider grain grow...

  16. Martian mesoscale and microscale wind variability of relevance for dust lifting

    OpenAIRE

    Spiga, Aymeric; Lewis, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Mars si both a windy and dusty environment. Ariborne dust is a crucial climate component on Mars. It impacts atmospheric circulations at large-, meso- and micro-scales, which in turn control dust lifting from the surface and transport in the atmosphere. Dust lifting processes and feedbacks on atmospheric circulations are currently not well understood. Method: Our purpose is to show how mesoscale models and large-eddy simulations help to explore small-scale circulation patterns ...

  17. Exposure to cobalt chromium dust and lung disorders in dental technicians.

    OpenAIRE

    Seldén, A. I.; Persson, B; Bornberger-Dankvardt, S. I.; Winström, L. E.; Bodin, L S

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Dental technician's pneumoconiosis is a dust-induced fibrotic lung disease of fairly recent origin. This study was carried out to estimate its occurrence in Sweden. METHODS--Thirty seven dental technicians in central and south eastern Sweden with at least five years of exposure to dust from cobalt chromium molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys, identified by postal survey, agreed to undergo chest radiography and assessment of lung function and exposure to inorganic dust. RESULTS--Six subject...

  18. Dust accretion and destruction in galaxy groups and clusters

    CERN Document Server

    McGee, Sean L

    2010-01-01

    We examine the dust distribution around a sample of 70,000 low redshift galaxy groups and clusters derived from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By correlating spectroscopically identified background quasars with the galaxy groups we obtain the relative colour excess due to dust reddening. We present a significant detection of dust out to a clustercentric distance of 30 Mpc/h in all four independent SDSS colours, consistent with the expectations of weak lensing masses of similar mass halos and excess galaxy counts. The wavelength dependence of this colour excess is consistent with the expectations of a Milky Way dust law with R_V=3.1. Further, we find that the halo mass dependence of the dust content is much smaller than would be expected by a simple scaling, implying that the dust-to-gas ratio of the most massive clusters (~10E14 Msun/h) is ~3% of the local ISM value, while in small groups (~10E12.7 Msun/h) it is ~55% of the local ISM value. We also find that the dust must have a covering fraction on the order ...

  19. Dust arising during steelmaking processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Popielska-Ostrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper describes the dust arising during steelmaking processes.Design/methodology/approach: Steelmaking dusts may be a viable alternative for obtaining valuable and widely used metal which is zinc. On the other hand, heavy metals, it was as dangerous to the environment, and this in turn means that development of steelmaking dusts in the best possible way.Findings: The analysis of the formation of steelmaking dust.Research limitations/implications: Understanding the mechanism of steelmaking dusts will help to increase the participation of zinc recycling from wastes.Practical implications: Contained zinc in the dust can be recovered from the positive economic effect, and neutralization of hazardous waste to the desired environmental effect.Originality/value: Description of the mechanism of steelmaking dust, with particular emphasis on the distribution of zinc. The information is very important in the development of metal recovery technology from waste.

  20. The silicate absorption profile in the ISM towards the heavily obscured nucleus of NGC 4418

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, P. F.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Gonzalez-Martin, O.

    2015-01-01

    The 9.7-micron silicate absorption profile in the interstellar medium provides important information on the physical and chemical composition of interstellar dust grains. Measurements in the Milky Way have shown that the profile in the diffuse interstellar medium is very similar to the amorphous silicate profiles found in circumstellar dust shells around late M stars, and narrower than the silicate profile in denser star-forming regions. Here, we investigate the silicate absorption profile to...

  1. Blanchot’s Anagrams (a reading of Thomas l’Obscur / Los anagramas de Blanchot (una lectura de Thomas l’Obscur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Évelyne Grossman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Reading Maurice Blanchot, philosopher and writer, is anexperience of the extreme. His novel Thomas l’Obscur requires everyreader to go across a quasi crazy experience that disrupts every reference.Indeed, the issue is not to resist the actual transferential effects thatreading exerts on each one, but rather to go through the test of a certainfaculty of dissociation –quality that every analyst and analysand need:dynamics of affection, pulsional forces path that are at work in whatBlanchot called the “literary space” but is, at the same time, “analyticspace”. What is deconstruction?, asked Jacques Derrida: that which weonce called Psychoanalysis. Deconstruction is that which is called hereDissociation: transferential motion of affects through which the textcontinues to live.////// Leer a Maurice Blanchot, filósofo y escritor, es una prueba delo extremo. Su novela Thomas l’Obscur obliga a todo lector a atravesar unaexperiencia cuasi loca que trastorna sus referencias. En efecto, se trata deno resistir a los efectos transferenciales reales que ejerce sobre cada unola lectura, sino antes bien de pasar por la prueba de una cierta facultadde disociación –cualidad que todo analista y todo analizante necesitan:dinámica de los afectos, trayectoria de las fuerzas pulsionales que estánen obra en aquello que Blanchot llamaba “el espacio literario” pero quees, a su vez, “espacio analítico”. ¿Qué es la deconstrucción?, preguntabaJacques Derrida: aquello que en otro tiempo llamábamos psicoanálisis.Es dicha deconstrucción lo que se llama aquí disociación: movimientotransferencial de afectos por medio del cual el texto continúa viviendo.

  2. Cosmic dust in the earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plane, John M. C.

    2012-04-01

    This review discusses the magnitude of the cosmic dust input into the earth's atmosphere, and the resulting impacts from around 100 km to the earth's surface. Zodiacal cloud observations and measurements made with a spaceborne dust detector indicate a daily mass input of interplanetary dust particles ranging from 100 to 300 tonnes, which is in agreement with the accumulation rates of cosmic-enriched elements (Ir, Pt, Os and super-paramagnetic Fe) in polar ice cores and deep-sea sediments. In contrast, measurements in the middle atmosphere - by radar, lidar, high-flying aircraft and satellite remote sensing - indicate that the input is between 5 and 50 tonnes per day. There are two reasons why this huge discrepancy matters. First, if the upper range of estimates is correct, then vertical transport in the middle atmosphere must be considerably faster than generally believed; whereas if the lower range is correct, then our understanding of dust evolution in the solar system, and transport from the middle atmosphere to the surface, will need substantial revision. Second, cosmic dust particles enter the atmosphere at high speeds and undergo significant ablation. The resulting metals injected into the atmosphere are involved in a diverse range of phenomena, including: the formation of layers of metal atoms and ions; the nucleation of noctilucent clouds, which are a sensitive marker of climate change; impacts on stratospheric aerosols and O3 chemistry, which need to be considered against the background of a cooling stratosphere and geo-engineering plans to increase sulphate aerosol; and fertilization of the ocean with bio-available Fe, which has potential climate feedbacks.

  3. Connecting The Interstellar Gas And Dust Properties Of Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varsha

    The properties of interstellar gas and dust in distant galaxies are fundamental parameters in constraining galaxy evolution models. Quasar absorption systems (QASs), which trace intervening galaxies along the sightlines to luminous background quasars, provide invaluable tools to directly study gas and dust in distant normal galaxies. Recent studies of QASs have found interesting trends in both gas and dust properties, such as correlations in metallicity with redshift and dust depletions. Our Spitzer spectroscopic studies also indicate that silicate dust grains are present in QASs, and in fact, at a level higher than expected for diffuse gas in the Milky Way. Moreover, the silicate dust grains in these distant galaxies may be substantially more crystalline than those in the Milky Way interstellar medium. We now propose a comprehensive study of the gas and dust properties of all QASs with strong Ly-alpha and/or metal absorption lines that have adequate archival IR data to probe the study of dust. Our analysis will include data primarily from the NASA-supported Spitzer, Herschel, HST, and Keck Observatory archives, along with a small amount of VLT/SDSS archival data. Our specific goals are as follows: (1) We will measure a large range of metal absorption lines in high-resolution quasar spectra from Keck, HST, and VLT archives to uniformly determine the metallicity, dust depletions, ionization, and star formation rates in the foreground QASs. In particular, we will study the variations in these quantities with gas velocity, using Voigt profile fitting techniques to determine the velocity structure. This analysis will also allow us to quantify the kinematics of the absorbing gas. (2) We will use archival Spitzer IRS quasar spectra to search for and measure the strengths of the 10 and 18 micron silicate dust absorption features for a much larger sample of QASs than previously studied. (3) We will fit the observed silicate absorption features in the Spitzer archival

  4. Building Background Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Kaefer, Tanya; Pinkham, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This article make a case for the importance of background knowledge in children's comprehension. It suggests that differences in background knowledge may account for differences in understanding text for low- and middle-income children. It then describes strategies for building background knowledge in the age of common core standards.

  5. Dust in External Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Calzetti, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Existing (Spitzer Space Telescope) and upcoming (Herschel Space Telescope) facilities are deepening our understanding of the role of dust in tracing the energy budget and chemical evolution of galaxies. The tools we are developing while exploring the local Universe will in turn become pivotal in the interpretation of the high redshift Universe when near--future facilities (the Atacama Large Millimeter Array [ALMA], the Sub--Millimeter Array [SMA], the Large Millimeter Telescope [LMT], the Jam...

  6. PFASs in house dust

    OpenAIRE

    Nizzetto, Pernilla Bohlin; Hanssen, Linda; Herzke, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    NILU has, on behalf of the Norwegian Environment Agency, performed sampling and analysis of house dust from Norwegian households. The goal was to study concentration ranges, and variability between- and within-houses of anionic and volatile per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs), including the regulated PFOA, as well as for total extractable organic fluorine (TEOF). The sampling was done in six separate rooms in six different households. The analysis covered a suite of 20 targeted ...

  7. Transport of Dust Particles in Tokamak Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigarov, A Y; Smirnov, R D; Krasheninnikov, S I; Rognlien, T D; Rozenberg, M

    2006-06-06

    Recent advances in the dust transport modeling in tokamak devices are discussed. Topics include: (1) physical model for dust transport; (2) modeling results on dynamics of dust particles in plasma; (3) conditions necessary for particle growth in plasma; (4) dust spreading over the tokamak; (5) density profiles for dust particles and impurity atoms associated with dust ablation in tokamak plasma; and (6) roles of dust in material/tritium migration.

  8. Grain physics and infrared dust emission in active galactic nucleus environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the effects of a detailed dust treatment on the properties and evolution of early-type galaxies containing central black holes, as determined by active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback. We find that during cooling flow episodes, radiation pressure on the dust in and interior to infalling shells of cold gas can greatly impact the amount of gas able to be accreted and therefore the frequency of AGN bursts. However, the overall hydrodynamic evolution of all models, including mass budget, is relatively robust to the assumptions on dust. We find that IR re-emission from hot dust can dominate the bolometric luminosity of the galaxy during the early stages of an AGN burst, reaching values in excess of 1046 erg s–1. The AGN-emitted UV is largely absorbed, but the optical depth in the IR does not exceed unity, so the radiation momentum input never exceeds L BH/c. We constrain the viability of our models by comparing the AGN duty cycle, broadband luminosities, dust mass, black hole mass, and other model predictions to current observations. These constraints force us towards models wherein the dust to metals ratios are ≅ 1% of the Galactic value, and only models with a dynamic dust to gas ratio are able to produce both quiescent galaxies consistent with observations and high obscured fractions during AGN 'on' phases. During AGN outbursts, we predict that a large fraction of the FIR luminosity can be attributed to warm dust emission (≅ 100 K) from dense dusty gas within ≤1 kpc reradiating the AGN UV emission.

  9. Dust and super star clusters in NGC 5253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzi, L.; Sauvage, M.

    2004-02-01

    We present new observations of the famous starburst galaxy NGC 5253 which owes its celebrity to possibly being the youngest and closest starburst galaxy known. Our observations in the infrared and millimeter contribute to shed light on the properties of this interesting object. We have used our new data along with data from the literature to study the properties of the young stellar clusters present in NGC 5253. We find that the brightest optical clusters are all characterized by a near-infrared excess that is explained by the combined effect of extinction and emission by dust. For the brightest infrared cluster we model the spectral energy distribution from the optical to the radio. We find that this cluster dominates the galaxy emission longward of 3 \\mum, that it has a bolometric luminosity of 1.2× 109 L⊙ and a mass of 1.2× 106 M⊙, giving L/M≈103. The cluster is obscured by 7 mag of optical extinction produced by about 1.5× 105 M⊙ of dust. The dust properties are peculiar with respect to the dust properties in the solar neighbourhood with a composition characterized by a lack of silicates and a flatter size distribution than the standard one, i.e. a bias toward larger grains. We find that NGC 5253 is a striking example of a galaxy where the infrared-submillimeter and ultraviolet-optical emissions originate in totally decoupled regions of vastly different physical sizes. Based on observations obtained at the ESO telescopes of La Silla and Paranal, program 69.B-0345; and on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  10. Dust, Climate, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution from both natural and anthropogenic causes is considered to be one of the most serious world-wide environment-related health problems, and is expected to become worse with changes in the global climate. Dust storms from the atmospheric transport of desert soil dust that has been lifted and carried by the winds - often over significant distances - have become an increasingly important emerging air quality issue for many populations. Recent studies have shown that the dust storms can cause significant health impacts from the dust itself as well as the accompanying pollutants, pesticides, metals, salt, plant debris, and other inorganic and organic materials, including viable microorganisms (bacteria, viruses and fungi). For example, thousands of tons of Asian desert sediments, some containing pesticides and herbicides from farming regions, are commonly transported into the Arctic during dust storm events. These chemicals have been identified in animal and human tissues among Arctic indigenous populations. Millions of tons of airborne desert dust are being tracked by satellite imagery, which clearly shows the magnitude as well as the temporal and spatial variability of dust storms across the "dust belt" regions of North Africa, the Middle East, and China. This paper summarizes the most recent findings on the effects of airborne desert dust on human health as well as potential climate influences on dust and health.

  11. Airborne dust and soil particles at the Phoenix landing site, Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M. B.; Drube, L.; Goetz, W.;

    . Because of the multiple background colors of the iSweeps the effect of the translucence of thin dust layers can be studied. This is used to estimate the rate of dust accumulation and will be used to evaluate light scattering properties of the particles. Some particles raised by the retro-rockets during...

  12. Dust Storms in the United States are Associated with Increased Cardiovascular Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Extreme weather events such as dust storms are predicted to become more frequent as the global climate warms through the 21st century. Studies of Asian, Saharan, Arabian, and Australian dust storms have found associations with cardiovascular and total non-accidental...

  13. The effects of dust scattering on high-resolution X-ray absorption edge structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, L.; García, J.; Wilms, J.; Baganoff, F.

    2016-06-01

    High energy studies of astrophysical dust complement observations of dusty interstellar gas at other wavelengths. With high resolution X-ray spectroscopy, dust scattering significantly enhances the total extinction optical depth and alters the shape of photoelectric absorption edges. This effect is modulated by the dust grain size distribution, spatial location along the line of sight, and the imaging resolution of the X-ray telescope. At soft energies, the spectrum of scattered light is likely to have significant features at the 0.3 keV (C-K), 0.5 keV (O-K), and 0.7 keV (Fe-L) photoelectric absorption edges. This direct probe of ISM dust grain elements will be important for (i) understanding the relative abundances of graphitic grains or PAHs versus silicates, and (ii) measuring the depletion of gas phase elements into solid form. We focus in particular on the Fe-L edge, fitting a template for the total extinction to the high resolution spectrum of three X-ray binaries from the Chandra archive: GX 9+9, XTE J1817-330, and Cyg X-1. We discuss ways in which spectroscopy with XMM can yield insight into dust obscured objects such as stars, binaries, AGN, and foreground quasar absorption line systems.

  14. Why Is Improvement of Earth System Models So Elusive? Challenges and Strategies From Dust Aerosol Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. L.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Perlwitz, J. P.; Ginoux, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Past decades have seen an accelerating increase in computing efficiency,while climate models are representing a rapidly widening set ofphysical processes. Yet simulations of some fundamental aspects ofclimate like precipitation or aerosol forcing remain highly uncertainand resistent to progress. Dust aerosol modeling of soil particleslofted by wind erosion has seen a similar conflict between increasingmodel sophistication and remaining uncertainty. Dust aerosols perturbthe energy and water cycles by scattering radiation and acting as icenuclei, while mediating atmospheric chemistry and marinephotosynthesis (and thus the carbon cycle). These effects take placeacross scales from the dimensions of an ice crystal to theplanetary-scale circulation that disperses dust far downwind of itsparent soil. Representing this range leads to several modelingchallenges. Should we limit complexity in our model, which consumescomputer resources and inhibits interpretation? How do we decide if aprocess involving dust is worthy of inclusion within our model? Canwe identify a minimal representation of a complex process that isefficient yet retains the physics relevant to climate? Answeringthese questions about the appropriate degree of representation isguided by model evaluation, which presents several more challenges.How do we proceed if the available observations do not directlyconstrain our process of interest? (This could result from competingprocesses that influence the observed variable and obscure thesignature of our process of interest.) Examples will be presentedfrom dust modeling, with lessons that might be more broadlyapplicable. The end result will either be clinical depression or thereassuring promise of continued gainful employment as the communityconfronts these challenges.

  15. Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 v has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

  16. Multidetector computed tomography mesentericography for the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiss, P.; Hamer, O.W.; Mueller-Wille, R.; Rennert, J.; Feuerbach, S.; Zorger, N. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Wrede, C.E. [Helios-Klinikum Berlin-Buch (Germany). Interdisziplinaeres Notfallzentrum mit Rettungsstelle; Siebig, S.; Schoelmerich, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik I

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic yield of 16-row multidetector computed tomography (CT) mesentericography in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Materials and Methods: The radiological information system database was used to retrospectively identify all patients in whom CT mesentericography (CTM) was performed for the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding between July 2002 and September 2006. A subsequent prospective study was conducted between October 2006 and September 2009 to evaluate CTM in patients with major obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. The retrospectively identified patients (six patients) as well as the prospectively evaluated patients (seven patients) constitute the study population. Following mesenteric DSA the catheter was left in the superior mesenteric artery, the patient was transferred to the CT suite and CTM was carried out by scanning the abdomen after contrast material injection via the catheter. Active bleeding was suspected if a focal area of high attenuation consistent with contrast material extravasation was found within the bowel lumen. Results: CTM detected the site of active bleeding in three of 13 patients (23 %). In the subpopulation of patients who were prospectively evaluated, CT mesentericography identified the site of active bleeding in one of seven patients (14 %). Depiction of active bleeding by CTM prompted surgical intervention in each case and surgery confirmed the findings of CT mesentericography. Conclusion: Due to the relatively low rate of positive findings and inherent drawbacks, we feel that CTM cannot be recommended in general. However, in selected patients who are continuously bleeding at a low rate and in whom iv-CT was negative, CT mesentericography might be helpful. (orig.)

  17. Multidetector computed tomography mesentericography for the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic yield of 16-row multidetector computed tomography (CT) mesentericography in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. Materials and Methods: The radiological information system database was used to retrospectively identify all patients in whom CT mesentericography (CTM) was performed for the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding between July 2002 and September 2006. A subsequent prospective study was conducted between October 2006 and September 2009 to evaluate CTM in patients with major obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. The retrospectively identified patients (six patients) as well as the prospectively evaluated patients (seven patients) constitute the study population. Following mesenteric DSA the catheter was left in the superior mesenteric artery, the patient was transferred to the CT suite and CTM was carried out by scanning the abdomen after contrast material injection via the catheter. Active bleeding was suspected if a focal area of high attenuation consistent with contrast material extravasation was found within the bowel lumen. Results: CTM detected the site of active bleeding in three of 13 patients (23 %). In the subpopulation of patients who were prospectively evaluated, CT mesentericography identified the site of active bleeding in one of seven patients (14 %). Depiction of active bleeding by CTM prompted surgical intervention in each case and surgery confirmed the findings of CT mesentericography. Conclusion: Due to the relatively low rate of positive findings and inherent drawbacks, we feel that CTM cannot be recommended in general. However, in selected patients who are continuously bleeding at a low rate and in whom iv-CT was negative, CT mesentericography might be helpful. (orig.)

  18. Formation of Cosmic Dust Bunnies

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Lorin S.; Hayes, Ryan L.; Freed, Michael S.; Hyde, Truell W.

    2007-01-01

    Planetary formation is an efficient process now thought to take place on a relatively short astronomical time scale. Recent observations have shown that the dust surrounding a protostar emits more efficiently at longer wavelengths as the protoplanetary disk evolves, suggesting that the dust particles are coagulating into fluffy aggregates, "much as dust bunnies form under a bed." One poorly understood problem in this coagulation process is the manner in which micron-sized, charged grains form...

  19. Probing highly-obscured galaxy nuclei with vibrationally excited HCN - Extreme luminosity densities inside self-absorbed v=0 HCN and HCO+

    CERN Document Server

    Aalto, S; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E; Muller, S; Sakamoto, K; Fuller, G A; Garcia-Burillo, S; van der Werf, P; Neri, R; Spaans, M; Combes, F; Viti, S; Muehle, S; Armus, L; Evans, A; Sturm, E; Cernicharo, J; Henkel, C; Greve, T R

    2015-01-01

    We present high resolution (0."4) IRAM PdBI and ALMA mm and submm observations of the (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies ((U)LIRGs) IRAS17208-0014, Arp220, IC860 and Zw049.057 that reveal intense line emission from vibrationally excited (v2=1) J=3-2 and 4-3 HCN. The emission is emerging from buried, compact (r5e13 Lsun/kpc2. These nuclei are likely powered by accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and/or hot (>200 K) extreme starbursts. Vibrational, v2=1, lines of HCN are excited by intense 14 micron mid-infrared emission and are excellent probes of the dynamics, masses and physical conditions of (U)LIRG nuclei when H2 column densities exceed 1e24 cm-2. It is clear that these lines open up a new interesting avenue to gain access to the most obscured AGNs and starbursts. Vibrationally excited HCN acts as a proxy for the absorbed mid-infrared emission from the embedded nuclei, which allows for reconstruction of the intrinsic, hotter dust SED. In contrast, the ground vibrational state (v=0), J=3-2 and 4-3 ro...

  20. Covering factors of the dusty obscurers in radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Maitrayee; Sikora, Marek; Nalewajko, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    We compare covering factors of circumnuclear dusty obscurers in radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars. The radio-loud quasars are represented by a sample of FR~II quasars obtained by cross-matching a catalog of the FR~II radio sources selected by van Velzen et al. with the SDSS DR7 catalog of quasars. Covering factors of FR~II quasars are compared with covering factors of the radio-quiet quasars matched with them in redshift, black hole mass, and Eddington-ratio. We found that covering factors, ...

  1. Obscuration effects in super-soft-source X-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, J.-U.; Osborne, J. P.; Henze, M.; Dobrotka, A.; Drake, J. J.; Ribeiro, V. A. R. M.; Starrfield, S.; Kuulkers, E.; Behar, E.; Hernanz, M.; Schwarz, G.; Page, K. L.; Beardmore, A. P.; Bode, M. F.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Super-soft-source (SSS) X-ray spectra are blackbody-like spectra with effective temperatures ~3-7 × 105 K and luminosities of 1035-38 erg s-1. Grating spectra of SSS and novae in outburst that show SSS type spectra display atmospheric absorption lines. Radiation transport atmosphere models can be used to derive physical parameters. Blue-shifted absorption lines suggest that hydrostatic equilibrium is an insufficient assumption, and more sophisticated models are required. Aims: In this paper, we bypass the complications of spectral models and concentrate on the data in a comparative, qualitative study. We inspect all available X-ray grating SSS spectra to determine systematic, model-independent trends. Methods: We collected all grating spectra of conventional SSS like Cal 83 and Cal 87 plus observations of novae during their SSS phase. We used comparative plots of spectra of different systems to find common and different features. The results were interpreted in the context of system parameters obtained from the literature. Results: We find two distinct types of SSS spectra that we name SSa and SSe. Their main observational characteristics are either clearly visible absorption lines or emission lines, respectively, while both types contain atmospheric continuum emission. SSa spectra are highly structured with no spectral model currently able to reproduce all details. The emission lines clearly seen in SSe may also be present in SSa, hidden within the forest of complex atmospheric absorption and emission features. This suggests that SSe are in fact obscured SSa systems. Similarities between SSe and SSa with obscured and unobscured AGN, respectively, support this interpretation. We find all known or suspected high-inclination systems to emit permanently in an SSe state. Some sources are found to transition between SSa and SSe states, becoming SSe when fainter. Conclusions: SSS spectra are subject to various occultation processes. In persistent SSS spectra

  2. Dust Heating in Nearby Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Lingjie

    2013-01-01

    Dust is an important part of the interstellar medium (ISM). Dust absorbs ultravioletand optical star light and re-emits in the mid- and far-infrared light. More than onethird of the total star light in the universe is absorbed and re-emitted by dust.Observations show that dust emission is strongly correlated with star formationrates. Recent research with Herschel Space Observatory data has shown that dustemission at ≥ 250 µm appears to be heated by the total stellar population ratherthan just...

  3. Discernible rhythm in the spatio/temporal distributions of transatlantic dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ben-Ami

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The differences in North African dust emission regions and transport routes, between the boreal winter and summer are thoroughly documented. Here we re-examine the spatial and temporal characteristics of dust transport over the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, using 10 years of satellite data, in order to determine better the different dust transport periods and their characteristics. We see a robust annual triplet: a discernible rhythm of "transatlantic dust weather".

    The proposed annual partition is composed of two heavy loading periods, associated here with a northern-route period and southern-route period, and one clean, light-loading period, accompanied by unusually low average optical depth of dust. The two dusty periods are quite different in character: their duration, transport routes, characteristic aerosol loading and frequency of pronounced dust episodes.

    The southern route period lasts about ~4 months, from the end of November to end of March. It is characterized by a relatively steady southern positioning, low frequency of dust events, low background values and high variance in dust loading. The northern-route period lasts ~6.5 months, from the end of March to mid October, and is associated with a steady drift northward of ~0.1 latitude day−1, reaching ~1500 km north of the southern route. The northern period is characterized by higher frequency of dust events, higher (and variable background and smaller variance in dust loading. It is less episodic than the southern period.

    Transitions between the periods are brief. Separation between the southern and northern periods is marked by northward latitudinal shift in dust transport and by moderate reduction in the overall dust loading. The second transition between the northern and southern periods commences with an abrupt reduction in dust loading (thereby initiating the clean period and rapid shift southward of ~0.2 latitude day

  4. The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Paul T. P.; Altamirano, Pablo; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Chung-Cheng; Chen, Ke-Jung; Chen, Ming-Tang; Han, Chih-Chiang; Ho, West M.; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Ibanez-Romano, Fabiola; Jiang, Homin; Koch, Patrick M.

    2008-01-01

    The Yuan-Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) is the first interferometer dedicated to studying the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation at 3mm wavelength. The choice of 3mm was made to minimize the contributions from foreground synchrotron radiation and Galactic dust emission. The initial configuration of seven 0.6m telescopes mounted on a 6-m hexapod platform was dedicated in October 2006 on Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Scientific operations began with the detection of a ...

  5. An Infrared Census of DUST in Nearby Galaxies with Spitzer (DUSTiNGS), I. Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Martha L; Barmby, Pauline; Bonanos, Alceste Z; Gehrz, Robert D; Gordon, Karl D; Groenewegen, M A T; Lagadec, Eric; Lennon, Daniel; Marengo, Massimo; Meixner, Margaret; Skillman, Evan; Sloan, G C; Sonneborn, George; van Loon, Jacco Th; Zijlstra, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Nearby resolved dwarf galaxies provide excellent opportunities for studying the dust-producing late stages of stellar evolution over a wide range of metallicity (-2.7 75% complete at the tip of the Red Giant Branch for all targeted galaxies, with the exception of the crowded inner regions of IC 10, NGC 185, and NGC 147. This photometric depth ensures that the majority of the dust-producing stars, including the thermally-pulsing AGB stars, are detected in each galaxy. The images map each galaxy to at least twice the half-light radius to ensure that the entire evolved star population is included and to facilitate the statistical subtraction of background and foreground contamination, which is severe at these wavelengths. In this overview, we describe the survey, the data products, and preliminary results. We show evidence for the presence of dust-producing AGB stars in 8 of the targeted galaxies, with metallicities as low as [Fe/H] = -1.9, suggesting that dust production occurs even at low metallicity.

  6. Dust coagulation in ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokshi, Arati; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Hollenbach, David

    1989-01-01

    Coagulation is an important mechanism in the growth of interstellar and interplanetary dust particles. The microphysics of the coagulation process was theoretically analyzed as a function of the physical properties of the coagulating grains, i.e., their size, relative velocities, temperature, elastic properties, and the van der Waal interaction. Numerical calculations of collisions between linear chains provide the wave energy in individual particles and the spectrum of the mechanical vibrations set up in colliding particles. Sticking probabilities are then calculated using simple estimates for elastic deformation energies and for the attenuation of the wave energy due to absorption and scattering processes.

  7. Carpet-dust chemicals as measures of exposure: Implications of variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead Todd P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing interest in using chemicals measured in carpet dust as indicators of chemical exposures. However, investigators have rarely sampled dust repeatedly from the same households and therefore little is known about the variability of chemical levels that exist within and between households in dust samples. Results We analyzed 9 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 6 polychlorinated biphenyls, and nicotine in 68 carpet-dust samples from 21 households in agricultural communities of Fresno County, California collected from 2003-2005. Chemical concentrations (ng per g dust ranged from Conclusions Our findings suggest that attenuation bias should be relatively modest when using these semi-volatile carpet-dust chemicals as exposure surrogates in epidemiologic studies.

  8. Dust reddening in star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Ting; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhou, Hongyan; Lu, HongLin; Dong, Xiaobo

    2011-01-01

    We present empirical relations between the global dust reddening and other physical galaxy properties including the Halpha luminosity, Halpha surface brightness, metallicity and axial ratio for star-forming disc galaxies. The study is based on a large sample of ~22 000 well-defined star-forming galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The reddening parameterized by color excess E(B-V) is derived from the Balmer decrement. Besides the dependency of reddening on Halpha luminosity / surface brightness and gas phase metallicity, it is also correlated with the galaxy inclination, in the sense that edge-on galaxies are more attenuated than face-on galaxies at a give intrinsic luminosity. In light of these correlations, we present the empirical formulae of E(B-V) as a function of these galaxy properties, with a scatter of only 0.07 mag. The empirical relation can be reproduced if most dust attenuation to the HII region is due to diffuse background dust distributing in a disc thicker than that of H...

  9. Flow induced dust acoustic shock waves in a complex plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Surabhi; Bandyopadhyay, Pintu; Sen, Abhijit

    2015-11-01

    We report on experimental observations of particle flow induced large amplitude shock waves in a dusty plasma. These dust acoustic shocks (DAS) are observed for strongly supersonic flows and have been studied in a U-shaped Dusty Plasma Experimental (DPEx) device for charged kaolin dust in a background of Argon plasma. The strong flow of the dust fluid is induced by adjusting the pumping speed and neutral gas flow into the device. An isolated copper wire mounted on the cathode acts as a potential barrier to the flow of dust particles. A sudden change of the dust density near the potential hill is used to trigger the onset of high velocity dust acoustic shocks. The dynamics of the shocks are captured by fast video pictures of the structures that are illuminated by a laser sheet beam. The physical characteristics of the shock are delineated from a parametric scan of their dynamical properties over a range of plasma parameters and flow speeds. Details of these observations and a physical explanation based on model calculations will be presented.

  10. Line-of-Sight Extrapolation Noise in Dust Polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Poh, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The B-modes of polarization at frequencies ranging from 50-1000 GHz are produced by Galactic dust, lensing of primordial E-modes in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) by intervening large scale structure, and possibly by primordial B-modes in the CMB imprinted by gravitational waves produced during inflation. The conventional method used to separate the dust component of the signal is to assume that the signal at high frequencies (e.g., 350 GHz) is due solely to dust and then extrapolate the signal down to lower frequency (e.g., 150 GHz) using the measured scaling of the polarized dust signal amplitude with frequency. For typical Galactic thermal dust temperatures of about 20K, these frequencies are not fully in the Rayleigh-Jeans limit. Therefore, deviations in the dust cloud temperatures from cloud to cloud will lead to different scaling factors for clouds of different temperatures. Hence, when multiple clouds of different temperatures and polarization angles contribute to the integrated line-of-sight po...

  11. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This set of lectures provides an overview of the basic theory and phenomenology of the cosmic microwave background. Topics include a brief historical review; the physics of temperature and polarization fluctuations; acoustic oscillations of the primordial plasma; the space of inflationary cosmological models; current and potential constraints on these models from the microwave background; and constraints on inflation.

  12. A wide search for obscured Active Galactic Nuclei using XMM-Newton and WISE

    CERN Document Server

    Rovilos, E; Akylas, A; Aird, J; Alexander, D M; Comastri, A; Del Moro, A; Gandhi, P; Georgakakis, A; Harrison, C M; Mullaney, J R

    2013-01-01

    We use a combination of the XMM-Newton serendipitous X-ray survey with the optical SDSS, and the infrared WISE all-sky survey in order to check the efficiency of the low X-ray to infrared luminosity selection method in finding heavily obscured AGN. We select sources in the 2-8 keV X-ray band which have a redshift determination in the SDSS catalogue. We match this sample with the WISE catalogue, and fit the SEDs of the 2844 sources which have three, or more, photometric data-points in the infrared. We then select the heavily obscured AGN candidates by comparing their 12 micron AGN luminosity to the observed 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity and their expected intrinsic relation. With this approach we find 20 candidates, and we examine their X-ray and optical spectra. Of the 20 initial candidates, we find nine (64%; out of the 14, for which X-ray spectra could be fit) based on the X-ray spectra, and seven (78%; out of the nine detected spectroscopically in the SDSS) based on the [OIII] line fluxes. Combining all criter...

  13. Black hole accretion and host galaxies of obscured quasars in XMM-COSMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Mainieri, V; Merloni, A; Aller, M; Carollo, M; Iwasawa, K; Koekemoer, A M; Mignoli, M; Silverman, J D; Bolzonella, M; Brusa, M; Comastri, A; Gilli, R; Halliday, C; Ilbert, O; Lusso, E; Salvato, M; Vignali, C; Zamorani, G; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Fevre, O Le; Lilly, S; Renzini, A; Scodeggio, M; Balestra, I; Bardelli, S; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; Cucciati, O; de la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Iovino, A; Kampczyk, P; Knobel, C; Kovac, K; Lamareille, F; Borgne, J -F Le; Brun, V Le; Maier, C; Nair, P; Pello, R; Peng, Y; Montero, E Perez; Pozzetti, L; Ricciardelli, E; Tanaka, M; Tasca, L; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Zucca, E; Aussel, H; Capak, P; Cappelluti, N; Elvis, M; Fiore, F; Hasinger, G; Impey, C; Floc'h, E Le; Scoville, N; Taniguchi, Y; Trump, J

    2011-01-01

    We explore the connection between black hole growth at the center of obscured quasars selected from the XMM-COSMOS survey and the physical properties of their host galaxies. We study a bolometric regime ( 8 x 10^45 erg/s) where several theoretical models invoke major galaxy mergers as the main fueling channel for black hole accretion. We confirm that obscured quasars mainly reside in massive galaxies (Mstar>10^10 Msun) and that the fraction of galaxies hosting such powerful quasars monotonically increases with the stellar mass. We stress the limitation of the use of rest-frame color-magnitude diagrams as a diagnostic tool for studying galaxy evolution and inferring the influence that AGN activity can have on such a process. We instead use the correlation between star-formation rate and stellar mass found for star-forming galaxies to discuss the physical properties of the hosts. We find that at z ~1, ~62% of Type-2 QSOs hosts are actively forming stars and that their rates are comparable to those measured for ...

  14. The role of capsule endoscopy after negative CT enterography in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) after negative computed tomographic (CT) enterography. We retrospectively included 30 patients with OGIB who received capsule endoscopy after negative CT enterography. The median age of the patients was 60 years, and 60% of patients were male. The median follow-up duration was 8 months. Overt bleeding was 60%, and occult bleeding was 40%. Based on capsule endoscopy results, a definitive diagnosis was made for 17 patients (57%): ulcer in nine patients (30%), active bleeding with no identifiable cause in five (17%), angiodysplasia in two (7%) and Dieulafoy's lesion in one (3%). Two patients with jejunal ulcers were diagnosed with Crohn's disease. Seven patients (41%) with positive capsule endoscopy received double balloon enteroscopy and two patients (12%) received steroid treatment for Crohn's disease. Patients with overt bleeding, a previous history of bleeding, or who received large amounts of blood transfusions were more likely to show positive capsule endoscopy. Capsule endoscopy showed high diagnostic yields in patients with OGIB after negative CT enterography and may help to provide further therapeutic plans for patients with OGIB and negative CT enterography. circle CT enterography has been widely used in evaluating obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). circle Capsule endoscopy showed high diagnostic yield for OGIB after negative CT enterography. circle Negative CT enterography does not exclude important causes of small bowel bleeding. circle Most lesions missed at CT-enterography are flat and can be detected by capsule endoscopy. (orig.)

  15. The cosmological consequence of an obscured AGN population on the radiation efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Sansigre, Alejo; 10.1088/0004-637X/692/2/964

    2009-01-01

    In light of recent indications for a large population of obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we revisit the mean radiation efficiency from accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), epsilon, applying a bayesian approach. We use the integrated comoving energy density emitted by AGNs and compare it to the mass density of local SMBHs. When considering only optically-selected unobscured AGNs, we derive log_10[epsilon]=-1.77+0.16-0.11 or epsilon=1.7+0.8-0.4%. Using the AGNs selected using hard X-rays, which include unabsorbed and Compton-thin absorbed AGNs, we find log_10[epsilon]=-1.20+0.15-0.10 or epsilon=6.4+2.6-1.3%. Using optically-selected AGNs, and correcting for the obscured population, we inferr log_10[epsilon]=-1.17+0.11-0.08 or epsilon=6.7+1.9-1.1%, which we consider our best estimate. We also repeat this calculation for intrinsically luminous AGNs (M_B=0.998 Gm_bh/c^2) at the >=98% confidence level, as well as high rotation values ( >=0.9 Gm_bh/c^2) with >=92% confidence. Our preferred values...

  16. Inner Disc Obscuration in GRS 1915+105 Based on Relativistic Slim Disc Model

    CERN Document Server

    Vierdayanti, K; Mineshige, S; Bursa, M

    2013-01-01

    We study the observational signatures of the relativistic slim disc of 10 M_sun black hole, in a wide range of mass accretion rate, mdot, dimensionless spin parameter, a_ast, and viewing angle, i. In general, the innermost temperature, T_in increases with the increase of i for a fixed value of mdot and a_ast, due to the Doppler effect. However, for i > 50 and mdot > mdot_turn, T_in starts to decrease with the increase of mdot. This is a result of self-obscuration -- the radiation from the innermost hot part of the disc is blocked by the surrounding cooler part. The value of mdot_turn and the corresponding luminosities depend on a_ast and i. Such obscuration effects cause an interesting behavior on the disc luminosity (L_disc) -- T_in plane for high inclinations. In addition to the standard-disc branch which appears below mdot_turn and which obeys L_disc propto T_in^4 -relation, another branch above mdot_turn, which is nearly horizontal, may be observed at luminosities close to the Eddington luminosity. We sho...

  17. Hazards of explosives dusts: Particle size effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Green, G M

    1992-02-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. In this report, the effect of particle size for HMX, HNS, RDX, TATB, and TNT explosives dusts is studied in detail. The explosibility data for these dusts are also compared to those for pure fuel dusts. The data show that all of the sizes of the explosives dusts that were studied were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air. The finest sizes (<10 [mu]m) of explosives dusts were less reactive than the intermediate sizes (20 to 60 [mu]m); this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. At the largest sizes studied, the explosives dusts become somewhat less reactive as dispersed dust clouds. The six sizes of the HMX dust were also studied as dust clouds dispersed in nitrogen.

  18. Double-modulation spectroscopy of molecular ions - Eliminating the background in velocity-modulation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Guang; Tholl, Hans Dieter; Farley, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Velocity-modulation spectroscopy is an established technique for performing laser absorption spectroscopy of molecular ions in a discharge. However, such experiments are often plagued by a coherent background signal arising from emission from the discharge or from electronic pickup. Fluctuations in the background can obscure the desired signal. A simple technique using amplitude modulation of the laser and two lock-in amplifiers in series to detect the signal is demonstrated. The background and background fluctuations are thereby eliminated, facilitating the detection of molecular ions.

  19. Charged Dust Aggregate Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2015-11-01

    A proper understanding of the behavior of dust particle aggregates immersed in a complex plasma first requires a knowledge of the basic properties of the system. Among the most important of these are the net electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments on the dust aggregate as well as the manner in which the aggregate interacts with the local electrostatic fields. The formation of elongated, fractal-like aggregates levitating in the sheath electric field of a weakly ionized RF generated plasma discharge has recently been observed experimentally. The resulting data has shown that as aggregates approach one another, they can both accelerate and rotate. At equilibrium, aggregates are observed to levitate with regular spacing, rotating about their long axis aligned parallel to the sheath electric field. Since gas drag tends to slow any such rotation, energy must be constantly fed into the system in order to sustain it. A numerical model designed to analyze this motion provides both the electrostatic charge and higher multipole moments of the aggregate while including the forces due to thermophoresis, neutral gas drag, and the ion wakefield. This model will be used to investigate the ambient conditions leading to the observed interactions. This research is funded by NSF Grant 1414523.

  20. Of data and dust

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephanie Hills

    2016-01-01

    The traditional image of an archive is one of dusty old boxes, books and papers. When your archive is digital, dust spells disaster. An innovative environmental sensor designed and built by a CERN IT specialist has become an essential element in the Laboratory’s data-preservation strategy.   The novel air particle monitoring sensor designed by CERN's Julien Leduc. CERN’s archive holds more than 130 petabytes of data from past and present high-energy physics experiments. Some of it is 40 years old, most of it needs to be kept forever, and all of it is held on tape cartridges (over 20,000 of them). The cartridges are held inside tape libraries with robotic arms that load them into tape drives where they can be read and written. Tape cartridges have many advantages over other data storage media, notably cost and long-term reliability, but topping the list of drawbacks is their vulnerability to contamination from airborne dust particles; a tiny piece of g...

  1. Radionuclides in house dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate authorising Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, although radionuclides originating rom the BNFL site can be detected in house dust, this source of contamination is a negligible route of exposure for members of the public in West Cumbria. This report presents the results of the Board's study of house dust in twenty homes in Cumbria during the spring and summer of 1984. A more intensive investigation is being carried out by Imperial College. (author)

  2. The angular clustering of WISE-selected active galactic nuclei: Different halos for obscured and unobscured active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Astronómicas, de la Tierra, y del Espacio (ICATE), 5400 San Juan (Argentina); Yan, Lin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D.; Assef, R. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We calculate the angular correlation function for a sample of ∼170,000 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) extracted from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalog, selected to have red mid-IR colors (W1 – W2 > 0.8) and 4.6 μm flux densities brighter than 0.14 mJy). The sample is expected to be >90% reliable at identifying AGNs and to have a mean redshift of (z) = 1.1. In total, the angular clustering of WISE AGNs is roughly similar to that of optical AGNs. We cross-match these objects with the photometric Sloan Digital Sky Survey catalog and distinguish obscured sources with r – W2 > 6 from bluer, unobscured AGNs. Obscured sources present a higher clustering signal than unobscured sources. Since the host galaxy morphologies of obscured AGNs are not typical red sequence elliptical galaxies and show disks in many cases, it is unlikely that the increased clustering strength of the obscured population is driven by a host galaxy segregation bias. By using relatively complete redshift distributions from the COSMOS survey, we find that obscured sources at (z) ∼ 0.9 have a bias of b = 2.9 ± 0.6 and are hosted in dark matter halos with a typical mass of log (M/M {sub ☉} h {sup –1}) ∼ 13.5. In contrast, unobscured AGNs at (z) ∼ 1.1 have a bias of b = 1.6 ± 0.6 and inhabit halos of log (M/M {sub ☉} h {sup –1}) ∼ 12.4. These findings suggest that obscured AGNs inhabit denser environments than unobscured AGNs, and they are difficult to reconcile with the simplest AGN unification models, where obscuration is driven solely by orientation.

  3. Fingerprints of Galactic Loop I on the Cosmic Microwave Background

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Hao; Sarkar, Subir

    2014-01-01

    We investigate possible imprints of galactic foreground structures such as the `radio loops' in the derived maps of the cosmic microwave background. Surprisingly there is evidence for these not only at radio frequencies through their synchrotron radiation, but also at microwave frequencies where emission by dust dominates. This suggests the mechanism is magnetic dipole radiation from dust grains enriched by metallic iron, or ferrimagnetic molecules. This new foreground we have identified is present at high galactic latitudes, and potentially dominates over the expected B-mode polarisation signal due to primordial gravitational waves from inflation.

  4. 75 FR 32142 - Combustible Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... combustible dust in the workplace. (74 FR 54334, Oct. 21, 2009). OSHA plans to use the information received in... Secretary's Order 5-2007 (72 FR 31160). Signed at Washington, DC, on June 1, 2010. David Michaels, Assistant... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 RIN 1218-AC41 Combustible Dust...

  5. 75 FR 10739 - Combustible Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... for combustible dust. (74 FR 54334, Oct. 21, 2009) II. Stakeholder Meetings OSHA conducted two... (72 FR 31160). Signed at Washington, DC, on March 2, 2010. David Michaels, Assistant Secretary of... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 RIN 1218-AC41 Combustible Dust...

  6. Dust particle charging in sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charging and the screening of spherical dust particles in sheaths near the wall were studied using computer simulation. The three-dimensional PIC/MCC method and molecular dynamics method were applied to describe plasma particles motion and interaction with macroscopic dust grain. Calculations were carried out at different neutral gas pressures and wall potentials. Values of the charge of the dust particles and spatial distributions of plasma parameters are obtained by modelling. The results have shown that the charge of the dust particles in the sheath, as well as the spatial distribution of the ions and electrons near the dust particles, depend strongly on the wall potential. It is shown that for large negative values of the wall potential the negative charge of a dust particle decreases due to the decline of the electron density in its vicinity. In addition, the flow of energy of the ions on the surface of dust particles is increased due to better focusing effect of the dust particle field on ions.

  7. Health hazards of cement dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ven in the 21st century, millions of people are working daily in a dusty environment. They are exposed to different types of health hazards such as fume, gases and dust, which are risk factors in developing occupational disease. Cement industry is involved in the development of structure of this advanced and modern world but generates dust during its production. Cement dust causes lung function impairment, chronic obstructive lung disease, restrictive lung disease, pneumoconiosis and carcinoma of the lungs, stomach and colon. Other studies have shown that cement dust may enter into the systemic circulation and thereby reach the essentially all the organs of body and affects the different tissues including heart, liver, spleen, bone, muscles and hairs and ultimately affecting their micro-structure and physiological performance. Most of the studies have been previously attempted to evaluate the effects of cement dust exposure on the basis of spirometry or radiology, or both. However, collective effort describing the general effects of cement dust on different organ and systems in humans or animals, or both has not been published. Therefore, the aim of this review is to gather the potential toxic effects of cement dust and to minimize the health risks in cement mill workers by providing them with information regarding the hazards of cement dust. (author)

  8. Dust and the Sick Building Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, Finn; Suadicani, Poul; Wohlfahrt Nielsen, Jan; Skov, Peder; Valbjørn, Ole; Nielsen, Peter A.; Schneider, Thomas; Jørgensen, Ole; Wolkoff, Peder; Wilkins, C. K.; Gravesen, Suzanne; Norn, Svend

    Farmakologi, bacteria, dust, histamine, disease, gram-negative, indoor climate, sick building syndrome......Farmakologi, bacteria, dust, histamine, disease, gram-negative, indoor climate, sick building syndrome...

  9. The cosmic mult-messenger background field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    The cosmic star formation history associated with baryon flows within the large scale structure of the expanding Universe has many important consequences, such as cosmic chemical- and galaxy evolution. Stars and accreting compact objects subsequently produce light, from the radio band to the highest photon energies, and dust within galaxies reprocesses a significant fraction of this light into the IR region. The Universe creates a radiation background that adds to the relic field from the big bang, the CMB. In addition, Cosmic Rays are created on variouys scales, and interact with this diffuse radiation field, and neutrinos are added as well. A multi-messenger field is created whose evolution with redshift contains a tremendous amount of cosmological information. We discuss several aspects of this story, emphasizing the background in the HE regime and the neutrino sector, and disccus the use of gamma-ray sources as probes.

  10. Bi-dust acoustic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.; Castro, E.; Puerta, J. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela); Valdeblanquez, E. [Universidad del Zulia, facultad de Ingenieria, Apartado 4011-A 526, Maracaibo, Edo. Zulia (Venezuela)

    2006-07-01

    Low frequencies waves in plasmas with two kind of dusty grains have been studied. Each species of dust particle is characterized by the grain radius, which determines its equilibrium charge. Relative velocities between the two kinds of dust grain for the unperturbed plasma is also considered in order to study instabilities and compare with astrophysical and industrial applications. In this analysis, each dust species is handled with a simplified model of kinetic-fluid equations, and the electrons and ions are determined by Boltzmann factors. The low frequency dispersion relation for bi-dust plasma waves with non relative motion between each kind of grain leads to damped waves with two characteristic frequencies. Instabilities are produced by the relative motion between the species. The onset of these instabilities is studied as a function of the plasma dust frequencies and relative velocities among each species. (Author)

  11. Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters L.B.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in the solar neighborhood of our galaxy; this number may differ substantially in other galaxies that interstellar grains represent of the total mass budget of interstellar matter, dust grains play an important role in the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter. This is because of the opacity dust grains at short (optical, UV wavelengths, and the surface they provide for chemical reactions. In addition, dust grains play a pivotal role in the planet formation process: in the core accretion model of planet formation, the growth of dust grains from the microscopic size range to large, cm-sized or larger grains is the first step in planet formation. Not only the grain size distribution is affected by planet formation. Chemical and physical processes alter the structure and chemical composition of dust grains as they enter the protoplanetary disk and move closer to the forming star. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the way stars and planets are formed by observations of dust in protoplanetary disks. Ideally, one would like to measure the dust mass, the grain size distribution, grain structure (porosity, fluffiness, the chemical composition, and all of these as a function of position in the disk. Fortunately, several observational diagnostics are available to derive constrains on these quantities. In combination with rapidly increasing quality of the data (spatial and spectral resolution, a lot of progress has been made in our understanding of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. An excellent review of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks can be found in Testi et al. (2014.

  12. Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, L. B. F. M.

    2015-09-01

    Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in the solar neighborhood of our galaxy; this number may differ substantially in other galaxies) that interstellar grains represent of the total mass budget of interstellar matter, dust grains play an important role in the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter. This is because of the opacity dust grains at short (optical, UV) wavelengths, and the surface they provide for chemical reactions. In addition, dust grains play a pivotal role in the planet formation process: in the core accretion model of planet formation, the growth of dust grains from the microscopic size range to large, cm-sized or larger grains is the first step in planet formation. Not only the grain size distribution is affected by planet formation. Chemical and physical processes alter the structure and chemical composition of dust grains as they enter the protoplanetary disk and move closer to the forming star. Therefore, a lot can be learned about the way stars and planets are formed by observations of dust in protoplanetary disks. Ideally, one would like to measure the dust mass, the grain size distribution, grain structure (porosity, fluffiness), the chemical composition, and all of these as a function of position in the disk. Fortunately, several observational diagnostics are available to derive constrains on these quantities. In combination with rapidly increasing quality of the data (spatial and spectral resolution), a lot of progress has been made in our understanding of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks. An excellent review of dust evolution in protoplanetary disks can be found in Testi et al. (2014). 2nd Lecture of the Summer School "Protoplanetary Disks: Theory and Modelling Meet Observations"

  13. Cosmogenic Backgrounds to 0{\

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Auty, D J; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Feyzbakhsh, S; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hall, C; Herrin, S; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Njoya, O; Nelson, R; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Retière, F; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya

    2015-01-01

    As neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments become more sensitive and intrinsic radioactivity in detector materials is reduced, previously minor contributions to the background must be understood and eliminated. With this in mind, cosmogenic backgrounds have been studied with the EXO-200 experiment. Using the EXO-200 TPC, the muon flux (through a flat horizontal surface) underground at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) has been measured to be {\\Phi} = 4.07 $\\pm$ 0.14 (sys) $\\pm$ 0.03 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, with a vertical intensity of $I_{v}$ = 2.97$^{+0.14}_{-0.13}$ (sys) $\\pm$ 0.02 (stat) $\\times$ $10^{-7}$cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ sr$^{-1}$. Simulations of muon-induced backgrounds identified several potential cosmogenic radionuclides, though only 137Xe is a significant background for the 136Xe 0{\

  14. On Background Independence

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Edward

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns what Background Independence itself is (as opposed to some particular physical theory that is background independent). The notions presented mostly arose from a layer-by-layer analysis of the facets of the Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity. Part of this coincides with two relational postulates which are thus identified as classical precursors of two of the facets of the Problem of Time. These are furthemore tied to the forms of each of the GR Hamiltonian and momentum cons...

  15. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  16. Dust jets produced by a dust-discharge instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report observations of an instability that occurs in a dc glow discharge (anodic plasma) dusty plasma when a floating plate with a 5 mm aperture is placed in front of the anode. The instability is characterized by periodic quenching and reignition of the discharge. When the discharge is quenched, the dust is ejected from the aperture at speeds on the order of the dust-acoustic speed. The ejected dust remains partially charged and retracts back to the aperture when the discharge spontaneously redevelops.

  17. Regular spherical dust spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Humphreys, N; Matravers, D R; Humphreys, Neil; Maartens, Roy; Matravers, David

    1998-01-01

    Physical (and weak) regularity conditions are used to determine and classify all the possible types of spherically symmetric dust spacetimes in general relativity. This work unifies and completes various earlier results. The junction conditions are described for general non-comoving (and non-null) surfaces, and the limits of kinematical quantities are given on all comoving surfaces where there is Darmois matching. We show that an inhomogeneous generalisation of the Kantowski-Sachs metric may be joined to the Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi metric. All the possible spacetimes are explicitly divided into four groups according to topology, including a group in which the spatial sections have the topology of a 3-torus. The recollapse conjecture (for these spacetimes) follows naturally in this approach.

  18. Experimental conditions can obscure the second high-affinity site in LeuT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Zehnpfennig, Britta; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A

    2012-02-01

    Neurotransmitter:Na(+) symporters (NSSs), the targets of antidepressants and psychostimulants, recapture neurotransmitters from the synapse in a Na(+)-dependent symport mechanism. The crystal structure of the NSS homolog LeuT from Aquifex aeolicus revealed one leucine substrate in an occluded, centrally located (S1) binding site next to two Na(+) ions. Computational studies combined with binding and flux experiments identified a second substrate (S2) site and a molecular mechanism of Na(+)-substrate symport that depends upon the allosteric interaction of substrate molecules in the two high-affinity sites. Here we show that the S2 site, which has not yet been identified by crystallographic approaches, can be blocked during preparation of detergent-solubilized LeuT, thereby obscuring its crucial role in Na(+)-coupled symport. This finding points to the need for caution in selecting experimental environments in which the properties and mechanistic features of membrane proteins can be delineated. PMID:22245968

  19. Resurrection of the Island Rule: Human-Driven Extinctions Have Obscured a Basic Evolutionary Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurby, Søren; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-06-01

    Islands are or have been occupied by unusual species, such as dwarf proboscideans and giant rodents. The discussion of the classical but controversial island rule-which states that mammalian body sizes converge on intermediate sizes on islands-has been stimulated by these unusual species. In this study, we use an unprecedented global data set of the distributions and body sizes of late Quaternary mammal species and a novel analytical method to analyze body size evolution on islands. The analyses produced strong support for the island rule. Islands have suffered massive human-driven losses of species, and we found that the support for the island rule was substantially stronger when the many late Quaternary extinct species were also considered (particularly the tendency for dwarfing in large taxa). The decisive support for the island rule in this study confirms that evolution plays out in a markedly different way on islands and that human impact may obscure even fundamental evolutionary patterns. PMID:27172600

  20. Summary of IAU GA SpS5 - I. Obscured and distant clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, M M; Martins, F; Chene, A -N; Rosslowe, C; Herrero, A; Kim, H -J

    2012-01-01

    This first part of Special Session 5 explored the current status of infrared-based observations of obscured and distant stellar clusters in the Milky Way galaxy. Recent infrared surveys, either serendipitously or using targeted searches, have uncovered a rich population of young and massive clusters. However, cluster characterization is more challenging as it must be obtained often entirely in the infrared due to high line-of-sight extinction. Despite this, much is to be gained through the identification and careful analysis of these clusters, as they allow for the early evolution of massive stars to be better constrained. Further, they act as beacons delineating the Milky Way's structure and as nearby, resolved analogues to the distant unresolved massive clusters studied in distant galaxies.

  1. Covering factors of the dusty obscurers in radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Maitrayee; Nalewajko, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    We compare covering factors of circumnuclear dusty obscurers in radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars. The radio-loud quasars are represented by a sample of FR~II quasars obtained by cross-matching a catalog of the FR~II radio sources selected by van Velzen et al. with the SDSS DR7 catalog of quasars. Covering factors of FR~II quasars are compared with covering factors of the radio-quiet quasars matched with them in redshift, black hole mass, and Eddington-ratio. We found that covering factors, proxied by the infrared-to-bolometric luminosity ratio, are on average slightly smaller in FR~II quasars than in radio-quiet quasars. For both samples, no statistically significant dependence of a median covering factor on Eddington ratio, black hole mass, nor redshift can be claimed.

  2. A jejunal GIST presenting with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding and small bowel obstruction secondary to intussusception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Peter; Lanzon-Miller, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    A 68-year-old man with episodes of overt obscure gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding was investigated with multiple upper and lower GI endoscopies, CT enterography and capsule endoscopy, but no cause was found. He then presented acutely with small bowel obstruction. A laparotomy revealed complete small bowel obstruction secondary to jejunal intussusception over a 4 cm intraluminal polyp. Following resection and primary anastomosis, histology revealed that the polyp was a GI stromal tumour (GIST). This is an exceptionally uncommon presentation of a rare tumour. It is surprising that this tumour was not detected by CT enterography and not seen on capsule endoscopy. Immunohistochemistry and mutation analysis of the GIST suggested that it had a low risk of metastatic disease, but a high risk of recurrence. Staging CT scans did not reveal evidence of distal spread. The patient is currently receiving 3 years of chemotherapy with imatinib. PMID:26527610

  3. Dust ablation in Pluto's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, Mihaly; Poppe, Andrew; Sternovsky, Zoltan

    2016-04-01

    Based on measurements by dust detectors onboard the Pioneer 10/11 and New Horizons spacecraft the total production rate of dust particles born in the Edgeworth Kuiper Belt (EKB) has been be estimated to be on the order of 5 ṡ 103 kg/s in the approximate size range of 1 - 10 μm. Dust particles are produced by collisions between EKB objects and their bombardment by both interplanetary and interstellar dust particles. Dust particles of EKB origin, in general, migrate towards the Sun due to Poynting-Robertson drag but their distributions are further sculpted by mean-motion resonances as they first approach the orbit of Neptune and later the other planets, as well as mutual collisions. Subsequently, Jupiter will eject the vast majority of them before they reach the inner solar system. The expected mass influx into Pluto atmosphere is on the order of 200 kg/day, and the arrival speed of the incoming particles is on the order of 3 - 4 km/s. We have followed the ablation history as function of speed and size of dust particles in Pluto's atmosphere, and found that volatile rich particles can fully sublimate due to drag heating and deposit their mass in narrow layers. This deposition might promote the formation of the haze layers observed by the New Horizons spacecraft. This talk will explore the constraints on the composition of the dust particles by comparing the altitude of the deposition layers to the observed haze layers.

  4. AGB stars in the LMC: evolution of dust in circumstellar envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Agli, F; Schneider, R; Di Criscienzo, M; García-Hernández, D A; Rossi, C; Brocato, E

    2014-01-01

    We calculated theoretical evolutionary sequences of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, including formation and evolution of dust grains in their circumstellar envelope. By considering stellar populations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we calculate synthetic colour-colour and colour-magnitude diagrams, which are compared with those obtained by the Spitzer Space Telescope. The comparison between observations and theoretical predictions outlines that extremely obscured carbon-stars and oxygen-rich sources experiencing hot bottom burning (HBB) occupy well defined, distinct regions in the colour-colour ($[3.6]-[4.5]$, $[5.8]-[8.0]$) diagram. The C-rich stars are distributed along a diagonal strip that we interpret as an evolutionary sequence, becoming progressively more obscured as the stellar surface layers enrich in carbon. Their circumstellar envelopes host solid carbon dust grains with size in the range $0.05 2$, are the descendants of stars with initial mass $M_{in} \\sim 2.5 - 3 M_{\\odot}$ in the ver...

  5. Doing business:an obscure notion of the ethics of public associations in ordinary Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Shenbai

    2006-01-01

    Along with the notion of being a person(zuo ren 做人), the notion of doing business(zuo shi 做事)in ordinary Chinese is basically an over-all notion of the norms in the practical and associative activities,carrying typically obscure meanings on practice and association affairs in some external world.Ordinary Chinese not only distinguishes these two notions but also defines a dictionary order of them,with the affairs of the internal world prior to those of the external.The fact that the notion of doing business refers to business(shi 事)rather than person(ren 人)makes this order clear at a deeper level.It shows that this notion regards the practical affairs of the external world less important to the person itself than those of the internal.Except for these qualities,the notion of doing business holds some normative meanings,although contains no definite rules.These meanings indirectly relate to the notion of person that people form in their private associations and emerge as some mixture with a tactical attitude out of the need of earning a life.The notion of person gives birth to some obscure requirements,for instance, the requirement of 'doing business in accordance with your conscience' and that of 'doing business seriously'.The core world of family is marginalized in the pubfic transition of associations.There are reasons to anticipate that in this process the notion of doing business will undergo more radical changes than that of being a person.

  6. The role of capsule endoscopy after negative CT enterography in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Hyun Mi; Park, Chan Hyuk; Lee, Jin Ha; Kim, Bo Kyung; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Hong, Sung Pil [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Institute of Gastroenterology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Joon Seok [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) after negative computed tomographic (CT) enterography. We retrospectively included 30 patients with OGIB who received capsule endoscopy after negative CT enterography. The median age of the patients was 60 years, and 60% of patients were male. The median follow-up duration was 8 months. Overt bleeding was 60%, and occult bleeding was 40%. Based on capsule endoscopy results, a definitive diagnosis was made for 17 patients (57%): ulcer in nine patients (30%), active bleeding with no identifiable cause in five (17%), angiodysplasia in two (7%) and Dieulafoy's lesion in one (3%). Two patients with jejunal ulcers were diagnosed with Crohn's disease. Seven patients (41%) with positive capsule endoscopy received double balloon enteroscopy and two patients (12%) received steroid treatment for Crohn's disease. Patients with overt bleeding, a previous history of bleeding, or who received large amounts of blood transfusions were more likely to show positive capsule endoscopy. Capsule endoscopy showed high diagnostic yields in patients with OGIB after negative CT enterography and may help to provide further therapeutic plans for patients with OGIB and negative CT enterography. circle CT enterography has been widely used in evaluating obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). circle Capsule endoscopy showed high diagnostic yield for OGIB after negative CT enterography. circle Negative CT enterography does not exclude important causes of small bowel bleeding. circle Most lesions missed at CT-enterography are flat and can be detected by capsule endoscopy. (orig.)

  7. A Japan-Sino joint project, ADEC - Aeolian Dust Experiment on Climate Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, M.

    2004-05-01

    In recent years, aeolian dust has been thought to be an important factor of the climate system on the earth by the radiative forcing effect in the atmosphere and by the influence on the carbon dioxide cycle because deposited dust supplies nutrient salts for the phytoplankton on the ocean surface. Among them, radiative forcing direct and/or indirect effects are important factors of the global warming. Nevertheless, the reliability of the evaluation regarding the radiative forcing impact of aeolian dust is very low. [IPCC, 2001]. This is because the understanding and the model representations of dust entrainment, spatial and temporal distribution of dust, and optical properties of dust particles are not so accurate. Based on this background, Aeolian Dust Experiment on Climate Impact (ADEC) was started in April 2000 as a Japan-Sino Joint Project. The goal of this project is to evaluate the global dust supply to the atmosphere and its radiative forcing direct effect. For this purpose, we have made: 1) in situ observations at desert areas in China for wind erosion processes, 2) network observations from China to Japan, ranging from 80 to 140 East, for understanding spatial-size distribution, chemical, and optical properties of dust particles, and 3) numerical simulation by GCM dust model for evaluation of dust impact on the global climate over the past 50 years. This was planned as a five-year project and two intensive observations, IOP-1, April 12-25 2002, and IOP-2, March 15-26 2003, were put into practice. Intensive observations were made at 6 sites in China (Qira, Aksu, Dunhuang, Shapotou, Beijing, and Qingdao) and 4 sites in Japan (Naha, Fukuoka, Nagoya, and Tsukuba). Preliminary results show that 1) saltation flux at a gobi desert monitored by a newly developed sand particle counter was around 10 times larger than that of a sand dune, which will be caused by the difference of the parent soil size distribution of each ground condition, 2) the background of KOSA

  8. Determination of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a method and appartus for determining the level of background radiation in a spectral region where a Raman peak characteristic of a particular substance, in particular diamond, is expected to occur. The method includes the steps of isolating the radiation in a first spectral band, and isolating the radiation in a second spectral band which overlaps the first spectral band at least partially to form an overlapping band in the vicinity of the expected Raman Peak and a least one sideband. At least one sideband value representative of the radiation present in the one or more sidebands is then obtained, and further values, representative of the radiation isolated by any one or more of the other spectral bands, such as the first and second bands, are then used to derive a background value indicative of the level of background radiation present at the position of the expected Raman peak

  9. Exploring String Theory Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, B P

    2004-01-01

    This thesis examines phenomenological and theoretical questions by exploring string theoretic backgrounds. Part I focuses on cosmology. First we propose that the induced metric along a brane moving through a curved bulk may be interpreted as the cosmology of the brane universe, providing a resolution to the apparent cosmological singularity on the brane. We then look at various decay channels of the certain meta-stable de Sitter vacua and show that there exist NS5-brane meditated decays which are much faster than decays to decompactification. Part II discusses a new class of nongeometric vacua in string theory. These backgrounds may be described locally as T2 fibrations. By enlarging the monodromy group of the fiber to include perturbative stringy duality symmetries we are able to explicitly construct nongeometric backgrounds.

  10. Unitarity and singular backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Brouzakis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    We compute the graviton Kaluza-Klein spectrum on a gravity-dilaton background with a naked singularity for all possible boundary conditions at the singularity which are consistent with unitary evolution. We apply methods from non-relativistic quantum mechanics with singular Schr\\"{o}dinger potentials. In general the spectrum contains a tachyon, a sign of instability. Only for a particular boundary condition at the singularity the spectrum is free of tachyons. In this case the lowest-lying graviton mode is massless. We argue that this result will also hold for other backgrounds with similar geometry near the curvature singularity. We complete our study with a brief discussion on radion perturbations and Higgs mechanism on this singular background.

  11. The shadow of the Flying Saucer: A very low temperature for large dust grains

    CERN Document Server

    Guilloteau, S; Chapillon, E; Di Folco, E; Dutrey, A; Henning, T; Semenov, D; Birnstiel, T; Grosso, N

    2016-01-01

    Dust determines the temperature structure of protoplanetary disks. However, dust temperature determinations almost invariably rely on a complex modeling of the Spectral Energy Distribution. We attempt a direct determination of the temperature of large grains emitting at mm wavelengths.} We observe the edge-on dust disk of the Flying Saucer, which appears in silhouette against the CO J=2-1 emission from a background molecular cloud in $\\rho$ Oph. The combination of velocity gradients due to the Keplerian rotation of the disk and intensity variations in the CO background as a function of velocity allows us to directly measure the %absorbing dust temperature. The dust opacity can then be derived from the emitted continuum radiation. The dust disk absorbs the radiation from the CO clouds at several velocities. We derive very low dust temperatures, 5 to 7 K at radii around 100 au, which is much lower than most model predictions. The dust optical depth is $> 0.2$ at 230 GHz, and the scale height at 100 au is at lea...

  12. High-resolution mapping of dust via extinction in the M31 bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hui; Li, Zhiyuan; Wang, Q. D.; Lauer, Tod R.; Olsen, Knut A. G.; Saha, Abhijit; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Groves, Brent A.

    2016-06-01

    We map the dust distribution in the central 180 arcsec (˜680 pc) region of the M31 bulge, based on HST WFC3 and ACS observations in ten bands from near-ultraviolet (2700 Å) to near-infrared (1.5 μm). This large wavelength coverage gives us great leverage to detect not only dense dusty clumps, but also diffuse dusty molecular gas. We fit a pixel-by-pixel spectral energy distributions to construct a high-dynamic-range extinction map with unparalleled angular resolution (˜0.5 arcsec, i.e. ˜2 pc) and sensitivity (the extinction uncertainty, δAV ˜ 0.05). In particular, the data allow to directly fit the fractions of starlight obscured by individual dusty clumps, and hence their radial distances in the bulge. Most of these clumps seem to be located in a thin plane, which is tilted with respect to the M31 disc and appears face-on. We convert the extinction map into a dust mass surface density map and compare it with that derived from the dust emission as observed by Herschel. The dust masses in these two maps are consistent with each other, except in the low-extinction regions, where the mass inferred from the extinction tends to be underestimated. Further, we use simulations to show that our method can be used to measure the masses of dusty clumps in Virgo cluster early-type galaxies to an accuracy within a factor of ˜2.

  13. FIRST-2MASS RED QUASARS: TRANSITIONAL OBJECTS EMERGING FROM THE DUST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a sample of 120 dust-reddened quasars identified by matching radio sources detected at 1.4 GHz in the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty Centimeters survey with the near-infrared Two Micron All Sky Survey catalog and color-selecting red sources. Optical and/or near-infrared spectroscopy provide broad wavelength sampling of their spectral energy distributions that we use to determine their reddening, characterized by E(B – V). We demonstrate that the reddening in these quasars is best described by Small-Magellanic-Cloud-like dust. This sample spans a wide range in redshift and reddening (0.1 ∼< z ∼< 3, 0.1 ∼< E(B – V) ∼< 1.5), which we use to investigate the possible correlation of luminosity with reddening. At every redshift, dust-reddened quasars are intrinsically the most luminous quasars. We interpret this result in the context of merger-driven quasar/galaxy co-evolution where these reddened quasars are revealing an emergent phase during which the heavily obscured quasar is shedding its cocoon of dust prior to becoming a 'normal' blue quasar. When correcting for extinction, we find that, depending on how the parent population is defined, these red quasars make up ∼< 15%-20% of the luminous quasar population. We estimate, based on the fraction of objects in this phase, that its duration is 15%-20% as long as the unobscured, blue quasar phase.

  14. High-Resolution Mapping of Dust via Extinction in the M31 Bulge

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hui; Wang, Q D; Lauer, Tod R; Olsen, Knut A G; Saha, Abhijit; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Groves, Brent A

    2016-01-01

    We map the dust distribution in the central 180" (~680 pc) region of the M31 bulge, based on HST/WFC3 and ACS observations in ten bands from near-ultraviolet (2700 A) to near-infrared (1.5 micron). This large wavelength coverage gives us great leverage to detect not only dense dusty clumps, but also diffuse dusty molecular gas. We fit a pixel-by-pixel spectral energy distributions to construct a high-dynamic-range extinction map with unparalleled angular resolution (~0.5" , i.e., ~2 pc) and sensitivity (the extinction uncertainty, \\delta A_V~0.05). In particular, the data allow to directly fit the fractions of starlight obscured by individual dusty clumps, and hence their radial distances in the bulge. Most of these clumps seem to be located in a thin plane, which is tilted with respect to the M31 disk and appears face-on. We convert the extinction map into a dust mass surface density map and compare it with that derived from the dust emission as observed by Herschel . The dust masses in these two maps are co...

  15. A SPITZER STUDY OF ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS. III. DUST PRODUCTION AND GAS RETURN IN LOCAL GROUP DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the third and final part of a census of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in Local Group dwarf irregular (dIrr) galaxies. Papers I and II presented the results for WLM and IC 1613. Included here are Phoenix, LGS 3, DDO 210, Leo A, Pegasus dIrr, and Sextans A. Spitzer photometry at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8 μm are presented, along with a more thorough treatment of background galaxy contamination than was presented in Papers I and II. We find that at least a small population of completely optically obscured AGB stars exists in each galaxy, regardless of the galaxy's metallicity, but that higher metallicity galaxies tend to harbor more stars with slight infrared excesses. The optical incompleteness increases for the redder AGB stars, in line with the expectation that some AGB stars are not detected in the optical due to large amounts of extinction associated with in situ dust production. Overall, there is an underrepresentation of 30%-40% in the optical AGB within the 1σ errors for all of the galaxies in our sample. This undetected population is large enough to affect star formation histories derived from optical color-magnitude diagrams. As measured from the [3.6] - [4.5] color excesses, we find average stellar mass-loss rates (MLRs) ranging from 3.1 x 10-7to6.6 x 10-6 M sun yr-1, and integrated galaxy MLRs ranging from 4.4 x 10-5to1.4 x 10-3 M sun yr-1. The integrated MLR is sufficient to sustain the current star formation rate in only LGS 3 and DDO 210, requiring either significant nondusty mass loss or gas accretion in Phoenix, Leo A, Pegasus dIrr, Sextans A, WLM, and IC 1613 if they are to maintain their status as gas-rich galaxies.

  16. Nonlinear theory of dust lattice mode coupling in dust crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Kourakis, I; Kourakis, Ioannis; Shukla, Padma Kant

    2004-01-01

    Quasi-crystals formed by charged mesoscopic dust grains (dust lattices), observed since hardly a decade ago, are an exciting paradigm of a nonlinear chain. In laboratory discharge experiments, these quasi-lattices are formed spontaneously in the sheath region near a negative electrode, usually at a levitated horizontal equilibrium configuration where gravity is balanced by an electric field. It is long known (and experimentally confirmed) that dust-lattices support linear oscillations, in the longitudinal (acoustic mode) as well as in the transverse, in plane (acoustic-) or off-plane (optic-like mode) directions. Either due to the (typically Yukawa type) electrostatic inter-grain interaction forces or to the (intrinsically nonlinear) sheath environment, nonlinearity is expected to play an important role in the dynamics of these lattices. Furthermore, the coupling between the different modes may induce coupled nonlinear modes. Despite this evidence, the elucidation of the nonlinear mechanisms governing dust cr...

  17. Dust Storm Events in Iceland: Physical Properties of Icelandic Dust

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P.; Arnalds, O.; Olafsson, H.; Škrabalová, L.; Sigurdardottir, G. M.; Braniš, M.; Hladil, Jindřich; Skála, Roman; Navrátil, Tomáš; Chadimová, Leona; von Lowis of Menar, S.; Thorsteinsson, T.

    s. l : s. n, 2013. [International Workshop on Sand /Duststorms and Associated Dustfall /7./. 02.12.2013-04.12.2013, Rome] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : dust * geology * geochemistry Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  18. Triton's streaks as windblown dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Chyba, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Explanations for the surface streaks observed by Voyager 2 on Triton's southern hemisphere are discussed. It is shown that, despite Triton's tenuous atmosphere, low-cohesion dust trains with diameters of about 5 micron or less may be carried into suspension by aeolian surface shear stress, given expected geostrophic wind speeds of about 10 m/s. For geyser-like erupting dust plumes, it is shown that dust-settling time scales and expected wind velocities can produce streaks with length scales in good agreement with those of the streaks. Thus, both geyserlike eruptions or direct lifting by surface winds appear to be viable mechanisms for the origin of the streaks.

  19. Cosmic Tachyon Background Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1999-01-01

    The equilibrium statistical mechanics of a background radiation of superluminal particles is investigated, based on a vectorial wave equation for tachyons of the Proca type. The partition function, the spectral energy density, and the various thermodynamic variables of an ideal Bose gas of tachyons in an open Robertson-Walker cosmology are derived. The negative mass square in the wave equation changes the frequency scaling in the Rayleigh-Jeans law, and there are also significant changes in the low temperature regime as compared to the microwave background, in particular in the caloric and thermal equations of state.

  20. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  1. Foreground Bias From Parametric Models of Far-IR Dust Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Kogut, A

    2016-01-01

    We use simple toy models of far-IR dust emission to estimate the accuracy to which the polarization of the cosmic microwave background can be recovered using multi-frequency fits, if the parametric form chosen for the fitted dust model differs from the actual dust emission. Commonly used approximations to the far-IR dust spectrum yield CMB residuals comparable to or larger than the sensitivities expected for the next generation of CMB missions, despite fitting the combined CMB + foreground emission to precision 0.1% or better. The Rayleigh-Jeans approximation to the dust spectrum biases the fitted dust spectral index by Delta beta_d = 0.2 and the inflationary B-mode amplitude by Delta r = 0.03. Fitting the dust to a modified blackbody at a single temperature biases the best-fit CMB by Delta r > 0.003 if the true dust spectrum contains multiple temperature components. A 13-parameter model fitting two temperature components reduces this bias by an order of magnitude if the true dust spectrum is in fact a simple...

  2. Generalized Swiss-Cheese Cosmologies II: Spherical Dust

    CERN Document Server

    Grenon, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    The generalized Swiss - cheese model, consisting of a Lema\\^itre - Tolman (inhomogeneous dust) region matched, by way of a comoving boundary surface, onto a Robertson-Walker background of homogeneous dust, has become a standard construction in modern cosmology. Here we ask if this construction can be made more realistic by introducing some evolution of the boundary surface. The answer we find is no. To maintain a boundary surface using the Darmois - Israel junction conditions, as opposed to the introduction of a surface layer, the boundary must remain exactly comoving. The options are to drop the assumption of dust or allow the development of surface layers. Either option fundamentally changes the original construction.

  3. Anomalous Microwave Emission from Spinning Dust and its Polarization Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, Thiem

    2015-01-01

    Nearly twenty years after the discovery of anomalous microwave emission (AME) that contaminates to the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, its origin remains inconclusive. Observational results from numerous experiments have revealed that AME is most consistent with spinning dust emission from rapidly spinning ultrasmall interstellar grains. In this paper, I will first review our improved model of spinning dust, which treats realistic dynamics of wobbling non-spherical grains, impulsive interactions of grains with ions in the ambient plasma, and some other important effects. I will then discuss recent progress in quantifying the polarization of spinning dust emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. I will finish with a brief discussion on remaining issues about the origins of AME.

  4. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies. II. Spherical dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generalized Swiss-cheese model, consisting of a Lemaitre-Tolman (inhomogeneous dust) region matched, by way of a comoving boundary surface, onto a Robertson-Walker background of homogeneous dust, has become a standard construction in modern cosmology. Here, we ask if this construction can be made more realistic by introducing some evolution of the boundary surface. The answer we find is no. To maintain a boundary surface using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions, as opposed to the introduction of a surface layer, the boundary must remain exactly comoving. The options are to drop the assumption of dust or allow the development of surface layers. Either option fundamentally changes the original construction.

  5. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies. II. Spherical dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, Cédric; Lake, Kayll

    2011-10-01

    The generalized Swiss-cheese model, consisting of a Lemaître-Tolman (inhomogeneous dust) region matched, by way of a comoving boundary surface, onto a Robertson-Walker background of homogeneous dust, has become a standard construction in modern cosmology. Here, we ask if this construction can be made more realistic by introducing some evolution of the boundary surface. The answer we find is no. To maintain a boundary surface using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions, as opposed to the introduction of a surface layer, the boundary must remain exactly comoving. The options are to drop the assumption of dust or allow the development of surface layers. Either option fundamentally changes the original construction.

  6. The Sky in Dust -- Methods and Prospects of Dust Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Landgraf, M; Srama, R; Helfert, S; Kempf, S; Morgas-Klostermeyer, G; Rachev, M; Srowig, A; Auer, S; Hor`anyi, M; Sternovsky, Z; Harris, D

    2006-01-01

    Information about the make-up of the galaxy arrives in the Solar system in many forms: photons of different energies, classically collected by ground- and space-based telescopes, neutral and charged atomic particles, and solid macroscopic particles: cosmic dust particles. Dust particles, like photons, carry information from remote sites in space and time. This information can be analysed in order to understand the processes and mechanisms that are involved in the formation and evolution of solid matter in the galaxy. This approach is called ``Dust Astronomy'' which is carried out by means of a dust telescope on a dust observatory in space. The analysis of cosmic grains collected in the high atmosphere of the Earth has shown that each dust grain is a small world with various sub-grains featuring different galactic origin and evolution, which is identified on the basis of elementary and isotopic analysis. Independent information about the origin and evolution of the grains coming from the kinematic properties o...

  7. Long-Term Effects of Livestock Loss Caused by Dust Storm on Mongolian Inhabitants: A Survey 1 Year after the Dust Storm

    OpenAIRE

    Mu, Haosheng; Otani, Shinji; Shinoda, Masato; Yokoyama, Yae; Onishi, Kazunari; Hosoda, Takenobu; Okamoto,Mikizo; KUROZAWA, Youichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Every spring, windblown dust storms damage human health and cause many domestic animal deaths in Mongolia. In particular, mass livestock death results in severe, direct economic loss to inhabitants. However, there is little empirical evidence to demonstrate the long-term effects of dust storm, especially in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) secondary to livestock loss. We evaluated the long-term effects of livestock loss on Mongolian inhabitants. Methods We performed ...

  8. PERSPECTIVE: Dust, fertilization and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remer, Lorraine A.

    2006-11-01

    Aerosols, tiny suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in modifying the Earth's energy balance and are essential for the formation of cloud droplets. Suspended dust particles lifted from the world's arid regions by strong winds contain essential minerals that can be transported great distances and deposited into the ocean or on other continents where productivity is limited by lack of usable minerals [1]. Dust can transport pathogens as well as minerals great distance, contributing to the spread of human and agricultural diseases, and a portion of dust can be attributed to human activity suggesting that dust radiative effects should be included in estimates of anthropogenic climate forcing. The greenish and brownish tints in figure 1 show the wide extent of monthly mean mineral dust transport, as viewed by the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite sensor. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite Figure 1. The monthly mean global aerosol system for February 2006 from the MODIS aboard the Terra satellite. The brighter the color, the greater the aerosol loading. Red and reddish tints indicate aerosol dominated by small particles created primarily from combustion processes. Green and brownish tints indicate larger particles created from wind-driven processes, usually transported desert dust. Note the bright green band at the southern edge of the Saharan desert, the reddish band it must cross if transported to the southwest and the long brownish transport path as it crosses the Atlantic to South America. Image courtesy of the NASA Earth Observatory (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov). Even though qualitatively we recognize the extent and importance of dust transport and the role that it plays in fertilizing nutrient-limited regions, there is much that is still unknown. We are just now beginning to quantify the amount of dust that exits one continental region and the

  9. Pulmonary and Systemic Immune Response to Chronic Lunar Dust Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to millennia of meteorite impact with virtually no erosive effects, the surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of ultra-fine, reactive Lunar dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of Lunar dust on human physiology. Given the size and electrostatic characteristics of Lunar dust, countermeasures to ensure non-exposure of astronauts will be difficult. To ensure astronaut safety during any future prolonged Lunar missions, it is necessary to establish the effect of chronic pulmonary Lunar dust exposure on all physiological systems. Methods: This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and system immune system parameters. Rats were exposed to 0, 20.8, or 60.8 mg/m3 of lunar dust (6h/d; 5d/wk) for up to 13 weeks. Sacrifices occurred after exposure durations of 1day, 7 days, 4 weeks and 13 weeks post-exposure, when both blood and lung lavage fluid were collected for analysis. Lavage and blood assays included leukocyte distribution by flow cytometry, electron/fluorescent microscopy, and cytokine concentration. Cytokine production profiles following mitogenic stimulation were performed on whole blood only. Results: Untreated lavage fluid was comprised primarily of pulmonary macrophages. Lunar dust inhalation resulted in an influx of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Although the percentage of lymphocytes increased, the T cell CD4:CD8 ratio was unchanged. Cytokine analysis of the lavage fluid showed increased levels of IL-1b and TNFa. These alterations generally persisted through the 13 week sampling. Blood analysis showed few systemic effects from the lunar dust inhalation. By week 4, the peripheral granulocyte percentage was elevated in the treated rats. Plasma cytokine levels were unchanged in all treated rats compared to controls. Peripheral blood analysis showed an increased granulocyte percentage and altered cytokine production profiles consisting of increased in IL-1b and IL-6, and decreased IL-2

  10. Dust and Gas in BCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, James R.

    2004-09-01

    The objective is to learn about the formation of stars under conditions which are similar the those under which the first generation of stars formed. The regions of study are blue compact dwarf galaxies. These are low mass regions which are undergoing their first, or more likely second, episode of star formation. Typical metallicities range from 1/5 to 1/50 solar. The latter value is typical of the metallicity following the first round of star formation. The scientific questions which will be addressed include: What is the iozionation state of the gas as assessed primarially by the NeII, NeIII and NeV, and the SIII and SIV lines. Why are the PAH feature often absent in the ISO spectra of BCDs. Are the star formation regions matter bound, as suggested by the presence of NeIII, but not NeII. Why is NeIII sometimes seen to be very extended. What is the MIR SED of BCDs, as measured by low resolution spectra. What are the implications for determining the redshift of medium redshift of ULIRGs using the PAH features if the PAH feature disappear at high z,and therefore low Z. What are the implications for the infrared background radiation. What is the extinction curve for dust formed under thse low metallicity conditions. The data to answer these, and other related questions, will require both high and low resolution spectra. Most objects will be imaged by the peak-up prior to taking the spectra. Objects with known MIR fluxes will be observed directly without the preceeding images. If the "success rate" with imaging is very high we will consider eliminating the reimages.

  11. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects

  12. Local microwave background radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Domingos

    2006-01-01

    An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

  13. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States); Lesko, K. T. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects.

  14. Twisted Dust Acoustic Waves in Dusty Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, P K

    2012-01-01

    We examine linear dust acoustic waves (DAWs) in a dusty plasma with strongly correlated dust grains, and discuss possibility of a twisted DA vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). For our purposes, we use the Boltzmann distributed electron and ion density perturbations, the dust continuity and generalized viscoelastic dust momentum equations, and Poisson's equation to obtain a dispersion relation for the modified DAWs. The effects of the polarization force, strong dust couplings, and dust charge fluctuations on the DAW spectrum are examined. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the DAW can propagate as a twisted vortex beam carrying OAM. A twisted DA vortex structure can trap and transport dust particles in dusty plasmas.

  15. Heavy metals from non-exhaust vehicle emissions in urban and motorway road dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiec, Ewa; Jarosz-Krzemińska, Elżbieta; Wieszała, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The main sources of non-exhaust vehicular emissions that contribute to road dust are tire, brake and clutch wear, road surface wear, and other vehicle and road component degradation. This study is an attempt to identify and investigate heavy metals in urban and motorway road dusts as well as in dust from brake linings and tires. Road dust was collected from sections of the A-4 motorway in Poland, which is part of European route E40, and from urban roads in Katowice, Poland. Dust from a relatively unpolluted mountain road was collected and examined as a control sample. Selected metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Fe, Se, Sr, Ba, Ti, and Pd were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-optical emission spectroscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy on a range of size-fractionated road dust and brake lining dust (250 μm). The compositions of brake lining and tire dust were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy. To estimate the degree of potential environmental risk of non-exhaust emissions, comparison with the geochemical background and the calculations of geo-accumulation indices were performed. The finest fractions of urban and motorway dusts were significantly contaminated with all of the investigated metals, especially with Ti, Cu, and Cr, which are well-recognized key tracers of non-exhaust brake wear. Urban dust was, however, more contaminated than motorway dust. It was therefore concluded that brake lining and tire wear strongly contributed to the contamination of road dust. PMID:27226173

  16. Aerosol-ozone correlations during dust transport episodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bonasoni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Its location in the Mediterranean region and its physical characteristics render Mt. Cimone (44°11′ N, 10°42′ E, the highest peak of the Italian northern Apennines (2165 m asl, particularly suitable to study the transport of air masses from the north African desert area to Europe. During these northward transports 12 dust events were registered in measurements of the aerosol concentration at the station during the period June–December 2000, allowing the study of the impact of mineral dust transports on free tropospheric ozone concentrations, which were also measured at Mt. Cimone. Three-dimensional backward trajectories were used to determine the air mass origin, while TOMS Aerosol Index data for the Mt. Cimone area were used to confirm the presence of absorbing aerosol over the measurement site. A trajectory statistical analysis allowed identifying the main source areas of ozone and aerosols. The analysis of these back trajectories showed that central Europe and north and central Italy are the major pollution source areas for ozone and fine aerosol, whereas the north African desert regions were the most important source areas for coarse aerosol and low ozone concentrations. During dust events, the Mt. Cimone mean volume concentration for coarse particles was 6.18 µm3/cm3 compared to 0.63 µm3/cm3 in dust-free conditions, while the ozone concentrations were 4% to 21% lower than the monthly mean background values. Our observations show that surface ozone concentrations were lower than the background values in air masses coming from north Africa, and when these air masses were also rich in coarse particles, the lowest ozone values were registered. Moreover, preliminary results on the possible impact of the dust events on PM10 and ozone values measured in Italian urban and rural areas showed that during the greater number of the considered dust events, significant PM10 increases and ozone decreases have occurred in the Po valley.

  17. Metals and dust in high redshift AGNs

    CERN Document Server

    Maiolino, R; Marconi, A; Schneider, R; Bianchi, S; Pedani, M; Pipino, A; Matteucci, F; Cox, P; Caselli, P

    2006-01-01

    We summarize some recent results on the metallicity and dust properties of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) at high redshift (110). The properties of dust in high-z QSOs are discussed within the context of the dust production mechanisms in the early universe. The dust extinction curve is observed to evolve beyond z>4, and by z~6 it is well described by the properties expected for dust produced by SNe, suggesting that the latter is the main mechanism of dust production in the early universe. We also show that the huge dust masses observed in distant QSOs can be accounted for by SN dust within the observational constraints currently available. Finally, we show that QSO winds, which have been proposed as an alternative mechanism of dust production, may also contribute significantly to the total dust budget at high redshift.

  18. Loess and Eolian Dust Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past environment derived from Loess and Eolian dust (silt-sized material deposited on the Earth surface by the surface winds. Parameter keywords describe...

  19. Surface System Dust Mitigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will perform a detailed examination of dust mitigation and tolerance strategies for connections and mechanisms to be employed on the lunar...

  20. Infrared astronony and galactic dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of infrared sources of cosmic radiation - interstellar dust clouds, cocoon stars, novae, and gas supergiants - is presented. The possibilities of exact estimation of the star and galaxy brightness are considered. The difficulties of experiments and the reasons for choosing the infrared range for observations (teh maximum radiation of cold dust particles and the high transparency of the dust clouds) are noted. A Galaxy centre strongly radiating in the infrared range and situated in the Sagittarius constellation is considered as an example, and its schematic picture is given. A rough estimate of the absorption by stellar structures, dust and gas clouds is given. The diagram of the Main sequence of infrared sources and the dependence of their luminosity on the effective temperature are presented. The energy distribution in the spectrum of a complex object at different temperatures and wave lengths is considered. The frequency dependence of the radiation flux for the objects of the Orion constellation is given

  1. Dust in protoplanetary disks: observations*

    OpenAIRE

    Waters L.B.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Solid particles, usually referred to as dust, are a crucial component of interstellar matter and of planet forming disks surrounding young stars. Despite the relatively small mass fraction of ≈1% (in the solar neighborhood of our galaxy; this number may differ substantially in other galaxies) that interstellar grains represent of the total mass budget of interstellar matter, dust grains play an important role in the physics and chemistry of interstellar matter. This is because of the opacity ...

  2. Saharan Dust Pollution: Implications for the Sahel?

    OpenAIRE

    De Longueville, Florence; Henry, Sabine; Ozer, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The main source of atmospheric mineral dust is the Sahara desert, which produces about half of the yearly global mineral dust.1 About 12% of the Saharan dust moves northwards to Europe, 28% westwards to the Americas, and 60% southwards to the Gulf of Guinea. Saharan dust storms can lead to particulate matter (PM) levels that exceed internationally recommended levels. Recently, special attention has been paid to the mineral PM air pollution of dust storms, which may be a serious health threat....

  3. Suspended dust in Norwegian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to calculations, at least 80 000 people in Oslo and 8 000 in Trondheim were annoyed by too much suspended dust in 2000. The dust concentration is greatest in the spring, presumably because dust is swirling up from melting snow and ice on the streets. Car traffic is the main source of the dust, except for some of the most highly exposed regions where wood-firing from old stoves contributes up to 70 percent of the dust. National targets for air quality include suspended dust, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and benzene. Calculations show that nitrogen dioxide emissions exceeding the limit affected 4 000 people in Oslo and 1 000 people in Trondheim. The sulphur dioxide emissions in the major cities did non exceed the national quality limit; they did exceed the limit in some of the smaller industrial centres. In Trondheim, measurements show that the national limit for benzene was exceeded. Most of the emission of nitrogen dioxide comes from the road traffic. Local air pollution at times causes considerable health- and well-being problems in the larger cities and industrial centres, where a great part of the population may be at risk of early death, infection of the respiratory passage, heart- and lung diseases and cancer

  4. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  5. Unitarity and singular backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Brouzakis, Nikos; Quiros, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    We compute the graviton Kaluza-Klein spectrum on a gravity-dilaton background with a naked singularity for all possible boundary conditions at the singularity which are consistent with unitary evolution. We apply methods from non-relativistic quantum mechanics with singular Schr\\"{o}dinger potentials. In general the spectrum contains a tachyon, a sign of instability. Only for a particular boundary condition at the singularity is the spectrum free of tachyons. In this case the lowest-lying gra...

  6. Australia; Background Material

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the developments in the Australian labor market during the 1990s. In 1994, a number of new labor market programs were launched, directed especially at the long-term unemployed, and a further step was taken in the evolutionary reform of the industrial relations system. The paper reviews developments in employment, wages, and productivity in Australia that formed the background to these policy initiatives. It also examines the conduct of fiscal policy at the Commonwealth an...

  7. Sri Lanka; Background Papers

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1995-01-01

    This Background Paper on Sri Lanka provides information on the economic developments during 1992–95. Developments in the domestic and external sectors are discussed. The deficiencies of the official consumer price index that resulted in a substantial understatement of inflation performance in 1994 and alternative estimates of underlying inflation are described. The structural rigidities in the labor market that perpetuate high unemployment and limit job growth are also described. The paper ...

  8. Background, phenomenology, and motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors discuss the background to the kinetics of adsorption and desorption after an elementary introduction to the problem of chemisorption in two limiting cases. Other topics discussed include the thermodynamics of adsorption, reaction mechanisms outside surfaces, and a case history of catalytic hydrogenation of carbon monoxide. Figures show the potential energy barrier as a function of an appropriate reaction coordinate, and bonding of carbon monoxide to platinum metal

  9. Some background about satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Four tables of planetary and satellite data are presented which list satellite discoveries, planetary parameters, satellite orbits, and satellite physical properties respectively. A scheme for classifying the satellites is provided and it is noted that most known moons fall into three general classes: regular satellites, collisional shards, and irregular satellites. Satellite processes are outlined with attention given to origins, dynamical and thermal evolution, surface processes, and composition and cratering. Background material is provided for each family of satellites.

  10. THE BLACK HOLE MASSES AND STAR FORMATION RATES OF z>1 DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES: RESULTS FROM KECK OSIRIS INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have obtained high spatial resolution Keck OSIRIS integral field spectroscopy of four z ∼ 1.5 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies that exhibit broad Hα emission lines indicative of strong active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. The observations were made with the Keck laser guide star adaptive optics system giving a spatial resolution of 0.''1 or 8 Msun and star formation rates sun yr-1. The black hole masses and star formation rates of the sample galaxies appear low in comparison to other high-z galaxies with similar host luminosities. We explore possible explanations for these observations, including host galaxy fading, black hole growth, and the shut down of star formation.

  11. Dust extinction bias in the column density distribution of gamma-ray bursts; high column density, low redshift GRBs are more heavily obscured

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Darach

    2012-01-01

    The afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have more soft X-ray absorption than expected from the foreground gas column in the Galaxy. While the redshift of the absorption can in general not be constrained from current X-ray observations, it has been assumed that the absorption is due to metals in the host galaxy of the GRB. The large sample of X-ray afterglows and redshifts now available allows the construction of statistically meaningful distributions of the metal column densities. We construct such a sample and show, as found in previous studies, that the typical absorbing column density (N_HX) increases substantially with redshift, with few high column density objects found at low to moderate redshifts. We show, however, that when highly extinguished bursts are included in the sample, using redshifts from their host galaxies, high column density sources are also found at low to moderate redshift. We infer from individual objects in the sample and from observations of blazars, that the increase in column de...

  12. Dust-obscured star-formation in the outskirts of XMMU J2235.3-2557, a massive galaxy cluster at z=1.4

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, J S; Popesso, P; Strazzullo, V; Valtchanov, I; Berta, S; Bohringer, H; Conversi, L; Demarco, R; Edge, A C; Lidman, C; Lutz, D; Metcalfe, L; Mullis, C R; Pintos-Castro, I; Sanchez-Portal, M; Rawle, T D; Rosati, P; Swinbank, A M; Tanaka, M

    2013-01-01

    Star-formation in the galaxy populations of local massive clusters is reduced with respect to field galaxies, and tends to be suppressed in the core region. Indications of a reversal of the star-formation--density relation have been observed in a few z >1.4 clusters. Using deep imaging from 100-500um from PACS and SPIRE onboard Herschel, we investigate the infrared properties of spectroscopic and photo-z cluster members, and of Halpha emitters in XMMU J2235.3-2557, one of the most massive, distant, X-ray selected clusters known. Our analysis is based mostly on fitting of the galaxies spectral energy distribution in the rest-frame 8-1000um. We measure total IR luminosity, deriving star formation rates (SFRs) ranging from 89-463 Msun/yr for 13 galaxies individually detected by Herschel, all located beyond the core region (r >250 kpc). We perform a stacking analysis of nine star-forming members not detected by PACS, yielding a detection with SFR=48 Msun/yr. Using a color criterion based on a star-forming galaxy ...

  13. A search for water maser emission toward obscured post-AGB star and planetary nebula candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J. F.; Rizzo, J. R.; Suárez, O.; Palau, A.; Miranda, L. F.; Guerrero, M. A.; Ramos-Larios, G.; Torrelles, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Water maser emission at 22 GHz is a useful probe for studying the transition between the nearly spherical mass loss in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) to a collimated one in the post-AGB phase. In their turn, collimated jets in the post-AGB phase could determine the shape of planetary nebulae once photoionization starts. Aims: We intend to find new cases of post-AGB stars and planetary nebulae (PNe) with water maser emission, including some especially interesting and rare types: water fountains (evolved objects with high velocity collimated jets traced by water masers) or water-maser-emitting PNe. Since previous studies have shown a higher detection rate of water maser emission in evolved objects that are optically obscured, we selected a sample that contains a significant fraction of post-AGB and young PN candidate sources showing signs of strong obscuration. Methods: We searched for water maser emission in 133 evolved objects using the radio telescopes in Robledo de Chavela, Parkes, and Green Bank. Results: We detected water maser emission in 15 sources of our sample, of which seven are reported here for the first time (IRAS 13483-5905, IRAS 14249-5310, IRAS 15408-5413, IRAS 17021-3109, IRAS 17348-2906, IRAS 17393-2727, and IRAS 18361-1203). We identified three water fountain candidates: IRAS 17291-2147, with a total velocity spread of ≃96 km s-1 in its water maser components and two sources (IRAS 17021-3109 and IRAS 17348-2906) that show water maser emission whose velocity lies outside the velocity range covered by OH masers. We have also identified IRAS 17393-2727 as a possible new water-maser-emitting PN. Conclusions: The detection rate is higher in obscured objects (14%) than in those with optical counterparts (7%), which is consistent with previous results. Water maser emission seems to be common in objects that are bipolar in the near-IR (43% detection rate in such sources). The water maser spectra of water fountain candidates like IRAS 17291

  14. Wireless capsule endoscopy in the investigation of patients with chronic renal failure and obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (preliminary data)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephanos Karagiannis; Spyros Goulas; Georgios Kosmadakis; Petros Galanis; Dimitrios Arvanitis; John Boletis; Evangelos Georgiou; Christos Mavrogiannis

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) in detection of small bowel (SB) pathology in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and obscure bleeding.METHODS: Consecutive CRF patients with obscure bleeding were prospectively studied. Patients with normal renal function and obscure bleeding, investigated during the same period with WCE, were used for the interpretation of results.RESULTS: Seventeen CRF patients (11 overt, 6 occult bleeding) and 51 patients (33 overt, 18 occult bleeding) with normal renal function were enrolled in this study.Positive SB findings were detected in 70.6% of CRF patients and in 41.2% of non-CRF patients (P < 0.05). SB angiodysplasia was identified in 47% of CRF patients and in 17.6% of non-CRF patients. Univariate logistic regression revealed CRF as a significant predictive factor for angiodysplasia (P < 0.05). Therapeutic measures were undertaken in 66% of the patients with the positive findings.CONCLUSION: According to our preliminary results, SB angiodysplasia was found in an increased prevalence among CRF patients with obscure bleeding. WCE is useful in diagnosis of gastrointestinal pathologies and in planning appropriate therapeutic intervention and, therefore, should be included in the work-up of this group of patients.

  15. X-ray bumps, iron K-alpha lines, and X-ray suppression by obscuring tori in Seyfert galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krolik, Julian H.; Madau, Piero; Zycki, Piotr T.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the X-ray spectral properties of unobscured type 1 and obscured type 2 Seyferts as predicted by the unified Seyfert scheme. We consider the reprocessing of X-ray photons by photoelectric absorption, iron fluorescence, and Compton downscattering in the obscuring tori surrounding these active nuclei, and compute by Monte Carlo methods the reprocessed spectra as a function of the viewing angle. Depending on the optical depth and shape of the torus, and on the viewing angle, the X-ray flux can be suppressed by substantial factors when our line of sight is obscured. We show that an immediate consequence of the existence of an obscuring thick torus is the production in the spectra of type 1 Seyfert galaxies of a bump in the continuum above 10-20 keV and an Fe K-alpha line with significant equivalent width. In those type 2 Seyferts for which the hard X-ray spectrum has been substantially suppressed, the equivalent width of the Fe K-alpha line in the transmitted spectrum can be very large.

  16. Reverberation measurements of the inner radius of the dust torus in 17 Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a dust reverberation survey for 17 nearby Seyfert 1 galaxies, which provides the largest homogeneous data collection for the radius of the innermost dust torus. A delayed response of the K-band light curve after the V-band light curve was found for all targets, and 49 measurements of lag times between the flux variation of the dust emission in the K band and that of the optical continuum emission in the V band were obtained by the cross-correlation function analysis and also by an alternative method for estimating the maximum likelihood lag. The lag times strongly correlated with the optical luminosity in the luminosity range of MV = –16 to –22 mag, and the regression analysis was performed to obtain the correlation log Δt (days) = –2.11 – 0.2 MV assuming Δt∝L 0.5, which was theoretically expected. We discuss the possible origins of the intrinsic scatter of the dust lag-luminosity correlation, which was estimated to be approximately 0.13 dex, and we find that the difference of internal extinction and delayed response of changes in lag times to the flux variations could have partly contributed to intrinsic scatter. However, we could not detect any systematic change of the correlation with the subclass of the Seyfert type or the Eddington ratio. Finally, we compare the dust reverberation radius with the near-infrared interferometric radius of the dust torus and the reverberation radius of broad Balmer emission lines. The interferometric radius in the K band was found to be systematically larger than the dust reverberation radius in the same band by the about a factor of two, which could be interpreted by the difference between the flux-weighted radius and response-weighted radius of the innermost dust torus. The reverberation radius of the broad Balmer emission lines was found to be systematically smaller than the dust reverberation radius by about a factor of four to five, which strongly supports the unified scheme of the

  17. Effect of Thermionic Emission on Dust-Acoustic Solitons in a Dust-Electron Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Li-Wen; WANG Zheng-Xiong; LIU Yue; WANG Xiao-Gang

    2007-01-01

    The effects of thermionic emission on dust-acoustic solitons with a very small but finite amplitude in a dustelectron plasma are studied using the reductive perturbation technique. The self-consistent variation of dust charge is taken into account. It is shown that the thermionic emission could significantly increase the dust positive charge. The dependences of the phase velocity, amplitude, and width of such solitons on the dust temperature and the dust work function of dust material are plotted and discussed.

  18. Herschel observations of dust around the high-mass X-ray binary GX 301-2

    OpenAIRE

    Servillat, Mathieu; Coleiro, Alexis; Chaty, Sylvain; Rahoui, Farid; Heras, Juan Antonio Zurita

    2014-01-01

    We aim at characterising the structure of the gas and dust around the high mass X-ray binary GX 301-2, a highly obscured X-ray binary hosting a hypergiant star and a neutron star, in order to better constrain its evolution. We used Herschel PACS to observe GX 301-2 in the far infrared and completed the spectral energy distribution of the source using published data or catalogs, from the optical to the radio range (0.4 to 4x10^4 micrometer). GX 301-2 is detected for the first time at 70 and 10...

  19. ON THE EFFECT OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND IN HIGH-REDSHIFT (SUB-)MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern (sub-)millimeter interferometers enable the measurement of the cool gas and dust emission of high-redshift galaxies (z > 5). However, at these redshifts the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature is higher, approaching, and even exceeding, the temperature of cold dust and molecular gas observed in the local universe. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the warmer CMB on (sub-)millimeter observations of high-redshift galaxies. The CMB affects the observed (sub-)millimeter dust continuum and the line emission (e.g., carbon monoxide, CO) in two ways: (1) it provides an additional source of (both dust and gas) heating and (2) it is a non-negligible background against which the line and continuum emission are measured. We show that these two competing processes affect the way we interpret the dust and gas properties of high-redshift galaxies using spectral energy distribution models. We quantify these effects and provide correction factors to compute what fraction of the intrinsic dust (and line) emission can be detected against the CMB as a function of frequency, redshift, and temperature. We discuss implications on the derived properties of high-redshift galaxies from (sub-)millimeter data. Specifically, the inferred dust and molecular gas masses can be severely underestimated for cold systems if the impact of the CMB is not properly taken into account.

  20. Physics of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Bucher, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), especially of its frequency spectrum and its anisotropies, both in temperature and in polarization, have played a key role in the development of modern cosmology and our understanding of the very early universe. We review the underlying physics of the CMB and how the primordial temperature and polarization anisotropies were imprinted. Possibilities for distinguishing competing cosmological models are emphasized. The current status of CMB experiments and experimental techniques with an emphasis toward future observations, particularly in polarization, is reviewed. The physics of foreground emissions, especially of polarized dust, is discussed in detail, since this area is likely to become crucial for measurements of the B modes of the CMB polarization at ever greater sensitivity.

  1. A WISE Test of Links Between Megamaser Activity and Nuclear Obscuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Catherine; Constantin, Anca

    2016-01-01

    Water megamaser disks detected in 22 GHz emission in galactic nuclear regions provide direct geometrical distances to galaxies and the most precise and accurate masses of supermassive black holes. Nevertheless, these systems are extremely rare. Improvements on their detection rates in future surveys rely on better understanding of their physical properties, in relation to those of their host galaxies. Using data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer we systematically study the mid-IR properties of the galaxies with and without nuclear water maser emission to better constrain the connection between water masing activity and the circumnuclear dust absorption and radiation reprocessing in galaxy centers.

  2. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    DDAs in question contribute to the socio-cultural construction of identity, i.e. that they play a rather specific role in discursive communication and socio-cultural meaning construction. On the other hand it is clear that the semantics of the DDAs in question, seen in isolation, is very abstract or...... general; furthermore, the DDAs are backgrounded in discourse. Is it reasonable to claim, rather boldly, that “the informants express their identity in the use of the directional adverb ud ‘out’ etc.”? In the course of this article, however, I suggest that the DDAs in question do contribute to the socio-cultural...

  3. The Cosmic Background Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Smoot, George; Scott, Douglas

    1997-01-01

    We review the current status of experimental data for spectral distortions and angular anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background, as well as discussing the relevant physical processes. This is one of a number of new articles in astrophysics and cosmology which will appear in the 1996 Review of Particle Properties (Phys. Rev. D. in press). Other relevant reviews include: "Big-Bang Cosmology" by K.A. Olive; "Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis" by K.A. Olive & D.N. Schramm; "The Hubble Constant" by ...

  4. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s r...

  5. Background and introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    in scope between FM and CREM is that CREM has its focus on real estate as physical and economical assets utilized by an organisation, while FM has a wider service focus. The difference in scope between FM and CREM on one side and B2B marketing on the other is that FM and CREM are related to...... chapter provides important background information to understand the following chapters in this book. Research limitations: The chapter is mainly based on the experience and knowledge of the editors. It does not include original research but provides an introductory overview of the book. Originality...

  6. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam;

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... effects as determinants of entrepreneurship. We start by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share. The average is 28 percent. Allowing for differential...... entrepreneurship does play a large role, as do shared genes....

  7. Scientists Detect Radio Emission from Rapidly Rotating Cosmic Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Astronomers have made the first tentative observations of a long-speculated, but never before detected, source of natural radio waves in interstellar space. Data from the National Science Foundation's 140 Foot Radio Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, W.Va., show the faint, tell-tale signals of what appear to be dust grains spinning billions of times each second. This discovery eventually could yield a powerful new tool for understanding the interstellar medium - the immense clouds of gas and dust that populate interstellar space. The NRAO 140 Foot Radio Telescope The NRAO 140-Foot Radio Telescope "What we believe we have found," said Douglas P. Finkbeiner of Princeton University's Department of Astrophysics, "is the first hard evidence for electric dipole emission from rapidly rotating dust grains. If our studies are confirmed, it will be the first new source of continuum emission to be conclusively identified in the interstellar medium in nearly the past 20 years." Finkbeiner believes that these emissions have the potential in the future of revealing new and exciting information about the interstellar medium; they also may help to refine future studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The results from this study, which took place in spring 1999, were accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal. Other contributors to this paper include David J. Schlegel, department of astrophysics, Princeton University; Curtis Frank, department of astronomy, University of Maryland; and Carl Heiles, department of astronomy, University of California at Berkeley. "The idea of dust grains emitting radiation by rotating is not new," comments Finkbeiner, "but to date it has been somewhat speculative." Scientists first proposed in 1957 that dust grains could emit radio signals, if they were caused to rotate rapidly enough. It was believed, however, that these radio emissions would be negligibly small - too weak to be of any impact to

  8. 2002 Kuiper prize lecture: Dust Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf; Krüger, Harald; Kempf, Sascha; Dikarev, Valeri; Helfert, Stefan; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg

    2005-03-01

    Dust particles, like photons, carry information from remote sites in space and time. From knowledge of the dust particles' birthplace and their bulk properties, we can learn about the remote environment out of which the particles were formed. This approach is called "Dust Astronomy" which is carried out by means of a dust telescope on a Dust Observatory in space. Targets for a dust telescope are the local interstellar medium and nearby star forming regions, as well as comets and asteroids. Dust from interstellar and interplanetary sources is distinguished by accurately sensing their trajectories. Trajectory sensors may use the electric charge signals that are induced when charged grains fly through the detector. Modern in-situ dust impact detectors are capable of providing mass, speed, physical and chemical information of dust grains in space. A Dust Observatory mission is feasible with state-of-the-art technology. It will (1) provide the distinction between interstellar dust and interplanetary dust of cometary and asteroidal origin, (2) determine the elemental composition of impacting dust particles, and (3) monitor the fluxes of various dust components as a function of direction and particle masses.

  9. Theoretical aspects of Dust in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that micro-particles (dust) exist in fusion devices. However, an impact of dust on plasma contamination, material migration, and performance of fusion devices is still under debate. In burning plasma experiments like ITER dust can also pose safety problems related to it's chemical activity, toxicity, tritium retention, and radioactive content. In order to address all these issues we need to understand the physics of dust generation, dynamics, and transport. In this paper, the results of recent theoretical studies of dust in fusion plasmas are reviewed. Different aspects of the physics of dust in fusion plasmas, including the processes of dust generation, charging, heating, destruction, spinning, forces acting on dust, dust collision with material walls, etc are discussed. The numerical models of these processes have been incorporated into the dust transport code DUSTT, which is capable of tracking of dust particles in fusion devices in 3D geometry. The results of the simulations of dust particle dynamics, transport, and the impact on edge plasma performance are considered. The latest results on nonlinear interactions of dust grain with tokamak plasma as well as remaining gaps in the understanding of physics of dust in fusion devices are discussed (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. A search for water maser emission toward obscured post-AGB star and planetary nebula candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, J F; Suarez, O; Palau, A; Miranda, L F; Guerrero, M A; Ramos-Larios, G; Torrelles, J M

    2015-01-01

    Water maser emission at 22 GHz is a useful probe to study the transition between the nearly spherical mass-loss in the AGB to a collimated one in the post-AGB phase. In their turn, collimated jets in the post-AGB phase could determine the shape of planetary nebulae (PNe) once photoionization starts. We intend to find new cases of post-AGB stars and PNe with water maser emission, including water fountains or water-maser-emitting PNe. We observed water maser emission in a sample of 133 objects, with a significant fraction being post-AGB and young PN candidate sources with strong obscuration. We detected this emission in 15 of them, of which seven are reported here for the first time. We identified three water fountain candidates: IRAS 17291-2147, with a total velocity spread of ~96 km/s in its water maser components and two sources (IRAS 17021-3109 and IRAS 17348-2906) that show water maser emission outside the velocity range covered by OH masers. We have also identified IRAS 17393-2727 as a possible new water-...

  11. The Host Galaxies of High-Luminosity Obscured Quasars at 2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nicholas; Strauss, M. A.; Greene, J. E.; Zakamska, N. L.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexandroff, R.; Liu, G.; Smith, P. S.; The SDSS-III BOSS Quasar Working Group

    2014-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei play a key role in the evolution of galaxies. However, very little is known about the host galaxies of the most luminous quasars at redshift 2.5, the epoch when massive black hole growth peaked. The brightness of the quasar itself, which can easily outshine a galaxy by a large factor, makes it very difficult to study emission from extended gas or stars in the host galaxy. However, we have imaged the extended emission from the host galaxies of a unique sample of six optically extinguished (Type II) luminous quasars with 2.5, with the Hubble Space Telescope (Cycle 20, GO 13014) using ACS/F814W to access the rest-frame near-ultraviolet, and WFC3/F160W for the rest-frame optical longward of 4000A. These objects are selected from the spectroscopic database of the SDSS/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey to have strong, narrow emission lines and weak continua. With these images, we have quantified the luminosity, morphology, and dynamical state of the host galaxies, and searched for extended scattered light from the obscured central engine. These observations are the first comprehensive study of both host galaxy light and scattered light in high-luminosity quasars at the epoch of maximum black hole growth, and give insights into the relationship between host galaxies and black holes during this important, and yet largely unexplored period.

  12. Probing the obscuring medium around active nuclei using masers: The case of 3C403

    CERN Document Server

    Tarchi, A; Chiaberge, M; Menten, K M; Brunthaler, A; Moscadelli, L

    2004-01-01

    We report the first detection of a water megamaser in a radio-loud galaxy, 3C403, and present a follow-up study using the VLA. 3C403 has been observed as a part of a small sample of FRII galaxies with evidence of nuclear obscuration. The isotropic luminosity of the maser is ~1200 solar luminosities. With a recessional velocity of cz~17680 km/s it is the most distant water maser so far reported. The line arises from the densest (> 10^(8) cm^(-3)) interstellar gas component ever observed in a radio-loud galaxy. Two spectral features are identified, likely bracketing the systemic velocity of the galaxy. Our interferometric data clearly indicate that these arise from a location within 0.1" (~110 pc) from the active galactic nucleus. We conclude that the maser spots are most likely associated with the tangentially seen parts of a nuclear accretion disk, while an association with dense warm gas interacting with the radio jets cannot yet be ruled out entirely.

  13. Those Obscure Objects: Projections and Puppets of Desire Between Literature and Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Panella

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with one of the most popular female projections or phantoms of male desire, that is the charmer who never cedes, by comparing some literary and cinematic texts. This “allumeuse” which turns men into puppets in a dynamic of impossible seduction is the protagonist of La Femme et le Pantin (1898 by Pierre Louÿs (1870-1925, whose unforgettable Conchita from Sevilla was inspired by the young Charpillon who maddened the expert seducer Casanova. Conchita’s fame was deepened by the numerous adaptations of the text for the screen, especially von Sternberg’s The Devil is a Woman (1935 starring Marlene Dietrich, Duvivier’s La Femme et le Pantin (1959 with Brigitte Bardot, and Buñuel’s free and outstanding reinterpretation in Cet obscur objet du désir (1977. In the end, the adaptation of the novel Singularidades de uma Rapariga Loura (1874 by Portuguese Eça de Queirós (1845-1900 which Manoel de Oliveira directed in 2009 will be evoked  to argue that the unattainable female character could represent a projection of the male protagonists’ desire and romantic idealizations as well as of their fears and bourgeois conventions.

  14. The quest for obscured AGN at cosmological distances: Infrared Power-Law Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Herrero, A; Rieke, G H; Rigby, J R; Pérez-González, P G; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Donley, Jennifer L.; Rieke, George H.; Rigby, Jane R.; Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G.

    2006-01-01

    We summarize multiwavelength properties of a sample of galaxies in the CDF-N and CDF-S whose Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) exhibit the characteristic power-law behavior expected for AGN in the Spitzer/IRAC 3.6-8micron bands. AGN selected this way tend to comprise the majority of high X-ray luminosity AGN, whereas AGN selected via other IRAC color-color criteria might contain more star-formation dominated galaxies. Approximately half of these IR power-law galaxies in the CDF-S are detected in deep (1Ms) Chandra X-ray imaging, although in the CDF-N (2Ms) about 77% are detected at the 3sigma level. The SEDs and X-ray upper limits of the sources not detected in X-rays are consistent with those of obscured AGN, and are significantly different from those of massive star-forming galaxies. About 40% of IR power-law galaxies detected in X-rays have SEDs resembling that of an optical QSO and morphologies dominated by bright point source emission. The remaining 60% have SEDs whose UV and optical continuum are muc...

  15. Role of Feedback in AGN-HOST Coevolution: A Study from Partially Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J

    2014-01-01

    Partially obscured AGNs within a redshift range $z=0.011\\sim0.256$ are used to re-study the role of feedback in the AGN-host coevolution issue in terms of their [OIII]$\\lambda$5007 emission line profile. The spectra of these objects enable us to determine the AGN's accretion properties directly from their broad H$\\alpha$ emission. This is essential for getting rid of the "circular reasoning" in our previous study of narrow emission-line galaxies, in which the [OIII] emission line was used not only as a proxy of AGN's bolometric luminosity, but also as a diagnostic of outflow. In addition, the measurement of $D_n(4000)$ index is improved by removing an underlying AGN's continuum according to the corresponding broad H$\\alpha$ emission. With these improvements, we confirm and reinforce the correlation between $L/L_{\\mathrm{Edd}}$ and stellar population age. More important is that this correlation is found to be related to both [OIII] line blue asymmetry and bulk blueshift velocity, which suggests a linkage betwe...

  16. The Geometry of the Infrared and X-ray Obscurer in a Dusty Hyperluminous Quasar

    CERN Document Server

    Farrah, Duncan; Stern, Daniel; Harris, Kathryn; Kunimoto, Michelle; Walton, Dominic J; Alexander, David M; Arevalo, Patricia; Ballantyne, David R; Bauer, Franz E; Boggs, Steven; Brandt, William N; Brightman, Murray; Christensen, Finn; Clements, David L; Craig, William; Fabian, Andrew; Hailey, Charles; Harrison, Fiona; Koss, Michael; Lansbury, George B; Luo, Bin; Paine, Jennie; Petty, Sara; Pitchford, Kate; Ricci, Claudio; Zhang, William

    2016-01-01

    We study the geometry of the AGN obscurer in IRAS 09104+4109, an IR-luminous, radio-intermediate FR-I source at $z=0.442$, using infrared data from Spitzer and Herschel, X-ray data from Nustar, Swift, Suzaku, and Chandra, and an optical spectrum from Palomar. The infrared data imply a total rest-frame 1-1000$\\mu$m luminosity of $5.5\\times10^{46}$erg s$^{-1}$ and require both an AGN torus and starburst model. The AGN torus has an anisotropy-corrected IR luminosity of $4.9\\times10^{46}$erg s$^{-1}$, and a viewing angle and half opening angle both of approximately $36$ degrees from pole-on. The starburst has a star formation rate of $(110\\pm34)$M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ and an age of $<50$Myr. These results are consistent with two epochs of luminous activity in 09104: one approximately $150$Myr ago, and one ongoing. The X-ray data suggest a photon index of $\\Gamma \\simeq 1.8$ and a line-of-sight column of $N_{\\rm H} \\simeq 5\\times10^{23}$cm$^{-2}$. This argues against a reflection-dominated hard X-ray spectrum, w...

  17. The black hole binary V404 Cygni: an obscured AGN analogue

    CERN Document Server

    Motta, S E; Sánchez-Fernández, C; Giustini, M; Kuulkers, E

    2016-01-01

    Typical black hole binaries in outburst show spectral states and transitions, characterized by a clear connection between the inflow onto the black hole and outflow from its vicinity. The transient stellar mass black hole binary V404 Cyg apparently does not fit in this picture. Its outbursts are characterized by intense flares and intermittent low-flux states, with a dynamical range of several orders of magnitude on timescales of hours. During the 2015 June-July X-ray outburst a joint Swift and INTEGRAL observing campaign captured V404 Cyg in one of these low-flux states. The simultaneous Swift/XRT and INTEGRAL/JEM-X/ISGRI spectrum is reminiscent of that of obscured/absorbed AGN. It can be modeled as a Comptonization spectrum, heavily absorbed by a partial covering, high-column density material ($N_\\textrm{H} \\approx 1.4\\times10^{24}\\,\\textrm{cm}^{-2}$), and a dominant reflection component, including a narrow Iron-K$\\alpha$ line. Such spectral distribution can be produced by a geometrically thick accretion fl...

  18. Obscured star formation in Ly-alpha blobs at z = 3.1

    CERN Document Server

    Tamura, Yoichi; Ikarashi, Soh; Scott, Kimberly S; Hatsukade, Bunyo; Umehata, Hideki; Saito, Tomoki; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Yun, Min S; Ezawa, Hajime; Hughes, David H; Iono, Daisuke; Kawabe, Ryohei; Kohno, Kotaro; Wilson, Grant W

    2013-01-01

    We present results from the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm imaging survey of 35 Ly-alpha blobs (LABs) found in the SSA22 protocluster at z = 3.1. These 1.1-mm data reach an r.m.s. noise level of 0.7-1 mJy/beam, making this the largest millimetre-wave survey of LABs to date. No significant (> 3.5-sigma) emission is found in any of individual 35 LABs, and from this, we estimate 3-sigma upper limits on the far-infrared luminosity of L_FIR < 2e+12 Lsun. Stacking analysis reveals that the 1.1-mm flux density averaged over the LABs is S(1.1mm) < 0.40 mJy (3-sigma), which places a constraint of L_FIR < 4.5e+11 Lsun. This indicates that earlier 850-um measurements of the LABs may have overestimated their flux densities. Our results suggest that LABs on average have little ultra-luminous obscured star-formation, in contrast to a long-believed picture that LABs undergo an intense episode of dusty star-formation activities with star-formation rates of ~ 10^3 Msun/yr. Observations with ALMA are needed to directly study the o...

  19. Obscuration effects in Super-Soft-Source X-ray spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ness, J -U; Henze, M; Dobrotka, A; Drake, J J; Ribeiro, V A R M; Starrfield, S; Kuulkers, E; Behar, E; Hernanz, M; Schwarz, G; Page, K L; Beardmore, A; Bode, M F

    2013-01-01

    Super-Soft-Source (SSS) X-ray spectra are blackbody-like spectra with effective temperatures ~3-7x10^5 K and luminosities of 10^{35-38} erg/s. SSS grating spectra display atmospheric absorption lines. Radiation transport atmosphere models can be used to derive physical parameters, but more sophisticated models are required. We bypass the complications of spectral models and concentrate on the data in a comparative, qualitative study. We inspect all available X-ray grating SSS spectra to determine systematic, model-independent trends. We use comparative plots of spectra of different systems to find common and different features. The results are interpreted in the context of system parameters obtained from the literature. We find two distinct types of SSS spectra which we name SSa and SSe. Their main observational characteristics are either clearly visible absorption lines or emission lines, respectively, while both types contain atmospheric continuum emission. SSe may be obscured SSa systems, which is supporte...

  20. Jansky VLA Imaging of Heavily Obscured, Luminous Quasars at Redshifts ~2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Adam; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Patil, Palavi; Whittle, Mark; Lacy, Mark; Lonsdale, Colin J.

    2016-01-01

    We present JVLA A and B array observations in X-band (8-12 GHz) of a sample of radio powerful, bolometrically luminous, but optically obscured quasars. The quasars were selected using a cross-match between WISE mid-IR sources brighter than 7 mJ at 22 mu and NVSS and/or FIRST radio surveys, with a further constraint that the sources were optically faint. The survey aims to select young quasars with young radio sources at redshifts z ~ 1-3. Ultimately, we wish to study the role that radio jets play in quasar driven feedback. Our VLA observations provide fundamental information on radio source size, structure, power and spectral index, all of which shed light on the properties of the young radio source. We will present images and data on 155 objects from our primary sample WISE-NVSS sample of 156.The majority of sources are found to be compact, steep-spectrum, and sub-galactic in scale, with a significant minority of resolved doubles, triples, and core-jets. Using radio data at other wavelengths taken from the literature, we use SED fits to identify or constrain the turn-over frequencies. Combining size and turn-over frequency, the majority of the sources are found to be CSS, GPS or HFPs, consistent with young radio source ages.

  1. The Stellar Content of Obscured Galactic Giant HII Regions. VII. W3

    CERN Document Server

    Navarete, F; Damineli, A; Moisés, A P; Blum, R D; Conti, P S

    2011-01-01

    Spectrophotometric distances in the K band have been reported by different authors for a number of obscured Galactic HII regions. Almost 50% of them show large discrepancies compared to the classical method using radial velocities measured in the radio spectral region. In order to provide a crucial test of both methods, we selected a target which does not present particular difficulty for any method and which has been measured by as many techniques as possible. The W3 star forming complex, located in the Perseus arm, offers a splendid opportunity for such a task. We used the NIFS spectrograph on the Frederick C. Gillett Gemini North telescope to classify candidate "naked photosphere" OB stars based on 2MASS photometry. Two of the targets are revealed to be mid O-type main sequence stars leading to a distance of d = 2.20 kpc. This is in excellent agreement with the spectrophotometric distance derived in the optical band (d = 2.18 kpc, Humphreys 1978) and with a measurement of the W3 trigonometric parallax (d =...

  2. Experimental demonstration of binary shaped pupil mask coronagraphs for telescopes with obscured pupils

    CERN Document Server

    Haze, Kanae; Abe, Lyu; Takahashi, Aoi; Kotani, Takayuki; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu

    2016-01-01

    We present the fabrication and experimental demonstration of three free-standing binary shaped pupil mask coronagraphs, which are applicable for telescopes with partially obscured pupils. Three masks, designed to be complementary (labeled Mask-A, Mask-B, and Mask-C), were formed in 5 micron thick nickel. The design of Mask-A is based on a one-dimensional barcode mask. The design principle of Mask-B is similar, but has a smaller inner working angle and a lower contrast than Mask-A. Mask-C is based on a concentric ring mask and provides the widest dark region and a symmetric point spread function. Mask-A and Mask-C were both designed to produce a flexibly tailored dark region (i.e., non-uniform contrast). The contrast was evaluated using a light source comprising a broadband super-luminescent light-emitting diode with a center wavelength of 650 nm, and the measurements were carried out in a large vacuum chamber. Active wavefront control was not applied in this work. The coronagraphic images obtained by experime...

  3. Single center experience of capsule endoscopy in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahesh Kumar Goenka; Shounak Majumder; Sanjeev Kumar; Pradeepta Kumar Sethy; Usha Goenka

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To identify optimum timing to maximize diagnostic yield by capsule endoscopy (CE) in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB).METHODS: We identified patients who underwent CE at our institution from August 2003 to December 2009.Patient medical records were reviewed to determine type of OGIB (occult, overt), CE results and complications,and timing of CE with respect to onset of bleeding.RESULTS: Out of 385 patients investigated for OGIB,284 (74%) had some lesion detected by CE. In 222 patients (58%), definite lesions were detected that could unequivocally explain OGIB. Small bowel ulcer/erosions secondary to Crohn's disease, tuberculosis or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent use were the commonest lesions detected. Patients with overt GI bleeding for <48 h before CE had the highest diagnostic yield (87%).This was significantly greater (P < 0.05) compared to that in patients with overt bleeding prior to 48 h (68%),as well as those with occult OGIB (59%).CONCLUSION: We established the importance of early CE in management of OGIB. CE within 48 h of overt bleeding has the greatest potential for lesion detection.

  4. [Actinic enteritis as a cause of digestive bleeding of obscure origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Luis; Guevara, Julissa; Aguilar, Victor; Menéndez, Monica; Bravo, Eduar; Guzman Rojas, Patricia; Pichilingue, Catherina; Zegarra, Arturo; Huerta-Mercado, Jorge; Pinto, José; Prochazka, Ricardo; Valenzuela, Vanessa; Bussalleu, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Chronic actinic enteritis is a malfunction of the small bowel, occurring in the 6 months post-radiotherapy, and it can be manifestated as malabsortion, stenosis, fistula formation, local abscesses, perforation and bleeding, We report a case of an elderly patient who presents an episode of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) secondary to actinic enteritis. She is a 64-year- old female patient with the past medical history of cervical cancer who received radiotherapy and brachytherapy. One year after the treatment, the patient presents a chronic episode of melena and symptomatic anemia and 1 week before the admission she had hematochezia. At admission she has hemodynamic instability with a hemoglobin value of 2.7 gr/dl. We did an upper endoscopy, a colonoscopy and abdomino-pelvic tomography without any findings of the bleeding’s source. Reason why an endoscopic capsule was done, showing bleeding areas in the medial and distal small bowel. The patient had another gastrointestinal bleeding requiring a surgery where they decide to do a resection of the small bowel and a right hemicholectomy. The pathology was compatible with actinic enteritis. The patient after the surgery had a torpid evolution, and finally dies. We describe this case and do a review of all the existent data around the world, because is the first case reported in Peru of an actinic enteritis as a cause of OGIB. PMID:27409093

  5. Clinical impact of multidetector computed tomography before double-balloon enteroscopy for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsu-Heng Yen; Yang-Yuan Chen; Chia-Wei Yang; Chi-Kuang Liu; Maw-Soan Soon

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the clinical impact of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) before double-balloon endoscopy (DBE) for patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB).METHODS:A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected cases with DBE and MDCT for overt OGIB was conducted from April 2004 to April 2010 at Changhua Christian Hospital.We evaluated the clinical impact of MDCT on the subsequent DBE examinations and the diagnostic yields of both MDCT and DBE respectively.RESULTS:From April 2004 to April 2010,a total of 75 patients underwent DBE for overt OGIB.Thirty one cases received MDCT followed by DBE for OGIB.The overall diagnostic yields of DBE and MDCT was 93.5% and 45.2%.The MDCT had a high diagnostic yield of tumor vs non-tumor etiology of OGIB (85.7% vs 33.3%,P =0.014).Additionally,the choice of initial route of DBE was correct in those with a positive MDCT vs negative MDCT (100% vs 52.9%,P =0.003).CONCLUSION:This study suggests MDCT as a triage tool may identify patients who will benefit from DBE and aid the endoscopist in choosing the most efficient route.

  6. ANALYSIS OF DUST DELIQUESCENCE FOR FEP SCREENING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the potential for penetration of the Alloy 22 (UNS N06022) waste package outer barrier by localized corrosion due to the deliquescence of soluble constituents in dust present on waste package surfaces. The results support a recommendation to exclude deliquescence-induced localized corrosion (pitting or crevice corrosion) of the outer barrier from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Preparation of this report, and supporting laboratory studies and calculations, were performed as part of the planned effort in Work Package AEBM21, as implemented in ''Technical Work Plan for: Screening Evaluation for Dust Deliquescence and Localized Corrosion'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172804]), by Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC, and staff from three national laboratories: Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis and conclusions presented in this report are quality affecting, as determined in the controlling technical work plan. A summary of background information, based on work that was not performed under a quality assurance program, is provided as Appendix E. In this instance, the use of unqualified information is provided for transparency and corroboration only, and is clearly separated from uses of qualified information. Thus, the qualification status of this information does not affect the conclusions of this report. The acceptance criteria addressed in Sections 4.2 and 7.2 were changed from the technical work plan in response to review comments received during preparation of this report

  7. The Backgrounds Data Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, W. A.; Gursky, H.; Heckathorn, H. M.; Lucke, R. L.; Berg, S. L.; Dombrowski, E. G.; Kessel, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization has created data centers for midcourse, plumes, and backgrounds phenomenologies. The Backgrounds Data Center (BDC) has been designated as the prime archive for data collected by SDIO programs. The BDC maintains a Summary Catalog that contains 'metadata,' that is, information about data, such as when the data were obtained, what the spectral range of the data is, and what region of the Earth or sky was observed. Queries to this catalog result in a listing of all data sets (from all experiments in the Summary Catalog) that satisfy the specified criteria. Thus, the user can identify different experiments that made similar observations and order them from the BDC for analysis. On-site users can use the Science Analysis Facility (SAFE for this purpose. For some programs, the BDC maintains a Program Catalog, which can classify data in as many ways as desired (rather than just by position, time, and spectral range as in the Summary Catalog). For example, data sets could be tagged with such diverse parameters as solar illumination angle, signal level, or the value of a particular spectral ratio, as long as these quantities can be read from the digital record or calculated from it by the ingest program. All unclassified catalogs and unclassified data will be remotely accessible.

  8. All-Sky Observational Evidence for An Inverse Correlation Between Dust Temperature and Emissivity Spectral Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z.; Fixsen, D. J.; Gold, B.

    2012-01-01

    We show that a one-component variable-emissivity-spectral-index model (the free- model) provides more physically motivated estimates of dust temperature at the Galactic polar caps than one- or two-component fixed-emissivity-spectral-index models (fixed- models) for interstellar dust thermal emission at far-infrared and millimeter wavelengths. For the comparison we have fit all-sky one-component dust models with fixed or variable emissivity spectral index to a new and improved version of the 210-channel dust spectra from the COBE-FIRAS, the 100-240 micrometer maps from the COBE-DIRBE and the 94 GHz dust map from the WMAP. The best model, the free-alpha model, is well constrained by data at 60-3000 GHz over 86 per cent of the total sky area. It predicts dust temperature (T(sub dust)) to be 13.7-22.7 (plus or minus 1.3) K, the emissivity spectral index (alpha) to be 1.2-3.1 (plus or minus 0.3) and the optical depth (tau) to range 0.6-46 x 10(exp -5) with a 23 per cent uncertainty. Using these estimates, we present all-sky evidence for an inverse correlation between the emissivity spectral index and dust temperature, which fits the relation alpha = 1/(delta + omega (raised dot) T(sub dust) with delta = -.0.510 plus or minus 0.011 and omega = 0.059 plus or minus 0.001. This best model will be useful to cosmic microwave background experiments for removing foreground dust contamination and it can serve as an all-sky extended-frequency reference for future higher resolution dust models.

  9. The implications of dust for high-redshift protogalaxies and the formation of binary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Latif, M A; Spaans, M

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulations suggest that the first galaxies are formed in protogalactic halos with virial temperatures $\\rm \\geq 10^{4}$ K. The presence of dust can significantly change the chemistry and dynamics of early galaxies. We have performed high resolution cosmological simulations using the adaptive mesh refinement code FLASH to study the influence of dust on the thermal evolution of protogalactic halos and the assembly of the first galaxies in the presence of a background UV flux. We have developed a chemical network appropriate for these conditions and coupled it with the FLASH code. The main ingredients of our chemical model include the formation of molecules (both in the gas phase and on dust grains), a multi-level treatment of atomic hydrogen, line trapping of Lyman alpha photons and, photoionization and photodissociation processes in a UV background. We found that the formation of molecules is significantly enhanced in the presence of dust grains as compared to only gas phase reactions, depending on ...

  10. Dust characterization in FTU tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angeli, M., E-mail: deangeli@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy); Maddaluno, G. [ENEA Unità Tecnica Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, CP65, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Laguardia, L. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy); Ripamonti, D. [Istituto per l’Energetica e le Interfasi – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy); Perelli Cippo, E. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy); Apicella, M.L. [ENEA Unità Tecnica Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, CP65, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Conti, C. [Istituto per la Conservazione e la Valorizzazione dei Beni Culturali – CNR, Milan (Italy); Giacomi, G. [ENEA Unità Tecnica Fusione, C.R. ENEA Frascati, CP65, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Grosso, G. [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma – Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Dust present in the vessel of FTU has been collected and analysed. Being FTU a device with full metal plasma facing components for the whole life and equipped with a liquid lithium limiter (LLL) make FTU of special interest from a point of view of dust studies. Analyses were conducted by standard dust analysis methods and by dedicated analysis, as X-rays and neutron diffraction, to investigate the presence of lithium compounds due the presence of the LLL in FTU. Dust collected near the LLL presents a different elemental composition, namely Li compounds, compared to the dust collected in the rest of the vessel; in particular LiO{sub 2}, LiOH, and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. On the basis of these results, the formation of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is proposed via a two steps process. Results of fuel retention measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) method show that fuel retention should not be an issue for FTU.

  11. Dust near luminous ultraviolet stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes research activities related to the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) sky survey. About 745 luminous stars were examined for the presence of interstellar dust heated by a nearby star. The 'cirrus' discovered by IRAS is thermal radiation from interstellar dust at moderate and high galactic latitudes. The IRAS locates the dust which must (at some level) scatter ultraviolet starlight, although it was expected that thermal emission would be found around virtually every star, most stars shown no detectable emission. And the emission found is not uniform. It is not that the star is embedded in 'an interstellar medium', but rather what is found are discrete clouds that are heated by starlight. An exception is the dearth of clouds near the very hottest stars, implying that the very hottest stars play an active role with respect to destroying or substantially modifying the dust clouds over time. The other possibility is simply that the hottest stars are located in regions lacking in dust, which is counter-intuitive. A bibliography of related journal articles is attached.

  12. Differential dust attenuation in CALIFA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale Asari, N.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Amorim, A. L.; Lacerda, E. A. D.; Schlickmann, M.; Wild, V.; Kennicutt, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    Dust attenuation has long been treated as a simple parameter in SED fitting. Real galaxies are, however, much more complicated: The measured dust attenuation is not a simple function of the dust optical depth, but depends strongly on galaxy inclination and the relative distribution of stars and dust. We study the nebular and stellar dust attenuation in CALIFA galaxies, and propose some empirical recipes to make the dust treatment more realistic in spectral synthesis codes. By adding optical recombination emission lines, we find better constraints for differential attenuation. Those recipes can be applied to unresolved galaxy spectra, and lead to better recovered star formation rates.

  13. The evaluation of microfungal contamination of dust created during woodworking in furniture factories

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Rogoziński; Lidia Szwajkowska-Michałek; Stanisław Dolny; Roman Andrzejak; Juliusz Perkowski

    2014-01-01

    Background: Microscopic fungi are the biological agent of occupational risk in the woodworking environment. Microbiological and chemical methods were used for determination of their concentration and species composition in dust. Material and Methods: Dust was sampled in 3 factories producing furniture using different materials. The 1st factory (A) processes solid wood, the 2nd (B) – chipboards and the 3rd factory (C) uses both wood and wood composites. The samples were collected in 12 differe...

  14. Inhalation of stable dust extract prevents allergen induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness.

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, M.; Kauth, M.; Schwarze, J.; Körner-Rettberg, C; Riedler, J.; Nowak, Dennis; Braun-Fahrländer, C; Mutius, Erika von; Bufe, A; Holst, O.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent epidemiological studies have shown that growing up on a traditional farm provides protection from the development of allergic disorders such as hay fever and allergic asthma. We present experimental evidence that substances providing protection from the development of allergic diseases can be extracted from dust collected in stables of animal farms. Methods: Stable dust was collected from 30 randomly selected farms located in rural regions of the Alps (Austria, G...

  15. An Investigation into the Mutagenic Effect of Urban Dust under Its Chronic Action on Laboratory Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Manara A. Mukasheva; Kirill O. Osipov; Sabina D. Makisheva

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the action of soil dust in the city of Balkhash in an experiment on laboratory animals. In the city of Balkhash, 35 % of its territory is characterized by a dangerous, to various extents, level of soil pollution. The rest of the city’s territory has demonstrated increased (supra-background) concentrations of toxic elements. The findings obtained in the course of the study attest to the adverse effect of the chemical composition of soil dust in ecogenetic disturbances of ...

  16. Endotoxin, dust and exhaled nitrogen oxide among hand pickers of coffee; a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Kayumba, Akwilina; Sakwari, Gloria; Mamuya, Simon Henry David; Bråtveit, Magne

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary coffee processing takes place in countries where coffee is grown, and may include hand picking of coffee to remove low quality beans. Hand picking is mostly performed by women. No previous studies on dust and respiratory health have been performed in this occupational group, although studies indicate respiratory problems among other coffee production workers. Findings Our aim was to assess dust and endotoxin exposure among hand pickers in a coffee factory and compare the le...

  17. IgE cross-reactivity between house dust mite allergens and Ascaris lumbricoides antigens

    OpenAIRE

    Valmonte, Gardette R.; Cauyan, Gil A.; Ramos, John Donnie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Common antigens between intestinal parasites and environmental allergens may play a role in the modulation of allergic immune responses. There is a growing interest in investigating cross-reactivity between common helminths and dust mites affecting humans, particularly in the tropics. Objective This study examined the cross-reactivity between the human roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) and three house dust mite (HDM) species. Methods Specific serum IgE levels to HDM species Blomi...

  18. Holography for Schrodinger backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Guica, Monica; Taylor, Marika; van Rees, Balt

    2010-01-01

    We discuss holography for Schrodinger solutions of both topologically massive gravity in three dimensions and massive vector theories in (d+1) dimensions. In both cases the dual field theory can be viewed as a d-dimensional conformal field theory (two dimensional in the case of TMG) deformed by certain operators that respect the Schrodinger symmetry. These operators are irrelevant from the viewpoint of the relativistic conformal group but they are exactly marginal with respect to the non-relativistic conformal group. The spectrum of linear fluctuations around the background solutions corresponds to operators that are labeled by their scaling dimension and the lightcone momentum k_v. We set up the holographic dictionary and compute 2-point functions of these operators both holographically and in field theory using conformal perturbation theory and find agreement. The counterterms needed for holographic renormalization are non-local in the v lightcone direction.

  19. Immunoinformatics and Similarity Analysis of House Dust Mite Tropomyosin

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi Ranjbar; Sedigheh Nabian; Nayeb Ali Ahmadi; Khodayar Ghorban; Alireza Sazmand; Maryam Dadmanesh; Seyed Hossein Hekmatimoghaddam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are house dust mites (HDM) that they cause severe asthma and allergic symptoms. Tropomyosin protein plays an important role in mentioned immune and allergic reactions to HDMs. Here, tropomyosin protein from Dermatophagoides spp. was comprehensively screened in silico for its allergenicity, antigenicity and similarity/conservation.Materials and Methods: The amino acid sequences of D. farinae tropomyosin, D. pteronyssinus a...

  20. Glass Frit Clumping And Dusting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J. L.

    2013-09-26

    DWPF mixes a slurry of glass frit (Frit 418) and dilute (1.5 wt%) formic acid solution with high level waste in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). There would be advantages to introducing the frit in a non-slurry form to minimize water addition to the SME, however, adding completely dry frit has the potential to generate dust which could clog filters or condensers. Prior testing with another type of frit, Frit 320, and using a minimal amount of water reduced dust generation, however, the formation of hard clumps was observed. To examine options and behavior, a TTQAP [McCabe and Stone, 2013] was written to initiate tests that would address these concerns. Tests were conducted with four types of glass frit; Frit 320, DWPF Frit 418, Bekeson Frit 418 and Multi-Aspirator Frit 418. The last two frits are chemically identical to DWPF Frit 418 but smaller particles were removed by the respective vendors. Test results on Frit Clumping and Dusting are provided in this report. This report addresses the following seven questions. Short answers are provided below with more detailed answers to follow. 1. Will the addition of a small amount of water, 1.5 wt%, to dry DWPF Frit 418 greatly reduce the dust generation during handling at DWPF? a. Yes, a small scale test showed that adding a little water to the frit greatly reduced dust generation during handling. 2. Will the addition of small amounts of water to the frit cause clumping that will impair frit handling at DWPF? a. No, not with Frit 418. Although clumps were observed to form when 1.5 wt% water was mixed with DWPF Frit 418, then compressed and air-dried overnight, the clumps were easily crushed and did not form the hardened material noted when Frit 320 was tested. 3. What is the measured size distribution of dust generated when dry frit is handled? (This affects the feasibility and choice of processing equipment for removing the dust generating fraction of the frit before it is added to the SME.) a. The size distribution for

  1. Glass Frit Clumping And Dusting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DWPF mixes a slurry of glass frit (Frit 418) and dilute (1.5 wt%) formic acid solution with high level waste in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). There would be advantages to introducing the frit in a non-slurry form to minimize water addition to the SME, however, adding completely dry frit has the potential to generate dust which could clog filters or condensers. Prior testing with another type of frit, Frit 320, and using a minimal amount of water reduced dust generation, however, the formation of hard clumps was observed. To examine options and behavior, a TTQAP [McCabe and Stone, 2013] was written to initiate tests that would address these concerns. Tests were conducted with four types of glass frit; Frit 320, DWPF Frit 418, Bekeson Frit 418 and Multi-Aspirator Frit 418. The last two frits are chemically identical to DWPF Frit 418 but smaller particles were removed by the respective vendors. Test results on Frit Clumping and Dusting are provided in this report. This report addresses the following seven questions. Short answers are provided below with more detailed answers to follow. 1. Will the addition of a small amount of water, 1.5 wt%, to dry DWPF Frit 418 greatly reduce the dust generation during handling at DWPF? a. Yes, a small scale test showed that adding a little water to the frit greatly reduced dust generation during handling. 2. Will the addition of small amounts of water to the frit cause clumping that will impair frit handling at DWPF? a. No, not with Frit 418. Although clumps were observed to form when 1.5 wt% water was mixed with DWPF Frit 418, then compressed and air-dried overnight, the clumps were easily crushed and did not form the hardened material noted when Frit 320 was tested. 3. What is the measured size distribution of dust generated when dry frit is handled? (This affects the feasibility and choice of processing equipment for removing the dust generating fraction of the frit before it is added to the SME.) a. The size distribution for

  2. Bosonic string theory with dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a modified bosonic string theory that has a pressureless ‘dust’ field on the string worldsheet. The dust is a real scalar field with unit gradient which breaks conformal invariance. Hamiltonian analysis reveals a time reparametrization constraint linear in the dust field momentum and a spatial diffeomorphism constraint. This feature provides a natural ‘dust time’ gauge in analogy with the parametrized particle. In this gauge we give a Fock quantization of the theory, which is complete and self-consistent in d < 26. The Hamiltonian of the theory is not a constraint; as a consequence the Hilbert space and mass spectrum are characterized by an additional parameter, and includes the usual string spectrum as a special case. The other sectors provide new particle spectra, some of which do not have tachyons. (paper)

  3. Pulmonary retention of coal dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, P.E.; Gibb, F.R.; Beiter, H.; Amato, F.; Yuile, C.; Kilpper, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The principal objectives of this study were: to determine, quantitatively, coal dust retention times in the dog lung; to test the appropriateness of a pulmonary retention model which incorporates first order rate coefficients obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments on neutron-activated coal; to acquire a temporal description of the pulmonary disposition of the retained coal dust, and to compare the behavior of two different Pennsylvania coals in the foregoing regards. The principal findings include: retention half-times for both coals of approximately 2 years following single, hour-long exposures; a vivid association of the retained coal dust with the pulmonic lymphatics; and a general validation of the retention model.

  4. Desert Dust and Monsoon Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, inhabitants of the Indian subcontinent have know that heavy dust events brought on by strong winds occur frequently in the pre-monsoon season, before the onset of heavy rain. Yet scientists have never seriously considered the possibility that natural dust can affect monsoon rainfall. Up to now, most studies of the impacts of aerosols on Indian monsoon rainfall have focused on anthropogenic aerosols in the context of climate change. However, a few recent studies have show that aerosols from antropogenic and natural sources over the Indian subcontinent may affect the transition from break to active monsoon phases on short timescales of days to weeks. Writing in Nature Geoscience, Vinoj and colleagues describe how they have shown that desert dust aerosols over the Arabian Sea and West Asia can strenghten the summer monsoon over the Indial subcontinent in a matter of days.

  5. Dust remobilization in fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Tolias, P; De Angeli, M; De Temmerman, G; Ripamonti, D; Riva, G; Bykov, I; Shalpegin, A; Vignitchouk, L; Brochard, F; Bystrov, K; Bardin, S; Litnovsky, A

    2016-01-01

    The first combined experimental and theoretical studies of dust remobilization by plasma forces are reported. The main theoretical aspects of remobilization are analyzed. In particular, the dominant role of adhesive forces is highlighted and generic remobilization conditions - detachment, sliding, rolling - are formulated. A novel experimental technique is proposed, based on controlled adhesion of dust grains on tungsten samples combined with detailed mapping of the dust deposition profile prior and post plasma exposure. Proof-of-principle experiments in the TEXTOR tokamak and the EXTRAP-T2R reversed-field pinch are presented. The versatile environment of the linear device Pilot-PSI allowed for experiments with different magnetic field topologies and varying plasma conditions that were complemented with camera observations.

  6. ON ABSORPTION BY CIRCUMSTELLAR DUST, WITH THE PROGENITOR OF SN 2012aw AS A CASE STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We use the progenitor of SN 2012aw to illustrate the consequences of modeling circumstellar dust using Galactic (interstellar) extinction laws that (1) ignore dust emission in the near-IR and beyond, (2) average over dust compositions, and (3) mischaracterize the optical/UV absorption by assuming that scattered photons are lost to the observer. The primary consequences for the progenitor of SN 2012aw are that both the luminosity and the absorption are significantly overestimated. In particular, the stellar luminosity is most likely in the range 104.8 */L ☉ 5.0 and the star was not extremely massive for a Type IIP progenitor, with M * ☉. Given the properties of the circumstellar dust and the early X-ray/radio detections of SN 2012aw, the star was probably obscured by an ongoing wind with M-dot ∼10-5.5 to 10–5.0 M ☉ yr–1 at the time of the explosion, roughly consistent with the expected mass-loss rates for a star of its temperature (T* ≅ 3600+300–200 K) and luminosity. In the spirit of Galactic extinction laws, we supply simple interpolation formulae for circumstellar extinction by dusty graphitic and silicate shells as a function of wavelength (λ ≥ 0.3 μm) and total (absorption plus scattering) V-band optical depth (τV ≤ 20). These do not include the contributions of dust emission, but provide a simple, physical alternative to incorrectly using interstellar extinction laws.

  7. Why Is Improvement of Earth System Models so Elusive? Challenges and Strategies from Dust Aerosol Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ronald L.; Garcia-Pando, Carlos Perez; Perlwitz, Jan; Ginoux, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Past decades have seen an accelerating increase in computing efficiency, while climate models are representing a rapidly widening set of physical processes. Yet simulations of some fundamental aspects of climate like precipitation or aerosol forcing remain highly uncertain and resistant to progress. Dust aerosol modeling of soil particles lofted by wind erosion has seen a similar conflict between increasing model sophistication and remaining uncertainty. Dust aerosols perturb the energy and water cycles by scattering radiation and acting as ice nuclei, while mediating atmospheric chemistry and marine photosynthesis (and thus the carbon cycle). These effects take place across scales from the dimensions of an ice crystal to the planetary-scale circulation that disperses dust far downwind of its parent soil. Representing this range leads to several modeling challenges. Should we limit complexity in our model, which consumes computer resources and inhibits interpretation? How do we decide if a process involving dust is worthy of inclusion within our model? Can we identify a minimal representation of a complex process that is efficient yet retains the physics relevant to climate? Answering these questions about the appropriate degree of representation is guided by model evaluation, which presents several more challenges. How do we proceed if the available observations do not directly constrain our process of interest? (This could result from competing processes that influence the observed variable and obscure the signature of our process of interest.) Examples will be presented from dust modeling, with lessons that might be more broadly applicable. The end result will either be clinical depression or there assuring promise of continued gainful employment as the community confronts these challenges.

  8. NuSTAR Observations of Heavily Obscured Quasars at z Is Approximately 0.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Aird, J.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Balokovic, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Elvis, M.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Koss, M.; LaMassa, S. M.; Luo, B.; Mullaney, J. R.; Teng, S. H.; Urry, C. M.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z approx. = 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O(sub III)] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength diagnostics, their X-ray absorbing column densities (N(sub H)) are poorly known. In this analysis, (1) we study X-ray emission at greater than 10 keV, where X-rays from the central black hole are relatively unabsorbed, in order to better constrain N(sub H). (2) We further characterize the physical properties of the sources through broad-band near-UV to mid-IR spectral energy distribution analyses. One of the quasars is detected with NuSTAR at greater than 8 keV with a no-source probability of less than 0.1%, and its X-ray band ratio suggests near Compton-thick absorption with N(sub H) is approximately greater than 5 × 10(exp 23) cm(exp -2). The other two quasars are undetected, and have low X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratios in both the low-energy (2-10 keV) and high-energy (10-40 keV) X-ray regimes that are consistent with extreme, Compton-thick absorption (N(sub H) is approximately greater than 10(exp 24) cm(exp -2)). We find that for quasars at z is approximately 0.5, NuSTAR provides a significant improvement compared to lower energy (less than 10 keV) Chandra and XMM-Newton observations alone, as higher column densities can now be directly constrained.

  9. Video capsule endoscopy in left ventricular assist device recipients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornsawadwattana, Surachai; Nassif, Michael; Raymer, David; LaRue, Shane; Chen, Chien-Huan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether video capsule endoscopy (VCE) affects the outcomes of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) recipients with gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of LVAD recipients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) who underwent VCE at a tertiary medical center between 2005 and 2013. All patients were admitted and monitored with telemetry and all VCE and subsequent endoscopic procedures were performed as inpatients. A VCE study was considered positive only when P2 lesions were found and was regarded as negative if P1 or P0 were identified. All patients were followed until heart transplant, death, or the end of the study. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2013, 30 patients with LVAD underwent VCE. Completion rate of VCE was 93.3% and there was no capsule retention. No interference of VCE recording or the function of LVAD was found. VCE was positive in 40% of patients (n = 12). The most common finding was active small intestinal bleeding (50%) and small intestinal angiodysplasia (33.3%). There was no difference in the rate of recurrent bleeding between patients with positive and negative VCE study (50.0% vs 55.6%, P = 1.00) during an average of 11.6 ± 9.6 mo follow up. Among patients with positive VCE, the recurrent bleeding rate did not differ whether subsequent endoscopy was performed (50% vs 50%, P = 1.00). CONCLUSION: VCE can be safely performed in LVAD recipients with a diagnostic yield of 40%. VCE does not affect recurrent bleeding in LVAD patients regardless of findings.

  10. Outcome of patients who have undergone total enteroscopy for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayoshi Shishido; Shiro Oka; Shinji Tanaka; Hiroki Imagawa; Yoshito Takemura; Shigeto Yoshida; Kazuaki Chayama

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To assess the diagnostic success and outcome among patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding who underwent total enteroscopy with double-balloon endoscopy.METHODS:Total enteroscopy was attempted in 156 patients between August 2003 and June 2008 at Hiroshima University Hospital and achieved in 75 (48.1%).It is assessed whether sources of bleeding were identified,treatment methods,complications,and 1-year outcomes (including re-bleeding) after treatment,and we compared re-bleeding rates among patients.RESULTS:The source of small bowel bleeding was identified in 36 (48.0%) of the 75 total enteroscopy patients; the source was outside the small bowel in 11 patients (14.7%) and not identified in 28 patients (37.3%).Sixty-one of the 75 patients were followed up for more than 1 year (27.2 ± 13.3 mo).Four (6.6%)of these patients showed signs of re-bleeding during the first year,but bleeding did not recur after treatment.Although statistical significance was not reached,a marked difference was found in the re-bleeding rate between patients in whom total enteroscopy findings were positive (8.6%,3/35) and negative (3.8%,1/26)(3/35 vs 1/26,P =0.63).CONCLUSION:A good outcome can be expected for patients who undergo total enteroscopy and receive proper treatment for the source of bleeding in the small bowel.

  11. NuSTAR observations of heavily obscured quasars at z ∼ 0.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z ≈ 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength diagnostics, their X-ray absorbing column densities (N H) are poorly known. In this analysis, (1) we study X-ray emission at >10 keV, where X-rays from the central black hole are relatively unabsorbed, in order to better constrain N H. (2) We further characterize the physical properties of the sources through broad-band near-UV to mid-IR spectral energy distribution analyses. One of the quasars is detected with NuSTAR at >8 keV with a no-source probability of <0.1%, and its X-ray band ratio suggests near Compton-thick absorption with N H ≳ 5 × 1023 cm–2. The other two quasars are undetected, and have low X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratios in both the low-energy (2-10 keV) and high-energy (10-40 keV) X-ray regimes that are consistent with extreme, Compton-thick absorption (N H ≳ 1024 cm–2). We find that for quasars at z ∼ 0.5, NuSTAR provides a significant improvement compared to lower energy (<10 keV) Chandra and XMM-Newton observations alone, as higher column densities can now be directly constrained.

  12. Deconstructing the narrow-line region of the nearest obscured quasar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar Martín, M.; Bellocchi, E.; Stern, J.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Tadhunter, C.; González Delgado, R.

    2015-11-01

    We study the physical and kinematic properties of the narrow-line region (NLR) of the nearest obscured quasar MRK 477 (z = 0.037), using optical and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. About 100 emission lines are identified in the optical+NIR spectrum (90 in the optical), including several narrow optical Fe+ lines. To our knowledge, this is the first type 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) with such a detection. The Fe+ lines can be explained as the natural emission from the NLR photoionized by the AGN. Coronal line emission can only be confirmed in the NIR spectrum. As in many other AGNs, a significant correlation is found between the lines' full width at half-maximum and the critical density log(ncrit). We propose that it is caused by the outflow. This could be the case in other AGNs. The nuclear jet-induced ionized outflow has been kinematically isolated in many emission lines covering a broad range of ionization potentials and critical densities. It is concentrated within R ˜few×100 pc from the central engine. The outflowing gas is denser (n ≳ 8000 cm-3) than the ambient non-perturbed gas (n ˜ 400-630 cm-3). This could be due to the compression effect of the jet-induced shocks. Alternatively, we propose that the outflow has been triggered by the jet at R ≲ 220 pc (possibly at ≲ 30 pc), and we trace how the impact weakens as it propagates outwards following the radiation-pressure-dominated density gradient. The different kinematic behaviour of [Fe II] λ1.644 μm suggests that its emission is enhanced by shocks induced by the nuclear outflow/jet and is preferentially emitted at a different, less reddened spatial location.

  13. CT enterography in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this article is to provide a comprehensive and update overview of clinical application of CT enterography (CTE) in the evaluation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). We performed a systematic review of relevant literatures in PubMed, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library and pooled the yield of CTE and the incremental yield (IY) of CTE over an alternate modality. A total of 18 studies (n=660) reported the yield of CTE in evaluating OGIB and the pooled yield was 40% (95% confidence interval (CI): 33–49%). Seven studies (n=279) compared the yield of CTE with capsule endoscopy (CE). The yield for CTE and CE for all findings was 34% and 53%, respectively (IY=−19%, 95% CI=−34% to −4%). When considering the types of identified lesions, the yield was significantly different for vascular and inflammatory lesions but not significantly different for neoplastic or other lesions. Two studies (n=63) compared the yield of CTE with double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE). The yield for CTE and DBE was 38% and 78%, respectively (IY=−40%, 95% CI=−55% to −25%). Three studies (n=49) compared the yield of CTE with digital subtraction angiography. The yield for CTE and digital subtraction angiography was 64% and 60%, respectively (IY=4%, 95% CI=−40% to 47%). CTE is an excellent diagnostic tool in patients with OGIB. It may play a complementary role to CE and can be used as a triage tool prior to DBE in evaluating OGIB.

  14. Stellar and quasar feedback in concert: effects on AGN accretion, obscuration, and outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Torrey, Paul; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman

    2016-05-01

    We study the interaction of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) and a multiphase interstellar medium (ISM), in simulations including explicit stellar feedback, multiphase cooling, accretion-disc winds, and Compton heating. We examine radii ˜0.1-100 pc around a black hole (BH), where the accretion rate on to the BH is determined and where AGN-powered winds and radiation couple to the ISM. We conclude: (1) the BH accretion rate is determined by exchange of angular momentum between gas and stars in gravitational instabilities. This produces accretion rates ˜0.03-1 M⊙ yr-1, sufficient to power luminous AGN. (2) The gas disc in the galactic nucleus undergoes an initial burst of star formation followed by several million years where stellar feedback suppresses the star formation rate (SFR). (3) AGN winds injected at small radii with momentum fluxes ˜LAGN/c couple efficiently to the ISM and have dramatic effects on ISM properties within ˜100 pc. AGN winds suppress the nuclear SFR by factors ˜10-30 and BH accretion rate by factors ˜3-30. They increase the outflow rate from the nucleus by factors ˜10, consistent with observational evidence for galaxy-scale AGN-driven outflows. (4) With AGN feedback, the predicted column density distribution to the BH is consistent with observations. Absent AGN feedback, the BH is isotropically obscured and there are not enough optically thin sightlines to explain type-I AGN. A `torus-like' geometry arises self-consistently as AGN feedback evacuates gas in polar regions.

  15. Durable Dust Repellent Coating for Metals Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Durable Dust Repellent Coating (DDRC) consists of nano-phase silica, titania, or other oxide coatings to repel dust in a vacuum environment over a wide range of...

  16. Dynamics of Dust Clouds in Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a dynamics of dust clouds embedded in the infinite uniform initially plasma using computer simulation. In the one dimension, the movement of dust particles and ions is governed by cold hydrodynamics equations, electrons are assumed to be in thermal equilibrium. It is assumed that the forces on the dust consist of electrostatic forces and ion drag forces. The spatial distributions of parameters were obtained at various initial densities of dust grains at different times. Results show the expansion of dust clouds at low initial dust grain density, which is evidence of exceeding the electrostatic force over the ion drag force. At the increasing of dust density oscillations of the central part of dust cloud are observed

  17. Dust Mitigation for the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The lunar surface is to a large extent covered with a dust layer several meters thick. Known as lunar regolith, it poses a hazard in the form of dust clouds being...

  18. The global distribution of mineral dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dust aerosol particles produced by wind erosion in arid and semi arid regions affect climate and air quality, but the magnitude of these effects is largely unquantified. The major dust source regions include the Sahara, the Arabian and Asian deserts; global annual dust emissions are currently estimated to range between 1000 and 3000 Mt/yr. Dust aerosol can be transported over long distances of thousands of kilometers, e.g. from source regions in the Saharan desert over the North Atlantic, or from the Asian deserts towards the Pacific Ocean. The atmospheric dust load varies considerably on different timescales. While dust aerosol distribution and dust effects are important on global scales, they strongly depend on dust emissions that are controlled on small spatial and temporal scales.

  19. Genetical background of intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkiert-Czarnecka, Anna; Haus, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence as an ability to reason, think abstractly and adapt effectively to the environment is a subject of research in the field of psychology, neurobiology, and in the last twenty years genetics as well. Genetical testing of twins carried out from XX century indicated heritebility of intelligence, therefore confirmed an influence of genetic factor on cognitive processes. Studies on genetic background of intelligence focus on dopaminergic (DRD2, DRD4, COMT, SLC6A3, DAT1, CCKAR) and adrenergic system (ADRB2, CHRM2) genes as well as, neutrofins (BDNF) and oxidative stress genes (LTF, PRNP). Positive effect of investigated gene polymorphism was indicated by variation c.957C>T DRD2 gene (if in polymorphic site is thymine), polymorphism c.472G>A COMT gene (presence of adenine) and also gene ADRB2 c.46A->G (guanine), CHRM2 (thymine in place c.1890A>T) and BDNF (guanine in place c.472G>A) Obtained results indicate that intelligence is a feature dependent not only on genetic but also an environmental factor. PMID:27333929

  20. Biological aerosol background characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  1. Breaking the Obscuring Screen: A Resolved Molecular Outflow in a Buried QSO

    CERN Document Server

    Rupke, David

    2013-01-01

    We present Keck laser guide star adaptive optics observations of the nearby buried QSO F08572+3915:NW. We use near-infrared integral field data taken with OSIRIS to reveal a compact disk and molecular outflow using Pa-alpha and H_2 rotational-vibrational transitions at a spatial resolution of 100 pc. The outflow emerges perpendicular to the disk into a bicone of one-sided opening angle 100 degrees up to distances of 400 pc from the nucleus. The integrated outflow velocities, which reach at least -1300 km/s, correspond exactly to those observed in (unresolved) OH absorption, but are smaller (larger) than those observed on larger scales in the ionized (neutral atomic) outflow. These data represent a factor of >10 improvement in the spatial resolution of molecular outflows from mergers/QSOs, and plausibly represent the early stages of the excavation of the dust screen from a buried QSO.

  2. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  3. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site

  4. Predicting dust extinction properties of star-forming galaxies from H-alpha/UV ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, Yusei; Hayashi, Masao; Shimakawa, Rhythm; Yamamura, Issei; Egusa, Fumi; Oi, Nagisa; Tanaka, Ichi; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Takita, Satoshi; Makiuti, Sin'itirou

    2015-01-01

    Using star-forming galaxies sample in the nearby Universe (0.02dust extinction of galaxies from H-alpha-to-FUV flux ratio. We find that the H-alpha dust extinction (A(Ha)) derived with H-alpha/H-beta ratio (Balmer decrement) increases with increasing H-alpha/UV ratio as expected, but there remains a considerable scatter around the relation, which is largely dependent on stellar mass and/or H-alpha equivalent width (EW(Ha)). At fixed H-alpha/UV ratio, galaxies with higher stellar mass (or galaxies with lower EW(Ha)) tend to be more highly obscured by dust. We quantify this trend and establish an empirical calibration for predicting A(Ha) with a combination of H-alpha/UV ratio, stellar mass and EW(Ha), with which we can successfully reduce the systematic uncertainties accompanying the simple H-alpha/UV approach by ~15-30%. The new recipes proposed in this study will provide a conveni...

  5. Alkaline leaching of iron and steelmaking dust

    OpenAIRE

    Stafanova, Anna; Aromaa, Jari

    2012-01-01

    Steel production generates significant quantities of dust and sludge in blast furnaces (BF),basic oxygen furnaces (BOF), and electric arc furnaces (EAF). These dusts contain toxicelements, such as heavy metals, and are thus classified as harmful waste making the disposalof them expensive. In addition, direct recycling of dust back to steel production is hindered dueto the presence of zinc. In this literature survey the alkaline leaching of zinc from iron and steelmaking dusts isreviewed. T...

  6. Metal Dusting of Heat-Resistant Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Meshari, Abdulaziz I.

    2008-01-01

    Metal dusting leads to disintegration of such alloys as iron and nickel-based into a ?dust? of particulate metal, metal carbide, carbon, and/or oxide. It occurs in strongly carburising environments at 400-900?C. Literature survey has shown that alloys behave differently in metal dusting conditions based on their composition and the environment. Metal dusting mechanisms for iron and nickel-based alloys have been proposed but, nevertheless, have not been agreed upon and numerous modifications t...

  7. History and Applications of Dust Devil Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Balme, Matthew R.; Gu, Zhaolin; Kahanpää, Henrik; Klose, Martina; Kurgansky, Michael V.; Patel, Manish R.; Reiss, Dennis; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Spiga, Aymeric; Takemi, Tetsuya; Wei, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Studies of dust devils, and their impact on society, are reviewed. Dust devils have been noted since antiquity, and have been documented in many countries, as well as on the planet Mars. As time-variable vortex entities, they have become a cultural motif. Three major stimuli of dust devil research are identified, nuclear testing, terrestrial climate studies, and perhaps most significantly, Mars research. Dust devils present an occasional safety hazard to light structures and have caused several deaths.

  8. The Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Particulate Matter during Natural Dust Episodes at an Urban Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Helena; Kloog, Itai; Friger, Michael; Katra, Itzhak

    2016-01-01

    Dust storms are a common phenomenon in arid and semi-arid areas, and their impacts on both physical and human environments are of great interest. Number of studies have associated atmospheric PM pollution in urban environments with origin in natural soil/dust, but less evaluated the dust spatial patterns over a city. We aimed to analyze the spatial-temporal behavior of PM concentrations over the city of Beer Sheva, in southern Israel, where dust storms are quite frequent. PM data were recorded during the peak of each dust episode simultaneously in 23 predetermined fixed points around the city. Data were analyzed for both dust days and non-dust days (background). The database was constructed using Geographic Information System and includes distributions of PM that were derived using inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation. The results show that the daily averages of atmospheric PM10 concentrations during the background period are within a narrow range of 31 to 48 μg m-3 with low variations. During dust days however, the temporal variations are significant and can range from an hourly PM10 concentration of 100 μg m-3 to more than 1280 μg m-3 during strong storms. IDW analysis demonstrates that during the peak time of the storm the spatial variations in PM between locations in the city can reach 400 μg m-3. An analysis of site and storm contribution to total PM concentration revealed that higher concentrations are found in parts of the city that are proximal to dust sources. The results improve the understanding of the dynamics of natural PM and the dependence on wind direction. This may have implications for environmental and health outcomes. PMID:27513479

  9. Elevated large-scale dust veil originated in the Taklimakan Desert: intercontinental transport and 3-dimensional structure captured by CALIPSO and regional and global models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yumimoto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available An intense dust storm occurred during 19–20 May 2007 over the Taklimakan Desert in northwestern China. In the following days, the space-borne lidar CALIOP tracked an optically thin, highly elevated, horizontally extensive dust veil that was transported intercontinentally over the eastern Asia, Pacific Ocean, North America, and Atlantic Ocean. A global aerosol transport model (SPRINTARS also simulated the dust veil quite well and provided a 3-D view of the dust intercontinental transport. The SPRINTARS simulation revealed that the dust veil travels at 4–10 km altitudes with a thickness of 1–4 km along the isentropic surface between 310 K and 340 K. The transport speed is about 1500 km/d. The estimated dust amounts exported to the Pacific is 30.8 Gg, of which 65% is deposited in the Pacific and 18% is transported to the North Atlantic. These results imply that the dust veil can fertilize the open oceans, provide background dust to the atmosphere remote from the sources.

    The entrainment mechanism that injects dust particles into the free atmosphere is important for understanding the formation of the dust veil and the subsequent long-range transport. We used a regional dust transport model (RC4 to analyze the dust emission and entrainment over the source region. The RC4 analysis revealed that strong northeasterly surface winds associated with a low pressure invade into the Taklimakan Desert through the east side corridor and form a strong up-slope wind along the high and steep mountainside of the Tibetan Plateau, blowing up large amounts of dust into the air. The updraft further brings the lofted dust particles up to the free troposphere (about 9 km MSL where the westerly generally blows. The peculiar terrain surrounding the Taklimakan Desert plays the key role in the entrainment of dust to the free troposphere to form the dust veil.

  10. Complimentary Imaging Modalities for Investigating Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Capsule Endoscopy, Double-Balloon Enteroscopy, and Computed Tomographic Enterography

    OpenAIRE

    Ye Chu; Sheng Wu; Yuting Qian; Qi Wang; Juanjuan Li; Yanping Tang; Tingting Bai; Lifu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The complimentary value of computed tomographic enterography (CTE) and double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) combined with capsule endoscopy (CE) was evaluated in the diagnosis of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Methods. Patients who received CE examinations at Ruijin Hospital between July 2007 and July 2014 with the indication of OGIB were identified, and those who also underwent DBE and/or CTE were included. Their clinical information was retrieved, and results from each te...

  11. Radio frequency discharge with dust particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chutov, Y. I.; W. J. Goedheer,; Kravchenko, O. Y.; Zuz, V. M.; Yan, M.; Martins, R.; Ferreira, I.; Fortunato, E.; Kroesen, G.

    2000-01-01

    A 1D PIC/MCC method has been developed for computer simulations of low-pressure RF discharges with dust particles using the method for dust-free discharges. A RF discharge in argon with dust particles distributed uniformly in the interelectrode gap is simulated at parameters providing a possibility

  12. The dust debris around HR 4796

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jura, M.

    1991-01-01

    The IRAS data strongly suggest that there is dust debris around the main-sequence A star HR 4796. The optical depth of the dust cloud around HR 4796 is probably twice that around Beta Pic, the main-sequence star in the Bright Star Catalog which was previously thought to have the most opaque dust debris cloud.

  13. Modified Dust and the Small Scale Crisis in CDM

    CERN Document Server

    Capela, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    At large scales and for sufficiently early times, dark matter is described as a pressureless perfect fluid---dust---non-interacting with Standard Model fields. These features are captured by a simple model with two scalars: a Lagrange multiplier and an other playing the role of the velocity potential. We consider a simple version of this scenario with high derivative terms, such that the dust solutions are preserved at the background level, but there is a non-zero sound speed at the linear level. We associate this {\\it Modified Dust} with dark matter, and study the linear evolution of cosmological perturbations in that picture. The most prominent effect is the suppression of the power spectrum at sufficiently small wavelengths. This can be relevant in view of the missing satellites problem. For even shorter cosmological modes, however, perturbations of Modified Dust are enhanced compared to the predictions of more common particle dark matter scenarios. This is a peculiarity of their evolution in radiation dom...

  14. Dew, dust, and wind influencing thermal signatures of objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinov, Arcady; Bushlin, Yossi; Lessin, Alex; Clement, Dieter

    2008-04-01

    Dew and dust layers on the surface of an object may significantly affect its thermal state and IR signature. Dew formation begins when the object surface temperature falls below atmospheric dew point temperature. Due to the latent heat released by the water accumulated on the surface the temperature drop stagnates and the object appears warmer then it would be without dew formation. An attempt was made to modify RadThermIR software to account for dew effects. A simple plate model and the more elaborate CUBI thermal modeling benchmarking object were used to study the extent to which dew may change thermal object signatures. A dust layer on an object surface may affect its optical properties and may act as additional thermal insulation when it is thick enough. Both effects influence the temperature and IR signature of the object. Parametric calculations by RadThermIR were performed for various dust thicknesses and optical properties. This data was used in an object/background contrast analysis. The obtained dust/dew layer results will be used in the planning of the next CUBI experiment in natural desert environments. In addition, CUBI data from another geographic location was used for studying different wind models resulting in some interesting conclusions concerning the applicability of the wind model used in RadThermIR.

  15. Cyclonic separation of urate dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Size of particles of uranate dust wich can be entrained by hot gases leaving a multiple-hearth furnace is determined. The convenience of the installation of a cyclone is discussed considering power of the fume-extractor and pressure-drop permissible in the system. (author)

  16. 75 FR 3881 - Combustible Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) (74 FR 54334) requesting comments, including data and other...), 29 CFR part 1911, and Secretary's Order 5-2007 (72 FR 31160). Signed at Washington, DC, on January 19... Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 RIN 1218-AC41 Combustible Dust...

  17. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan;

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the...

  18. Basis for criteria for exemption of decommissioning waste: reprocessing of dust from recycling of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a part of a larger study with the purpose to provide the authority concerned, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute (SSI), with technical background material needed for future decisions concerning exemption levels for recycling and disposal of material originating from decommissioned nuclear power reactors. The dismantling of nuclear power reactors will give rise to large amounts of steel scrap with a very low activity concentration. It is of interest to exempt this material from regulatory control in order to make recycling possible. During the melting of steel scrap dust will be formed which is collected in the off-gas cleaning system of the furnace. Radionuclides may be enriched in this dust, and thereby obtain a higher activity concentration than the melted scrap. Presently, there is a strong interest to reprocess these dusts with the objectives to recover valuable metals and to reduce the amounts of waste harmful to the environment. During the reprocessing of dusts collected from the melting process a further redistribution and reconcentration of radionuclides may occur. In this report the treatment of dust from steel melting is described, the potential reconcentration of radionuclides is analyzed, and the potential radiological consequences are estimated. The study has focussed on the reprocessing of dust with the plasma method used at ScanDust in Sweden, and with the Waelz process used in, for example Spain and Germany. Various factors as economical, political and future developments of dust treatment and steel processes will determine the amounts of dusts produced and also to what degree dust will be reprocessed in the future. (au)

  19. Detecting Exoplanets with the New Worlds Observer: The Problem of Exozodiacal Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, A.; Noecker, M. C.; Glassman, T. M.; Oakley, P.; Turnbull, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Dust coming from asteroids and comets will strongly affect direct imaging and characterization of terrestrial planets in the Habitable Zones of nearby stars. Such dust in the Solar System is called the zodiacal dust (or 'zodi' for short). Higher levels of similar dust are seen around many nearby stars, confined in disks called debris disks. Future high-contrast images of an Earth-like exoplanet will very likely be background-limited by light scattered of both the local Solar System zodi and the circumstellar dust in the extrasolar system (the exozodiacal dust). Clumps in the exozodiacal dust, which are expected in planet-hosting systems, may also be a source of confusion. Here we discuss the problems associated with imaging an Earth-like planet in the presence of unknown levels of exozodiacal dust. Basic formulae for the exoplanet imaging exposure time as function of star, exoplanet, zodi, exozodi, and telescope parameters will be presented. To examine the behavior of these formulae, we apply them to the New Worlds Observer (NWO) mission. NWO is a proposed 4-meter UV/optical/near-IR telescope, with a free flying starshade to suppress the light from a nearby star and achieve the high contrast needed for detection and characterization of a terrestrial planet in the star's Habitable Zone. We find that NWO can accomplish its science goals even if exozodiacal dust levels are typically much higher than the Solar System zodi level. Finally, we highlight a few additional problems relating to exozodiacal dust that have yet to be solved.

  20. Global Gene Expression Profiling in Lung Tissues of Rat Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit A.; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Kidane, Yared H.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.; Meyers, Valerie E.; Zhang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, potential reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% respirable very fine dust (less than 3 micrometers). The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle and outpost would inevitably be contaminated with lunar dust that could pose a health risk. The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in lung tissues of rats exposed to lunar dust particles. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 mg/m3 of lunar dust. Animals were euthanized at 1 day and 13 weeks after the last inhalation exposure. After being lavaged, lung tissue from each animal was collected and total RNA was isolated. Four samples of each dose group were analyzed using Agilent Rat GE v3 microarray to profile global gene expression of 44K transcripts. After background subtraction, normalization, and log transformation, t tests were used to compare the mean expression levels of each exposed group to the control group. Correction for multiple testing was made using the method of Benjamini, Krieger, and Yekuteli (1) to control the false discovery rate. Genes with significant changes of at least 1.75 fold were identified as genes of interest. Both low and high doses of lunar dust caused dramatic, dose-dependent global gene expression changes in the lung tissues. However, the responses of lung tissue to low dose lunar dust are distinguished from those of high doses, especially those associated with 61mg/m3 dust exposure. The data were further integrated into the Ingenuity system to analyze the gene ontology (GO), pathway distribution and putative upstream regulators and gene targets. Multiple pathways, functions, and upstream regulators have been identified in response to lunar dust induced damage in the lung tissue.